[House Document 110-50]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]



110th Congress                                               Document

                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
1st Session                                                No. 110-50

 
                                   THE
                              CONSTITUTION
                                 OF THE
                              UNITED STATES
                               OF AMERICA

                               As Amended

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                          Unratified Amendments

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                            Analytical Index




                         PRESENTED BY MR. BRADY

                             OF PENNSYLVANIA

               July 25, 2007        Ordered to be printed

                              UNITED STATES
                       GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                            WASHINGTON: 2007



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov  Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800;  DC 
area (202) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2104  Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 
20402-001
                       [ISBN 978-0-16-079091-1]
      
House Doc. 110-50

    The printing of the revised version of The Constitution of 
the United States of America As Amended (Document Size) is 
hereby ordered pursuant to H. Con. Res. 190 as passed on July 
25, 2007, 110th Congress, 1st Session. This document was 
compiled at the direction of Chairman Robert A. Brady of the 
Joint Committee on Printing, and printed by the U.S. Government 
Printing Office.
                                CONTENTS

Historical Note..................................................     v
Text of the Constitution.........................................     1
Amendments.......................................................    13
Proposed Amendments Not Ratified.................................    29
Index to the Constitution and Amendments.........................    33








                            HISTORICAL NOTE

                              ----------                              


    The Delegates who convened at the Federal Convention on May 
25, 1787, quickly rejected the idea of revising the Articles of 
Confederation and agreed to construct a new framework for a 
national government. Throughout the summer months at the 
Convention in Philadelphia, delegates from 12 States debated 
the proper form such a government should take, but few 
questioned the need to establish a more vigorous government to 
preside over the union of States. The 39 delegates who signed 
the Constitution on September 17, 1787, expected the new 
charter to provide a permanent guarantee of the political 
liberties achieved in the Revolution.
    Prior to the adoption of the Federal Constitution, the 
Articles of Confederation, drafted by the Continental Congress 
and approved by 13 States, provided for a union of the former 
British colonies. Even before Maryland became the last State to 
accede to the Articles in 1781, a number of Americans, 
particularly those involved in the prosecution of the 
Revolutionary War, recognized the inadequacies of the Articles 
as a national government. In the 1780s these nationally-minded 
Americans became increasingly disturbed by the Articles' 
failure to provide the central government with authority to 
raise revenue, regulate commerce, or enforce treaties.
    Despite repeated proposals that the Continental Congress 
revise the Articles, the movement for a new national government 
began outside the Congress. Representatives of Maryland and 
Virginia, meeting at Mt. Vernon to discuss trade problems 
between the two States, agreed to invite delegates from all 
States to discuss commercial affairs at a meeting in Annapolis, 
Maryland, in September 1786. Although delegates from only five 
States reached the Annapolis Convention, that group issued a 
call for a meeting of all States to discuss necessary revisions 
of the Articles of Confederation. Responding to this call and 
the endorsement of the Continental Congress, every State except 
Rhode Island selected delegates for the meeting in the State 
House at Philadelphia.
    The document printed here was the product of nearly four 
months of deliberations in the Federal Convention at 
Philadelphia. The challenging task before the delegates was to 
create a republican form of government that could encompass the 
13 States and accommodate the anticipated expansion to the 
West. The distribution of authority between legislative, 
executive, and judicial branches was a boldly original attempt 
to create an energetic central government at the same time that 
the sovereignty of the people was preserved.
    The longest debate of the Convention centered on the proper 
form of representation and election for the Congress. The 
division between small States that wished to perpetuate the 
equal representation of States in the Continental Congress and 
the large States that proposed representation proportional to 
population threatened to bring the Convention proceedings to a 
halt. Over several weeks the delegates developed a complicated 
compromise that provided for equal representation of the States 
in a Senate elected by State legislature and proportional 
representation in a popularly-elected House of Representatives.
    The conflict between large and small States disappeared in 
the early years of the republic. More lasting was the division 
between slave and free States that had been a disturbing 
undercurrent in the Convention debates. The Convention's 
strained attempt to avoid using the word slavery in the 
articles granting recognition and protection to that 
institution scarcely hid the regional divisions that would 
remain unresolved under the terms of union agreed to in 1787.
    The debates in the State ratification conventions of 1787 
and 1788 made clear the need to provide amendments to the basic 
framework drafted in Philadelphia. Beginning with 
Massachusetts, a number of State conventions ratified the 
Constitution with the request that a bill of rights be added to 
protect certain liberties at the core of English and American 
political traditions. The First Congress approved a set of 
amendments which became the Bill of Rights when ratified by the 
States in 1791. The continuing process of amendment, clearly 
described in the note of the following text, has enabled the 
Constitution to accommodate changing conditions in American 
society at the same time that the Founders' basic outline of 
national government remains intact.
                  CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES\1\

                              ----------                              


We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect 
        Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide 
        for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure 
        the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do 
        ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of 
        America.

                               Article I.

    Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be 
vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist 
of a Senate and House of Representatives.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\1\This text of the Constitution follows the engrossed copy signed by 
Gen. Washington and the deputies from 12 States. The small superior 
figures preceding the paragraphs designate clauses, and were not in the 
original and have no reference to footnotes.
                                   * * * * *                              
The Constitution was adopted by a convention of the States on September 
17, 1787, and was subsequently ratified by the several States, on the 
following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 
1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; 
Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; 
Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, 
June 21, 1788.
                                   * * * * *                              
Ratification was completed on June 21, 1788.
                                   * * * * *                              
The Constitution was subsequently ratified by Virginia, June 25, 1788; 
New York, July 26, 1788; North Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode 
Island, May 29, 1790; and Vermont, January 10, 1791.
                                   * * * * *                              
In May 1785, a committee of Congress made a report recommending an 
alteration in the Articles of Confederation, but no action was taken on 
it, and it was left to the State Legislatures to proceed in the matter. 
In January 1786, the Legislature of Virginia passed a resolution 
providing for the appointment of five commissioners, who, or any three 
of them, should meet such commissioners as might be appointed in the 
other States of the Union, at a time and place to be agreed upon, to 
take into consideration the trade of the United States; to consider how 
far a uniform system in their commercial regulations may be necessary 
to their common interest and their permanent harmony; and to report to 
the several States such an act, relative to this great object, as, when 
ratified by them, will enable the United States in Congress effectually 
to provide for the same. The Virginia commissioners, after some 
correspondence, fixed the first Monday in September as the time, and 
the city of Annapolis as the place for the meeting, but only four other 
States were represented, viz: Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania; the commissioners appointed by Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, North Carolina, and Rhode Island failed to attend. Under the 
circumstances of so partial a representation, the commissioners present 
agreed upon a report (drawn by Mr. Hamilton, of New York) expressing 
their unanimous conviction that it might essentially tend to advance 
the interests of the Union if the States by which they were 
respectively delegated would concur, and use their endeavors to procure 
the concurrence of the other States, in the appointment of 
commissioners to meet at Philadelphia on the second Monday of May 
following, to take into consideration the situation of the United 
States; to devise such further provisions as should appear to them 
necessary to render the Constitution of the Federal Government adequate 
to the exigencies of the Union; and to report such an act for that 
purpose to the United States in Congress assembled as, when agreed to 
by them and afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State, 
would effectually provide for the same.
                                   * * * * *                              
Congress, on the 21st of February, 1787, adopted a resolution in favor 
of a convention, and the Legislatures of those States which had not 
already done so (with the exception of Rhode Island) promptly appointed 
delegates. On the 25th of May, seven States having convened, George 
Washington, of Virginia, was unanimously elected President, and the 
consideration of the proposed constitution was commenced. On the 17th 
of September, 1787, the Constitution as engrossed and agreed upon was 
signed by all the members present, except Mr. Gerry of Massachusetts, 
and Messrs. Mason and Randolph, of Virginia. The president of the 
convention transmitted it to Congress, with a resolution stating how 
the proposed Federal Government should be put in operation, and an 
explanatory letter. Congress, on the 28th of September, 1787, directed 
the Constitution so framed, with the resolutions and letter concerning 
the same, to ``be transmitted to the several Legislatures in order to 
be submitted to a convention of delegates chosen in each State by the 
people thereof, in conformity to the resolves of the convention.''
                                   * * * * *                              
On the 4th of March, 1789, the day which had been fixed for commencing 
the operations of Government under the new Constitution, it had been 
ratified by the conventions chosen in each State to consider it, as 
follows: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; 
New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Connecticut, 
January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 
1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788; 
Virginia, June 25, 1788; and New York, July 26, 1788.
                                   * * * * *                              
The President informed Congress, on the 28th of January, 1790, that 
North Carolina had ratified the Constitution November 21, 1789; and he 
informed Congress on the 1st of June, 1790, that Rhode Island had 
ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790. Vermont, in convention, 
ratified the Constitution January 10, 1791, and was, by an act of 
Congress approved February 18, 1791, ``received and admitted into this 
Union as a new and entire member of the United States.''
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    Section 2. \1\The House of Representatives shall be 
composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of 
the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have 
the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous 
Branch of the State Legislature.
    \2\No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have 
attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years 
a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when 
elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be 
chosen.
    \3\Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned 
among the several States which may be included within this 
Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be 
determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, 
including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and 
excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other 
Persons.\2\ The actual Enumeration shall be made within three 
Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United 
States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such 
Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of 
Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, 
but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and 
until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New 
Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts 
eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut 
five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, 
Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, 
South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
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\2\The part of this clause relating to the mode of apportionment of 
representatives among the several States has been affected by section 2 
of amendment XIV, and as to taxes on incomes without apportionment by 
amendment XVI.
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    \4\When vacancies happen in the Representation from any 
State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of 
Election to fill such Vacancies.
    \5\The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker 
and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of 
Impeachment.
    Section 3. \1\The Senate of the United States shall be 
composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the 
Legislature thereof\3\ for six Years; and each Senator shall 
have one Vote.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\3\This clause has been affected by clause 1 of amendment XVII.
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    \2\Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence 
of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may 
be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first 
Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of 
the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of 
the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that 
one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies 
happen by Resignation or otherwise, during the Recess of the 
Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make 
temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.\4\
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                                   * * * * *                              
\4\This clause has been affected by clause 2 of amendment XVIII.
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    \3\No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained 
to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of 
the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an 
Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
    \4\The Vice President of the United States shall be 
President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be 
equally divided.
    \5\The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a 
President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or 
when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United 
States.
    \6\The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all 
Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on 
Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is 
tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be 
convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members 
present.
    \7\Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend 
further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to 
hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the 
United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be 
liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and 
Punishment, according to Law.
    Section 4. \1\The Times, Places and Manner of holding 
Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed 
in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may 
at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to 
the Places of chusing Senators.
    \2\The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year 
and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,\5\ 
unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\5\This clause has been affected by amendment XX.
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    Section 5. \1\Each House shall be the Judge of the 
Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a 
Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but 
a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be 
authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such 
Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
    \2\Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, 
punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the 
Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
    \3\Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and 
from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may 
in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the 
Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of 
one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
    \4\Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, 
without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three 
days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses 
shall be sitting.
    Section 6. \1\The Senators and Representatives shall 
receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by 
Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.\6\ They 
shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the 
Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the 
Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either 
House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\6\This clause has been affected by amendment XXVII.
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    \2\No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for 
which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under 
the Authority of the United States, which shall have been 
created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased 
during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the 
United States, shall be a Member of either House during his 
Continuance in Office.
    Section 7. \1\All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate 
in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or 
concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
    \2\Every Bill which shall have passed the House of 
Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, 
be presented to the President of the United States; If he 
approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with 
his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, 
who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two 
thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be 
sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two 
thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such 
Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and 
Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the 
Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House 
respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the 
President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall 
have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like 
Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their 
Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a 
Law.
    \3\Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the 
Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be 
necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be 
presented to the President of the United States; and before the 
Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being 
disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and 
Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.
    Section 8. \1\The Congress shall have Power To lay and 
collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts 
and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the 
United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be 
uniform throughout the United States;
    \2\To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
    \3\To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the 
several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
    \4\To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization, and 
uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the 
United States;
    \5\To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of 
foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
    \6\To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the 
Securities and current Coin of the United States;
    \7\To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
    \8\To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by 
securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the 
exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
    \9\To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
    \10\To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on 
the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;
    \11\To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, 
and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
    \12\To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of 
Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
    \13\To provide and maintain a Navy;
    \14\To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the 
land and naval Forces;
    \15\To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the 
Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
    \16\To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, 
the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be 
employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the 
States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the 
Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline 
prescribed by Congress;
    \17\To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases 
whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) 
as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of 
Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United 
States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places 
purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in 
which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, 
Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful buildings;--And
    \18\To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper 
for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other 
Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the 
United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
    Section 9. \1\The Migration or Importation of such Persons 
as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, 
shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one 
thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be 
imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each 
Person.
    \2\The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be 
suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the 
public Safety may require it.
    \3\No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be 
passed.
    \4\No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, 
unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before 
directed to be taken.\7\
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                                   * * * * *                              
\7\This clause has been affected by amendment XVI.
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    \5\No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from 
any State.
    \6\No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of 
Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of 
another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be 
obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
    \7\No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in 
Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular 
Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all 
public Money shall be published from time to time.
    \8\No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United 
States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust 
under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept 
of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind 
whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
    Section 10. \1\No State shall enter into any Treaty, 
Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and 
Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but 
gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any 
Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the 
Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
    \2\No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay 
any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be 
absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Laws: and the 
net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on 
Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the 
United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the 
Revision and Control of the Congress.
    \3\No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any 
Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, 
enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with 
a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or 
in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

                              Article II.

    Section 1. \1\The executive Power shall be vested in a 
President of the United States of America. He shall hold his 
Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the 
Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as 
follows
    \2\Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the 
Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to 
the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the 
State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or 
Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit 
under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
    \3\The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and 
vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not 
be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they 
shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the 
Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and 
certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of 
the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The 
President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate 
and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and 
the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest 
Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a 
Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if 
there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an 
equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall 
immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if 
no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the 
List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. 
But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by 
States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A 
quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members 
from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States 
shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice 
of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of 
Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there 
should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate 
shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.\8\
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                                   * * * * *                              
\8\This clause has been superseded by amendment XII.
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    \4\The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the 
Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; 
which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
    \5\No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of 
the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; 
neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall 
not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been 
fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
    \6\In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or 
of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers 
and Duties of the said Office,\9\ the Same shall devolve on the 
Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the 
Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the 
President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then 
act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until 
the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\9\This clause has been affected by amendment XXV.
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    \7\The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his 
Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor 
diminished during the Period for which he shall have been 
elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other 
Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
    \8\Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall 
take the following Oath or Affirmation:--``I do solemnly swear 
(or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of 
President of the United States, and will to the best of my 
Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the 
United States.''
    Section 2. \1\The President shall be Commander in Chief of 
the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of 
the several States, when called into the actual Service of the 
United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the 
principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon 
any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, 
and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for 
Offences against the United States, except in Cases of 
Impeachment.
    \2\He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent 
of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the 
Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with 
the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint 
Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the 
supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, 
whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and 
which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law 
vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think 
proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the 
Heads of Departments.
    \3\The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies 
that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting 
Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next 
Session.
    Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress 
Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their 
Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and 
expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both 
Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between 
them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn 
them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive 
Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that 
the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the 
Officers of the United States.
    Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil 
Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on 
Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other 
high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

                              Article III.

    Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall 
be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as 
the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The 
Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold 
their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated 
Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall 
not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
    Section 2. \1\The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, 
in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of 
the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, 
other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty 
and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the 
United States will be a party;--to Controversies between two or 
more States;--between a State and Citizens of another 
State;\10\--between Citizens of different States,--between 
Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of 
different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, 
and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\10\This clause has been affected by amendment XI.
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    \2\In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public 
Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be 
Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In 
all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall 
have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such 
Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall 
make.
    \3\The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, 
shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State 
where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not 
committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or 
Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
    Section 3. \1\Treason against the United States, shall 
consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to 
their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be 
convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses 
to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
    \2\The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment 
of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption 
of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person 
attainted.

                              Article IV.

    Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each 
State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of 
every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws 
prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and 
Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
    Section 2. \1\The Citizens of each State shall be entitled 
to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several 
States.
    \2\A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or 
other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in 
another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of 
the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to 
the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
    \3\No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under 
the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence 
of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such 
Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the 
Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.\11\
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                                   * * * * *                              
\11\This clause has been affected by amendment XIII.
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    Section 3. \1\New States may be admitted by the Congress 
into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected 
within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be 
formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of 
States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States 
concerned as well as of the Congress.
    \2\The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all 
needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other 
Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this 
Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims 
of the United States, or of any particular State.
    Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State 
in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall 
protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of 
the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature 
cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

                               Article V.

    The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem 
it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, 
or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the 
several States, shall call a Convention for proposing 
Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all 
Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when 
ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several 
States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one 
or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the 
Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to 
the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any 
Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section 
of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, 
shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

                              Article VI.

    \1\All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, 
before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid 
against the United States under this Constitution, as under the 
Confederation.
    \2\This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States 
which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties 
made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United 
States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in 
every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the 
Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary 
notwithstanding.
    \3\The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and 
the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all 
executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and 
of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, 
to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever 
be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust 
under the United States.

                              Article VII.

    The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall 
be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution 
between the States so ratifying the Same.

done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the 
        Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one 
        thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence 
        of the United States of America the Twelfth
        
In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

                                           G\O\. WASHINGTON--Presid\t\.
                                               and deputy from Virginia

            [Signed also by the deputies of twelve States.]

Delaware
                                         New Hampshire

  Geo: Read
                                           John Langdon
  Gunning Bedford jun
                                           Nicholas Gilman
  John Dickinson
  Richard Bassett
                                         Massachusetts
  Jaco: Broom
                                           Nathaniel Gorham
Maryland
                                           Rufus King

  James M\c\Henry
                                         Connecticut
  Dan of S\t\ Tho\s\ Jenifer
  Dan\l\ Carroll
                                           W\m\. Sam\l\. Johnson
                                           Roger Sherman
Virginia
                                         New York
  John Blair
  James Madison Jr.
                                           Alexander Hamilton

North Carolina
                                         New Jersey

  W\m\ Blount
                                           Wil: Livingston
  Rich\d\. Dobbs Spaight
                                           David Brearley
  Hu Williamson
                                           W\m\. Paterson
                                           Jona: Dayton
South Carolina
                                         Pennsylvania
  J. Rutledge
  Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
                                           B Franklin
  Charles Pinckney
                                           Thomas Mifflin
  Pierce Butler
                                           Rob\t\ Morris
                                           Geo. Clymer
Georgia
                                           Tho\s\. FitzSimons
                                           Jared Ingersoll
  William Few
                                           James Wilson
  Abr Baldwin
                                           Gouv Morris

Attest:  William Jackson Secretary
ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO, AND AMENDMENT OF, THE CONSTITUTION OF THE 
    UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, PROPOSED BY CONGRESS, AND RATIFIED BY THE 
    LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES, PURSUANT TO THE FIFTH ARTICLE 
    OF THE ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION\12\

                            Article [I.]\13\

    Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of 
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or 
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; of the right 
of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the 
Government for a redress of grievances.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\12\The first ten amendments of the Constitution of the United States 
(and two others, one of which failed of ratification and the other 
which later became the 27th amendment) were proposed to the 
legislatures of the several States by the First Congress on September 
25, 1789. The first ten amendments were ratified by the following 
States, and the notifications of ratification by the Governors thereof 
were successively communicated by the President to Congress: New 
Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, 
December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; New Hampshire, 
January 25, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790; New York, February 24, 
1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; Rhode Island, June 7, 1790; 
Vermont, November 3, 1791; and Virginia, December 15, 1791.
                                   * * * * *                              
Ratification was completed on December 15, 1791.
                                   * * * * *                              
The amendments were subsequently ratified by the legislatures of 
Massachusetts, March 2, 1939; Georgia, March 18, 1939; and Connecticut, 
April 19, 1939.
                                   * * * * *                              
\13\Only the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th articles of amendment had 
numbers assigned to them at the time of ratification.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             Article [II.]

    A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security 
of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, 
shall not be infringed.

                             Article [III.]

    No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any 
house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, 
but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

                             Article [IV.]

    The right of the people to be secure in their persons, 
houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and 
seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, 
but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and 
particularly describing the place to be searched, and the 
persons or things to be seized.

                              Article [V.]

    No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or 
otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment 
of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval 
forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of 
War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the 
same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor 
shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against 
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without 
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for 
public use, without just compensation.

                             Article [VI.]

    In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the 
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the 
State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, 
which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, 
and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; 
to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have 
compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to 
have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.

                             Article [VII.]

    In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy 
shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall 
be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise 
re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according 
to the rules of the common law.

                            Article [VIII.]

    Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

                             Article [IX.]

    The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, 
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by 
the people.

                              Article [X.]

    The powers not delegated to the United States by the 
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved 
to the States respectively, or to the people.

                             Article [XI.]

    The Judicial power of the United States shall not be 
construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or 
prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of 
another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The eleventh amendment to the Constitution of the United States was 
proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Third 
Congress, on the 4th of March 1794; and was declared in a message from 
the President to Congress, dated the 8th of January, 1798, to have been 
ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the States. The dates 
of ratification were: New York, March 27, 1794; Rhode Island, March 31, 
1794; Connecticut, May 8, 1794; New Hampshire, June 16, 1794; 
Massachusetts, June 26, 1794; Vermont, between October 9, 1794 and 
November 9, 1794; Virginia, November 18, 1794; Georgia, November 29, 
1794; Kentucky, December 7, 1794; Maryland, December 26, 1794; 
Delaware, January 23, 1795; North Carolina, February 7, 1795.
    Ratification was completed on February 7, 1795.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by South Carolina on 
December 4, 1797. New Jersey and Pennsylvania did not take action on 
the amendment.

                             Article [XII.]

    The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and 
vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, 
at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with 
themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted 
for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for 
as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all 
persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as 
Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which 
lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
seat of the government of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall, in 
the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open 
all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;--The 
person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall 
be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole 
number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such 
majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not 
exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, 
the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes 
shall be taken by states, the representation from each state 
having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a 
member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority 
of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the 
House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever 
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth 
day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act 
as President, as in the case of the death or other 
constitutional disability of the President.\14\--The person 
having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be 
the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole 
number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, 
then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall 
choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall 
consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 
But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of 
President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 
United States.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\14\This sentence has been superseded by section 3 of amendment XX.
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                       Proposal and Ratification

    The twelfth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was 
proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eighth 
Congress, on the 9th of December, 1803, in lieu of the original third 
paragraph of the first section of the second article; and was declared 
in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of 
September, 1804, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 13 of the 
17 States. The dates of ratification were: North Carolina, December 21, 
1803; Maryland, December 24, 1803; Kentucky, December 27, 1803; Ohio, 
December 30, 1803; Pennsylvania, January 5, 1804; Vermont, January 30, 
1804; Virginia, February 3, 1804; New York, February 10, 1804; New 
Jersey, February 22, 1804; Rhode Island, March 12, 1804; South 
Carolina, May 15, 1804; Georgia, May 19, 1804; New Hampshire, June 15, 
1804.
    Ratification was completed on June 15, 1804.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Tennessee, July 27, 
1804.
    The amendment was rejected by Delaware, January 18, 1804; 
Massachusetts, February 3, 1804; Connecticut, at its session begun May 
10, 1804.

                             Article XIII.

    Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, 
except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have 
been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or 
any place subject to their jurisdiction.
    Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-
eighth Congress, on the 31st day of January, 1865, and was declared, in 
a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 18th of December, 
1865, to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-seven of the 
thirty-six States. The dates of ratification were: Illinois, February 
1, 1865; Rhode Island, February 2, 1865; Michigan, February 2, 1865; 
Maryland, February 3, 1865; New York, February 3, 1865; Pennsylvania, 
February 3, 1865; West Virginia, February 3, 1865; Missouri, February 
6, 1865; Maine, February 7, 1865; Kansas, February 7, 1865; 
Massachusetts, February 7, 1865; Virginia, February 9, 1865; Ohio, 
February 10, 1865; Indiana, February 13, 1865; Nevada, February 16, 
1865; Louisiana, February 17, 1865; Minnesota, February 23, 1865; 
Wisconsin, February 24, 1865; Vermont, March 9, 1865; Tennessee, April 
7, 1865; Arkansas, April 14, 1865; Connecticut, May 4, 1865; New 
Hampshire, July 1, 1865; South Carolina, November 13, 1865; Alabama, 
December 2, 1865; North Carolina, December 4, 1865; Georgia, December 
6, 1865.
    Ratification was completed on December 6, 1865.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Oregon, December 8, 
1865; California, December 19, 1865; Florida, December 28, 1865 
(Florida again ratified on June 9, 1868, upon its adoption of a new 
constitution); Iowa, January 15, 1866; New Jersey, January 23, 1866 
(after having rejected the amendment on March 16, 1865); Texas, 
February 18, 1870; Delaware, February 12, 1901 (after having rejected 
the amendment on February 8, 1865); Kentucky, March 18, 1976 (after 
having rejected it on February 24, 1865).
    The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by 
Mississippi, December 4, 1865.

                              Article XIV.

    Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United 
States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens 
of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No 
State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the 
privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor 
shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or 
property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person 
within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
    Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the 
several States according to their respective numbers, counting 
the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians 
not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the 
choice of electors for President and Vice President of the 
United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and 
Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature 
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such 
State, being twenty-one years of age,\15\ and citizens of the 
United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation 
in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation 
therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of 
such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male 
citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\15\See amendment XIX and section 1 of amendment XXVI.
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    Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative 
in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or 
hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or 
under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a 
member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or 
as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or 
judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of 
the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or 
rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the 
enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of 
each House, remove such disability.
    Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United 
States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment 
of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing 
insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither 
the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or 
obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against 
the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of 
any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be 
held illegal and void.
    Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by 
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Thirty-
ninth Congress, on the 13th of June, 1866. It was declared, in a 
certificate of the Secretary of State dated July 28, 1868 to have been 
ratified by the legislatures of 28 of the 37 States. The dates of 
ratification were: Connecticut, June 25, 1866; New Hampshire, July 6, 
1866; Tennessee, July 19, 1866; New Jersey, September 11, 1866 
(subsequently the legislature rescinded its ratification, and on March 
24, 1868, readopted its resolution of rescission over the Governor's 
veto, and on November 12, 1980, expressed support for the amendment); 
Oregon, September 19, 1866 (and rescinded its ratification on October 
15, 1868); Vermont, October 30, 1866; Ohio, January 4, 1867 (and 
rescinded its ratification on January 15, 1868); New York, January 10, 
1867; Kansas, January 11, 1867; Illinois, January 15, 1867; West 
Virginia, January 16, 1867; Michigan, January 16, 1867; Minnesota, 
January 16, 1867; Maine, January 19, 1867; Nevada, January 22, 1867; 
Indiana, January 23, 1867; Missouri, January 25, 1867; Rhode Island, 
February 7, 1867; Wisconsin, February 7, 1867; Pennsylvania, February 
12, 1867; Massachusetts, March 20, 1867; Nebraska, June 15, 1867; Iowa, 
March 16, 1868; Arkansas, April 6, 1868; Florida, June 9, 1868; North 
Carolina, July 4, 1868 (after having rejected it on December 14, 1866); 
Louisiana, July 9, 1868 (after having rejected it on February 6, 1867); 
South Carolina, July 9, 1868 (after having rejected it on December 20, 
1866).
    Ratification was completed on July 9, 1868.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Alabama, July 13, 1868; 
Georgia, July 21, 1868 (after having rejected it on November 9, 1866); 
Virginia, October 8, 1869 (after having rejected it on January 9, 
1867); Mississippi, January 17, 1870; Texas, February 18, 1870 (after 
having rejected it on October 27, 1866); Delaware, February 12, 1901 
(after having rejected it on February 8, 1867); Maryland, April 4, 1959 
(after having rejected it on March 23, 1867); California, May 6, 1959; 
Kentucky, March 18, 1976 (after having rejected it on January 8, 1867).

                              Article XV.

    Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to 
vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by 
any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of 
servitude.
    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The fifteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Fortieth 
Congress, on the 26th of February, 1869, and was declared, in a 
proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated March 30, 1870, to have 
been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-nine of the thirty-seven 
States. The dates of ratification were: Nevada, March 1, 1869; West 
Virginia, March 3, 1869; Illinois, March 5, 1869; Louisiana, March 5, 
1869; North Carolina, March 5, 1869; Michigan, March 8, 1869; 
Wisconsin, March 9, 1869; Maine, March 11, 1869; Massachusetts, March 
12, 1869; Arkansas, March 15, 1869; South Carolina, March 15, 1869; 
Pennsylvania, March 25, 1869; New York, April 14, 1869 (and the 
legislature of the same State passed a resolution January 5, 1870, to 
withdraw its consent to it, which action it rescinded on March 30, 
1970); Indiana, May 14, 1869; Connecticut, May 19, 1869; Florida, June 
14, 1869; New Hampshire, July 1, 1869; Virginia, October 8, 1869; 
Vermont, October 20, 1869; Missouri, January 7, 1870; Minnesota, 
January 13, 1870; Mississippi, January 17, 1870; Rhode Island, January 
18, 1870; Kansas, January 19, 1870; Ohio, January 27, 1870 (after 
having rejected it on April 30, 1869); Georgia, February 2, 1870; Iowa, 
February 3, 1870.
    Ratification was completed on February 3, 1870, unless the 
withdrawal of ratification by New York was effective; in which event 
ratification was completed on February 17, 1870, when Nebraska 
ratified.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Texas, February 18, 
1870; New Jersey, February 15, 1871 (after having rejected it on 
February 7, 1870); Delaware, February 12, 1901 (after having rejected 
it on March 18, 1869); Oregon, February 24, 1959; California, April 3, 
1962 (after having rejected it on January 28, 1870); Kentucky, March 
18, 1976 (after having rejected it on March 12, 1869); Tennessee, April 
8, 1997 (after having rejected it on November 16, 1869).
    The amendment was approved by the Governor of Maryland, May 7, 
1973; Maryland having previously rejected it on February 26, 1870.

                              Article XVI.

    The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on 
incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment 
among the several States, and without regard to any census or 
enumeration.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The sixteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-
first Congress on the 12th of July, 1909, and was declared, in a 
proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of February, 
1913, to have been ratified by 36 of the 48 States. The dates of 
ratification were: Alabama, August 10, 1909; Kentucky, February 8, 
1910; South Carolina, February 19, 1910; Illinois, March 1, 1910; 
Mississippi, March 7, 1910; Oklahoma, March 10, 1910; Maryland, April 
8, 1910; Georgia, August 3, 1910; Texas, August 16, 1910; Ohio, January 
19, 1911; Idaho, January 20, 1911; Oregon, January 23, 1911; 
Washington, January 26, 1911; Montana, January 30, 1911; Indiana, 
January 30, 1911; California, January 31, 1911; Nevada, January 31, 
1911; South Dakota, February 3, 1911; Nebraska, February 9, 1911; North 
Carolina, February 11, 1911; Colorado, February 15, 1911; North Dakota, 
February 17, 1911; Kansas, February 18, 1911; Michigan, February 23, 
1911; Iowa, February 24, 1911; Missouri, March 16, 1911; Maine, March 
31, 1911; Tennessee, April 7, 1911; Arkansas, April 22, 1911 (after 
having rejected it earlier); Wisconsin, May 26, 1911; New York, July 
12, 1911; Arizona, April 6, 1912; Minnesota, June 11, 1912; Louisiana, 
June 28, 1912; West Virginia, January 31, 1913; New Mexico, February 3, 
1913.
    Ratification was completed on February 3, 1913.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Massachusetts, March 4, 
1913; New Hampshire, March 7, 1913 (after having rejected it on March 
2, 1911).
    The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by 
Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Utah.

                            Article [XVII.]

    The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for 
six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors 
in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for 
electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.
    When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in 
the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue 
writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the 
legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to 
make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies 
by election as the legislature may direct.
    This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the 
election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid 
as part of the Constitution.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The seventeenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-
second Congress on the 13th of May, 1912, and was declared, in a 
proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 31st of May, 1913, to 
have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The 
dates of ratification were: Massachusetts, May 22, 1912; Arizona, June 
3, 1912; Minnesota, June 10, 1912; New York, January 15, 1913; Kansas, 
January 17, 1913; Oregon, January 23, 1913; North Carolina, January 25, 
1913; California, January 28, 1913; Michigan, January 28, 1913; Iowa, 
January 30, 1913; Montana, January 30, 1913; Idaho, January 31, 1913; 
West Virginia, February 4, 1913; Colorado, February 5, 1913; Nevada, 
February 6, 1913; Texas, February 7, 1913; Washington, February 7, 
1913; Wyoming, February 8, 1913; Arkansas, February 11, 1913; Maine, 
February 11, 1913; Illinois, February 13, 1913; North Dakota, February 
14, 1913; Wisconsin, February 18, 1913; Indiana, February 19, 1913; New 
Hampshire, February 19, 1913; Vermont, February 19, 1913; South Dakota, 
February 19, 1913; Oklahoma, February 24, 1913; Ohio, February 25, 
1913; Missouri, March 7, 1913; New Mexico, March 13, 1913; Nebraska, 
March 14, 1913; New Jersey, March 17, 1913; Tennessee, April 1, 1913; 
Pennsylvania, April 2, 1913; Connecticut, April 8, 1913.
    Ratification was completed on April 8, 1913.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Louisiana, June 11, 
1914.
    The amendment was rejected by Utah (and not subsequently ratified) 
on February 26, 1913.

                          Article [XVIII.]\16\

    Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this 
article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of 
intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or 
the exportation thereof from the United States and all 
territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage 
purposes is hereby prohibited.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   * * * * *                              
\16\Repealed by section 1 of amendment XXI.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have 
concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation.
    Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it 
shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by 
the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the 
Constitution, within seven years from the date of the 
submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The eighteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-
fifth Congress, on the 18th of December, 1917, and was declared, in a 
proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 29th of January, 
1919, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. 
The dates of ratification were: Mississippi, January 8, 1918; Virginia, 
January 11, 1918; Kentucky, January 14, 1918; North Dakota, January 25, 
1918; South Carolina, January 29, 1918; Maryland, February 13, 1918; 
Montana, February 19, 1918; Texas, March 4, 1918; Delaware, March 18, 
1918; South Dakota, March 20, 1918; Massachusetts, April 2, 1918; 
Arizona, May 24, 1918; Georgia, June 26, 1918; Louisiana, August 3, 
1918; Florida, December 3, 1918; Michigan, January 2, 1919; Ohio, 
January 7, 1919; Oklahoma, January 7, 1919; Idaho, January 8, 1919; 
Maine, January 8, 1919; West Virginia, January 9, 1919; California, 
January 13, 1919; Tennessee, January 13, 1919; Washington, January 13, 
1919; Arkansas, January 14, 1919; Kansas, January 14, 1919; Alabama, 
January 15, 1919; Colorado, January 15, 1919; Iowa, January 15, 1919; 
New Hampshire, January 15, 1919; Oregon, January 15, 1919; Nebraska, 
January 16, 1919; North Carolina, January 16, 1919; Utah, January 16, 
1919; Missouri, January 16, 1919; Wyoming, January 16, 1919.
    Ratification was completed on January 16, 1919. See Dillon v. 
Gloss, 256 U.S. 368, 376 (1921).
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Minnesota on January 17, 
1919; Wisconsin, January 17, 1919; New Mexico, January 20, 1919; 
Nevada, January 21, 1919; New York, January 29, 1919; Vermont, January 
29, 1919; Pennsylvania, February 25, 1919; Connecticut, May 6, 1919; 
and New Jersey, March 9, 1922.
    The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Rhode 
Island.

                             Article [XIX.]

    The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State 
on account of sex.
    Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The nineteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-
sixth Congress, on the 4th of June, 1919, and was declared, in a 
proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 26th of August, 1920, 
to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The 
dates of ratification were: Illinois, June 10, 1919 (and that State 
readopted its resolution of ratification June 17, 1919); Michigan, June 
10, 1919; Wisconsin, June 10, 1919; Kansas, June 16, 1919; New York, 
June 16, 1919; Ohio, June 16, 1919; Pennsylvania, June 24, 1919; 
Massachusetts, June 25, 1919; Texas, June 28, 1919; Iowa, July 2, 1919; 
Missouri, July 3, 1919; Arkansas, July 28, 1919; Montana, August 2, 
1919; Nebraska, August 2, 1919; Minnesota, September 8, 1919; New 
Hampshire, September 10, 1919; Utah, October 2, 1919; California, 
November 1, 1919; Maine, November 5, 1919; North Dakota, December 1, 
1919; South Dakota, December 4, 1919; Colorado, December 15, 1919; 
Kentucky, January 6, 1920; Rhode Island, January 6, 1920; Oregon, 
January 13, 1920; Indiana, January 16, 1920; Wyoming, January 27, 1920; 
Nevada, February 7, 1920; New Jersey, February 9, 1920; Idaho, February 
11, 1920; Arizona, February 12, 1920; New Mexico, February 21, 1920; 
Oklahoma, February 28, 1920; West Virginia, March 10, 1920; Washington, 
March 22, 1920; Tennessee, August 18, 1920.
    Ratification was completed on August 18, 1920.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Connecticut on September 
14, 1920 (and that State reaffirmed it on September 21, 1920); Vermont, 
February 8, 1921; Delaware, March 6, 1923 (after having rejected it on 
June 2, 1920); Maryland, March 29, 1941 (after having rejected it on 
February 24, 1920, ratification certified on February 25, 1958); 
Virginia, February 21, 1952 (after having rejected it on February 12, 
1920); Alabama, September 8, 1953 (after having rejected it on 
September 22, 1919); Florida, May 13, 1969; South Carolina, July 1, 
1969 (after having rejected it on January 28, 1920, ratification 
certified on August 22, 1973); Georgia, February 20, 1970 (after having 
rejected it on July 24, 1919); Louisiana, June 11, 1970 (after having 
rejected it on July 1, 1920); North Carolina, May 6, 1971; Mississippi, 
March 22, 1984 (after having rejected it on March 29, 1920).

                             Article [XX.]

    Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President 
shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of 
Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, 
of the years in which such terms would have ended if this 
article had not been ratified; and the terms of their 
successors shall then begin.
    Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in 
every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day 
of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
    Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the 
term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the 
Vice President elect shall become President. If a President 
shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the 
beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have 
failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as 
President until a President shall have qualified; and the 
Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a 
President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have 
qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the 
manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such 
person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice 
President shall have qualified.
    Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of 
the death of any of the persons from whom the House of 
Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of 
choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the 
death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a 
Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved 
upon them.
    Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th 
day of October following the ratification of this article.
    Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it 
shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by 
the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within 
seven years from the date of its submission.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The twentieth amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the 
legislatures of the several states by the Seventy-Second Congress, on 
the 2d day of March, 1932, and was declared, in a proclamation by the 
Secretary of State, dated on the 6th day of February, 1933, to have 
been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. The dates of 
ratification were: Virginia, March 4, 1932; New York, March 11, 1932; 
Mississippi, March 16, 1932; Arkansas, March 17, 1932; Kentucky, March 
17, 1932; New Jersey, March 21, 1932; South Carolina, March 25, 1932; 
Michigan, March 31, 1932; Maine, April 1, 1932; Rhode Island, April 14, 
1932; Illinois, April 21, 1932; Louisiana, June 22, 1932; West 
Virginia, July 30, 1932; Pennsylvania, August 11, 1932; Indiana, August 
15, 1932; Texas, September 7, 1932; Alabama, September 13, 1932; 
California, January 4, 1933; North Carolina, January 5, 1933; North 
Dakota, January 9, 1933; Minnesota, January 12, 1933; Arizona, January 
13, 1933; Montana, January 13, 1933; Nebraska, January 13, 1933; 
Oklahoma, January 13, 1933; Kansas, January 16, 1933; Oregon, January 
16, 1933; Delaware, January 19, 1933; Washington, January 19, 1933; 
Wyoming, January 19, 1933; Iowa, January 20, 1933; South Dakota, 
January 20, 1933; Tennessee, January 20, 1933; Idaho, January 21, 1933; 
New Mexico, January 21, 1933; Georgia, January 23, 1933; Missouri, 
January 23, 1933; Ohio, January 23, 1933; Utah, January 23, 1933.
    Ratification was completed on January 23, 1933.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Massachusetts on January 
24, 1933; Wisconsin, January 24, 1933; Colorado, January 24, 1933; 
Nevada, January 26, 1933; Connecticut, January 27, 1933; New Hampshire, 
January 31, 1933; Vermont, February 2, 1933; Maryland, March 24, 1933; 
Florida, April 26, 1933.

                             Article [XXI.]

    Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
    Section 2. The transportation or importation into any 
State, Territory, or possession of the United States for 
delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation 
of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
    Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it 
shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by 
conventions in the several States, as provided in the 
Constitution, within seven years from the date of the 
submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    The twenty-first amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the 
several states by the Seventy-Second Congress, on the 20th day of 
February, 1933, and was declared, in a proclamation by the Secretary of 
State, dated on the 5th day of December, 1933, to have been ratified by 
36 of the 48 States. The dates of ratification were: Michigan, April 
10, 1933; Wisconsin, April 25, 1933; Rhode Island, May 8, 1933; 
Wyoming, May 25, 1933; New Jersey, June 1, 1933; Delaware, June 24, 
1933; Indiana, June 26, 1933; Massachusetts, June 26, 1933; New York, 
June 27, 1933; Illinois, July 10, 1933; Iowa, July 10, 1933; 
Connecticut, July 11, 1933; New Hampshire, July 11, 1933; California, 
July 24, 1933; West Virginia, July 25, 1933; Arkansas, August 1, 1933; 
Oregon, August 7, 1933; Alabama, August 8, 1933; Tennessee, August 11, 
1933; Missouri, August 29, 1933; Arizona, September 5, 1933; Nevada, 
September 5, 1933; Vermont, September 23, 1933; Colorado, September 26, 
1933; Washington, October 3, 1933; Minnesota, October 10, 1933; Idaho, 
October 17, 1933, Maryland, October 18, 1933; Virginia, October 25, 
1933; New Mexico, November 2, 1933; Florida, November 14, 1933; Texas, 
November 24, 1933; Kentucky, November 27, 1933; Ohio, December 5, 1933; 
Pennsylvania, December 5, 1933; Utah, December 5, 1933.
    Ratification was completed on December 5, 1933.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Maine, on December 6, 
1933, and by Montana, on August 6, 1934.
    The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by South 
Carolina, on December 4, 1933.

                            Article [XXII.]

    Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the 
President more than twice, and no person who has held the 
office of President, or acted as President, for more than two 
years of a term of which some other person was elected 
President shall be elected to the office of the President more 
than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person 
holding the office of President when this Article was proposed 
by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be 
holding the office of President, or acting as President, during 
the term within which this Article becomes operative from 
holding the office of President or acting as President during 
the remainder of such term.
    Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it 
shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by 
the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within 
seven years from the date of its submission to the States by 
the Congress.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    This amendment was proposed to the legislatures of the several 
States by the Eightieth Congress on March 21, 1947 by House Joint Res. 
No. 27, and was declared by the Administrator of General Services, on 
March 1, 1951, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 
48 States. The dates of ratification were: Maine, March 31, 1947; 
Michigan, March 31, 1947; Iowa, April 1, 1947; Kansas, April 1, 1947; 
New Hampshire, April 1, 1947; Delaware, April 2, 1947; Illinois, April 
3, 1947; Oregon, April 3, 1947; Colorado, April 12, 1947; California, 
April 15, 1947; New Jersey, April 15, 1947; Vermont, April 15, 1947; 
Ohio, April 16, 1947; Wisconsin, April 16, 1947; Pennsylvania, April 
29, 1947; Connecticut, May 21, 1947; Missouri, May 22, 1947; Nebraska, 
May 23, 1947; Virginia, January 28, 1948; Mississippi, February 12, 
1948; New York, March 9, 1948; South Dakota, January 21, 1949; North 
Dakota, February 25, 1949; Louisiana, May 17, 1950; Montana, January 
25, 1951; Indiana, January 29, 1951; Idaho, January 30, 1951; New 
Mexico, February 12, 1951; Wyoming, February 12, 1951; Arkansas, 
February 15, 1951; Georgia, February 17, 1951; Tennessee, February 20, 
1951; Texas, February 22, 1951; Nevada, February 26, 1951; Utah, 
February 26, 1951; Minnesota, February 27, 1951.
    Ratification was completed on February 27, 1951.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by North Carolina on 
February 28, 1951; South Carolina, March 13, 1951; Maryland, March 14, 
1951; Florida, April 16, 1951; Alabama, May 4, 1951.
    The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by 
Oklahoma in June 1947, and Massachusetts on June 9, 1949.

                       Certification of Validity

    Publication of the certifying statement of the Administrator of 
General Services that the amendment had become valid was made on March 
1, 1951, F.R. Doc. 51-2940, 16 F.R. 2019.

                            Article [XXIII.]

    Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government 
of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the 
Congress may direct:
    A number of electors of President and Vice President equal 
to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress 
to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but 
in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be 
in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be 
considered, for the purposes of the election of President and 
Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they 
shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided 
by the twelfth article of amendment.
    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    This amendment was proposed by the Eighty-sixth Congress on June 
17, 1960 and was declared by the Administrator of General Services on 
April 3, 1961, to have been ratified by 38 of the 50 States. The dates 
of ratification were: Hawaii, June 23, 1960 (and that State made a 
technical correction to its resolution on June 30, 1960); 
Massachusetts, August 22, 1960; New Jersey, December 19, 1960; New 
York, January 17, 1961; California, January 19, 1961; Oregon, January 
27, 1961; Maryland, January 30, 1961; Idaho, January 31, 1961; Maine, 
January 31, 1961; Minnesota, January 31, 1961; New Mexico, February 1, 
1961; Nevada, February 2, 1961; Montana, February 6, 1961; South 
Dakota, February 6, 1961; Colorado, February 8, 1961; Washington, 
February 9, 1961; West Virginia, February 9, 1961; Alaska, February 10, 
1961; Wyoming, February 13, 1961; Delaware, February 20, 1961; Utah, 
February 21, 1961; Wisconsin, February 21, 1961; Pennsylvania, February 
28, 1961; Indiana, March 3, 1961; North Dakota, March 3, 1961; 
Tennessee, March 6, 1961; Michigan, March 8, 1961; Connecticut, March 
9, 1961; Arizona, March 10, 1961; Illinois, March 14, 1961; Nebraska, 
March 15, 1961; Vermont, March 15, 1961; Iowa, March 16, 1961; 
Missouri, March 20, 1961; Oklahoma, March 21, 1961; Rhode Island, March 
22, 1961; Kansas, March 29, 1961; Ohio, March 29, 1961.
    Ratification was completed on March 29, 1961.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by New Hampshire on March 
30, 1961 (when that State annulled and then repeated its ratification 
of March 29, 1961).
    The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by 
Arkansas on January 24, 1961.

                       Certification of Validity

    Publication of the certifying statement of the Administrator of 
General Services that the amendment had become valid was made on April 
3, 1961, F.R. Doc. 61-3017, 26 F.R. 2808.

                            Article [XXIV.]

    Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to 
vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice 
President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for 
Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure 
to pay any poll tax or other tax.
    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    This amendment was proposed by the Eighty-seventh Congress by 
Senate Joint Resolution No. 29, which was approved by the Senate on 
March 27, 1962, and by the House of Representatives on August 27, 1962. 
It was declared by the Administrator of General Services on February 4, 
1964, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 38 of the 50 States.
    This amendment was ratified by the following States: Illinois, 
November 14, 1962; New Jersey, December 3, 1962; Oregon, January 25, 
1963; Montana, January 28, 1963; West Virginia, February 1, 1963; New 
York, February 4, 1963; Maryland, February 6, 1963; California, 
February 7, 1963; Alaska, February 11, 1963; Rhode Island, February 14, 
1963; Indiana, February 19, 1963; Utah, February 20, 1963; Michigan, 
February 20, 1963; Colorado, February 21, 1963; Ohio, February 27, 
1963; Minnesota, February 27, 1963; New Mexico, March 5, 1963; Hawaii, 
March 6, 1963; North Dakota, March 7, 1963; Idaho, March 8, 1963; 
Washington, March 14, 1963; Vermont, March 15, 1963; Nevada, March 19, 
1963; Connecticut, March 20, 1963; Tennessee, March 21, 1963; 
Pennsylvania, March 25, 1963; Wisconsin, March 26, 1963; Kansas, March 
28, 1963; Massachusetts, March 28, 1963; Nebraska, April 4, 1963; 
Florida, April 18, 1963; Iowa, April 24, 1963; Delaware, May 1, 1963; 
Missouri, May 13, 1963; New Hampshire, June 12, 1963; Kentucky, June 
27, 1963; Maine, January 16, 1964; South Dakota, January 23, 1964; 
Virginia, February 25, 1977.
    Ratification was completed on January 23, 1964.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by North Carolina on May 3, 
1989.
    The amendment was rejected by Mississippi (and not subsequently 
ratified) on December 20, 1962.

                       Certification of Validity

    Publication of the certifying statement of the Administrator of 
General Services that the amendment had become valid was made on 
February 5, 1964, F.R. Doc. 64-1229, 29 F.R. 1715.

                             Article [XXV.]

    Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from 
office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall 
become President.
    Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the 
Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President 
who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of 
both Houses of Congress.
    Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the 
President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives his written declaration that he is 
unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and 
until he transmits to them a written declaration to the 
contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the 
Vice President as Acting President.
    Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of 
either the principal officers of the executive departments or 
of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to 
the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives their written declaration that the 
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers 
and duties of the office as Acting President.
    Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President 
pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives his written declaration that no inability 
exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office 
unless the Vice President and a majority of either the 
principal officers of the executive department\17\ or of such 
other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four 
days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker 
of the House of Representatives their written declaration that 
the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of 
his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, 
assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in 
session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt 
of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in 
session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to 
assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the 
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same 
as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the 
powers and duties of his office.
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                                   * * * * *                              
\17\So in original. Probably should be ``departments''.
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                       Proposal and Ratification

    This amendment was proposed by the Eighty-ninth Congress by Senate 
Joint Resolution No. 1, which was approved by the Senate on February 
19, 1965, and by the House of Representatives, in amended form, on 
April 13, 1965. The House of Representatives agreed to a Conference 
Report on June 30, 1965, and the Senate agreed to the Conference Report 
on July 6, 1965. It was declared by the Administrator of General 
Services, on February 23, 1967, to have been ratified by the 
legislatures of 39 of the 50 States.
    This amendment was ratified by the following States: Nebraska, July 
12, 1965; Wisconsin, July 13, 1965; Oklahoma, July 15, 1965; 
Massachusetts, August 9, 1965; Pennsylvania, August 18, 1965; Kentucky, 
September 15, 1965; Arizona, September 22, 1965; Michigan, October 5, 
1965; Indiana, October 20, 1965; California, October 21, 1965; 
Arkansas, November 4, 1965; New Jersey, November 29, 1965; Delaware, 
December 7, 1965; Utah, January 17, 1966; West Virginia, January 20, 
1966; Maine, January 24, 1966; Rhode Island, January 28, 1966; 
Colorado, February 3, 1966; New Mexico, February 3, 1966; Kansas, 
February 8, 1966; Vermont, February 10, 1966; Alaska, February 18, 
1966; Idaho, March 2, 1966; Hawaii, March 3, 1966; Virginia, March 8, 
1966; Mississippi, March 10, 1966; New York, March 14, 1966; Maryland, 
March 23, 1966; Missouri, March 30, 1966; New Hampshire, June 13, 1966; 
Louisiana, July 5, 1966; Tennessee, January 12, 1967; Wyoming, January 
25, 1967; Washington, January 26, 1967; Iowa, January 26, 1967; Oregon, 
February 2, 1967; Minnesota, February 10, 1967; Nevada, February 10, 
1967.
    Ratification was completed on February 10, 1967.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Connecticut, February 
14, 1967; Montana, February 15, 1967; South Dakota, March 6, 1967; 
Ohio, March 7, 1967; Alabama, March 14, 1967; North Carolina, March 22, 
1967; Illinois, March 22, 1967; Texas, April 25, 1967; Florida, May 25, 
1967.

                       Certification of Validity

    Publication of the certifying statement of the Administrator of 
General Services that the amendment had become valid was made on 
February 25, 1967, F.R. Doc. 67-2208, 32 F.R. 3287.

                            Article [XXVI.]

    Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who 
are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied 
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of 
age.
    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    This amendment was proposed by the Ninety-second Congress by Senate 
Joint Resolution No. 7, which was approved by the Senate on March 10, 
1971, and by the House of Representatives on March 23, 1971. It was 
declared by the Administrator of General Services on July 5, 1971, to 
have been ratified by the legislature of 39 of the 50 States.
    This amendment was ratified by the following States: Connecticut, 
March 23, 1971; Delaware, March 23, 1971; Minnesota, March 23, 1971; 
Tennessee, March 23, 1971; Washington, March 23, 1971; Hawaii, March 
24, 1971; Massachusetts, March 24, 1971; Montana, March 29, 1971; 
Arkansas, March 30, 1971; Idaho, March 30, 1971; Iowa, March 30, 1971; 
Nebraska, April 2, 1971; New Jersey, April 3, 1971; Kansas, April 7, 
1971; Michigan, April 7, 1971; Alaska, April 8, 1971; Maryland, April 
8, 1971; Indiana, April 8, 1971; Maine, April 9, 1971; Vermont, April 
16, 1971; Louisiana, April 17, 1971; California, April 19, 1971; 
Colorado, April 27, 1971; Pennsylvania, April 27, 1971; Texas, April 
27, 1971; South Carolina, April 28, 1971; West Virginia, April 28, 
1971; New Hampshire, May 13, 1971; Arizona, May 14, 1971; Rhode Island, 
May 27, 1971; New York, June 2, 1971; Oregon, June 4, 1971; Missouri, 
June 14, 1971; Wisconsin, June 22, 1971; Illinois, June 29, 1971; 
Alabama, June 30, 1971; Ohio, June 30, 1971; North Carolina, July 1, 
1971; Oklahoma, July 1, 1971.
    Ratification was completed on July 1, 1971.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Virginia, July 8, 1971; 
Wyoming, July 8, 1971; Georgia, October 4, 1971.

                       Certification of Validity

    Publication of the certifying statement of the Administrator of 
General Services that the amendment had become valid was made on July 
7, 1971, F.R. Doc. 71-9691, 36 F.R. 12725.

                            Article [XXVII.]

    No law, varying the compensation for the services of the 
Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an 
election of Representatives shall have intervened.

                       Proposal and Ratification

    This amendment, being the second of twelve articles proposed by the 
First Congress on Sept. 25, 1789, was declared by the Archivist of the 
United States on May 18, 1992, to have been ratified by the 
legislatures of 40 of the 50 States.
    This amendment was ratified by the following States: Maryland, 
December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, 
January 19, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790; Vermont, November 3, 
1791; Virginia, December 15, 1791; Ohio, May 6, 1873; Wyoming, March 6, 
1978; Maine, April 27, 1983; Colorado, April 22, 1984; South Dakota, 
February 21, 1985; New Hampshire, March 7, 1985; Arizona, April 3, 
1985; Tennessee, May 23, 1985; Oklahoma, July 10, 1985; New Mexico, 
February 14, 1986; Indiana, February 24, 1986; Utah, February 25, 1986; 
Arkansas, March 6, 1987; Montana, March 17, 1987; Connecticut, May 13, 
1987; Wisconsin, July 15, 1987; Georgia, February 2, 1988; West 
Virginia, March 10, 1988; Louisiana, July 7, 1988; Iowa, February 9, 
1989; Idaho, March 23, 1989; Nevada, April 26, 1989; Alaska, May 6, 
1989; Oregon, May 19, 1989; Minnesota, May 22, 1989; Texas, May 25, 
1989; Kansas, April 5, 1990; Florida, May 31, 1990; North Dakota, March 
25, 1991; Alabama, May 5, 1992; Missouri, May 5, 1992; Michigan, May 7, 
1992; New Jersey, May 7, 1992.
    Ratification was completed on May 7, 1992.
    The amendment was subsequently ratified by Illinois on May 12, 1992 
and California on June 26, 1992.

                       Certification of Validity

    Publication of the certifying statement of the Archivist of the 
United States that the amendment had become valid was made on May 18, 
1992, F.R. Doc. 92-11951, 57 F.R. 21187.

    [Editorial note: There is some conflict as to the exact 
dates of ratification of the amendments by the several States. 
In some cases, the resolutions of ratification were signed by 
the officers of the legislatures on dates subsequent to that on 
which the second house had acted. In other cases, the Governors 
of several of the States ``approved'' the resolutions (on a 
subsequent date), although action by the Governor is not 
contemplated by article V, which required ratification by the 
legislatures (or conventions) only. In a number of cases, the 
journals of the State legislatures are not available. The dates 
set out in this document are based upon the best information 
available.]
   PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION NOT RATIFIED BY THE STATES

    During the course of our history, in addition to the 27 
amendments that have been ratified by the required three-
fourths of the States, six other amendments have been submitted 
to the States but have not been ratified by them.
    Beginning with the proposed Eighteenth Amendment, Congress 
has customarily included a provision requiring ratification 
within seven years from the time of the submission to the 
States. The Supreme Court in Coleman v. Miller, 307 U.S. 433 
(1939), declared that the question of the reasonableness of the 
time within which a sufficient number of States must act is a 
political question to be determined by the Congress.
    In 1789, twelve proposed articles of amendment were 
submitted to the States. Of these, Articles III-XII were 
ratified and became the first ten amendments to the 
Constitution, popularly known as the Bill of Rights. In 1992, 
proposed Article II was ratified and became the 27th amendment 
to the Constitution. Proposed Article I which was not ratified 
is as follows:

                          ``Article the first

    ``After the first enumeration required by the first article of the 
Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty 
thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the 
proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not 
less than one-hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative 
for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives 
shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so 
regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred 
Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty 
thousand persons.''
                                ------                                

    Thereafter, in the 2d session of the Eleventh Congress, the 
Congress proposed the following article of amendment to the 
Constitution relating to acceptance by citizens of the United 
States of titles of nobility from any foreign government.
    The proposed amendment, which was not ratified by three-
fourths of the States, is as follows:

    Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, two thirds of both houses 
concurring, That the following section be submitted to the legislatures 
of the several states, which, when ratified by the legislatures of 
three fourths of the states, shall be valid and binding, as a part of 
the constitution of the United States.

    If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive or 
retain any title of nobility or honour, or shall, without the consent 
of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office or 
emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince or 
foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United 
States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit 
under them, or either of them.

    The following amendment to the Constitution relating to 
slavery was proposed by the 2d session of the Thirty-sixth 
Congress on March 2, 1861, when it passed the Senate, having 
previously passed the House on February 28, 1861. It is 
interesting to note in this connection that this is the only 
proposed (and not ratified) amendment to the Constitution to 
have been signed by the President. The President's signature is 
considered unnecessary because of the constitutional provision 
that on the concurrence of two-thirds of both Houses of 
Congress the proposal shall be submitted to the States for 
ratification.

    Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the following article be 
proposed to the Legislatures of the several States as an amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States, which, when ratified by three-
fourths of said Legislatures, shall be valid, to all intents and 
purposes, as part of the said Constitution, viz:

                           ``Article Thirteen

    ``No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will 
authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within 
any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of 
persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State.''
                                ------                                

    A child labor amendment was proposed by the 1st session of 
the Sixty-eighth Congress on June 2, 1926, when it passed the 
Senate, having previously passed the House on April 26, 1926. 
The proposed amendment, which has been ratified by 28 States, 
to date, is as follows:

  Joint Resolution Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the 
                             United States

    Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House 
concurring therein), That the following article is proposed as an 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which, when 
ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, 
shall be valid to all intends and purposes as a part of the 
Constitution:

                              ``Article--.

    ``Section 1. The Congress shall have power to limit, regulate, and 
prohibit the labor of persons under eighteen years of age.
    ``Section 2. The power of the several States is unimpaired by this 
article except that the operation of State laws shall be suspended to 
the extent necessary to give effect to legislation enacted by the 
Congress.''
                                ------                                

    An amendment relative to equal rights for men and women was 
proposed by the 2d session of the Ninety-second Congress on 
March 22, 1972, when it passed the Senate, having previously 
passed the House on October 12, 1971. The seven-year deadline 
for ratification of the proposed amendment was extended to June 
30, 1982, by the 2d session of the Ninety-fifth Congress. The 
proposed amendment, which was not ratified by three-fourths of 
the States by June 30, 1982, is as follows:

  Joint Resolution Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the 
        United States Relative to Equal Rights for Men and Women

    Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House 
concurring therein), That the following article is proposed as an 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when 
ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States 
within seven years from the date of its submission by the Congress:

                              ``Article--

    ``Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied 
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
    ``Sec. 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by 
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
    ``Sec. 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date 
of ratification.''
                                ------                                

    An amendment relative to voting rights for the District of 
Columbia was proposed by the 2d session of the Ninety-fifth 
Congress on August 22, 1978, when it passed the Senate, having 
previously passed the House on March 2, 1978. The proposed 
amendment, which was not ratified by three-fourths of the 
States within the specified seven-year period, is as follows:

Joint Resolution Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution to Provide 
    for Representation of the District of Columbia in the Congress.

    Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House 
concurring therein), That the following article is proposed as an 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when 
ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States 
within seven years from the date of its submission by the Congress:

                              ``Article--

    ``Section 1. For purposes of representation in the Congress, 
election of the President and Vice President, and article V of this 
Constitution, the District constituting the seat of government of the 
United States shall be treated as though it were a State.
    ``Sec. 2. The exercise of the rights and powers conferred under 
this article shall be by the people of the District constituting the 
seat of government, and as shall be provided by the Congress.
    ``Sec. 3. The twenty-third article of amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States is hereby repealed.
    ``Sec. 4. This article shall be inoperative, unless it shall have 
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures 
of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date 
of its submission.''
      
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   * * * * *                              
\1\Article of original Constitution or of amendment.

                INDEX TO THE CONSTITUTION AND AMENDMENTS

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             Article\1\  Section  Clause
------------------------------------------------------------------------

                     A
Abridged. The privileges or immunities of          14          1  ......
 citizens of the United States shall not
 be. [Amendments].........................
Absent members, in such manner and under            1          5       1
 such penalties as it may provide. Each
 House is authorized to compel the
 attendance of............................
Accounts of receipts and expenditures of            1          9       7
 public money shall be published from time
 to time. A statement of the..............
Accusation. In all criminal prosecutions            6    .......  ......
 the accused shall be informed of the
 cause and nature of the. [Amendments]....
Accused shall have a speedy public trial.           6    .......  ......
 In all criminal prosecutions the.
 [Amendments].............................
    He shall be tried by an impartial jury          6    .......  ......
     of the State and district where the
     crime was committed. [Amendments]....
    He shall be informed of the nature of           6    .......  ......
     the accusation. [Amendments].........
    He shall be confronted with the                 6    .......  ......
     witnesses against him. [Amendments]..
    He shall have compulsory process for            6    .......  ......
     obtaining witnesses in his favor.
     [Amendments].........................
    He shall have the assistance of                 6    .......  ......
     counsel for his defense. [Amendments]
Actions at common law involving over                7    .......  ......
 twenty dollars shall be tried by jury.
 [Amendments].............................
Acts, records, and judicial proceedings of          4          1  ......
 another State. Full faith and credit
 shall be given in each State to the......
Acts. Congress shall prescribe the manner           4          1  ......
 of proving such acts, records, and
 proceedings..............................
Adjourn from day to day. A smaller number           1          5       1
 than a quorum of each House may..........
Adjourn for more than three days, nor to            1          5       4
 any other place than that in which they
 shall be sitting. Neither House shall,
 during the session of Congress, without
 the consent of the other.................
Adjournment, the President may adjourn              2          3  ......
 them to such time as he shall think
 proper. In case of disagreement between
 the two Houses as to.....................
Admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. The            3          2       1
 judicial power shall extend to all cases
 of.......................................
Admitted by the Congress into this Union,           4          3       1
 but no new States shall be formed or
 erected within the jurisdiction of any
 other State. New States may be...........
    Nor shall any State be formed by the            4          3       1
     junction of two or more States, or
     parts of States, without the consent
     of the legislatures and of Congress..
Adoption of the Constitution shall be               6    .......       1
 valid. All debts and engagements
 contracted by the confederation and
 before the...............................
Advice and consent of the Senate. The               2          2       2
 President shall have power to make
 treaties by and with the.................
    To appoint ambassadors or other public          2          2       2
     ministers and consuls by and with the
    To appoint all other officers of the            2          2       2
     United States not herein otherwise
     provided for by and with the.........
Affirmation. Senators sitting to try                1          3       6
 impeachments shall be on oath or.........
    To be taken by the President of the             2          1       8
     United States. Form of the oath or...
    No warrants shall be issued but upon            4    .......  ......
     probable cause and on oath or.
     [Amendments].........................
    To support the Constitution. Senators           6    .......       3
     and Representatives, members of State
     legislatures, executive and judicial
     officers, both State and Federal,
     shall be bound by oath or............
Age. No person shall be a Representative            1          2       2
 who shall not have attained twenty-five
 years of.................................
    No person shall be a Senator who shall          1          3       3
     not have attained thirty years of....
    Right of citizens of the United                26          1  ......
     States, who are eighteen years of age
     or older, to vote shall not be denied
     or abridged by the United States or
     any State on account of age.
     [Amendments].........................
Agreement or compact with another State             1         10       3
 without the consent of Congress. No State
 shall enter into any.....................
Aid and comfort. Treason against the                3          3       1
 United States shall consist in levying
 war against them, adhering to their
 enemies, and giving them.................
Alliance or confederation. No State shall           1         10       1
 enter into any treaty of.................
Ambassadors, or other public ministers and          2          2       2
 consuls. The President may appoint.......
    The judicial power of the United                3          2       1
     States shall extend to all cases
     affecting............................
Amendments to the Constitution. Whenever            5    .......  ......
 two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it
 necessary, Congress shall propose........
    On application of the legislatures of           5    .......  ......
     two-thirds of the States, Congress
     shall call a convention to propose...
    Shall be valid when ratified by the             5    .......  ......
     legislatures of, or by conventions
     in, three-fourths of the States......
Answer for a capital or infamous crime              5    .......  ......
 unless on presentment of a grand jury. No
 person shall be held to. [Amendments]....
    Except in cases in the land or naval            5    .......  ......
     forces, or in the militia when in
     actual service. [Amendments].........
Appellate jurisdiction both as to law and           3          2       2
 fact, with such exceptions and under such
 regulations as Congress shall make. In
 what cases the Supreme Court shall have..
Application of the legislature or the               4          4  ......
 executive of a State. The United States
 shall protect each State against invasion
 and domestic violence on the.............
Application of the legislatures of two-             5    .......  ......
 thirds of the States, Congress shall call
 a convention for proposing amendments to
 the Constitution. On the.................
Appointment. Of officers and authority to           1          8      16
 train the militia reserved to the States
 respectively.............................
    Of such inferior officers as they may           2          2       2
     think proper in the President alone.
     Congress may by law vest the.........
    In the courts of law or in the heads            2          2       2
     of departments. Congress may by law
     vest the.............................
    Of Presidential and Vice-Presidential          23          1  ......
     electors. District of Columbia to
     have power of. [Amendments]..........
Apportionment of representation and direct          1          2       3
 taxation among the several States.
 Provisions relating to the...............
    Congress shall have power to lay and           16    .......  ......
     collect taxes on incomes, from
     whatever source derived, without
     apportionment among the several
     States. [Amendments].................
  Of Representatives among the several             14    .......  ......
   States. Provisions relating to the.
   [Amendments]...........................
Appropriate legislation. Congress shall             1          8      18
 have power to make all laws necessary and
 proper for carrying into execution the
 foregoing powers, and all other powers
 vested by the Constitution in the
 Government of the United States, or on
 any department or officer thereof........
    Congress shall have power to enforce           13          2  ......
     the thirteenth article, prohibiting
     slavery by. [Amendments].............
    Congress shall have power to enforce           14          5  ......
     the provisions of the fourteenth
     article by. [Amendments].............
    Congress shall have power to enforce           15          2  ......
     the provisions of the fifteenth
     article by. [Amendments].............
    Congress and the several States shall          18          2  ......
     have concurrent power to enforce the
     provisions of the eighteenth article.
     [Amendments].........................
    Congress shall have power to enforce           19    .......  ......
     the provisions of the nineteenth
     article. [Amendments]................
    Congress shall have power to enforce           23          2  ......
     the provisions of the twenty-third
     article by. [Amendments].............
    Congress shall have power to enforce           24          2  ......
     the provisions of the twenty-fourth
     article by. [Amendments].............
    Congress shall have power to enforce           26          2  ......
     the provisions of the twenty-sixth
     article by. [Amendments].............
Appropriation of money for raising and              1          8      12
 supporting armies shall be for a longer
 term than two years. But no..............
Appropriations made by law. No money shall          1          9       7
 be drawn from the Treasury but in
 consequence of...........................
Approve and sign a bill before it shall             1          7       2
 become a law. The President shall........
    He shall return it to the House in              1          7       2
     which it originated with his
     objections, if he does not...........
Armies, but no appropriation for that use           1          8      12
 shall be for a longer term than two
 years. Congress shall have power to raise
 and support..............................
Armies. Congress shall make rules for the           1          8      14
 government and regulation of the land and
 naval forces.............................
Arms shall not be infringed. A well-                2    .......  ......
 regulated militia being necessary to the
 security of a free State, the right of
 the people to keep and bear. [Amendments]
Arrest during their attendance at the               1          6       1
 session of their respective Houses, and
 in going to and returning from the same.
 Members shall in all cases, except
 treason, felony, and breach of the peace,
 be privileged from.......................
Arsenals. Congress shall exercise                   1          8      17
 exclusive authority over all places
 purchased for the erection of............
Articles exported from any State. No tax            1          9       5
 or duty shall be laid on.................
Arts by securing to authors and inventors           1          8       8
 their patent rights. Congress may promote
 the progress of science and the useful...
Assistance of counsel for his defense. In           6    .......  ......
 all criminal prosecutions the accused
 shall have the. [Amendments].............
Assumption of the debt or obligations              14          4  ......
 incurred in aid of rebellion or
 insurrection against the United States.
 Provisions against the. [Amendments].....
Attainder of treason shall not work                 3          3       2
 corruption of blood or forfeiture, except
 during the life of the person attainted..
Attainder or ex post facto law shall be             1          9       3
 passed. No bill of.......................
Attainder, ex post facto law, or law                1         10       1
 impairing the obligation of contracts. No
 State shall pass any bill of.............
Authors and inventors the exclusive right           1          8       8
 to their writings and inventions.
 Congress shall have power to secure to...

