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14 CFR 25.1191 - Firewalls.


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Document in Context
   
Collapse    Title 14 - Aeronautics and Space
Parts 1 - 1299. January 1, 2001.
Table Of Contents
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Chapter I - FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (Continued) (Parts 1 - 198)
Table Of Contents
Table Of Contents (Parts 25 - 25)
Section 25.901 - Installation.
Section 25.903 - Engines.
Section 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).
Section 25.905 - Propellers.
Section 25.907 - Propeller vibration.
Section 25.925 - Propeller clearance.
Section 25.929 - Propeller deicing.
Section 25.933 - Reversing systems.
Section 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.
Section 25.937 - Turbopropeller-drag limiting sys-tems.
Section 25.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.
Section 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.
Section 25.943 - Negative acceleration.
Section 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.
Section 25.951 - General.
Section 25.952 - Fuel system analysis and test.
Section 25.953 - Fuel system independence.
Section 25.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.
Section 25.955 - Fuel flow.
Section 25.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.
Section 25.959 - Unusable fuel supply.
Section 25.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.
Section 25.963 - Fuel tanks: general.
Section 25.965 - Fuel tank tests.
Section 25.967 - Fuel tank installations.
Section 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.
Section 25.971 - Fuel tank sump.
Section 25.973 - Fuel tank filler connection.
Section 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.
Section 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.
Section 25.979 - Pressure fueling system.
Section 25.981 - Fuel tank temperature.
Section 25.991 - Fuel pumps.
Section 25.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.
Section 25.994 - Fuel system components.
Section 25.995 - Fuel valves.
Section 25.997 - Fuel strainer or filter.
Section 25.999 - Fuel system drains.
Section 25.1001 - Fuel jettisoning system.
Section 25.1011 - General.
Section 25.1013 - Oil tanks.
Section 25.1015 - Oil tank tests.
Section 25.1017 - Oil lines and fittings.
Section 25.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.
Section 25.1021 - Oil system drains.
Section 25.1023 - Oil radiators.
Section 25.1025 - Oil valves.
Section 25.1027 - Propeller feathering system.
Section 25.1041 - General.
Section 25.1043 - Cooling tests.
Section 25.1045 - Cooling test procedures.
Section 25.1091 - Air induction.
Section 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.
Section 25.1101 - Carburetor air preheater design.
Section 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.
Section 25.1105 - Induction system screens.
Section 25.1107 - Inter-coolers and after-coolers.
Section 25.1121 - General.
Section 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.
Section 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.
Section 25.1127 - Exhaust driven turbo-superchargers.
Section 25.1141 - Powerplant controls: general.
Section 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.
Section 25.1143 - Engine controls.
Section 25.1145 - Ignition switches.
Section 25.1147 - Mixture controls.
Section 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.
Section 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.
Section 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.
Section 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.
Section 25.1159 - Supercharger controls.
Section 25.1161 - Fuel jettisoning system controls.
Section 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.
Section 25.1165 - Engine ignition systems.
Section 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.
Section 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.
Section 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...
Section 25.1183 - Flammable fluid-carrying components.
Section 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.
Section 25.1187 - Drainage and ventilation of fire zones.
Section 25.1189 - Shutoff means.
Section 25.1191 - Firewalls.
Section 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.
Section 25.1193 - Cowling and nacelle skin.
Section 25.1195 - Fire extinguishing systems.
Section 25.1197 - Fire extinguishing agents.
Section 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.
Section 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.
Section 25.1203 - Fire detector system.
Section 25.1207 - Compliance.
Appendix C to Part 25
Appendix D to Part 25
Appendix E to Part 25
Appendix F to Part 25 part I-Test Criteria and Procedures for Showing Compliance with § 25.853, Or § 25.855.

(a) Material Test Criteria-(1) Interior Compartments Occupied by Crew Or Passengers. (i) Interior Ceiling Panels, Interior Wall Panels, Partitions, Galley Structure, Large Cabinet Walls, Structural Flooring, and Materials Used in the Construction of Stowage Compartments (other Than Underseat Stowage Compartments and Compartments for Stowing Small Items Such As Magazines and Maps) Must Be Self-Extinguishing When Tested Vertically in Accordance with the Applicable Portions of Part I of This Appendix. the Average Burn Length May Not Exceed 6 Inches and the Average Flame Time After Removal of the Flame Source May Not Exceed 15 Seconds. Drippings from the Test Specimen May Not Continue to Flame for More Than An Average of 3 Seconds After Falling.

(ii) Floor Covering, Textiles (including Draperies and Upholstery), Seat Cushions, Padding, Decorative and Nondecorative Coated Fabrics, Leather, Trays and Galley Furnishings, Electrical Conduit, Thermal and Acoustical Insulation and Insulation Covering, Air Ducting, Joint and Edge Covering, Liners of Class B and E Cargo Or Baggage Compartments, Floor Panels of Class B, C, D, Or E Cargo Or Baggage Compartments, Insulation Blankets, Cargo Covers and Transparencies, Molded and Thermoformed Parts, Air Ducting Joints, and Trim Strips (decorative and Chafing), That Are Constructed of Materials Not Covered in Subparagraph (iv) Below, Must Be Self-Extinguishing When Tested Vertically in Accordance with the Applicable Portions of Part I of This Appendix Or Other Approved Equivalent Means. the Average Burn Length May Not Exceed 8 Inches, and the Average Flame Time After Removal of the Flame Source May Not Exceed 15 Seconds. Drippings from the Test Specimen May Not Continue to Flame for More Than An Average of 5 Seconds After Falling.

(iii) Motion Picture Film Must Be Safety Film Meeting the Standard Specifications for Safety Photographic Film Phi.25 (available from the American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, Ny 10018). If the Film Travels Through Ducts, the Ducts Must Meet the Requirements of Subparagraph (ii) of This Paragraph.

(iv) Clear Plastic Windows and Signs, Parts Constructed in Whole Or in Part of Elastomeric Materials, Edge Lighted Instrument Assemblies Consisting of Two Or More Instruments in A Common Housing, Seat Belts, Shoulder Harnesses, and Cargo and Baggage Tiedown Equipment, Including Containers, Bins, Pallets, Etc., Used in Passenger Or Crew Compartments, May Not Have An Average Burn Rate Greater Than 2.5 Inches Per Minute When Tested Horizontally in Accordance with the Applicable Portions of This Appendix.

(v) Except for Small Parts (such As Knobs, Handles, Rollers, Fasteners, Clips, Grommets, Rub Strips, Pulleys, and Small Electrical Parts) That Would Not Contribute Significantly to the Propagation of A Fire and for Electrical Wire and Cable Insulation, Materials in Items Not Specified in Paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), Or (iv) of Part I of This Appendix May Not Have A Burn Rate Greater Than 4.0 Inches Per Minute When Tested Horizontally in Accordance with the Applicable Portions of This Appendix.

