[House Document 110-51]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]




 
                The Constitution of the United States




                                 and

                    The Declaration of Independence





110th Congress, 1st Session / House Document 110-51




                The Declaration of Independence 
                was the promise; the 
                Constitution was the fulfillment.







               ``The sacred rights of mankind 
                 are not to be rummaged for,
                 among old parchments, or musty
                 records. They are written, as
                 with a sun beam in the whole
                 volume of human nature, by the
                 hand of the divinity itself; and
                 can never be erased or obscured
                 by mortal power.''

                             Alexander Hamilton, 1775









                      PRINTED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

                               OF THE 

                     JOINT COMMITTEE ON PRINTING 


                               ------


           HOUSE                                    SENATE 

ROBERT BRADY, Pennsylvania               DIANNE FEINSTEIN, California 
 Chairman                                   Vice Chairman 
MICHAEL CAPUANO, Massachusetts           DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii
SUSAN DAVIS, California                  PATTY MURRAY, Washington
VERNON J. EHLERS, Michigan               ROBERT F. BENNETT, Utah
KEVIN MCCARTHY, California               SAXBY CHAMBLISS, Georgia



                  HOUSE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION 190 

                 (Submitted by Representative Brady) 


                    U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

                     110th Congress, 1st Session 


                          July 25, 2007 


Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), 

SEC. 1. POCKET VERSION OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 
(a)
 IN GENERAL.--The 23rd edition of the pocket version of the United 
States Constitution shall be printed as a House document under the 
direction of the Joint Committee on Printing. 

(b)
 ADDITIONAL COPIES.--In addition to the usual number there shall be 
printed the lesser of-- 

(1)
 550,000 copies of the document, of which 440,000copies shall be for 
the use of the House of Representatives, 100,000 copies shall be for 
the use of the Senate, and 10,000 copies shall be for the use of the 
Joint Committee on Printing; or 

(2)
 such number of copies of the document as does notexceed a total 
production and printing cost of $188,462 with distribution to be 
allocated in the same proportion as described in paragraph (1), except 
that in no case shall the number of copies be less than 1 per Member 
of Congress. 

----------------------------------------------------------------------
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                           THE CONSTITUTION 

                          of the United States 

                             with Index and 

                       The Declaration of Independence 





                           First Edition, 1986

                          Second Edition, 1987

                    Third Edition (with index), 1987

                          Fourth Edition, 1988

                          Fifth Edition, 1988

                          Sixth Edition, 1988

          Seventh (Special Limited Inaugural) Edition, 1989

               Eighth (Special Military) Edition, 1989

            Ninth (Limited Eastern European) Edition, 1990

               Tenth (Special Boy Scout) Edition, 1990

             Eleventh (Special Girl Scout) Edition, 1990

       Twelfth  Edition (with Declaration of Independence), 1990

                        Thirteenth Edition, 1991

       Fourteenth (HMS Rose/Bill of Rights Tour) Edition, 1991

                        Fifteenth Edition, 1991

             Sixteenth (Seville Expo '92) Edition, 1992

        Seventeenth (Seville Expo '92, Spanish) Edition, 1992


                       Eighteenth (with Twenty-Seventh Amendment)

                                  Edition, 1992

                            Nineteenth (Reprint) 1997

                             Twentieth (Reprint) 2000

                           Twenty-First (Reprint) 2003

                          Twenty-Second (Reprint) 2006


                           Twenty-Third (Reprint) 2007









                       CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED 
STATES 



We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect 
Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the 
common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings 
of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish 
this Constitution for the United States of America. 

Article. I. 


Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 
Section. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members 
chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the 
Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for 
Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. 
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the 
Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State 
in which he shall be chosen. 
[Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several
 States which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of 
Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other 
Persons.]* The actual Enumeration 
*Changed by section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment. 
shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress 
of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in 
such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Representatives 
shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall 
have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be 
made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three,
 Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, 
Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight,
 Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South 
Carolina five, and Georgia three. 
When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the 
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill 
such Vacancies. 
The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other 
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. 
Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof,]* for 
six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. 
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first
 Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three 
Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated 
at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the 
Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the 
Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every 
second Year; [and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, 
during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive 
thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next 
*Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment. 
Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.]* 
No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of 
thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which 
he shall be chosen. 
The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. 
The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro 
tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall 
exercise the Office of President of the United States. 
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When 
sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When 
the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall 
preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of 
two thirds of the Members present. 
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to 
removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the 
Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to 
Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law. 
Section. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for 
Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by 
the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law 
make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing 
Senators. 
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such 
Meeting shall be [on the first 
*Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment. 
Monday in December,]* unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day. 
Section. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns
 and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall
 constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn 
from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of 
absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House 
may provide. 
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its 
Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two 
thirds, expel a Member. 
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment 
require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House 
on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be 
entered on the Journal. 
Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the 
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 
Section. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a 
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid 
out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, 
except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from 
Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective 
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any 
Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in 
any other Place. 
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to 
*Changed by section 2 of the Twentieth Amendment. 
any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall 
have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased 
during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United 
States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in 
Office. 
Section. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House 
of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments
 as on other Bills. 
Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the 
President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if 
not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it 
shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on 
their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such 
Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, 
it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds 
of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes 
of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of 
the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the 
Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned 
by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall 
have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as 
if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent 
its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. 
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the 
United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be 
approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by 
two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to 
the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 
Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, 
Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the 
common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all 
Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United 
States; 
To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 
To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several 
States, and with the Indian Tribes; 
To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on 
the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; 
To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and
 fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; 
To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and 
current Coin of the United States; 
To establish Post Offices and post Roads; 
To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for 
limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their 
respective Writings and Discoveries; 
To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; 
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, 
and Offenses against the Law of Nations; 
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules
 concerning Captures on Land and Water; 
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use 
shall be for a longer Term than two Years; 
To provide and maintain a Navy; 
To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval 
Forces; 
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the 
Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; 
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and 
for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of 
the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the 
Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the 
Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 
To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such 
District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of 
particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of 
the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority 
over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the 
State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines,
 Arsenals, dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;--And 
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
 Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this
 Constitution in the Government of the United States or in any 
Department or Officer thereof. 
Section. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the 
States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, 
but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten
 dollars for each Person. 
The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may 
require it. 
No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion 
to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.* 
No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. 
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue 
to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels 
bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay 
Duties in another. 
No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of
 Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of 
the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published 
from time to time. 
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no 
Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, 
without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, 
Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or 
foreign State. 
Section. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or 
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit 
Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in 
Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or 
Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of 
Nobility. 
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or 
Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties 
and Imposts, laid by any State 
*See Sixteenth Amendment. 
on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the 
United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and 
Control of the Congress. 
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of 
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any
 Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or 
engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as 
will not admit of delay. 

Article. II. 
Section. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the 
United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of 
four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same 
Term, be elected, as follows 
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may
 direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: 
but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust 
or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 
[The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot
 for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the 
same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the 
Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the 
Government of the United States, directed to the President of the 
Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and 
the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number 
of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the 
whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who 
have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of
 Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for 
President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest 
on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But 
in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the
 Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this 
Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the 
States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a 
Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person 
having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice
 President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal 
Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.]* 
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the 
Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same
 throughout the United States. 
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United 
States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be 
eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be 
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of 
thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the 
United States. 
[In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his 
Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties 
of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, 
and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case  
*Changed by the Twelfth Amendment. 
of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and 
Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, 
and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be
 removed, or a President shall be elected.]* 
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a 
 Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during 
the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not 
receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, 
or any of them. 
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the 
following Oath or Affirmation:--�I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that 
I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, 
and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the
 Constitution of the United States.� 
Section. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and 
Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, 
when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may 
require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of 
the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of 
their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves 
and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of
 Impeachment. 
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, 
to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; 
and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, 
Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United 
States, whose Appointments are not 
*Changed by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment. 
herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: 
but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior 
Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts 
of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. 
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen 
during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall 
expire at the End of their next Session. 
Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information 
of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such 
Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on 
extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in 
Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of 
Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; 
he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take 
Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the
 Officers of the United States. 
Section. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and 
Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. 

