[Title 29 CFR ]
[Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) - July 1, 1998 Edition]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]


[[Page i]]

          29



          Labor



          PART 1926

                         Revised as of July 1, 1998

          CONTAINING
          A CODIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS
          OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY
          AND FUTURE EFFECT
          AS OF JULY 1, 1998

          With Ancillaries
          Published by
          the Office of the Federal Register
          National Archives and Records
          Administration
          as a Special Edition of
          the Federal Register




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                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                            WASHINGTON : 1998



               For sale by U.S. Government Printing Office
 Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328



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                            Table of Contents



                                                                    Page
  Explanation.................................................       v

  Title 29:
      Subtitle B--Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued):
    Chapter XVII--Occupational Safety and Health 
        Administration, Department of Labor (Continued).......       5
  Finding Aids:
    Material Approved for Incorporation by Reference..........     599
    Table of CFR Titles and Chapters..........................     605
    Alphabetical List of Agencies Appearing in the CFR........     623
    Redesignation Table.......................................     633
    List of CFR Sections Affected.............................     635



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   Cite this Code:  CFR

   To cite the regulations in this volume use title, part and
   section number. Thus,  29 CFR 1926.1 refers to title 29, part
   1926, section 1.

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                               EXPLANATION

    The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and 
permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive 
departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Code is divided 
into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to Federal 
regulation. Each title is divided into chapters which usually bear the 
name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into 
parts covering specific regulatory areas.
    Each volume of the Code is revised at least once each calendar year 
and issued on a quarterly basis approximately as follows:

Title 1 through Title 16.................................as of January 1
Title 17 through Title 27..................................as of April 1
Title 28 through Title 41...................................as of July 1
Title 42 through Title 50................................as of October 1
    The appropriate revision date is printed on the cover of each 
volume.

LEGAL STATUS

    The contents of the Federal Register are required to be judicially 
noticed (44 U.S.C. 1507). The Code of Federal Regulations is prima facie 
evidence of the text of the original documents (44 U.S.C. 1510).

HOW TO USE THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

    The Code of Federal Regulations is kept up to date by the individual 
issues of the Federal Register. These two publications must be used 
together to determine the latest version of any given rule.
    To determine whether a Code volume has been amended since its 
revision date (in this case, July 1, 1998), consult the ``List of CFR 
Sections Affected (LSA),'' which is issued monthly, and the ``Cumulative 
List of Parts Affected,'' which appears in the Reader Aids section of 
the daily Federal Register. These two lists will identify the Federal 
Register page number of the latest amendment of any given rule.

EFFECTIVE AND EXPIRATION DATES

    Each volume of the Code contains amendments published in the Federal 
Register since the last revision of that volume of the Code. Source 
citations for the regulations are referred to by volume number and page 
number of the Federal Register and date of publication. Publication 
dates and effective dates are usually not the same and care must be 
exercised by the user in determining the actual effective date. In 
instances where the effective date is beyond the cut-off date for the 
Code a note has been inserted to reflect the future effective date. In 
those instances where a regulation published in the Federal Register 
states a date certain for expiration, an appropriate note will be 
inserted following the text.

OMB CONTROL NUMBERS

    The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-511) requires 
Federal agencies to display an OMB control number with their information 
collection request.

[[Page vi]]

Many agencies have begun publishing numerous OMB control numbers as 
amendments to existing regulations in the CFR. These OMB numbers are 
placed as close as possible to the applicable recordkeeping or reporting 
requirements.

OBSOLETE PROVISIONS

    Provisions that become obsolete before the revision date stated on 
the cover of each volume are not carried. Code users may find the text 
of provisions in effect on a given date in the past by using the 
appropriate numerical list of sections affected. For the period before 
January 1, 1986, consult either the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1949-
1963, 1964-1972, or 1973-1985, published in seven separate volumes. For 
the period beginning January 1, 1986, a ``List of CFR Sections 
Affected'' is published at the end of each CFR volume.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

    What is incorporation by reference? Incorporation by reference was 
established by statute and allows Federal agencies to meet the 
requirement to publish regulations in the Federal Register by referring 
to materials already published elsewhere. For an incorporation to be 
valid, the Director of the Federal Register must approve it. The legal 
effect of incorporation by reference is that the material is treated as 
if it were published in full in the Federal Register (5 U.S.C. 552(a)). 
This material, like any other properly issued regulation, has the force 
of law.
    What is a proper incorporation by reference? The Director of the 
Federal Register will approve an incorporation by reference only when 
the requirements of 1 CFR part 51 are met. Some of the elements on which 
approval is based are:
    (a) The incorporation will substantially reduce the volume of 
material published in the Federal Register.
    (b) The matter incorporated is in fact available to the extent 
necessary to afford fairness and uniformity in the administrative 
process.
    (c) The incorporating document is drafted and submitted for 
publication in accordance with 1 CFR part 51.
    Properly approved incorporations by reference in this volume are 
listed in the Finding Aids at the end of this volume.
    What if the material incorporated by reference cannot be found? If 
you have any problem locating or obtaining a copy of material listed in 
the Finding Aids of this volume as an approved incorporation by 
reference, please contact the agency that issued the regulation 
containing that incorporation. If, after contacting the agency, you find 
the material is not available, please notify the Director of the Federal 
Register, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC 
20408, or call (202) 523-4534.

CFR INDEXES AND TABULAR GUIDES

    A subject index to the Code of Federal Regulations is contained in a 
separate volume, revised annually as of January 1, entitled CFR Index 
and Finding Aids. This volume contains the Parallel Table of Statutory 
Authorities and Agency Rules (Table I), and Acts Requiring Publication 
in the Federal Register (Table II). A list of CFR titles, chapters, and 
parts and an alphabetical list of agencies publishing in the CFR are 
also included in this volume.
    An index to the text of ``Title 3--The President'' is carried within 
that volume.
    The Federal Register Index is issued monthly in cumulative form. 
This index is based on a consolidation of the ``Contents'' entries in 
the daily Federal Register.

[[Page vii]]

    A List of CFR Sections Affected (LSA) is published monthly, keyed to 
the revision dates of the 50 CFR titles.

REPUBLICATION OF MATERIAL

    There are no restrictions on the republication of material appearing 
in the Code of Federal Regulations.

INQUIRIES

    For a legal interpretation or explanation of any regulation in this 
volume, contact the issuing agency. The issuing agency's name appears at 
the top of odd-numbered pages.
    For inquiries concerning CFR reference assistance, call 202-523-5227 
or write to the Director, Office of the Federal Register, National 
Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408.

SALES

    The Government Printing Office (GPO) processes all sales and 
distribution of the CFR. For payment by credit card, call 202-512-1800, 
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ELECTRONIC SERVICES

    The full text of the Code of Federal Regulations, The United States 
Government Manual, the Federal Register, Public Laws, Weekly Compilation 
of Presidential Documents and the Privacy Act Compilation are available 
in electronic format at www.access.gpo.gov/nara (``GPO Access''). For 
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U.S. Government Printing Office. Phone 202-512-1530, or 888-293-6498 
(toll-free). E-mail, gpoaccess@gpo.gov.
    The Office of the Federal Register also offers a free service on the 
National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) World Wide Web 
site for public law numbers, Federal Register finding aids, and related 
information. Connect to NARA's web site at www.nara.gov/fedreg. The NARA 
site also contains links to GPO Access.

                              Raymond A. Mosley,
                                    Director,
                          Office of the Federal Register.

July 1, 1998.



[[Page ix]]



                               THIS TITLE

    Title 29--Labor is composed of nine volumes. The parts in these 
volumes are arranged in the following order: parts 0-99, parts 100-499, 
parts 500-899, parts 900-1899, parts 1900-1910.999, part 1910.1000-end, 
parts 1911-1925, part 1926, and part 1927 to end. The contents of these 
volumes represent all current regulations codified under this title as 
of July 1, 1998.

    The OMB control numbers for title 29 CFR part 1910 appear in 
Sec. 1910.8. For the convenience of the user, Sec. 1910.8 appears in the 
Finding Aids section of the volume containing Sec. 1910.1000 to the end.

    Redesignation tables appear in the Finding Aids section of the 
eighth volume.

    Subject indexes appear following the occupational safety and health 
standards (part 1910), and following the safety and health regulations 
for: Longshoring (part 1918), Gear Certification (part 1919), and 
Construction (part 1926).

    For this volume, Gwendolyn J. Henderson was Chief Editor. The Code 
of Federal Regulations publication program is under the direction of 
Frances D. McDonald, assisted by Alomha S. Morris.

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[[Page 1]]



                             TITLE 29--LABOR




                     (This book contains part 1926)

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                                                                    Part

         SUBTITLE B--Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued):

Chapter xvii--Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 
  Department of Labor (Continued)...........................        1926


Cross References: Other regulations issued by the Department of Labor 
  appear in 20 CFR chapters I, IV, V, VI and VII; 41 CFR chapters 50, 
  60, and 61; and 48 CFR chapter 29. For ``Standards for a Merit System 
  of Personnel Administration'': See 5 CFR part 900, subpart F.

[[Page 3]]

          Subtitle B--Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)

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CHAPTER XVII--OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR--(Continued)




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Part                                                                Page
1926            Safety and health regulations for 
                    construction............................           7

                Subject index to Part 1926--Safety and 
                    health regulations for construction.....         584

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PART 1926--SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION--Table of Contents




Sec.

                           Subpart A--General

1926.1  Purpose and scope.
1926.2  Variances from safety and health standards.
1926.3  Inspections--right of entry.
1926.4  Rules of practice for administrative adjudications for 
          enforcement of safety and health standards.
1926.5  OMB control numbers under the Paperwork Reduction Act.

                   Subpart B--General Interpretations

1926.10  Scope of subpart.
1926.11  Coverage under section 103 of the act distinguished.
1926.12  Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950.
1926.13  Interpretation of statutory terms.
1926.14  Federal contract for ``mixed'' types of performance.
1926.15  Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public 
          Contracts Act.
1926.16  Rules of construction.

             Subpart C--General Safety and Health Provisions

1926.20  General safety and health provisions.
1926.21  Safety training and education.
1926.22  Recording and reporting of injuries. [Reserved]
1926.23  First aid and medical attention.
1926.24  Fire protection and prevention.
1926.25  Housekeeping.
1926.26  Illumination.
1926.27  Sanitation.
1926.28  Personal protective equipment.
1926.29  Acceptable certifications.
1926.30  Shipbuilding and ship repairing.
1926.31  Incorporation by reference.
1926.32  Definitions.
1926.33  Access to employee exposure and medical records.
1926.34  Means of egress.
1926.35  Employee emergency action plans.

        Subpart D--Occupational Health and Environmental Controls

1926.50  Medical services and first aid.
1926.51  Sanitation.
1926.52  Occupational noise exposure.
1926.53  Ionizing radiation.
1926.54  Nonionizing radiation.
1926.55  Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists.
1926.56  Illumination.
1926.57  Ventilation.
1926.58  [Reserved]
1926.59  Hazard communication.
1926.60  Methylenedianiline.
1926.61  Retention of DOT markings, placards and labels.
1926.62  Lead.
1926.64  Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.
1926.65  Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.
1926.66  Criteria for design and construction of spray booths.

        Subpart E--Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment

1926.95  Criteria for personal protective equipment.
1926.96  Occupational foot protection.
1926.97--1926.98  [Reserved]
1926.100  Head protection.
1926.101  Hearing protection.
1926.102  Eye and face protection.
1926.103  Respiratory protection.
1926.104  Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.
1926.105  Safety nets.
1926.106  Working over or near water.
1926.107  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

                Subpart F--Fire Protection and Prevention

1926.150  Fire protection.
1926.151  Fire prevention.
1926.152  Flammable and combustible liquids.
1926.153  Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).
1926.154  Temporary heating devices.
1926.155  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

                Subpart G--Signs, Signals, and Barricades

1926.200  Accident prevention signs and tags.
1926.201  Signaling.
1926.202  Barricades.
1926.203  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

        Subpart H--Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal

1926.250  General requirements for storage.
1926.251  Rigging equipment for material handling.
1926.252  Disposal of waste materials.

                    Subpart I--Tools--Hand and Power

1926.300  General requirements.
1926.301  Hand tools.
1926.302  Power-operated hand tools.
1926.303  Abrasive wheels and tools.
1926.304  Woodworking tools.
1926.305  Jacks--lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.
1926.306  Air receivers.
1926.307  Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

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                     Subpart J--Welding and Cutting

1926.350  Gas welding and cutting.
1926.351  Arc welding and cutting.
1926.352  Fire prevention.
1926.353  Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting, and heating.
1926.354  Welding, cutting, and heating in way of preservative coatings.

                          Subpart K--Electrical

                                 General

1926.400  Introduction.
1926.401  [Reserved]

                    Installation Safety Requirements

1926.402  Applicability.
1926.403  General requirements.
1926.404  Wiring design and protection.
1926.405  Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.
1926.406  Specific purpose equipment and installations.
1926.407  Hazardous (classified) locations.
1926.408  Special systems.
1926.409--1926.415  [Reserved]

                      Safety-Related Work Practices

1926.416  General requirements.
1926.417  Lockout and tagging of circuits.
1926.418--1926.430  [Reserved]

       Safety-Related Maintenance and Environmental Considerations

1926.431  Maintenance of equipment.
1926.432  Environmental deterioration of equipment.
1926.433--1926.440  [Reserved]

                Safety Requirements for Special Equipment

1926.441  Batteries and battery charging.
1926.442--1926.448  [Reserved]

                               Definitions

1926.449  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

                          Subpart L--Scaffolds

1926.450  Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart.
1926.451  General requirements.
1926.452  Additional requirements applicable to specific types of 
          scaffolds.
1926.453  Aerial lifts.
1926.454  Training requirements.

Appendixes A through E to Subpart L--Scaffolds

                       Subpart M--Fall Protection

1926.500  Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this 
          subpart.
1926.501  Duty to have fall protection.
1926.502  Fall protection systems criteria and practices.
1926.503  Training requirements.

Appendix A to Subpart M--Determining Roof Widths
Appendix B to Subpart M--Guardrail Systems
Appendix C to Subpart M--Personal Fall Arrest Systems
Appendix D to Subpart M--Positioning Device Systems
Appendix E to Subpart M--Sample Fall Protection Plans

      Subpart N--Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors

1926.550  Cranes and derricks.
1926.551  Helicopters.
1926.552  Material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators.
1926.553  Base-mounted drum hoists.
1926.554  Overhead hoists.
1926.555  Conveyors.

 Subpart O--Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations

1926.600  Equipment.
1926.601  Motor vehicles.
1926.602  Material handling equipment.
1926.603  Pile driving equipment.
1926.604  Site clearing.
1926.605  Marine operations and equipment.
1926.606  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

                         Subpart P--Excavations

1926.650  Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this 
          subpart.
1926.651  Specific excavation requirements.
1926.652  Requirements for protective systems.

Appendix A to Subpart P--Soil Classification
Appendix B to Subpart P--Sloping and Benching
Appendix C to Subpart P--Timber Shoring for Trenches
Appendix D to Subpart P--Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches
Appendix E to Subpart P--Alternatives to Timber Shoring
Appendix F to Subpart P--Selection of Protective Systems

              Subpart Q--Concrete and Masonry Construction

1926.700  Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this 
          subpart.

[[Page 9]]

1926.701  General requirements.
1926.702  Requirements for equipment and tools.
1926.703  Requirements for cast-in-place concrete.
1926.704  Requirements for precast concrete.
1926.705  Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.
1926.706  Requirements for masonry construction.

Appendix A to Subpart Q--References to Subpart Q of Part 1926

                        Subpart R--Steel Erection

1926.750  Flooring requirements.
1926.751  Structural steel assembly.
1926.752  Bolting, riveting, fitting-up, and plumbing-up.

Subpart S--Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed 
                                   Air

1926.800  Underground construction.
1926.801  Caissons.
1926.802  Cofferdams.
1926.803  Compressed air.
1926.804  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

Appendix A to Subpart S--Decompression Tables

                          Subpart T--Demolition

1926.850  Preparatory operations.
1926.851  Stairs, passageways, and ladders.
1926.852  Chutes.
1926.853  Removal of materials through floor openings.
1926.854  Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys.
1926.855  Manual removal of floors.
1926.856  Removal of walls, floors, and material with equipment.
1926.857  Storage.
1926.858  Removal of steel construction.
1926.859  Mechanical demolition.
1926.860  Selective demolition by explosives.

              Subpart U--Blasting and the Use of Explosives

1926.900  General provisions.
1926.901  Blaster qualifications.
1926.902  Surface transportation of explosives.
1926.903  Underground transportation of explosives.
1926.904  Storage of explosives and blasting agents.
1926.905  Loading of explosives or blasting agents.
1926.906  Initiation of explosive charges--electric blasting.
1926.907  Use of safety fuse.
1926.908  Use of detonating cord.
1926.909  Firing the blast.
1926.910  Inspection after blasting.
1926.911  Misfires.
1926.912  Underwater blasting.
1926.913  Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.
1926.914  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

             Subpart V--Power Transmission and Distribution

1926.950  General requirements.
1926.951  Tools and protective equipment.
1926.952  Mechanical equipment.
1926.953  Material handling.
1926.954  Grounding for protection of employees.
1926.955  Overhead lines.
1926.956  Underground lines.
1926.957  Construction in energized substations.
1926.958  External load helicopters.
1926.959  Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards.
1926.960  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

     Subpart W--Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection

1926.1000  Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling 
          equipment.
1926.1001  Minimum performance criteria for rollover protective 
          structures for designated scrapers, loaders, dozers, graders, 
          and crawler tractors.
1926.1002  Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as 
          ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors used 
          in construction.
1926.1003  Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and 
          industrial tractors.

                    Subpart X--Stairways and Ladders

1926.1050  Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this 
          subpart.
1926.1051  General requirements.
1926.1052  Stairways.
1926.1053  Ladders.
1926.1054--1926.1059  [Reserved]
1926.1060  Training requirements.

Appendix A to Subpart X--Ladders

                            Subpart Y--Diving

                                 General

1926.1071  Scope and application.
1926.1072  Definitions.

                         Personnel Requirements

1926.1076  Qualifications of dive team.

                      General Operations Procedures

1926.1080  Safe practices manual.
1926.1081  Pre-dive procedures.

[[Page 10]]

1926.1082  Procedures during dive.
1926.1083  Post-dive procedures.

                     Specific Operations Procedures

1926.1084  SCUBA diving.
1926.1085  Surface-supplied air diving.
1926.1086  Mixed-gas diving.
1926.1087  Liveboating.

                  Equipment Procedures and Requirements

1926.1090  Equipment.

                              Recordkeeping

1926.1091  Recordkeeping requirements.
1926.1092  Effective date.

Appendix A to Subpart Y--Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or 
          Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions
Appendix B to Subpart Y--Guidelines for Scientific Diving

                Subpart Z--Toxic and Hazardous Substances

1926.1100  [Reserved]
1926.1101  Asbestos.
1926.1102  Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.
1926.1103  13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).
1926.1104  alpha-Naphthylamine.
1926.1105  [Reserved]
1926.1106  Methyl chloromethyl ether.
1926.1107  3,3'-Dichlorobenzidiene (and its salts).
1926.1108  bis-Chloromethyl ether.
1926.1109  beta-Naphthylamine.
1926.1110  Benzidine.
1926.1111  4-Aminodiphenyl.
1926.1112  Ethyleneimine.
1926.1113  beta-Propiolactone.
1926.1114  2-Acetylaminofluorene.
1926.1115  4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.
1926.1116  N-Nitrosodimethylamine.
1926.1117  Vinyl chloride.
1926.1118  Inorganic arsenic.
1926.1127  Cadmium.
1926.1128  Benzene.
1926.1129  Coke oven emissions.
1926.1144  1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.
1926.1145  Acrylonitrile.
1926.1147  Ethylene oxide.
1926.1148  Formaldehyde.
1926.1152  Methylene chloride.

Appendix A to Part 1926--Designations for General Industry Standards 
          Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards

Subject Index for Part 1926--Safety and Health Regulations for 
          Construction

    Source: 44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.

    Editorial Note: At 44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979, and corrected at 44 FR 
20940, Apr. 6, 1979, OSHA reprinted without change the entire text of 29 
CFR part 1926 together with certain General Industry Occupational Safety 
and Health Standards contained in 29 CFR part 1910, which have been 
identified as also applicable to construction work. This republication 
developed a single set of OSHA regulations for both labor and management 
forces within the construction industry.



                           Subpart A--General

    Authority: Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 
(Construction Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333); Secs. 4, 6, 8. Occupational 
Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of 
Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 
35736), of 1-90 (55 FR 9033), as applicable; 29 CFR part 1911.



Sec. 1926.1  Purpose and scope.

    (a) This part sets forth the safety and health standards promulgated 
by the Secretary of Labor under section 107 of the Contract Work Hours 
and Safety Standards Act. The standards are published in subpart C of 
this part and following subparts.
    (b) Subpart B of this part contains statements of general policy and 
interpretations of section 107 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety 
Standards Act having general applicability.



Sec. 1926.2  Variances from safety and health standards.

    (a) Variances from standards which are, or may be, published in this 
part may be granted under the same circumstances whereunder variances 
may be granted under section 6(b)(A) or 6(d) of the Williams-Steiger 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 65). The 
procedures for the granting of variances and for related relief under 
this part are those published in part 1905 of this title.
    (b) Any requests for variances under this section shall also be 
considered requests for variances under the Williams-Steiger 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, and any requests for 
variances under Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act with 
respect to construction safety or health standards shall be considered 
to be also variances under the Construction Safety Act. Any variance 
from a construction safety or health standard

[[Page 11]]

which is contained in this part and which is incorporated by reference 
in part 1910 of this title shall be deemed a variance from the standard 
under both the Construction Safety Act and the Williams-Steiger 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.



Sec. 1926.3  Inspections--right of entry.

    (a) It shall be a condition of each contract which is subject to 
section 107 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act that the 
Secretary of Labor or any authorized representative shall have a right 
of entry to any site of contract performance for the following purposes:
    (1) To inspect or investigate the matter of compliance with the 
safety and health standards contained in subpart C of this part and 
following subparts; and
    (2) To carry out the duties of the Secretary under section 107(b) of 
the Act.
    (b) For the purpose of carrying out his investigative duties under 
the Act, the Secretary of Labor may, by agreement, use with or without 
reimbursement the services, personnel, and facilities of any State or 
Federal agency. Any agreements with States under this section shall be 
similar to those provided for under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts 
Act under 41 CFR part 50-205.



Sec. 1926.4  Rules of practice for administrative adjudications for enforcement of safety and health standards.

    (a) The rules of practice for administrative adjudications for the 
enforcement of the safety and health standards contained in subpart C of 
this part and the following subparts shall be the same as those 
published in part 6 of this title with respect to safety and health 
violations of the Service Contract Act of 1965 (69 Stat. 1035), except 
as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.
    (b) In the case of debarment, the findings required by section 
107(d) of the Act shall be made by the hearing examiner or the Assistant 
Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, as the case may 
be. Whenever, as provided in section 107(d)(2), a contractor requests 
termination of debarment before the end of the 3-year period prescribed 
in that section, the request shall be filed in writing with the 
Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health who 
shall publish a notice in the Federal Register that the request has been 
received and afford interested persons an opportunity to be heard upon 
the request, and thereafter the provisions of part 6 of this title shall 
apply with respect to prehearing conferences, hearings and related 
matters, and decisions and orders.



Sec. 1926.5  OMB control numbers under the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    The following sections or paragraphs each contain a collection of 
information requirement which has been approved by the Office of 
Management and Budget under the control number listed.

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  OMB   
                       29 CFR citation                          control 
                                                                  No.   
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1926.33.....................................................   1218-0065
1926.50.....................................................   1218-0093
1926.52.....................................................   1218-0048
1926.53.....................................................   1218-0103
1926.59.....................................................   1218-0072
1926.60.....................................................   1218-0183
1926.62.....................................................   1218-0189
1926.64.....................................................   1218-0200
1926.65.....................................................   1218-0202
1926.103....................................................   1218-0099
1926.200....................................................   1218-0132
1926.250....................................................   1218-0093
1926.251....................................................   1218-0233
1926.403....................................................   1218-0130
1926.404....................................................   1218-0130
1926.405....................................................   1218-0130
1926.407....................................................   1218-0130
1926.408....................................................   1218-0130
1926.453(a)(2)..............................................   1218-0216
1926.502....................................................   1218-0197
1926.503....................................................   1218-0197
1926.550(a)(1)..............................................   1218-0115
1926.550(a)(6)..............................................   1218-0113
1926.550(a)(11).............................................   1218-0054
1926.550(b)(2)..............................................   1218-0232
1926.550(g).................................................   1218-0151
1926.552....................................................   1218-0231
1926.652....................................................   1218-0137
1926.703....................................................   1218-0095
1926.800....................................................   1218-0067
1926.803....................................................   1218-0067
1926.900....................................................   1218-0217
1926.903....................................................   1218-0227
1926.1080...................................................   1218-0069
1926.1081...................................................   1218-0069
1926.1083...................................................   1218-0069
1926.1090...................................................   1218-0069
1926.1091...................................................   1218-0069
1926.1101...................................................   1218-0134
1926.1103...................................................   1218-0085
1926.1104...................................................   1218-0084
1926.1106...................................................   1218-0086
1926.1107...................................................   1218-0083

[[Page 12]]

                                                                        
1926.1108...................................................   1218-0087
1926.1109...................................................   1218-0089
1926.1110...................................................   1218-0082
1926.1111...................................................   1218-0090
1926.1112...................................................   1218-0080
1926.1113...................................................   1218-0079
1926.1114...................................................   1218-0088
1926.1115...................................................   1218-0044
1926.1116...................................................   1218-0081
1926.1117...................................................   1218-0010
1926.1118...................................................   1218-0104
1926.1127...................................................   1218-0186
1926.1128...................................................   1218-0129
1926.1129...................................................   1218-0128
1926.1144...................................................   1218-0101
1926.1145...................................................   1218-0126
1926.1147...................................................   1218-0108
1926.1148...................................................   1218-0145
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[61 FR 5509, Feb. 13, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 3814, Jan. 27, 1998; 63 
FR 13340, Mar. 19, 1998; 63 FR 17094, Apr. 8, 1998]



                   Subpart B--General Interpretations

    Authority: Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 
(Construction Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333).



Sec. 1926.10  Scope of subpart.

    (a) This subpart contains the general rules of the Secretary of 
Labor interpreting and applying the construction safety and health 
provisions of section 107 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety 
Standards Act (83 Stat. 96). Section 107 requires as a condition of each 
contract which is entered into under legislation subject to 
Reorganization Plan Number 14 of 1950 (64 Stat. 1267), and which is for 
construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and 
decorating, that no contractor or subcontractor contracting for any part 
of the contract work shall require any laborer or mechanic employed in 
the performance of the contract to work in surroundings or under working 
conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to his health 
or safety, as determined under construction safety and health standards 
promulgated by the Secretary by regulation.



Sec. 1926.11  Coverage under section 103 of the act distinguished.

    (a) Coverage under section 103. It is important to note that the 
coverage of section 107 differs from that for the overtime requirements 
of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. The application of 
the overtime requirements is governed by section 103, which subject to 
specific exemptions, includes: (1) Federal contracts requiring or 
involving the employment of laborers or mechanics (thus including, but 
not limited to, contracts for construction), and (2) contracts assisted 
in whole or in part by Federal loans, grants, or guarantees under any 
statute ``providing wage standards for such work.'' The statutes 
``providing wage standards for such work'' include statutes for 
construction which require the payment of minimum wages in accordance 
with prevailing wage findings by the Secretary of Labor in accordance 
with the Davis-Bacon Act. A provision to section 103 excludes from the 
overtime requirements work where the Federal assistance is only in the 
form of a loan guarantee or insurance.
    (b) Coverage under section 107. To be covered by section 107 of the 
Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act, a contract must be one 
which (1) is entered into under a statute that is subject to 
Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950 (64 Stat. 1267); and (2) is for 
``construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and 
decorating.''



Sec. 1926.12  Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950.

    (a) General provisions. Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950 relates 
to the prescribing by the Secretary of Labor of ``appropriate standards, 
regulations, and procedures'' with respect to the enforcement of labor 
standards under Federal and federally assisted contracts which are 
subject to various statutes subject to the Plan. The rules of the 
Secretary of Labor implementing the Plan are published in part 5 of this 
title. Briefly, the statutes subject to the Plan include the Davis-Bacon 
Act, including its extension to Federal-aid highway legislation subject 
to 23 U.S.C. 113, and other statutes subject to the Plan by its original 
terms, statutes by which the Plan is expressly applied, such as the 
Contract Work Hours Standards Act by virtue of section 104(d) thereof.
    (b) The Plan. (1) The statutes subject to Reorganization Plan No. 14 
of 1950 are cited and briefly described in the

[[Page 13]]

remaining paragraphs of this section. These descriptions are general in 
nature and not intended to convey the full scope of the work to be 
performed under each statute. The individual statutes should be resorted 
to for a more detailed scope of the work.
    (2) Federal-Aid Highway Acts. The provisions codified in 23 U.S.C. 
113 apply to the initial construction, reconstruction, or improvement 
work performed by contractors or subcontractors on highway projects on 
the Federal-aid systems, the primary and secondary, as well as their 
extensions in urban areas, and the Interstate System, authorized under 
the highway laws providing for the expenditure of Federal funds upon the 
Federal-aid system. As cited in 41 Op. A.G. 488, 496, the Attorney 
General ruled that the Federal-Aid Highway Acts are subject to 
Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950.
    (3) National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1713, 1715a, 1715e, 1715k, 
1715l(d)(3) and (4), 1715v, 1715w, 1715x, 1743, 1747, 1748, 1748h-2, 
1750g, 1715l(h)(1), 1715z(j)(1), 1715z-1, 1715y(d), Subchapter 1x-A and 
1x-B, 1715z-7). This act covers construction which is financed with 
assistance by the Federal Government through programs of loan and 
mortgage insurance for the following purposes:
    (i) Rental Housing--Section 1713 provides mortgage and insurance on 
rental housing of eight or more units and on mobile-home courts.
    (ii) Section 1715a--Repealed.
    (iii) Cooperative Housing--Section 1715e authorizes mortgage 
insurance on cooperative housing of five or more units as well as 
supplementary loans for improvement of repair or resale of memberships.
    (iv) Urban Renewal Housing--Section 1715k provides mortgage 
insurance on single family or multifamily housing in approved urban 
renewal areas.
    (v) Low or Moderate Income Housing--Section 1715L(d) (3) and (4) 
insures mortgages on low-cost single family or multifamily housing.
    (vi) Housing for Elderly--Section 1715v provides mortgage insurance 
on rental housing for elderly or handicapped persons.
    (vii) Nursing Homes--Section 1715w authorizes mortgage insurance on 
nursing home facilities and major equipment.
    (viii) Experimental Housing--Section 1715x provides mortgage 
insurance on single family or multifamily housing with experimental 
design of materials.
    (ix) War Housing Insurance--Section 1743 not active.
    (x) Yield Insurance--Section 1747 insures investment returns on 
multifamily housing.
    (xi) Armed Services Housing--Section 1748b to assist in relieving 
acute shortage and urgent need for family housing at or in areas 
adjacent to military installations.
    (xii) Defense Housing for Impacted Areas--Section 1748h-2 provides 
mortgage insurance on single family or multifamily housing for sale or 
rent primarily to military or civilian personnel of the Armed Services, 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or Atomic Energy 
Commission.
    (xiii) Defense Rental Housing--Section 1750g provides for mortgage 
insurance in critical defense housing areas.
    (xiv) Rehabilitation--Section 1715L (h)(1) provides mortgage 
insurance for nonprofit organizations to finance the purchase and 
rehabilitation of deteriorating or substandard housing for subsequent 
resale to low-income home purchasers. There must be located on the 
property five or more single family dwellings of detached, semidetached, 
or row construction.
    (xv) Homeowner Assistance--Section 1715Z(j)(1) authorizes mortgage 
insurance to nonprofit organizations or public bodies or agencies 
executed to finance sale of individual dwellings to lower income 
individuals or families. Also includes the rehabilitation of such 
housing if it is deteriorating or substandard for subsequent resale to 
lower income home purchasers.
    (xvi) Rental Housing Assistance--Section 1715Z-1 authorizes mortgage 
insurance and interest reduction payments on behalf of owners of rental 
housing projects designed for occupancy by lower income families. 
Payments are also authorized for certain State or locally aided 
projects.