(2) Cargo and Baggage Compartments Not Occupied by Crew Or Passengers.

(i) Thermal and Acoustic Insulation (including Coverings) Used in Each Cargo and Baggage Compartment Must Be Constructed of Materials That Meet the Requirements Set Forth in Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of Part I of This Appendix.

(ii) A Cargo Or Baggage Compartment Defined in § 25.857 As Class B Or E Must Have A Liner Constructed of Materials That Meet the Requirements of Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of Part I of This Appendix and Separated from the Airplane Structure (except for Attachments). in Addition, Such Liners Must Be Subjected to the 45 Degree Angle Test. the Flame May Not Penetrate (pass Through) the Material During Application of the Flame Or Subsequent to Its Removal. the Average Flame Time After Removal of the Flame Source May Not Exceed 15 Seconds, and the Average Glow Time May Not Exceed 10 Seconds.

(iii) A Cargo Or Baggage Compartment Defined in § 25.857 As Class B, C, D, Or E Must Have Floor Panels Constructed of Materials Which Meet the Requirements of Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of Part I of This Appendix and Which Are Separated from the Airplane Structure (except for Attachments). Such Panels Must Be Subjected to the 45 Degree Angle Test. the Flame May Not Penetrate (pass Through) the Material During Application of the Flame Or Subsequent to Its Removal. the Average Flame Time After Removal of the Flame Source May Not Exceed 15 Seconds, and the Average Glow Time May Not Exceed 10 Seconds.

(iv) Insulation Blankets and Covers Used to Protect Cargo Must Be Constructed of Materials That Meet the Requirements of Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of Part I of This Appendix. Tiedown Equipment (including Containers, Bins, and Pallets) Used in Each Cargo and Baggage Compartment Must Be Constructed of Materials That Meet the Requirements of Paragraph (a)(1)(v) of Part I of This Appendix.

(3) Electrical System Components. Insulation on Electrical Wire Or Cable Installed in Any Area of the Fuselage Must Be Self-Extinguishing When Subjected to the 60 Degree Test Specified in Part I of This Appendix. the Average Burn Length May Not Exceed 3 Inches, and the Average Flame Time After Removal of the Flame Source May Not Exceed 30 Seconds. Drippings from the Test Specimen May Not Continue to Flame for More Than An Average of 3 Seconds After Falling.

(b) Test Procedures-(1) Conditioning. Specimens Must Be Conditioned to 70±5 F., and at 50 Percent ±5 Percent Relative Humidity until Moisture Equilibrium Is Reached Or for 24 Hours. Each Specimen Must Remain in the Conditioning Environment until It Is Subjected to the Flame.

(2) Specimen Configuration. Except for Small Parts and Electrical Wire and Cable Insulation, Materials Must Be Tested Either As Section Cut from A Fabricated Part As Installed in the Airplane Or As A Specimen Simulating A Cut Section, Such As A Specimen Cut from A Flat Sheet of the Material Or A Model of the Fabricated Part. the Specimen May Be Cut from Any Location in A Fabricated Part; However, Fabricated Units, Such As Sandwich Panels, May Not Be Separated for Test. Except As Noted Below, the Specimen Thickness Must Be No Thicker Than the Minimum Thickness to Be Qualified for Use in the Airplane. Test Specimens of Thick Foam Parts, Such As Seat Cushions, Must Be 1/2-Inch in Thickness. Test Specimens of Materials That Must Meet the Requirements of Paragraph (a)(1)(v) of Part I of This Appendix Must Be No More Than 1/8-Inch in Thickness. Electrical Wire and Cable Specimens Must Be the Same Size As Used in the Airplane. in the Case of Fabrics, Both the Warp and Fill Direction of the Weave Must Be Tested to Determine the Most Critical Flammability Condition. Specimens Must Be Mounted in A Metal Frame So That the Two Long Edges and the Upper Edge Are Held Securely During the Vertical Test Prescribed in Subparagraph (4) of This Paragraph and the Two Long Edges and the Edge Away from the Flame Are Held Securely During the Horizontal Test Prescribed in Subparagraph (5) of This Paragraph. the Exposed Area of the Specimen Must Be at Least 2 Inches Wide and 12 Inches Long, Unless the Actual Size Used in the Airplane Is Smaller. the Edge to Which the Burner Flame Is Applied Must Not Consist of the Finished Or Protected Edge of the Specimen But Must Be Representative of the Actual Cross-Section of the Material Or Part As Installed in the Airplane. the Specimen Must Be Mounted in A Metal Frame So That All Four Edges Are Held Securely and the Exposed Area of the Specimen Is at Least 8 Inches by 8 Inches During the 45° Test Prescribed in Subparagraph (6) of This Paragraph.

(3) Apparatus. Except As Provided in Subparagraph (7) of This Paragraph, Tests Must Be Conducted in A Draft-Free Cabinet in Accordance with Federal Test Method Standard 191 Model 5903 (revised Method 5902) for the Vertical Test, Or Method 5906 for Horizontal Test (available from the General Services Administration, Business Service Center, Region 3, Seventh & D Streets Sw., Washington, Dc 20407). Specimens Which Are Too Large for the Cabinet Must Be Tested in Similar Draft-Free Conditions.

(4) Vertical Test. A Minimum of Three Specimens Must Be Tested and Results Averaged. for Fabrics, the Direction of Weave Corresponding to the Most Critical Flammability Conditions Must Be Parallel to the Longest Dimension. Each Specimen Must Be Supported Vertically. the Specimen Must Be Exposed to A Bunsen Or Tirrill Burner with A Nominal 3/8-Inch I.d. Tube Adjusted to Give A Flame of 11/2 Inches in Height. the Minimum Flame Temperature Measured by A Calibrated Thermocouple Pyrometer in the Center of the Flame Must Be 1550 °f. the Lower Edge of the Specimen Must Be 3/4-Inch Above the Top Edge of the Burner. the Flame Must Be Applied to the Center Line of the Lower Edge of the Specimen. for Materials Covered by Paragraph (a)(1)(i) of Part I of This Appendix, the Flame Must Be Applied for 60 Seconds and Then Removed. for Materials Covered by Paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of Part I of This Appendix, the Flame Must Be Applied for 12 Seconds and Then Removed. Flame Time, Burn Length, and Flaming Time of Drippings, If Any, May Be Recorded. the Burn Length Determined in Accordance with Subparagraph (7) of This Paragraph Must Be Measured to the Nearest Tenth of An Inch.