                     B

Bail. Excessive bail shall not be                   8    .......  ......
 required, nor excessive fines nor cruel
 and unusual punishments imposed.
 [Amendments].............................
Ballot for President and Vice President.           12    .......  ......
 The electors shall vote by. [Amendments].
Ballot. If no person have a majority of            12    .......  ......
 the electoral votes for President and
 Vice President, the House of
 Representatives shall immediately choose
 the President by. [Amendments]...........
Bankruptcies. Congress shall have power to          1          8       4
 pass uniform laws on the subject of......
Basis of representation among the several          14          2  ......
 States. Provisions relating to the.
 [Amendments].............................
Bear arms shall not be infringed. A well-           2    .......  ......
 regulated militia being necessary to the
 security of a free State, the right of
 the people to keep and. [Amendments].....
Behavior. The judges of the Supreme and             3          1  ......
 inferior courts shall hold their offices
 during good..............................
Bill of attainder or ex post facto law              1          9       3
 shall be passed. No......................
Bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or            1         10       1
 law impairing the obligation of
 contracts. No State shall pass any.......
Bills of credit. No State shall emit......          1         10       1
Bills for raising revenue shall originate           1          7       1
 in the House of Representatives. All.....
Bills which shall have passed the Senate            1          7       2
 and House of Representatives shall,
 before they become laws, be presented to
 the President............................
    If he approve, he shall sign them: if           1          7       2
     he disapprove, he shall return them,
     with his objections, to that House in
     which they originated................
    Upon the reconsideration of a bill              1          7       2
     returned by the President with his
     objections, if two-thirds of each
     House agree to pass the same, it
     shall become a law...................
    Upon the reconsideration of a bill              1          7       2
     returned by the President, the
     question shall be taken by yeas and
     nays.................................
    Not returned by the President within            1          7       2
     ten days (Sundays excepted) shall,
     unless Congress adjourn, become laws.
Borrow money on the credit of the United            1          8       2
 States. Congress shall have power to.....
Bounties and pensions, shall not be                14          4  ......
 questioned. The validity of the public
 debt incurred in suppressing insurrection
 and rebellion against the United States,
 including the debt for. [Amendments].....
Breach of the peace, shall be privileged            1          6       1
 from arrest while attending the session,
 and in going to and returning from the
 same. Senators and Representatives,
 except for treason, felony, and..........
Bribery, or other high crimes and                   2          4  ......
 misdemeanors. The President, Vice
 President, and all civil officers shall
 be removed on impeachment for and
 conviction of treason....................

                     C

Capital or otherwise infamous crime,                5    .......  ......
 unless on indictment of a grand jury,
 except in certain specified cases. No
 person shall be held to answer for a.
 [Amendments].............................
Capitation or other direct tax shall be             1          9       4
 laid unless in proportion to the census
 or enumeration. No.......................
Captures on land and water. Congress shall          1          8      11
 make rules concerning....................
Casting vote. The Vice President shall              1          3       4
 have no vote unless the Senate be equally
 divided..................................
Census or enumeration. Of the inhabitants           1          2       3
 shall be made within three years after
 the first meeting of Congress, and within
 every subsequent term of ten years
 thereafter...............................
    No capitation or other direct tax               1          9       4
     shall be laid except in proportion to
     the..................................
Chief Justice shall preside when the                1          3       6
 President of the United States is tried
 upon impeachment. The....................
Choosing the electors and the day on which          2          1       4
 they shall give their votes, which shall
 be the same throughout the United States.
 Congress may determine the time of.......
Citizen of the United States at the                 2          1       5
 adoption of the Constitution shall be
 eligible to the office of President. No
 person not a natural-born................
    No person shall be a Senator who shall          1          3       3
     not have attained the age of thirty
     years, and been nine years a.........
    No person shall be a Representative             1          2       2
     who shall not have attained the age
     of twenty-five years, and been seven
     years a..............................
    Right of citizens to vote shall not be         19    .......  ......
     denied or abridged by the United
     States or any State on account of
     sex. [Amendments]....................
    Right to vote shall not be denied or           24          1  ......
     abridged by the United States or any
     State for failure to pay any poll tax
     or other tax. [Amendments]...........
    Right to vote shall not be denied or           26          1  ......
     abridged by the United States or any
     State to any citizen eighteen years
     or older, on account of age.
     [Amendments].........................
Citizens or subjects of a foreign state.           11    .......  ......
 The judicial power of the United States
 shall not extend to suits in law or
 equity brought against one of the States
 by the citizens of another State or by.
 [Amendments].............................
Citizenship. Citizens of each State shall           4          2       1
 be entitled to all the privileges and
 immunities of citizens of the several
 States...................................
    All persons born or naturalized in the         14          1  ......
     United States, and subject to the
     jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of
     the United States and of the State in
     which they reside. [Amendments]......
    No State shall make or enforce any law         14          1  ......
     which shall abridge the privileges or
     immunities of citizens of the United
     States. [Amendments].................
    Nor shall any State deprive any person         14          1  ......
     of life, liberty, or property without
     due process of law. [Amendments].....
    Nor deny to any person within its              14          1  ......
     jurisdiction the equal protection of
     the laws. [Amendments]...............
Civil officers of the United States shall,          2          4  ......
 on impeachment for and conviction of
 treason, bribery, and other high crimes
 and misdemeanors be removed. All.........
Claims of the United States or any                  4          3       2
 particular State in the territory or
 public property. Nothing in this
 Constitution shall be construed to
 prejudice................................
Classification of Senators. Immediately             1          3       2
 after they shall be assembled after the
 first election, they shall be divided as
 equally as may be into three classes.....
    The seats of the Senators of the first          1          3       2
     class shall be vacated at the
     expiration of the second year........
    The seats of the Senators of the                1          3       2
     second class at the expiration of the
     fourth year..........................
    The seats of the Senators of the third          1          3       2
     class at the expiration of the sixth
     year.................................
Coin a tender in payment of debts. No               1         10       1
 State shall make anything but gold and
 silver...................................
Coin money and regulate the value thereof           1          8       5
 and of foreign coin. Congress shall have
 power to.................................
Coin of the United States. Congress shall           1          8       6
 provide for punishing the counterfeiting
 the securities and current...............
Color, or previous condition of servitude.         15          1  ......
 The right of citizens of the United
 States to vote shall not be denied or
 abridged by the United States or any
 State on account of race. [Amendments]...
Comfort. Treason against the United States          3          3       1
 shall consist in levying war against
 them, and giving the enemies aid and.....
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy,            2          2       1
 and of their militia when in actual
 service. The President shall be..........
Commerce with foreign nations, among the            1          8       3
 States, and with Indian tribes. Congress
 shall have power to regulate.............
Commerce or revenue. No preference shall            1          9       6
 be given to the ports of one State over
 those of another by any regulation of....
    Vessels clearing from the ports of one          1          9       6
     State shall not pay duties in those
     of another...........................
Commissions to expire at the end of the             2          2       3
 next session. The President may fill
 vacancies that happen in the recess of
 the Senate by granting...................
Common defense, promote the general         ...........  .......  ......
 welfare, &c. To insure the. [Preamble]...
Common defense and general welfare.                 1          8       1
 Congress shall have power to provide for
 the......................................
Common law, where the amount involved               7    .......  ......
 exceeds twenty dollars, shall be tried by
 jury. Suits at. [Amendments].............
    No fact tried by a jury shall be                7    .......  ......
     otherwise reexamined in any court of
     the United States than according to
     the rules of the. [Amendments].......
Compact with another State. No State                1         10       3
 shall, without consent of Congress, enter
 into any agreement or....................
Compact with a foreign power. No state              1         10       3
 shall, without the consent of Congress,
 enter into any agreement or..............
Compensation of Senators and                        1          6       1
 Representatives to be ascertained by law.
Compensation of the President shall not be          2          1       7
 increased nor diminished during the
 period for which he shall be elected.....
Compensation of the judges of the Supreme           3          1  ......
 and inferior courts shall not be
 diminished during their continuance in
 office...................................
Compensation. Private property shall not            5    .......  ......
 be taken for public use without just.
 [Amendments].............................
Compulsory process for obtaining witnesses          6    .......  ......
 in his favor. In criminal prosecutions
 the accused shall have. [Amendments].....
Confederation. No State shall enter into            1         10       1
 any treaty, alliance, or.................
    All debts contracted and engagements            6    .......       1
     entered into before the adoption of
     this Constitution shall be valid
     against the United States under it,
     as under the.........................
Confession in open court. Conviction of             3          3       1
 treason shall be on the testimony of two
 persons to the overt act, or upon........
Congress of the United States. All                  1          1  ......
 legislative powers shall be vested in a..
    Shall consist of a Senate and House of          1          1  ......
     Representatives......................
    Shall assemble at least once in every           1          4       2
     year, which shall be on the first
     Monday of December, unless they by
     law appoint a different day..........
    May at any time alter regulations for           1          4       1
     elections of Senators and
     Representatives, except as to the
     places of choosing Senators..........
    Each House shall be the judge of the            1          5       1
     elections, returns, and
     qualifications of its own members....
    A majority of each House shall                  1          5       1
     constitute a quorum to do business...
    A smaller number may adjourn from day           1          5       1
     to day and compel the attendance of
     absent members.......................
    Each House may determine the rules of           1          5       2
     its proceedings, punish its members
     for disorderly behavior, and, with
     the concurrence of two-thirds, expel
     a member.............................
    Each House shall keep a journal of its          1          5       3
     proceedings..........................
    Neither House, during the session of            1          5       4
     Congress, shall, without the consent
     of the other, adjourn for more than
     three days...........................
    Senators and Representatives shall              1          6       1
     receive a compensation to be
     ascertained by law...................
    They shall in all cases, except                 1          6       1
     treason, felony, and breach of peace,
     be privileged from arrest during
     attendance at their respective
     Houses, and in going to and returning
     from the same........................
    No Senator or Representative shall,             1          6       2
     during his term, be appointed to any
     civil office which shall have been
     created, or of which the emoluments
     shall have been increased, during
     such term............................
    No person holding any office under the          1          6       2
     United States, shall, while in
     office, be a member of either House
     of Congress..........................
    All bills for raising revenue shall             1          7       1
     originate in the House of
     Representatives......................
    Proceedings in cases of bills returned          1          7       2
     by the President with his objections.
    Shall have power to lay and collect             1          8       1
     duties, imposts, and excises, pay the
     debts, and provide for the common
     defense and general welfare..........
    Shall have power to borrow money on             1          8       2
     the credit of the United States......
    To regulate foreign and domestic                1          8       3
     commerce, and with the Indian tribes.
    To establish uniform rule of                    1          8       4
     naturalization and uniform laws on
     the subject of bankruptcies..........
    To coin money, regulate its value and           1          8       5
     the value of foreign coin, and to fix
     the standard of weights and measures.
    To punish counterfeiting of securities          1          8       6
     and current coin of the United States
    To establish post-offices and post-             1          8       7
     roads................................
    To promote the progress of science and          1          8       8
     the useful arts......................
    To constitute tribunals inferior to             1          8       9
     the Supreme Court....................
    To define and punish piracies and               1          8      10
     felonies on the high seas and to
     punish offenses against the law of
     nations..............................
    To declare war, grant letters of                1          8      11
     marque and reprisal, and make rules
     concerning captures on land and water
    To raise and support armies, but no             1          8      12
     appropriation of money to that use
     shall be for a longer term than two
     years................................
    To provide and maintain a Navy........          1          8      13
    To make rules for the government of             1          8      14
     the Army and Navy....................
    To call out the militia to execute the          1          8      15
     laws, suppress insurrections, and
     repeal invasions.....................
    To provide for organizing, arming, and          1          8      16
     equipping the militia................
    To exercise exclusive legislation over          1          8      17
     the District fixed for the seat of
     government, and over forts,
     magazines, arsenals, and dockyards...
    To make all laws necessary and proper           1          8      18
     to carry into execution all powers
     vested by the Constitution in the
     Government of the United States......
    No person holding any office under the          1          9       8
     United States shall accept of any
     present, emolument, office, or title
     of any kind from any foreign state,
     without the consent of...............
    May determine the time of choosing the          2          1       4
     electors for President and Vice
     President and the day on which they
     shall give their votes...............
    The President may, on extraordinary             2          3  ......
     occasions, convene either House of...
    The manner in which the acts, records,          4          1  ......
     and judicial proceedings of the
     States shall be prescribed by........
    New States may be admitted by Congress          4          3       1
     into this Union......................
    Shall have power to make all needful            4          3       2
     rules and regulations respecting the
     territory or other property belonging
     to the United States.................
    Amendments to the Constitution shall            5    .......  ......
     be proposed whenever it shall be
     deemed necessary by two-thirds of
     both Houses of.......................
    Shall have power to enforce, by                13          2  ......
     appropriate legislation, the
     thirteenth amendment. [Amendments]...
    Persons engaged in insurrection or             14          3  ......
     rebellion against the United States
     disqualified for Senators or
     Representatives in. [Amendments].....
    But such disqualification may be               14          3  ......
     removed by a vote of two-thirds of
     both Houses of. [Amendments].........
    Shall have power to enforce, by                14          5  ......
     appropriate legislation, the
     fourteenth amendment. [Amendments]...
    Shall have power to enforce, by                15          2  ......
     appropriate legislation, the
     fifteenth amendment. [Amendments]....
    Shall have power to enforce, by                19    .......  ......
     appropriate legislation, the
     nineteenth amendment. [Amendments]...
    Sessions, time of assembling.                  20          2  ......
     [Amendments].........................
    To direct appointment of electors for          23          1  ......
     President and Vice President by
     District of Columbia. [Amendments]...
    Shall have power to enforce, by                23          2  ......
     appropriate legislation, the twenty-
     third amendment. [Amendments]........
    Shall have power to enforce, by                24          2  ......
     appropriate legislation, the twenty-
     fourth amendment. [Amendments].......
    Confirmation by majority vote of Vice          25          2  ......
     President nominated by the President
     where vacancy in office occurs.
     [Amendments].........................
    Shall decide the issue of the                  25          4  ......
     inability of the President to
     discharge the powers and duties of
     his office. [Amendments].............
    Shall have power to enforce, by                26          2  ......
     appropriate legislation, the twenty-
     sixth amendment. [Amendments]........
    No law, varying the compensation for           27    .......  ......
     the services of the Senators and
     Representatives, shall take effect,
     until an election of Representatives
     shall have intervened. [Amendments]..
Consent. No State shall be deprived of its          5    .......  ......
 equal suffrage in the Senate without its.
Consent of Congress. No person holding any          1          9       8
 office of profit or trust under the
 United States shall accept of any
 present, emolument, office, or title of
 any kind whatever, from any king, prince,
 or foreign potentate, without the........
    No State shall lay any imposts, or              1         10       2
     duties on imports, except what may be
     absolutely necessary for executing
     its inspection laws, without the.....
    No State shall lay any duty of                  1         10       3
     tonnage, keep troops or ships of war
     in time of peace, without the........
    No State shall enter into any                   1         10       3
     agreement or compact with another
     State, or with a foreign power,
     without the..........................
    No State shall engage in war unless             1         10       3
     actually invaded, or in such imminent
     danger as will not admit of delay,
     without the..........................
    No new State shall be formed or                 4          3       1
     erected within the jurisdiction of
     any other State, nor any State be
     formed by the junction of two or more
     States, or parts of States, without
     the consent of the legislatures
     thereof, as well as the..............
Consent of the legislature of the State in          1          8      17
 which the same may be. Congress shall
 exercise exclusive authority over all
 places purchased for the erection of
 forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards,
 and other needful buildings by the.......
Consent of the legislatures of the States           4          3       1
 and of Congress. No States shall be
 formed by the junction of two or more
 States or parts of States without the....
Consent of the other. Neither House,                1          5       4
 during the session of Congress, shall
 adjourn for more than three days, nor to
 any other place than that in which they
 shall be sitting, without the............
Consent of the owner. No soldier shall be           3    .......  ......
 quartered in time of peace in any house
 without the. [Amendments]................
Consent of the Senate. The President shall          2          2       2
 have power to make treaties, by and with
 the advice and...........................
    The President shall appoint                     2          2       2
     ambassadors, other public ministers
     and consuls, judges of the Supreme
     Court, and all other officers created
     by law and not otherwise herein
     provided for, by and with the advice
     and..................................
Constitution, in the Government of the              1          8      18
 United States, or in any department or
 officer thereof. Congress shall have
 power to pass all laws necessary to the
 execution of the powers vested by the....
Constitution, shall be eligible to the              2          1       5
 office of President. No person except a
 natural-born citizen, or a citizen at the
 time of the adoption of the..............
Constitution. The President, before he              2          1       8
 enters upon the execution of his office,
 shall take an oath to preserve, protect,
 and defend the...........................
Constitution, laws, and treaties of the             3          2       1
 United States. The judicial power shall
 extend to all cases arising under the....
Constitution shall be so construed as to            4          3       2
 prejudice any claims of the United
 States, or of any State (in respect to
 territory or other property of the United
 States). Nothing in the..................
Constitution. The manner in which                   5    .......  ......
 amendments may be proposed and ratified..
Constitution as under the Confederation             6    .......       1
 shall be valid. All debts and engagements
 contracted before the adoption of the....
Constitution and the laws made in                   6    .......       2
 pursuance thereof, and all treaties made,
 or which shall be made, by the United
 States, shall be the supreme law of the
 land. The................................
    The judges in every State, anything in          6    .......       2
     the constitution or laws of a State
     to the contrary notwithstanding,
     shall be bound thereby...............
Constitution. All officers, legislative,            6    .......       3
 executive, and judicial, of the United
 States, and of the several States, shall
 be bound by an oath to support the.......
    But no religious test shall ever be             6    .......       3
     required as a qualification for any
     office or public trust...............
Constitution between the States so                  7    .......  ......
 ratifying the same. The ratification of
 the conventions of nine States shall be
 sufficient for the establishment of the..
Constitution, of certain rights, shall not          9    .......  ......
 be construed to deny or disparage others
 retained by the people. The enumeration
 in the. [Amendments].....................
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the          10    .......  ......
 States, are reserved to the States
 respectively or to the people. Powers not
 delegated to the United States by the.
 [Amendments].............................
Constitution, and then engaged in                  14          3  ......
 rebellion against the United States.
 Disqualification for office imposed upon
 certain class of persons who took an oath
 to support the. [Amendments].............
Constitution. Done in convention by the             7    .......       2
 unanimous consent of the States present,
 September 17, 1787.......................
Contracts. No State shall pass any ex post          1         10       1
 facto law, or law impairing the
 obligation of............................
Controversies to which the United States            3          2       1
 shall be a party: between two or more
 States; between a State and citizens of
 another State; between citizens of
 different States; between citizens of the
 same State claiming lands under grants of
 different States; between a State or its
 citizens and foreign states, citizens, or
 subjects. The judicial power shall extend
 to.......................................
Convene Congress or either House, on                2          3  ......
 extraordinary occasions. The President
 may......................................
Convention for proposing amendments to the          5    .......  ......
 Constitution. Congress, on the
 application of two-thirds of the
 legislatures of the States, may call a...
Convention, by the unanimous consent of             7    .......       2
 the States present on the 17th of
 September, 1787. Adoption of the
 Constitution in..........................
Conventions of nine States shall be                 7    .......  ......
 sufficient for the establishment of the
 Constitution. The ratification of the....
Conviction in cases of impeachment shall            1          3       6
 not be had without the concurrence of two-
 thirds of the members present............
Copyrights to authors for limited times.            1          8       8
 Congress shall have power to provide for.
Corruption of blood. Attainder of treason           3          3       2
 shall not work...........................
Counsel for his defense. In all criminal            6    .......  ......
 prosecutions the accused shall have the
 assistance of. [Amendments]..............
Counterfeiting the securities and current           1          8       6
 coin of the United States. Congress shall
 provide for the punishment of............
Courts. Congress shall have power to                1          8       9
 constitute tribunals inferior to the
 Supreme Court............................
Courts as Congress may establish. The               3          1  ......
 judicial power of the United States shall
 be vested in one Supreme Court and such
 inferior.................................
Courts. The judges of the Supreme and               3          1  ......
 inferior courts shall hold their offices
 during good behavior.....................
    Their compensation shall not be                 3          1  ......
     diminished during their continuance
     in office............................
Courts of law. Congress may by law vest             2          2       2
 the appointment of such inferior officers
 as they think proper in the President
 alone, in the heads of departments, or in
 the......................................
Credit. No State shall emit bills of......          1         10       1
Credit of the United States. Congress               1          8       2
 shall have power to borrow money on the..
Credit shall be given in every other State          4          1  ......
 to the public acts, records, and judicial
 proceedings of each State. Full faith and
Crime, unless on a presentment of a grand           5    .......  ......
 jury. No person shall be held to answer
 for a capital or otherwise infamous.
 [Amendments].............................
    Except in cases in the military and             5    .......  ......
     naval forces, or in the militia when
     in actual service. [Amendments]......
Crimes, except in cases of impeachment,             3          2       3
 shall be tried by jury. All..............
    They shall be tried in the State                3          2       3
     within which they may be committed...
    When not committed in a State, they             3          2       3
     shall be tried at the places which
     Congress may by law have provided....
Crimes and misdemeanors. The President,             2          4  ......
 Vice President, and all civil officers
 shall be removed on impeachment for and
 conviction of treason, bribery, or other.
Criminal prosecutions, the accused shall            6    .......  ......
 have a speedy and public trial by jury in
 the State and district where the crime
 was committed. In all. [Amendments]......
    He shall be informed of the nature and          6    .......  ......
     cause of the accusation. [Amendments]
    He shall be confronted with the                 6    .......  ......
     witnesses against him. [Amendments]..
    He shall have compulsory process for            6    .......  ......
     obtaining witnesses in his favor.
     [Amendments].........................
    He shall have the assistance of                 6    .......  ......
     counsel in his defense. [Amendments].
Criminate himself. No person as a witness           5    .......  ......
 shall be compelled to. [Amendments]......
Cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.            8    .......  ......
 Excessive bail shall not be required, nor
 excessive fines imposed, nor.
 [Amendments].............................

