[Historical Tables]
[Section 9 - Federal Government Outlays for Major Physical Capital, Research and Development, and Education and Training]
[Table 9.8 - Composition of Outlays for the Conduct of Research and Development: 1949-2008]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


[[Page 182]]

 
   Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-2008
                                                                (in millions of dollars)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Category                           1949       1950       1951       1952       1953       1954       1955       1956       1957
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:
  Department of Defense..............................       688        700        775      1,100      1,412      1,385      1,397      1,683      1,882
  Other national defense.............................        74         72         71        104        141        166        153        215        252
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense...........................       762        772        846      1,204      1,553      1,551      1,550      1,898      2,134
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Nondefense:
  General science, space, and technology:
    NASA.............................................        42         43         44         51         50         48         43         50         55
    NSF..............................................  .........  .........  .........  .........  .........         4          8         15         28
    Atomic energy general science....................        40         49         50         60         63         64         73         78         91
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................        82         92         94        111        113        116        124        143        174
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy.............................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         27         42         77
  Transportation:
    NASA.............................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A   .........
    DOT and Other....................................  .........  .........  .........  .........  .........  .........  .........  .........        13
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         13
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:
    NIH..............................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A
    Other............................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         45         51         69         81        134
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture........................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         49         53         62         82         86
  Natural resources and environment..................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         38         38         32         38         45
  All other..........................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         50         39         31         42         48
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense.................................       178        282        279        291        295        297        345        428        577
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development............       940      1,054      1,125      1,495      1,848      1,848      1,895      2,326      2,711
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development              11         14         14         14         14         13         21         31         40
 classified as grants (all nondefense)...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See note at end of table.


[[Page 183]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-2008--Continued
                                                                (in millions of dollars)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Category                           1958       1959       1960       1961       1962       1963       1964       1965       1966
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:
  Department of Defense..............................     2,178      4,950      5,517      6,466      6,689      6,792      7,419      6,623      6,675
  Other national defense.............................       281        414        420        456        401        352        446        454        422
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense...........................     2,459      5,364      5,937      6,922      7,090      7,144      7,865      7,077      7,097
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Nondefense:
  General science, space, and technology:
    NASA.............................................        72        115        330        646      1,112      2,291      3,693      4,497      5,275
    NSF..............................................        31         47         57         70         84        100        147        147        176
    Atomic energy general science....................       126        157        183        214        231        264        288        309        339
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       229        319        570        930      1,427      2,655      4,128      4,953      5,790
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy.............................................       109        129        159        173        397        462        502        478        452
  Transportation:
    NASA.............................................  .........  .........  .........  .........        31         36         40         58         75
    DOT and Other....................................        26         53         77         89         83        111        107        159        117
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................        26         53         77         89        114        147        147        217        192
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:
    NIH..............................................       N/A        N/A        247        295        398        511        637        523        536
    Other............................................       N/A        N/A         30         35         36         40         66         67        202
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       157        216        277        330        434        551        703        590        738
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture........................................        97        104        107        117        129        142        154        179        205
  Natural resources and environment..................        54         88         68        106        100        118        120        140        160
  All other..........................................        57        111        127        119        146        146        177        206        284
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense.................................       729      1,020      1,385      1,864      2,747      4,221      5,931      6,763      7,821
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development............     3,188      6,384      7,322      8,786      9,837     11,365     13,796     13,840     14,918
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development              46         55         57         58         66         75         85        100        110
 classified as grants (all nondefense)...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See note at end of table.


[[Page 184]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-2008--Continued
                                                                (in millions of dollars)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Category                           1967       1968       1969       1970       1971       1972       1973       1974       1975
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:
  Department of Defense..............................     7,649      8,071      7,762      7,519      7,639      8,238      8,529      8,960      9,284
  Other national defense.............................       419        473        552        502        469        599        610        446        431
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense...........................     8,068      8,544      8,314      8,021      8,108      8,837      9,139      9,406      9,715
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Nondefense:
  General science, space, and technology:
    NASA.............................................     5,042      4,462      4,025      3,518      3,143      3,059      3,045      2,900      2,876
    NSF..............................................       209        248        280        292        334        407        432        539        571
    Atomic energy general science....................       359        281        385        393        380        370        372        292        310
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................     5,610      4,991      4,690      4,203      3,857      3,836      3,849      3,731      3,757
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy.............................................       478        515        469        451        454        329        379        525        933
  Transportation:
    NASA.............................................        89        128        162        183        205        221        235        283        309
    DOT and Other....................................        69        107         96        224        444        291        299        322        307
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       158        235        258        407        649        512        534        605        616
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:
    NIH..............................................       795        784        859        879        912      1,096      1,318      1,413      1,631
    Other............................................       110        199        214        194        211        279        341        245        258
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       905        983      1,073      1,073      1,123      1,375      1,659      1,658      1,889
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture........................................       215        231        232        246        268        296        293        315        352
  Natural resources and environment..................       181        207        232        301        351        507        539        511        647
  All other..........................................       347        466        392        451        599        611        643        683        627
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense.................................     7,894      7,628      7,346      7,132      7,301      7,466      7,896      8,028      8,821
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development............    15,962     16,172     15,660     15,153     15,409     16,303     17,035     17,434     18,536
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development             125        140        152        167        182        206        224        238        249
 classified as grants (all nondefense)...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See note at end of table.