(5) Horizontal Test. A Minimum of Three Specimens Must Be Tested and the Results Averaged. Each Specimen Must Be Supported Horizontally. the Exposed Surface, When Installed in the Aircraft, Must Be Face Down for the Test. the Specimen Must Be Exposed to A Bunsen Or Tirrill Burner with A Nominal 3/8-Inch I.d. Tube Adjusted to Give A Flame of 11/2 Inches in Height. the Minimum Flame Temperature Measured by A Calibrated Thermocouple Pyrometer in the Center of the Flame Must Be 1550 °f. the Specimen Must Be Positioned So That the Edge Being Tested Is Centered 3/4-Inch Above the Top of the Burner. the Flame Must Be Applied for 15 Seconds and Then Removed. A Minimum of 10 Inches of Specimen Must Be Used for Timing Purposes, Approximately 11/2 Inches Must Burn Before the Burning Front Reaches the Timing Zone, and the Average Burn Rate Must Be Recorded.

(6) Forty-Five Degree Test. A Minimum of Three Specimens Must Be Tested and the Results Averaged. the Specimens Must Be Supported at An Angle of 45° to A Horizontal Surface. the Exposed Surface When Installed in the Aircraft Must Be Face Down for the Test. the Specimens Must Be Exposed to A Bunsen Or Tirrill Burner with A Nominal 3/8-Inch I.d. Tube Adjusted to Give A Flame of 11/2 Inches in Height. the Minimum Flame Temperature Measured by A Calibrated Thermocouple Pyrometer in the Center of the Flame Must Be 1550 °f. Suitable Precautions Must Be Taken to Avoid Drafts. the Flame Must Be Applied for 30 Seconds with One-Third Contacting the Material at the Center of the Specimen and Then Removed. Flame Time, Glow Time, and Whether the Flame Penetrates (passes Through) the Specimen Must Be Recorded.

(7) Sixty Degree Test. A Minimum of Three Specimens of Each Wire Specification (make and Size) Must Be Tested. the Specimen of Wire Or Cable (including Insulation) Must Be Placed at An Angle of 60° with the Horizontal in the Cabinet Specified in Subparagraph (3) of This Paragraph with the Cabinet Door Open During the Test, Or Must Be Placed within A Chamber Approximately 2 Feet High by 1 Foot by 1 Foot, Open at the Top and at One Vertical Side (front), and Which Allows Sufficient Flow of Air for Complete Combustion, But Which Is Free from Drafts. the Specimen Must Be Parallel to and Approximately 6 Inches from the Front of the Chamber. the Lower End of the Specimen Must Be Held Rigidly Clamped. the Upper End of the Specimen Must Pass over A Pulley Or Rod and Must Have An Appropriate Weight Attached to It So That the Specimen Is Held Tautly Throughout the Flammability Test. the Test Specimen Span Between Lower Clamp and Upper Pulley Or Rod Must Be 24 Inches and Must Be Marked 8 Inches from the Lower End to Indicate the Central Point for Flame Application. A Flame from A Bunsen Or Tirrill Burner Must Be Applied for 30 Seconds at the Test Mark. the Burner Must Be Mounted Underneath the Test Mark on the Specimen, Perpendicular to the Specimen and at An Angle of 30° to the Vertical Plane of the Specimen. the Burner Must Have A Nominal Bore of 3/8-Inch and Be Adjusted to Provide A 3-Inch High Flame with An Inner Cone Approximately One-Third of the Flame Height. the Minimum Temperature of the Hottest Portion of the Flame, As Measured with A Calibrated Thermocouple Pyrometer, May Not Be Less Than 1750 °f. the Burner Must Be Positioned So That the Hottest Portion of the Flame Is Applied to the Test Mark on the Wire. Flame Time, Burn Length, and Flaming Time of Drippings, If Any, Must Be Recorded. the Burn Length Determined in Accordance with Paragraph (8) of This Paragraph Must Be Measured to the Nearest Tenth of An Inch. Breaking of the Wire Specimens Is Not Considered A Failure.

(8) Burn Length. Burn Length Is the Distance from the Original Edge to the Farthest Evidence of Damage to the Test Specimen Due to Flame Impingement, Including Areas of Partial Or Complete Consumption, Charring, Or Embrittlement, But Not Including Areas Sooted, Stained, Warped, Or Discolored, Nor Areas Where Material Has Shrunk Or Melted Away from the Heat Source. part II-Flammability of Seat Cushions

(a) Criteria for Acceptance. Each Seat Cushion Must Meet the Following Criteria:

(1) at Least Three Sets of Seat Bottom and Seat Back Cushion Specimens Must Be Tested.

(2) If the Cushion Is Constructed with A Fire Blocking Material, the Fire Blocking Material Must Completely Enclose the Cushion Foam Core Material.

(3) Each Specimen Tested Must Be Fabricated Using the Principal Components (i.e., Foam Core, Flotation Material, Fire Blocking Material, If Used, and Dress Covering) and Assembly Processes (representative Seams and Closures) Intended for Use in the Production Articles. If A Different Material Combination Is Used for the Back Cushion Than for the Bottom Cushion, Both Material Combinations Must Be Tested As Complete Specimen Sets, Each Set Consisting of A Back Cushion Specimen and A Bottom Cushion Specimen. If A Cushion, Including Outer Dress Covering, Is Demonstrated to Meet the Requirements of This Appendix Using the Oil Burner Test, the Dress Covering of That Cushion May Be Replaced with A Similar Dress Covering Provided the Burn Length of the Replacement Covering, As Determined by the Test Specified in § 25.853(c), Does Not Exceed the Corresponding Burn Length of the Dress Covering Used on the Cushion Subjected to the Oil Burner Test.

(4) for at Least Two-Thirds of the Total Number of Specimen Sets Tested, the Burn Length from the Burner Must Not Reach the Side of the Cushion Opposite the Burner. the Burn Length Must Not Exceed 17 Inches. Burn Length Is the Perpendicular Distance from the Inside Edge of the Seat Frame Closest to the Burner to the Farthest Evidence of Damage to the Test Specimen Due to Flame Impingement, Including Areas of Partial Or Complete Consumption, Charring, Or Embrittlement, But Not Including Areas Sooted, Stained, Warped, Or Discolored, Or Areas Where Material Has Shrunk Or Melted Away from the Heat Source.

(5) the Average Percentage Weight Loss Must Not Exceed 10 Percent. Also, at Least Two-Thirds of the Total Number of Specimen Sets Tested Must Not Exceed 10 Percent Weight Loss. All Droppings Falling from the Cushions and Mounting Stand Are to Be Discarded Before the After-Test Weight Is Determined. the Percentage Weight Loss for A Specimen Set Is the Weight of the Specimen Set Before Testing Less the Weight of the Specimen Set After Testing Expressed As the Percentage of the Weight Before Testing.