[[Page 14]]

    (xvii) Condominium Housing--Section 1715y(d) provides mortgage 
insurance on property purchased for the development of building sites. 
This includes waterlines and water supply installations, sewer lines and 
sewage disposal installations, steam, gas, and electrical lines and 
installations, roads, streets, curbs, gutters, sidewalks, storm drainage 
facilities, and other installations or work.
    (xviii) Group Medical Practice Facilities--Subchapter LX-B 
authorizes mortgage insurance for the financing of construction and 
equipment, of facilities for group practice of medicine, optometry, or 
dentistry.
    (xix) Nonprofit Hospitals--1715z-7 authorizes mortgage insurance to 
cover new and rehabilitated hospitals, including initial equipment.
    (4) Hospital Survey and Construction Act, as amended by the Hospital 
and Medical Facilities Amendments of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 291e). The 
provisions of this Act cover construction contracts made by State or 
local authorities or private institutions under Federal grant-in-aid 
programs for the construction of hospitals and other medical facilities.
    (5) Federal Airport Act (49 U.S.C. 1114(b)). The act provides grant-
in-aid funds for airport construction limited to general site 
preparation runways, taxiways, aprons, lighting appurtenant thereto, and 
fire, rescue, and maintenance buildings. The act excludes construction 
intended for use as a public parking facility for passenger automobiles 
and the cost of construction of any part of an airport building except 
such of those buildings or parts of buildings to house facilities or 
activities directly related to the safety of persons at the airport.
    (6) Housing Act of 1949 (42 U.S.C. 1459). Construction contracts 
awarded by local authorities financed with the assistance of loans and 
grants from the Federal Government. The construction programs are for 
slum clearance and urban renewal which includes rehabilitation grants, 
neighborhood development programs, neighborhood renewal plans, community 
renewal, demolition projects, and assistance for blighted areas. See the 
Housing Act of 1964, paragraph (b)(21) of this section, concerning 
financial assistance for low-rent housing for domestic farm labor.
    (7) School Survey and Construction Act of 1950 (20 U.S.C. 636). This 
act provides for a Federal grant-in-aid program to assist in the 
construction of schools in federally affected areas.
    (8) Defense Housing & Community Facilities & Services Act of 1951 
(42 U.S.C. 1592i). Inactive Program.
    (9) United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1416). This statute 
covers the construction of low-rent public housing and slum clearance 
projects awarded by local authorities. These projects are financed with 
the assistance of loans and grants from the Federal Government. The slum 
clearance is the demolition and removal of buildings from any slum area 
to be used for a low-rent housing project.
    (10) Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2281). This 
act provides for Federal assistance to the several States and their 
political subdivisions in the field of civil defense which includes 
procurement, construction, leasing, or renovating of materials and 
facilities.
    (11) Delaware River Basin Compact (sec. 15.1, 75 Stat. 714). This 
joint resolution creates, by intergovernmental compact between the 
United States, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, a 
regional agency for planning, conservation, utilization, development, 
management and control of the water and related sources of the Delaware 
River.
    (12) Cooperative Research Act (20 U.S.C. 332a(c)). This act provides 
Federal grants to a university, college, or other appropriate public or 
nonprofit private agency or institution for part or all of the cost of 
constructing a facility for research or for research and related 
purposes. Research and related purposes means research, research 
training, surveys, or demonstrations in the field of education, or the 
dissemination of information derived therefrom, or all of such 
activities, including (but without limitation) experimental schools, 
except that such term does not include research, research training, 
surveys, or demonstrations in the field

[[Page 15]]

of sectarian instruction or the dissemination of information derived 
therefrom. Construction includes new buildings, and the acquisition, 
expansion, remodeling, replacement, and alteration of existing buildings 
and the equipping of new buildings and existing buildings.
    (13) Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1963 (42 
U.S.C. 292d (c)(4), 293a(c)(5)). The provisions of this act provide for 
grants to assist public and nonprofit medical, dental, and similar 
schools for the construction, expansion, or renovation of teaching 
facilities.
    (14) Mental Retardation Facilities Construction Act (42 U.S.C. 
295(a)(2)(D), 2662(5), 2675(a)(5)). This act authorizes Federal 
financial assistance in the construction of centers for research on 
mental retardation and related aspects of human development, of 
university-affiliated facilities for the mentally retarded and of 
facilities for the mentally retarded.
    (15) Community Mental Health Centers Act (42 U.S.C. 2685(a)(5)). 
This act authorizes Federal grants for the construction of public and 
other nonprofit community mental health centers.
    (16) Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963 (20 U.S.C. 753). This 
act authorizes the grant or loan of Federal funds to assist public and 
other nonprofit institutions of higher education in financing the 
construction, rehabilitation, or improvement of academic and related 
facilities in undergraduate and graduate schools.
    (17) Vocational Educational Act of 1963 (20 U.S.C. 35f). This act 
provides for Federal grants to the various States for construction of 
area vocational education school facilities.
    (18) Library Services and Construction Act (20 U.S.C. 355e(a)(4)). 
This act provides for Federal assistance to the various States for the 
construction of public libraries.
    (19) Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1954 (49 U.S.C. 1609). This 
act provides for grants and loans to assist States and local public 
bodies and agencies thereof in financing the acquisition, construction, 
reconstruction, and improvement of facilities and equipment for use, by 
operation or lease or otherwise, in mass transportation service in urban 
areas and in coordinating such service with highway and other 
transportation in such areas.
    (20) Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2947). This act 
covers construction which is financed with assistance of the Federal 
Government for the following purposes:
    (i) Authorizes Federal assistance for construction of projects, 
buildings and works which will provide young men and women in rural and 
urban residential centers with education, vocational training, and 
useful work experience (Title I).
    (ii) Authorizes financial assistance for construction work planned 
and carried out at the community level for antipoverty programs (Title 
II):
    (a) Authorizes loans to low income rural families by assisting them 
to acquire or improve real estate or reduce encumbrances or erect 
improvements thereon, and to participate in cooperative associations 
and/or to finance nonagricultural enterprises which will enable such 
families to supplement their income (Title III);
    (b) Authorizes loans to local cooperative associations furnishing 
essential processing, purchasing, or marketing services, supplies, or 
facilities predominantly to low-income rural families (Title III);
    (c) Authorizes financial assistance to States, political 
subdivisions of States, public and nonprofit agencies, institutions, 
organizations, farm associations, or individuals in establishing 
housing, sanitation, education, and child day-care programs for migrants 
and other seasonally employed agricultural employees and their families 
(Title III).
    (iii) Authorizes loans or guarantees loans to small businesses for 
construction work (Title IV).
    (iv) Authorizes the payment of the cost of experimental, pilot, or 
demonstration projects to foster State programs providing construction 
work experience or training for unemployed fathers and needy people 
(Title V).
    (21) Housing Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 1486(f); 42 U.S.C. 1452b(e)). 
Provides financial assistance for low-rent housing for domestic farm 
labor. The Act further provides for loans, through public or private 
agencies, where feasible, to owners or tenants of property in urban

[[Page 16]]

renewal areas to finance rehabilitation required to conform the property 
to applicable code requirements or carry out the objectives of the urban 
renewal plan for the area.
    (22) The Commercial Fisheries Research and Development Act of 1964 
(16 U.S.C. 779e(b)). This Act authorizes financial assistance to State 
agencies for construction projects designed for the research and 
development of the commercial fisheries resources of the Nation.
    (23) The Nurse Training Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 296a(b)(5)). This act 
provides for grants to assist in the construction of new facilities for 
collegiate, associate degree, and diploma schools of nursing, or 
replacement or rehabilitation of existing facilities of such schools.
    (24) Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 241i, 
848). The purpose of the act is to provide financial assistance to local 
educational agencies serving areas with concentrations of children from 
low-income families for construction in connection with the expansion or 
improvement of their educational programs.
    (25) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended by the Water 
Quality Act of 1965 (3 U.S.C. 466e(g)). Provides for financial 
assistance to States or municipalities for construction of facilities in 
connection with the prevention and control of water pollution. This 
includes projects that will control the discharge into any waters of 
untreated or inadequately treated sewage.
    (26) Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965 (40 U.S.C. App. 
402). Authorizes Federal assistance in the construction of an 
Appalachian development highway system; construction of multicounty 
demonstration health facilities, hospitals, regional health, diagnostic 
and treatment centers, and other facilities for health; seal and fill 
voids in abandoned mines and to rehabilitate strip mine areas; 
construction of school facilities for vocational education; and to 
assist in construction of sewage treatment works.
    (27) National Technical Institute for the Deaf Act (20 U.S.C. 
684(b)(5)). Provides for financial assistance for institutions of higher 
education for the establishment, construction, including equipment and 
operation, of a National Institution for the Deaf.
    (28) Housing Act of 1959 (12 U.S.C. 1701(q)(c)(3)). This act 
authorizes loans to nonprofit corporations to be used for the 
construction of housing and related facilities for elderly families. 
Also, the provisions of the act provide for rehabilitation, alteration, 
conversion or improvement of existing structures which are otherwise 
inadequate for proposed dwellings used by such families.
    (29) College Housing Act of 1950, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1749a(f)). 
This act provides for Federal loans to assist educational institutions 
in providing housing and other educational facilities for students and 
faculties.
    (30) Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 1500c-3, 
3107). This act provides for Federal assistance for the following 
purposes:
    (i) Grants to States and local public bodies to assist in any 
construction work to be carried out under the open-space land and urban 
beautification provisions contained therein. It provides for parks and 
recreation areas, conservation of land and other natural resources, and 
historical and scenic purposes.
    (ii) Grants to local public bodies and agencies to finance specific 
projects for basic public water facilities (including works for the 
storage, treatment, purification, and distribution of water), and for 
basic public sewer facilities (other than ``treatment works'' as defined 
in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act).
    (iii) Grants to any local public body or agency to assist in 
financing neighborhood facilities. These facilities must be necessary 
for carrying out a program of health, recreational, social, or similar 
community service and located so as to be available for the use of the 
area's low or moderate income residents.
    (31) National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965 
(20 U.S.C. 954(k)). The act establishes the ``National Foundation on the 
Arts and the Humanities'' which may provide matching grants to groups 
(nonprofit organizations and State and other public organizations) and 
to individuals engaged in creative and performing

[[Page 17]]

arts for the entire range of artistic activity, including construction 
of necessary facilities.
    (32) Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 
3222). This act provides for Federal assistance for the following 
purposes:
    (i) Grants for the acquisition or development of land or 
improvements for public works or development facility usage in 
redevelopment areas. It authorizes loans to assist in financing the 
purchase or development of land for public works which will assist in 
the creation of long-term employment opportunities in the area.
    (ii) Loans for the purchase or development of land and facilities 
(including machinery and equipment) for industrial or commercial usage 
within redevelopment areas; guarantee of loans for working capital made 
to private borrowers by private lending institutions in connection with 
direct loan projects; and to contract to pay to, or on behalf of, 
business entities locating in redevelopment areas, a portion of the 
interest costs which they incur in financing their expansions from 
private sources.
    (iii) Loans and grants to create economic development centers within 
designated county economic development districts.
    (33) High-Speed Ground Transportation Study (40 U.S.C. 1636(b)). 
This act provides for financial assistance for construction activities 
in connection with research and development of different forms of high-
speed ground transportation and demonstration projects relating to 
intercity rail passenger service.
    (34) Heart Disease, Cancer and Stroke Amendments of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 
299(b)(4)). This act provides for grants to public or nonprofit private 
universities, medical schools, research, institutions, hospitals, and 
other public and nonprofit agencies and institutions, or associations 
thereof to assist in construction and equipment of facilities in 
connection with research, training, demonstration of patient care, 
diagnostic and treatment related to heart disease, cancer, stroke, and 
other major diseases.
    (35) Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health 
Centers Construction Act Amendments of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 618(g)). These 
provisions provide for grants to institutions of higher education for 
construction of facilities for research or for research and related 
purposes relating to education for mentally retarded, hard of hearing, 
deaf, speech impaired, visually handicapped, seriously emotionally 
disturbed, crippled, or other health impaired children who by reason 
thereof require special education.
    (36) Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1965 (29 U.S.C. 
41a(b)(4)). This act authorizes grants to assist in meeting the costs of 
construction of public or other nonprofit workshops and rehabilitation 
facilities.
    (37) Clean Air and Solid Waste Disposal Acts (42 U.S.C. 3256). This 
act provides for financial assistance to public (Federal, State, 
interstate, or local) authorities, agencies, and institutions, private 
agencies and institutions, and individuals in the construction of 
facilities for solid-waste disposal. The term construction includes the 
installation of initial equipment.
    (38) Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 280b-
3(b)(3)). This act provides for grants to public or private non-profit 
agencies or institutions for the cost of construction of medical library 
facilities.
    (39) Veterans Nursing Home Care Act (38 U.S.C. 5035(a)(8)). The 
construction industry health and safety standards do not apply to this 
act since it is not subject to Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950.
    (40) National Capital Transportation Act of 1965 (40 U.S.C. 
682(b)(4)). This act provides for Federal assistance to the National 
Capital Transportation Agency for construction of a rail rapid transit 
system and related facilities for the Nation's Capital.
    (41) Alaska Centennial--1967 (80 Stat. 82). The program under this 
legislation has expired.
    (42) Model Secondary School for the Deaf Act (80 Stat. 1028). This 
act provides for funds to establish and operate, including construction 
and initial equipment of new buildings, expansion, remodeling, and 
alteration of existing buildings and equipment thereof, a model 
secondary school for the deaf to serve the residents of the District of 
Columbia and nearby States.

[[Page 18]]

    (43) Allied Health Professions Personnel Training Act of 1966 (42 
U.S.C. 295h(b)(2)(E)). This act provides for grants to assist in the 
construction of new facilities for training centers for allied health 
professions, or replacement or rehabilitation of existing facilities for 
such centers.
    (44) Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966 
(42 U.S.C. 3310; 12 U.S.C. 1715c; 42 U.S.C. 1416). This act provides for 
Federal assistance for the following purposes:
    (i) Grants to assist in the construction, rehabilitation, 
alteration, or repair of residential property only if such residential 
property is designed for residential use for eight or more families to 
enable city demonstration agencies to carry out comprehensive city 
demonstration programs (42 U.S.C. 3310).
    (ii) Amends the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1715c) and the 
Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1416). See these acts for coverage.
    (45) Air Quality Act of 1967 (42 U.S.C. 1857j-3). This act provides 
for Federal assistance to public or nonprofit agencies, institutions, 
and organizations and to individuals, and contracts with public or 
private agencies, institutions, or persons for construction of research 
and development facilities and demonstration plants relating to the 
application of preventing or controlling discharges into the air of 
various types of pollutants.
    (46) Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1967 (Title 
VII--Bilingual Education Act) (20 U.S.C. 880b-6). This act provides for 
Federal assistance to local educational agencies or to an institution of 
higher education applying jointly with a local educational agency for 
minor remodeling projects in connection with bilingual education 
programs to meet the special needs of children with limited English-
speaking ability in the United States.
    (47) Vocational Rehabilitation Amendments of 1967 (29 U.S.C. 
42a(c)(3)). This act authorizes Federal assistance to any public or 
nonprofit private agency or organization for the construction of a 
center for vocational rehabilitation of handicapped individuals who are 
both deaf and blind which shall be known as the National Center for 
Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults. Construction includes new buildings and 
expansion, remodeling, alteration and renovation of existing buildings, 
and initial equipment of such new, newly acquired, expanded, remodeled, 
altered, or renovated buildings.
    (48) National Visitor Center Facilities Act of 1968 (40 U.S.C. 808). 
This act authorizes agreements and leases with the owner of property in 
the District of Columbia known as Union Station for the use of all or a 
part of such property for a national visitor center to be known as the 
National Visitor Center. The agreements and leases shall provide for 
such alterations of the Union Station Building as necessary to provide 
adequate facilities for visitors. They also provide for the construction 
of a parking facility, including necessary approaches and ramps.
    (49) Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control Act of 1968 (42 
U.S.C. 3843). This act provides for Federal grants to State, county, 
municipal, or other public agency or combination thereof for the 
construction of facilities to be used in connection with rehabilitation 
services for the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of delinquent 
youths and youths in danger of becoming delinquent.
    (50) Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 (including New 
Communities Act of 1968) (42 U.S.C. 3909). This act provides for Federal 
assistance for the following purposes:
    (i) Guarantees, and commitments to guarantee, the bonds, debentures, 
notes, and other obligations issued by new community developers to help 
finance new community development projects.
    (ii) Amends section 212(a) of the National Housing Act, adding 
section 236 for ``Rental Housing for Lower Income Families'' and section 
242 ``Mortgage Insurance for Nonprofit Hospitals'' thereto.
    (51) Public Health Service Act Amendment (Alcoholic and Narcotic 
Addict Rehabilitation Amendments of 1968) (42 U.S.C. 2681, et seq.). 
This act provides for grants to a public and nonprofit private agency or 
organization for construction projects consisting of any facilities 
(including post-hospitalization treatment facilities for the prevention

[[Page 19]]

and treatment of alcoholism or treatment of narcotic addicts.)
    (52) Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 (20 U.S.C. 1246). This 
act provides for grants to States for the construction of area 
vocational education school facilities. The act further provides grants 
to public educational agencies, organizations, or institutions for 
construction of residential schools to provide vocational education for 
the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility and desirability of such 
schools. The act still further provides grants to State boards, to 
colleges and universities, to public educational agencies, organizations 
or institutions to reduce the cost of borrowing funds for the 
construction of residential schools and dormitories.
    (53) Postal Reorganization Act (39 U.S.C. 410(d)(2)). This Act 
provides for construction, modification, alteration, repair, and other 
improvements of postal facilities located in leased buildings.
    (54) Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-258, 
section 52(b)(7)). This Act provides for Federal financial assistance to 
States and localities for the construction, improvement, or repair of 
public airports.
    (55) (i) Public Law 91-230. This Act provides for federal financial 
assistance to institutions of higher learning for the construction of a 
National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped. 
The program under this statute expires on July 1, 1971. Public Law 91-
230, section 662(1).
    (ii) Education of the Handicapped Act (20 U.S.C. 12326, 1404(a)). 
This Act provides for financial assistance to States for construction, 
expansion, remodeling, or alteration of facilities for the education of 
handicapped children at the preschool, elementary school, and secondary 
school levels.
    (56) Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-609, 
section 707(b)). This Act provides for grants to States and local public 
agencies to help finance the development of open-space or other land in 
urban areas for open-space uses. This Act becomes effective on July 1, 
1971.
    (57) Developmental Disabilities Services and Facilities Construction 
Amendments of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-517, section 135(a)(5)). This Act 
authorizes grants to States for construction of facilities for the 
provision of services to persons with developmental disabilities who are 
unable to pay for such services.
    (58) Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-518, section 
405(d)). This statute provides that the National Railroad Passenger 
Corporation may construct physical facilities necessary to intercity 
rail passenger operations within the basic national rail passenger 
system designated by the Secretary of Transportation.
    (c) VA and FHA housing. In the course of the legislative development 
of section 107, it was recognized that section 107 would not apply to 
housing construction for which insurance was issued by the Federal 
Housing Authority and Veterans' Administration for individual home 
ownership. Concerning construction under the National Housing Act, 
Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950 applies to construction which is 
subject to the minimum wage requirements of section 212(a) thereof (12 
U.S.C. 1715c).



Sec. 1926.13  Interpretation of statutory terms.

    (a) The terms construction, alteration, and repair used in section 
107 of the Act are also used in section 1 of the Davis-Bacon Act (40 
U.S.C. 276a), providing minimum wage protection on Federal construction 
contracts, and section 1 of the Miller Act (40 U.S.C. 270a), providing 
performance and payment bond protection on Federal construction 
contracts. Similarly, the terms contractor and subcontractor are used in 
those statutes, as well as in Copeland (Anti-Kickback) Act (40 U.S.C. 
276c) and the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act itself, which 
apply concurrently with the Miller Act and the Davis-Bacon Act on 
Federal construction contracts and also apply to most federally assisted 
construction contracts. The use of the same or identical terms in these 
statutes which apply concurrently with section 107 of the Act have 
considerable precedential value in ascertaining the coverage of section 
107.
    (b) It should be noted that section 1 of the Davis-Bacon Act limits 
minimum wage protection to laborers and

[[Page 20]]

mechanics ``employed directly'' upon the ``site of the work.'' There is 
no comparable limitation in section 107 of the Act. Section 107 
expressly requires as a self-executing condition of each covered 
contract that no contractor or subcontractor shall require ``any laborer 
or mechanic employed in the performance of the contract to work in 
surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary, 
hazardous, or dangerous to his health or safety'' as these health and 
safety standards are applied in the rules of the Secretary of Labor.
    (c) The term subcontractor under section 107 is considered to mean a 
person who agrees to perform any part of the labor or material 
requirements of a contract for construction, alteration or repair. Cf. 
MacEvoy Co. v. United States, 322 U.S. 102, 108-9 (1944). A person who 
undertakes to perform a portion of a contract involving the furnishing 
of supplies or materials will be considered a ``subcontractor'' under 
this part and section 107 if the work in question involves the 
performance of construction work and is to be performed: (1) Directly on 
or near the construction site, or (2) by the employer for the specific 
project on a customized basis. Thus, a supplier of materials which will 
become an integral part of the construction is a ``subcontractor'' if 
the supplier fabricates or assembles the goods or materials in question 
specifically for the construction project and the work involved may be 
said to be construction activity. If the goods or materials in question 
are ordinarily sold to other customers from regular inventory, the 
supplier is not a ``subcontractor.'' Generally, the furnishing of 
prestressed concrete beams and prestressed structural steel would be 
considered manufacturing; therefore a supplier of such materials would 
not be considered a ``subcontractor.'' An example of material supplied 
``for the specific project on a customized basis'' as that phrase is 
used in this section would be ventilating ducts, fabricated in a shop 
away from the construction job site and specifically cut for the project 
according to design specifications. On the other hand, if a contractor 
buys standard size nails from a foundry, the foundry would not be a 
covered ``subcontractor.'' Ordinarily a contract for the supplying of 
construction equipment to a contractor would not, in and of itself, be 
considered a ``subcontractor'' for purposes of this part.



Sec. 1926.14  Federal contract for ``mixed'' types of performance.

    (a) It is the intent of the Congress to provide safety and health 
protection of Federal, federally financed, or federally assisted 
construction. See, for example, H. Report No. 91-241, 91st Cong., first 
session, p. 1 (1969). Thus, it is clear that when a Federal contract 
calls for mixed types of performance, such as both manufacturing and 
construction, section 107 would apply to the construction. By its 
express terms, section 107 applies to a contract which is ``for 
construction, alteration, and/or repair.'' Such a contract is not 
required to be exclusively for such services. The application of the 
section is not limited to contracts which permit an overall 
characterization as ``construction contracts.'' The text of section 107 
is not so limited.
    (b) When the mixed types of performances include both construction 
and manufacturing, see also Sec. 1926.15(b) concerning the relationship 
between the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act and section 107.



Sec. 1926.15  Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    (a) A contract for ``construction'' is one for nonpersonal service. 
See, e.g., 41 CFR 1-1.208. Section 2(e) of the Service Contract Act of 
1965 requires as a condition of every Federal contract (and bid 
specification therefor) exceeding $2,500, the ``principal purpose'' of 
which is to furnish services to the United States through the use of 
``service employees,'' that certain safety and health standards be met. 
See 29 CFR part 1925, which contains the Department rules concerning 
these standards. Section 7 of the Service Contract Act provides that the 
Act shall not apply to ``any contract of the United States or District 
of Columbia for construction, alteration, and/or repair, including 
painting and decorating of public buildings or public works.'' It is 
clear

[[Page 21]]

from the legislative history of section 107 that no gaps in coverage 
between the two statutes are intended.
    (b) The Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act requires that contracts 
entered into by any Federal agency for the manufacture or furnishing of 
materials, supplies, articles, and equipment in any amount exceeding 
$10,000 must contain, among other provisions, a requirement that ``no 
part of such contract will be performed nor will any of the materials, 
supplies, articles or equipment to be manufactured or furnished under 
said contract be manufactured or fabricated in any plants, factories, 
buildings, or surroundings or under working conditions which are 
unsanitary or hazardous or dangerous to the health and safety of 
employees engaged in the performance of said contract.'' The rules of 
the Secretary concerning these standards are published in 41 CFR part 
50-204, and express the Secretary of Labor's interpretation and 
application of section 1(e) of the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act to 
certain particular working conditions. None of the described working 
conditions are intended to deal with construction activities, although 
such activities may conceivably be a part of a contract which is subject 
to the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. Nevertheless, such activities 
remain subject to the general statutory duty prescribed by section 1(e). 
Section 103(b) of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 
provides, among other things, that the Act shall not apply to any work 
required to be done in accordance with the provisions of the Walsh-
Healey Public Contracts Act.



Sec. 1926.16  Rules of construction.

    (a) The prime contractor and any subcontractors may make their own 
arrangements with respect to obligations which might be more 
appropriately treated on a jobsite basis rather than individually. Thus, 
for example, the prime contractor and his subcontractors may wish to 
make an express agreement that the prime contractor or one of the 
subcontractors will provide all required first-aid or toilet facilities, 
thus relieving the subcontractors from the actual, but not any legal, 
responsibility (or, as the case may be, relieving the other 
subcontractors from this responsibility). In no case shall the prime 
contractor be relieved of overall responsibility for compliance with the 
requirements of this part for all work to be performed under the 
contract.
    (b) By contracting for full performance of a contract subject to 
section 107 of the Act, the prime contractor assumes all obligations 
prescribed as employer obligations under the standards contained in this 
part, whether or not he subcontracts any part of the work.
    (c) To the extent that a subcontractor of any tier agrees to perform 
any part of the contract, he also assumes responsibility for complying 
with the standards in this part with respect to that part. Thus, the 
prime contractor assumes the entire responsibility under the contract 
and the subcontractor assumes responsibility with respect to his portion 
of the work. With respect to subcontracted work, the prime contractor 
and any subcontractor or subcontractors shall be deemed to have joint 
responsibility.
    (d) Where joint responsibility exists, both the prime contractor and 
his subcontractor or subcontractors, regardless of tier, shall be 
considered subject to the enforcement provisions of the Act.



             Subpart C--General Safety and Health Provisions

    Authority:  Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 
(40 U.S.C. 333); secs. 4, 6, and 8, Occupational Safety and Health Act 
of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 
(36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), or 6-96 (62 FR 
111), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.



Sec. 1926.20  General safety and health provisions.

    (a) Contractor requirements. (1) Section 107 of the Act requires 
that it shall be a condition of each contract which is entered into 
under legislation subject to Reorganization Plan Number 14 of 1950 (64 
Stat. 1267), as defined in Sec. 1926.12, and is for construction, 
alteration, and/or repair, including painting and decorating, that no 
contractor or

[[Page 22]]

subcontractor for any part of the contract work shall require any 
laborer or mechanic employed in the performance of the contract to work 
in surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary, 
hazardous, or dangerous to his health or safety.
    (b) Accident prevention responsibilities. (1) It shall be the 
responsibility of the employer to initiate and maintain such programs as 
may be necessary to comply with this part.
    (2) Such programs shall provide for frequent and regular inspections 
of the job sites, materials, and equipment to be made by competent 
persons designated by the employers.
    (3) The use of any machinery, tool, material, or equipment which is 
not in compliance with any applicable requirement of this part is 
prohibited. Such machine, tool, material, or equipment shall either be 
identified as unsafe by tagging or locking the controls to render them 
inoperable or shall be physically removed from its place of operation.
    (4) The employer shall permit only those employees qualified by 
training or experience to operate equipment and machinery.
    (c) The standards contained in this part shall apply with respect to 
employments performed in a workplace in a State, the District of 
Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American 
Samoa, Guam, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Wake Island, Outer 
Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands 
Act, Johnston Island, and the Canal Zone.
    (d) (1) If a particular standard is specifically applicable to a 
condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process, it shall 
prevail over any different general standard which might otherwise be 
applicable to the same condition, practice, means, method, operation, or 
process.
    (2) On the other hand, any standard shall apply according to its 
terms to any employment and place of employment in any industry, even 
though particular standards are also prescribed for the industry to the 
extent that none of such particular standards applies.
    (e) In the event a standard protects on its face a class of persons 
larger than employees, the standard shall be applicable under this part 
only to employees and their employment and places of employment.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 
FR 35078, June 30, 1993]



Sec. 1926.21  Safety training and education.

    (a) General requirements. The Secretary shall, pursuant to section 
107(f) of the Act, establish and supervise programs for the education 
and training of employers and employees in the recognition, avoidance 
and prevention of unsafe conditions in employments covered by the act.
    (b) Employer responsibility. (1) The employer should avail himself 
of the safety and health training programs the Secretary provides.
    (2) The employer shall instruct each employee in the recognition and 
avoidance of unsafe conditions and the regulations applicable to his 
work environment to control or eliminate any hazards or other exposure 
to illness or injury.
    (3) Employees required to handle or use poisons, caustics, and other 
harmful substances shall be instructed regarding the safe handling and 
use, and be made aware of the potential hazards, personal hygiene, and 
personal protective measures required.
    (4) In job site areas where harmful plants or animals are present, 
employees who may be exposed shall be instructed regarding the potential 
hazards, and how to avoid injury, and the first aid procedures to be 
used in the event of injury.
    (5) Employees required to handle or use flammable liquids, gases, or 
toxic materials shall be instructed in the safe handling and use of 
these materials and made aware of the specific requirements contained in 
subparts D, F, and other applicable subparts of this part.
    (6)(i) All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed 
spaces shall be instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the 
necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use of protective and 
emergency equipment required. The employer shall comply

[[Page 23]]

with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or 
potentially dangerous areas.
    (ii) For purposes of paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section, confined 
or enclosed space means any space having a limited means of egress, 
which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants 
or has an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Confined or enclosed spaces 
include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, process vessels, bins, 
boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility 
vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet in 
depth such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels.



Sec. 1926.22    Recording and reporting of injuries. [Reserved]



Sec. 1926.23  First aid and medical attention.

    First aid services and provisions for medical care shall be made 
available by the employer for every employee covered by these 
regulations. Regulations prescribing specific requirements for first 
aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained in 
subpart D of this part.



Sec. 1926.24  Fire protection and prevention.

    The employer shall be responsible for the development and 
maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at 
the job site throughout all phases of the construction, repair, 
alteration, or demolition work. The employer shall ensure the 
availability of the fire protection and suppression equipment required 
by subpart F of this part.



Sec. 1926.25  Housekeeping.

    (a) During the course of construction, alteration, or repairs, form 
and scrap lumber with protruding nails, and all other debris, shall be 
kept cleared from work areas, passageways, and stairs, in and around 
buildings or other structures.
    (b) Combustible scrap and debris shall be removed at regular 
intervals during the course of construction. Safe means shall be 
provided to facilitate such removal.
    (c) Containers shall be provided for the collection and separation 
of waste, trash, oily and used rags, and other refuse. Containers used 
for garbage and other oily, flammable, or hazardous wastes, such as 
caustics, acids, harmful dusts, etc. shall be equipped with covers. 
Garbage and other waste shall be disposed of at frequent and regular 
intervals.



Sec. 1926.26  Illumination.

    Construction areas, aisles, stairs, ramps, runways, corridors, 
offices, shops, and storage areas where work is in progress shall be 
lighted with either natural or artificial illumination. The minimum 
illumination requirements for work areas are contained in subpart D of 
this part.



Sec. 1926.27  Sanitation.

    Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained 
in subpart D of this part.



Sec. 1926.28  Personal protective equipment.

    (a) The employer is responsible for requiring the wearing of 
appropriate personal protective equipment in all operations where there 
is an exposure to hazardous conditions or where this part indicates the 
need for using such equipment to reduce the hazards to the employees.
    (b) Regulations governing the use, selection, and maintenance of 
personal protective and lifesaving equipment are described under subpart 
E of this part.