Article. III. 
Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in 
one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and
 inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and 
shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, 
which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office. 
Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and 
Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, 
and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to 
all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--
to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies 
to which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between 
two or more States;--[between a State and Citizens of another State;--]*
 between Citizens of different States,-- between Citizens of the same 
State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, [and between a 
State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or 
Subjects.]* 
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, 
and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have
 original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the 
supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and 
Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress 
shall make. 
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment; shall be by 
Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes 
shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the 
Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have
 directed. 
Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in 
levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them 
Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the
 Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in 
open Court. 
The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, 
but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or 
Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. 
*Changed by the Eleventh Amendment. 

Article. IV.

Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the 
public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State; 
And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which 
such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect 
thereof. 
Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all 
Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. 
A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who 
shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand
 of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be 
delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the 
Crime. 
[No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or 
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but 
shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or 
Labour may be due.]* 
Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the 
Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the 
Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the
 Congress. 
The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful 
Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property 
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution 
shall be so construed as to Prejudice any 
*Changed by the Thirteenth Amendment. 
Claims of the United States, or of any particular State. 
Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this 
Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them 
against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the 
Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic 
Violence. 
Article. V. 
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the
 Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, 
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either 
Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this
 Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of 
the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as 
the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the 
Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the 
Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect
 the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first 
Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of 
it's equal Suffrage in the Senate. 

Article. VI. 
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption 
of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States 
under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. 
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be 
made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme 
Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, 
any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary
 notwithstanding. 
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of 
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, 
both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by 
Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious 
Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public 
Trust under the United States. 

Article. VII. 
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient 
for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so 
ratifying the Same. 
done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the 
Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the Twelfth In Witness whereof We have hereunto 
subscribed our Names, 
	
              Go. Washington--Presidt. 
               and deputy from Virginia 




              New Hampshire	John Langdon
                                Nicholas Gilman 

              Massachusetts	Nathaniel Gorham 
                                Rufus King 

               Connecticut	Wm. Saml. Johnson
                                Roger Sherman 


                  New York      Alexander Hamilton 

                New Jersey	Wil: Livingston

                                David Brearley

                                Wm. Paterson

                                Jona: Dayton


              Pennsylvania	B Franklin

                                Thomas Mifflin

                                Robt Morris

                                Geo. Clymer

                                Thos. FitzSimons

                                Jared Ingersoll

                                James Wilson

                                Gouv Morris


                   Delaware	Geo: Read 
                                Gunning Bedford jun 
                                John Dickinson 
                                Richard Bassett 
                                Jaco: Broom 

                   Maryland	James McHenry 
                                Dan of St Thos. Jenifer 
                                Danl Carroll 

                   Virginia	John Blair-- 
                                James Madison Jr. 

             North Carolina	Wm. Blount 
                                Richd. Dobbs Spaight 
                                Hu Williamson 

             South Carolina	J. Rutledge 
                                Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 
                                Charles Pinckney 
                                Pierce Butler 

                    Georgia	William Few
                                Abr Baldwin 




                                 Attest William Jackson Secretary 







                       In Convention Monday 
                       September 17th 1787. 