(b) Test Conditions. Vertical Air Velocity Should Average 25 Fpm±10 Fpm at the Top of the Back Seat Cushion. Horizontal Air Velocity Should Be Below 10 Fpm Just Above the Bottom Seat Cushion. Air Velocities Should Be Measured with the Ventilation Hood Operating and the Burner Motor Off.

(c) Test Specimens. (1) for Each Test, One Set of Cushion Specimens Representing A Seat Bottom and Seat Back Cushion Must Be Used.

(2) the Seat Bottom Cushion Specimen Must Be 18±1/8 Inches (457±3 Mm) Wide by 20±1/8 Inches (508±3 Mm) Deep by 4±1/8 Inches (102±3 Mm) Thick, Exclusive of Fabric Closures and Seam Overlap.

(3) the Seat Back Cushion Specimen Must Be 18±1/8 Inches (432±3 Mm) Wide by 25±1/8 Inches (635±3 Mm) High by 2±1/8 Inches (51±3 Mm) Thick, Exclusive of Fabric Closures and Seam Overlap.

(4) the Specimens Must Be Conditioned at 70±5 ° F (21±2 ° C) 55%±10% Relative Humidity for at Least 24 Hours Before Testing.

(d) Test Apparatus. the Arrangement of the Test Apparatus Is Shown in Figures 1 Through 5 and Must Include the Components Described in This Section. Minor Details of the Apparatus May Vary, Depending on the Model Burner Used.

(1) Specimen Mounting Stand. the Mounting Stand for the Test Specimens Consists of Steel Angles, As Shown in Figure 1. the Length of the Mounting Stand Legs Is 12±1/8 Inches (305±3 Mm). the Mounting Stand Must Be Used for Mounting the Test Specimen Seat Bottom and Seat Back, As Shown in Figure 2. the Mounting Stand Should Also Include A Suitable Drip Pan Lined with Aluminum Foil, Dull Side Up.

(2) Test Burner. the Burner to Be Used in Testing Must-

(i) Be A Modified Gun Type;

(ii) Have An 80-Degree Spray Angle Nozzle Nominally Rated for 2.25 Gallons/hour at 100 Psi;

(iii) Have A 12-Inch (305 Mm) Burner Cone Installed at the End of the Draft Tube, with An Opening 6 Inches (152 Mm) High and 11 Inches (280 Mm) Wide, As Shown in Figure 3; and

(iv) Have A Burner Fuel Pressure Regulator That Is Adjusted to Deliver A Nominal 2.0 Gallon/hour of # 2 Grade Kerosene Or Equivalent Required for the Test. burner Models Which Have Been Used Successfully in Testing Are the Lennox Model Ob-32, Carlin Model 200 Crd, and Park Model Dpl 3400. Faa Published Reports Pertinent to This Type of Burner Are: (1) Powerplant Enginering Report No. 3a, Standard Fire Test Apparatus and Procedure for Flexible Hose Assemblies, Dated March 1978; and (2) Report No. Dot/faa/rd/76/213, Reevaluation of Burner Characteristics for Fire Resistance Tests, Dated January 1977.

(3) Calorimeter.

(i) the Calorimeter to Be Used in Testing Must Be A (0-15.0 Btu/ft2-Sec. 0-17.0 W/cm2) Calorimeter, Accurate ±3%, Mounted in A 6-Inch by 12-Inch (152 by 305 Mm) by 3/4-Inch (19 Mm) Thick Calcium Silicate Insulating Board Which Is Attached to A Steel Angle Bracket for Placement in the Test Stand During Burner Calibration, As Shown in Figure 4.

(ii) Because Crumbling of the Insulating Board with Service Can Result in Misalignment of the Calorimeter, the Calorimeter Must Be Monitored and the Mounting Shimmed, As Necessary, to Ensure That the Calorimeter Face Is Flush with the Exposed Plane of the Insulating Board in A Plane Parallel to the Exit of the Test Burner Cone.

(4) Thermocouples. the Seven Thermocouples to Be Used for Testing Must Be 1/16- to 1/8-Inch Metal Sheathed, Ceramic Packed, Type K, Grounded Thermocouples with A Nominal 22 to 30 American Wire Gage (awg)-Size Conductor. the Seven Thermocouples Must Be Attached to A Steel Angle Bracket to Form A Thermocouple Rake for Placement in the Test Stand During Burner Calibration, As Shown in Figure 5.

(5) Apparatus Arrangement. the Test Burner Must Be Mounted on A Suitable Stand to Position the Exit of the Burner Cone A Distance of 4±1/8 Inches (102±3 Mm) from One Side of the Specimen Mounting Stand. the Burner Stand Should Have the Capability of Allowing the Burner to Be Swung Away from the Specimen Mounting Stand During Warmup Periods.

(6) Data Recording. A Recording Potentiometer Or Other Suitable Calibrated Instrument with An Appropriate Range Must Be Used to Measure and Record the Outputs of the Calorimeter and the Thermocouples.

(7) Weight Scale. Weighing Device-A Device Must Be Used That with Proper Procedures May Determine the Before and After Test Weights of Each Set of Seat Cushion Specimens within 0.02 Pound (9 Grams). A Continuous Weighing System Is Preferred.

(8) Timing Device. A Stopwatch Or Other Device (calibrated to ±1 Second) Must Be Used to Measure the Time of Application of the Burner Flame and Self-Extinguishing Time Or Test Duration.

(e) Preparation of Apparatus. Before Calibration, All Equipment Must Be Turned on and the Burner Fuel Must Be Adjusted As Specified in Paragraph (d)(2).

(f) Calibration. to Ensure the Proper Thermal Output of the Burner, the Following Test Must Be Made:

(1) Place the Calorimeter on the Test Stand As Shown in Figure 4 at A Distance of 4±1/8 Inches (102±3 Mm) from the Exit of the Burner Cone.

(2) Turn on the Burner, Allow It to Run for 2 Minutes for Warmup, and Adjust the Burner Air Intake Damper to Produce A Reading of 10.5±0.5 Btu/ft2-Sec. (11.9±0.6 W/cm2) on the Calorimeter to Ensure Steady State Conditions Have Been Achieved. Turn Off the Burner.

(3) Replace the Calorimeter with the Thermocouple Rake (figure 5).

(4) Turn on the Burner and Ensure That the Thermocouples Are Reading 1900±100 ° F (1038±38 ° C) to Ensure Steady State Conditions Have Been Achieved.