Sec. 1926.29  Acceptable certifications.

    (a) Pressure vessels. Current and valid certification by an 
insurance company or regulatory authority shall be deemed as acceptable 
evidence of safe installation, inspection, and testing of pressure 
vessels provided by the employer.
    (b) Boilers. Boilers provided by the employer shall be deemed to be 
in compliance with the requirements of this part when evidence of 
current and valid certification by an insurance company or regulatory 
authority attesting to the safe installation, inspection, and testing is 
presented.

[[Page 24]]

    (c) Other requirements. Regulations prescribing specific 
requirements for other types of pressure vessels and similar equipment 
are contained in subparts F and O of this part.



Sec. 1926.30  Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and 
maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval 
ship construction, is work subject to the Act.
    (b) Applicable safety and health standards. For the purpose of work 
carried out under this section, the safety and health regulations in 
part 1915 of this title, Shipyard Employment, shall apply.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 61 
FR 9249, Mar. 7, 1996]



Sec. 1926.31  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The standards of agencies of the U.S. Government, and 
organizations which are not agencies of the U.S. Government which are 
incorporated by reference in this part, have the same force and effect 
as other standards in this part. Only the mandatory provisions (i.e., 
provisions containing the word ``shall'' or other mandatory language) of 
standards incorporated by reference are adopted as standards under the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act. The locations where these standards 
may be examined are as follows:
    (1) Offices of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 
U.S. Department of Labor, Frances Perkins Building, Washington, DC 
20210.
    (2) The Regional and Field Offices of the Occupational Safety and 
Health Administration, which are listed in the U.S. Government Manual.
    (b) Any changes in the specifications, standards and codes 
incorporated by reference in this part and an official historic file of 
such changes are available at the offices referred to in paragraph (a) 
of this section. All questions as to the applicability of such changes 
should also be referred to these offices.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 61 
FR 9249, Mar. 7, 1996; 63 FR 33468, June 18, 1998]

    Effective Date Note: At 63 FR 33468, June 18, 1998, Sec. 1926.31 was 
amended by revising paragraph (a), effective Aug. 17, 1998. For the 
convenience of the user, the superseded text is set forth as follows:

Sec. 1926.31  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The specifications, standards and codes of agencies of the U.S. 
Government and organizations which are not agencies of the U.S. 
Government, to the extent they are legally incorporated by reference in 
this part, have the same force and effect as other standards in this 
part. The locations where these specifications, standards, and codes may 
be examined are as follows:
    (1) Offices of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 
U.S. Department of Labor, Frances Perkins Building, Washington, DC 
20210.
    (2) The Regional and Field Offices of the Occupational Safety and 
Health Administration, which are listed in the U.S. Government Manual.

                                * * * * *



Sec. 1926.32  Definitions.

    The following definitions shall apply in the application of the 
regulations in this part:
    (a) Act means section 107 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety 
Standards Act, commonly known as the Construction Safety Act (86 Stat. 
96; 40 U.S.C. 333).
    (b) ANSI means American National Standards Institute.
    (c) Approved means sanctioned, endorsed, accredited, certified, or 
accepted as satisfactory by a duly constituted and nationally recognized 
authority or agency.
    (d) Authorized person means a person approved or assigned by the 
employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a 
specific location or locations at the jobsite.
    (e) Administration means the Occupational Safety and Health 
Administration.
    (f) Competent person means one who is capable of identifying 
existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working 
conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, 
and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to 
eliminate them.
    (g) Construction work. For purposes of this section, Construction 
work means work for construction, alteration, and/

[[Page 25]]

or repair, including painting and decorating.
    (h) Defect means any characteristic or condition which tends to 
weaken or reduce the strength of the tool, object, or structure of which 
it is a part.
    (i) Designated person means ``authorized person'' as defined in 
paragraph (d) of this section.
    (j) Employee means every laborer or mechanic under the Act 
regardless of the contractual relationship which may be alleged to exist 
between the laborer and mechanic and the contractor or subcontractor who 
engaged him. ``Laborer and mechanic'' are not defined in the Act, but 
the identical terms are used in the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a), 
which provides for minimum wage protection on Federal and federally 
assisted construction contracts. The use of the same term in a statute 
which often applies concurrently with section 107 of the Act has 
considerable precedential value in ascertaining the meaning of ``laborer 
and mechanic'' as used in the Act. Laborer generally means one who 
performs manual labor or who labors at an occupation requiring physical 
strength; mechanic generally means a worker skilled with tools. See 18 
Comp. Gen. 341.
    (k) Employer means contractor or subcontractor within the meaning of 
the Act and of this part.
    (l) Hazardous substance means a substance which, by reason of being 
explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, or 
otherwise harmful, is likely to cause death or injury.
    (m) Qualified means one who, by possession of a recognized degree, 
certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, 
training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his ability to 
solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or 
the project.
    (n) Safety factor means the ratio of the ultimate breaking strength 
of a member or piece of material or equipment to the actual working 
stress or safe load when in use.
    (o) Secretary means the Secretary of Labor.
    (p) SAE means Society of Automotive Engineers.
    (q) Shall means mandatory.
    (r) Should means recommended.
    (s) Suitable means that which fits, and has the qualities or 
qualifications to meet a given purpose, occasion, condition, function, 
or circumstance.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 
FR 35078, June 30, 1993]



Sec. 1926.33  Access to employee exposure and medical records.

    Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth at Sec. 1910.1020 of this 
chapter.
[61 FR 31431, June 20, 1996]



Sec. 1926.34  Means of egress.

    (a) General. In every building or structure exits shall be so 
arranged and maintained as to provide free and unobstructed egress from 
all parts of the building or structure at all times when it is occupied. 
No lock or fastening to prevent free escape from the inside of any 
building shall be installed except in mental, penal, or corrective 
institutions where supervisory personnel is continually on duty and 
effective provisions are made to remove occupants in case of fire or 
other emergency.
    (b) Exit marking. Exits shall be marked by a readily visible sign. 
Access to exits shall be marked by readily visible signs in all cases 
where the exit or way to reach it is not immediately visible to the 
occupants.
    (c) Maintenance and workmanship. Means of egress shall be 
continually maintained free of all obstructions or impediments to full 
instant use in the case of fire or other emergency.
[58 FR 35083, June 30, 1993]



Sec. 1926.35  Employee emergency action plans.

    (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all emergency 
action plans required by a particular OSHA standard. The emergency 
action plan shall be in writing (except as provided in the last sentence 
of paragraph (e)(3) of this section) and shall cover those designated 
actions employers and employees must take to ensure employee safety from 
fire and other emergencies.

[[Page 26]]

    (b) Elements. The following elements, at a minimum, shall be 
included in the plan:
    (1) Emergency escape procedures and emergency escape route 
assignments;
    (2) Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate 
critical plant operations before they evacuate;
    (3) Procedures to account for all employees after emergency 
evacuation has been completed;
    (4) Rescue and medical duties for those employees who are to perform 
them;
    (5) The preferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies; 
and
    (6) Names or regular job titles of persons or departments who can be 
contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the 
plan.
    (c) Alarm system. (1) The employer shall establish an employee alarm 
system which complies with Sec. 1926.159.
    (2) If the employee alarm system is used for alerting fire brigade 
members, or for other purposes, a distinctive signal for each purpose 
shall be used.
    (d) Evacuation. The employer shall establish in the emergency action 
plan the types of evacuation to be used in emergency circumstances.
    (e) Training. (1) Before implementing the emergency action plan, the 
employer shall designate and train a sufficient number of persons to 
assist in the safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees.
    (2) The employer shall review the plan with each employee covered by 
the plan at the following times:
    (i) Initially when the plan is developed,
    (ii) Whenever the employee's responsibilities or designated actions 
under the plan change, and
    (iii) Whenever the plan is changed.
    (3) The employer shall review with each employee upon initial 
assignment those parts of the plan which the employee must know to 
protect the employee in the event of an emergency. The written plan 
shall be kept at the workplace and made available for employee review. 
For those employers with 10 or fewer employees the plan may be 
communicated orally to employees and the employer need not maintain a 
written plan.
[58 FR 35083, June 30, 1993]



        Subpart D--Occupational Health and Environmental Controls

    Authority:  Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 
(40 U.S.C. 333); secs. 4, 6, and 8, Occupational Safety and Health Act 
of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 
(36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), or 6-96 (62 FR 
111), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.



Sec. 1926.50  Medical services and first aid.

    (a) The employer shall insure the availability of medical personnel 
for advice and consultation on matters of occupational health.
    (b) Provisions shall be made prior to commencement of the project 
for prompt medical attention in case of serious injury.
    (c) In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, hospital, or physician, 
that is reasonably accessible in terms of time and distance to the 
worksite, which is available for the treatment of injured employees, a 
person who has a valid certificate in first-aid training from the U.S. 
Bureau of Mines, the American Red Cross, or equivalent training that can 
be verified by documentary evidence, shall be available at the worksite 
to render first aid.
    (d)(1) First aid supplies shall be easily accessible when required.
    (2) The contents of the first aid kit shall be placed in a 
weatherproof container with individual sealed packages for each type of 
item, and shall be checked by the employer before being sent out on each 
job and at least weekly on each job to ensure that the expended items 
are replaced.
    (e) Proper equipment for prompt transportation of the injured person 
to a physician or hospital, or a communication system for contacting 
necessary ambulance service, shall be provided.
    (f) In areas where 911 is not available, the telephone numbers of 
the physicians, hospitals, or ambulances shall be conspicuously posted.
    (g) Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious 
corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing 
of the eyes and body shall be provided within the

[[Page 27]]

work area for immediate emergency use.

       Appendix A to Sec. 1926.50--First aid Kits (Non-Mandatory)

    First aid supplies are required to be easily accessible under 
paragraph Sec. 1926.50(d)(1). An example of the minimal contents of a 
generic first aid kit is described in American National Standard (ANSI) 
Z308.1-1978 ``Minimum Requirements for Industrial Unit-Type First-aid 
Kits''. The contents of the kit listed in the ANSI standard should be 
adequate for small work sites. When larger operations or multiple 
operations are being conducted at the same location, employers should 
determine the need for additional first aid kits at the worksite, 
additional types of first aid equipment and supplies and additional 
quantities and types of supplies and equipment in the first aid kits.
    In a similar fashion, employers who have unique or changing first-
aid needs in their workplace, may need to enhance their first-aid kits. 
The employer can use the OSHA 200 log, OSHA 101's or other reports to 
identify these unique problems. Consultation from the local Fire/Rescue 
Department, appropriate medical professional, or local emergency room 
may be helpful to employers in these circumstances. By assessing the 
specific needs of their workplace, employers can ensure that reasonably 
anticipated supplies are available. Employers should assess the specific 
needs of their worksite periodically and augment the first aid kit 
appropriately.
    If it is reasonably anticipated employees will be exposed to blood 
or other potentially infectious materials while using first-aid 
supplies, employers should provide personal protective equipment (PPE). 
Appropriate PPE includes gloves, gowns, face shields, masks and eye 
protection (see ``Occupational Exposure to Blood borne Pathogens'', 29 
CFR 1910.1030(d)(3)) (56 FR 64175).
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 49 
FR 18295, Apr. 30, 1984; 58 FR 35084, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 5510, Feb. 
13, 1996; 63 FR 33469, June 18, 1998]

    Effective Date Note: At 63 FR 33469, June 18, 1998, Sec. 1926.50 was 
amended by revising paragraphs (d)(1), (d)(2) and (f), and by adding 
Appendix A, effective Aug. 17, 1998. For the convenience of the user, 
the superseded text is set forth as follows:

Sec. 1926.50  Medical services and first aid.

                                * * * * *

    (d)(1) First-aid supplies approved by the consulting physician shall 
be easily accessible when required.
    (2) The first-aid kit shall consist of materials approved by the 
consulting physician in a weatherproof container with individual sealed 
packages for each type of item. The contents of the first-aid kit shall 
be checked by the employer before being sent out on each job and at 
least weekly on each job to ensure that the expended items are replaced.

                                * * * * *

    (f) The telephone numbers of the physicians, hospitals, or 
ambulances shall be conspicuously posted.

                                * * * * *



Sec. 1926.51  Sanitation.

    (a) Potable water. (1) An adequate supply of potable water shall be 
provided in all places of employment.
    (2) Portable containers used to dispense drinking water shall be 
capable of being tightly closed, and equipped with a tap. Water shall 
not be dipped from containers.
    (3) Any container used to distribute drinking water shall be clearly 
marked as to the nature of its contents and not used for any other 
purpose.
    (4) The common drinking cup is prohibited.
    (5) Where single service cups (to be used but once) are supplied, 
both a sanitary container for the unused cups and a receptacle for 
disposing of the used cups shall be provided.
    (6) Potable water means water which meets the quality standards 
prescribed in the U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 
published in 42 CFR part 72, or water which is approved for drinking 
purposes by the State or local authority having jurisdiction.
    (b) Nonpotable water. (1) Outlets for nonpotable water, such as 
water for industrial or firefighting purposes only, shall be identified 
by signs meeting the requirements of subpart G of this part, to indicate 
clearly that the water is unsafe and is not to be used for drinking, 
washing, or cooking purposes.
    (2) There shall be no cross-connection, open or potential, between a 
system furnishing potable water and a system furnishing nonpotable 
water.
    (c) Toilets at construction jobsites. (1) Toilets shall be provided 
for employees according to the following table:

[[Page 28]]



                                Table D-1                               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Number of employees              Minimum number of facilities 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
20 or less.............................  1.                             
20 or more.............................  1 toilet seat and 1 urinal per 
                                          40 workers.                   
200 or more............................  1 toilet seat and 1 urinal per 
                                          50 workers.                   
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Under temporary field conditions, provisions shall be made to 
assure not less than one toilet facility is available.
    (3) Job sites, not provided with a sanitary sewer, shall be provided 
with one of the following toilet facilities unless prohibited by local 
codes:
    (i) Privies (where their use will not contaminate ground or surface 
water);
    (ii) Chemical toilets;
    (iii) Recirculating toilets;
    (iv) Combustion toilets.
    (4) The requirements of this paragraph (c) for sanitation facilities 
shall not apply to mobile crews having transportation readily available 
to nearby toilet facilities.
    (d) Food handling. (1) All employees' food service facilities and 
operations shall meet the applicable laws, ordinances, and regulations 
of the jurisdictions in which they are located.
    (2) All employee food service facilities and operations shall be 
carried out in accordance with sound hygienic principles. In all places 
of employment where all or part of the food service is provided, the 
food dispensed shall be wholesome, free from spoilage, and shall be 
processed, prepared, handled, and stored in such a manner as to be 
protected against contamination.
    (e) Temporary sleeping quarters. When temporary sleeping quarters 
are provided, they shall be heated, ventilated, and lighted.
    (f) Washing facilities. (1) The employer shall provide adequate 
washing facilities for employees engaged in the application of paints, 
coating, herbicides, or insecticides, or in other operations where 
contaminants may be harmful to the employees. Such facilities shall be 
in near proximity to the worksite and shall be so equipped as to enable 
employees to remove such substances.
    (2) General. Washing facilities shall be maintained in a sanitary 
condition.
    (3) Lavatories. (i) Lavatories shall be made available in all places 
of employment. The requirements of this subdivision do not apply to 
mobile crews or to normally unattended work locations if employees 
working at these locations have transportation readily available to 
nearby washing facilities which meet the other requirements of this 
paragraph.
    (ii) Each lavatory shall be provided with hot and cold running 
water, or tepid running water.
    (iii) Hand soap or similar cleansing agents shall be provided.
    (iv) Individual hand towels or sections thereof, of cloth or paper, 
warm air blowers or clean individual sections of continuous cloth 
toweling, convenient to the lavatories, shall be provided.
    (4) Showers. (i) Whenever showers are required by a particular 
standard, the showers shall be provided in accordance with paragraphs 
(f)(4) (ii) through (v) of this section.
    (ii) One shower shall be provided for each 10 employees of each sex, 
or numerical fraction thereof, who are required to shower during the 
same shift.
    (iii) Body soap or other appropriate cleansing agents convenient to 
the showers shall be provided as specified in paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of 
this section.
    (iv) Showers shall be provided with hot and cold water feeding a 
common discharge line.
    (v) Employees who use showers shall be provided with individual 
clean towels.
    (g) Eating and drinking areas. No employee shall be allowed to 
consume food or beverages in a toilet room nor in any area exposed to a 
toxic material.
    (h) Vermin control. Every enclosed workplace shall be so 
constructed, equipped, and maintained, so far as reasonably practicable, 
as to prevent the entrance or harborage of rodents, insects, and other 
vermin. A continuing and effective extermination program shall be 
instituted where their presence is detected.
    (i) Change rooms. Whenever employees are required by a particular 
standard to wear protective clothing because of the possibility of 
contamination with toxic materials, change rooms equipped with storage 
facilities for

[[Page 29]]

street clothes and separate storage facilities for the protective 
clothing shall be provided.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 
FR 35084, June 30, 1993]



Sec. 1926.52  Occupational noise exposure.

    (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be 
provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table D-2 of this 
section when measured on the A-scale of a standard sound level meter at 
slow response.
    (b) When employees are subjected to sound levels exceeding those 
listed in Table D-2 of this section, feasible administrative or 
engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce 
sound levels within the levels of the table, personal protective 
equipment as required in subpart E, shall be provided and used to reduce 
sound levels within the levels of the table.
    (c) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 
1 second or less, it is to be considered continuous.
    (d)(1) In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values shown 
herein, a continuing, effective hearing conservation program shall be 
administered.

                 Table D-2--Permissible Noise Exposures                 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Sound level
                  Duration per day, hours                      dBA slow 
                                                               response 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
8..........................................................           90
6..........................................................           92
4..........................................................           95
3..........................................................           97
2..........................................................          100
1\1/2\.....................................................          102
1..........................................................          105
\1/2\......................................................          110
\1/4\ or less..............................................          115
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2)(i) When the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more 
periods of noise exposure of different levels, their combined effect 
should be considered, rather than the individual effect of each. 
Exposure to different levels for various periods of time shall be 
computed according to the formula set forth in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of 
this section.
    (ii) Fe=(T1/L1)+(T2/
L2)+    + (Tn/
Ln)

where:
Fe=The equivalent noise exposure factor.
T=The period of noise exposure at any essentially constant level.
L=The duration of the permissible noise exposure at the constant level 
          (from Table D-2).


If the value of Fe exceeds unity (1) the exposure exceeds 
permissible levels.
    (iii) A sample computation showing an application of the formula in 
paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section is as follows. An employee is 
exposed at these levels for these periods:

    110 db A \1/4\ hour.
    100 db A \1/2\ hour.
    90 db A 1\1/2\ hours.

Fe=(\1/4\/\1/2\)+(\1/2\/2)+(1\1/2\/8)
Fe=0.500+0.25+0.188
Fe=0.938


Since the value of Fe does not exceed unity, the exposure is 
within permissible limits.
    (e) Exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed 140 dB 
peak sound pressure level.



Sec. 1926.53  Ionizing radiation.

    (a) In construction and related activities involving the use of 
sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission's Standards for Protection Against Radiation (10 
CFR part 20), relating to protection against occupational radiation 
exposure, shall apply.
    (b) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive materials or 
X-rays, whether or not under license from the Nuclear Regulatory 
Commission, shall be performed by competent persons specially trained in 
the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of 
materials used under Commission license, only persons actually licensed, 
or competent persons under direction and supervision of the licensee, 
shall perform such work.
    (c)--(r) [Reserved]

    Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under 
paragraphs (c) through (r) of this section are identical to those set 
forth at paragraphs (a) through (p) of Sec. 1910.1096 of this chapter.

[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 61 
FR 5510, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 31431, June 20, 1996]

[[Page 30]]



Sec. 1926.54  Nonionizing radiation.

    (a) Only qualified and trained employees shall be assigned to 
install, adjust, and operate laser equipment.
    (b) Proof of qualification of the laser equipment operator shall be 
available and in possession of the operator at all times.
    (c) Employees, when working in areas in which a potential exposure 
to direct or reflected laser light greater than 0.005 watts (5 
milliwatts) exists, shall be provided with antilaser eye protection 
devices as specified in subpart E of this part.
    (d) Areas in which lasers are used shall be posted with standard 
laser warning placards.
    (e) Beam shutters or caps shall be utilized, or the laser turned 
off, when laser transmission is not actually required. When the laser is 
left unattended for a substantial period of time, such as during lunch 
hour, overnight, or at change of shifts, the laser shall be turned off.
    (f) Only mechanical or electronic means shall be used as a detector 
for guiding the internal alignment of the laser.
    (g) The laser beam shall not be directed at employees.
    (h) When it is raining or snowing, or when there is dust or fog in 
the air, the operation of laser systems shall be prohibited where 
practicable; in any event, employees shall be kept out of range of the 
area of source and target during such weather conditions.
    (i) Laser equipment shall bear a label to indicate maximum output.
    (j) Employees shall not be exposed to light intensities above:
    (1) Direct staring: 1 micro-watt per square centimeter;
    (2) Incidental observing: 1 milliwatt per square centimeter;
    (3) Diffused reflected light: 2\1/2\ watts per square centimeter.
    (k) Laser unit in operation should be set up above the heads of the 
employees, when possible.
    (l) Employees shall not be exposed to microwave power densities in 
excess of 10 milliwatts per square centimeter.



Sec. 1926.55  Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists.

    (a) Exposure of employees to inhalation, ingestion, skin absorption, 
or contact with any material or substance at a concentration above those 
specified in the ``Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants for 
1970'' of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 
shall be avoided. See Appendix A to this section.
    (b) To achieve compliance with paragraph (a) of this section, 
administrative or engineering controls must first be implemented 
whenever feasible. When such controls are not feasible to achieve full 
compliance, protective equipment or other protective measures shall be 
used to keep the exposure of employees to air contaminants within the 
limits prescribed in this section. Any equipment and technical measures 
used for this purpose must first be approved for each particular use by 
a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. 
Whenever respirators are used, their use shall comply with 
Sec. 1926.103.
    (c) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not apply to the 
exposure of employees to airborne asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, or 
actinolite dust. Whenever any employee is exposed to airborne asbestos, 
tremolite, anthophyllite, or actinolite dust, the requirements of 
Sec. 1910.1101 or Sec. 1926.58 of this title shall apply.
    (d) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not apply to the 
exposure of employees to formaldehyde. Whenever any employee is exposed 
to formaldehyde, the requirements of Sec. 1910.1048 of this title shall 
apply.

  Appendix A to Sec. 1926.55--1970 American Conference of Governmental 
 Industrial Hygienists' Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants

                        Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants for Construction                        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                         mg/m 3        Skin     
                          Substance                               CAS No.d      ppm a      b       Designation  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Abate; see Temephos.................................                                                    

[[Page 31]]

                                                                                                                
        Acetaldehyde........................................         75-07-0      200      360               -- 
        Acetic acid.........................................         64-19-7       10       25               -- 
        Acetic anhydride....................................        108-24-7        5       20               -- 
        Acetone.............................................         67-64-1     1000     2400               -- 
        Acetonitrile........................................         75-05-8       40       70               -- 
        2-Acetylaminofluorine; see Sec.  1926.1114..........         53-96-3                                    
        Acetylene...........................................         74-86-2        E                           
        Acetylene dichloride; see 1,2-Dichloroethylene......                                                    
        Acetylene tetrabromide..............................         79-27-6        1       14               -- 
        Acrolein............................................        107-02-8      0.1     0.25               -- 
        Acrylamide..........................................         79-06-1       --      0.3                X 
        Acrylonitrile; see Sec.  1926.1145..................        107-13-1                                    
        Aldrin..............................................        309-00-2       --     0.25                X 
        Allyl alcohol.......................................        107-18-6        2        5                X 
        Allyl chloride......................................        107-05-1        1        3               -- 
        Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)..........................        106-92-3    (C)10    (C)45               -- 
        Allyl propyl disulfide..............................       2179-59-1        2       12               -- 
        alpha-Alumina.......................................       1344-28-1                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Alundum; see alpha-Alumina..........................                                                    
        4-Aminodiphenyl; see Sec.  1926.1111................         92-67-1                                    
        2-Aminoethanol; see Ethanolamine....................                                                    
        2-Aminopyridine.....................................        504-29-0      0.5        2               -- 
        Ammonia.............................................       7664-41-7       50       35               -- 
        Ammonium sulfamate..................................       7773-06-0                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --       15               -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --        5               -- 
        n-Amyl acetate......................................        628-63-7      100      525               -- 
        sec-Amyl acetate....................................        626-38-0      125      650               -- 
        Aniline and homologs................................         62-53-3        5       19                X 
        Anisidine (o-, p-isomers)...........................      29191-52-4       --      0.5                X 
        Antimony and compounds (as Sb)......................       7440-36-0       --      0.5               -- 
        ANTU (alpha Naphthylthiourea).......................         86-88-4       --      0.3               -- 
        Argon...............................................       7440-37-1        E                           
        Arsenic, inorganic compounds (as As); see Sec.                                                          
         1926.1118..........................................       7440-38-2       --       --               -- 
        Arsenic, organic compounds (as As)..................       7440-38-2       --      0.5               -- 
        Arsine..............................................       7784-42-1     0.05      0.2               -- 
        Asbestos; see 1926.58...............................                                                    
        Azinphos-methyl.....................................         86-50-0       --      0.2                X 
        Barium, soluble compounds (as Ba)...................       7440-39-3       --      0.5               -- 
        Benzene g; see Sec.  1926.1128......................         71-43-2                                    
        Benzidine; see Sec.  1926.1110......................         92-87-5                                    
        p-Benzoquinone; see Quinone.........................                                                    
        Benzo(a)pyrene; see Coal tar pitch volatiles........                                                    
        Benzoyl peroxide....................................         94-36-0       --        5               -- 

[[Page 32]]

                                                                                                                
        Benzyl chloride.....................................        100-44-7        1        5               -- 
        Beryllium and beryllium compounds (as Be)...........       7440-41-7       --    0.002               -- 
        Biphenyl; see Diphenyl..............................                                                    
        Bisphenol A; see Diglycidyl ether...................                                                    
        Boron oxide.........................................       1303-86-2                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --       15               -- 
        Boron tribromide....................................      10294-33-4        1       10               -- 
        Boron trifluoride...................................       7637-07-2     (C)1     (C)3               -- 
        Bromine.............................................       7726-95-6      0.1      0.7               -- 
        Bromine pentafluoride...............................       7789-30-2      0.1      0.7               -- 
        Bromoform...........................................         75-25-2      0.5        5                X 
        Butadiene (1,3-Butadiene); see 29 CFR 1910.1051; 29                                                     
         CFR 1910.19(l).....................................        106-99-0   STEL 1                           
                                                                                ppm/5                           
                                                                                  ppm   .......              -- 
        Butanethiol; see Butyl mercaptan....................                                                    
        2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone)....................         78-93-3      200      590               -- 
        2-Butoxyethanol.....................................        111-76-2       50      240                X 
        n-Butyl-acetate.....................................        123-86-4      150      710               -- 
        sec-Butyl acetate...................................        105-46-4      200      950               -- 
        tert-Butyl acetate..................................        540-88-5      200      950               -- 
        n-Butyl alcohol.....................................         71-36-3      100      300               -- 
        sec-Butyl alcohol...................................         78-92-2      150      450               -- 
        tert-Butyl alcohol..................................         75-65-0      100      300               -- 
        Butylamine..........................................        109-73-9     (C)5    (C)15                X 
        tert-Butyl chromate (as CrO3).......................       1189-85-1       --    (C)0.1               X 
        n-Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE)........................       2426-08-6       50      270               -- 
        Butyl mercaptan.....................................        109-79-5      0.5      1.5               -- 
        p-tert-Butyltoluene.................................         98-51-1       10       60               -- 
        Cadmium (as Cd); see 1926.1127......................       7440-43-9                                    
        Calcium carbonate...................................       1317-65-3                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Calcium oxide.......................................       1305-78-8       --        5               -- 
        Calcium sulfate.....................................       7778-18-9                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --       15               -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --        5               -- 
        Camphor, synthetic..................................         76-22-2       --        2               -- 
        Carbaryl (Sevin)....................................         63-25-2       --        5               -- 
        Carbon black........................................       1333-86-4       --      3.5               -- 
        Carbon dioxide......................................        124-38-9     5000     9000               -- 
        Carbon disulfide....................................         75-15-0       20       60                X 
        Carbon monoxide.....................................        630-08-0       50       55               -- 
        Carbon tetrachloride................................         56-23-5       10       65                X 
        Cellulose...........................................       9004-34-6                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Chlordane...........................................         57-74-9       --      0.5                X 
        Chlorinated camphene................................       8001-35-2       --      0.5                X 
        Chlorinated diphenyl oxide..........................      55720-99-5       --      0.5               -- 
        Chlorine............................................       7782-50-5        1        3               -- 
        Chlorine dioxide....................................      10049-04-4      0.1      0.3                  
        Chlorine trifluoride................................       7790-91-2   (C)0.1    (C)0.4              -- 
        Chloroacetaldehyde..................................        107-20-0     (C)1     (C)3               -- 

[[Page 33]]

                                                                                                                
        a-Chloroacetophenone (Phenacyl chloride)............        532-27-4     0.05      0.3               -- 
        Chlorobenzene.......................................        108-90-7       75      350               -- 
        o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile...................       2698-41-1     0.05      0.4               -- 
        Chlorobromomethane..................................         74-97-5      200     1050               -- 
        2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene; see beta-Chloroprene........                                                    
        Chlorodiphenyl (42% Chlorine) (PCB).................      53469-21-9       --        1                X 
        Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine) (PCB).................      11097-69-1       --      0.5                X 
        1-Chloro,2,3-epoxypropane; see Epichlorohydrin......                                                    
        2-Chloroethanol; see Ethylene chlorohydrin..........                                                    
        Chloroethylene; see Vinyl chloride..................                                                    
        Chloroform (Trichloromethane).......................         67-66-3    (C)50   (C)240               -- 
        bis(Chloromethyl) ether; see Sec.  1926.1108........        542-88-1                                    
        Chloromethyl methyl ether; see Sec.  1926.1106......        107-30-2                                    
        1-Chloro-1-nitropropane.............................        600-25-9       20      100               -- 
        Chloropicrin........................................         76-06-2      0.1      0.7               -- 
        beta-Chloroprene....................................        126-99-8       25       90                X 
        Chromic acid and chromates..........................                                                    
          (as CrO3).........................................     Varies with                                    
                                                                      compound     --      0.1               -- 
        Chromium (II) compounds.............................                                                    
          (as Cr)...........................................       7440-47-3       --      0.5               -- 
        Chromium (III) compounds............................                                                    
          (as Cr)...........................................       7440-47-3       --      0.5               -- 
        Chromium metal and insol. salts (as Cr).............       7440-47-3       --        1               -- 
        Chrysene; see Coal tar pitch volatiles..............                                                    
        Coal tar pitch volatiles (benzene soluble fraction),                                                    
         anthracene, BaP, phenanthrene, acridine, chrysene,                                                     
         pyrene.............................................      65996-93-2       --      0.2               -- 
        Cobalt metal, dust, and fume (as Co)................       7440-48-4       --      0.1               -- 
        Coke oven emissions; see Sec.  1926.1129............                                                    
        Copper..............................................       7440-50-8                                    
          Fume (as Cu)......................................                       --      0.1               -- 
          Dusts and mists (as Cu)...........................                       --        1               -- 
        Corundum; see Emery.................................                                                    
        Cotton dust (raw)...................................                       --        1                  
        Crag herbicide (Sesone).............................        136-78-7                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Cresol, all isomers.................................       1319-77-3        5       22                X 
        Crotonaldehyde......................................       123-73-9;        2        6                  
                                                                   4170-30-3                                    
        Cumene..............................................         98-82-8       50      245                X 

[[Page 34]]