                     D

Dangers as will not admit of delay. No              1         10       3
 State shall, without the consent of
 Congress, engage in war, unless actually
 invaded, or in such imminent.............
Day on which they shall vote for President          2          1       4
 and Vice President, which shall be the
 same throughout the United States.
 Congress may determine the time of
 choosing the electors, and the...........
Day to day, and may be authorized to                1          5       1
 compel the attendance of absent members.
 A smaller number than a quorum of each
 House may adjourn from...................
Death, resignation, or inability of the             2          1       6
 President. In case of, powers and duties
 of his office shall devolve on the Vice
 President................................
  [Amendments]............................         25    .......  ......
    Congress may provide by law for the             2          1       6
     case of the removal..................
      [Amendments]........................         25    .......  ......
Debt of the United States, including debts         14          4  ......
 for pensions and bounties incurred in
 suppressing insurrection or rebellion,
 shall not be questioned. The validity of
 the public. [Amendments].................
Debts. No State shall make anything but             1         10       1
 gold and silver coin a tender in payment
 of.......................................
Debts and provide for the common defense            1          8       1
 and general welfare of the United States.
 Congress shall have power to pay the.....
Debts and engagements contracted before             6    .......       1
 the adoption of this Constitution shall
 be as valid against the United States,
 under it, as under the Confederation.....
Debts or obligations incurred in aid of            14          4  ......
 insurrection or rebellion against the
 United States, or claims for the loss or
 emancipation of any slave. Neither the
 United States nor any State shall assume
 or pay any. [Amendments].................
Declare war, grant letters of marque and            1          8      11
 reprisal, and make rules concerning
 captures on land and water. Congress
 shall have power to......................
Defense, promote the general welfare, &c.   ...........  .......  ......
 To insure the common. [Preamble].........
Defense and general welfare throughout the          1          8       1
 United States. Congress shall have power
 to pay the debts and provide for the
 common...................................
Defense. In all criminal prosecutions the           6    .......  ......
 accused shall have the assistance of
 counsel for his. [Amendments]............
Delaware entitled to one Representative in          1          2       3
 the first Congress.......................
Delay. No State shall, without the consent          1         10       3
 of Congress, engage in war unless
 actually invaded, or in such imminent
 danger as will not admit of..............
Delegated to the United States, nor                10    .......  ......
 prohibited to the States, are reserved to
 the States or to the people. The powers
 not. [Amendments]........................
Deny or disparage others retained by the            9    .......  ......
 people. The enumeration in the
 Constitution of certain rights shall not
 be construed to. [Amendments]............
Departments upon any subject relating to            2          2       1
 their duties. The President may require
 the written opinion of the principal
 officers in each of the executive........
Departments. Congress may by law vest the           2          2       2
 appointment of inferior officers in the
 heads of.................................
Direct tax shall be laid unless in                  1          9       4
 proportion to the census or enumeration.
 No capitation or other...................
Direct taxes and Representatives, how               1          2       3
 apportioned among the several States.....
Disability of the President and Vice                2          1       6
 President. Provisions in case of the.....
  [Amendments]............................         25    .......  ......
Disability. No person shall be a Senator           14          3  ......
 or Representative in Congress, or
 presidential elector, or hold any office,
 civil or military, under the United
 States, or any State, who having
 previously taken an oath as a
 legislative, executive, or judicial
 officer of the United States, or of any
 State, to support the Constitution,
 afterward engaged in insurrection or
 rebellion against the United States.
 [Amendments].............................
    But Congress may, by a vote of two-            14          3  ......
     thirds of each House, remove such.
     [Amendments].........................
Disagreement between the two Houses as to           2          3  ......
 the time of adjournment, the President
 may adjourn them to such time as he may
 think proper. In case of.................
Disorderly behavior. Each House may punish          1          5       2
 its members for..........................
    And with the concurrence of two-thirds          1          5       2
     expel a member.......................
Disparage others retained by the people.            9    .......  ......
 The enumeration in the Constitution of
 certain rights shall not be construed to
 deny or. [Amendments]....................
Disqualification. No Senator or                     1          6       2
 Representative shall, during the time for
 which he was elected, be appointed to any
 office under the United States which
 shall have been created or its emoluments
 increased during such term...............
    No person holding any office under the          1          6       2
     United States shall be a member of
     either House during his continuance
     in office............................
    No person shall be a member of either          14          3  ......
     House, presidential elector, or hold
     any office under the United States,
     or any State, who, having previously
     sworn to support the Constitution,
     afterward engaged in insurrection or
     rebellion. [Amendments]..............
    But Congress may, by a vote of two-            14          3  ......
     thirds of each House, remove such
     disability. [Amendments].............
District of Columbia. Congress shall                1          8      17
 exercise exclusive legislation in all
 cases over the...........................
    Electors for President and Vice                23          1  ......
     President, appointment in such manner
     as the Congress may direct.
     [Amendments].........................
Dockyards. Congress shall have exclusive            1          8      17
 authority over all places purchased for
 the erection of..........................
Domestic tranquility, provide for the       ...........  .......  ......
 common defense, &c. To insure. [Preamble]
Domestic violence. The United States shall          4          4  ......
 protect each State against invasion and..
Due process of law. No person shall be              5    .......  ......
 compelled, in any criminal case, to be a
 witness against himself, nor be deprived
 of life, liberty, or property without.
 [Amendments].............................
    No State shall deprive any person of           14          1  ......
     life, liberty, or property without.
     [Amendments].........................
Duties, imposts, and excises. Congress              1          8       1
 shall have power to lay and collect taxes
    Shall be uniform throughout the United          1          8       1
     States...............................
Duties shall be laid on articles exported           1          9       5
 from any State. No tax or................
Duties in another State. Vessels clearing           1          9       6
 in the ports of one State shall not be
 obliged to pay...........................
    On imports and exports, without the             1         10       2
     consent of Congress, except where
     necessary for executing its
     inspection laws. No State shall lay
     any..................................
    The net produce of all such duties              1         10       2
     shall be for the use of the Treasury
     of the United States.................
    All laws laying such duties shall be            1         10       2
     subject to the revision and control
     of Congress..........................
Duties and powers of the office of                  2          1       6
 President, in case of his death, removal,
 or inability to act, shall devolve on the
 Vice President...........................
  [Amendments]............................         25    .......  ......
    In case of the disability of the                2          1       6
     President and Vice President,
     Congress shall declare what officer
     shall act............................
      [Amendments]........................         25    .......  ......
Duty of tonnage without the consent of              1         10       3
 Congress. No State shall lay any.........

                     E

Eighteenth Amendment. Repeal. [Amendments]         21          1  ......
Election of President and Vice President.           2          1       4
 Congress may determine the day for the...
    Shall be the same throughout the                2          1       4
     United States. The day of the........
Elections. The right of citizens of the            24          1  ......
 United States to vote in shall not be
 denied or abridged by the United States
 or any State by reason of failure to pay
 any poll tax or other tax. [Amendments]..
Elections for Senators and                          1          4       1
 Representatives. The legislatures of the
 States shall prescribe the times, places,
 and manner of holding....................
    But Congress may, at any time, alter            1          4       1
     such regulations, except as to the
     places of choosing Senators..........
    Returns and qualifications of its own           1          5       1
     members. Each House shall be the
     judge of the.........................
    Senators elected by the people.                17          1  ......
     [Amendments].........................
Electors for members of the House of                1          2       1
 Representatives. Qualifications of.......
Electors for Senators. Qualifications of.          17          1  ......
 [Amendments].............................
Electors for President and Vice President.          2          1       2
 Each State shall appoint, in such manner
 as the legislature thereof may direct, a
 number of electors equal to the whole
 number of Senators and Representatives to
 which the State may be entitled in the
 Congress.................................
    But no Senator or Representative, or            2          1       2
     person holding an office of trust or
     profit under the United States, shall
     be appointed an elector..............
    Congress may determine the time of              2          1       4
     choosing the electors and the day on
     which they shall give their votes....
    Which day shall be the same throughout          2          1       4
     the United States....................
    The electors shall meet in their               12    .......  ......
     respective States and vote by ballot
     for President and Vice President, one
     of whom, at least, shall not be an
     inhabitant of the same State with
     themselves. [Amendments].............
    The District of Columbia to appoint,           23          1  ......
     in such manner as the Congress may
     direct, a number of electors equal to
     the whole number of Senators and
     Representatives to which the District
     would be entitled if a State.
     [Amendments].........................
Electors shall name, in their ballots, the         12    .......  ......
 person voted for as President; and in
 distinct ballots the person voted for as
 Vice President. [Amendments].............
    They shall make distinct lists of the          12    .......  ......
     persons voted for as President and of
     persons voted for as Vice President,
     which they shall sign and certify,
     and transmit sealed to the seat of
     government, directed to the President
     of the Senate. [Amendments]..........
    No person having taken an oath as a            14          3  ......
     legislative, executive or judicial
     officer of the United States, or of
     any State, and afterwards engaged in
     insurrection or rebellion against the
     United States, shall be an elector...
    But Congress may, by a vote of two-            14          3  ......
     thirds of each House, remove such
     disability. [Amendments].............
Emancipation of any slave shall be held to         14          4  ......
 be illegal and void. Claims for the loss
 or. [Amendments].........................
Emit bills of credit. No State shall......          1         10       1
Emolument of any kind from any king,                1          9       8
 prince, or foreign state, without the
 consent of Congress. No person holding
 any office under the United States shall
 accept any...............................
Enemies. Treason shall consist in levying           3          3       1
 war against the United States, in
 adhering to, or giving aid and comfort to
 their....................................
Engagements contracted before the adoption          6    .......       1
 of this Constitution shall be valid. All
 debts and................................
Enumeration of the inhabitants shall be             1          2       3
 made within three years after the first
 meeting of Congress, and within every
 subsequent term of ten years thereafter..
    Ratio of representation not to exceed           1          2       3
     one of every 30,000 until the first
     enumeration shall be made............
    Income tax authorized without regard           16    .......  ......
     to. [Amendments].....................
Enumeration in the Constitution of certain          9    .......  ......
 rights shall not be construed to deny or
 disparage others retained by the people.
 The. [Amendments]........................
Equal protection of the laws. No State             14          1  ......
 shall deny to any person within its
 jurisdiction the. [Amendments]...........
Equal suffrage in the Senate. No State              5    .......  ......
 shall be deprived without its consent, of
 its......................................
Establishment of this Constitution between          7    .......  ......
 the States ratifying the same. The
 ratification of nine States shall be
 sufficient for the.......................
Ex post facto law shall be passed. No bill          1          9       3
 of attainder or..........................
Ex post facto law, or law impairing the             1         10       1
 obligation of contracts. No State shall
 pass any bill of attainder...............
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor           8    .......  ......
 excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and
 unusual punishments inflicted.
 [Amendments].............................
Excises. Congress shall have power to lay           1          8       1
 and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and..
    Shall be uniform throughout the United          1          8       1
     States. All duties, imposts, and.....
Exclusive legislation, in all cases, over           1          8      17
 such district as may become the seat of
 government. Congress shall exercise......
    Over all places purchased for the               1          8      17
     erection of forts, magazines,
     arsenals, dock-yards and other
     needful buildings. Congress shall
     exercise.............................
Executive and judicial officers of the              6    .......       3
 United States and of the several States
 shall be bound by an oath to support the
 Constitution.............................
Executive departments. On subjects                  2          2       1
 relating to their duties the President
 may require the written opinions of the
 principal officers in each of the........
    Congress may by law vest the                    2          2       2
     appointment of inferior officers in
     the heads of.........................
Executive of a State. The United States             4          4  ......
 shall protect each State against invasion
 and domestic violence, on the application
 of the legislature or the................
Executive power shall be vested in a                2          1       1
 President of the United States of
 America. The.............................
Expel a member. Each House, with the                1          5       2
 concurrence of two-thirds, may...........
Expenditures of public money shall be               1          9       7
 published from time to time. A regular
 statement of the receipts and............
Exportations from any State. No tax or              1          9       5
 duty shall be laid on....................
Exports or imports, except upon certain             1         10       2
 conditions. No State shall, without the
 consent of Congress, lay any duties on...
    Laid by any State, shall be for the             1         10       2
     use of the Treasury. The net produce
     of all duties on.....................
    Shall be subject to the revision and            1         10       2
     control of Congress. All laws of the
     States laying duties on..............
Extraordinary occasions. The President may          2          3  ......
 convene both Houses, or either House of
 Congress, on.............................

                     F

Faith and credit in each State shall be             4          1  ......
 given to the acts, records, and judicial
 proceedings of another State. Full.......
Felonies committed on the high seas.                1          8      10
 Congress shall have power to define and
 punish piracies and......................
Felony, and breach of the peace. Members            1          6       1
 of Congress shall not be privileged from
 arrest for treason.......................
Fines. Excessive fines shall not be                 8    .......  ......
 imposed. [Amendments]....................
Foreign coin. Congress shall have power to          1          8       5
 coin money, fix the standard of weights
 and measures, and to regulate the value
 of.......................................
Foreign nations, among the States, and              1          8       3
 with the Indian tribes. Congress shall
 have power to regulate commerce with.....
Foreign power. No State shall, without the          1         10       3
 consent of Congress, enter into any
 compact or agreement with any............
Forfeiture, except during the life of the           3          3       2
 person attainted. Attainder of treason
 shall not work...........................
Form of government. The United States               4          4  ......
 shall guarantee to every State in this
 Union a republican.......................
    And shall protect each of them against          4          4  ......
     invasion; and on application of the
     legislature or of the executive (when
     the legislature cannot be convened),
     against domestic violence............
Formation of new States. Provisions                 4          3       1
 relating to the..........................
Forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards,             1          8      17
 and other needful buildings. Congress
 shall exercise exclusive authority over
 all places purchased for the erection of.
Free State, the right of the people to              2    .......  ......
 keep and bear arms shall not be
 infringed. A well-regulated militia being
 necessary to the security of a.
 [Amendments].............................
Freedom of speech or the press. Congress            1    .......  ......
 shall make no law abridging the.
 [Amendments].............................
Fugitives from crime found in another               4          2       2
 State shall, on demand, be delivered up
 to the authorities of the State from
 which they may flee......................
Fugitives from service or labor in one              4          2       3
 State, escaping into another State, shall
 be delivered up to the party to whom such
 service or labor may be due..............

                     G

General welfare and secure the blessings    ...........  .......  ......
 of liberty, &c. To promote the.
 [Preamble.]..............................
General welfare. Congress shall have power          1          8       1
 to provide for the common defense and....
Georgia entitled to three Representatives           1          2       3
 in the first Congress....................
Gold and silver coin a tender in payment            1         10       1
 of debts. No State shall make anything
 but......................................
Good behavior. The judges of the Supreme            3          1  ......
 and inferior courts shall hold their
 offices during...........................
Government. The United States shall                 4          4  ......
 guarantee to every State in this Union a
 republican form of.......................
    And shall protect each of them against          4          4  ......
     invasion, and on application of the
     legislature or of the executive (when
     the legislature cannot be convened)
     against domestic violence............
Grand jury. No person shall be held to              5    .......  ......
 answer for a capital or otherwise
 infamous crime, unless on the presentment
 of a. [Amendments].......................
    Except in cases arising in the land             5    .......  ......
     and naval forces, and in the militia
     when in actual service. [Amendments].
Guarantee to every State in this Union a            4          4  ......
 republican form of government. The United
 States shall.............................
    And shall protect each of them against          4          4  ......
     invasion; and on application of the
     legislature or of the executive (when
     the legislature cannot be convened),
     against domestic violence............

                     H

Habeas corpus shall not be suspended                1          9       2
 unless in cases of rebellion or invasion.
 The writ of..............................
Heads of departments. Congress may, by              2          2       2
 law, vest the appointment of inferior
 officers in the..........................
    On any subject relating to their                2          2       1
     duties, the President may require the
     written opinion of the principal
     officers in each of the executive
     departments..........................
High crimes and misdemeanors. The                   2          4  ......
 President, Vice President, and all civil
 officers shall be removed on impeachment
 for and conviction of treason, bribery,
 or other.................................
House of Representatives. Congress shall            1          1  ......
 consist of a Senate and..................
    Shall be composed of members chosen             1          2       1
     every second year....................
    Qualifications of electors for members          1          2       1
     of the...............................
    No person shall be a member who shall           1          2       2
     not have attained the age of twenty-
     five years, and been seven years a
     citizen of the United States.........
    The executives of the several States            1          2       4
     shall issue writs of election to fill
     vacancies in the.....................
    Shall choose their Speaker and other            1          2       5
     officers.............................
    Shall have the sole power of                    1          2       5
     impeachment..........................
    Shall be the judge of the elections,            1          5       1
     returns, and qualifications of its
     own members..........................
    A majority shall constitute a quorum            1          5       1
     to do business.......................
    Less than a majority may adjourn from           1          5       1
     day to day, and compel the attendance
     of absent members....................
    May determine its own rules of                  1          5       2
     proceedings..........................
    May punish its members for disorderly           1          5       2
     behavior, and, with the concurrence
     of two-thirds, expel a member........
    Shall keep a journal of its                     1          5       3
     proceedings..........................
    Shall not adjourn for more than three           1          5       4
     days during the session of Congress
     without the consent of the Senate....
    Members shall not be questioned for             1          6       1
     any speech or debate in either House
     or in any other place................
    No person holding any office under the          1          6       2
     United States shall, while holding
     such office, be a member of the......
    No person, while a member of either             1          6       2
     House, shall be appointed to an
     office which shall have been created
     or the emoluments increased during
     his membership.......................
    All bills for raising revenue shall             1          7       1
     originate in the.....................
    The votes for President and Vice               12    .......  ......
     President shall be counted in the
     presence of the Senate and.
     [Amendments].........................
    If no person have a majority of                12    .......  ......
     electoral votes, then from the three
     highest on the list the House of
     Representatives shall immediately, by
     ballot, choose a President.
     [Amendments].........................
    They shall vote by States, each State          12    .......  ......
     counting one vote. [Amendments]......
    A quorum shall consist of a member or          12    .......  ......
     members from two-thirds of the
     States, and a majority of all the
     States shall be necessary to the
     choice of a President. [Amendments]..
    No person having as a legislative,             14          3  ......
     executive, or judicial officer of the
     United States, or of any State, taken
     an oath to support the Constitution,
     and afterwards engaged in
     insurrection or rebellion against the
     United States, shall be a member of
     the. [Amendments]....................
    But Congress may, by a vote of two-            14          3  ......
     thirds of each house, remove such
     disability. [Amendments].............

                     I

Imminent danger as will not admit of                1         10       3
 delay. No State shall, without the
 consent of Congress, engage in war,
 unless actually invaded or in such.......
Immunities. Members of Congress shall, in           1          6       1
 all cases except treason, felony, and
 breach of the peace, be privileged from
 arrest during their attendance at the
 session of their respective houses, and
 in going and returning from the same.....
    No soldier shall be quartered in any            3    .......  ......
     house without the consent of the
     owner in time of peace. [Amendments].
    No person shall be twice put in                 5    .......  ......
     jeopardy of life and limb for the
     same offense. [Amendments]...........
    All persons born or naturalized in the         14          1  ......
     United States, and subject to the
     jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of
     the United States and of the State in
     which they reside. [Amendments]......
    No State shall make or enforce any law         14          1  ......
     which shall abridge the privileges or
     immunities of citizens of the United
     States. [Amendments].................
    Nor shall any State deprive any person         14          1  ......
     of life, liberty, or property without
     due process of law. [Amendments].....
    Nor deny to any person within its              14          1  ......
     jurisdiction the equal protection of
     the law. [Amendments]................
Impeachment. The President may grant                2          2       1
 reprieves and pardons except in cases of.
    The House of Representatives shall              1          2       5
     have the sole power of...............
Impeachment for and conviction of treason,          2          4  ......
 bribery, and other high crimes and
 misdemeanors. The President, Vice
 President, and all civil officers shall
 be removed upon..........................
Impeachments. The Senate shall have the             1          3       6
 sole power to try all....................
    The Senate shall be on oath, or                 1          3       6
     affirmation, when sitting for the
     trial of.............................
    When the President of the United                1          3       6
     States is tried the Chief Justice
     shall preside........................
    No person shall be convicted without            1          3       6
     the concurrence of two-thirds of the
     members present......................
    Judgment shall not extend beyond                1          3       7
     removal from office and
     disqualification to hold office......
    But the party convicted shall be                1          3       7
     liable to indictment and punishment
     according to law.....................
Importation of slaves prior to 1808 shall           1          9       1
 not be prohibited by the Congress........
    But a tax or duty of ten dollars for            1          9       1
     each person may be imposed on such...
Imports or exports except what may be               1         10       2
 absolutely necessary for executing its
 inspection laws. No State shall, without
 the consent of Congress, lay any imposts
 or duties on.............................
Imports or exports laid by any State shall          1         10       2
 be for the use of the Treasury. The net
 produce of all duties on.................
Imports or exports shall be subject to the          1         10       2
 revision and control of Congress. All
 laws of States laying duties on..........
Imposts and excises. Congress shall have            1          8       1
 power to lay and collect taxes, duties...
    Shall be uniform throughout the United          1          8       1
     States. All taxes, duties............
Inability of the President. The powers and          2          1       6
 duties of his office shall devolve on the
 Vice President. In case of the death,
 resignation, or..........................
  [Amendments]............................         25    .......  ......
    The Vice President shall succeed to            25    .......  ......
     the office of the President. In case
     of the death, resignation, or
     removal, or [Amendments].............
Inability of the President or Vice                  2          1       6
 President. Congress may provide by law
 for the case of the removal, death,
 resignation, or..........................
  [Amendments]............................         25    .......  ......
Income taxes. Congress shall have power to         16    .......  ......
 lay and collect without apportionment
 among the several States, and without
 regard to any census or enumeration.
 [Amendments].............................
Indian tribes. Congress shall have power            1          8       3
 to regulate commerce with the............
Indictment or presentment of a grand jury.          5    .......  ......
 No person shall be held to answer for a
 capital or infamous crime unless on
 [Amendments].............................
    Except in cases arising in the land             5    .......  ......
     and naval forces, and in the militia
     when in actual service. [Amendments].
Indictment, trial, judgment, and                    1          3       7
 punishment, according to law. The party
 convicted in case of impeachment shall
 nevertheless be liable and subject to....
Infamous crime unless on presentment or             5    .......  ......
 indictment of a grand jury. No person
 shall be held to answer for a capital or
 [Amendments].............................
Inferior courts. Congress shall have power          1          8       9
 to constitute tribunals inferior to the
 Supreme Court............................
Inferior courts as Congress may establish.          3          1  ......
 The judicial power of the United States
 shall be vested in one Supreme Court and
 such.....................................
    The judges of both the Supreme and              3          1  ......
     inferior courts shall hold their
     offices during good behavior.........
    Their compensation shall not be                 3          1  ......
     diminished during their continuance
     in office............................
Inferior officers, Congress, if they think          2          2       2
 proper, may by law vest the appointment
 of in the President alone, in the courts
 of law, or in the heads of Departments...
Inhabitant of the State for which he shall          1          3       3
 be chosen. No person shall be a Senator
 who shall not have attained the age of
 thirty years, been nine years a citizen
 of the United States, and who shall not,
 when elected, be an......................
Insurrection or rebellion against the              14          3  ......
 United States. No person shall be a
 Senator or Representative in Congress, or
 presidential elector, or hold any office,
 civil or military, under the United
 States, or any State, who, having taken
 an oath as a legislative, executive, or
 judicial officer of the United States, or
 of a State, afterwards engaged in.
 [Amendments].............................
    But Congress may, by a vote of two-            14          3  ......
     thirds of each House, remove such
     disabilities. [Amendments]...........
    Debts declared illegal and void which          14          4  ......
     were contracted in aid of.
     [Amendments].........................
Insurrections and repel invasions.                  1          8      15
 Congress shall provide for calling forth
 the militia to suppress..................
Intoxicating liquors. Prohibition of               18          1  ......
 manufacture, sale, transportation,
 importation, or exportation of.
 [Amendments].............................
    Repeal of Eighteenth Amendment.                21          1  ......
     [Amendments].........................
    Transportation or importation into any         21          2  ......
     State, Territory or possession, for
     delivery or use therein in violation
     of their laws, prohibited.
     [Amendments].........................
Invasion. No State shall, without the               1         10       3
 consent of Congress, engage in war unless
 actually invaded, or in such imminent
 danger as will not admit of delay........
    The writ of habeas corpus shall not be          1          9       2
     suspended unless in case of rebellion
     or...................................
Invasion and domestic violence. The United          4          4  ......
 States shall protect each State against..
Invasions. Congress shall provide for               1          8      15
 calling forth the militia to suppress
 insurrections and repel..................
Inventors and authors in their inventions           1          8       8
 and writings. Congress may pass laws to
 secure for limited times exclusive rights
 to.......................................
Involuntary servitude, except as a                 13          1  ......
 punishment for crime, abolished in the
 United States. Slavery and. [Amendments].