                             Present 

                         The States of 


New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Mr. Hamilton from New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Georgia. 
Resolved, 
That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the United States in 
Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this Convention, 
that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of Delegates, 
chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the Recommendation 
of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification; and that each
 Convention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should give Notice 
thereof to the United States in Congress assembled. Resolved, That it 
is the Opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the Conventions of 
nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the United States 
in Congress assembled should fix a Day on which Electors should be 
appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, and a Day 
on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the President, and 
the Time and Place for commencing Proceedings under this Constitution. 
That after such Publication the Electors should be appointed, and the 
Senators and Representatives elected: That the Electors should meet on 
the Day fixed for the Election of the President, and should transmit 
their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution
 requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled, 
that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the Time and 
Place assigned; that the Senators should appoint a President of the 
Senate, for the sole Purpose of receiving, opening and counting the 
Votes for President; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress,
 together with the President, should, without Delay, proceed to execute 
this Constitution. 
                               By the unanimous Order of the Convention 

                                               Go.  WASHINGTON--Presidt. 
W.  JACKSON Secretary. 

*Congress OF THE United States 
begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of 
March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine 

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their 
adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent
 misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and
 restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of 
public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent 
ends of its institution: 
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses
 concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the
 Legislatures of the several States, as Amendments to the Constitution 
of the United States, all or any of which Articles, when ratified by 
three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents 
and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.t. 
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the 
United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the
 Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article 
of the original Constitution.. . . 
FREDERICK AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG
Speaker of the House of Representatives.

JOHN ADAMS, Vice-President of the United States, 

and President of the Senate. 
ATTEST,
JOHN BECKLEY, Clerk of the House of Representatives. 
SAM. A. OTIS, Secretary of the Senate. 
*	On September 25, 1789, Congress transmitted to the state 
legislatures twelve proposed amendments, two of which, having to 
do with Congressional representation and Congressional pay, were 
not adopted. The remaining ten amendments became the Bill of Rights. 
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 


Amendment I.* 
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to 
assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Amendment II. 
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be 
infringed. 

Amendment III. 
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without 
the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be 
prescribed by law. 
*The first ten Amendments (Bill of Rights) were ratified effective 
December 15, 1791. 

Amendment IV.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
 violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, 
supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place 
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 
Amendment V. 
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except 
in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when 
in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any 
person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of 
life or limb, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a 
witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,
 without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for 
public use without just compensation. 

Amendment VI. 
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and 
district wherein the crime shall have been committed; which district 
shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of 
the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the 
witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining 
witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for 
his defence. 

Amendment VII. 
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no 
fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of 
the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. 

Amendment VIII. 
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
 cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Amendment IX. 
The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 
Amendment X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
 prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States 
respectively, or to the people. 

Amendment XI.* 
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against 
one of 
*The Eleventh Amendment was ratified February 7,  1795. 
the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or 
Subjects of any Foreign State. 

Amendment XII.* 
The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall
not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall 
name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in 
distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they 
shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and 
of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of 
votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit 
sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed 
to the President of the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall, 
in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all 
the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;--The person 
having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the 
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from 
the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the 
list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives 
shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing 
the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation 
from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall 
consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a 
majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the
House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the 
right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth 
*The Twelfth Amendment was ratified June 15, 1804. 
day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as 
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional 
disability of the President---]* The person having the greatest number
of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number
be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no 
person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, 
the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose 
shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no 
person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall 
be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

Amendment XIII.** 
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their 
jurisdiction. 
Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation. 

Amendment XIV.*** 
Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States 
and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce 
any law which shall abridge the privileges 
* Superseded by section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment. 
** The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified December 6, 1865. 
*** The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified July 9, 1868. 
or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State 
deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process 
of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal 
protection of the laws. 
Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole 
number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But 
when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors 
for President and Vice President of the United States, 
Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers 

of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to 
any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of 
age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except 
for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the 
number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male 
citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress,
or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil 
or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer 
of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as
an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the 
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection 
or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies
thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, 
remove such disability. 
Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, 
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, 
shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of 
insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for 
the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations 
and claims shall be held illegal and void. 
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this article. 

Amendment XV.* 
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not 
be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account 
of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 
Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 

Amendment XVI.** 
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several 
States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. 