                                                                                                                
        Cyanides (as CN)....................................     Varies with                                    
                                                                      Compound     --        5                X 
        Cyanogen............................................        460-19-5       10       --               -- 
        Cyclohexane.........................................        110-82-7      300     1050               -- 
        Cyclohexanol........................................        108-93-0       50      200               -- 
        Cyclohexanone.......................................        108-94-1       50      200               -- 
        Cyclohexene.........................................        110-83-8      300     1015               -- 
        Cyclonite...........................................        121-82-4       --      1.5                X 
        Cyclopentadiene.....................................        542-92-7       75      200               -- 
        DDT, see Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane............                                                    
        DDVP, see Dichlorvos................................                                                    
        2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)..................         94-75-7       --       10               -- 
        Decaborane..........................................      17702-41-9     0.05      0.3                X 
        Demeton (Systox)....................................       8065-48-3       --      0.1                X 
        Diacetone alcohol (4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone)..        123-42-2       50      240               -- 
        1,2-Diaminoethane; see Ethylenediamine..............                                                    
        Diazomethane........................................        334-88-3      0.2      0.4               -- 
        Diborane............................................      19287-45-7      0.1      0.1               -- 
        1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP); see Sec.                                                            
         1926.1144..........................................         96-12-8                                 -- 
        1,2-Dibromoethane; see Ethylene dibromide...........                                                    
        Dibutyl phosphate...................................        107-66-4        1        5               -- 
        Dibutyl phthalate...................................         84-74-2       --        5               -- 
        Dichloroacetylene...................................       7572-29-4   (C)0.1    (C)0.4              -- 
        o-Dichlorobenzene...................................         95-50-1    (C)50    (C)300              -- 
        p-Dichlorobenzene...................................        106-46-7       75      450               -- 
        3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine; see Sec.  1926.1107.........         91-94-1                                    
        Dichlorodifluoromethane.............................         75-71-8     1000     4950               -- 
        1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin.................        118-52-5       --      0.2               -- 
        Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)...............         50-29-3       --        1                X 
        1,1-Dichloroethane..................................         75-34-3      100      400               -- 
        1,2-Dichloroethane; see Ethylene dichloride.........                                                    
        1,2-Dichloroethylene................................        540-59-0      200      790               -- 
        Dichloroethyl ether.................................        111-44-4    (C)15    (C)90                X 
        Dichloromethane; see Methylene chloride.............                                                    
        Dichloromonofluoromethane...........................         75-43-4     1000     4200               -- 
        1,1-Dichloro-1-nitroethane..........................        594-72-9    (C)10    (C)60               -- 
        1,2-Dichloropropane; see Propylene dichloride.......                                                    
        Dichlorotetrafluoroethane...........................         76-14-2     1000     7000               -- 
        Dichlorvos (DDVP)...................................         62-73-7       --        1                X 
        Dieldrin............................................         60-57-1       --     0.25                X 
        Diethylamine........................................        109-89-7       25       75               -- 
        2-Diethylaminoethanol...............................        100-37-8       10       50                X 
        Diethylene triamine.................................        111-40-0    (C)10    (C)42                X 
        Diethyl ether; see Ethyl ether......................                                                    

[[Page 35]]

                                                                                                                
        Difluorodibromomethane..............................         75-61-6      100      860               -- 
        Diglycidyl ether (DGE)..............................       2238-07-5   (C)0.5    (C)2.8              -- 
        Dihydroxybenzene; see Hydroquinone..................                                                    
        Diisobutyl ketone...................................        108-83-8       50      290               -- 
        Diisopropylamine....................................        108-18-9        5       20                X 
        4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene; see Sec.  1926.1115......         60-11-7                                    
        Dimethoxymethane; see Methylal......................                                                    
        Dimethyl acetamide..................................        127-19-5       10       35                X 
        Dimethylamine.......................................        124-40-3       10       18               -- 
        Dimethylaminobenzene; see Xylidine..................                                                    
        Dimethylaniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline)...............        121-69-7        5       25                X 
        Dimethylbenzene; see Xylene.........................                                                    
        Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo- 2,2-dichloroethyl phosphate...        300-76-5       --        3               -- 
        Dimethylformamide...................................         68-12-2       10       30                X 
        2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone; see Diisobutyl ketone.....                                                    
        1,1-Dimethylhydrazine...............................         57-14-7      0.5        1                X 
        Dimethylphthalate...................................        131-11-3       --        5               -- 
        Dimethyl sulfate....................................         77-78-3        1        5                X 
        Dinitrobenzene (all isomers)........................                                 1                X 
          (ortho)...........................................        528-29-0                                    
          (meta)............................................         99-65-0                                    
          (para)............................................        100-25-4                                    
        Dinitro-o-cresol....................................        534-52-1       --      0.2                X 
        Dinitrotoluene......................................      25321-14-6       --      1.5                X 
        Dioxane (Diethylene dioxide)........................        123-91-1      100      360                X 
        Diphenyl (Biphenyl).................................         92-52-4      0.2        1               -- 
        Diphenylamine.......................................        122-39-4       --       10               -- 
        Diphenylmethane diisocyanate; see Methylene                                                             
         bisphenyl isocyanate...............................                                                    
        Dipropylene glycol methyl ether.....................      34590-94-8      100      600                X 
        Di-sec octyl phthalate (Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate)        117-81-7       --        5               -- 
        Emery...............................................      12415-34-8                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Endosulfan..........................................        115-29-7       --      0.1                X 
        Endrin..............................................         72-20-8       --      0.1                X 
        Epichlorohydrin.....................................        106-89-8        5       19                X 
        EPN.................................................       2104-64-5       --      0.5                X 
        1,2-Epoxypropane; see Propylene oxide...............                                                    
        2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol; see Glycidol..................                                                    
        Ethane..............................................         74-84-0        E                           
        Ethanethiol; see Ethyl mercaptan....................                                                    
        Ethanolamine........................................        141-43-5        3        6               -- 

[[Page 36]]

                                                                                                                
        2-Ethoxyethanol (Cellosolve)........................        110-80-5      200      740                X 
        2-Ethoxyethyl acetate (Cellosolve acetate)..........        111-15-9      100      540                X 
        Ethyl acetate.......................................        141-78-6      400     1400               -- 
        Ethyl acrylate......................................        140-88-5       25      100                X 
        Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol).............................         64-17-5     1000     1900               -- 
        Ethylamine..........................................         75-04-7       10       18               -- 
        Ethyl amyl ketone (5-Methyl-3-heptanone)............        541-85-5       25      130               -- 
        Ethyl benzene.......................................        100-41-4      100      435               -- 
        Ethyl bromide.......................................         74-96-4      200      890               -- 
        Ethyl butyl ketone (3-Heptanone)....................        106-35-4       50      230               -- 
        Ethyl chloride......................................         75-00-3     1000     2600               -- 
        Ethyl ether.........................................         60-29-7      400     1200               -- 
        Ethyl formate.......................................        109-94-4      100      300               -- 
        Ethyl mercaptan.....................................         75-08-1      0.5        1               -- 
        Ethyl silicate......................................         78-10-4      100      850               -- 
        Ethylene............................................         74-85-1        E                           
        Ethylene chlorohydrin...............................        107-07-3        5       16                X 
        Ethylenediamine.....................................        107-15-3       10       25               -- 
        Ethylene dibromide..................................        106-93-4    (C)25   (C)190                X 
        Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane)............        107-06-2       50      200               -- 
        Ethylene glycol dinitrate...........................        628-96-6   (C)0.2     (C)1                X 
        Ethylene glycol methyl acetate; see Methyl                                                              
         cellosolve acetate.................................                                                    
        Ethyleneimine; see Sec.  1926.1112..................        151-56-4                                    
        Ethylene oxide; see Sec.  1926.1147.................         75-21-8                                    
        Ethylidene chloride; see 1,1-Dichloroethane.........                                                    
        N-Ethylmorpholine...................................        100-74-3       20       94                X 
        Ferbam..............................................      14484-64-1                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --       15               -- 
        Ferrovanadium dust..................................      12604-58-9       --        1               -- 
        Fibrous Glass.......................................                                                    
          Total dust........................................                                                 -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Fluorides (as F)....................................     Varies with                                    
                                                                      compound     --      2.5               -- 
        Fluorine............................................       7782-41-4      0.1      0.2               -- 
        Fluorotrichloromethane (Trichlorofluoromethane).....         75-69-4     1000     5600               -- 
        Formaldehyde; see Sec.  1926.1148...................         50-00-0                                    
        Formic acid.........................................         64-18-6        5        9               -- 
        Furfural............................................         98-01-1        5       20                X 
        Furfuryl alcohol....................................         98-00-0       50      200               -- 
        Gasoline............................................       8006-61-9               A 3               -- 
        Glycerin (mist).....................................         56-81-5                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Glycidol............................................        556-52-5       50      150               -- 
        Glycol monoethyl ether; see 2-Ethoxyethanol.........                                                    
        Graphite, natural, respirable dust..................       7782-42-5    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
        Graphite, synthetic.................................                                                    

[[Page 37]]

                                                                                                                
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Guthion; see Azinphos methyl........................                                                    
        Gypsum..............................................      13397-24-5                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Hafnium.............................................       7440-58-6       --      0.5               -- 
        Helium..............................................       7440-59-7        E                           
        Heptachlor..........................................         76-44-8       --      0.5                X 
        Heptane (n-Heptane).................................        142-82-5      500     2000               -- 
        Hexachloroethane....................................         67-72-1        1       10                X 
        Hexachloronaphthalene...............................       1335-87-1       --      0.2                X 
        n-Hexane............................................        110-54-3      500     1800               -- 
        2-Hexanone (Methyl n-butyl ketone)..................        591-78-6      100      410               -- 
        Hexone (Methyl isobutyl ketone).....................        108-10-1      100      410               -- 
        sec-Hexyl acetate...................................        108-84-9       50      300               -- 
        Hydrazine...........................................        302-01-2        1      1.3                X 
        Hydrogen............................................       1333-74-0        E                           
        Hydrogen bromide....................................      10035-10-6        3       10               -- 
        Hydrogen chloride...................................       7647-01-0     (C)5     (C)7               -- 
        Hydrogen cyanide....................................         74-90-8       10       11                X 
        Hydrogen fluoride (as F)............................       7664-39-3        3        2               -- 
        Hydrogen peroxide...................................       7722-84-1        1      1.4               -- 
        Hydrogen selenide (as Se)...........................       7783-07-5     0.05      .02               -- 
        Hydrogen sulfide....................................       7783-06-4       10       15               -- 
        Hydroquinone........................................        123-31-9       --        2               -- 
        Indene..............................................         95-13-6       10       45               -- 
        Indium and compounds (as In)........................       7440-74-6       --      0.1               -- 
        Iodine..............................................       7553-56-2   (C)0.1     (C)1               -- 
        Iron oxide fume.....................................       1309-37-1       --       10               -- 
        Iron salts (soluble) (as Fe)........................     Varies with                                    
                                                                      compound     --        1               -- 
        Isoamyl acetate.....................................        123-92-2      100      525               -- 
        Isoamyl alcohol (primary and secondary).............        123-51-3      100      360               -- 
        Isobutyl acetate....................................        110-19-0      150      700               -- 
        Isobutyl alcohol....................................         78-83-1      100      300               -- 
        Isophorone..........................................         78-59-1       25      140               -- 
        Isopropyl acetate...................................        108-21-4      250      950               -- 
        Isopropyl alcohol...................................         67-63-0      400      980               -- 
        Isopropylamine......................................         75-31-0        5       12               -- 
        Isopropyl ether.....................................        108-20-3      500     2100               -- 
        Isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE)......................       4016-14-2       50      240               -- 
        Kaolin..............................................       1332-58-7                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Ketene..............................................        463-51-4      0.5      0.9               -- 
        Lead, inorganic (as Pb); see 1926.62................       7439-92-1                                    
        Limestone...........................................       1317-65-3                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Lindane.............................................         58-89-9       --      0.5                X 
        Lithium hydride.....................................       7580-67-8       --    0.025               -- 
        L.P.G. (Liquefied petroleum gas)....................      68476-85-7     1000     1800                  
        Magnesite...........................................        546-93-0                                    

[[Page 38]]

                                                                                                                
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Magnesium oxide fume................................       1309-48-4                                    
          Total particulate.................................                       15       --               -- 
        Malathion...........................................        121-75-5                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --       15                X 
        Maleic anhydride....................................        108-31-6     0.25                           
        Manganese compounds (as Mn).........................       7439-96-5       --     (C)5               -- 
        Manganese fume (as Mn)..............................       7439-96-5       --     (C)5               -- 
        Marble..............................................       1317-65-3                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Mercury (aryl and inorganic)(as Hg).................       7439-97-6               0.1                X 
        Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)............       7439-97-6       --     0.01                X 
        Mercury (vapor) (as Hg).............................       7439-97-6       --      0.1                X 
        Mesityl oxide.......................................        141-79-7       25      100               -- 
        Methane.............................................         74-82-8        E                           
        Methanethiol; see Methyl mercaptan..................                                                    
        Methoxychlor........................................         72-43-5                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --       15               -- 
        2-Methoxyethanol (Methyl cellosolve)................        109-86-4       25       80                X 
        2-Methoxyethyl acetate (Methyl cellosolve acetate)..        110-49-6       25      120                X 
        Methyl acetate......................................         79-20-9      200      610               -- 
        Methyl acetylene (Propyne)..........................         74-99-7     1000     1650               -- 
        Methyl acetylene-propadiene mixture (MAPP)..........                     1000     1800               -- 
        Methyl acrylate.....................................         96-33-3       10       35                X 
        Methylal (Dimethoxy-methane)........................        109-87-5     1000     3100               -- 
        Methyl alcohol......................................         67-56-1      200      260               -- 
        Methylamine.........................................         74-89-5       10       12               -- 
        Methyl amyl alcohol; see Methyl isobutyl carbinol...                                                    
        Methyl n-amyl ketone................................        110-43-0      100      465               -- 
        Methyl bromide......................................         74-83-9    (C)20    (C)80                X 
        Methyl butyl ketone; see 2-Hexanone.................                                                    
        Methyl cellosolve; see 2-Methoxyethanol.............                                                    
        Methyl cellosolve acetate; see 2-Methoxyethyl                                                           
         acetate............................................                                                    
        Methylene chloride; see Sec.  1910.1052.............                                                    
        Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane)...........         71-55-6      350     1900               -- 
        Methylcyclohexane...................................        108-87-2      500     2000               -- 
        Methylcyclohexanol..................................      25639-42-3      100      470               -- 
        o-Methylcyclohexanone...............................        583-60-8      100      460                X 
        Methylene chloride..................................         75-09-2      500     1740               -- 
        Methylenedianiline (MDA)............................        101-77-9                                    
        Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK); see 2-Butanone...........                                                    
        Methyl formate......................................        107-31-3      100      250               -- 

[[Page 39]]

                                                                                                                
        Methyl hydrazine (Monomethyl hydrazine).............         60-34-4   (C)0.2    (C)0.3                 
                                                                                             5                X 
        Methyl iodide.......................................         74-88-4        5       28                X 
        Methyl isoamyl ketone...............................        110-12-3      100      475               -- 
        Methyl isobutyl carbinol............................        108-11-2       25      100                X 
        Methyl isobutyl ketone; see Hexone..................                                                    
        Methyl isocyanate...................................        624-83-9     0.02     0.05                X 
        Methyl mercaptan....................................         74-93-1      0.5        1               -- 
        Methyl methacrylate.................................         80-62-6      100      410               -- 
        Methyl propyl ketone; see 2-Pentanone...............                                                    
        Methyl silicate.....................................        681-84-5     (C)5    (C)30               -- 
        alpha-Methyl styrene................................         98-83-9   (C)100    (C)480              -- 
        Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI)................        101-68-8   (C)0.02  (C)0.2               -- 
        Mica; see Silicates.................................                                                    
        Molybdenum (as Mo)..................................       7439-98-7                                    
          Soluble compounds.................................                       --        5               -- 
          Insoluble compounds...............................                                                    
            Total dust......................................                       --       15               -- 
        Monomethyl aniline..................................        100-61-8        2        9                X 
        Monomethyl hydrazine; see Methyl hydrazine..........                                                    
        Morpholine..........................................        110-91-8       20       70                X 
        Naphtha (Coal tar)..................................       8030-30-6      100      400               -- 
        Naphthalene.........................................         91-20-3       10       50               -- 
        alpha-Naphthylamine; see Sec.  1926.1104............        134-32-7                                    
        beta-Naphthylamine; see Sec.  1926.1109.............         91-59-8                                 -- 
        Neon................................................       7440-01-9        E                           
        Nickel carbonyl (as Ni).............................      13463-39-3    0.001    0.007               -- 
        Nickel, metal and insoluble compounds (as Ni).......       7440-02-0       --        1               -- 
        Nickel, soluble compounds (as Ni)...................       7440-02-0       --        1               -- 
        Nicotine............................................         54-11-5       --      0.5                X 
        Nitric acid.........................................       7697-37-2        2        5               -- 
        Nitric oxide........................................      10102-43-9       25       30               -- 
        p-Nitroaniline......................................        100-01-6        1        6                X 
        Nitrobenzene........................................         98-95-3        1        5                X 
        p-Nitrochlorobenzene................................        100-00-5       --        1                X 
        4-Nitrodiphenyl; see Sec.  1926.1103................         92-93-3                                    
        Nitroethane.........................................         79-24-3      100      310               -- 
        Nitrogen............................................       7727-37-9        E                           
        Nitrogen dioxide....................................      10102-44-0     (C)5     (C)9               -- 
        Nitrogen trifluoride................................       7783-54-2       10       29               -- 
        Nitroglycerin.......................................         55-63-0   (C)0.2     (C)2                X 
        Nitromethane........................................         75-52-5      100      250               -- 
        1-Nitropropane......................................        108-03-2       25       90               -- 
        2-Nitropropane......................................         79-46-9       25       90               -- 
        N-Nitrosodimethylamine; see Sec.  1926.1116.........         62-79-9                                 -- 
        Nitrotoluene (all isomers)..........................                        5       30                X 
          o-isomer..........................................        88-72-2;                                    
          m-isomer..........................................        99-08-1;                                    
          p-isomer..........................................         99-99-0                                    
        Nitrotrichloromethane; see Chloropicrin.............                                                    
        Nitrous oxide.......................................      10024-97-2        E                           

[[Page 40]]

                                                                                                                
        Octachloronaphthalene...............................       2234-13-1       --      0.1                X 
        Octane..............................................        111-65-9      400     1900               -- 
        Oil mist, mineral...................................       8012-95-1       --        5               -- 
        Osmium tetroxide (as Os)............................      20816-12-0       --    0.002               -- 
        Oxalic acid.........................................        144-62-7       --        1               -- 
        Oxygen difluoride...................................       7783-41-7     0.05      0.1               -- 
        Ozone...............................................      10028-15-6      0.1      0.2               -- 
        Paraquat, respirable dust...........................      4685-14-7;       --      0.5                X 
                                                                  1910-42-5;                                    
                                                                   2074-50-2                                    
        Parathion...........................................         56-38-2       --      0.1                X 
        Particulates not otherwise regulated................                                                    
          Total dust organic and inorganic..................                       --       15               -- 
        PCB; see Chlorodiphenyl (42% and 54% chlorine)......                                                    
        Pentaborane.........................................      19624-22-7    0.005     0.01               -- 
        Pentachloronaphthalene..............................       1321-64-8       --      0.5                X 
        Pentachlorophenol...................................         87-86-5       --      0.5                X 
        Pentaerythritol.....................................        115-77-5                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Pentane.............................................        109-66-0      500     1500               -- 
        2-Pentanone (Methyl propyl ketone)..................        107-87-9      200      700               -- 
        Perchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene).............        127-18-4      100      670               -- 
        Perchloromethyl mercaptan...........................        594-42-3      0.1      0.8               -- 
        Perchloryl fluoride.................................       7616-94-6        3     13.5               -- 
        Petroleum distillates (Naphtha)(Rubber Solvent).....                               A 3               -- 
        Phenol..............................................        108-95-2        5       19                X 
        p-Phenylene diamine.................................        106-50-3       --      0.1                X 
        Phenyl ether, vapor.................................        101-84-8        1        7               -- 
        Phenyl ether-biphenyl mixture, vapor................                        1        7               -- 
        Phenylethylene; see Styrene.........................                                                    
        Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE).........................        122-60-1       10       60               -- 
        Phenylhydrazine.....................................        100-63-0        5       22                X 
        Phosdrin (Mevinphos)................................       7786-34-7       --      0.1                X 
        Phosgene (Carbonyl chloride)........................         75-44-5      0.1      0.4               -- 
        Phosphine...........................................       7803-51-2      0.3      0.4               -- 
        Phosphoric acid.....................................       7664-38-2       --        1               -- 
        Phosphorus (yellow).................................       7723-14-0       --      0.1               -- 
        Phosphorus pentachloride............................      10026-13-8       --        1               -- 
        Phosphorus pentasulfide.............................       1314-80-3       --        1               -- 
        Phosphorus trichloride..............................       7719-12-2      0.5        3               -- 
        Phthalic anhydride..................................         85-44-9        2       12               -- 
        Picric acid.........................................         88-89-1       --      0.1                X 
        Pindone (2-Pivalyl-1,3-indandione)..................         83-26-1       --      0.1               -- 
        Plaster of Paris....................................      26499-65-0                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Platinum (as Pt)....................................       7440-06-4                                    
          Metal.............................................                       --       --               -- 

[[Page 41]]

                                                                                                                
          Soluble salts.....................................                       --    0.002               -- 
        Polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products......                               A 2                  
        Portland cement.....................................      65997-15-1                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --       15               -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                        5                        -- 
        Propane.............................................         74-98-6        E                           
        Propargyl alcohol...................................        107-19-7        1       --                X 
        beta-Propriolactone; see Sec.  1926.1113............         57-57-8                                    
        n-Propyl acetate....................................        109-60-4      200      840               -- 
        n-Propyl alcohol....................................         71-23-8      200      500               -- 
        n-Propyl nitrate....................................        627-13-4       25      110               -- 
        Propylene dichloride................................         78-87-5       75      350               -- 
        Propylene imine.....................................         75-55-8        2        5                X 
        Propylene oxide.....................................         75-56-9      100      240               -- 
        Propyne; see Methyl acetylene.......................                                                    
        Pyrethrum...........................................       8003-34-7       --        5               -- 
        Pyridine............................................        110-86-1        5       15               -- 
        Quinone.............................................        106-51-4      0.1      0.4               -- 
        RDX; see Cyclonite..................................                                                    
        Rhodium (as Rh), metal fume and insoluble compounds.       7440-16-6       --      0.1               -- 
        Rhodium (as Rh), soluble compounds..................       7440-16-6       --    0.001               -- 
        Ronnel..............................................        299-84-3       --       10               -- 
        Rotenone............................................         83-79-4       --        5               -- 
        Rouge...............................................                                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Selenium compounds (as Se)..........................       7782-49-2       --      0.2               -- 
        Selenium hexafluoride (as Se).......................       7783-79-1     0.05      0.4               -- 
        Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel.............     112926-00-8    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
        Silica, amorphous, diatomaceous earth, containing                                                       
         less than 1% crystalline silica....................      61790-53-2    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
        Silica, crystalline cristobalite, respirable dust...      14464-46-1    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
        Silica, crystalline quartz, respirable dust.........      14808-60-7    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
        Silica, crystalline tripoli (as quartz), respirable                                                     
         dust...............................................       1317-95-9    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
        Silica, crystalline tridymite, respirable dust......      15468-32-3    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
        Silica, fused, respirable dust......................      60676-86-0    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
        Silicates (less than 1% crystalline silica).........                                                    
          Mica (respirable dust)............................      12001-26-2    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
          Soapstone, total dust.............................                    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
          Soapstone, respirable dust........................                    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 

[[Page 42]]

                                                                                                                
          Talc (containing asbestos); use asbestos limit;                                                       
           see 1926.58......................................                                                    
          Talc (containing no asbestos), respirable dust....      14807-96-6    (\2\)    (\2\)            (\2\) 
          Tremolite, asbestiform; see 1926.58...............                                                    
        Silicon carbide.....................................        409-21-2                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Silver, metal and soluble compounds (as Ag).........       7440-22-4       --     0.01               -- 
        Soapstone; see Silicates............................                                                    
        Sodium fluoroacetate................................         62-74-8       --     0.05                X 
        Sodium hydroxide....................................       1310-73-2       --        2               -- 
        Starch..............................................       9005-25-8                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Stibine.............................................       7803-52-3      0.1      0.5               -- 
        Stoddard solvent....................................       8052-41-3      200     1150               -- 
        Strychnine..........................................         57-24-9       --     0.15               -- 
        Styrene.............................................        100-42-5   (C)100   (C)420               -- 
        Sucrose.............................................         57-50-1                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Sulfur dioxide......................................       7446-09-5        5       13               -- 
        Sulfur hexafluoride.................................       2551-62-4     1000     6000               -- 
        Sulfuric acid.......................................       7664-93-9       --        1               -- 
        Sulfur monochloride.................................      10025-67-9        1        6               -- 
        Sulfur pentafluoride................................       5714-22-7    0.025     0.25               -- 
        Sulfuryl fluoride...................................       2699-79-8        5       20               -- 
        Systox, see Demeton.................................                                                    
        2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid).........         93-76-5       --       10               -- 
        Talc; see Silicates--...............................                                                    
        Tantalum, metal and oxide dust......................       7440-25-7       --        5               -- 
        TEDP (Sulfotep).....................................       3689-24-5       --      0.2                X 
        Teflon decomposition products.......................                                A2                  
        Tellurium and compounds (as Te).....................      13494-80-9       --      0.1               -- 
        Tellurium hexafluoride (as Te)......................       7783-80-4     0.02      0.2               -- 
        Temephos............................................       3383-96-8                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        TEPP (Tetraethyl pyrophosphate).....................        107-49-3       --     0.05                X 
        Terphenyls..........................................      26140-60-3     (C)1     (C)9               -- 
        1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane..............         76-11-9      500     4170               -- 
        1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane..............         76-12-0      500     4170               -- 
        1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane...........................         79-34-5        5       35                X 
        Tetrachloroethylene; see Perchloroethylene..........                                                    

[[Page 43]]

                                                                                                                
        Tetrachloromethane; see Carbon tetrachloride........                                                    
        Tetrachloronaphthalene..............................       1335-88-2       --        2                X 
        Tetraethyl lead (as Pb).............................         78-00-2       --      0.1                X 
        Tetrahydrofuran.....................................        109-99-9      200      590               -- 
        Tetramethyl lead, (as Pb)...........................         75-74-1       --     0.15                X 
        Tetramethyl succinonitrile..........................       3333-52-6      0.5        3                X 
        Tetranitromethane...................................        509-14-8        1        8               -- 
        Tetryl (2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine)........        479-45-8       --      1.5                X 
        Thallium, soluble compounds (as Tl).................       7440-28-0       --      0.1                X 
        Thiram..............................................        137-26-8       --        5               -- 
        Tin, inorganic compounds (except oxides) (as Sn)....       7440-31-5       --        2               -- 
        Tin, organic compounds (as Sn)......................       7440-31-5       --      0.1               -- 
        Tin oxide (as Sn)...................................      21651-19-4       --       --               -- 
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Titanium dioxide....................................      13463-67-7                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
        Toluene.............................................        108-88-3      200      750               -- 
        Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)......................        584-84-9   (C)0.02  (C)0.14              -- 
        o-Toluidine.........................................         95-53-4        5       22                X 
        Toxaphene; see Chlorinated camphene.................                                                    
        Tremolite; see Silicates............................                                                    
        Tributyl phosphate..................................        126-73-8       --        5               -- 
        1,1,1-Trichloroethane; see Methyl chloroform........                                                    
        1,1,2-Trichloroethane...............................         79-00-5       10       45                X 
        Trichloroethylene...................................         79-01-6      100      535               -- 
        Trichloromethane; see Chloroform....................                                                    
        Trichloronaphthalene................................       1321-65-9       --        5                X 
        1,2,3-Trichloropropane..............................         96-18-4       50      300               -- 
        1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane...............         76-13-1     1000     7600               -- 
        Triethylamine.......................................        121-44-8       25      100               -- 
        Trifluorobromomethane...............................         75-63-8     1000     6100               -- 
        Trimethyl benzene...................................      25551-13-7       25      120               -- 
        2,4,6-Trinitrophenol; see Picric acid...............                                                    
        2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine; see Tetryl.....                                                    
        2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT).........................        118-96-7       --      1.5                X 
        Triorthocresyl phosphate............................         78-30-8       --      0.1               -- 
        Triphenyl phosphate.................................        115-86-6       --        3               -- 
        Tungsten (as W).....................................       7440-33-7                                    
          Insoluble compounds...............................                       --        5               -- 
          Soluble compounds.................................                       --        1               -- 
        Turpentine..........................................       8006-64-2      100      560               -- 
        Uranium (as U)......................................       7440-61-1                                    
          Soluble compounds.................................                       --      0.2               -- 
          Insoluble compounds...............................                       --      0.2               -- 
        Vanadium............................................       1314-62-1                                    
          Respirable dust (as V2 O5)........................                       --    (C)0.5              -- 

[[Page 44]]

                                                                                                                
          Fume (as V2 O5)...................................                       --    (C)0.1              -- 
        Vegetable oil mist..................................                                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --                        -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --                        -- 
        Vinyl benzene; see Styrene..........................                                                    
        Vinyl chloride; see Sec.  1926.1117.................         75-01-4                                    
        Vinyl cyanide; see Acrylonitrile....................                                                    
        Vinyl toluene.......................................      25013-15-4      100      480               -- 
        Warfarin............................................         81-81-2       --      0.1               -- 
        Xylenes (o-, m-, p-isomers).........................       1330-20-7      100      435               -- 
        Xylidine............................................       1300-73-8        5       25                X 
        Yttrium.............................................       7440-65-5       --        1               -- 
        Zinc chloride fume..................................       7646-85-7       --        1               -- 
        Zinc oxide fume.....................................       1314-13-2       --        5               -- 
        Zinc oxide..........................................       1314-13-2                                    
          Total dust........................................                       --       15               -- 
          Respirable fraction...............................                       --        5               -- 
        Zirconium compounds (as Zr).........................       7440-67-7       --        5                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                              mineral dusts                             
                                                                        
                         Substance                            mppcf (j) 
SILICA:                                                                 
  Crystalline                                                           
Quartz. Threshold Limit calculated from the formula........      250 (k)
                                                                        
������������������������������������������������������������            
                                                                        
Cristobalite...............................................             
  Amorphous, including natural diatomaceous earth..........           20
SILICATES (less than 1% crystalline silica)                             
  Mica.....................................................           20
  Portland cement..........................................           50
  Soapstone................................................           20
  Talc (non-asbestiform)...................................           20
  Talc (fibrous), use asbestos limit.......................           --
                                                                        
Graphite (natural).........................................           15
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------            
[Inert or Nuisance Dusts includes all mineral, inorganic,               
 and organic dusts as indicated by examples in TLV's                    
 Appendix D]                                                            
                                                                        
  Conversion factors.......................................             
mppcf  x  35.3 = million particles per cubic meter =                    
 particles per c.c.                                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                                        
                                                                        
                                                                        
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Footnotes                                                               
\1\ [Reserved]                                                          
\2\ See Mineral Dusts Table.                                            
\3\ Use Asbestos Limit Sec.  1926.58.                                   
\4\ See 1926.58.                                                        
* The PELs are 8-hour TWAs unless otherwise noted; a (C) designation    
  denotes a ceiling limit.                                              
** As determined from breathing-zone air samples.                       
a Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume 
  at 25 C and 760 torr.                                                 
b Milligrams of substance per cubic meter of air. When entry is in this 
  column only, the value is exact; when listed with a ppm entry, it is  
  approximate.                                                          
c [Reserved]                                                            
d The CAS number is for information only. Enforcement is based on the   
  substance name. For an entry covering more than one metal compound,   
  measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is given--not CAS 
  numbers for the individual compounds.                                 
e-f [Reserved]                                                          
g For sectors excluded from Sec.  1926.1128 the limit is 10 ppm TWA.    
h [Reserved]                                                            
i [Reserved]                                                            
j Millions of particles per cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples
  counted by light-field techniques.                                    
k The percentage of crystalline silica in the formula is the amount     
  determined from airborne samples, except in those instances in which  
  other methods have been shown to be applicable.                       
l [Reserved]                                                            
m Covers all organic and inorganic particulates not otherwise regulated.
  Same as Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated.                         
The 1970 TLV uses letter designations instead of a numerical value as   
  follows:                                                              
A 1 [Reserved]                                                          
A 2 Polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products. Because these       
  products decompose in part by hydrolysis in alkaline solution, they   
  can be quantitatively determined in air as fluoride to provide an     
  index of exposure. No TLV is recommended pending determination of the 
  toxicity of the products, but air concentrations should be minimal.   