                     J

Jeopardy of life and limb for the same              5    .......  ......
 offense. No person shall be twice put in.
 [Amendments].............................
Journal of its proceedings. Each House              1          5       3
 shall keep a.............................
Judges in every State shall be bound by             6    .......       2
 the Constitution, the laws and treaties
 of the United States, which shall be the
 supreme law of the land..................
Judges of the Supreme and inferior courts           3          1  ......
 shall hold their offices during good
 behavior.................................
    Their compensation shall not be                 3          1  ......
     diminished during their continuance
     in office............................
Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not          1          3       7
 extend further than to removal from
 office, and disqualification to hold any
 office of honor, trust, or profit under
 the United States........................
    But the party convicted shall                   1          3       7
     nevertheless be liable and subject to
     indictment, trial, judgment, and
     punishment according to law..........
Judicial and executive officers of the              6    .......       3
 United States and of the several States
 shall be bound by an oath to support the
 Constitution.............................
Judicial power of the United States.                1          8       9
 Congress shall have power to constitute
 tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court..
    The judicial power of the United                3          1  ......
     States shall be vested in one Supreme
     Court, and in such inferior courts as
     Congress may from time to time ordain
     and establish........................
    The judges of the Supreme and inferior          3          1  ......
     courts shall hold their offices
     during good behavior.................
    Their compensation shall not be                 3          1  ......
     diminished during their continuance
     in office............................
    It shall extend to all cases in law             3          2       1
     and equity arising under the
     Constitution, laws, and treaties of
     the United States....................
    To all cases affecting ambassadors,             3          2       1
     other public ministers, and consuls..
    To all cases of admiralty and maritime          3          2       1
     jurisdiction.........................
    To controversies to which the United            3          2       1
     States shall be a party..............
    To controversies between two or more            3          2       1
     States...............................
    To controversies between a State and            3          2       1
     citizens of another State............
      [Amendments]........................         11    .......  ......
    To controversies between citizens of            3          2       1
     different States.....................
    To citizens of the same State claiming          3          2       1
     lands under grants of different
     States...............................
    To controversies between a State or             3          2       1
     its citizens and foreign states,
     citizens, or subjects................
    In all cases affecting ambassadors,             3          2       2
     other public ministers and consuls,
     and those in which a State shall be a
     party, the Supreme Court shall have
     original jurisdiction................
    In all other cases before mentioned,            3          2       2
     it shall have appellate jurisdiction,
     both as to law and fact, with such
     exceptions and under such regulations
     as Congress shall make...............
    The trial of all crimes, except in              3          2       3
     cases of impeachment, shall be by
     jury.................................
    The trial shall be held in the State            3          2       3
     where the crimes shall have been
     committed............................
    But when not committed in a State, the          3          2       3
     trial shall be at such place or
     places as Congress may by law have
     directed.............................
    The judicial power of the United               11    .......  ......
     States shall not be held to extend to
     any suit in law or equity commenced
     or prosecuted against one of the
     United States by citizens of another
     State, or by citizens or subjects of
     any Foreign State. [Amendments]......
Judicial proceedings of every other State.          4          1  ......
 Full faith and credit shall be given in
 each State to the acts, records, and.....
    Congress shall prescribe the manner of          4          1  ......
     proving such acts, records, and
     proceedings..........................
Judiciary. The Supreme Court shall have             3          2       2
 original jurisdiction in all cases
 affecting ambassadors, other public
 ministers and consuls, and those in which
 a State may be a party...................
    The Supreme Court shall have appellate          3          2       2
     jurisdiction both as to law and fact,
     with such exceptions and regulations
     as Congress may make.................
Junction of two or more States or parts of          4          3       1
 States without the consent of the
 legislatures and of Congress. No State
 shall be formed by the...................
Jurisdiction of another State. No new               4          3       1
 State shall, without the consent of
 Congress, be formed or erected within the
Jurisdiction, both as to law and fact,              3          2       2
 with such exceptions and under such
 regulations as Congress may make. The
 Supreme Court shall have appellate.......
Jurisdiction. In all cases affecting                3          2       2
 ambassadors and other public ministers
 and consuls, and in cases where a State
 is a party, the Supreme Court shall have
 original.................................
Jury. The trial of all crimes, except in            3          2       3
 cases of impeachment, shall be by........
    In all criminal prosecutions the                6    .......  ......
     accused shall have a speedy and
     public trial by. [Amendments]........
    All suits at common law, where the              7    .......  ......
     value exceeds twenty dollars, shall
     be tried by. [Amendments]............
    Where a fact has been tried by a jury           7    .......  ......
     it shall not be reexamined except by
     the rules of the common law.
     [Amendments].........................
Just compensation. Private property shall           5    .......  ......
 not be taken for public use without.
 [Amendments].............................
Justice, insure domestic tranquility, &c.   ...........  .......  ......
 To establish. [Preamble].................

                     L

Labor, in one State escaping into another           4          2       3
 State shall be delivered up to the party
 to whom such service or labor may be due.
 Fugitives from service or................
Land and naval forces. Congress shall make          1          8      14
 rules for the government and regulation
 of the...................................
Law and fact, with exceptions and under             3          2       2
 regulations to be made by Congress. The
 Supreme Court shall have appellate
 jurisdiction as to.......................
Law of nations. Congress shall provide for          1          8      10
 punishing offenses against the...........
Law of the land. The Constitution, the              6    .......       2
 laws made in pursuance thereof, and
 treaties of the United States, shall be
 the supreme..............................
    The judges in every State shall be              6    .......       2
     bound thereby........................
Laws. Congress shall provide for calling            1          8      15
 forth the militia to suppress
 insurrection, repel invasion, and to
 execute the..............................
Laws necessary to carry into execution the          1          8      18
 powers vested in the government, or in
 any department or officer of the United
 States. Congress shall make all..........
Laws and treaties of the United States.             3          2       1
 The judicial power shall extend to all
 cases in law and equity arising under the
 Constitution, or the.....................
Legal tender in payment of debts. No State          1         10       1
 shall make anything but gold and silver
 coin a...................................
Legislation in all cases over such                  1          8      17
 district as may become the seat of
 government. Congress shall exercise
 exclusive................................
    Over all places purchased for the               1          8      17
     erection of forts, magazines,
     arsenals, dock-yards, and other
     needful buildings. Congress shall
     exercise exclusive...................
Legislation. Congress shall have power to           1          8      18
 make all laws necessary and proper for
 carrying into execution all the powers
 vested by the Constitution in the
 Government of the United States or in any
 department or officer thereof............
    Congress shall have power to enforce           13          2  ......
     the thirteenth amendment, prohibiting
     slavery, by appropriate. [Amendments]
    Congress shall have power to enforce           14          5  ......
     the fourteenth amendment by
     appropriate. [Amendments]............
    Congress shall have power to enforce           15          2  ......
     the fifteenth amendment by
     appropriate. [Amendments]............
    Congress and the several States shall          18          2  ......
     have concurrent power to enforce the
     eighteenth amendment by appropriate.
     [Amendments].........................
    Congress shall have power to enforce           19    .......  ......
     the nineteenth amendment by
     appropriate. [Amendments]............
    Congress shall have power to enforce           23          2  ......
     the twenty-third amendment by
     appropriate. [Amendments]............
    Congress shall have power to enforce           24          2  ......
     the twenty-fourth amendment by
     appropriate. [Amendments]............
    Congress shall have power to enforce           26          2  ......
     the twenty-sixth amendment by
     appropriate. [Amendments]............
Legislative powers herein granted shall be          1          1  ......
 vested in Congress. All..................
Legislature, or the Executive (when the             4          4  ......
 legislature cannot be convened). The
 United States shall protect each State
 against invasion and domestic violence,
 on the application of the................
Legislatures of two-thirds of the States,           5    .......  ......
 Congress shall call a convention for
 proposing amendments to the Constitution.
 On the application of the................
Letters of marque and reprisal. Congress            1          8      11
 shall have power to grant................
    No State shall grant..................          1         10       1
Liberty to ourselves and our posterity,     ...........  .......  ......
 &c. To secure the blessings of.
 [Preamble]...............................
Life or limb for the same offense. No               5    .......  ......
 person shall be twice put in jeopardy of.
 [Amendments].............................
Life, liberty, and property without due             5    .......  ......
 process of law. No person shall be
 compelled in any criminal case to be a
 witness against himself, nor be deprived
 of. [Amendments].........................
    No State shall abridge the privileges          14          1  ......
     or immunities of citizens of the
     United States, nor deprive any person
     of. [Amendments].....................
Loss or emancipation of any slave shall be         14          4  ......
 held illegal and void. Claims for the.
 [Amendments].............................

                     M

Magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other          1          8      17
 needful buildings. Congress shall have
 exclusive authority over all places
 purchased for the erection of............
Majority of each House shall constitute a           1          5       1
 quorum to do business. A.................
    But a smaller number may adjourn from           1          5       1
     day to day and may be authorized to
     compel the attendance of absent
     members..............................
Majority of all the States shall be                12    .......  ......
 necessary to a choice. When the choice of
 a President shall devolve on the House of
 Representatives, a quorum shall consist
 of a member or members from two-thirds of
 the States; but a. [Amendments]..........
    When the choice of a Vice President            12    .......  ......
     shall devolve on the Senate, a quorum
     shall consist of two-thirds of the
     whole number of Senators, and a
     majority of the whole number shall be
     necessary to a choice. [Amendments]..
Maritime jurisdiction. The judicial power           3          2       1
 shall extend to all cases of admiralty
 and......................................
Marque and reprisal. Congress shall have            1          8      11
 power to grant letters of................
    No State shall grant any letters of...          1         10       1
Maryland entitled to six Representatives            1          2       3
 in the first Congress....................
Massachusetts entitled to eight                     1          2       3
 Representatives in the first Congress....
Measures. Congress shall fix the standard           1          8       5
 of weights and...........................
Meeting of Congress. The Congress shall             1          4       2
 assemble at least once in every year, and
 such meeting shall be on the first Monday
 in December, unless they shall by law
 appoint a different day..................
Meeting of Electors. The Electors shall            12    .......  ......
 meet in their respective States and vote
 by ballot for President and Vice
 President, one of whom, at least, shall
 not be an inhabitant of the same State
 with themselves. [Amendments]............
    District of Columbia, electors for             23          1  ......
     President and Vice President
     appointed by District. [Amendments]..
Members of Congress and of State                    6    .......       3
 legislatures shall be bound by oath or
 affirmation to support the Constitution..
Militia to execute the laws, suppress               1          8      15
 insurrections, and repel invasions.
 Congress shall provide for calling forth
 the......................................
    Congress shall provide for organizing,          1          8      16
     arming, and disciplining the.........
    Congress shall provide for governing            1          8      16
     such part of them as may be employed
     by the United States.................
    Reserving to the States the                     1          8      16
     appointment of the officers and the
     right to train the militia according
     to the discipline prescribed by
     Congress.............................
    A well-regulated militia being                  2    .......  ......
     necessary to the security of a free
     State, the right of the people to
     keep and bear arms shall not be
     infringed. [Amendments]..............
Misdemeanors. The President, Vice                   2          4  ......
 President, and all civil officers shall
 be removed on impeachment for and
 conviction of treason, bribery, or other
 high crimes and..........................
Money on the credit of the United States.           1          8       2
 Congress shall have power to borrow......
    Regulate the value thereof and of               1          8       5
     foreign coin. Congress shall have
     power to coin........................
    Shall be drawn from the Treasury but            1          9       7
     in consequence of appropriations made
     by law. No...........................
    Shall be published from time to time.           1          9       7
     A regular statement and account of
     receipts and expenditures of public..
    For raising and supporting armies. No           1          8      12
     appropriation of money shall be for a
     longer term than two years...........

                     N

Nations. Congress shall have power to               1          8       3
 regulate commerce with foreign...........
    Congress shall provide for punishing            1          8      10
     offenses against the law of..........
Natural-born citizen, or a citizen at the           2          1       5
 adoption of the Constitution, shall be
 eligible for the office of President. No
 person except a..........................
Naturalization. Congress shall have power           1          8       4
 to establish a uniform rule of...........
Naturalized in the United States, and              14          1  ......
 subject to their jurisdiction, shall be
 citizens of the United States and of the
 States in which they reside. All persons
 born, or. [Amendments]...................
Naval forces. Congress shall make rules             1          8      14
 and regulations for the government and
 regulation of the land and...............
Navy. Congress shall have power to provide          1          8      13
 and maintain a...........................
New Hampshire entitled to three                     1          2       3
 Representatives in the first Congress....
New Jersey entitled to four                         1          2       3
 Representatives in the first Congress....
New States may be admitted by Congress              4          3       1
 into this Union..........................
    But no new State shall be formed                4          3       1
     within the jurisdiction of another
     State without the consent of Congress
    Nor shall any State be formed by the            4          3       1
     junction of two or more States or
     parts of States, without the consent
     of the legislatures and of Congress..
New York entitled to six Representatives            1          2       3
 in the first Congress....................
Nobility shall be granted by the United             1          9       8
 States. No title of......................
    No State shall grant any title of.....          1         10       1
Nominations for office by the President.            2          2       2
 The President shall nominate, and, by and
 with the advice and consent of the
 Senate, shall appoint ambassadors and
 other public officers....................
    He may grant commissions to fill                2          2       3
     vacancies that happen in the recess
     of the Senate, which shall expire at
     the end of their next session........
    The President shall nominate a                 25          2  ......
     successor to the Vice President
     whenever a vacancy in office occurs
     [Amendments].........................
North Carolina entitled to five                     1          2       3
 Representatives in the first Congress....
Number of electors for President and Vice           2          1       2
 President in each State shall be equal to
 the number of Senators and
 Representatives to which such State may
 be entitled in Congress..................

                     O

Oath of office of the President of the              2          1       8
 United States. Form of the...............
Oath or affirmation. No warrants shall be           4    .......  ......
 issued but upon probable cause supported
 by. [Amendments].........................
Oath or affirmation to support the                  6    .......       3
 Constitution. Senators and
 Representatives, members of State
 legislatures, executive and judicial
 officers of the United States and of the
 several States, shall be bound by........
    But no religious test shall ever be             6    .......       3
     required as a qualification for
     office...............................
    The Senators when sitting to try                1          3       6
     impeachment shall be on..............
Objections. If he shall not approve it,             1          7       2
 the President shall return the bill to
 the House in which it originated with his
Obligation of contracts. No State shall             1         10       1
 pass any ex post facto law, or law
 impairing the............................
Obligations incurred in aid of                     14          4  ......
 insurrection or rebellion against the
 United States to be held illegal and
 void. All debts or. [Amendments].........
Offense. No person shall be twice put in            5    .......  ......
 jeopardy of life or limb for the same.
 [Amendments].............................
Offenses against the law of nations.                1          8      10
 Congress shall provide for punishing.....
    Against the United States, except in            2          2       1
     cases of impeachment. The President
     may grant reprieves or pardons for...
Office under the United States. No person           1          6       2
 shall be a member of either House while
 holding any civil........................
    No Senator or Representative shall be           1          6       2
     appointed to any office under the
     United States which shall have been
     created, or its emoluments increased,
     during the term for which he is
     elected..............................
    Or title of any kind from any king,             1          9       8
     prince, or foreign State, without the
     consent of Congress. No person
     holding any office under the United
     States shall accept any present,
     emolument............................
Office of President, in case of his                 2          1       6
 removal, death, resignation, or
 inability, shall devolve on the Vice
 President. The powers and duties of the..
  [Amendments]............................         25    .......  ......
    During the term of four years. The              2          1       1
     President and Vice President shall
     hold.................................
    Of trust or profit under the United             2          1       2
     States shall be an elector for
     President and Vice President. No
     person holding an....................
    Civil or military under the United             14          3  ......
     States, or any State, who had taken
     an oath as a legislative, executive,
     or judicial officer of the United
     States, or of any State, and
     afterward engaged in insurrection or
     rebellion. No person shall be a
     Senator, Representative or President
     elector, or hold any. [Amendments]...
Officers in the President alone, in the             2          2       2
 courts of law, or in the heads of
 Departments. Congress may vest the
 appointment of inferior..................
    Of the United States shall be removed           2          4  ......
     on impeachment for and conviction of
     treason, bribery, or other high
     crimes and misdemeanors. The
     President, Vice President, and all
     civil................................
    The House of Representatives shall              1          2       5
     choose their Speaker and other.......
    The Senate, in the absence of the Vice          1          3       5
     President, shall choose a President
     pro tempore, and also their other....
Offices becoming vacant in the recess of            2          2       3
 the Senate may be filled by the
 President, the commissions to expire at
 the end of the next session..............
One-fifth of the members present, be                1          5       3
 entered on the journal of each House. The
 yeas and nays shall, at the desire of....
Opinion of the principal officers in each           2          2       1
 of the Executive Departments on any
 subject relating to their duties. The
 President may require the written........
Order, resolution, or vote (except on a             1          7       3
 question of adjournment) requiring the
 concurrence of the two Houses, shall be
 presented to the President. Every........
Original jurisdiction, in all cases                 3          2       2
 affecting ambassadors, other public
 ministers, and consuls, and in which a
 State may be a party. The Supreme Court
 shall have...............................
Overt act, or on confession in open court.          3          3       1
 Conviction of treason shall be on the
 testimony of two witnesses to the........