[[Page 185]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-2008--Continued
                                                                (in millions of dollars)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Category                           1976        TQ        1977       1978       1979       1980       1981       1982       1983
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:
  Department of Defense..............................     9,341      2,312     10,210     10,726     11,045     13,469     15,739     18,363     20,566
  Other national defense.............................       478        143        664      1,351      1,083      1,174      1,199      1,447      1,732
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense...........................     9,819      2,455     10,874     12,077     12,129     14,643     16,937     19,809     22,298
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Nondefense:
  General science, space, and technology:
    NASA.............................................     3,227        846      3,506      3,454      3,655      4,262      4,798      2,697      1,999
    NSF..............................................       623        194        668        701        775        838        900      1,020        998
    Atomic energy general science....................       257         72        267        274        305        345        501        401        464
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................     4,107      1,112      4,441      4,429      4,735      5,445      6,199      4,118      3,461
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy.............................................     1,424        521      2,197      2,542      3,304      3,289      3,681      3,330      2,728
  Transportation:
    NASA.............................................       324         82        336        379        408        449        481        523        539
    DOT and Other....................................       329        100        315        326        350        412        409        341        270
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       653        182        651        705        758        861        890        864        809
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:
    NIH..............................................     2,098        548      1,314      2,439      2,626      2,898      3,352      3,435      3,532
    Other............................................       194        130        335        325        614        784        732        906        929
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................     2,292        678      1,649      2,764      3,240      3,682      4,084      4,341      4,461
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture........................................       416        100        469        499        549        563        643        696        717
  Natural resources and environment..................       646        166        585        675        895        951        912        838        856
  All other..........................................       631        -14        577        841        715        801        822        664        570
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense.................................    10,169      2,745     10,569     12,455     14,196     15,592     17,231     14,850     13,602
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development............    19,988      5,200     21,443     24,532     26,325     30,235     34,168     34,660     35,900
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development             285         80        272        252        256        288        251        290        197
 classified as grants (all nondefense)...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See note at end of table.


[[Page 186]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-2008--Continued
                                                                (in millions of dollars)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Category                           1984       1985       1986       1987       1988       1989       1990       1991       1992
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:
  Department of Defense..............................    23,850     28,165     33,396     34,732     35,605     37,819     38,247     35,330     35,504
  Other national defense.............................     1,915      2,195      2,260      2,365      2,427      2,547      2,831      2,557      2,666
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense...........................    25,765     30,360     35,656     37,097     38,032     40,366     41,078     37,887     38,170
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Nondefense:
  General science, space, and technology:
    NASA.............................................     3,023      2,410      2,863      2,693      3,252      4,220      5,624      6,277      6,641
    NSF..............................................     1,127      1,182      1,399      1,426      1,513      1,570      1,520      1,631      1,733
    Atomic energy general science....................       505        510        510        576        618        680        784        834        784
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................     4,656      4,102      4,772      4,695      5,383      6,470      7,927      8,741      9,157
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy.............................................     2,762      4,249      2,622      2,321      2,287      2,454      2,342      2,501      2,593
  Transportation:
    NASA.............................................       515        559        568        557        580        755        701        795        976
    DOT and Other....................................       342        467        489        347        323        322        272        333        373
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       857      1,027      1,057        905        903      1,077        973      1,127      1,348
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:
    NIH..............................................     3,942      4,412      4,837      4,942      6,022      6,634      7,092      7,257      7,936
    Other............................................       617        719        738        869        849        912      1,162      1,272      1,721
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................     4,560      5,131      5,574      5,811      6,872      7,546      8,253      8,528      9,656
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture........................................       754        775        798        796        838        908        937        990      1,070
  Natural resources and environment..................       846        884        924        886      1,052      1,056      1,220      1,323      1,593
  All other..........................................       787        689        738        745        732        883      1,081      1,085      1,141
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense.................................    15,221     16,856     16,485     16,159     18,068     20,394     22,732     24,296     26,558
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development............    40,986     47,216     52,141     53,256     56,100     60,760     63,810     62,183     64,728
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development             223        215        319        464        478        412        345        401        296
 classified as grants (all nondefense)...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See note at end of table.