[[Page 45]]

                                                                        
A 3 Gasoline and/or Petroleum Distillates. The composition of these     
  materials varies greatly and thus a single TLV for all types of these 
  materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other      
  aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the         
  appropriate TLV.                                                      
E Simple asphyxiants. The limiting factor is the available oxygen which 
  shall be at least 19.5% and be within the requirements addressing     
  explosion in part 1926.                                               

[39 FR 22801, June 24, 1974, as amended at 51 FR 37007, Oct. 17, 1986; 
52 FR 46312, Dec. 4, 1987; 58 FR 35089, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9249, 9250, 
Mar. 7, 1996; 61 FR 56856, Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1619, Jan. 10, 1997]



Sec. 1926.56  Illumination.

    (a) General. Construction areas, ramps, runways, corridors, offices, 
shops, and storage areas shall be lighted to not less than the minimum 
illumination intensities listed in Table D-3 while any work is in 
progress:

       Table D-3--Minimum Illumination Intensities in Foot-Candles      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Foot-candles                      Area or operation       
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5......................................  General construction area      
                                          lighting.                     
3......................................  General construction areas,    
                                          concrete placement, excavation
                                          and waste areas, accessways,  
                                          active storage areas, loading 
                                          platforms, refueling, and     
                                          field maintenance areas.      
5......................................  Indoors: warehouses, corridors,
                                          hallways, and exitways.       
5......................................  Tunnels, shafts, and general   
                                          underground work areas:       
                                          (Exception: minimum of 10 foot-
                                          candles is required at tunnel 
                                          and shaft heading during      
                                          drilling, mucking, and        
                                          scaling. Bureau of Mines      
                                          approved cap lights shall be  
                                          acceptable for use in the     
                                          tunnel heading.)              
10.....................................  General construction plant and 
                                          shops (e.g., batch plants,    
                                          screening plants, mechanical  
                                          and electrical equipment      
                                          rooms, carpenter shops,       
                                          rigging lofts and active      
                                          storerooms, barracks or living
                                          quarters, locker or dressing  
                                          rooms, mess halls, and indoor 
                                          toilets and workrooms).       
30.....................................  First aid stations,            
                                          infirmaries, and offices.     
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (b) Other areas. For areas or operations not covered above, refer to 
the American National Standard A11.1-1965, R1970, Practice for 
Industrial Lighting, for recommended values of illumination.



Sec. 1926.57  Ventilation.

    (a) General. Whenever hazardous substances such as dusts, fumes, 
mists, vapors, or gases exist or are produced in the course of 
construction work, their concentrations shall not exceed the limits 
specified in Sec. 1926.55(a). When ventilation is used as an engineering 
control method, the system shall be installed and operated according to 
the requirements of this section.
    (b) Local exhaust ventilation. Local exhaust ventilation when used 
as described in (a) shall be designed to prevent dispersion into the air 
of dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases in concentrations causing 
harmful exposure. Such exhaust systems shall be so designed that dusts, 
fumes, mists, vapors, or gases are not drawn through the work area of 
employees.
    (c) Design and operation. Exhaust fans, jets, ducts, hoods, 
separators, and all necessary appurtenances, including refuse 
receptacles, shall be so designed, constructed, maintained and operated 
as to ensure the required protection by maintaining a volume and 
velocity of exhaust air sufficient to gather dusts, fumes, vapors, or 
gases from said equipment or process, and to convey them to suitable 
points of safe disposal, thereby preventing their dispersion in harmful 
quantities into the atmosphere where employees work.
    (d) Duration of operations. (1) The exhaust system shall be in 
operation continually during all operations which it is designed to 
serve. If the employee remains in the contaminated zone, the system 
shall continue to operate after the cessation of said operations, the 
length of time to depend upon the individual circumstances and 
effectiveness of the general ventilation system.
    (2) Since dust capable of causing disability is, according to the 
best medical opinion, of microscopic size, tending to remain for hours 
in suspension in still air, it is essential that the exhaust system be 
continued in operation for a time after the work process or equipment 
served by the same shall have ceased, in order to ensure the removal of 
the harmful elements to the required extent. For the same reason, 
employees wearing respiratory equipment should not remove same 
immediately until the atmosphere seems clear.
    (e) Disposal of exhaust materials. The air outlet from every dust 
separator, and the dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases collected by an 
exhaust or ventilating system shall discharge to the

[[Page 46]]

outside atmosphere. Collecting systems which return air to work area may 
be used if concentrations which accumulate in the work area air do not 
result in harmful exposure to employees. Dust and refuse discharged from 
an exhaust system shall be disposed of in such a manner that it will not 
result in harmful exposure to employees.
    (f) Abrasive blasting--(1) Definitions applicable to this 
paragraph--(i) Abrasive. A solid substance used in an abrasive blasting 
operation.
    (ii) Abrasive-blasting respirator. A respirator constructed so that 
it covers the wearer's head, neck, and shoulders to protect the wearer 
from rebounding abrasive.
    (iii) Blast cleaning barrel. A complete enclosure which rotates on 
an axis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in 
order to expose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an 
automatic blast spray.
    (iv) Blast cleaning room. A complete enclosure in which blasting 
operations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room 
to operate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive 
material.
    (v) Blasting cabinet. An enclosure where the operator stands outside 
and operates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the 
enclosure.
    (vi) Clean air. Air of such purity that it will not cause harm or 
discomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of 
time.
    (vii) Dust collector. A device or combination of devices for 
separating dust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.
    (viii) Exhaust ventilation system. A system for removing 
contaminated air from a space, comprising two or more of the following 
elements (A) enclosure or hood, (B) duct work, (C) dust collecting 
equipment, (D) exhauster, and (E) discharge stack.
    (ix) Particulate-filter respirator. An air purifying respirator, 
commonly referred to as a dust or a fume respirator, which removes most 
of the dust or fume from the air passing through the device.
    (x) Respirable dust. Airborne dust in sizes capable of passing 
through the upper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.
    (xi) Rotary blast cleaning table. An enclosure where the pieces to 
be cleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed 
automatically through a series of blast sprays.
    (xii) Abrasive blasting. The forcible application of an abrasive to 
a surface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal 
force.
    (2) Dust hazards from abrasive blasting. (i) Abrasives and the 
surface coatings on the materials blasted are shattered and pulverized 
during blasting operations and the dust formed will contain particles of 
respirable size. The composition and toxicity of the dust from these 
sources shall be considered in making an evaluation of the potential 
health hazards.
    (ii) The concentration of respirable dust or fume in the breathing 
zone of the abrasive-blasting operator or any other worker shall be kept 
below the levels specified in Sec. 1926.55 or other pertinent sections 
of this part.
    (iii) Organic abrasives which are combustible shall be used only in 
automatic systems. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be 
present, the construction of the equipment, including the exhaust system 
and all electric wiring, shall conform to the requirements of American 
National Standard Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, 
Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1-1961 (NFPA 91-1961), and 
subpart S of this part. The blast nozzle shall be bonded and grounded to 
prevent the build up of static charges. Where flammable or explosive 
dust mixtures may be present, the abrasive blasting enclosure, the 
ducts, and the dust collector shall be constructed with loose panels or 
explosion venting areas, located on sides away from any occupied area, 
to provide for pressure relief in case of explosion, following the 
principles set forth in the National Fire Protection Association 
Explosion Venting Guide. NFPA 68-1954.
    (3) Blast-cleaning enclosures. (i) Blast-cleaning enclosures shall 
be exhaust ventilated in such a way that a continuous inward flow of air 
will be maintained at all openings in the enclosure during the blasting 
operation.
    (A) All air inlets and access openings shall be baffled or so 
arranged that by

[[Page 47]]

the combination of inward air flow and baffling the escape of abrasive 
or dust particles into an adjacent work area will be minimized and 
visible spurts of dust will not be observed.
    (B) The rate of exhaust shall be sufficient to provide prompt 
clearance of the dust-laden air within the enclosure after the cessation 
of blasting.
    (C) Before the enclosure is opened, the blast shall be turned off 
and the exhaust system shall be run for a sufficient period of time to 
remove the dusty air within the enclosure.
    (D) Safety glass protected by screening shall be used in observation 
windows, where hard deep-cutting abrasives are used.
    (E) Slit abrasive-resistant baffles shall be installed in multiple 
sets at all small access openings where dust might escape, and shall be 
inspected regularly and replaced when needed.
    (1) Doors shall be flanged and tight when closed.
    (2) Doors on blast-cleaning rooms shall be operable from both inside 
and outside, except that where there is a small operator access door, 
the large work access door may be closed or opened from the outside 
only.
    (4) Exhaust ventilation systems. (i) The construction, installation, 
inspection, and maintenance of exhaust systems shall conform to the 
principles and requirements set forth in American National Standard 
Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust 
Systems, Z9.2-1960, and ANSI Z33.1-1961.
    (a) When dust leaks are noted, repairs shall be made as soon as 
possible.
    (b) The static pressure drop at the exhaust ducts leading from the 
equipment shall be checked when the installation is completed and 
periodically thereafter to assure continued satisfactory operation. 
Whenever an appreciable change in the pressure drop indicates a partial 
blockage, the system shall be cleaned and returned to normal operating 
condition.
    (ii) In installations where the abrasive is recirculated, the 
exhaust ventilation system for the blasting enclosure shall not be 
relied upon for the removal of fines from the spent abrasive instead of 
an abrasive separator. An abrasive separator shall be provided for the 
purpose.
    (iii) The air exhausted from blast-cleaning equipment shall be 
discharged through dust collecting equipment. Dust collectors shall be 
set up so that the accumulated dust can be emptied and removed without 
contaminating other working areas.
    (5) Personal protective equipment. (i) Employers must use only 
respirators approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for protecting 
employees from dusts produced during abrasive-blasting operations.
    (ii) Abrasive-blasting respirators shall be worn by all abrasive-
blasting operators:
    (A) When working inside of blast-cleaning rooms, or
    (B) When using silica sand in manual blasting operations where the 
nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an 
exhaust ventilated enclosure, or
    (C) Where concentrations of toxic dust dispersed by the abrasive 
blasting may exceed the limits set in Sec. 1926.55 or other pertinent 
sections of this part and the nozzle and blast are not physically 
separated from the operator in an exhaust-ventilated enclosure.
    (iii) Properly fitted particulate-filter respirators, commonly 
referred to as dust-filter respirators, may be used for short, 
intermittent, or occasional dust exposures such as cleanup, dumping of 
dust collectors, or unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point 
when it is not feasible to control the dust by enclosure, exhaust 
ventilation, or other means. The respirators used must be approved by 
NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for protection against the specific type of 
dust encountered.
    (iv) A respiratory protection program as defined and described in 
Sec. 1926.103, shall be established wherever it is necessary to use 
respiratory protective equipment.
    (v) Operators shall be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves 
and aprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of 
abrasives. Safety shoes shall be worn to protect against foot injury 
where heavy pieces of work are handled.
    (A) Safety shoes shall conform to the requirements of American 
National

[[Page 48]]

Standard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear, Z41.1-1967.
    (B) Equipment for protection of the eyes and face shall be supplied 
to the operator when the respirator design does not provide such 
protection and to any other personnel working in the vicinity of 
abrasive blasting operations. This equipment shall conform to the 
requirements of Sec. 1926.102.
    (6) Air supply and air compressors. Air for abrasive-blasting 
respirators must be free of harmful quantities of dusts, mists, or 
noxious gases, and must meet the requirements for supplied-air quality 
and use specified in 29 CFR 1910.134(i).
    (7) Operational procedures and general safety. Dust shall not be 
permitted to accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside of an 
abrasive-blasting enclosure, and dust spills shall be cleaned up 
promptly. Aisles and walkways shall be kept clear of steel shot or 
similar abrasive which may create a slipping hazard.
    (8) Scope. This paragraph applies to all operations where an 
abrasive is forcibly applied to a surface by pneumatic or hydraulic 
pressure, or by centrifugal force. It does not apply to steam blasting, 
or steam cleaning, or hydraulic cleaning methods where work is done 
without the aid of abrasives.
    (g) Grinding, polishing, and buffing operations--(1) Definitions 
applicable to this paragraph--
    (i) Abrasive cutting-off wheels. Organic-bonded wheels, the 
thickness of which is not more than one forty-eighth of their diameter 
for those up to, and including, 20 inches (50.8 cm) in diameter, and not 
more than one-sixtieth of their diameter for those larger than 20 inches 
(50.8 cm) in diameter, used for a multitude of operations variously 
known as cutting, cutting off, grooving, slotting, coping, and jointing, 
and the like. The wheels may be ``solid'' consisting of organic-bonded 
abrasive material throughout, ``steel centered'' consisting of a steel 
disc with a rim of organic-bonded material moulded around the periphery, 
or of the ``inserted tooth'' type consisting of a steel disc with 
organic-bonded abrasive teeth or inserts mechanically secured around the 
periphery.
    (ii) Belts. All power-driven, flexible, coated bands used for 
grinding, polishing, or buffing purposes.
    (iii) Branch pipe. The part of an exhaust system piping that is 
connected directly to the hood or enclosure.
    (iv) Cradle. A movable fixture, upon which the part to be ground or 
polished is placed.
    (v) Disc wheels. All power-driven rotatable discs faced with 
abrasive materials, artificial or natural, and used for grinding or 
polishing on the side of the assembled disc.
    (vi) Entry loss. The loss in static pressure caused by air flowing 
into a duct or hood. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.
    (vii) Exhaust system. A system consisting of branch pipes connected 
to hoods or enclosures, one or more header pipes, an exhaust fan, means 
for separating solid contaminants from the air flowing in the system, 
and a discharge stack to outside.
    (viii) Grinding wheels. All power-driven rotatable grinding or 
abrasive wheels, except disc wheels as defined in this standard, 
consisting of abrasive particles held together by artificial or natural 
bonds and used for peripheral grinding.
    (ix) Header pipe (main pipe). A pipe into which one or more branch 
pipes enter and which connects such branch pipes to the remainder of the 
exhaust system.
    (x) Hoods and enclosures. The partial or complete enclosure around 
the wheel or disc through which air enters an exhaust system during 
operation.
    (xi) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine 
carrying two power-driven, rotatable, coaxial, horizontal spindles upon 
the inside ends of which are mounted abrasive disc wheels used for 
grinding two surfaces simultaneously.
    (xii) Horizontal single-spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine 
carrying an abrasive disc wheel upon one or both ends of a power-driven, 
rotatable single horizontal spindle.
    (xiii) Polishing and buffing wheels. All power-driven rotatable 
wheels composed all or in part of textile fabrics, wood, felt, leather, 
paper, and may be coated with abrasives on the periphery

[[Page 49]]

of the wheel for purposes of polishing, buffing, and light grinding.
    (xiv) Portable grinder. Any power-driven rotatable grinding, 
polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such manner that it may be 
manually manipulated.
    (xv) Scratch brush wheels. All power-driven rotatable wheels made 
from wire or bristles, and used for scratch cleaning and brushing 
purposes.
    (xvi) Swing-frame grinder. Any power-driven rotatable grinding, 
polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such a manner that the wheel with 
its supporting framework can be manipulated over stationary objects.
    (xvii) Velocity pressure (vp). The kinetic pressure in the direction 
of flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. 
It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.
    (xviii) Vertical spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine having a 
vertical, rotatable power-driven spindle carrying a horizontal abrasive 
disc wheel.
    (2) Application. Wherever dry grinding, dry polishing or buffing is 
performed, and employee exposure, without regard to the use of 
respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limits prescribed in 
Sec. 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part, a local exhaust 
ventilation system shall be provided and used to maintain employee 
exposures within the prescribed limits.
    (3) Hood and branch pipe requirements. (i) Hoods connected to 
exhaust systems shall be used, and such hoods shall be designed, 
located, and placed so that the dust or dirt particles shall fall or be 
projected into the hoods in the direction of the air flow. No wheels, 
discs, straps, or belts shall be operated in such manner and in such 
direction as to cause the dust and dirt particles to be thrown into the 
operator's breathing zone.
    (ii) Grinding wheels on floor stands, pedestals, benches, and 
special-purpose grinding machines and abrasive cutting-off wheels shall 
have not less than the minimum exhaust volumes shown in Table D-57.1 
with a recommended minimum duct velocity of 4,500 feet per minute in the 
branch and 3,500 feet per minute in the main. The entry losses from all 
hoods except the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood, shall equal 0.65 
velocity pressure for a straight takeoff and 0.45 velocity pressure for 
a tapered takeoff. The entry loss for the vertical-spindle disc grinder 
hood is shown in figure D-57.1 (following paragraph (g) of this 
section).

         Table D-57.1--Grinding and Abrasive Cutting-Off Wheels         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Minimum 
                                                     Wheel      exhaust 
           Wheel diameter, inches (cm)              width,      volume  
                                                    inches     (feet 3/ 
                                                     (cm)        min.)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
To 9 (22.86)....................................      1\1/2\            
                                                      (3.81)         220
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64)...................    2 (5.08)         390
Over 16 to 19 (40.64 to 48.26)..................    3 (7.62)         500
Over 19 to 24 (48.26 to 60.96)..................   4 (10.16)         610
Over 24 to 30 (60.96 to 76.2)...................    5 (12.7)         880
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44)...................   6 (15.24)       1,200
------------------------------------------------------------------------


For any wheel wider than wheel diameters shown in Table D-57.1, increase 
the exhaust volume by the ratio of the new width to the width shown.

Example:


If wheel width=4\1/2\ inches (11.43 cm),

then 4.54  x 610 = 686 (rounded to 690).

    (iii) Scratch-brush wheels and all buffing and polishing wheels 
mounted on floor stands, pedestals, benches, or special-purpose machines 
shall have not less than the minimum exhaust volume shown in Table D-
57.2.

               Table D-57.2--Buffing and Polishing Wheels               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Minimum 
                                                     Wheel      exhaust 
           Wheel diameter, inches (cm)              width,      volume  
                                                  inches cm)   (feet 3/ 
                                                                 min.)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
To 9 (22.86)....................................    2 (5.08)         300
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64)...................    3 (7.62)         500
Over 16 to 19 (40.64 to 48.26)..................   4 (10.16)         610
Over 19 to 24 (48.26 to 60.96)..................    5 (12.7)         740
Over 24 to 30 (60.96 to 76.2)...................   6 (15.24)       1,040
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44)...................   6 (15.24)       1,200
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (iv) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal single-spindle disc 
grinders shall be hooded to collect the dust or dirt generated by the 
grinding operation and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes 
having exhaust volumes as shown in Table D-57.3.

[[Page 50]]



          Table D-57.3--Horizontal Single-Spindle Disc Grinder          
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Exhaust 
                                                                volume  
                 Disc diameter, inches (cm)                     (ft. 3/ 
                                                                 min.)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Up to 12 (30.48)............................................         220
Over 12 to 19 (30.48 to 48.26)..............................         390
Over 19 to 30 (48.26 to 76.2)...............................         610
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44)...............................         880
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (v) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal double-spindle disc 
grinders shall have a hood enclosing the grinding chamber and the hood 
shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as 
shown in Table D-57.4.

          Table D-57.4--Horizontal Double-Spindle Disc Grinder          
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Exhaust 
                                                                volume  
                 Disc diameter, inches (cm)                     (ft. 3/ 
                                                                 min.)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Up to 19 (48.26)............................................         610
Over 19 to 25 (48.26 to 63.5)...............................         880
Over 25 to 30 (63.5 to 76.2)................................       1,200
Over 30 to 53 (76.2 to 134.62)..............................       1,770
Over 53 to 72 (134.62 to 182.88)............................       6,280
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (vi) Grinding wheels or discs for vertical single-spindle disc 
grinders shall be encircled with hoods to remove the dust generated in 
the operation. The hoods shall be connected to one or more branch pipes 
having exhaust volumes as shown in Table D-57.5.

               Table D-57.5--Vertical Spindle Disc Grinder              
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                One-half or more of    Disc not covered 
                                    disc covered    --------------------
                               ---------------------                    
  Disc diameter, inches (cm)                Exhaust              Exhaust
                                Number \1\  foot 3/  Number \1\  foot 3/
                                              min.                 min. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Up to 20 (50.8)...............          1       500          2       780
Over 20 to 30 (50.8 to 76.2)..          2       780          2     1,480
Over 30 to 53 (76.2 to 134.62)          2     1,770          4     3,530
Over 53 to 72 (134.62 to                                                
 182.88)......................          2     3,140          5     6,010
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Number of exhaust outlets around periphery of hood, or equal        
  distribution provided by other means.                                 
                                                                        

    (vii) Grinding and polishing belts shall be provided with hoods to 
remove dust and dirt generated in the operations and the hoods shall be 
connected to branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table D-
57.6.

               Table D-57.6--Grinding and Polishing Belts               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Exhaust 
                                                                volume  
                  Belts width, inches (cm)                      (ft. 3/ 
                                                                 min.)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Up to 3 (7.62)..............................................         220
Over 3 to 5 (7.62 to 12.7)..................................         300
Over 5 to 7 (12.7 to 17.78).................................         390
Over 7 to 9 (17.78 to 22.86)................................         500
Over 9 to 11 (22.86 to 27.94)...............................         610
Over 11 to 13 (27.94 to 33.02)..............................         740
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (viii) Cradles and swing-frame grinders. Where cradles are used for 
handling the parts to be ground, polished, or buffed, requiring large 
partial enclosures to house the complete operation, a minimum average 
air velocity of 150 feet per minute shall be maintained over the entire 
opening of the enclosure. Swing-frame grinders shall also be exhausted 
in the same manner as provided for cradles. (See fig. D-57.3)
    (ix) Where the work is outside the hood, air volumes must be 
increased as shown in American Standard Fundamentals Governing the 
Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960 (section 4, 
exhaust hoods).
    (4) Exhaust systems. (i) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, 
and buffing operations should be designed in accordance with American 
Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local 
Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.
    (ii) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations 
shall be tested in the manner described in American Standard 
Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust 
Systems, Z9.2-1960.
    (iii) All exhaust systems shall be provided with suitable dust 
collectors.
    (5) Hood and enclosure design. (i) (A) It is the dual function of 
grinding and abrasive cutting-off wheel hoods to protect the operator 
from the hazards of bursting wheels as well as to provide a means for 
the removal of dust and dirt generated. All hoods shall be not less in 
structural strength than specified in the American National Standard 
Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-
1970.
    (B) Due to the variety of work and types of grinding machines 
employed,

[[Page 51]]

it is necessary to develop hoods adaptable to the particular machine in 
question, and such hoods shall be located as close as possible to the 
operation.
    (ii) Exhaust hoods for floor stands, pedestals, and bench grinders 
shall be designed in accordance with figure D-57.2. The adjustable 
tongue shown in the figure shall be kept in working order and shall be 
adjusted within one-fourth inch (0.635 cm) of the wheel periphery at all 
times.
    (iii) Swing-frame grinders shall be provided with exhaust booths as 
indicated in figure D-57.3.
    (iv) Portable grinding operations, whenever the nature of the work 
permits, shall be conducted within a partial enclosure. The opening in 
the enclosure shall be no larger than is actually required in the 
operation and an average face air velocity of not less than 200 feet per 
minute shall be maintained.
    (v) Hoods for polishing and buffing and scratch-brush wheels shall 
be constructed to conform as closely to figure D-57.4 as the nature of 
the work will permit.
    (vi) Cradle grinding and polishing operations shall be performed 
within a partial enclosure similar to figure D-57.5. The operator shall 
be positioned outside the working face of the opening of the enclosure. 
The face opening of the enclosure should not be any greater in area than 
that actually required for the performance of the operation and the 
average air velocity into the working face of the enclosure shall not be 
less than 150 feet per minute.
    (vii) Hoods for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be 
constructed to conform as closely as possible to the hood shown in 
figure D-57.6. It is essential that there be a space between the back of 
the wheel and the hood, and a space around the periphery of the wheel of 
at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) in order to permit the suction to act around 
the wheel periphery. The opening on the side of the disc shall be no 
larger than is required for the grinding operation, but must never be 
less than twice the area of the branch outlet.
    (viii) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood 
encircling the wheels and grinding chamber similar to that illustrated 
in figure D-57.7. The openings for passing the work into the grinding 
chamber should be kept as small as possible, but must never be less than 
twice the area of the branch outlets.
    (ix) Vertical-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with a hood 
so constructed that the heavy dust is drawn off a surface of the disc 
and the lighter dust exhausted through a continuous slot at the top of 
the hood as shown in figure D-57.1.
    (x) Grinding and polishing belt hoods shall be constructed as close 
to the operation as possible. The hood should extend almost to the belt, 
and 1-inch (2.54 cm) wide openings should be provided on either side. 
Figure D-57.8 shows a typical hood for a belt operation.

[[Page 52]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.000


  Figure D-57.1--Vertical Spindle Disc Grinder Exhaust Hood and Branch 
                            Pipe Connections

[[Page 53]]



                                                                                                                                                        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Dia. D   inches (cm)                                  Exhaust E                Volume                                             
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Exhausted at                                          
                                                                                                  4,500 ft/min                     Note                 
                      Min.                            Max.          No Pipes          Dia.           ft3/min                                            
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      20 (50.8)               1          4\1/4\             500  When one-half or more of the disc can  
                                                                                       (10.795)                   be hooded, use exhaust ducts as shown 
                                                                                                                  at the left.                          
Over 20 (50.8).................................       30 (76.2)               2       4 (10.16)             780                                         
Over 30 (76.2).................................     72 (182.88)               2       6 (15.24)           1,770                                         
Over 53 (134.62)...............................     72 (182.88)               2       8 (20.32)           3,140                                         
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      20 (50.8)               2       4 (10.16)             780  When no hood can be used over disc, use
                                                                                                                  exhaust ducts as shown at left.       
Over 20 (50.8).................................       20 (50.8)               2       4 (10.16)             780                                         
Over 30 (76.2).................................       30 (76.2)               2  5\1/2\ (13.97)           1,480                                         
Over 53 (134.62)...............................     53 (134.62)               4       6 (15.24)           3,530                                         
                                                    72 (182.88)               5       7 (17.78)           6,010                                         
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Entry loss=1.0 slot velocity pressure + 0.5 branch velocity pressure.                                                                                   
Minimum slot velocity=2,000 ft/min--\1/2\-inch (1.27 cm) slot width.                                                                                    


[[Page 54]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.001

                  Figure D-57.2--Standard Grinder Hood

                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        Wheel dimension, inches (centimeters)                                                   
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     Exhaust      Volume of
                              Diameter                                                outlet, inches    air at  
---------------------------------------------------------------------   Width, Max     (centimeters)   4,500 ft/
                       Min= d                             Max= D                             E            min   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           9 (22.86)   1\1/2\ (3.81)               3         220
Over 9 (22.86)......................................      16 (40.64)        2 (5.08)               4         390
Over 16 (40.64).....................................      19 (48.26)        3 (7.62)          4\1/2\         500
Over 19 (48.26).....................................      24 (60.96)       4 (10.16)               5         610
Over 24 (60.96).....................................       30 (76.2)        5 (12.7)               6         880
Over 30 (76.2)......................................      36 (91.44)       6 (15.24)               7       1,200
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.            


[[Page 55]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.002

Figure D-57.3--A Method of Applying an Exhaust Enclosure to Swing-Frame 
                                Grinders

[[Page 56]]

        Note: Baffle to reduce front opening as much as possible
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.003

                              Figure D-57.4


                                       Standard Buffing and Polishing Hood                                      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        Wheel dimension, inches (centimeters)                                                   
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     Exhaust      Volume of
                              Diameter                                                outlet, inches    air at  
---------------------------------------------------------------------   Width, Max           E         4,500 ft/
                       Min= d                             Max= D                                          min   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           9 (22.86)        2 (5.08)   3\1/2\ (3.81)         300
Over 9 (22.86)......................................      16 (40.64)        3 (5.08)               4         500
Over 16 (40.64).....................................      19 (48.26)       4 (11.43)               5         610
Over 19 (48.26).....................................      24 (60.96)        5 (12.7)          5\1/2\         740
Over 24 (60.96).....................................       30 (76.2)       6 (15.24)          6\1/2\       1.040
Over 30 (76.2)......................................      36 (91.44)       6 (15.24)               7       1.200
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Entry loss = 0.15 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.           


[[Page 57]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.004

          Figure D-57.5--Cradle Polishing or Grinding Enclosure

[[Page 58]]

         Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.005

 Figure D-57.6--Horizontal Single-Spindle Disc Grinder Exhaust Hood and 
                         Branch Pipe Connections


                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Dia D, inches (centimeters)                           Volume  
------------------------------------------------ Exhaust E,   exhausted 
                                                    dia.     at 4,500 ft/
              Min.                    Max.         inches     min ft 3/ 
                                                    (cm)         min    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     12 (30.48)     3 (7.6)          220
Over 12 (30.48)................      19 (48.26)   4 (10.16)          390
Over 19 (48.26)................       30 (76.2)    5 (12.7)          610
Over 30 (76.2).................      36 (91.44)   6 (15.24)          880
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: If grinding wheels are used for disc grinding purposes, hoods must
  conform to structural strength and materials as described in 9.1.     
                                                                        
 Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.               