Amendment XVII.*** 
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from 
each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each 
Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the 
qualifications requisite for electors 
* The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified February 3, 1870. 
** The Sixteenth Amendment was ratified February 3, 1913. 
*** The Seventeenth Amendment was ratified April 8, 1913. 
of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. 
When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, 
the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to 
fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may 
empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the 
people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. 
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or 
term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the 
Constitution. 

Amendment XVIII.* 
[Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, 
the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the 
United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof 
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 
Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent 
power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have 
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures 
of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven 
years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the 
Congress.] 
*The Eighteenth Amendment was ratified January 16, 
1919. It was repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment, 
December 5, 1933. 

Amendment XIX.*

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied 
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. 
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 

Amendment XX.** 
Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at 
noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and 
Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which 
such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and 
the terms of their successors shall then begin. 
Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and 
such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they 
shall by law appoint a different day. 
Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the 
President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President 
elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been 
chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the 
President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President 
elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; 
and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a 
President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, 
declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one 
who is to act shall be selected, and such 
*The Nineteenth Amendment was ratified August 18, 1920. **The 
Twentieth Amendment was ratified January 23, 1933. 
person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President 
shall have qualified. 
Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death 
of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may 
choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved 
upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from 
whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of 
choice shall have devolved upon them. 
Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of 
October following the ratification of this article. 
Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have 
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures 
of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the 
date of its submission. 

Amendment XXI.* 
Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States is hereby repealed. 
Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, 
Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use 
therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is 
hereby prohibited. 
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have 
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in 
the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven 
years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the 
Congress. 
*The Twenty-First Amendment was ratified December 5, 1933. 

Amendment XXII.* 
Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President 
more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, 
or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which 
some other person was elected President shall be elected to the 
office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not 
apply to any person holding the office of President when this 
Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any 
person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as 
President, during the term within which this Article becomes 
operative from holding the office of President or acting as President 
during the remainder of such term. 
Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have 
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures 
of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the 
date of its submission to the States by the Congress. 

Amendment XXIII.** 
Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the 
United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: 
A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the 
whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which 
the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event 
more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to 
those appointed by the 
* The Twenty-Second Amendment was ratified February 27, 1951. 
** The Twenty-Third Amendment was ratified March 29, 1961. 
States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election
of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; 
and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided 
by the twelfth article of amendment. 
Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 

Amendment XXIV.* 
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any 
primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors 
for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in 
Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any 
State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. 
Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 

Amendment XXV.** 
Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of 
his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President. 
Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice 
President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall 
take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of 
Congress. 
Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro 
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives 
his writ-
*The Twenty-Fourth Amendment was ratified January 23, 1964. **The 
Twenty-Fifth Amendment was ratified February 10, 1967. 
ten declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties 
of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration 
to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the 
Vice President as Acting President. 
Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the 
principal officers of the executive departments or of such other 
body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro 
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives 
their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge 
the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall 
immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting 
President. 
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore 
of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his 
written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the 
powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a 
majority of either the principal officers of the executive department 
or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within 
four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker 
of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the 
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. 
Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within 
forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, 
within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, 
or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress 
is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses 
that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting 
President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of 
his office. 

Amendment XXVI.* 
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are 
eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. 
Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation. 