(5) If the Calorimeter and Thermocouples Do Not Read within Range, Repeat Steps in Paragraphs 1 Through 4 and Adjust the Burner Air Intake Damper until the Proper Readings Are Obtained. the Thermocouple Rake and the Calorimeter Should Be Used Frequently to Maintain and Record Calibrated Test Parameters. until the Specific Apparatus Has Demonstrated Consistency, Each Test Should Be Calibrated. After Consistency Has Been Confirmed, Several Tests May Be Conducted with the Pre-Test Calibration Before and A Calibration Check After the Series.

(g) Test Procedure. the Flammability of Each Set of Specimens Must Be Tested As Follows:

(1) Record the Weight of Each Set of Seat Bottom and Seat Back Cushion Specimens to Be Tested to the Nearest 0.02 Pound (9 Grams).

(2) Mount the Seat Bottom and Seat Back Cushion Test Specimens on the Test Stand As Shown in Figure 2, Securing the Seat Back Cushion Specimen to the Test Stand at the Top.

(3) Swing the Burner into Position and Ensure That the Distance from the Exit of the Burner Cone to the Side of the Seat Bottom Cushion Specimen Is 4±1/8 Inches (102±3 Mm).

(4) Swing the Burner Away from the Test Position. Turn on the Burner and Allow It to Run for 2 Minutes to Provide Adequate Warmup of the Burner Cone and Flame Stabilization.

(5) to Begin the Test, Swing the Burner into the Test Position and Simultaneously Start the Timing Device.

(6) Expose the Seat Bottom Cushion Specimen to the Burner Flame for 2 Minutes and Then Turn Off the Burner. Immediately Swing the Burner Away from the Test Position. Terminate Test 7 Minutes After Initiating Cushion Exposure to the Flame by Use of A Gaseous Extinguishing Agent (i.e., Halon Or Co2).

(7) Determine the Weight of the Remains of the Seat Cushion Specimen Set Left on the Mounting Stand to the Nearest 0.02 Pound (9 Grams) Excluding All Droppings.

(h) Test Report. with Respect to All Specimen Sets Tested for A Particular Seat Cushion for Which Testing of Compliance Is Performed, the Following Information Must Be Recorded:

(1) An Identification and Description of the Specimens Being Tested.

(2) the Number of Specimen Sets Tested.

(3) the Initial Weight and Residual Weight of Each Set, the Calculated Percentage Weight Loss of Each Set, and the Calculated Average Percentage Weight Loss for the Total Number of Sets Tested.

(4) the Burn Length for Each Set Tested. ec28se91.064 ec28se91.065 ec28se91.066 ec28se91.067 ec28se91.068 part III-Test Method to Determine Flame Penetration Resistance of Cargo Compartment Liners.

(a) Criteria for Acceptance. (1) at Least Three Specimens of Cargo Compartment Sidewall Or Ceiling Liner Panels Must Be Tested.

(2) Each Specimen Tested Must Simulate the Cargo Compartment Sidewall Or Ceiling Liner Panel, Including Any Design Features, Such As Joints, Lamp Assemblies, Etc., the Failure of Which Would Affect the Capability of the Liner to Safely Contain A Fire.

(3) There Must Be No Flame Penetration of Any Specimen within 5 Minutes After Application of the Flame Source, and the Peak Temperature Measured at 4 Inches Above the Upper Surface of the Horizontal Test Sample Must Not Exceed 400 ° F.

(b) Summary of Method. This Method Provides A Laboratory Test Procedure for Measuring the Capability of Cargo Compartment Lining Materials to Resist Flame Penetration with A 2 Gallon Per Hour (gph) #2 Grade Kerosene Or Equivalent Burner Fire Source. Ceiling and Sidewall Liner Panels May Be Tested Individually Provided A Baffle Is Used to Simulate the Missing Panel. Any Specimen That Passes the Test As A Ceiling Liner Panel May Be Used As A Sidewall Liner Panel.

(c) Test Specimens. (1) the Specimen to Be Tested Must Measure 16±1/8 Inches (406±3 Mm) by 24+1/8 Inches (610±3 Mm).

(2) the Specimens Must Be Conditioned at 70 ° F.±5 ° F. (21° C.±2° C.) and 55%±5% Humidity for at Least 24 Hours Before Testing.

(d) Test Apparatus. the Arrangement of the Test Apparatus, Which Is Shown in Figure 3 of Part II and Figures 1 Through 3 of This Part of Appendix F, Must Include the Components Described in This Section. Minor Details of the Apparatus May Vary, Depending on the Model of the Burner Used.

(1) Specimen Mounting Stand. the Mounting Stand for the Test Specimens Consists of Steel Angles As Shown in Figure 1.

(2) Test Burner. the Burner to Be Used in Tesing Must-

(i) Be A Modified Gun Type.

(ii) Use A Suitable Nozzle and Maintain Fuel Pressure to Yield A 2 Gph Fuel Flow. for Example: An 80 Degree Nozzle Nominally Rated at 2.25 Gph and Operated at 85 Pounds Per Square Inch (psi) Gage to Deliver 2.03 Gph.

(iii) Have A 12 Inch (305 Mm) Burner Extension Installed at the End of the Draft Tube with An Opening 6 Inches (152 Mm) High and 11 Inches (280 Mm) Wide As Shown in Figure 3 of Part II of This Appendix.

(iv) Have A Burner Fuel Pressure Regulator That Is Adjusted to Deliver A Nominal 2.0 Gph of #2 Grade Kerosene Or Equivalent. burner Models Which Have Been Used Successfully in Testing Are the Lenox Model Ob-32, Carlin Model 200 Crd and Park Model Dpl. the Basic Burner Is Described in Faa Powerplant Engineering Report No. 3a, Standard Fire Test Apparatus and Procedure for Flexible Hose Assemblies, Dated March 1978; However, the Test Settings Specified in This Appendix Differ in Some Instances from Those Specified in the Report.

(3) Calorimeter. (i) the Calorimeter to Be Used in Testing Must Be A Total Heat Flux Foil Type Gardon Gage of An Appropriate Range (approximately 0 to 15.0 British Thermal Unit (btu) Per Ft.2 Sec., 0-17.0 Watts/cm2). the Calorimeter Must Be Mounted in A 6 Inch by 12 Inch (152 by 305 Mm) by 3/4 Inch (19 Mm) Thick Insulating Block Which Is Attached to A Steel Angle Bracket for Placement in the Test Stand During Burner Calibration As Shown in Figure 2 of This Part of This Appendix.

(ii) the Insulating Block Must Be Monitored for Deterioration and the Mounting Shimmed As Necessary to Ensure That the Calorimeter Face Is Parallel to the Exit Plane of the Test Burner Cone.

(4) Thermocouples. the Seven Thermocouples to Be Used for Testing Must Be 1/16 Inch Ceramic Sheathed, Type K, Grounded Thermocouples with A Nominal 30 American Wire Gage (awg) Size Conductor. the Seven Thermocouples Must Be Attached to A Steel Angle Bracket to Form A Thermocouple Rake for Placement in the Test Stand During Burner Calibration As Shown in Figure 3 of This Part of This Appendix.