[[Page 59]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.006

 Figure D-57.7--Horizontal Double-Spindle Disc Grinder Exhaust Hood and 
                         Branch Pipe Connections


                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Disc dia. inches (centimeters)                   Exhaust E            Volume                           
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- exhaust at                         
                                                                              4,500 ft/            Note         
              Min.                    Max.        No Pipes        Dia.       min. ft  3/                        
                                                                                 min                            
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     19 (48.26)           1               5         610                         
Over 19 (48.26)................       25 (63.5)           1               6         880  When width ``W''       
                                                                                          permits, exhaust ducts
                                                                                          should be as near     
                                                                                          heaviest grinding as  
                                                                                          possible.             
Over 25 (63.5).................       30 (76.2)           1               7       1,200                         
Over 30 (76.2).................     53 (134.62)           2               6       1,770                         
Over 53 (134.62)...............     72 (182.88)           4               8       6,280                         
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.                                                        


[[Page 60]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.007

           Figure D-57.8.--A Typical Hood for a Belt Operation

         Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Exhaust 
             Belt width W. inches (centimeters)                 volume. 
                                                              ft.\1\/min
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Up to 3 (7.62)..............................................         220
3 to 5 (7.62 to 12.7).......................................         300
5 to 7 (12.7 to 17.78)......................................         390
7 to 9 (17.78 to 22.86).....................................         500
9 to 11 (22.86 to 27.94)....................................         610
11 to 13 (27.94 to 33.02)...................................         740
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Minimum duct velocity = 4,500 ft/min branch, 3,500 ft/min main.         
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65 velocity  
  pressure for straight takeoff.                                        
                                                                        

    (6) Scope. This paragraph (g), prescribes the use of exhaust hood 
enclosures and systems in removing dust, dirt, fumes, and gases 
generated through the grinding, polishing, or buffing of ferrous and 
nonferrous metals.
    (h) Spray finishing operations--(1) Definitions applicable to this 
paragraph--(i) Spray-finishing operations. Spray-finishing operations 
are employment of methods wherein organic or inorganic materials are 
utilized in dispersed form for deposit on surfaces to be coated, 
treated, or cleaned. Such methods of deposit may involve either 
automatic, manual, or electrostatic deposition but do not include metal 
spraying or metallizing, dipping, flow coating, roller coating, 
tumbling, centrifuging, or spray washing and degreasing as conducted in 
self-contained washing and degreasing machines or systems.
    (ii) Spray booth. Spray booths are defined and described in 
Sec. 1926.66(a). (See sections 103, 104, and 105 of the Standard for 
Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-
1969).
    (iii) Spray room. A spray room is a room in which spray-finishing 
operations not conducted in a spray booth are performed separately from 
other areas.
    (iv) Minimum maintained velocity. Minimum maintained velocity is the 
velocity of air movement which must be maintained in order to meet 
minimum specified requirements for health and safety.
    (2) Location and application. Spray booths or spray rooms are to be 
used to enclose or confine all operations. Spray-finishing operations 
shall be located as provided in sections 201 through 206 of the Standard 
for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 
33-1969.
    (3) Design and construction of spray booths. (i) Spray booths shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with Sec. 1926.66(b) (1) 
through (4) and (6) through (10) (see sections 301-304 and 306-310 of 
the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible 
Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969), for general construction specifications. 
For a more detailed discussion of fundamentals relating to this subject, 
see ANSI Z9.2-1960
    (A) Lights, motors, electrical equipment, and other sources of 
ignition shall conform to the requirements of Sec. 1926.66(b)(10) and 
(c). (See section 310 and chapter 4 of the Standard for Spray Finishing 
Using Flammable and Combustible Materials NFPA No. 33-1969.)
    (B) In no case shall combustible material be used in the 
construction of a

[[Page 61]]

spray booth and supply or exhaust duct connected to it.
    (ii) Unobstructed walkways shall not be less than 6\1/2\ feet (1.976 
m) high and shall be maintained clear of obstruction from any work 
location in the booth to a booth exit or open booth front. In booths 
where the open front is the only exit, such exits shall be not less than 
3 feet (0.912 m) wide. In booths having multiple exits, such exits shall 
not be less than 2 feet (0.608 m) wide, provided that the maximum 
distance from the work location to the exit is 25 feet (7.6 m) or less. 
Where booth exits are provided with doors, such doors shall open outward 
from the booth.
    (iii) Baffles, distribution plates, and dry-type overspray 
collectors shall conform to the requirements of Sec. 1926.66(b) (4) and 
(5). (See sections 304 and 305 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using 
Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969.)
    (A) Overspray filters shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with the requirements of Sec. 1926.66(b)(5), (see section 305 
of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible 
Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969), and shall only be in a location easily 
accessible for inspection, cleaning, or replacement.
    (B) Where effective means, independent of the overspray filters, are 
installed which will result in design air distribution across the booth 
cross section, it is permissible to operate the booth without the 
filters in place.
    (iv) (A) For wet or water-wash spray booths, the water-chamber 
enclosure, within which intimate contact of contaminated air and 
cleaning water or other cleaning medium is maintained, if made of steel, 
shall be 18 gage or heavier and adequately protected against corrosion.
    (B) Chambers may include scrubber spray nozzles, headers, troughs, 
or other devices. Chambers shall be provided with adequate means for 
creating and maintaining scrubbing action for removal of particulate 
matter from the exhaust air stream.
    (v) Collecting tanks shall be of welded steel construction or other 
suitable non-combustible material. If pits are used as collecting tanks, 
they shall be concrete, masonry, or other material having similar 
properties.
    (A) Tanks shall be provided with weirs, skimmer plates, or screens 
to prevent sludge and floating paint from entering the pump suction box. 
Means for automatically maintaining the proper water level shall also be 
provided. Fresh water inlets shall not be submerged. They shall 
terminate at least one pipe diameter above the safety overflow level of 
the tank.
    (B) Tanks shall be so constructed as to discourage accumulation of 
hazardous deposits.
    (vi) Pump manifolds, risers, and headers shall be adequately sized 
to insure sufficient water flow to provide efficient operation of the 
water chamber.
    (4) Design and construction of spray rooms. (i) Spray rooms, 
including floors, shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, or other 
noncombustible material.
    (ii) Spray rooms shall have noncombustible fire doors and shutters.
    (iii) Spray rooms shall be adequately ventilated so that the 
atmosphere in the breathing zone of the operator shall be maintained in 
accordance with the requirements of paragraph (h)(6)(ii) of this 
section.
    (iv) Spray rooms used for production spray-finishing operations 
shall conform to the requirements for spray booths.
    (5) Ventilation. (i) Ventilation shall be provided in accordance 
with provisions of Sec. 1926.66(d) (see chapter 5 of the Standard for 
Spray Finishing Using Flammable or Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-
1969), and in accordance with the following:
    (A) Where a fan plenum is used to equalize or control the 
distribution of exhaust air movement through the booth, it shall be of 
sufficient strength or rigidity to withstand the differential air 
pressure or other superficially imposed loads for which the equipment is 
designed and also to facilitate cleaning. Construction specifications 
shall be at least equivalent to those of paragraph (h)(5)(iii) of this 
section.
    (B) [Reserved]
    (ii) Inlet or supply ductwork used to transport makeup air to spray 
booths or surrounding areas shall be constructed of noncombustible 
materials.

[[Page 62]]

    (A) If negative pressure exists within inlet ductwork, all seams and 
joints shall be sealed if there is a possibility of infiltration of 
harmful quantities of noxious gases, fumes, or mists from areas through 
which ductwork passes.
    (B) Inlet ductwork shall be sized in accordance with volume flow 
requirements and provide design air requirements at the spray booth.
    (C) Inlet ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its 
length to sustain at least its own weight plus any negative pressure 
which is exerted upon it under normal operating conditions.
    (iii) [Reserved]
    (A) Exhaust ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its 
length to sustain its weight plus any normal accumulation in interior 
during normal operating conditions and any negative pressure exerted 
upon it.
    (B) Exhaust ductwork shall be sized in accordance with good design 
practice which shall include consideration of fan capacity, length of 
duct, number of turns and elbows, variation in size, volume, and 
character of materials being exhausted. See American National Standard 
Z9.2-1960 for further details and explanation concerning elements of 
design.
    (C) Longitudinal joints in sheet steel ductwork shall be either 
lock-seamed, riveted, or welded. For other than steel construction, 
equivalent securing of joints shall be provided.
    (D) Circumferential joints in ductwork shall be substantially 
fastened together and lapped in the direction of airflow. At least every 
fourth joint shall be provided with connecting flanges, bolted together, 
or of equivalent fastening security.
    (E) Inspection or clean-out doors shall be provided for every 9 to 
12 feet (2.736 to 3.648 m) of running length for ducts up to 12 inches 
(0.304 m) in diameter, but the distance between cleanout doors may be 
greater for larger pipes. (See 8.3.21 of American National Standard 
Z9.1-1951.) A clean-out door or doors shall be provided for servicing 
the fan, and where necessary, a drain shall be provided.
    (F) Where ductwork passes through a combustible roof or wall, the 
roof or wall shall be protected at the point of penetration by open 
space or fire-resistive material between the duct and the roof or wall. 
When ducts pass through firewalls, they shall be provided with automatic 
fire dampers on both sides of the wall, except that three-eighth-inch 
steel plates may be used in lieu of automatic fire dampers for ducts not 
exceeding 18 inches (45.72 cm) in diameter.
    (G) Ductwork used for ventilating any process covered in this 
standard shall not be connected to ducts ventilating any other process 
or any chimney or flue used for conveying any products of combustion.
    (6) Velocity and air flow requirements. (i) Except where a spray 
booth has an adequate air replacement system, the velocity of air into 
all openings of a spray booth shall be not less than that specified in 
Table D-57.7 for the operating conditions specified. An adequate air 
replacement system is one which introduces replacement air upstream or 
above the object being sprayed and is so designed that the velocity of 
air in the booth cross section is not less than that specified in Table 
D-57.7 when measured upstream or above the object being sprayed.

                          Table D-57.7--Minimum Maintained Velocities Into Spray Booths                         
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                Airflow velocities, f.p.m.      
     Operating conditions for objects            Crossdraft, f.p.m.     ----------------------------------------
          completely inside booth                                                   Design               Range  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electrostatic and automatic airless         Negligible.................  50 large booth.............       50-75
 operation contained in booth without                                                                           
 operator.                                                                                                      
                                              .........................  100 small booth............      75-125
Air-operated guns, manual or automatic....  Up to 50...................  100 large booth............      75-125
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              .........................  150 small booth............     125-175
Air-operated guns, manual or automatic....  Up to 100..................  150 large booth............     125-175
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              .........................  200 small booth............     150-250
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Notes:                                                                                                          

[[Page 63]]

                                                                                                                
  (1) Attention is invited to the fact that the effectiveness of the spray booth is dependent upon the          
  relationship of the depth of the booth to its height and width.                                               
  (2) Crossdrafts can be eliminated through proper design and such design should be sought. Crossdrafts in      
  excess of 100fpm (feet per minute) should not be permitted.                                                   
  (3) Excessive air pressures result in loss of both efficiency and material waste in addition to creating a    
  backlash that may carry overspray and fumes into adjacent work areas.                                         
  (4) Booths should be designed with velocities shown in the column headed ``Design.'' However, booths operating
  with velocities shown in the column headed ``Range'' are in compliance with this standard.                    
                                                                                                                

    (ii) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (h)(6)(i) of this 
section the total air volume exhausted through a spray booth shall be 
such as to dilute solvent vapor to at least 25 percent of the lower 
explosive limit of the solvent being sprayed. An example of the method 
of calculating this volume is given below.

    Example: To determine the lower explosive limits of the most common 
solvents used in spray finishing, see Table D-57.8. Column 1 gives the 
number of cubic feet of vapor per gallon of solvent and column 2 gives 
the lower explosive limit (LEL) in percentage by volume of air. Note 
that the quantity of solvent will be diminished by the quantity of 
solids and nonflammables contained in the finish.
    To determine the volume of air in cubic feet necessary to dilute the 
vapor from 1 gallon of solvent to 25 percent of the lower explosive 
limit, apply the following formula:

Dilution volume required per gallon of solvent=4 (100-LEL) (cubic feet 
of vapor per gallon) LEL

Using toluene as the solvent.
    (1) LEL of toluene from Table D-57.8, column 2, is 1.4 percent.
    (2) Cubic feet of vapor per gallon from Table D-57.8, column 1, is 
30.4 cubic feet per gallon.
    (3) Dilution volume required=


4 (100-1.4) 30.4 1.4=8,564 cubic feet.

    (4) To convert to cubic feet per minute of required ventilation, 
multiply the dilution volume required per gallon of solvent by the 
number of gallons of solvent evaporated per minute.

   Table D-57.8--Lower Explosive Limit of Some Commonly Used Solvents   
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Lower   
                                                 Cubic feet   explosive 
                                                 per gallon    limit in 
                                                of vapor of   percent by
                    Solvent                      liquid at    volume of 
                                                70 F (21.11  air at 70 F
                                                    C).       (21.11 C) 
                                                                        
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   Column 1     Column 2
                                                                        
                                                                        
Acetone.......................................         44.0          2.6
Amyl Acetate (iso)............................         21.6      \1\ 1.0
Amyl Alcohol (n)..............................         29.6          1.2
Amyl Alcohol (iso)............................         29.6          1.2
Benzene.......................................         36.8      \1\ 1.4
Butyl Acetate (n).............................         24.8          1.7
Butyl Alcohol (n).............................         35.2          1.4
Butyl Cellosolve..............................         24.8          1.1
Cellosolve....................................         33.6          1.8
Cellosolve Acetate............................         23.2          1.7
Cyclohexanone.................................         31.2      \1\ 1.1
1,1 Dichloroethylene..........................         42.4          5.9
1,2 Dichloroethylene..........................         42.4          9.7
Ethyl Acetate.................................         32.8          2.5
Ethyl Alcohol.................................         55.2          4.3
Ethyl Lactate.................................         28.0      \1\ 1.5
Methyl Acetate................................         40.0          3.1
Methyl Alcohol................................         80.8          7.3
Methyl Cellosolve.............................         40.8          2.5
Methyl Ethyl Ketone...........................         36.0          1.8
Methyl n-Propyl Ketone........................         30.4          1.5
Naphtha (VM&P) (76Naphtha)....................         22.4          0.9
Naphtha (100Flash) Safety Solvent--Stoddard                             
 Solvent......................................         23.2          1.0
Propyl Acetate (n)............................         27.2          2.8
Propyl Acetate (iso)..........................         28.0          1.1
Propyl Alcohol (n)............................         44.8          2.1
Propyl Alcohol (iso)..........................         44.0          2.0
Toluene.......................................         30.4          1.4
Turpentine....................................         20.8          0.8
Xylene (o)....................................         26.4          1.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ At 212 F (100 C).                                                   
                                                                        

    (iii)(A) When an operator is in a booth downstream of the object 
being sprayed, an air-supplied respirator or other type of respirator 
approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR Part 84 for the material being sprayed 
should be used by the operator.
    (B) Where downdraft booths are provided with doors, such doors shall 
be closed when spray painting.
    (7) Make-up air. (i) Clean fresh air, free of contamination from 
adjacent industrial exhaust systems, chimneys, stacks, or vents, shall 
be supplied to a spray booth or room in quantities equal to the volume 
of air exhausted through the spray booth.
    (ii) Where a spray booth or room receives make-up air through self-
closing

[[Page 64]]

doors, dampers, or louvers, they shall be fully open at all times when 
the booth or room is in use for spraying. The velocity of air through 
such doors, dampers, or louvers shall not exceed 200 feet per minute. If 
the fan characteristics are such that the required air flow through the 
booth will be provided, higher velocities through the doors, dampers, or 
louvers may be used.
    (iii) (A) Where the air supply to a spray booth or room is filtered, 
the fan static pressure shall be calculated on the assumption that the 
filters are dirty to the extent that they require cleaning or 
replacement.
    (B) The rating of filters shall be governed by test data supplied by 
the manufacturer of the filter. A pressure gage shall be installed to 
show the pressure drop across the filters. This gage shall be marked to 
show the pressure drop at which the filters require cleaning or 
replacement. Filters shall be replaced or cleaned whenever the pressure 
drop across them becomes excessive or whenever the air flow through the 
face of the booth falls below that specified in Table D-57.7.
    (iv) (A) Means for heating make-up air to any spray booth or room, 
before or at the time spraying is normally performed, shall be provided 
in all places where the outdoor temperature may be expected to remain 
below 55 deg.F. (12.77 deg.C.) for appreciable periods of time during 
the operation of the booth except where adequate and safe means of 
radiant heating for all operating personnel affected is provided. The 
replacement air during the heating seasons shall be maintained at not 
less than 65 deg.F. (18.33 deg.C.) at the point of entry into the spray 
booth or spray room. When otherwise unheated make-up air would be at a 
temperature of more than 10 deg.F. below room temperature, its 
temperature shall be regulated as provided in section 3.6.3 of ANSI 
Z9.2-1960.
    (B) As an alternative to an air replacement system complying with 
the preceding section, general heating of the building in which the 
spray room or booth is located may be employed provided that all 
occupied parts of the building are maintained at not less than 65 deg.F. 
(18.33 deg.C.) when the exhaust system is in operation or the general 
heating system supplemented by other sources of heat may be employed to 
meet this requirement.
    (C) No means of heating make-up air shall be located in a spray 
booth.
    (D) Where make-up air is heated by coal or oil, the products of 
combustion shall not be allowed to mix with the make-up air, and the 
products of combustion shall be conducted outside the building through a 
flue terminating at a point remote from all points where make-up air 
enters the building.
    (E) Where make-up air is heated by gas, and the products of 
combustion are not mixed with the make-up air but are conducted through 
an independent flue to a point outside the building remote from all 
points where make-up air enters the building, it is not necessary to 
comply with paragraph (h)(7)(iv)(F) of this section.
    (F) Where make-up air to any manually operated spray booth or room 
is heated by gas and the products of combustion are allowed to mix with 
the supply air, the following precautions must be taken:
    (1) The gas must have a distinctive and strong enough odor to warn 
workmen in a spray booth or room of its presence if in an unburned state 
in the make-up air.
    (2) The maximum rate of gas supply to the make-up air heater burners 
must not exceed that which would yield in excess of 200 p.p.m. (parts 
per million) of carbon monoxide or 2,000 p.p.m. of total combustible 
gases in the mixture if the unburned gas upon the occurrence of flame 
failure were mixed with all of the make-up air supplied.
    (3) A fan must be provided to deliver the mixture of heated air and 
products of combustion from the plenum chamber housing the gas burners 
to the spray booth or room.
    (8) Scope. Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or 
confine all spray finishing operations covered by this paragraph (h). 
This paragraph does not apply to the spraying of the exteriors of 
buildings, fixed tanks, or similar structures, nor to small portable 
spraying apparatus not used repeatedly in the same location.

[[Page 65]]

    (i) Open surface tanks--(1) General. (i) This paragraph applies to 
all operations involving the immersion of materials in liquids, or in 
the vapors of such liquids, for the purpose of cleaning or altering the 
surface or adding to or imparting a finish thereto or changing the 
character of the materials, and their subsequent removal from the liquid 
or vapor, draining, and drying. These operations include washing, 
electroplating, anodizing, pickling, quenching, dying, dipping, tanning, 
dressing, bleaching, degreasing, alkaline cleaning, stripping, rinsing, 
digesting, and other similar operations.
    (ii) Except where specific construction specifications are 
prescribed in this section, hoods, ducts, elbows, fans, blowers, and all 
other exhaust system parts, components, and supports thereof shall be so 
constructed as to meet conditions of service and to facilitate 
maintenance and shall conform in construction to the specifications 
contained in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the 
Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.
    (2) Classification of open-surface tank operations. (i) Open-surface 
tank operations shall be classified into 16 classes, numbered A-1 to D-
4, inclusive.
    (ii) Determination of class. Class is determined by two factors, 
hazard potential designated by a letter from A to D, inclusive, and rate 
of gas, vapor, or mist evolution designated by a number from 1 to 4, 
inclusive (for example, B.3).
    (iii) Hazard potential is an index, on a scale of from A to D, 
inclusive, of the severity of the hazard associated with the substance 
contained in the tank because of the toxic, flammable, or explosive 
nature of the vapor, gas, or mist produced therefrom. The toxic hazard 
is determined from the concentration, measured in parts by volume of a 
gas or vapor, per million parts by volume of contaminated air (p.p.m.), 
or in milligrams of mist per cubic meter of air (mg./m. 3), 
below which ill effects are unlikely to occur to the exposed worker. The 
concentrations shall be those in Sec. 1926.55 or other pertinent 
sections of this part.
    (iv) The relative fire or explosion hazard is measured in degrees 
Fahrenheit in terms of the closed-cup flash point of the substance in 
the tank. Detailed information on the prevention of fire hazards in dip 
tanks may be found in Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible 
Liquids, NFPA No. 34-1966, National Fire Protection Association. Where 
the tank contains a mixture of liquids, other than organic solvents, 
whose effects are additive, the hygienic standard of the most toxic 
component (for example, the one having the lowest p.p.m. or mg./m. 
3) shall be used, except where such substance constitutes an 
insignificantly small fraction of the mixture. For mixtures of organic 
solvents, their combined effect, rather than that of either 
individually, shall determine the hazard potential. In the absence of 
information to the contrary, the effects shall be considered as 
additive. If the sum of the ratios of the airborne concentration of each 
contaminant to the toxic concentration of that contaminant exceeds 
unity, the toxic concentration shall be considered to have been 
exceeded. (See Note A to paragraph (i)(2)(v) of this section.)
    (v) Hazard potential shall be determined from Table D-57.9, with the 
value indicating greater hazard being used. When the hazardous material 
may be either a vapor with a threshhold limit value (TLV) in p.p.m. or a 
mist with a TLV in mg./m.3, the TLV indicating the greater 
hazard shall be used (for example, A takes precedence over B or C; B 
over C; C over D).


    Note A:

(c1TLV1)+(c2TLV2)
+(c3TLV3)+; . . .
    (cNTLVN)1



where:

c=Concentration measured at the operation in p.p.m.

             Table D-57.9--Determination of Hazard Potential            
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               Toxicity group           
                                  --------------------------------------
         Hazard potential            Gas or                             
                                     vapor    Mist (mg./  Flash point in
                                    (p.p.m.)     m3)     degrees F. (C.)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
A................................       0-10      0-0.1  ...............
B................................     11-100   0.11-1.0        Under 100
                                                                 (37.77)
C................................    101-500     1.1-10  100 200 (37.77-
                                                                  93.33)

[[Page 66]]

                                                                        
D................................   Over 500    Over 10         Over 200
                                                                 (93.33)
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (vi) Rate of gas, vapor, or mist evolution is a numerical index, on 
a scale of from 1 to 4, inclusive, both of the relative capacity of the 
tank to produce gas, vapor, or mist and of the relative energy with 
which it is projected or carried upwards from the tank. Rate is 
evaluated in terms of
    (A) The temperature of the liquid in the tank in degrees Fahrenheit;
    (B) The number of degrees Fahrenheit that this temperature is below 
the boiling point of the liquid in degrees Fahrenheit;
    (C) The relative evaporation of the liquid in still air at room 
temperature in an arbitrary scale--fast, medium, slow, or nil; and
    (D) The extent that the tank gases or produces mist in an arbitrary 
scale--high, medium, low, and nil. (See Table D-57.10, Note 2.) Gassing 
depends upon electrochemical or mechanical processes, the effects of 
which have to be individually evaluated for each installation (see Table 
D-57.10, Note 3).
    (vii) Rate of evolution shall be determined from Table D-57.10. When 
evaporation and gassing yield different rates, the lowest numerical 
value shall be used.

                    Table D-57.10--Determination of Rate of Gas, Vapor, or Mist Evolution \1\                   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Liquid                                                                  
              Rate               temperature,F. (C.)     Degrees below         Relative           Gassing \3\   
                                                         boiling point      evaporation \2\                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1..............................     Over 200 (93.33)                0-20  Fast..............  High.             
2..............................      150-200 (65.55-               21-50  Medium............  Medium.           
                                              93.33)                                                            
3..............................    94-149 (34.44-65)              51-100  Slow..............  Low.              
4..............................     Under 94 (34.44)            Over 100  Nil...............  Nil.              
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ In certain classes of equipment, specifically vapor degreasers, an internal condenser or vapor level        
  thermostat is used to prevent the vapor from leaving the tank during normal operation. In such cases, rate of 
  vapor evolution from the tank into the workroom is not dependent upon the factors listed in the table, but    
  rather upon abnormalities of operating procedure, such as carryout of vapors from excessively fast action,    
  dragout of liquid by entrainment in parts, contamination of solvent by water and other materials, or improper 
  heat balance. When operating procedure is excellent, effective rate of evolution may be taken as 4. When      
  operating procedure is average, the effective rate of evolution may be taken as 3. When operation is poor, a  
  rate of 2 or 1 is indicated, depending upon observed conditions.                                              
\2\ Relative evaporation rate is determined according to the methods described by A. K. Doolittle in Industrial 
  and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 27, p. 1169, (3) where time for 100-percent evaporation is as follows: Fast: 0-
  3 hours; Medium: 3-12 hours; Slow: 12-50 hours; Nil: more than 50 hours.                                      
\3\ Gassing means the formation by chemical or electrochemical action of minute bubbles of gas under the surface
  of the liquid in the tank and is generally limited to aqueous solutions.                                      
                                                                                                                

    (3) Ventilation. Where ventilation is used to control potential 
exposures to workers as defined in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this 
section, it shall be adequate to reduce the concentration of the air 
contaminant to the degree that a hazard to the worker does not exist. 
Methods of ventilation are discussed in American National Standard 
Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust 
Systems, Z9.2-1960.
    (4) Control requirements. (i) Control velocities shall conform to 
Table D-57.11 in all cases where the flow of air past the breathing or 
working zone of the operator and into the hoods is undisturbed by local 
environmental conditions, such as open windows, wall fans, unit heaters, 
or moving machinery.
    (ii) All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which
    (A) Project over the entire tank;
    (B) Are fixed in position in such a location that the head of the 
workman, in all his normal operating positions while working at the 
tank, is in front of all hood openings; and
    (C) Are completely enclosed on at least two sides, shall be 
considered to be exhausted through an enclosing hood.
    (D) The quantity of air in cubic feet per minute necessary to be 
exhausted through an enclosing hood shall be not

[[Page 67]]

less than the product of the control velocity times the net area of all 
openings in the enclosure through which air can flow into the hood.

             Table D-57.11--Control Velocities in Feet Per Minute (f.p.m.) for Undisturbed Locations            
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Enclosing hood                       Canopy hood \2\   
                                                    ------------------------   Lateral   -----------------------
                       Class                          One open    Two open   exhaust \1\  Three open   Four open
                                                        side        sides                    sides       sides  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
B-1 and A-2........................................         100         150          150  Do not use  Do not use
A-3 \2\, B-1, B-2, and C-1.........................          75         100          100         125         175
A-3, C-2, and D-1 \3\..............................          65          90           75         100         150
B-4 \2\, C-3, and D-2 \3\..........................          50          75           50          75         125
A-4, C-4, D-3 \3\, and D-4 \4\.....................  ..........  ..........  ...........  ..........  ..........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ See Table D-57.12 for computation of ventilation rate.                                                      
\2\ Do not use canopy hood for Hazard Potential A processes.                                                    
\3\ Where complete control of hot water is desired, design as next highest class.                               
\4\ General room ventilation required.                                                                          
                                                                                                                

    (iii) All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which do not project 
over the entire tank, and in which the direction of air movement into 
the hood or hoods is substantially horizontal, shall be considered to be 
laterally exhausted. The quantity of air in cubic feet per minute 
necessary to be laterally exhausted per square foot of tank area in 
order to maintain the required control velocity shall be determined from 
Table D-57.12 for all variations in ratio of tank width (W) to tank 
length (L). The total quantity of air in cubic feet per minute required 
to be exhausted per tank shall be not less than the product of the area 
of tank surface times the cubic feet per minute per square foot of tank 
area, determined from Table D-57.12.
    (A) For lateral exhaust hoods over 42 inches (1.06 m) wide, or where 
it is desirable to reduce the amount of air removed from the workroom, 
air supply slots or orifices shall be provided along the side or the 
center of the tank opposite from the exhaust slots. The design of such 
systems shall meet the following criteria:
    (1) The supply air volume plus the entrained air shall not exceed 50 
percent of the exhaust volume.
    (2) The velocity of the supply airstream as it reaches the effective 
control area of the exhaust slot shall be less than the effective 
velocity over the exhaust slot area.

Table D-57.12--Minimum Ventilation Rate in Cubic Feet of Air Per Minute Per Square Foot of Tank Area for Lateral
                                                     Exhaust                                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      C.f.m. per sq. ft. to maintain required minimum velocities
                                                       at following ratios (tank width (W)/tank length (L)).\1\,
   Required minimum control velocity, f.p.m. (from                                \2\                           
                   Table D-57.11)                    -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                       0.0-0.09    0.1-0.24    0.25-0.49   0.5-0.99     1.0-2.0 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hood along one side or two parallel sides of tank when one hood is against a wall or baffle.\2\                 
Also for a manifold along tank centerline.\3\                                                                   
                                                                                                                
�����������������������������������������������������                                                           
50..................................................          50          60          75          90         100
75..................................................          75          90         110         130         150
100.................................................         100         125         150         175         200
150.................................................         150         190         225         260         300
                                                                                                                
�����������������������������������������������������                                                           
Hood along one side or two parallel sides of free standing tank not against wall or baffle.                     
                                                                                                                
�����������������������������������������������������                                                           
50..................................................          75          90         100         110         125
75..................................................         110         130         150         170         190
100.................................................         150         175         200         225         250
150.................................................         225         260         300         340         375
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ It is not practicable to ventilate across the long dimension of a tank whose ratio W/L exceeds 2.0.         
It is undesirable to do so when W/L exceeds 1.0. For circular tanks with lateral exhaust along up to 1/2 the    
  circumference, use W/L=1.0; for over one-half the circumference use W/L=0.5.                                  
\2\ Baffle is a vertical plate the same length as the tank, and with the top of the plate as high as the tank is
  wide. If the exhaust hood is on the side of a tank against a building wall or close to it, it is perfectly    
  baffled.                                                                                                      
\3\ Use W/2 as tank width in computing when manifold is along centerline, or when hoods are used on two parallel
  sides of a tank.                                                                                              

[[Page 68]]

                                                                                                                
Tank Width (W) means the effective width over which the hood must pull air to operate (for example, where the   
  hood face is set back from the edge of the tank, this set back must be added in measuring tank width). The    
  surface area of tanks can frequently be reduced and better control obtained (particularly on conveyorized     
  systems) by using covers extending from the upper edges of the slots toward the center of the tank.           