Amendment XXVII.** 
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators 
and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of 
Representatives shall have intervened. 
*The Twenty-Sixth Amendment was ratified July 1, 1971. 
**Congress submitted the text of the Twenty-Seventh Amendment to 
the States as part of the proposed Bill of Rights on 
September 25, 1789. The Amendment was not ratified together with 
the first ten Amendments, which became effective on 
December 15, 1791. The Twenty-Seventh Amendment was ratified on 
May 7, 1992, by the vote of Michigan. 
Appendix 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 
Action of Second Continental Congress, July 4, 1776 The unanimous 
Declaration of the thirteen United States of America 
WHEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one 
People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them 
with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the
separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of 
Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of 
Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel 
them to the Separation. 
WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created 
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain 
unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the 
Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are 
instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent 
of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes 
destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter
or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its 
Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such 
Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and 
Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long 
established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; 
and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more 
disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right
themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. 
But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing 
invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under 
absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw 
off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future 
Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; 
and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their 
former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of 
Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, 
all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute 
Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted 
to a candid World. 
HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary 
for the public Good. 
HE has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and 
pressing Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his 
Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly 
neglected to attend to them. 
HE has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large 
Districts of People, unless those People would relinquish the Right 
of Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them,
and formidable to Tyrants only. 
HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, 
uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public 
Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance 
with his Measures. 
HE has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing 
with manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People. 
HE has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause 
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable 
of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their 
exercise; the State remaining in the mean time ex posed to all the 
Dangers of Invasion from without, and Convulsions within. 
HE has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for 
that Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; 
refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and 
raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 
HE has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his
Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 
HE has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of 
their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries. 
HE has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms 
of Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their Substance. 
HE has kept among us, in Times of Peace Standing Armies, without 
the consent of our Legislatures. 
HE has affected to render the Military independent of and superior 
to the Civil Power. 
HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign 
to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his 
Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: 
FOR quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us: 
FOR protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders 
which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: 
FOR cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World: 
FOR imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 
FOR depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury: 
FORtransporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences: 
FOR abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring 
Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging 
its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit 
Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rule into these Colonies: 
FOR taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and 
altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: 
FOR suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested 
with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever. 
HEhas abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection 
and waging War against us. 
HE has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and 
destroyed the Lives of our People. 
HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries 
to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun 
with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the 
most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized 
Nation. 
HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas 
to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their 
Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 
HE has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured 
to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian 
Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished 
Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions. 
IN every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in 
the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only 
by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every 
act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free 
People. 
NOR have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We 
have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature
to extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us. We have reminded 
them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We 
have appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have 
conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these 
Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and 
Correspondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and 
of Consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, 
which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of 
Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends. 
WE, therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in 
GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the 
World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by 
Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and 
Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, 
FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are absolved from all Allegiance 
to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them 
and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; 
and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full Power to levy 
War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do 
all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do. 
And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the 
Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our 
Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor. 

DATES TO REMEMBER

May 25, 1787: The Constitutional Convention opens with a quorum of 
seven states in Philadelphia to discuss revising the Articles of 
Confederation. Eventually all states but Rhode Island are represented. 
Sept. 17, 1787: All 12 state delegations approve the Constitution, 
39 delegates sign it of the 42 present, and the Convention formally 
adjourns. 
June 21, 1788: The Constitution becomes effective for the ratifying 
states when New Hampshire is the ninth state to ratify it. 
March 4, 1789: The first Congress under the Constitution convenes in 
New York City. 
April 30, 1789: George Washington is inaugurated as the first President 
of the United States. 
June 8, 1789: James Madison introduces proposed Bill of Rights in the 
House of Representatives. 
Sept. 24, 1789: Congress establishes a Supreme Court, 13 district 
courts, three ad hoc circuit courts, and the position of Attorney 
General. 
Sept. 25, 1789: Congress approves 12 amendments and sends them to the 
states for ratification. 
Feb. 2, 1790: Supreme Court convenes for the first time after an 
unsuccessful attempt February 1. 
Dec. 15, 1791: Virginia ratifies the Bill of Rights, and 10 of the 
12 proposed amendments become part of the U.S. Constitution. 