(5) Apparatus Arrangement. the Test Burner Must Be Mounted on A Suitable Stand to Position the Exit of the Burner Cone A Distance of 8 Inches from the Ceiling Liner Panel and 2 Inches from the Sidewall Liner Panel. the Burner Stand Should Have the Capability of Allowing the Burner to Be Swung Away from the Test Specimen During Warm-up Periods.

(6) Instrumentation. A Recording Potentiometer Or Other Suitable Instrument with An Appropriate Range Must Be Used to Measure and Record the Outputs of the Calorimeter and the Thermocouples.

(7) Timing Device. A Stopwatch Or Other Device Must Be Used to Measure the Time of Flame Application and the Time of Flame Penetration, If It Occurs.

(e) Preparation of Apparatus. Before Calibration, All Equipment Must Be Turned on and Allowed to Stabilize, and the Burner Fuel Flow Must Be Adjusted As Specified in Paragraph (d)(2).

(f) Calibration. to Ensure the Proper Thermal Output of the Burner the Following Test Must Be Made:

(1) Remove the Burner Extension from the End of the Draft Tube. Turn on the Blower Portion of the Burner Without Turning the Fuel Or Igniters On. Measure the Air Velocity Using A Hot Wire Anemometer in the Center of the Draft Tube Across the Face of the Opening. Adjust the Damper Such That the Air Velocity Is in the Range of 1550 to 1800 Ft./min. If Tabs Are Being Used at the Exit of the Draft Tube, They Must Be Removed Prior to This Measurement. Reinstall the Draft Tube Extension Cone.

(2) Place the Calorimeter on the Test Stand As Shown in Figure 2 at A Distance of 8 Inches (203 Mm) from the Exit of the Burner Cone to Simulate the Position of the Horizontal Test Specimen.

(3) Turn on the Burner, Allow It to Run for 2 Minutes for Warm-Up, and Adjust the Damper to Produce A Calorimeter Reading of 8.0±0.5 Btu Per Ft.2 Sec. (9.1±0.6 Watts/cm2).

(4) Replace the Calorimeter with the Thermocouple Rake (see Figure 3).

(5) Turn on the Burner and Ensure That Each of the Seven Thermocouples Reads 1700 ° F. ±100 ° F. (927 ° C. ±38 ° C.) to Ensure Steady State Conditions Have Been Achieved. If the Temperature Is Out of This Range, Repeat Steps 2 Through 5 until Proper Readings Are Obtained.

(6) Turn Off the Burner and Remove the Thermocouple Rake.

(7) Repeat (1) to Ensure That the Burner Is in the Correct Range.

(g) Test Procedure. (1) Mount A Thermocouple of the Same Type As That Used for Calibration at A Distance of 4 Inches (102 Mm) Above the Horizontal (ceiling) Test Specimen. the Thermocouple Should Be Centered over the Burner Cone.

(2) Mount the Test Specimen on the Test Stand Shown in Figure 1 in Either the Horizontal Or Vertical Position. Mount the Insulating Material in the Other Position.

(3) Position the Burner So That Flames Will Not Impinge on the Specimen, Turn the Burner On, and Allow It to Run for 2 Minutes. Rotate the Burner to Apply the Flame to the Specimen and Simultaneously Start the Timing Device.

(4) Expose the Test Specimen to the Flame for 5 Minutes and Then Turn Off the Burner. the Test May Be Terminated Earlier If Flame Penetration Is Observed.

(5) When Testing Ceiling Liner Panels, Record the Peak Temperature Measured 4 Inches Above the Sample.

(6) Record the Time at Which Flame Penetration Occurs If Applicable.

(h) Test Report. the Test Report Must Include the Following:

(1) A Complete Description of the Materials Tested Including Type, Manufacturer, Thickness, and Other Appropriate Data.

(2) Observations of the Behavior of the Test Specimens During Flame Exposure Such As Delamination, Resin Ignition, Smoke, Ect., Including the Time of Such Occurrence.

(3) the Time at Which Flame Penetration Occurs, If Applicable, for Each of the Three Specimens Tested.

(4) Panel Orientation (ceiling Or Sidewall). ec28se91.069 ec28se91.070 ec28se91.071 part IV-Test Method to Determine the Heat Release Rate from Cabin Materials Exposed to Radiant Heat.

(a) Summary of Method. Three Or More Specimens Representing the Completed Aircraft Component Are Tested. Each Test Specimen Is Injected into An Environmental Chamber Through Which A Constant Flow of Air Passes. the Specimen's Exposure Is Determined by A Radiant Heat Source Adjusted to Produce, on the Specimen, the Desired Total Heat Flux of 3.5 W/cm2. the Specimen Is Tested with the Exposed Surface Vertical. Combustion Is Initiated by Piloted Ignition. the Combustion Products Leaving the Chamber Are Monitored in Order to Calculate the Release Rate of Heat.

(b) Apparatus. the Ohio State University (osu) Rate of Heat Release Apparatus, As Described Below, Is Used. This Is A Modified Version of the Rate of Heat Release Apparatus Standardized by the American Society of Testing and Materials (astm), Astm E-906.

(1) This Apparatus Is Shown in Figures 1a and 1b of This Part IV. All Exterior Surfaces of the Apparatus, Except the Holding Chamber, Must Be Insulated with 1 Inch (25 Mm) Thick, Low Density, High Temperature, Fiberglass Board Insulation. A Gasketed Door, Through Which the Sample Injection Rod Slides, Must Be Used to Form An Airtight Closure on the Specimen Hold Chamber.

(2) Thermopile. the Temperature Difference Between the Air Entering the Environmental Chamber and That Leaving Must Be Monitored by A Thermopile Having Five Hot, and Five Cold, 24-Guage Chromel-Alumel Junctions. the Hot Junctions Must Be Spaced Across the Top of the Exhaust Stack, .38 Inches (10 Mm) Below the Top of the Chimney. the Thermocouples Must Have A .050 ± .010 Inch (1.3 ± .3mm) Diameter, Ball-Type, Welded Tip. One Thermocouple Must Be Located in the Geometric Center, with the Other Four Located 1.18 Inch (30 Mm) from the Center Along the Diagonal Toward Each of the Corners (figure 5 of This Part IV). the Cold Junctions Must Be Located in the Pan Below the Lower Air Distribution Plate (see Paragraph (b)(4) of This Part IV). Thermopile Hot Junctions Must Be Cleared of Soot Deposits As Needed to Maintain the Calibrated Sensitivity.