    (3) The vertical height of the receiving exhaust hood, including any 
baffle, shall not be less than one-quarter the width of the tank.
    (4) The supply airstream shall not be allowed to impinge on 
obstructions between it and the exhaust slot in such a manner as to 
significantly interfere with the performance of the exhaust hood.
    (5) Since most failure of push-pull systems result from excessive 
supply air volumes and pressures, methods of measuring and adjusting the 
supply air shall be provided. When satisfactory control has been 
achieved, the adjustable features of the hood shall be fixed so that 
they will not be altered.
    (iv) All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which project over the 
entire tank, and which do not conform to the definition of enclosing 
hoods, shall be considered to be overhead canopy hoods. The quantity of 
air in cubic feet per minute necessary to be exhausted through a canopy 
hood shall be not less than the product of the control velocity times 
the net area of all openings between the bottom edges of the hood and 
the top edges of the tank.
    (v) The rate of vapor evolution (including steam or products of 
combustion) from the process shall be estimated. If the rate of vapor 
evolution is equal to or greater than 10 percent of the calculated 
exhaust volume required, the exhaust volume shall be increased in equal 
amount.
    (5) Spray cleaning and degreasing. Wherever spraying or other 
mechanical means are used to disperse a liquid above an open-surface 
tank, control must be provided for the airborne spray. Such operations 
shall be enclosed as completely as possible. The inward air velocity 
into the enclosure shall be sufficient to prevent the discharge of spray 
into the workroom. Mechanical baffles may be used to help prevent the 
discharge of spray. Spray painting operations are covered by paragraph 
(h) of this section.
    (6) Control means other than ventilation. Tank covers, foams, beads, 
chips, or other materials floating on the tank surface so as to confine 
gases, mists, or vapors to the area under the cover or to the foam, 
bead, or chip layer; or surface tension depressive agents added to the 
liquid in the tank to minimize mist formation, or any combination 
thereof, may all be used as gas, mist, or vapor control means for open-
surface tank operations, provided that they effectively reduce the 
concentrations of hazardous materials in the vicinity of the worker 
below the limits set in accordance with paragraph (i)(2) of this 
section.
    (7) System design. (i) The equipment for exhausting air shall have 
sufficient capacity to produce the flow of air required in each of the 
hoods and openings of the system.
    (ii) The capacity required in paragraph (i)(7)(i) of this section 
shall be obtained when the airflow producing equipment is operating 
against the following pressure losses, the sum of which is the static 
pressure:
    (A) Entrance losses into the hood.
    (B) Resistance to airflow in branch pipe including bends and 
transformations.
    (C) Entrance loss into the main pipe.
    (D) Resistance to airflow in main pipe including bends and 
transformations.
    (E) Resistance of mechanical equipment; that is, filters, washers, 
condensers, absorbers, etc., plus their entrance and exit losses.
    (F) Resistance in outlet duct and discharge stack.
    (iii) Two or more operations shall not be connected to the same 
exhaust system where either one or the combination of the substances 
removed may constitute a fire, explosion, or chemical reaction hazard in 
the duct system. Traps or other devices shall be provided to insure that 
condensate in ducts does not drain back into any tank.
    (iv) The exhaust system, consisting of hoods, ducts, air mover, and 
discharge outlet, shall be designed in accordance with American National 
Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local 
Exhaust

[[Page 69]]

Systems, Z9.2-1960, or the manual, Industrial Ventilation, published by 
the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 1970. 
Airflow and pressure loss data provided by the manufacturer of any air 
cleaning device shall be included in the design calculations.
    (8) Operation. (i) The required airflow shall be maintained at all 
times during which gas, mist, or vapor is emitted from the tank, and at 
all times the tank, the draining, or the drying area is in operation or 
use. When the system is first installed, the airflow from each hood 
shall be measured by means of a pitot traverse in the exhaust duct and 
corrective action taken if the flow is less than that required. When the 
proper flow is obtained, the hood static pressure shall be measured and 
recorded. At intervals of not more than 3 months operation, or after a 
prolonged shutdown period, the hoods and duct system shall be inspected 
for evidence of corrosion or damage. In any case where the airflow is 
found to be less than required, it shall be increased to the required 
value. (Information on airflow and static pressure measurement and 
calculations may be found in American National Standard Fundamental 
Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960, 
or in the manual, Industrial Ventilation, published by the American 
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.)
    (ii) The exhaust system shall discharge to the outer air in such a 
manner that the possibility of its effluent entering any building is at 
a minimum. Recirculation shall only be through a device for contaminant 
removal which will prevent the creation of a health hazard in the room 
or area to which the air is recirculated.
    (iii) A volume of outside air in the range of 90 percent to 110 
percent of the exhaust volume shall be provided to each room having 
exhaust hoods. The outside air supply shall enter the workroom in such a 
manner as not to be detrimental to any exhaust hood. The airflow of the 
makeup air system shall be measured on installation. Corrective action 
shall be taken when the airflow is below that required. The makeup air 
shall be uncontaminated.
    (9) Personal protection. (i) All employees working in and around 
open-surface tank operations must be instructed as to the hazards of 
their respective jobs, and in the personal protection and first aid 
procedures applicable to these hazards.
    (ii) All persons required to work in such a manner that their feet 
may become wet shall be provided with rubber or other impervious boots 
or shoes, rubbers, or wooden-soled shoes sufficient to keep feet dry.
    (iii) All persons required to handle work wet with a liquid other 
than water shall be provided with gloves impervious to such a liquid and 
of a length sufficient to prevent entrance of liquid into the tops of 
the gloves. The interior of gloves shall be kept free from corrosive or 
irritating contaminants.
    (iv) All persons required to work in such a manner that their 
clothing may become wet shall be provided with such aprons, coats, 
jackets, sleeves, or other garments made of rubber, or of other 
materials impervious to liquids other than water, as are required to 
keep their clothing dry. Aprons shall extend well below the top of boots 
to prevent liquid splashing into the boots. Provision of dry, clean, 
cotton clothing along with rubber shoes or short boots and an apron 
impervious to liquids other than water shall be considered a 
satisfactory substitute where small parts are cleaned, plated, or acid 
dipped in open tanks and rapid work is required.
    (v) Whenever there is a danger of splashing, for example, when 
additions are made manually to the tanks, or when acids and chemicals 
are removed from the tanks, the employees so engaged shall be required 
to wear either tight-fitting chemical goggles or an effective face 
shield. See Sec. 1926.102.
    (vi) When, during the emergencies specified in paragraph (i)(11)(v) 
of this section, employees must be in areas where concentrations of air 
contaminants are greater than the limits set by paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of 
this section or oxygen concentrations are less than 19.5 percent, they 
must use respirators that reduce their exposure to a level below these 
limits or that provide adequate oxygen. Such respirators must

[[Page 70]]

also be provided in marked, quickly-accessible storage compartments 
built for this purpose when the possibility exists of accidental release 
of hazardous concentrations of air contaminants. Respirators must be 
approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, selected by a competent 
industrial hygienist or other technically-qualified source, and used in 
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.103.
    (vii) Near each tank containing a liquid which may burn, irritate, 
or otherwise be harmful to the skin if splashed upon the worker's body, 
there shall be a supply of clean cold water. The water pipe (carrying a 
pressure not exceeding 25 pounds (11.325 kg)) shall be provided with a 
quick opening valve and at least 48 inches (1.216 m) of hose not smaller 
than three-fourths inch, so that no time may be lost in washing off 
liquids from the skin or clothing. Alternatively, deluge showers and eye 
flushes shall be provided in cases where harmful chemicals may be 
splashed on parts of the body.
    (viii) Operators with sores, burns, or other skin lesions requiring 
medical treatment shall not be allowed to work at their regular 
operations until so authorized by a physician. Any small skin abrasions, 
cuts, rash, or open sores which are found or reported shall be treated 
by a properly designated person so that chances of exposures to the 
chemicals are removed. Workers exposed to chromic acids shall have a 
periodic examination made of the nostrils and other parts of the body, 
to detect incipient ulceration.
    (ix) Sufficient washing facilities, including soap, individual 
towels, and hot water, shall be provided for all persons required to use 
or handle any liquids which may burn, irritate, or otherwise be harmful 
to the skin, on the basis of at least one basin (or its equivalent) with 
a hot water faucet for every 10 employees. See Sec. 1926.51(f).
    (x) Locker space or equivalent clothing storage facilities shall be 
provided to prevent contamination of street clothing.
    (xi) First aid facilities specific to the hazards of the operations 
conducted shall be readily available.
    (10) Special precautions for cyanide. Dikes or other arrangements 
shall be provided to prevent the possibility of intermixing of cyanide 
and acid in the event of tank rupture.
    (11) Inspection, maintenance, and installation. (i) Floors and 
platforms around tanks shall be prevented from becoming slippery both by 
original type of construction and by frequent flushing. They shall be 
firm, sound, and of the design and construction to minimize the 
possibility of tripping.
    (ii) Before cleaning the interior of any tank, the contents shall be 
drained off, and the cleanout doors shall be opened where provided. All 
pockets in tanks or pits, where it is possible for hazardous vapors to 
collect, shall be ventilated and cleared of such vapors.
    (iii) Tanks which have been drained to permit employees to enter for 
the purposes of cleaning, inspection, or maintenance may contain 
atmospheres which are hazardous to life or health, through the presence 
of flammable or toxic air contaminants, or through the absence of 
sufficient oxygen. Before employees shall be permitted to enter any such 
tank, appropriate tests of the atmosphere shall be made to determine if 
the limits set by paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section are exceeded, or 
if the oxygen concentration is less than 19.5 percent.
    (iv) If the tests made in accordance with paragraph (i)(11)(iii) of 
this section indicate that the atmosphere in the tank is unsafe, before 
any employee is permitted to enter the tank, the tank shall be 
ventilated until the hazardous atmosphere is removed, and ventilation 
shall be continued so as to prevent the occurrence of a hazardous 
atmosphere as long as an employee is in the tank.
    (v) If, in emergencies, such as rescue work, it is necessary to 
enter a tank which may contain a hazardous atmosphere, suitable 
respirators, such as self-contained breathing apparatus; hose mask with 
blower, if there is a possibility of oxygen deficiency; or a gas mask, 
selected and operated in accordance with paragraph (i)(9)(vi) of this 
section, shall be used. If a contaminant in the tank can cause 
dermatitis, or be absorbed through the skin, the employee entering the 
tank shall also wear protective clothing. At least one trained standby 
employee,

[[Page 71]]

with suitable respirator, shall be present in the nearest uncontaminated 
area. The standby employee must be able to communicate with the employee 
in the tank and be able to haul him out of the tank with a lifeline if 
necessary.
    (vi) Maintenance work requiring welding or open flame, where toxic 
metal fumes such as cadmium, chromium, or lead may be evolved, shall be 
done only with sufficient local exhaust ventilation to prevent the 
creation of a health hazard, or be done with respirators selected and 
used in accordance with paragraph (i)(9)(vi) of this section. Welding, 
or the use of open flames near any solvent cleaning equipment shall be 
permitted only after such equipment has first been thoroughly cleared of 
solvents and vapors.
    (12) Vapor degreasing tanks. (i) In any vapor degreasing tank 
equipped with a condenser or vapor level thermostat, the condenser or 
thermostat shall keep the level of vapors below the top edge of the tank 
by a distance at least equal to one-half the tank width, or at least 36 
inches (0.912 m), whichever is shorter.
    (ii) Where gas is used as a fuel for heating vapor degreasing tanks, 
the combustion chamber shall be of tight construction, except for such 
openings as the exhaust flue, and those that are necessary for supplying 
air for combustion. Flues shall be of corrosion-resistant construction 
and shall extend to the outer air. If mechanical exhaust is used on this 
flue, a draft diverter shall be used. Special precautions must be taken 
to prevent solvent fumes from entering the combustion air of this or any 
other heater when chlorinated or fluorinated hydrocarbon solvents (for 
example, trichloroethylene, Freon) are used.
    (iii) Heating elements shall be so designed and maintained that 
their surface temperature will not cause the solvent or mixture to 
decompose, break down, or be converted into an excessive quantity of 
vapor.
    (iv) Tanks or machines of more than 4 square feet (0.368 m\2\) of 
vapor area, used for solvent cleaning or vapor degreasing, shall be 
equipped with suitable cleanout or sludge doors located near the bottom 
of each tank or still. These doors shall be so designed and gasketed 
that there will be no leakage of solvent when they are closed.
    (13) Scope. (i) This paragraph (i) applies to all operations 
involving the immersion of materials in liquids, or in the vapors of 
such liquids, for the purpose of cleaning or altering their surfaces, or 
adding or imparting a finish thereto, or changing the character of the 
materials, and their subsequent removal from the liquids or vapors, 
draining, and drying. Such operations include washing, electroplating, 
anodizing, pickling, quenching, dyeing, dipping, tanning, dressing, 
bleaching, degreasing, alkaline cleaning, stripping, rinsing, digesting, 
and other similar operations, but do not include molten materials 
handling operations, or surface coating operations.
    (ii) Molten materials handling operations means all operations, 
other than welding, burning, and soldering operations, involving the 
use, melting, smelting, or pouring of metals, alloys, salts, or other 
similar substances in the molten state. Such operations also include 
heat treating baths, descaling baths, die casting stereotyping, 
galvanizing, tinning, and similar operations.
    (iii) Surface coating operations means all operations involving the 
application of protective, decorative, adhesive, or strengthening 
coating or impregnation to one or more surfaces, or into the interstices 
of any object or material, by means of spraying, spreading, flowing, 
brushing, roll coating, pouring, cementing, or similar means; and any 
subsequent draining or drying operations, excluding open-tank 
operations.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 
FR 35099, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9250, Mar. 3, 1996; 63 FR 1295, Jan. 8, 
1998]



Sec. 1926.58  [Reserved]



Sec. 1926.59  Hazard communication.

    Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth at Sec. 1910.1200 of this 
chapter.

[61 FR 31431, June 20, 1996]

[[Page 72]]



Sec. 1926.60  Methylenedianiline.

    (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies to all 
construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b), in which there is 
exposure to MDA, including but not limited to the following:
    (i) Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of 
structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain MDA;
    (ii) Installation or the finishing of surfaces with products 
containing MDA;
    (iii) MDA spill/emergency cleanup at construction sites; and
    (iv) Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of MDA or 
products containing MDA on the site or location at which construction 
activities are performed.
    (2) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(7) and (f)(5) of this 
section, this section does not apply to the processing, use, and 
handling of products containing MDA where initial monitoring indicates 
that the product is not capable of releasing MDA in excess of the action 
level under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling 
which will cause the greatest possible release; and where no ``dermal 
exposure to MDA'' can occur.
    (3) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section, this 
section does not apply to the processing, use, and handling of products 
containing MDA where objective data are reasonably relied upon which 
demonstrate the product is not capable of releasing MDA under the 
expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause 
the greatest possible release; and where no ``dermal exposure to MDA'' 
can occur.
    (4) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section, this 
section does not apply to the storage, transportation, distribution or 
sale of MDA in intact containers sealed in such a manner as to contain 
the MDA dusts, vapors, or liquids, except for the provisions of 29 CFR 
1910.1200 and paragraph (e) of this section.
    (5) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section, this 
section does not apply to materials in any form which contain less than 
0.1% MDA by weight or volume.
    (6) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section, this 
section does not apply to ``finished articles containing MDA.''
    (7) Where products containing MDA are exempted under paragraphs 
(a)(2) through (a)(6) of this section, the employer shall maintain 
records of the initial monitoring results or objective data supporting 
that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as 
provided in the recordkeeping provision of paragraph (o) of this 
section.
    (b) Definitions. For the purpose of this section, the following 
definitions shall apply:
    Action level means a concentration of airborne MDA of 5 ppb as an 
eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.
    Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for 
Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.
    Authorized person means any person specifically authorized by the 
employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or 
any person entering such an area as a designated representative of 
employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring 
and measuring procedures under paragraph (p) of this section, or any 
other person authorized by the Act or regulations issued under the Act.
    Container means any barrel, bottle, can, cylinder, drum, reaction 
vessel, storage tank, commercial packaging or the like, but does not 
include piping systems.
    Decontamination area means an area outside of but as near as 
practical to the regulated area, consisting of an equipment storage 
area, wash area, and clean change area, which is used for the 
decontamination of workers, materials, and equipment contaminated with 
MDA.
    Dermal exposure to MDA occurs where employees are engaged in the 
handling, application or use of mixtures or materials containing MDA, 
with any of the following non-airborne forms of MDA:
    (i) Liquid, powdered, granular, or flaked mixtures containing MDA in 
concentrations greater than 0.1% by weight or volume; and

[[Page 73]]

    (ii) Materials other than ``finished articles'' containing MDA in 
concentrations greater than 0.1% by weight or volume.
    Director means the Director of the National Institute for 
Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services, or designee.
    Emergency means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, 
equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control 
equipment which results in an unexpected and potentially hazardous 
release of MDA.
    Employee exposure means exposure to MDA which would occur if the 
employee were not using respirators or protective work clothing and 
equipment.
    Finished article containing MDA is defined as a manufactured item:
    (i) Which is formed to a specific shape or design during 
manufacture;
    (ii) Which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or part upon 
its shape or design during end use; and
    (iii) Where applicable, is an item which is fully cured by virtue of 
having been subjected to the conditions (temperature, time) necessary to 
complete the desired chemical reaction.
    Historical monitoring data means monitoring data for construction 
jobs that meet the following conditions:
    (i) The data upon which judgments are based are scientifically sound 
and were collected using methods that are sufficiently accurate and 
precise;
    (ii) The processes and work practices that were in use when the 
historical monitoring data were obtained are essentially the same as 
those to be used during the job for which initial monitoring will not be 
performed;
    (iii) The characteristics of the MDA-containing material being 
handled when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same 
as those on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
    (iv) Environmental conditions prevailing when the historical 
monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which 
initial monitoring will not be performed; and
    (v) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or 
employee exposures covered by the exception are substantially similar. 
The data must be scientifically sound, the characteristics of the MDA 
containing material must be similar and the environmental conditions 
comparable.
    4,4'Methylenedianiline or MDA means the chemical; 4,4'-
diaminodiphenylmethane, Chemical Abstract Service Registry number 101-
77-9, in the form of a vapor, liquid, or solid. The definition also 
includes the salts of MDA.
    Regulated Areas means areas where airborne concentrations of MDA 
exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the permissible exposure 
limits, or where ``dermal exposure to MDA'' can occur.
    STEL means short term exposure limit as determined by any 15-minute 
sample period.
    (c) Permissible exposure limits. The employer shall assure that no 
employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of MDA in excess of ten 
parts per billion (10 ppb) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and a STEL 
of one hundred parts per billion (100 ppb).
    (d) Communication among employers. On multi-employer worksites, an 
employer performing work involving the application of MDA or materials 
containing MDA for which establishment of one or more regulated areas is 
required shall inform other employers on the site of the nature of the 
employer's work with MDA and of the existence of, and requirements 
pertaining to, regulated areas.
    (e) Emergency situations--(1) Written plan. (i) A written plan for 
emergency situations shall be developed for each construction operation 
where there is a possibility of an emergency. The plan shall include 
procedures where the employer identifies emergency escape routes for his 
employees at each construction site before the construction operation 
begins. Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the 
event of an emergency.
    (ii) The plan shall specifically provide that employees engaged in 
correcting emergency conditions shall be equipped with the appropriate 
personal protective equipment and clothing as required in paragraphs (i) 
and (j) of this section until the emergency is abated.

[[Page 74]]

    (iii) The plan shall specifically include provisions for alerting 
and evacuating affected employees as well as the applicable elements 
prescribed in 29 CFR 1910.38, ``Employee emergency plans and fire 
prevention plans.''
    (2) Alerting employees. Where there is the possibility of employee 
exposure to MDA due to an emergency, means shall be developed to 
promptly alert employees who have the potential to be directly exposed. 
Affected employees not engaged in correcting emergency conditions shall 
be evacuated immediately in the event that an emergency occurs. Means 
shall also be developed for alerting other employees who may be exposed 
as a result of the emergency.
    (f) Exposure monitoring--(1) General. (i) Determinations of employee 
exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are 
representative of each employee's exposure to airborne MDA over an eight 
(8) hour period. Determination of employee exposure to the STEL shall be 
made from breathing zone air samples collected over a 15 minute sampling 
period.
    (ii) Representative employee exposure shall be determined on the 
basis of one or more samples representing full shift exposure for each 
shift for each job classification in each work area where exposure to 
MDA may occur.
    (iii) Where the employer can document that exposure levels are 
equivalent for similar operations in different work shifts, the employer 
shall only be required to determine representative employee exposure for 
that operation during one shift.
    (2) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a workplace or work 
operation covered by this standard shall perform initial monitoring to 
determine accurately the airborne concentrations of MDA to which 
employees may be exposed unless:
    (i) The employer can demonstrate, on the basis of objective data, 
that the MDA-containing product or material being handled cannot cause 
exposures above the standard's action level, even under worst-case 
release conditions; or
    (ii) The employer has historical monitoring or other data 
demonstrating that exposures on a particular job will be below the 
action level.
    (3) Periodic monitoring and monitoring frequency. (i) If the 
monitoring required by paragraph (f)(2) of this section reveals employee 
exposure at or above the action level, but at or below the PELs, the 
employer shall repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least 
every six (6) months.
    (ii) If the monitoring required by paragraph (f)(2) of this section 
reveals employee exposure above the PELs, the employer shall repeat such 
monitoring for each such employee at least every three (3) months.
    (iii) Employers who are conducting MDA operations within a regulated 
area can forego periodic monitoring if the employees are all wearing 
supplied-air respirators while working in the regulated area.
    (iv) The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from every three 
months to every six months for any employee for whom two consecutive 
measurements taken at least 7 days apart indicate that the employee 
exposure has decreased to below the PELs but above the action level.
    (4) Termination of monitoring. (i) If the initial monitoring 
required by paragraph (f)(2) of this section reveals employee exposure 
to be below the action level, the employer may discontinue the 
monitoring for that employee, except as otherwise required by paragraph 
(f)(5) of this section.
    (ii) If the periodic monitoring required by paragraph (f)(3) of this 
section reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two 
consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, are below the 
action level the employer may discontinue the monitoring for that 
employee, except as otherwise required by paragraph (f)(5) of this 
section.
    (5) Additional monitoring. The employer shall institute the exposure 
monitoring required under paragraphs (f)(2) and (f)(3) of this section 
when there has been a change in production process, chemicals present, 
control equipment, personnel, or work practices which may result in new 
or additional exposures to MDA, or when the employer has any reason to 
suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures.

[[Page 75]]

    (6) Accuracy of monitoring. Monitoring shall be accurate, to a 
confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for 
airborne concentrations of MDA.
    (7) Employee notification of monitoring results. (i) The employer 
shall, within 15 working days after the receipt of the results of any 
monitoring performed under this standard, notify each employee of these 
results, in writing, either individually or by posting of results in an 
appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.
    (ii) The written notification required by paragraph (f)(7)(i) of 
this section shall contain the corrective action being taken by the 
employer or any other protective measures which have been implemented to 
reduce the employee exposure to or below the PELs, wherever the PELs are 
exceeded.
    (8) Visual monitoring. The employer shall make routine inspections 
of employee hands, face and forearms potentially exposed to MDA. Other 
potential dermal exposures reported by the employee must be referred to 
the appropriate medical personnel for observation. If the employer 
determines that the employee has been exposed to MDA the employer shall:
    (i) Determine the source of exposure;
    (ii) Implement protective measures to correct the hazard; and
    (iii) Maintain records of the corrective actions in accordance with 
paragraph (n) of this section.
    (g) Regulated areas--(1) Establishment--(i) Airborne exposures. The 
employer shall establish regulated areas where airborne concentrations 
of MDA exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the permissible 
exposure limits.
    (ii) Dermal exposures. Where employees are subject to ``dermal 
exposure to MDA'' the employer shall establish those work areas as 
regulated areas.
    (2) Demarcation. Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest 
of the workplace in a manner that minimizes the number of persons 
potentially exposed.
    (3) Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized 
persons.
    (4) Personal protective equipment and clothing. Each person entering 
a regulated area shall be supplied with, and required to use, the 
appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance 
with paragraphs (i) and (j) of this section.
    (5) Prohibited activities. The employer shall ensure that employees 
do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in 
regulated areas.
    (h) Methods of compliance--(1) Engineering controls and work 
practices and respirators. (i) The employer shall use one or any 
combination of the following control methods to achieve compliance with 
the permissible exposure limits prescribed by paragraph (c) of this 
section:
    (A) Local exhaust ventilation equipped with HEPA filter dust 
collection systems;
    (B) General ventilation systems;
    (C) Use of workpractices; or
    (D) Other engineering controls such as isolation and enclosure that 
the Assistant Secretary can show to be feasible.
    (ii) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices 
``which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure 
to or below the PELs, the employer shall use them to reduce employee 
exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall 
supplement them by the use of respiratory protective devices which 
comply with the requirements of paragraph (i) of this section.
    (2) Special Provisions. For workers engaged in spray application 
methods, respiratory protection must be used in addition to feasible 
engineering controls and work practices to reduce employee exposure to 
or below the PELs.
    (3) Prohibitions. Compressed air shall not be used to remove MDA, 
unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with an enclosed 
ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the 
compressed air.
    (4) Employee rotation. The employer shall not use employee rotation 
as a means of compliance with the exposure limits prescribed in 
paragraph (c) of this section.
    (5) Compliance program. (i) The employer shall establish and 
implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to or below the 
PELs by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by 
paragraph

[[Page 76]]

(h)(1) of this section, and by use of respiratory protection where 
permitted under this section.
    (ii) Upon request this written program shall be furnished for 
examination and copying to the Assistant Secretary, the Director, 
affected employees and designated employee representatives. The employer 
shall review and, as necessary, update such plans at least once every 12 
months to make certain they reflect the current status of the program.
    (i) Respiratory protection. (1) General. For employees who use 
respirators required by this section, the employer must provide 
respirators that comply with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
    (i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering 
and work-practice controls.
    (ii) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities and 
spray-application processes, for which engineering and work-practice 
controls are not feasible.
    (iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-
practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to 
or below the PELs.
    (iv) Emergencies.
    (2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134 (b) through (d) 
(except (d)(1)(iii), and (f) through (m).
    (3) Respirator selection. (i) The employer must select the 
appropriate respirator from Table 1 of this section.

                Table 1.--Respiratory Protection for MDA                
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Airborne concentration of MDA                                           
     or condition of use                    Respirator type             
------------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Less than or equal to 10    (1) Half-Mask Respirator with HEPA\1\    
 x  PEL.                        Cartridge.\2\                           
b. Less than or equal to 50    (1) Full facepiece Respirator with       
 x  PEL.                        HEPA\1\ Cartridge or Canister.\2\       
c. Less than or equal to 1000  (1) Full facepiece powered air-purifying 
  x  PEL.                       respirator with HEPA\1\ cartridge.\2\   
d. Greater than 1000  x  PEL   (1) Self-contained breathing apparatus   
 or unknown concentration.      with full facepiece in positive pressure
                                mode.                                   
                               (2) Full facepiece positive pressure     
                                demand supplied-air respirator with     
                                auxiliary self-contained air supply.    
e. Escape....................  (1) Any full facepiece air-purifying     
                                respirator with HEPA\1\ cartridges.\2\  
                               (2) Any positive pressure or continuous  
                                flow self-contained breathing apparatus 
                                with full facepiece or hood.            
f. Firefighting..............  (1) Full facepiece self-contained        
                                breathing apparatus in positive pressure
                                demand mode.                            
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Respirators assigned for higher environmental concentrations may  
  be used at lower concentrations.                                      
\1\ High Efficiency Particulate in Air filter (HEPA) means a filter that
  is at least 99.97 percent efficient against mono-dispersed particles  
  of 0.3 micrometers or larger.                                         
\2\ Combination HEPA/Organic Vapor Cartridges shall be used whenever MDA
  in liquid form or a process requiring heat is used.                   

    (ii) An employee who cannot use a negative-pressure respirator must 
be given the option of using a positive-pressure respirator, or a 
supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous-flow or pressure-
demand mode.
    (j) Protective work clothing and equipment--(1) Provision and use. 
Where employees are subject to dermal exposure to MDA, where liquids 
containing MDA can be splashed into the eyes, or where airborne 
concentrations of MDA are in excess of the PEL, the employer shall 
provide, at no cost to the employee, and ensure that the employee uses, 
appropriate protective work clothing and equipment which prevent contact 
with MDA such as, but not limited to:
    (i) Aprons, coveralls or other full-body work clothing;
    (ii) Gloves, head coverings, and foot coverings; and
    (iii) Face shields, chemical goggles; or
    (iv) Other appropriate protective equipment which comply with 29 CFR 
1910.133.
    (2) Removal and storage. (i) The employer shall ensure that, at the 
end of their work shift, employees remove MDA-contaminated protective 
work clothing and equipment that is not routinely removed throughout the 
day in change areas provided in accordance with the provisions in 
paragraph (k) of this section.

[[Page 77]]

    (ii) The employer shall ensure that, during their work shift, 
employees remove all other MDA-contaminated protective work clothing or 
equipment before leaving a regulated area.
    (iii) The employer shall ensure that no employee takes MDA-
contaminated work clothing or equipment out of the decontamination 
areas, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of 
laundering, maintenance, or disposal.
    (iv) MDA-contaminated work clothing or equipment shall be placed and 
stored and transported in sealed, impermeable bags, or other closed 
impermeable containers.
    (v) Containers of MDA-contaminated protective work clothing or 
equipment which are to be taken out of decontamination areas or the 
workplace for cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, shall bear labels 
warning of the hazards of MDA.
    (3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The employer shall provide the 
employee with clean protective clothing and equipment. The employer 
shall ensure that protective work clothing or equipment required by this 
paragraph is cleaned, laundered, repaired, or replaced at intervals 
appropriate to maintain its effectiveness.
    (ii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of MDA from protective 
work clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any methods which 
allow MDA to re-enter the workplace.
    (iii) The employer shall ensure that laundering of MDA-contaminated 
clothing shall be done so as to prevent the release of MDA in the 
workplace.
    (iv) Any employer who gives MDA-contaminated clothing to another 
person for laundering shall inform such person of the requirement to 
prevent the release of MDA.
    (v) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans 
protective clothing or equipment contaminated with MDA of the 
potentially harmful effects of exposure.
    (4) Visual Examination. (i) The employer shall ensure that 
employees' work clothing is examined periodically for rips or tears that 
may occur during performance of work.
    (ii) When rips or tears are detected, the protective equipment or 
clothing shall be repaired and replaced immediately.
    (k) Hygiene facilities and practices--(1) General. (i) The employer 
shall provide decontamination areas for employees required to work in 
regulated areas or required by paragraph (j)(1) of this section to wear 
protective clothing. Exception: In lieu of the decontamination area 
requirement specified in paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section, the 
employer may permit employees engaged in small scale, short duration 
operations, to clean their protective clothing or dispose of the 
protective clothing before such employees leave the area where the work 
was performed.
    (ii) Change areas. The employer shall ensure that change areas are 
equipped with separate storage facilities for protective clothing and 
street clothing, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.141(e).
    (iii) Equipment area. The equipment area shall be supplied with 
impermeable, labeled bags and containers for the containment and 
disposal of contaminated protective clothing and equipment.
    (2) Shower area. (i) Where feasible, shower facilities shall be 
provided which comply with 29 CFR 1910.141(d)(3) wherever the 
possibility of employee exposure to airborne levels of MDA in excess of 
the permissible exposure limit exists.
    (ii) Where dermal exposure to MDA occurs, the employer shall ensure 
that materials spilled or deposited on the skin are removed as soon as 
possible by methods which do not facilitate the dermal absorption of 
MDA.
    (3) Lunch Areas. (i) Whenever food or beverages are consumed at the 
worksite and employees are exposed to MDA the employer shall provide 
clean lunch areas were MDA levels are below the action level and where 
no dermal exposure to MDA can occur.
    (ii) The employer shall ensure that employees wash their hands and 
faces with soap and water prior to eating, drinking, smoking, or 
applying cosmetics.
    (iii) The employer shall ensure that employees do not enter lunch 
facilities with contaminated protective work clothing or equipment.