INDEX TO CONSTITUTION AND
AMENDMENTS

Article, Section  Page  
Admiralty & maritime cases  III,2  13  
Advice and consent  II,2  11  
Age, as qualification for public  
office  
president  II,1  10  
representatives  I,2  1  
senators  I,3  3  
voting  A26  34  
Ambassadors  
Case controversies  III,2  13  
President's power  II,2-3  11-12  
Amendment procedure  V  15  
Appellate jurisdiction  III,2  13  
Appointment power  II,2  11-12  
Appointments, temporary  A17  28  
Apportionment of  
representatives  I,2;A14,2  1-2,26  
Appropriations(s)  I,8,9  7,8  
Arms, right to bear  A2  21  
Army  II,2  11  
Assembly, right of  A1  21  
Authors  I,8  6  
Bail, excessive  A8  23  
Bankruptcy, Congress' power  I,8  6  
Bill of Rights (Amends. 1-10)  A1-A10  21-23  
Bills  I,7  5-6  
Bills of attainder  I,9-10  8  
Borrowing, Congress' power  I,8  6  
Cabinet officers' reports  II,2  11  
Census  I,2  1-2  
Chief Justice, role in  
impeachment trials  I,3  3  
Commander in Chief  II,2  11  
Commerce, Congress' power  I,8  6  
Commission of officers  II,3  12  
Compact  I,10  9  
Congress  
annual meetings  I,4;A20,2  3-4,29  
declaring war  I,8  6  
legislative proceedings  I,5  4  
members' compensation and  
privileges  I,6;A27  4-5,34  
organization  I,1  1  
powers  I,8;A12  6-7,24-25  
special sessions  II,3  12  
Congressional Record (Journal)  I,5  4  
Constitution, purpose  Preamble  1  

Article, Section  Page  
Contracts, interference by states  I,10  8  
Controversies, court cases  III,2  13  
Conventions  V;VII;A21  15,16,30  
Copyrights & patents,  
Congress' power  I,8  6  
Counsel, right to  A6  22  
Counterfeiting, Congress'  
power to punish  I,8  6  
Courts (see Judiciary)  
Criminal proceedings, rights of  
accused  A5;A6  22  
Currency, Congress' power  I,8  6  
Defense, Congress' power  I,8  6  
District of Columbia  I,8;A23  7,31  
Double jeopardy  A5  22  
Due process of law  A5;A14,1  22,25-16  
Electoral College  II,1;A12;A23  9-11,24-25  
31-32  
Equal protection of laws  A14,1  25-26  
Equity  III,2;A11  13,23  
Ex post facto laws  I,9-10  8  
Extradition of fugitives by states  IV,2  14  
Fines, excessive  A8  23  
Foreign affairs, President's  
power  II,2  11-12  
Foreign commerce, Congress'  
power  I,8  6  
�Full faith and credit� clause  IV,1  14  
General welfare, Congress'  
power  I,8  6  
Grand jury indictments  A5  22  
Grievances, redress of  A1  21  
Habeas corpus  I,9  8  
House of Representatives  
election to & eligibility for  I,2  1  
members' terms of office  I,2;I,6  1,4  
Speaker of  I,2;A24;A25,3-4  2,32-33  
special powers  
impeachment  I,2  2  
Presidential elections  II,1;A12  9-10,24-25  
revenue bills  I,7  5  
states' representation in  I,2  1-2  
vacancles  I,2  2  
Immunities (see Privileges and  
immunities)  
Impeachment  
officials subject to  II,4  12  
penalties  I,3  3  
power of, lodged in House  I,2  2  
reasons  II,4  12  
trials, Senate  I,3  3  