(3) Radiation Source. A Radiant Heat Source Incorporating Four Type Ll Silicon Carbide Elements, 20 Inches (508 Mm) Long by .63 Inch (16 Mm) O.d., Must Be Used, As Shown in Figures 2a and 2b of This Part IV. the Heat Source Must Have A Nominal Resistance of 1.4 Ohms and Be Capable of Generating A Flux up to 100 Kw/m2. the Silicone Carbide Elements Must Be Mounted in the Stainless Steel Panel Box by Inserting Them Through .63 Inch (16 Mm) Holes in .03 Inch (1 Mm) Thick Ceramic Fiber Or Calcium-Silicate Millboard. Locations of the Holes in the Pads and Stainless Steel Cover Plates Are Shown in Figure 2b of This Part IV. the Truncated Diamond-Shaped Mask of .042 ± .002 Inch (1.07 ± .05mm) Stainless Steel Must Be Added to Provide Uniform Heat Flux Density over the Area Occupied by the Vertical Sample.

(4) Air Distribution System. the Air Entering the Environmental Chamber Must Be Distributed by A .25 Inch (6.3 Mm) Thick Aluminum Plate Having Eight No. 4 Drill-Holes, Located 2 Inches (51 Mm) from Sides on 4 Inch (102 Mm) Centers, Mounted at the Base of the Environmental Chamber. A Second Plate of 18 Guage Stainless Steel Having 120, Evenly Spaced, No. 28 Drill Holes Must Be Mounted 6 Inches (152 Mm) Above the Aluminum Plate. A Well-Regulated Air Supply Is Required. the Air-Supply Manifold at the Base of the Pyramidal Section Must Have 48, Evenly Spaced, No. 26 Drill Holes Located .38 Inch (10 Mm) from the Inner Edge of the Manifold, Resulting in An Airflow Split of Approximately Three to One within the Apparatus.

(5) Exhaust Stack. An Exhaust Stack, 5.25 × 2.75 Inches (133 × 70 Mm) in Cross Section, and 10 Inches (254 Mm) Long, Fabricated from 28 Guage Stainless Steel Must Be Mounted on the Outlet of the Pyramidal Section. A. 1.0 × 3.0 Inch (25 × 76 Mm) Baffle Plate of .018 ± .002 Inch (.50 ± .05 Mm) Stainless Steel Must Be Centered Inside the Stack, Perpendicular to the Air Flow, 3 Inches (76 Mm) Above the Base of the Stack.

(6) Specimen Holders. (i) the Specimen Must Be Tested in A Vertical Orientation. the Specimen Holder (figure 3 of This Part IV) Must Incorporate A Frame That Touches the Specimen (which Is Wrapped with Aluminum Foil As Required by Paragraph (d)(3) of This Part) Along Only the .25 Inch (6 Mm) Perimeter. A “v” Shaped Spring Is Used to Hold the Assembly Together. A Detachable .50 × .50 × 5.91 Inch (12 × 12 × 150 Mm) Drip Pan and Two .020 Inch (.5 Mm) Stainless Steel Wires (as Shown in Figure 3 of This Part IV) Must Be Used for Testing Materials Prone to Melting and Dripping. the Positioning of the Spring and Frame May Be Changed to Accommodate Different Specimen Thicknesses by Inserting the Retaining Rod in Different Holes on the Specimen Holder.

(ii) Since the Radiation Shield Described in Astm E-906 Is Not Used, A Guide Pin Must Be Added to the Injection Mechanism. This Fits into A Slotted Metal Plate on the Injection Mechanism Outside of the Holding Chamber. It Can Be Used to Provide Accurate Positioning of the Specimen Face After Injection. the Front Surface of the Specimen Must Be 3.9 Inches (100 Mm) from the Closed Radiation Doors After Injection.

(iii) the Specimen Holder Clips onto the Mounted Bracket (figure 3 of This Part IV). the Mounting Bracket Must Be Attached to the Injection Rod by Three Screws That Pass Through A Wide-Area Washer Welded onto A 1/2-Inch (13 Mm) Nut. the End of the Injection Rod Must Be Threaded to Screw into the Nut, and A .020 Inch (5.1 Mm) Thick Wide Area Washer Must Be Held Between Two 1/2-Inch (13 Mm) Nuts That Are Adjusted to Tightly Cover the Hole in the Radiation Doors Through Which the Injection Rod Or Calibration Calorimeter Pass.

(7) Calorimeter. A Total-Flux Type Calorimeter Must Be Mounted in the Center of A 1/2-Inch Kaowool “m” Board Inserted in the Sample Holder to Measure the Total Heat Flux. the Calorimeter Must Have A View Angle of 180 Degrees and Be Calibrated for Incident Flux. the Calorimeter Calibration Must Be Acceptable to the Administrator.

(8) Pilot-Flame Positions. Pilot Ignition of the Specimen Must Be Accomplished by Simultaneously Exposing the Specimen to A Lower Pilot Burner and An Upper Pilot Burner, As Described in Paragraph (b)(8)(i) and (b)(8)(ii) Or (b)(8)(iii) of This Part IV, Respectively. Since Intermittent Pilot Flame Extinguishment for More Than 3 Seconds Would Invalidate the Test Results, A Spark Ignitor May Be Installed to Ensure That the Lower Pilot Burner Remains Lighted.

(i) Lower Pilot Burner. the Pilot-Flame Tubing Must Be .25 Inch (6.3 Mm) O.d., .03 Inch (0.8mm) Wall, Stainless Steel Tubing. A Mixture of 120 Cm3/min. of Methane and 850 Cm3/min. of Air Must Be Fed to the Lower Pilot Flame Burner. the Normal Position of the End of the Pilot Burner Tubing Is .40 Inch (10 Mm) from and Perpendicular to the Exposed Vertical Surface of the Specimen. the Centerline at the Outlet of the Burner Tubing Must Intersect the Vertical Centerline of the Sample at A Point .20 Inch (5 Mm) Above the Lower Exposed Edge of the Specimen.

(ii) Standard Three-Hole Upper Pilot Burner. the Pilot Burner Must Be A Straight Length of .25 Inch (6.3 Mm) O.d., .03 Inch (0.8 Mm) Wall, Stainless Steel Tubing That Is 14 Inches (360 Mm) Long. One End of the Tubing Must Be Closed, and Three No. 40 Drill Holes Must Be Drilled into the Tubing, 2.38 Inch (60 Mm) Apart, for Gas Ports, All Radiating in the Same Direction. the First Hole Must Be .19 Inch (5 Mm) from the Closed End of the Tubing. the Tube Must Be Positioned .75 Inch (19 Mm) Above and .75 Inch (19 Mm) Behind the Exposed Upper Edge of the Specimen. the Middle Hole Must Be in the Vertical Plane Perpendicular to the Exposed Surface of the Specimen Which Passes Through Its Vertical Centerline and Must Be Pointed Toward the Radiation Source. the Gas Supplied to the Burner Must Be Methane and Must Be Adjusted to Produce Flame Lengths of 1 Inch (25 Mm).