                     P

Pardons, except in cases of impeachment.            2          2       1
 The President may grant reprieves and....
Patent rights to inventors. Congress may            1          8       8
 pass laws for securing...................
Peace. Members of Congress shall not be             1          6       1
 privileged from arrest for treason,
 felony, and breach of the................
    No State shall, without the consent of          1         10       3
     Congress, keep troops or ships of war
     in time of...........................
    No soldier shall be quartered in any            3    .......  ......
     house without the consent of the
     owner in time of. [Amendments].......
Pennsylvania entitled to eight                      1          2       3
 Representatives in the first Congress....
Pensions and bounties shall not be                 14          4  ......
 questioned. The validity of the public
 debt incurred in suppressing insurrection
 and rebellion against the United States,
 including the debt for. [Amendments].....
People, peaceably to assemble and petition          1    .......  ......
 for redress of grievances, shall not be
 abridged by Congress. The right of the.
 [Amendments].............................
    To keep and bear arms shall not be              2    .......  ......
     infringed. A well-regulated militia
     being necessary to the security of a
     free State, the right of the.
     [Amendments].........................
    To be secure in their persons, houses,          4    .......  ......
     papers, and effects, against
     unreasonable searches and seizures
     shall not be violated. The right of
     the. [Amendments]....................
People. The enumeration of certain rights           9    .......  ......
 in the Constitution shall not be held to
 deny or disparage others retained by the.
 [Amendments].............................
    Powers not delegated to the United             10    .......  ......
     States, nor prohibited to the States,
     are reserved to the States or to the.
     [Amendments].........................
Perfect Union, &c. To establish a more.     ...........  .......  ......
 [Preamble]...............................
Persons, houses, papers, and effects                4    .......  ......
 against unreasonable searches and
 seizures. The people shall be secure in
 their. [Amendments]......................
Persons, as any State may think proper to           1          9       1
 admit, shall not be prohibited prior to
 1808. The migration or importation of
 such.....................................
    But a tax or duty of ten dollars shall          1          9       1
     be imposed on the importation of each
     of such..............................
Petition for the redress of grievances.             1    .......  ......
 Congress shall make no law abridging the
 right of the people peaceably to assemble
 and to. [Amendments].....................
Piracies and felonies committed on the              1          8      10
 high seas. Congress shall define and
 punish...................................
Place than that in which the two Houses             1          5       4
 shall be sitting. Neither House during
 the session shall, without the consent of
 the other, adjourn for more than three
 days, nor to any other...................
Places of choosing Senators. Congress may           1          4       1
 by law make or alter regulations for the
 election of Senators and Representatives,
 except as to the.........................
Poll tax. The right of citizens of the             24          1  ......
 United States to vote shall not be denied
 or abridged by the United States or any
 State by reason of failure to pay.
 [Amendments].............................
Ports of one State over those of another.           1          9       6
 Preference shall not be given by any
 regulation of commerce or revenue to the.
    Vessels clearing from the ports of one          1          9       6
     State shall not pay duties in another
Post offices and post roads. Congress               1          8       7
 shall establish..........................
Powers herein granted shall be vested in            1          1  ......
 Congress. All legislative................
Powers vested by the Constitution in the            1          8      18
 Government or in any Department or
 officer of the United States. Congress
 shall make all laws necessary to carry
 into execution the.......................
Powers and duties of the office shall               2          1       6
 devolve on the Vice President, on the
 removal, death, resignation, or inability
 of the President. The....................
  [Amendments]............................         25    .......  ......
Powers not delegated to the United States          10    .......  ......
 nor prohibited to the States are reserved
 to the States and to the people.
 [Amendments].............................
    The enumeration of certain rights in            9    .......  ......
     this Constitution shall not be held
     to deny or disparage others retained
     by the people. [Amendments]..........
Preference, by any regulation of commerce           1          9       6
 or revenue, shall not be given to the
 ports of one State over those of another.
Prejudice any claims of the United States           4          3       2
 or of any particular State in the
 territory or property of the United
 States. Nothing in this Constitution
 shall....................................
Present, emolument, office, or title of             1          9       8
 any kind whatever from any king, prince,
 or foreign State. No person holding any
 office under the United States shall,
 without the consent of Congress, accept
 any......................................
Presentment or indictment of a grand jury,          5    .......  ......
 except in cases arising in the land or
 naval forces, or in the militia when in
 actual service. No person shall be held
 to answer for a capital or otherwise
 infamous crime unless on a. [Amendments].
President of the United States. The Senate          1          3       5
 shall choose a President pro tempore when
 the Vice President shall exercise the
 office of................................
    Additional provision for succession            20          4  ......
     through act of Congress. [Amendments]
    Succession in case of death.                   20          3  ......
     [Amendments].........................
    Succession in case of failure to be            20          3  ......
     chosen or qualified. [Amendments]....
    Term of office, beginning and ending.          20          1  ......
     [Amendments].........................
    The Chief Justice shall preside upon            1          3       6
     the trial of the.....................
    Shall approve and sign all bills                1          7       2
     passed by Congress before they shall
     become laws..........................
    Shall return to the House in which it           1          7       2
     originated, with his objections, any
     bill which he shall not approve......
    If not returned within ten days                 1          7       2
     (Sundays excepted), it shall become a
     law, unless Congress shall adjourn
     before the expiration of that time...
    Every order, resolution, or vote which          1          7       3
     requires the concurrence of both
     Houses, except on a question of
     adjournment, shall be presented to
     the..................................
    If disapproved by him, shall be                 1          7       3
     returned and proceeded on as in the
     case of a bill.......................
    The executive power shall be vested in          2          1       1
     a....................................
    He shall hold his office during the             2          1       1
     term of four years...................
    In case of the removal of the                   2          1       6
     President from office, or of his
     death, resignation, or inability to
     discharge the duties of his office,
     the Vice President shall perform the
     duties of............................
      [Amendments]........................         25    .......  ......
    Congress may declare, by law, in the            2          1       6
     case of the removal, death,
     resignation, or inability of the
     President, what officer shall act as.
      [Amendments]........................         25    .......  ......
    The President shall receive a                   2          1       7
     compensation which shall not be
     increased nor diminished during his
     term, nor shall he receive any other
     emolument from the United States.....
    Before he enters upon the execution of          2          1       8
     his office he shall take an oath of
     office...............................
    Shall be Commander in Chief of the              2          2       1
     Army and Navy and of the militia of
     the States when called into actual
     service..............................
    He may require the opinion, in                  2          2       1
     writing, of the principal officer in
     each of the Executive Departments....
    He may grant reprieves or pardons for           2          2       1
     offenses, except in cases of
     impeachment..........................
    He may make treaties by and with the            2          2       2
     advice and consent of the Senate, two-
     thirds of the Senators present
     concurring...........................
    He may appoint, by and with the advice          2          2       2
     and consent of the Senate,
     ambassadors, other public ministers
     and consuls, judges of the Supreme
     Court, and all other officers whose
     appointments may be authorized by law
     and not herein provided for..........
    Congress may vest the appointment of            2          2       2
     inferior officers in the.............
    He may fill up all vacancies that may           2          2       3
     happen in the recess of the Senate by
     commissions which shall expire at the
     end of their next session............
    He shall give information to Congress           2          3  ......
     of the state of the Union, and
     recommend measures...................
    On extraordinary occasions he may               2          3  ......
     convene both Houses or either........
    In case of disagreement between the             2          3  ......
     two Houses as to the time of
     adjournment, he may adjourn them to
     such time as he may think proper.....
    He shall receive ambassadors and other          2          3  ......
     public ministers.....................
    He shall take care that the laws be             2          3  ......
     faithfully executed..................
    He shall commission all the officers            2          3  ......
     of the United States.................
    On impeachment for, and conviction of,          2          4  ......
     treason, bribery, or other high
     crimes and misdemeanors, shall be
     removed from office. The.............
    No person except a natural-born                 2          1       5
     citizen, or a citizen of the United
     States at the adoption of the
     Constitution, shall be eligible to
     the office of........................
    No person shall be elected to office           22    .......  ......
     more than twice. [Amendments]........
    No person who shall not have attained           2          1       5
     the age of thirty-five years and been
     fourteen years a resident of the
     United States shall be eligible for
     the office of........................
    Congress to decide the issue of the            25          4  ......
     President's ability to discharge the
     powers and duties of his office.
     [Amendments].........................
    Declaration of his inability to                25          3  ......
     discharge the powers and duties of
     his office. [Amendments].............
    Nomination of successor to the Vice            25          2  ......
     President whenever a vacancy in the
     office of the Vice President occurs.
     [Amendments].........................
    Succession of Vice President to office         25    .......  ......
     in case of death, resignation,
     removal, or inability of President to
     discharge the powers and duties of
     his office. [Amendments].............
President and Vice President. Manner of             2          1       2
 choosing. Each State by its legislature,
 shall appoint a number of electors equal
 to the whole number of Senators and
 Representatives to which the State may be
 entitled in the Congress.................
    No Senator or Representative or person          2          1       2
     holding an office of trust or profit
     under the United States shall be an
     elector..............................
    Congress may determine the time of              2          1       4
     choosing the electors and the day on
     which they shall give their votes,
     which day shall be the same
     throughout the United States.........
    The electors shall meet in their               12    .......  ......
     respective States and vote by ballot
     for President and Vice President, one
     of whom, at least, shall not be an
     inhabitant of the same State with
     themselves. [Amendments].............
    They shall name in distinct ballots            12    .......  ......
     the person voted for as President and
     the person voted for as Vice
     President. [Amendments]..............
    They shall make distinct lists of the          12    .......  ......
     persons voted for as President and as
     Vice President, which they shall sign
     and certify and transmit sealed to
     the President of the Senate at the
     seat of government. [Amendments].....
    The President of the Senate shall, in          12    .......  ......
     the presence of the Senate and House
     of Representatives, open all the
     certificates, and the votes shall
     then be counted. [Amendments]........
    The person having the greatest number          12    .......  ......
     of votes shall be the President, if
     such number be a majority of the
     whole number of electors appointed.
     [Amendments].........................
    If no person have such majority, then          12    .......  ......
     from the persons having the highest
     numbers, not exceeding three, on the
     list of those voted for as President,
     the House of Representatives shall
     choose immediately, by ballot, the
     President. [Amendments]..............
    In choosing the President, the votes           12    .......  ......
     shall be taken by States, the
     representation from each State having
     one vote. [Amendments]...............
    A quorum for this purpose shall                12    .......  ......
     consist of a member or members from
     two-thirds of the States, and a
     majority of all the States shall be
     necessary to a choice. [Amendments]..
    But if no choice shall be made before          12    .......  ......
     the 4th of March next following, then
     the Vice President shall act as
     President, as in the case of the
     death or disability of the President.
     [Amendments].........................
    The District of Columbia shall                 23          1  ......
     appoint, in such manner as the
     Congress may direct, a number of
     electors equal to the whole number of
     Senators and Representatives to which
     the District would be entitled if a
     State. [Amendments]..................
President of the Senate, but shall have no          1          3       4
 vote unless the Senate be equally
 divided. The Vice President shall be.....
President pro tempore. In the absence of            1          3       5
 the Vice President the Senate shall
 choose a.................................
    When the Vice President shall exercise          1          3       5
     the office of President of the United
     States, the Senate shall choose a....
    President to transmit his declaration          25          3  ......
     of inability to discharge the powers
     and duties of his office to.
     [Amendments].........................
    Vice President and a majority of the           25          4  ......
     principal officers of the executive
     departments to transmit their
     declaration of the President's
     inability to discharge the powers and
     duties of his office to. [Amendments]
Press. Congress shall pass no law                   1    .......  ......
 abridging the freedom of speech or of
 the. [Amendments]........................
Previous condition of servitude. The right         15          1  ......
 of citizens of the United States to vote
 shall not be denied or abridged by the
 United States, or by any State, on
 account of race, color, or. [Amendments].
Primary elections. The right of citizens           24          1  ......
 of the United States to vote in shall not
 be denied or abridged by the United
 States or any State by reason of failure
 to pay any poll tax or other tax.
 [Amendments].............................
Private property shall not be taken for             5    .......  ......
 public use without just compensation.
 [Amendments].............................
Privilege. Senators and Representatives             1          6       1
 shall, in all cases except treason,
 felony, and breach of the peace, be
 privileged from arrest during their
 attendance at the session of their
 respective Houses, and in going to and
 returning from the same..................
    They shall not be questioned for any            1          6       1
     speech or debate in either House in
     any other place......................
Privileges and immunities of citizens of            4          2       1
 the United States. The citizens of each
 State shall be entitled to all the
 privileges and immunities of the citizens
 of the several States....................
    No soldier shall be quartered in any            3    .......  ......
     house without the consent of the
     owner in time of peace. [Amendments].
    No person shall be twice put in                 5    .......  ......
     jeopardy of life and limb for the
     same offense. [Amendments]...........
    All persons born or naturalized in the         14          1  ......
     United States, and subject to the
     jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of
     the United States and of the State in
     which they reside. [Amendments]......
    No State shall make or enforce any law         14          1  ......
     which shall abridge the privileges or
     immunities of citizens of the United
     States. [Amendments].................
    No State shall deprive any person of           14          1  ......
     life, liberty, or property without
     due process of law. [Amendments].....
    Nor deny to any person within its              14          1  ......
     jurisdiction the equal protection of
     its laws. [Amendments]...............
Prizes captured on land or water. Congress          1          8      11
 shall make rules concerning..............
Probable cause. The right of the people to          4    .......  ......
 be secure in their persons, houses,
 papers, and effects, against unreasonable
 searches and seizures, shall not be
 violated. And no warrant shall issue for
 such but upon. [Amendments]..............
Process for obtaining witnesses in his              6    .......  ......
 favor. In all criminal prosecutions the
 accused shall have. [Amendments].........
Process of law. No person shall be                  5    .......  ......
 compelled in any criminal case to be a
 witness against himself, nor be deprived
 of life, liberty, or property, without
 due. [Amendments]........................
    No State shall deprive any person of           14          1  ......
     life, liberty, or property, without
     due. [Amendments]....................
Progress of science and useful arts.                1          8       8
 Congress shall have power to promote the.
Property of the United States. Congress             4          3       3
 may dispose of and make all needful rules
 and regulations respecting the territory
 or.......................................
Property, without due process of law. No            5    .......  ......
 person shall be compelled in any criminal
 case to be a witness against himself; nor
 shall he be deprived of his life,
 liberty, or. [Amendments]................
    No State shall abridge the privileges          14          1  ......
     or immunities of citizens of the
     United States; nor deprive any person
     of his life, liberty, or.
     [Amendments].........................
Prosecutions. The accused shall have a              6    .......  ......
 speedy and public trial in all criminal.
 [Amendments].............................
    He shall be tried by a jury in the              6    .......  ......
     State or district where the crime was
     committed. [Amendments]..............
    He shall be informed of the nature and          6    .......  ......
     cause of the accusation. [Amendments]
    He shall be confronted with the                 6    .......  ......
     witnesses against him. [Amendments]..
    He shall have compulsory process for            6    .......  ......
     obtaining witnesses. [Amendments]....
    He shall have counsel for his defense.          6    .......  ......
     [Amendments].........................
Protection of the laws. No State shall             14          1  ......
 deny to any person within its
 jurisdiction the equal. [Amendments].....
Public debt of the United States incurred          14          4  ......
 in suppressing insurrection or rebellion
 shall not be questioned. The validity of
 the. [Amendments]........................
Public safety must require it. The writ of          1          9       2
 habeas corpus shall not be suspended,
 unless when in cases of rebellion or
 invasion the.............................
Public trial by jury. In all criminal               6    .......  ......
 prosecutions the accused shall have a
 speedy and. [Amendments].................
Public use. Private property shall not be           5    .......  ......
 taken for, without just compensation.
 [Amendments].............................
Punishment according to law. Judgment in            1          3       7
 cases of impeachment shall not extend
 further than to removal from, and
 disqualification for, office; but the
 party convicted shall nevertheless be
 liable and subject to indictment, trial,
 judgment, and............................
Punishments inflicted. Excessive bail               8    .......  ......
 shall not be required nor excessive fines
 imposed nor cruel and unusual.
 [Amendments].............................

                     Q

Qualification for office. No religious              6    .......       3
 test shall ever be required as a.........
Qualifications of electors of members of            1          2       1
 the House of Representatives shall be the
 same as electors for the most numerous
 branch of the State legislature..........
Qualifications of electors of Senators             17          1  ......
 shall be the same as electors of the most
 numerous branch of the State legislature.
 [Amendments].............................
Qualifications of members of the House of           1          2       2
 Representatives. They shall be twenty-
 five years of age, seven years a citizen
 of the United States, and an inhabitant
 of the State in which chosen.............
    Of Senators. They shall be thirty               1          3       3
     years of age, nine years a citizen of
     the United States, and an inhabitant
     of the State in which chosen.........
    Of its own members. Each House shall            1          5       1
     be the judge of the election,
     returns, and.........................
    Of the President. No person except a            2          1       5
     natural-born citizen, or a citizen of
     the United States at the time of the
     adoption of the Constitution, shall
     be eligible to the office of
     President............................
    Neither shall any person be eligible            2          1       5
     to the office of President who shall
     not have attained the age of thirty-
     five years and been fourteen years a
     resident within the United States....
    Of the Vice President. No person               12    .......  ......
     constitutionally ineligible to the
     office of President shall be eligible
     to that of Vice President.
     [Amendments].........................
Quartered in any house without the consent          3    .......  ......
 of the owner in time of peace. No soldier
 shall be. [Amendments]...................
Quorum to do business. A majority of each           1          5       1
 House shall constitute a.................
    But a smaller number than a quorum may          1          5       1
     adjourn from day to day and may be
     authorized to compel the attendance
     of absent members....................
    Of the House of Representatives for            12    .......  ......
     choosing a President shall consist of
     a member or members from two-thirds
     of the States, and a majority of all
     the States shall be necessary to a
     choice. [Amendments].................
Quorum to elect a Vice President by the            12    .......  ......
 Senate. Two-thirds of the whole number of
 Senators shall be a. [Amendments]........
    A majority of the whole number shall           12    .......  ......
     be necessary to a choice.
     [Amendments].........................

                     R

Race, color, or previous condition of              15          1  ......
 servitude. The right of citizens of the
 United States to vote shall not be denied
 or abridged by the United States or by
 any State on account of. [Amendments]....
Ratification of amendments to the                   5    .......  ......
 Constitution shall be by the legislatures
 of three-fourths of the several States or
 by conventions in three-fourths of the
 States, accordingly as Congress may
 propose..................................
Ratification of the conventions of nine             7    .......  ......
 States shall be sufficient to establish
 the Constitution between the States so
 ratifying the same.......................
Ratio of representation until the first             1          2       3
 enumeration under the Constitution shall
 be made not to exceed one for every
 thirty thousand..........................
Ratio of representation shall be                   14          2  ......
 apportioned among the several States
 according to their respective numbers,
 counting the whole number of persons in
 each State, excluding Indians not taxed.
 [Amendments].............................
    But when the right to vote for                 14          2  ......
     Presidential electors or members of
     Congress, or the legislative,
     executive, and judicial officers of
     the State, except for engaging in
     rebellion or other crime, shall be
     denied or abridged by a State, the
     basis of representation shall be
     reduced therein in the proportion of
     such denial or abridgment of the
     right to vote. [Amendments]..........
Rebellion against the United States.               14          3  ......
 Persons who, while holding certain
 Federal and State offices, took an oath
 to support the Constitution, afterward
 engaged in insurrection or rebellion,
 disabled from holding office under the
 United States. [Amendments]..............
    But Congress may by a vote of two-             14          3  ......
     thirds of each House remove such
     disability. [Amendments].............
    Debts incurred for pensions and                14          4  ......
     bounties for services in suppressing
     the rebellion shall not be
     questioned. [Amendments].............
    All debts and obligations incurred in          14          4  ......
     aid of the rebellion, and all claims
     for the loss or emancipation of
     slaves, declared and held to be
     illegal and void. [Amendments].......
Rebellion or invasion. The writ of habeas           1          9       2
 corpus shall not be suspended except when
 the public safety may require it in cases
 of.......................................
Receipts and expenditures of all public             1          9       7
 money shall be published from time to
 time. A regular statement of.............
Recess of the Senate. The President may             2          2       3
 grant commissions, which shall expire at
 the end of the next session, to fill
 vacancies that may happen during the.....
Reconsideration of a bill returned by the           1          7       2
 President with his objections.
 Proceedings to be had upon the...........
Records, and judicial proceedings of every          4          1  ......
 other State. Full faith and credit shall
 be given in each State to the acts.......
    Congress shall prescribe the manner of          4          1  ......
     proving such acts, records, and
     proceedings..........................
Redress of grievances. Congress shall make          1    .......  ......
 no law abridging the right of the people
 peaceably to assemble and to petition for
 the. [Amendments]........................
Regulations, except as to the places of             1          4       1
 choosing Senators. The time, places, and
 manner of holding elections for Senators
 and Representatives shall be prescribed
 by the legislatures of the States, but
 Congress may at any time by law make or
 alter such...............................
Regulations of commerce or revenue.                 1          9       6
 Preference to the ports of one State over
 those of another shall not be given by
 any......................................
Religion or prohibiting the free exercise           1    .......  ......
 thereof. Congress shall make no law
 respecting the establishment of.
 [Amendments].............................
Religious test shall ever be required as a          6    .......       3
 qualification for any office or public
 trust under the United States. No........
Removal of the President from office. The           2          1       6
 same shall devolve on the Vice President.
 In case of the...........................
  [Amendments]............................         25    .......  ......
    The Vice President shall succeed to            25    .......  ......
     the office of the President. In case
     of the death, resignation, inability,
     or. [Amendments].....................
Representation. No State, without its               5    .......  ......
 consent, shall be deprived of its equal
 suffrage in the Senate...................
Representation and direct taxation, how             1          2       3
 apportioned among the several States.....
Representation until the first enumeration          1          2       3
 under the Constitution not to exceed one
 for every thirty thousand. The ratio of..
Representation in any State. The executive          1          2       4
 thereof shall issue writs of election to
 fill vacancies in the....................
Representation among the several States            14          2  ......
 shall be according to their respective
 numbers, counting the whole number of
 persons in each State, excluding Indians
 not taxed. The ratio of. [Amendments]....
    But where the right to vote in certain         14          2  ......
     Federal and State elections is
     abridged for any cause other than
     rebellion or other crime, the basis
     of representation shall be reduced.
     [Amendments].........................
Representatives. Congress shall consist of          1          1  ......
 a Senate and House of....................
    Qualifications of electors of members           1          2       1
     of the House of......................
    No person shall be a Representative             1          2       2
     who shall not have attained the age
     of twenty-five years, been seven
     years a citizen of the United States,
     and an inhabitant of the State in
     which he shall be chosen.............
    And direct taxes, how apportioned               1          2       3
     among the several States.............
    Executives of the State shall issue             1          2       4
     writs of election to fill vacancies
     in the House of......................
    Shall choose their Speaker and other            1          2       5
     officers. The House of...............
    Shall have the sole power of                    1          2       5
     impeachment. The House of............
    The times, places, and manner of                1          4       1
     choosing Representatives shall be
     prescribed by the legislatures of the
     States...............................
    But Congress may make by law at any             1          4       1
     time or alter such regulations except
     as to the places of choosing Senators
    And Senators shall receive a                    1          6       1
     compensation, to be ascertained by
     law..................................
    Shall in all cases, except treason,             1          6       1
     felony, and breach of the peace, be
     privileged from arrest during
     attendance at the session of the
     House, and in going to and returning
     from the same........................
    Shall not be questioned in any other            1          6       1
     place for any speech or debate.
     Members of the House of..............
    No member shall be appointed during             1          6       2
     his term to any civil office which
     shall have been created, or the
     emoluments of which shall have been
     increased, during such term..........
    No person holding any office under the          1          6       2
     United States shall, while holding
     such office, be a member of the House
     of...................................
    All bills for raising revenue shall             1          7       1
     originate in the House of............
    No Senator or Representative shall be           2          1       2
     an elector for President or Vice
     President............................
    No law, varying the compensation for           27    .......  ......
     the services of the Senators and
     Representatives, shall take effect,
     until an election of Representatives
     shall have intervened. [Amendments]..
Representatives shall be bound by an oath           6    .......       3
 or affirmation to support the
 Constitution of the United States. The
 Senators and.............................
Representatives among the several States.          14          2  ......
 Provisions relative to the apportionment
 of. [Amendments].........................
Representatives and Senators. Prescribing          14          3  ......
 certain disqualifications for office as.
 [Amendments].............................
    But Congress may, by a vote of two-            14          3  ......
     thirds of each House, remove such
     disqualification. [Amendments].......
Reprieves and pardons except in cases of            2          2       1
 impeachment. The President may grant.....
Reprisal. Congress shall have power to              1          8      11
 grant letters of marque and..............
    No State shall grant any letters of             1         10       1
     marque and...........................
Republican form of government. The United           4          4  ......
 States shall guarantee to every State in
 this Union a.............................
    And shall protect each of them against          4          4  ......
     invasion; and on the application of
     the legislature, or of the executive
     (when the legislature cannot be
     convened), against domestic violence.
Reserved rights of the States and the               9    .......  ......
 people. The enumeration in the
 Constitution of certain rights shall not
 be construed to deny or disparage others
 retained by the people. [Amendments].....
    The powers not delegated to the United         10    .......  ......
     States by the Constitution, nor
     prohibited by it to the States, are
     reserved to the States respectively,
     or to the people. [Amendments].......
Resignation of the President. The duties            2          1       6
 and powers of his office shall devolve on
 the Vice President. In case of the death.
    Congress may by law provide for the             2          1       6
     case of the removal, death...........
    The Vice President shall succeed to            25    .......  ......
     the office of the President. In case
     of the death, removal, inability, or
     [Amendments].........................
Resolution, or vote (except on a question           1          7       3
 of adjournment) requiring the concurrence
 of the two Houses shall, before it
 becomes a law, be presented to the
 President. Every order...................
Revenue shall originate in the House of             1          7       1
 Representatives. All bills for raising...
Revenue. Preference shall not be given to           1          9       6
 the ports of one State over those of
 another by any regulations of commerce or
Rhode Island entitled to one                        1          2       3
 Representative in the first Congress.....
Right of petition. Congress shall make no           1    .......  ......
 law abridging the right of the people
 peaceably to assemble and to petition for
 the redress of grievances. [Amendments]..
Right to keep and bear arms. A well-                2    .......  ......
 regulated militia being necessary to the
 security of a free State, the right of
 the people to keep and bear arms shall
 not be infringed. [Amendments]...........
Rights in the Constitution shall not be             9    .......  ......
 construed to deny or disparage others
 retained by the people. The enumeration
 of certain. [Amendments].................
Rights not delegated to the United States          10    .......  ......
 nor prohibited to the States are reserved
 to the States or to the people.
 [Amendments].............................
Rules of its proceedings. Each House may            1          5       2
 determine the............................
Rules and regulations respecting the                4          3       2
 territory or other property of the United
 States. Congress shall dispose of and
 make all needful.........................
Rules of the common law. All suits                  7    .......  ......
 involving over twenty dollars shall be
 tried by jury according to the.
 [Amendments].............................
    No fact tried by a jury shall be re-            7    .......  ......
     examined except according to the.
     [Amendments].........................