42 
Article, Section  Page  
Indians, commerce with,  
Congress' power  I,8  6  
Inhabitant (see Resident)  I,2;I,3  1,3  
International law, Congress'  
power  I,8  6  
Inventors  I,8  6  
Judiciary  
inferior courts  I,8;III,1  6,12  
judicial review  III,2  13  
jurisdiction  III,2  13  
nomination & confirmation of  
judges  II,2  11-12  
Supreme Court  III,1  12  
terms of office &  
compensation  III,1  12  
Jury trials  III,2;A6;A7  13,22,23  
�Lame duck� amendment  A20  29  
Liquor  A18;A21  28,30  
Marque and reprisal, letters of  I,8,10  6,8  
Men (see Persons)  
Militia (Military)  A2;A5  21,22  
congressional powers  I,8  7  
presidential powers  II,2  11-12  
Money  I,8  6  
National debt  VI  15-16  
Native Americans (see Indians)  
Naturalization  I,8  6  
Navy  I,8;II,2  7,11  
�Necessary and proper� clause  I,8  7  
Nominate  II,2;A25  11,32  
Oath of office, federal and state  II,1;VI  11,16  
Original Jurisdiction  III,2  13  
Pardons and reprieves,  
President's power  II,2  11  
People, powers reserved to  A10  23  
Persons  A14  25-26  
Petition the government,  
right to  A1  21  
�Pocket veto�  I,7  5  
Poll tax, prohibition  A24,1  32  
Post offices & roads, Congress'  
power  I,8  6  
Presidency, succession to  II,1;A20;A25  10-11,29-30  
President  32-33  
disability  A25,3  32-33  
election  II,1;A12;A22  9-10,24-25,  
A23  31,31-32  
eligibility for office  II,1  10  
legislation, role in  I,7  5  
43  

Article, Section  Page  
President--Continued  
oath of office  II,1  11  
powers & duties  II,2-3  11-12  
term of office & compensation  II,1  9-11  
Press, freedom of  A1  21  
Privileges and immunities (of  
citizens)  IV,2;A14,1  14,25-26  
Prohibition  A18;A21  28,30  
Property, taking for public use  A5  22  
Punishments, cruel and  
unusual  A8  23  
Race  A15  27  
Ratification of Constitution  V;VII  15,16  
Religion, freedom of  A1  21  
Religious oaths  VI  16  
Resident (see Inhabitant)  II,1  10  
Search and seizure  A4  22  
Seas, Congress' power  I,8  6  
Secrecy  I,5  4  
Self-incrimination  A5  22  
Senate  
election to & eligibility for  I,3  3  
equal representation of states  V  15  
officers  I,3  3  
President of  I,3;A12  3,24-25  
President of, pro tempore  I,3;A25,3-4  3,32-33  
special powers  
impeachment trials  I,3  3  
Presidential appointments  II,2  11-12  
treaties  II,2  11-12  
terms of office  I,3;I,6  2,4  
vacancies  A17  27-28  
Slavery, prohibition  A13;A14,4  25,26-27  
Soldiers, quartering of  A3  21  
Speech, freedom of  A1  21  
Spending, Congress' power  I,8  6  
State of Union message  II,3  12  
States  
and federal elections  I,4  3  
formation & admission to  
Union  IV,3  14  
powers requiring consent of  
Congress  I,10  8-9  
powers reserved to  A10  23  
protection against invasion,  
violence  IV,4  15  
republican form of  
government guaranteed  IV,4  15  
suits against  III,2;A11  13,23-24  
44  

         Articles, Section Page  
Sundays  I,7  5  
Supreme law of the land  
(Constitution)  VI  15-16  
Taxing power, in general  I,7-8  5-6  
direct taxes prohibited  I,9  8  
income taxes permitted  A16  27  
Territories  IV,3  14-15  
Titles of nobility  I,9  8  
Treason  III,3  13  
Treaty(ies)  I,10;II,2;  8,11,13  
III,2;VI  15-16  
Trial  I,3;III,2;  3,13,22,23  
A6;A7  
Veto, President's power  I,7  5  
Vice-Presidency, succession to  A20;A25  29-30,32-33  
Vice-President  
conditions for assuming  
Presidency  II,1;A20;A25  10,29-30  
32-33  
declaring President disabled,  
role in  A25,4  33  
Senate, role in  I,3;A12  3,24-25  
term of office  II,1  9  
Voting rights  A14;A24  25-27,32  
blacks, former slaves  A15,1  27  
eighteen-years-old  A26  34  
women  A19  29  
War powers (see Congress,  
declaring, war powers;  
President, powers & duties;  
States, protection against  
invasion)  
Warrants  A4  22  
Weights and measures  
standards of  I,8  6  
Women (see Persons)