(iii) Optional Fourteen-Hole Upper Pilot Burner. This Burner May Be Used in Lieu of the Standard Three-Hole Burner Described in Paragraph (b)(8)(ii) of This Part IV. the Pilot Burner Must Be A Straight Length of .25 Inch (6.3 Mm) O.d., .03 Inch (0.8 Mm) Wall, Stainless Steel Tubing That Is 15.75 Inches (400 Mm) Long. One End of the Tubing Must Be Closed, and 14 No. 59 Drill Holes Must Be Drilled into the Tubing, .50 Inch (13 Mm) Apart, for Gas Ports, All Radiating in the Same Direction. the First Hole Must Be .50 Inch (13 Mm) from the Closed End of the Tubing. the Tube Must Be Positioned Above the Specimen Holder So That the Holes Are Placed Above the Specimen As Shown in Figure 1b of This Part IV. the Fuel Supplied to the Burner Must Be Methane Mixed with Air in A Ratio of Approximately 50/50 by Volume. the Total Gas Flow Must Be Adjusted to Produce Flame Lengths of 1 Inch (25 Mm). When the Gas/air Ratio and the Flow Rate Are Properly Adjusted, Approximately .25 Inch (6 Mm) of the Flame Length Appears Yellow in Color.

(c) Calibration of Equipment. (1) Heat Release Rate. A Calibration Burner, As Shown in Figure 4, Must Be Placed over the End of the Lower Pilot Flame Tubing Using A Gas Tight Connection. the Flow of Gas to the Pilot Flame Must Be at Least 99 Percent Methane and Must Be Accurately Metered. Prior to Usage, the Wet Test Meter Must Be Properly Leveled and Filled with Distilled Water to the Tip of the Internal Pointer While No Gas Is Flowing. Ambient Temperature and Pressure of the Water Are Based on the Internal Wet Test Meter Temperature. A Baseline Flow Rate of Approximately 1 Liter/min. Must Be Set and Increased to Higher Preset Flows of 4, 6, 8, 6 and 4 Liters/min. Immediately Prior to Recording Methane Flow Rates, A Flow Rate of 8 Liters/min. Must Be Used for 2 Minutes to Precondition the Chamber. This Is Not Recorded As Part of Calibration. the Rate Must Be Determined by Using A Stopwatch to Time A Complete Revolution of the Wet Test Meter for Both the Baseline and Higher Flow, with the Flow Returned to Baseline Before Changing to the Next Higher Flow. the Thermopile Baseline Voltage Must Be Measured. the Gas Flow to the Burner Must Be Increased to the Higher Preset Flow and Allowed to Burn for 2.0 Minutes, and the Thermopile Voltage Must Be Measured. the Sequence Must Be Repeated until All Five Values Have Been Determined. the Average of the Five Values Must Be Used As the Calibration Factor. the Procedure Must Be Repeated If the Percent Relative Standard Deviation Is Greater Than 5 Percent. Calculations Are Shown in Paragraph (f) of This Part IV.

(2) Flux Uniformity. Uniformity of Flux over the Specimen Must Be Checked Periodically and After Each Heating Element Change to Determine If It Is within Acceptable Limits of Plus Or Minus 5 Percent.

(3) As Noted in Paragraph (b)(2) of This Part IV, Thermopile Hot Junctions Must Be Cleared of Soot Deposits As Needed to Maintain the Calibrated Sensitivity.

(d) Preparation of Test Specimens. (1) the Test Specimens Must Be Representative of the Aircraft Component in Regard to Materials and Construction Methods. the Standard Size for the Test Specimens Is 5.91 ± .03 × 5.91 ±.03 Inches (149 ±1 × 149 ±1 Mm). the Thickness of the Specimen Must Be the Same As That of the Aircraft Component It Represents up to A Maximum Thickness of 1.75 Inches (45 Mm). Test Specimens Representing Thicker Components Must Be 1.75 Inches (45 Mm).

(2) Conditioning. Specimens Must Be Conditioned As Described in Part 1 of This Appendix.

(3) Mounting. Each Test Specimen Must Be Wrapped Tightly on All Sides of the Specimen, Except for the One Surface That Is Exposed with A Single Layer of .001 Inch (.025 Mm) Aluminum Foil.

(e) Procedure. (1) the Power Supply to the Radiant Panel Must Be Set to Produce A Radiant Flux of 3.5 ±.05 W/cm2, As Measured at the Point the Center of the Specimen Surface Will Occupy When Positioned for the Test. the Radiant Flux Must Be Measured After the Air Flow Through the Equipment Is Adjusted to the Desired Rate.

(2) After the Pilot Flames Are Lighted, Their Position Must Be Checked As Described in Paragraph (b)(8) of This Part IV.

(3) Air Flow Through the Apparatus Must Be Controlled by A Circular Plate Orifice Located in A 1.5 Inch (38.1 Mm) I.d. Pipe with Two Pressure Measuring Points, Located 1.5 Inches (38 Mm) Upstream and .75 Inches (19 Mm) Downstream of the Orifice Plate. the Pipe Must Be Connected to A Manometer Set at A Pressure Differential of 7.87 Inches (200 Mm) of Hg. (see Figure 1b of This Part IV.) the Total Air Flow to the Equipment Is Approximately .04 M3/seconds. the Stop on the Vertical Specimen Holder Rod Must Be Adjusted So That the Exposed Surface of the Specimen Is Positioned 3.9 Inches (100 Mm) from the Entrance When Injected into the Environmental Chamber.

(4) the Specimen Must Be Placed in the Hold Chamber with the Radiation Doors Closed. the Airtight Outer Door Must Be Secured, and the Recording Devices Must Be Started. the Specimen Must Be Retained in the Hold Chamber for 60 Seconds, Plus Or Minus 10 Seconds, Before Injection. the Thermopile “zero” Value Must Be Determined During the Last 20 Seconds of the Hold Period. the Sample Must Not Be Injected Before Completion of the “zero” Value Determination.

(5) When the Specimen Is to Be Injected, the Radiation Doors Must Be Opened. After the Specimen Is Injected into the Environmental Chamber, the Radiation Doors Must Be Closed Behind the Specimen.

(6) - Reserved

Appendix G to Part 25 - Continuous Gust Design Criteria
Appendix H to Part 25 - Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)
Appendix J to Part 25 - Emergency Evacuation
Special Federal Aviation Regulations SFAR No. 13 (Parts 25 - 25)