                     S

Science and the useful arts by securing to          1          8       8
 authors and inventors the exclusive right
 to their writings and discoveries.
 Congress shall have power to promote the
 progress of..............................
Searches and seizures shall not be                  4    .......  ......
 violated. The right of the people to be
 secure against unreasonable. [Amendments]
    And no warrants shall be issued but             4    .......  ......
     upon probable cause, on oath or
     affirmation, describing the place to
     be searched and the persons or things
     to be seized. [Amendments]...........
Seat of Government. Congress shall                  1          8      17
 exercise exclusive legislation in all
 cases over such district as may become
 the......................................
Securities and current coin of the United           1          8       6
 States. Congress shall provide for
 punishing the counterfeiting of the......
Security of a free State, the right of the          2    .......  ......
 people to keep and bear arms shall not be
 infringed. A well-regulated militia being
 necessary to the. [Amendments]...........
Senate and House of Representatives. The            1          1  ......
 Congress of the United States shall
 consist of a.............................
Senate of the United States. The Senate             1          3       1
 shall be composed of two Senators from
 each State, chosen by the legislature for
 six years................................
    The Senate shall be composed of two            17          1  ......
     Senators from each State, elected by
     the people thereof, for six years.
     [Amendments].........................
    Qualifications of electors of                  17          1  ......
     Senators. [Amendments]...............
    If vacancies happen during the recess           1          3       2
     of the legislature of a State, the
     executive thereof may make temporary
     appointments until the next meeting
     of the legislature...................
    When vacancies happen the executive            17          2  ......
     authority of the State shall issue
     writs of election to fill such
     vacancies; provided, that the
     legislature of any State may empower
     the executive thereof to make
     temporary appointment until the
     people fill the vacancies by election
     as the legislature may direct.
     [Amendments].........................
    The Vice President shall be President           1          3       4
     of the Senate, but shall have no vote
     unless the Senate be equally divided.
    The Senate shall choose their other             1          3       5
     officers, and also a President pro
     tempore in the absence of the Vice
     President or when he shall exercise
     the office of President..............
    The Senate shall have the sole power            1          3       6
     to try all impeachments. When sitting
     for that purpose they shall be on
     oath or affirmation..................
    When the President of the United                1          3       6
     States is tried the Chief Justice
     shall preside; and no person shall be
     convicted without the concurrence of
     two-thirds of the members present....
    It shall be the judge of the                    1          5       1
     elections, returns, and
     qualifications of its own members....
    A majority shall constitute a quorum            1          5       1
     to do business, but a smaller number
     may adjourn from day to day, and may
     be authorized to compel the
     attendance of absent members.........
    It may determine the rules of its               1          5       2
     proceedings, punish a member for
     disorderly behavior, and with the
     concurrence of two-thirds expel a
     member...............................
    It shall keep a journal of its                  1          5       3
     proceedings and from time to time
     publish the same, except such parts
     as may in their judgment require
     secrecy..............................
    It shall not adjourn for more than              1          5       4
     three days during a session without
     the consent of the other House.......
    It may propose amendments to bills for          1          7       1
     raising revenue, but such bills shall
     originate in the House of
     Representatives......................
    The Senate shall advise and consent to          2          2       2
     the ratification of all treaties,
     provided two-thirds of the members
     present concur.......................
    It shall advise and consent to the              2          2       2
     appointment of ambassadors, other
     public ministers and consuls, judges
     of the Supreme Court, and all other
     officers not herein otherwise
     provided for.........................
    It may be convened by the President on          2          3       1
     extraordinary occasions..............
    No State, without its consent, shall            5    .......  ......
     be deprived of its equal suffrage in
     the Senate...........................
Senators. They shall, immediately after             1          3       2
 assembling, under their first election,
 be divided into three classes, so that
 the seats of one-third shall become
 vacant at the expiration of every second
 year.....................................
    No person shall be a Senator who shall          1          3       3
     not be thirty years of age, nine
     years a citizen of the United States,
     and an inhabitant when elected of the
     State for which he shall be chosen...
    The times, places, and manner of                1          4       1
     choosing Senators may be fixed by the
     legislature of a State, but Congress
     may by law make or alter such
     regulations, except as the places of
     choosing.............................
    If vacancies happen during the recess           1          3       2
     of the legislature of a State, the
     executive thereof may make temporary
     appointments until the next meeting
     of the legislature...................
    If vacancies happen the executive              17          2  ......
     authority of the State shall issue
     writs of election to fill such
     vacancies; provided, that the
     legislature of any State may empower
     the executive thereof to make
     temporary appointment until the
     people fill the vacancies by election
     as the legislature may direct.
     [Amendments].........................
    They shall in all cases, except                 1          6       1
     treason, felony, and breach of the
     peace, be privileged from arrest
     during their attendance at the
     session of the Senate and in going to
     and returning from the same..........
    Senators and Representatives shall              1          6       1
     receive a compensation to be
     ascertained by law...................
    Senators and Representatives shall not          1          6       1
     be questioned for any speech or
     debate in either House in any other
     place................................
    No Senator or Representative shall,             1          6       2
     during the time for which he was
     elected, be appointed to any civil
     office under the United States which
     shall have been created, or of which
     the emoluments shall have been
     increased during such term...........
    No person holding any office under the          1          6       2
     United States shall be a member of
     either House during his continuance
     in office............................
    No Senator or Representative or person          2          1       2
     holding an office of trust or profit
     under the United States shall be an
     elector for President and Vice
     President............................
    Senators and Representatives shall be           6    .......       3
     bound by an oath or affirmation to
     support the Constitution.............
    No person shall be a Senator or                14          3  ......
     Representative who, having, as a
     Federal or State officer, taken an
     oath to support the Constitution,
     afterward engaged in rebellion
     against the United States.
     [Amendments].........................
    But Congress may, by a vote of two-            14          3  ......
     thirds of each House, remove such
     disability. [Amendments].............
    No law, varying the compensation for           27    .......  ......
     the services of the Senators and
     Representatives, shall take effect,
     until an election of Representatives
     shall have intervened. [Amendments]..
Service or labor in one State, escaping             4          2       3
 into another State, shall be delivered up
 to the party to whom such service or
 labor may be due. Fugitives from.........
Servitude, except as a punishment for              13          1  ......
 crime, whereof the party shall have been
 duly convicted, shall exist in the United
 States or any place subject to their
 jurisdiction. Neither slavery nor
 involuntary. [Amendments]................
Servitude. The right of citizens of the            15          1  ......
 United States to vote shall not be denied
 or abridged by the United States or by
 any State, on account of race, color, or
 previous condition of. [Amendments]......
Sex. Right of citizens to vote shall not           19    .......  ......
 be denied or abridged by the United
 States or any State on account of.
 [Amendments].............................
Ships of war in time of peace, without the          1         10       3
 consent of Congress. No State shall keep
 troops or................................
Silver coin a tender in payment of debts.           1         10       1
 No State shall make anything but gold and
Slave. Neither the United States nor any           14          4  ......
 State shall assume or pay any debt or
 obligation incurred in aid of
 insurrection or rebellion, or any claim
 for the loss or emancipation of any.
 [Amendments].............................
Slavery nor involuntary servitude, except          13          1  ......
 as a punishment for crime, whereof the
 party shall have been duly convicted,
 shall exist in the United States, or any
 places subject to their jurisdiction.
 Neither. [Amendments]....................
Soldiers shall not be quartered, in time            3    .......  ......
 of peace, in any house without the
 consent of the owner. [Amendments].......
South Carolina entitled to five                     1          2       3
 Representatives in the first Congress....
Speaker and other officers. The House of            1          2       5
 Representatives shall choose their.......
Speaker of the House of Representatives.           25          3  ......
 President to transmit his declaration of
 inability to discharge the powers and
 duties of his office to. [Amendments]....
    Vice President and a majority of the           25          4  ......
     principal officers of the executive
     departments to transmit their
     declaration of the President's
     inability to discharge the powers and
     duties of his office to. [Amendments]
Speech or of the press. Congress shall              1    .......  ......
 make no law abridging the freedom of.
 [Amendments].............................
Speedy and public trial by a jury. In all           6    .......  ......
 criminal prosecutions the accused shall
 have a. [Amendments].....................
Standard of weights and measures. Congress          1          8       5
 shall fix the............................
State legislatures, and all executive and           6    .......       3
 judicial officers of the United States,
 shall take an oath to support the
 Constitution. All members of the several.
State of the Union. The President shall,            2          3  ......
 from time to time, give Congress
 information of the.......................
States. When vacancies happen in the                1          2       4
 representation from any State, the
 executive authority shall issue writs of
 election to fill such vacancies..........
    When vacancies happen in the                   17          2  ......
     representation of any State in the
     Senate, the executive authority shall
     issue writs of election to fill such
     vacancies. [Amendments]..............
    Congress shall have power to regulate           1          8       3
     commerce among the several...........
    No State shall enter into any treaty,           1         10       1
     alliance, or confederation...........
    Shall not grant letters of marque and           1         10       1
     reprisal.............................
    Shall not coin money..................          1         10       1
    Shall not emit bills of credit........          1         10       1
    Shall not make anything but gold and            1         10       1
     silver coin a tender in payment of
     debts................................
    Shall not pass any bill of attainder,           1         10       1
     ex post facto law, or law impairing
     the obligation of contracts..........
    Shall not grant any title of nobility.          1         10       1
    Shall not, without the consent of               1         10       2
     Congress, lay any duties on imports
     or exports, except what may be
     absolutely necessary for executing
     its inspection laws..................
    Shall not, without the consent of               1         10       3
     Congress, lay any duty of tonnage,
     keep troops or ships of war in time
     of peace, enter into any agreement or
     compact with another State or with a
     foreign power, or engage in war
     unless actually invaded or in such
     imminent danger as will not admit of
     delay................................
    Full faith and credit in every other            4          1  ......
     State shall be given to the public
     acts, records, and judicial
     proceedings of each State............
    Congress shall prescribe the manner of          4          1  ......
     providing such acts, records, and
     proceedings..........................
    Citizens of each State shall be                 4          2       1
     entitled to all privileges and
     immunities of citizens in the several
     States...............................
    New States may be admitted by Congress          4          3       1
     into this Union......................
    But no new State shall be formed or             4          3       1
     erected within the jurisdiction of
     another State........................
    Nor any State formed by the junction            4          3       1
     of two or more States or parts of
     States, without the consent of the
     legislatures as well as of Congress..
    No State shall be deprived, without             5    .......  ......
     its consent, of its equal suffrage in
     the Senate...........................
    Three-fourths of the legislatures of            5    .......  ......
     the States, or conventions of three-
     fourths of the States, as Congress
     shall prescribe, may ratify
     amendments to the Constitution.......
    The United States shall guarantee a             4          4  ......
     republican form of government to
     every State in the Union.............
    They shall protect each State against           4          4  ......
     invasion.............................
    And on application of the legislature,          4          4  ......
     or the executive (when the
     legislature cannot be convened),
     against domestic violence............
    The ratification by nine States shall           7    .......  ......
     be sufficient to establish the
     Constitution between the States so
     ratifying the same...................
    When the choice of President shall             12    .......  ......
     devolve on the House of
     Representatives, the vote shall be
     taken by States. [Amendments]........
    But in choosing the President the vote         12    .......  ......
     shall be taken by States, the
     representation from each State having
     one vote. [Amendments]...............
    A quorum for choice of President shall         12    .......  ......
     consist of a member or members from
     two-thirds of the States, and a
     majority of all the States shall be
     necessary to a choice. [Amendments]..
States or the people. Powers not delegated         10    .......  ......
 to the United States, nor prohibited to
 the States, are reserved to the.
 [Amendments].............................
Succession to the offices of the President         25    .......  ......
 and Vice President. [Amendments].........
Suffrage in the Senate. No State shall be           5    .......  ......
 deprived without its consent of its equal
    No denial of right to vote on account          19    .......  ......
     of sex. [Amendments].................
Suits at common law, where the value in             7    .......  ......
 controversy shall exceed $20, shall be
 tried by jury. [Amendments]..............
    In law or equity against one of the            11    .......  ......
     States, by citizens of another State,
     or by citizens of a foreign State.
     The judicial power of the United
     States shall not extend to.
     [Amendments].........................
Suppress insurrections and repel                    1          8      15
 invasions. Congress shall provide for
 calling forth the militia to execute the
 laws.....................................
Suppression of insurrection or rebellion           14          4  ......
 shall not be questioned. The public debt,
 including the debt for pensions and
 bounties, incurred in the. [Amendments]..
Supreme Court. Congress shall have power            1          8       9
 to constitute tribunals inferior to the..
    And such inferior courts as Congress            3          1  ......
     may establish. The judicial power of
     the United States shall be vested in
     one..................................
    The judges of the Supreme Court and             3          1  ......
     inferior courts shall hold their
     offices during good behavior.........
    The compensation of the judges shall            3          1  ......
     not be diminished during their
     continuance in office................
    Shall have original jurisdiction. In            3          2       2
     all cases affecting ambassadors,
     other public ministers and consuls,
     and in which a State may be a party,
     the..................................
    Shall have appellate jurisdiction,              3          2       2
     both as to law and the fact, with
     such exceptions and regulations as
     Congress may make. The...............
Supreme law of the land. This                       6    .......       2
 Constitution, the laws made in pursuance
 thereof, and the treaties of the United
 States, shall be the.....................
    The judges in every State shall be              6    .......       2
     bound thereby........................

                     T

Tax shall be laid unless in proportion to           1          9       4
 the census or enumeration. No capitation
 or other direct..........................
Tax on incomes authorized without                  16    .......  ......
 apportionment among the several States,
 and without regard to any census or
 enumeration. [Amendments]................
Tax or duty shall be laid on articles               1          9       5
 exported from any State. No..............
Tax. The right of citizens of the United           24          1  ......
 States to vote shall not be denied or
 abridged by the United States or any
 State by reason of failure to pay.
 [Amendments].............................
Taxes (direct) and Representatives, how             1          2       3
 apportioned among the several States.....
Taxes, duties, imposts, and excises.                1          8       1
 Congress shall have power to lay.........
    They shall be uniform throughout the            1          8       1
     United States........................
Temporary appointments until the next               1          3       2
 meeting of the legislature. If vacancies
 happen in the Senate in the recess of the
 legislature of a State, the executive of
 the State shall make.....................
Tender in payment of debts. No State shall          1         10       1
 make anything but gold and silver coin a.
Term for which he is elected. No Senator            1          6       2
 or Representative shall be appointed to
 any office under the United States which
 shall have been created or its emoluments
 increased during the.....................
Term of office. President, not more than           22    .......  ......
 twice. [Amendments]......................
Terms of four years. The President and              2          1       1
 Vice President shall hold their offices
 for the..................................
Territory or other property of the United           4          3       2
 States. Congress shall dispose of and
 make all needful rules and regulations
 respecting the...........................
Test as a qualification for any office or           6    .......       3
 public trust shall ever be required. No
 religious................................
Testimony of two witnesses to the same              3          3       1
 overt act, or on confession in open
 court. No person shall be convicted of
 treason except on the....................
Three-fourths of the legislatures of the            5    .......  ......
 States, or conventions in three-fourths
 of the States, as Congress shall
 prescribe, may ratify amendments to the
 Constitution.............................
Tie. The Vice President shall have no vote          1          3       4
 unless the Senate be equally divided.....
Times, places, and manner of holding                1          4       1
 elections for Senators and
 Representatives shall be prescribed in
 each State by the legislature thereof....
    But Congress may at any time by law             1          4       1
     make or alter such regulations,
     except as to the places of choosing
     Senators.............................
Title of any kind, from any king, prince,           1          9       8
 or foreign State, without the consent of
 Congress. No person holding any office
 under the United States shall accept of
 any......................................
Title of nobility. The United States shall          1          9       8
 not grant any............................
    No State shall grant any..............          1         10       1
Tonnage without the consent of Congress.            1         10       3
 No State shall lay any duty of...........
Tranquility, provide for the common         ...........  .......  ......
 defense, &c. To insure domestic.
 [Preamble]...............................
Treason shall consist only in levying war           3          3       1
 against the United States, or in adhering
 to their enemies, giving them aid and
 comfort..................................
    No person shall, unless on the                  3          3       1
     testimony of two witnesses to the
     same overt act, or on confession in
     open court, be convicted of..........
    Congress shall have power to declare            3          3       2
     the punishment of....................
    Shall not work corruption of blood.             3          3       2
     Attainder of.........................
    Shall not work forfeiture, except               3          3       2
     during the life of the person
     attainted. Attainder of..............
Treason, bribery, or other high crimes and          2          4       1
 misdemeanors. The President, Vice
 President, and all civil officers shall
 be removed from office on impeachment for
 and conviction of........................
Treason, felony, and breach of the peace.           1          6       1
 Senators and Representatives shall be
 privileged from arrest while attending or
 while going to or returning from the
 sessions of Congress, except in cases of.
Treasury, but in consequence of                     1          9       7
 appropriations made by law. No money
 shall be drawn from the..................
Treaties. The President shall have power,           2          2       2
 with the advice and consent of the
 Senate, provided two-thirds of the
 Senators present concur, to make.........
    The judicial power shall extend to all          3          2       1
     cases arising under the Constitution,
     laws, and............................
    They shall be the supreme law of the            6    .......       2
     land, and the judges in every State
     shall be bound thereby...............
Treaty, alliance, or confederation. No              1         10       1
 State shall enter into any...............
Trial, judgment, and punishment according           1          3       7
 to law. Judgment in cases of impeachment
 shall not extend further than to removal
 from, and disqualification for, office;
 but the party convicted shall
 nevertheless be liable and subject to
 indictment...............................
Trial by jury. All crimes, except in cases          3          2       3
 of impeachment, shall be tried by jury...
    Such trial shall be held in the State           3          2       3
     within which the crime shall have
     been committed.......................
    But when not committed within a State,          3          2       3
     the trial shall be at such a place as
     Congress may by law have directed....
    In all criminal prosecutions the                6    .......  ......
     accused shall have a speedy and
     public. [Amendments].................
    Suits at common law, when the amount            7    .......  ......
     exceeds $20, shall be by.
     [Amendments].........................
Tribunals, inferior to the Supreme Court.           1          8       9
 Congress shall have power to constitute..
Troops or ships of war in time of peace             1         10       3
 without the consent of Congress. No State
 shall keep...............................
Trust or profit under the United States,            2          1       2
 shall be an elector for President and
 Vice President. No Senator,
 Representative, or person holding any
 office of................................
Two-thirds of the members present. No               1          3       6
 person shall be convicted on an
 impeachment without the concurrence of...
Two-thirds, may expel a member. Each                1          5       2
 House, with the concurrence of...........
Two-thirds. A bill returned by the                  1          7       2
 President with his objections, may be
 repassed by each House by a vote of......
Two-thirds of the Senators present concur.          2          2       2
 The President shall have power, by and
 with the advice and consent of the
 Senate, to make treaties, provided.......
Two-thirds of the legislatures of the               5    .......  ......
 several States. Congress shall call a
 convention for proposing amendments to
 the Constitution on the application of...
Two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it             5    .......  ......
 necessary. Congress shall propose
 amendments to the Constitution whenever..
Two-thirds of the States. When the choice          12    .......  ......
 of a President shall devolve on the House
 of Representatives, a quorum shall
 consist of a member or members from.
 [Amendments].............................
Two-thirds of the whole number of                  12    .......  ......
 Senators. A quorum of the Senate, when
 choosing a Vice President, shall consist
 of. [Amendments].........................
Two-thirds may remove the disabilities             14          3  ......
 imposed by the third section of the
 fourteenth amendment. Congress, by a vote
 of. [Amendments].........................
Two years. Appropriations for raising and           1          8      12
 supporting armies shall not be for a
 longer term than.........................

                     U

Union. To establish a more perfect.         ...........  .......  ......
 [Preamble]...............................
    The President shall, from time to               2          3       1
     time, give to Congress information of
     the state of the.....................
    New States may be admitted by Congress          4          3       1
     into this............................
    But no new States shall be formed or            4          3       1
     erected within the jurisdiction of
     another..............................
Unreasonable searches and seizures. The             4    .......  ......
 people shall be secured in their persons,
 houses, papers, and effects against.
 [Amendments].............................
    And no warrants shall be issued but             4    .......  ......
     upon probable cause, supported by
     oath or affirmation, and particularly
     describing the place to be searched,
     and the persons or things to be
     seized. [Amendments].................
Unusual punishments inflicted. Excessive            8    .......  ......
 bail shall not be required, nor excessive
 fines imposed, nor cruel and.
 [Amendments].............................
Use without just compensation. Private              5    .......  ......
 property shall not be taken for public.
 [Amendments].............................
Useful arts, by securing for limited times          1          8       8
 to authors and inventors the exclusive
 right to their writings and inventions.
 Congress shall have power to promote the
 progress of science and the..............

                     V

Vacancies happening in the representation           1          2       4
 of a State. The executive thereof shall
 issue writs of election to fill..........
Vacancies happening in the representation          17          2  ......
 of a State in the Senate. The executive
 thereof shall issue writs of election to
 fill. [Amendments].......................
Vacancies happening in the Senate in the            1          3       2
 recess of the legislature of a State. How
 filled...................................
Vacancies that happen during the recess of          2          2       3
 the Senate, by granting commissions which
 shall expire at the end of the next
 session. The President shall have power
 to fill..................................
Validity of the public debt incurred in            14          4  ......
 suppressing insurrection against the
 United States, including debt for
 pensions and bounties, shall not be
 questioned. [Amendments].................
Vessels bound to or from the ports of one           1          9       6
 State, shall not be obliged to enter,
 clear, or pay duties in another State....
Veto of a bill by the President.                    1          7       2
 Proceedings of the two Houses upon the...
Vice President of the United States shall           1          3       4
 be President of the Senate...............
    He shall have no vote unless the                1          3       4
     Senate be equally divided............
    The Senate shall choose a President             1          3       5
     pro tempore in the absence of the....
    He shall be chosen for the term of              2          1       1
     four years...........................
    The number and the manner of                    2          1       2
     appointing electors for President and
    In case of the removal, death,                  2          1       6
     resignation, or inability of the
     President, the powers and duties of
     his office shall devolve on the......
      [Amendments]........................         25    .......  ......
    Congress may provide by law for the             2          1       6
     case of the removal, death,
     resignation, or inability both of the
     President and........................
      [Amendments]........................         25    .......  ......
    On impeachment for and conviction of            2          4  ......
     treason, bribery, and other high
     crimes and misdemeanors, shall be
     removed from office. The.............
Vice President. The manner of choosing             12    .......  ......
 the. The electors shall meet in their
 respective States and vote by ballot for
 President and Vice President, one of
 whom, at least, shall not be an
 inhabitant of the same State with
 themselves. [Amendments].................
    Additionial provision for succession           20          4  ......
     through act of Congress. [Amendments]
    Nomination by President in case of             25          2  ......
     vacancy in office. [Amendments]......
    Term of office, beginning and ending.          20          1  ......
     [Amendments].........................
    The electors shall name, in distinct           12    .......  ......
     ballots, the person voted for as Vice
     President. [Amendments]..............
    They shall make distinct lists of the          12    .......  ......
     persons voted for as Vice President,
     which lists they shall sign and
     certify, and send sealed to the seat
     of Government, directed to the
     President of the Senate. [Amendments]
    The President of the Senate shall, in          12    .......  ......
     the presence of the Senate and House
     of Representatives, open all the
     certificates, and the votes shall be
     then counted. [Amendments]...........
    The person having the greatest number          12    .......  ......
     of votes shall be Vice President, if
     such number be a majority of the
     whole number of electors.
     [Amendments].........................
    If no person have a majority, then             12    .......  ......
     from the two highest numbers on the
     list the Senate shall choose the Vice
     President. [Amendments]..............
    A quorum for this purpose shall                12    .......  ......
     consist of two-thirds of the whole
     number of Senators; and a majority of
     the whole number shall be necessary
     to a choice. [Amendments]............
    But if the House shall make no choice          12    .......  ......
     of a President before the 4th of
     March next following, then the Vice
     President shall act as President, as
     in the case of the death or other
     constitutional disability of the
     President. [Amendments]..............
    No person constitutionally ineligible          12    .......  ......
     as President shall be eligible as.
     [Amendments].........................
    In case of the removal, death,                 25    .......  ......
     resignation, or inability of the
     President, the powers and duties of
     his office shall succeed to.
     [Amendments].........................
    Nomination by President of successor           25          2  ......
     in event of vacancy in office of.
     [Amendments].........................
Violence. The United States shall                   4          4  ......
 guarantee to every State a republican
 form of government, and shall protect
 each State against invasion and domestic.
Virginia entitled to ten Representatives            1          2       3
 in the first Congress....................
Vote. Each Senator shall have one.........          1          3       1
    The Vice President, unless the Senate           1          3       4
     be equally divided, shall have no....
    Requiring the concurrence of the two            1          7       3
     Houses (except upon a question of
     adjournment) shall be presented to
     the President. Every order,
     resolution, or.......................
    Shall not be denied or abridged by the         15          1  ......
     United States or by any State on
     account of race, color, or previous
     condition of servitude. The right of
     citizens of the United States to.
     [Amendments].........................
    Right of citizens to vote shall not be         19    .......  ......
     denied or abridged by the United
     States or any State on account of
     sex. [Amendments]....................
    Shall not be denied or abridged by the         24          1  ......
     United States or any State by reason
     of failure to pay any poll tax or
     other tax. The right of citizens of
     the United States to. [Amendments]...
    Right of citizens who are eighteen             26          1  ......
     years of age or older to vote shall
     not be denied or abridged by the
     United States or any State, on
     account of age. [Amendments].........
Vote of two-thirds. Each House may expel a          1          5       2
 member by a..............................
    A bill vetoed by the President may be           1          7       2
     repassed in each House by a..........
    No person shall be convicted on an              1          3       6
     impeachment except by a..............
    Whenever both Houses shall deem it              5    .......  ......
     necessary, Congress may propose
     amendments to the Constitution by a..

    The President may make treaties with            2          2       2
     the advice and consent of the Senate,
     by a.................................
    Disabilities incurred by participation         14          3  ......
     in insurrection or rebellion, may be
     relieved by Congress by a.
     [Amendments].........................

                     W

War, grant letters of marque and reprisal,          1          8      11
 and make rules concerning captures on
 land and water. Congress shall have power
 to declare...............................
    For governing the land and naval                1          8      14
     forces. Congress shall have power to
     make rules and articles of...........
    No State shall, without the consent of          1         10       3
     Congress, unless actually invaded, or
     in such imminent danger as will not
     admit of delay, engage in............
War against the United States, adhering to          3          3       1
 their enemies, and giving them aid and
 comfort. Treason shall consist only in
 levying..................................
Warrants shall issue but upon probable              4    .......  ......
 cause, on oath or affirmation, describing
 the place to be searched, and the person
 or things to be seized. No. [Amendments].
Weights and measures. Congress shall fix            1          8       5
 the standard of..........................
Welfare and to secure the blessings of      ...........  .......  ......
 liberty, &c. To promote the general.
 [Preamble]...............................
Welfare. Congress shall have power to               1          8       1
 provide for the common defense and
 general..................................
Witness against himself. No person shall,           5    .......  ......
 in a criminal case, be compelled to be a.
 [Amendments].............................
Witnesses against him. In all criminal              6    .......  ......
 prosecutions the accused shall be
 confronted with the. [Amendments]........
Witnesses in his favor. In all criminal             6    .......  ......
 prosecutions the accused shall have
 compulsory process for obtaining.
 [Amendments].............................
Witnesses to the same overt act, or on              3          3       1
 confession in open court. No person shall
 be convicted of treason unless on the
 testimony of two.........................
Writ of habeas corpus shall not be                  1          9       2
 suspended unless in case of rebellion or
 invasion the public safety may require it
Writs of election to fill vacancies in the          1          2       4
 representation of any State. The
 executives of the State shall issue......
Written opinion of the principal officer            2          2       1
 in each of the Executive Departments on
 any subject relating to the duties of his
 office. The President may require the....

                     Y

Yeas and nays of the members of either              1          5       3
 House shall, at the desire of one-fifth
 of those present, be entered on the
 journals.................................
    The votes of both Houses upon the               1          7       2
     reconsideration of a bill returned by
     the President with his objections
     shall be determined by...............
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