[[Page 187]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-2008--Continued
                                                                (in millions of dollars)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Category                                 1993       1994       1995       1996       1997       1998       1999       2000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:
  Department of Defense.........................................    37,666     35,474     35,356     36,936     37,702     37,558     37,571     38,279
  Other national defense........................................     2,730      2,581      2,343      2,492      2,475      2,583      2,705      2,771
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense......................................    40,396     38,055     37,699     39,428     40,177     40,141     40,276     41,050
                                                                 =======================================================================================
Nondefense:
  General science, space, and technology:
    NASA........................................................     7,004      6,663      8,243      6,963      8,137      8,631      8,316      5,411
    NSF.........................................................     1,753      1,873      1,894      2,077      2,015      2,010      2,144      2,446
    Atomic energy general science...............................       789        669        700        705        703      1,862      2,087      2,246
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................     9,546      9,205     10,837      9,745     10,855     12,503     12,547     10,103
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy........................................................     2,517      2,654      3,152      2,938      2,641      1,526      1,285      1,265
  Transportation:
    NASA........................................................     1,084      1,215        749      1,120      1,237      1,250      1,117        958
    DOT and Other...............................................       420        519        604        534        545        528        465        482
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................     1,504      1,734      1,353      1,654      1,782      1,778      1,582      1,440
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:
    NIH.........................................................     9,063      9,620     10,299      9,642     10,599     11,853     13,027     14,568
    Other.......................................................     1,311      1,008        961        856        859        865      1,306      1,310
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................    10,374     10,628     11,260     10,498     11,458     12,718     14,333     15,878
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture...................................................     1,129      1,158      1,186      1,168      1,178      1,200      1,200      1,294
  Natural resources and environment.............................     1,762      1,747      1,662      1,610      1,590      1,653      1,732      1,687
  All other.....................................................     1,150      1,271      1,283      1,398      1,392      1,284      1,181      1,230
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense............................................    27,982     28,397     30,733     29,011     30,896     32,662     33,860     32,897
                                                                 =======================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development.......................    68,378     66,453     68,432     68,439     71,073     72,803     74,136     73,947
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development classified as          344        376        348        303        290        302        308        405
 grants (all nondefense)........................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See note at end of table.


[[Page 188]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-2008--Continued
                                                                (in millions of dollars)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                       2007       2008
                            Category                                 2001       2002       2003       2004       2005       2006     estimate   estimate
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:
  Department of Defense.........................................    41,157     44,903     53,778     61,510     66,467     69,323     71,755     69,856
  Other national defense........................................     2,990      3,335      3,550      3,835      4,179      3,720      3,726      3,079
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense......................................    44,147     48,238     57,328     65,345     70,646     73,043     75,481     72,935
                                                                 =======================================================================================
Nondefense:
  General science, space, and technology:
    NASA........................................................     5,611      5,816      6,002      8,037      6,880      6,807      8,438      9,445
    NSF.........................................................     2,566      2,803      3,235      3,439      3,638      3,707      3,943      3,894
    Atomic energy general science...............................     2,287      2,298      2,480      2,701      2,809      2,966      3,013      3,192
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................    10,464     10,917     11,717     14,177     13,327     13,480     15,394     16,531
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy........................................................     1,336      1,197      1,325      1,387      1,272      1,156      1,241      1,409
  Transportation:
    NASA........................................................       862        956      1,663        551        834        722        736        669
    DOT and Other...............................................       514        621        634        571        472        588        590        512
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................     1,376      1,577      2,297      1,122      1,306      1,310      1,326      1,181
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:
    NIH.........................................................    16,387     19,374     21,835     24,498     26,039     26,695     26,974     27,580
    Other.......................................................     1,804      1,802      1,817      1,726      1,541      1,570      1,554      1,558
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................    18,191     21,176     23,652     26,224     27,580     28,265     28,528     29,138
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture...................................................     1,519      1,493      1,628      1,694      1,758      1,779      1,795      1,734
  Natural resources and environment.............................     1,749      1,856      1,919      1,612      1,878      1,529      1,633      1,699
  All other.....................................................     1,307      1,457      1,574      1,818      2,079      2,233      2,743      2,384
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense............................................    35,942     39,673     44,112     48,034     49,200     49,752     52,660     54,076
                                                                 =======================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development.......................    80,089     87,911    101,440    113,379    119,846    122,795    128,141    127,011
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development classified as          382        554        570        596        486        441        414        406
 grants (all nondefense)........................................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N/A: Separate detail not available; however, the data are included in the totals.
Note: The Atomic energy defense component includes relatively small amounts of R&D for FEMA beginning in 1983.