[[Page 78]]

    (l) Communication of hazards to employees--(1) Signs and labels. (i) 
The employer shall post and maintain legible signs demarcating regulated 
areas and entrances or accessways to regulated areas that bear the 
following legend:

DANGER
MDA
MAY CAUSE CANCER
LIVER TOXIN
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MAY BE REQUIRED TO BE WORN IN THIS 
    AREA

    (ii) The employer shall ensure that labels or other appropriate 
forms of warning are provided for containers of MDA within the 
workplace. The labels shall comply with the requirements of 29 CFR 
1910.1200(f) and shall include one of the following legends:
    (A) For pure MDA

DANGER
CONTAINS MDA
MAY CAUSE CANCER
LIVER TOXIN

    (B) For mixtures containing MDA

DANGER
CONTAINS MDA
CONTAINS MATERIALS WHICH MAY CAUSE CANCER
LIVER TOXIN

    (2) Material safety data sheets (MSDS). Employers shall obtain or 
develop, and shall provide access to their employees, to a material 
safety data sheet (MSDS) for MDA.
    (3) Information and training. (i) The employer shall provide 
employees with information and training on MDA, in accordance with 29 
CFR 1910.1200(h), at the time of initial assignment and at least 
annually thereafter.
    (ii) In addition to the information required under 29 CFR 1910.1200, 
the employer shall:
    (A) Provide an explanation of the contents of this section, 
including appendices A and B of this section, and indicate to employees 
where a copy of the standard is available;
    (B) Describe the medical surveillance program required under 
paragraph (n) of this section, and explain the information contained in 
appendix C of this section; and
    (C) Describe the medical removal provision required under paragraph 
(n) of this section.
    (4) Access to training materials. (i) The employer shall make 
readily available to all affected employees, without cost, all written 
materials relating to the employee training program, including a copy of 
this regulation.
    (ii) The employer shall provide to the Assistant Secretary and the 
Director, upon request, all information and training materials relating 
to the employee information and training program.
    (m) Housekeeping. (1) All surfaces shall be maintained as free as 
practicable of visible accumulations of MDA.
    (2) The employer shall institute a program for detecting MDA leaks, 
spills, and discharges, including regular visual inspections of 
operations involving liquid or solid MDA.
    (3) All leaks shall be repaired and liquid or dust spills cleaned up 
promptly.
    (4) Surfaces contaminated with MDA may not be cleaned by the use of 
compressed air.
    (5) Shoveling, dry sweeping, and other methods of dry clean-up of 
MDA may be used where HEPA filtered vacuuming and/or wet cleaning are 
not feasible or practical.
    (6) Waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, equipment, and clothing 
contaminated with MDA shall be collected and disposed of in a manner to 
prevent the re-entry of MDA into the workplace.
    (n) Medical surveillance--(1) General. (i) The employer shall make 
available a medical surveillance program for employees exposed to MDA 
under the following circumstances:
    (A) Employees exposed at or above the action level for 30 or more 
days per year;
    (B) Employees who are subject to dermal exposure to MDA for 15 or 
more days per year;
    (C) Employees who have been exposed in an emergency situation;
    (D) Employees whom the employer, based on results from compliance 
with paragraph (f)(8) of this section, has reason to believe are being 
dermally exposed; and

[[Page 79]]

    (E) Employees who show signs or symptoms of MDA exposure.
    (ii) The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and 
procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed 
physician at a reasonable time and place, and provided without cost to 
the employee.
    (2) Initial examinations. (i) Within 150 days of the effective date 
of this standard, or before the time of initial assignment, the employer 
shall provide each employee covered by paragraph (n)(1)(i) of this 
section with a medical examination including the following elements:
    (A) A detailed history which includes:
    (1) Past work exposure to MDA or any other toxic substances;
    (2) A history of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and medication routinely 
taken (duration and quantity); and
    (3) A history of dermatitis, chemical skin sensitization, or 
previous hepatic disease.
    (B) A physical examination which includes all routine physical 
examination parameters, skin examination, and examination for signs of 
liver disease.
    (C) Laboratory tests including:
    (1) Liver function tests and (2) Urinalysis.
    (D) Additional tests as necessary in the opinion of the physician.
    (ii) No initial medical examination is required if adequate records 
show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the 
requirements of this section within the previous six months prior to the 
effective date of this standard or prior to the date of initial 
assignment.
    (3) Periodic examinations. (i) The employer shall provide each 
employee covered by this section with a medical examination at least 
annually following the initial examination. These periodic examinations 
shall include at least the following elements:
    (A) A brief history regarding any new exposure to potential liver 
toxins, changes in drug, tobacco, and alcohol intake, and the appearance 
of physical signs relating to the liver, and the skin;
    (B) The appropriate tests and examinations including liver function 
tests and skin examinations; and
    (C) Appropriate additional tests or examinations as deemed necessary 
by the physician.
    (ii) If in the physician's opinion the results of liver function 
tests indicate an abnormality, the employee shall be removed from 
further MDA exposure in accordance with paragraph (n)(9) of this 
section. Repeat liver function tests shall be conducted on advice of the 
physician.
    (4) Emergency examinations. If the employer determines that the 
employee has been exposed to a potentially hazardous amount of MDA in an 
emergency situation under paragraph (e) of this section, the employer 
shall provide medical examinations in accordance with paragraphs (n)(3) 
(i) and (ii) of this section. If the results of liver function testing 
indicate an abnormality, the employee shall be removed in accordance 
with paragraph (n)(9) of this section. Repeat liver function tests shall 
be conducted on the advice of the physician. If the results of the tests 
are normal, tests must be repeated two to three weeks from the initial 
testing. If the results of the second set of tests are normal and on the 
advice of the physician, no additional testing is required.
    (5) Additional examinations. Where the employee develops signs and 
symptoms associated with exposure to MDA, the employer shall provide the 
employee with an additional medical examination including liver function 
tests. Repeat liver function tests shall be conducted on the advice of 
the physician. If the results of the tests are normal, tests must be 
repeated two to three weeks from the initial testing. If the results of 
the second set of tests are normal and on the advice of the physician, 
no additional testing is required.
    (6) Multiple physician review mechanism. (i) If the employer selects 
the initial physician who conducts any medical examination or 
consultation provided to an employee under this section, and the 
employee has signs or symptoms of occupational exposure to MDA (which 
could include an abnormal liver function test), and the employee 
disagrees with the opinion of the examining physician, and this opinion 
could affect the employee's job status, the

[[Page 80]]

employee may designate an appropriate and mutually acceptable second 
physician:
    (A) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the 
initial physician; and
    (B) To conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory 
tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.
    (ii) The employer shall promptly notify an employee of the right to 
seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial 
physician conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to 
this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and 
payment for, the multiple physician review mechanism upon the employee 
doing the following within fifteen (15) days after receipt of the 
foregoing notification, or receipt of the initial physician's written 
opinion, whichever is later:
    (A) The employee informing the employer that he or she intends to 
seek a second medical opinion, and
    (B) The employee initiating steps to make an appointment with a 
second physician.
    (iii) If the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the 
second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the 
employer and the employee shall assure that efforts are made for the two 
physicians to resolve any disagreement.
    (iv) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their 
disagreement, then the employer and the employee through their 
respective physicians shall designate a third physician:
    (A) To review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of 
the prior physicians; and
    (B) To conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests, 
and discussions with the prior physicians as the third physician deems 
necessary to resolve the disagreement of the prior physicians.
    (v) The employer shall act consistent with the findings, 
determinations, and recommendations of the second physician, unless the 
employer and the employee reach a mutually acceptable agreement.
    (7) Information provided to the examining physician. (i) The 
employer shall provide the following information to the examining 
physician:
    (A) A copy of this regulation and its appendices;
    (B) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate 
to the employee's potential exposure to MDA;
    (C) The employee's current actual or representative MDA exposure 
level;
    (D) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be 
used; and
    (E) Information from previous employment related medical 
examinations of the affected employee.
    (ii) The employer shall provide the foregoing information to a 
second physician under this section upon request either by the second 
physician, or by the employee.
    (8) Physician's written opinion. (i) For each examination under this 
section, the employer shall obtain, and provide the employee with a copy 
of, the examining physician's written opinion within 15 days of its 
receipt. The written opinion shall include the following:
    (A) The occupationally pertinent results of the medical examination 
and tests;
    (B) The physician's opinion concerning whether the employee has any 
detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased 
risk of material impairment of health from exposure to MDA;
    (C) The physician's recommended limitations upon the employee's 
exposure to MDA or upon the employee's use of protective clothing or 
equipment and respirators; and
    (D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician 
of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions 
resulting from MDA exposure which require further explanation or 
treatment.
    (ii) The written opinion obtained by the employer shall not reveal 
specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposures.
    (9) Medical removal--(i) Temporary medical removal of an employee--
(A) Temporary removal resulting from occupational exposure. The employee 
shall be removed from work environments in which exposure to MDA is at 
or above

[[Page 81]]

the action level or where dermal exposure to MDA may occur, following an 
initial examination (paragraph (n)(2) of this section), periodic 
examinations (paragraph (n)(3) of this section), an emergency situation 
(paragraph (n)(4) of this section), or an additional examination 
(paragraph (n)(5) of this section) in the following circumstances:
    (1) When the employee exhibits signs and/or symptoms indicative of 
acute exposure to MDA; or
    (2) When the examining physician determines that an employee's 
abnormal liver function tests are not associated with MDA exposure but 
that the abnormalities may be exacerbated as a result of occupational 
exposure to MDA.
    (B) Temporary removal due to a final medical determination. (1) The 
employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to MDA at 
or above the action level or where the potential for dermal exposure 
exists on each occasion that a final medical determination results in a 
medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee has a 
detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk 
of material impairment to health from exposure to MDA.
    (2) For the purposes of this section, the phrase ``final medical 
determination'' shall mean the outcome of the physician review mechanism 
used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section.
    (3) Where a final medical determination results in any recommended 
special protective measures for an employee, or limitations on an 
employee's exposure to MDA, the employer shall implement and act 
consistent with the recommendation.
    (ii) Return of the employee to former job status. (A) The employer 
shall return an employee to his or her former job status:
    (1) When the employee no longer shows signs or symptoms of exposure 
to MDA, or upon the advice of the physician.
    (2) When a subsequent final medical determination results in a 
medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee no longer 
has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased 
risk of material impairment to health from exposure to MDA.
    (B) For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an 
employer return an employee to his or her former job status is not 
intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would 
have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job 
classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining 
agreement.
    (iii) Removal of other employee special protective measure or 
limitations. The employer shall remove any limitations placed on an 
employee or end any special protective measures provided to an employee 
pursuant to a final medical determination when a subsequent final 
medical determination indicates that the limitations or special 
protective measures are no longer necessary.
    (iv) Employer options pending a final medical determination. Where 
the physician review mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance 
provisions of this section, has not yet resulted in a final medical 
determination with respect to an employee, the employer shall act as 
follows:
    (A) Removal. The employer may remove the employee from exposure to 
MDA, provide special protective measures to the employee, or place 
limitations upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, 
determinations, or recommendations of the physician who has reviewed the 
employee's health status.
    (B) Return. The employer may return the employee to his or her 
former job status, and end any special protective measures provided to 
the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or 
recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the 
employee's health status, with two exceptions:
    (1) If the initial removal, special protection, or limitation of the 
employee resulted from a final medical determination which differed from 
the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial 
physician; or
    (2) The employee has been on removal status for the preceding six 
months as a result of exposure to MDA, then the employer shall await a 
final medical determination.

[[Page 82]]

    (v) Medical removal protection benefits--(A) Provisions of medical 
removal protection benefits. The employer shall provide to an employee 
up to six (6) months of medical removal protection benefits on each 
occasion that an employee is removed from exposure to MDA or otherwise 
limited pursuant to this section.
    (B) Definition of medical removal protection benefits. For the 
purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer provide 
medical removal protection benefits means that the employer shall 
maintain the earnings, seniority, and other employment rights and 
benefits of an employee as though the employee had not been removed from 
normal exposure to MDA or otherwise limited.
    (C) Follow-up medical surveillance during the period of employee 
removal or limitations. During the period of time that an employee is 
removed from normal exposure to MDA or otherwise limited, the employer 
may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon 
the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made 
available pursuant to this section.
    (D) Workers' compensation claims. If a removed employee files a 
claim for workers' compensation payments for a MDA-related disability, 
then the employer shall continue to provide medical removal protection 
benefits pending disposition of the claim. To the extent that an award 
is made to the employee for earnings lost during the period of removal, 
the employer's medical removal protection obligation shall be reduced by 
such amount. The employer shall receive no credit for workers' 
compensation payments received by the employee for treatment-related 
expenses.
    (E) Other credits. The employer's obligation to provide medical 
removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to 
the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost 
during the period of removal either from a publicly or employer-funded 
compensation program, or receives income from employment with any 
employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.
    (F) Employees who do not recover within the 6 months of removal. The 
employer shall take the following measures with respect to any employee 
removed from exposure to MDA:
    (1) The employer shall make available to the employee a medical 
examination pursuant to this section to obtain a final medical 
determination with respect to the employee;
    (2) The employer shall assure that the final medical determination 
obtained indicates whether or not the employee may be returned to his or 
her former job status, and, if not, what steps should be taken to 
protect the employee's health;
    (3) Where the final medical determination has not yet been obtained, 
or once obtained indicates that the employee may not yet be returned to 
his or her former job status, the employer shall continue to provide 
medical removal protection benefits to the employee until either the 
employee is returned to former job status, or a final medical 
determination is made that the employee is incapable of ever safely 
returning to his or her former job status; and
    (4) Where the employer acts pursuant to a final medical 
determination which permits the return of the employee to his or her 
former job status despite what would otherwise be an unacceptable liver 
function test, later questions concerning removing the employee again 
shall be decided by a final medical determination. The employer need not 
automatically remove such an employee pursuant to the MDA removal 
criteria provided by this section.
    (vi) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an 
employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an 
employee from exposure to MDA or otherwise places limitations on an 
employee due to the effects of MDA exposure on the employee's medical 
condition, the employer shall provide medical removal protection 
benefits to the employee equal to that required by paragraph (n)(9)(v) 
of this section.
    (o) Recordkeeping--(1) Objective data for exempted operations. (i) 
Where the employer has relied on objective data that demonstrate that 
products made

[[Page 83]]

from or containing MDA are not capable of releasing MDA or do not 
present a dermal exposure problem under the expected conditions of 
processing, use, or handling to exempt such operations from the initial 
monitoring requirements under paragraph (f)(2) of this section, the 
employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective 
data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.
    (ii) The record shall include at least the following information:
    (A) The product qualifying for exemption;
    (B) The source of the objective data;
    (C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the 
material for the release of MDA;
    (D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support 
the exemption; and
    (E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or 
employee exposures covered by the exemption.
    (iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of 
the employer's reliance upon such objective data.
    (2) Historical monitoring data. (i) Where the employer has relied on 
historical monitoring data that demonstrate that exposures on a 
particular job will be below the action level to exempt such operations 
from the initial monitoring requirements under paragraph (f)(2) of this 
section, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of 
historical monitoring data reasonably relied upon in support of the 
exception.
    (ii) The record shall include information that reflect the following 
conditions:
    (A) The data upon which judgments are based are scientifically sound 
and were collected using methods that are sufficiently accurate and 
precise;
    (B) The processes and work practices that were in use when the 
historical monitoring data were obtained are essentially the same as 
those to be used during the job for which initial monitoring will not be 
performed;
    (C) The characteristics of the MDA-containing material being handled 
when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those 
on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
    (D) Environmental conditions prevailing when the historical 
monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which 
initial monitoring will not be performed; and
    (E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or 
employee exposures covered by the exception.
    (iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of 
the employer's reliance upon such historical monitoring data.
    (3) The employer may utilize the services of competent organizations 
such as industry trade associations and employee associations to 
maintain the records required by this section.
    (4) Exposure measurements. (i) The employer shall keep an accurate 
record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to MDA.
    (ii) This record shall include at least the following information:
    (A) The date of measurement;
    (B) The operation involving exposure to MDA;
    (C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their 
accuracy;
    (D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;
    (E) Type of protective devices worn, if any; and
    (F) Name, social security number, and exposure of the employees 
whose exposures are represented.
    (iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty 
(30) years, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.20.
    (5) Medical surveillance. (i) The employer shall establish and 
maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical 
surveillance by paragraph (n) of this section, in accordance with 29 CFR 
1910.20.
    (ii) The record shall include at least the following information:
    (A) The name and social security number of the employee;
    (B) A copy of the employee's medical examination results, including 
the medical history, questionnaire responses, results of any tests, and 
physician's recommendations.
    (C) Physician's written opinions;

[[Page 84]]

    (D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to MDA; and
    (E) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required 
by paragraph (n) of this section.
    (iii) The employer shall ensure that this record is maintained for 
the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, in accordance with 29 
CFR 1910.20.
    (iv) A copy of the employee's medical removal and return to work 
status.
    (6) Training records. The employer shall maintain all employee 
training records for one (1) year beyond the last date of employment.
    (7) Availability. (i) The employer, upon written request, shall make 
all records required to be maintained by this section available to the 
Assistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.
    (ii) The employer, upon request, shall make any exposure records 
required by paragraphs (f) and (n) of this section available for 
examination and copying to affected employees, former employees, 
designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary, in accordance 
with 29 CFR 1910.20(a)-(e) and (g)-(i).
    (iii) The employer, upon request, shall make employee medical 
records required by paragraphs (n) and (o) of this section available for 
examination and copying to the subject employee, anyone having the 
specific written consent of the subject employee, and the Assistant 
Secretary, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.20.
    (8) Transfer of records. (i) The employer shall comply with the 
requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 
1910.20(h).
    (ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no 
successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed 
period, the employer shall notify the Director at least 90 days prior to 
disposal and, upon request, transmit them to the Director.
    (p) Observation of monitoring--(1) Employee observation. The 
employer shall provide affected employees, or their designated 
representatives, an opportunity to observe the measuring or monitoring 
of employee exposure to MDA conducted pursuant to paragraph (f) of this 
section.
    (2) Observation procedures. When observation of the measuring or 
monitoring of employee exposure to MDA requires entry into areas where 
the use of protective clothing and equipment or respirators is required, 
the employer shall provide the observer with personal protective 
clothing and equipment or respirators required to be worn by employees 
working in the area, assure the use of such clothing and equipment or 
respirators, and require the observer to comply with all other 
applicable safety and health procedures.
    (q) Effective date. This standard shall become effective on 
September 9, 1992.
    (r) Appendices. The information contained in appendices A, B, C and 
D of this section is not intended by itself, to create any additional 
obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any 
existing obligation. The protocols for respiratory fit testing in 
appendix E of this section are mandatory.
    (s) Startup dates. Compliance with all obligations of this standard 
commence September 9, 1992, except as follows:
    (1) Initial monitoring under paragraph (f)(2) of this section shall 
be completed as soon as possible but no later than December 8, 1992.
    (2) Medical examinations under paragraph (n) of this section shall 
be completed as soon as possible but no later than February 8, 1993.
    (3) Emergency plans required by paragraph (e) of this section shall 
be provided and available for inspection and copying as soon as possible 
but no later than January 7, 1993.
    (4) Initial training and education shall be completed as soon as 
possible but no later than January 7, 1993.
    (5) Decontamination and lunch areas under paragraph (k) of this 
section shall be in operation as soon as possible but no later than 
September 9, 1993.
    (6) Respiratory Protection required by paragraph (i) of this section 
shall be provided as soon as possible but no later than January 7, 1993.
    (7) Written compliance plans required by paragraph (h)(5) of this 
section shall

[[Page 85]]

be completed and available for inspection and copying as soon as 
possible but no later than January 7, 1993.
    (8) OSHA shall enforce the permissible exposure limits in paragraph 
(c) of this section no earlier than January 7, 1993.
    (9) Engineering controls needed to achieve the PELs must be in place 
September 9, 1993.
    (10) Personal protective clothing required by paragraph (j) of this 
section shall be available January 7, 1993.

       Appendix A to Sec. 1926.60--Substance Data Sheet, for 4-4' 
                           Methylenedianiline

    Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
Appendix A are identical to those set forth in Appendix A to 
Sec. 1910.1050 of this chapter.

     Appendix B to Sec. 1926.60--Substance Technical Guidelines, MDA

    Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
Appendix B are identical to those set forth in Appendix B to 
Sec. 1910.1050 of this chapter.

   Appendix C to Sec. 1926.60--Medical Surveillance Guidelines for MDA

    Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
Appendix C are identical to those set forth in Appendix C to 
Sec. 1910.1050 of this chapter.

  Appendix D to Sec. 1926.60--Sampling and Analytical Methods for MDA 
                  Monitoring and Measurement Procedures

    Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
Appendix D are identical to those set forth in Appendix D to 
Sec. 1910.1050 of this chapter.

[57 FR 35681, Aug. 10, 1992, as amended at 57 FR 49649, Nov. 3, 1992; 61 
FR 5510, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 31431, June 20, 1996; 63 FR 1296, Jan. 8, 
1998]



Sec. 1926.61  Retention of DOT markings, placards and labels.

    Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth at Sec. 1910.1201 of this 
chapter.

[61 FR 31432, June 20, 1996]



Sec. 1926.62  Lead.

    (a) Scope. This section applies to all construction work where an 
employee may be occupationally exposed to lead. All construction work 
excluded from coverage in the general industry standard for lead by 29 
CFR 1910.1025(a)(2) is covered by this standard. Construction work is 
defined as work for construction, alteration and/or repair, including 
painting and decorating. It includes but is not limited to the 
following:

    (1) Demolition or salvage of structures where lead or materials 
containing lead are present;
    (2) Removal or encapsulation of materials containing lead;
    (3) New construction, alteration, repair, or renovation of 
structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain lead, or 
materials containing lead;
    (4) Installation of products containing lead;
    (5) Lead contamination/emergency cleanup;
    (6) Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of lead or 
materials containing lead on the site or location at which construction 
activities are performed, and
    (7) Maintenance operations associated with the construction 
activities described in this paragraph.

    (b) Definitions.
    Action level means employee exposure, without regard to the use of 
respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of 30 micrograms per 
cubic meter of air (30 g/m3) calculated as an 8-hour 
time-weighted average (TWA).
    Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for 
Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.
    Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing 
and predictable lead hazards in the surroundings or working conditions 
and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to 
eliminate them.
    Director means the Director, National Institute for Occupational 
Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 
or designee.
    Lead means metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic 
lead

[[Page 86]]

soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead 
compounds.
    This section means this standard.
    (c) Permissible exposure limit. (1) The employer shall assure that 
no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than fifty 
micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 g/m3) averaged 
over an 8-hour period.
    (2) If an employee is exposed to lead for more than 8 hours in any 
work day the employees' allowable exposure, as a time weighted average 
(TWA) for that day, shall be reduced according to the following formula:

    Allowable employee exposure (in g/m3)=400 
divided by hours worked in the day.

    (3) When respirators are used to limit employee exposure as required 
under paragraph (c) of this section and all the requirements of 
paragraphs (e)(1) and (f) of this section have been met, employee 
exposure may be considered to be at the level provided by the protection 
factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. Those 
periods may be averaged with exposure levels during periods when 
respirators are not worn to determine the employee's daily TWA exposure.
    (d) Exposure assessment--(1) General. (i) Each employer who has a 
workplace or operation covered by this standard shall initially 
determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or above the action 
level.
    (ii) For the purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, employee 
exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not 
using a respirator.
    (iii) With the exception of monitoring under paragraph (d)(3), where 
monitoring is required under this section, the employer shall collect 
personal samples representative of a full shift including at least one 
sample for each job classification in each work area either for each 
shift or for the shift with the highest exposure level.
    (iv) Full shift personal samples shall be representative of the 
monitored employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.
    (2) Protection of employees during assessment of exposure. (i) With 
respect to the lead related tasks listed in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this 
section, where lead is present, until the employer performs an employee 
exposure assessment as required in paragraph (d) of this section and 
documents that the employee performing any of the listed tasks is not 
exposed above the PEL, the employer shall treat the employee as if the 
employee were exposed above the PEL, and not in excess of ten (10) times 
the PEL, and shall implement employee protective measures prescribed in 
paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section. The tasks covered by this 
requirement are:
    (A) Where lead containing coatings or paint are present: Manual 
demolition of structures (e.g, dry wall), manual scraping, manual 
sanding, heat gun applications, and power tool cleaning with dust 
collection systems;
    (B) Spray painting with lead paint.
    (ii) In addition, with regard to tasks not listed in paragraph 
(d)(2)(i), where the employee has any reason to believe that an employee 
performing the task may be exposed to lead in excess of the PEL, until 
the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required by 
paragraph (d) of this section and documents that the employee's lead 
exposure is not above the PEL the employer shall treat the employee as 
if the employee were exposed above the PEL and shall implememt employee 
protective measures as prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this 
section.
    (iii) With respect to the tasks listed in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of 
this section, where lead is present, until the employer performs an 
employee exposure assessment as required in paragraph (d) of this 
section, and documents that the employee performing any of the listed 
tasks is not exposed in excess of 500 g/m3, the 
employer shall treat the employee as if the employee were exposed to 
lead in excess of 500 g/m3 and shall implement 
employee protective measures as prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of 
this section. Where the employer does establish that the employee is 
exposed to levels of lead below 500 g/m3, the 
employer may provide the exposed employee with the appropriate 
respirator prescribed for such use at such lower exposures, in 
accordance with Table 1 of this section. The tasks covered by this 
requirement are:
    (A) Using lead containing mortar; lead burning

[[Page 87]]

    (B) Where lead containing coatings or paint are present: rivet 
busting; power tool cleaning without dust collection systems; cleanup 
activities where dry expendable abrasives are used; and abrasive 
blasting enclosure movement and removal.
    (iv) With respect to the tasks listed in paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of 
this section, where lead is present, until the employer performs an 
employee exposure assessment as required in paragraph (d) of this 
section and documents that the employee performing any of the listed 
tasks is not exposed to lead in excess of 2,500 g/m3 
(50 x PEL), the employer shall treat the employee as if the employee 
were exposed to lead in excess of 2,500 g/m3 and 
shall implement employee protective measures as prescribed in paragraph 
(d)(2)(v) of this section. Where the employer does establish that the 
employee is exposed to levels of lead below 2,500 g/m3, the 
employer may provide the exposed employee with the appropriate 
respirator prescribed for use at such lower exposures, in accordance 
with Table I of this section. Interim protection as described in this 
paragaraph is required where lead containing coatings or paint are 
present on structures when performing:
    (A) Abrasive blasting,
    (B) Welding,
    (C) Cutting, and
    (D) Torch burning.
    (v) Until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as 
required under paragraph (d) of this section and determines actual 
employee exposure, the employer shall provide to employees performing 
the tasks described in paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (d)(2)(ii), (d)(2)(iii), 
and (d)(2)(iv) of this section with interim protection as follows:
    (A) Appropriate respiratory protection in accordance with paragraph 
(f) of this section.
    (B) Appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in 
accordance with paragraph (g) of this section.
    (C) Change areas in accordance with paragraph (i)(2) of this 
section.
    (D) Hand washing facilities in accordance with paragraph (i)(5) of 
this section.
    (E) Biological monitoring in accordance with paragraph (j)(1)(i) of 
this section, to consist of blood sampling and analysis for lead and 
zinc protoporphyrin levels, and
    (F) Training as required under paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section 
regarding 29 CFR 1926.59, Hazard Communication; training as required 
under paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, regarding use of 
respirators; and training in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.21, Safety 
training and education.
    (3) Basis of initial determination. (i) Except as provided under 
paragraphs (d)(3)(iii) and (d)(3)(iv) of this section the employer shall 
monitor employee exposures and shall base initial determinations on the 
employee exposure monitoring results and any of the following, relevant 
considerations:
    (A) Any information, observations, or calculations which would 
indicate employee exposure to lead;
    (B) Any previous measurements of airborne lead; and
    (C) Any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to 
exposure to lead.
    (ii) Monitoring for the initial determination where performed may be 
limited to a representative sample of the exposed employees who the 
employer reasonably believes are exposed to the greatest airborne 
concentrations of lead in the workplace.
    (iii) Where the employer has previously monitored for lead 
exposures, and the data were obtained within the past 12 months during 
work operations conducted under workplace conditions closely resembling 
the processes, type of material, control methods, work practices, and 
environmental conditions used and prevailing in the employer's current 
operations, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to 
satisfy the requirements of paragraphs (d)(3)(i) and (d)(6) of this 
section if the sampling and analytical methods meet the accuracy and 
confidence levels of paragraph (d)(10) of this section.
    (iv) Where the employer has objective data, demonstrating that a 
particular product or material containing lead or a specific process, 
operation or activity involving lead cannot result in employee exposure 
to lead at or above the action level during processing, use, or 
handling, the employer may rely

[[Page 88]]

upon such data instead of implementing initial monitoring.
    (A) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record 
documenting the nature and relevancy of objective data as specified in 
paragraph (n)(4) of this section, where used in assessing employee 
exposure in lieu of exposure monitoring.
    (B) Objective data, as described in paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this 
section, is not permitted to be used for exposure assessment in 
connection with paragraph (d)(2) of this section.
    (4) Positive initial determination and initial monitoring. (i) Where 
a determination conducted under paragraphs (d) (1), (2) and (3) of this 
section shows the possibility of any employee exposure at or above the 
action level the employer shall conduct monitoring which is 
representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is 
exposed to lead.
    (ii) Where the employer has previously monitored for lead exposure, 
and the data were obtained within the past 12 months during work 
operations conducted under workplace conditions closely resembling the 
processes, type of material, control methods, work practices, and 
environmental conditions used and prevailing in the employer's current 
operations, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to 
satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section if the 
sampling and analytical methods meet the accuracy and confidence levels 
of paragraph (d)(10) of this section.
    (5) Negative initial determination. Where a determination, conducted 
under paragraphs (d) (1), (2), and (3) of this section is made that no 
employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the 
action level the employer shall make a written record of such 
determination. The record shall include at least the information 
specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section and shall also include 
the date of determination, location within the worksite, and the name 
and social security number of each employee monitored.
    (6) Frequency. (i) If the initial determination reveals employee 
exposure to be below the action level further exposure determination 
need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of 
this section.
    (ii) If the initial determination or subsequent determination 
reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but at or 
below the PEL the employer shall perform monitoring in accordance with 
this paragraph at least every 6 months. The employer shall continue 
monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive 
measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level at 
which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee 
except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
    (iii) If the initial determination reveals that employee exposure is 
above the PEL the employer shall perform monitoring quarterly. The 
employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at 
least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are at 
or below the PEL but at or above the action level at which time the 
employer shall repeat monitoring for that employee at the frequency 
specified in paragraph (d)(6)(ii) of this section, except as otherwise 
provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this section. The employer shall 
continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two 
consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the 
action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for 
that employee except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this 
section.
    (7) Additional exposure assessments. Whenever there has been a 
change of equipment, process, control, personnel or a new task has been 
initiated that may result in additional employees being exposed to lead 
at or above the action level or may result in employees already exposed 
at or above the action level being exposed above the PEL, the employer 
shall conduct additional monitoring in accordance with this paragraph.
    (8) Employee notification. (i) Within 5 working days after 
completion of the exposure assessment the employer shall notify each 
employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's 
exposure.

[[Page 89]]

    (ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee 
exposure, without regard to respirators, is at or above the PEL the 
employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the 
employees exposure was at or above that level and a description of the 
corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to below that 
level.
    (9) Accuracy of measurement. The employer shall use a method of 
monitoring and analysis which has an accuracy (to a confidence level of 
95%) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for airborne 
concentrations of lead equal to or greater than 30g/m\3\.
    (e) Methods of compliance. (1) Engineering and work practice 
controls. The employer shall implement engineering and work practice 
controls, including administrative controls, to reduce and maintain 
employee exposure to lead to or below the permissible exposure limit to 
the extent that such controls are feasible. Wherever all feasible 
engineering and work practices controls that can be instituted are not 
sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible 
exposure limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, the employer 
shall nonetheless use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest 
feasible level and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory 
protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this 
section.
    (2) Compliance program. (i) Prior to commencement of the job each 
employer shall establish and implement a written compliance program to 
achieve compliance with paragraph (c) of this section.
    (ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at 
least the following:
    (A) A description of each activity in which lead is emitted; e.g. 
equipment used, material involved, controls in place, crew size, 
employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance 
practices;
    (B) A description of the specific means that will be employed to 
achieve compliance and, where engineering controls are required 
engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for 
controlling exposure to lead;
    (C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the PEL;
    (D) Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead 
emissions;
    (E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including 
documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, 
construction contracts, etc.;
    (F) A work practice program which includes items required under 
paragraphs (g), (h) and (i) of this section and incorporates other 
relevant work practices such as those specified in paragraph (e)(5) of 
this section;
    (G) An administrative control schedule required by paragraph (e)(4) 
of this section, if applicable;
    (H) A description of arrangements made among contractors on multi-
contractor sites with respect to informing affected employees of 
potential exposure to lead and with respect to responsibility for 
compliance with this section as set-forth in Sec. 1926.16.
    (I) Other relevant information.
    (iii) The compliance program shall provide for frequent and regular 
inspections of job sites, materials, and equipment to be made by a 
competent person.
    (iv) Written programs shall be submitted upon request to any 
affected employee or authorized employee representatives, to the 
Assistant Secretary and the Director, and shall be available at the 
worksite for examination and copying by the Assistant Secretary and the 
Director.
    (v) Written programs shall be revised and updated at least every 6 
months to reflect the current status of the program.
    (3) Mechanical ventilation. When ventilation is used to control lead 
exposure, the employer shall evaluate the mechanical performance of the 
system in controlling exposure as necessary to maintain its 
effectiveness.
    (4) Administrative controls. If administrative controls are used as 
a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead, the employer shall 
establish and implement a job rotation schedule which includes:
    (i) Name or identification number of each affected employee;

[[Page 90]]

    (ii) Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where 
each affected employee is located; and
    (iii) Any other information which may be useful in assessing the 
reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.
    (5) The employer shall ensure that, to the extent relevant, 
employees follow good work practices such as described in Appendix B of 
this section.
    (f) Respiratory protection. (1) General. For employees who use 
respirators required by this section, the employer must provide 
respirators that comply with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
    (i) Periods when an employee's exposure to lead exceeds the PEL.
    (ii) Work operations for which engineering and work-practice 
controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the 
PEL.
    (iii) Periods when an employee requests a respirator.
    (iv) Periods when respirators are required to provide interim 
protection of employees while they perform the operations specified in 
paragraph (d)(2) of this section.
    (2) Respirator program. (i) The employer must implement a 
respiratory protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134 (b) 
through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m).
    (ii) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or 
respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical 
examination in accordance with paragraph (j)(3)(i)(B) of this section to 
determine whether or not the employee can use a respirator while 
performing the required duty.
    (3) Respirator selection. (i) The employer must select the 
appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from Table I of 
this section.
    (ii) The employer must provide a powered air-purifying respirator 
when an employee chooses to use such a respirator and it will provide 
adequate protection to the employee.

           Table 1.--Respiratory Protection for Lead Aerosols           
------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Airborne concentration of                                             
   lead or condition of use              Required respirator 1          
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Not in excess of 500 ug/m3...  \1/2\ mask air purifying respirator with 
                                high efficiency filters.2 3             
                               \1/2\ mask supplied air respirator       
                                operated in demand (negative pressure)  
                                mode.                                   
Not in excess of 1,250 ug/m3.  Loose fitting hood or helmet powered air 
                                purifying respirator with high          
                                efficiency filters.3                    
                               Hood or helmet supplied air respirator   
                                operated in a continuous-flow mode--    
                                e.g., type CE abrasive blasting         
                                respirators operated in a continuous-   
                                flow mode.                              
Not in excess of 2,500 ug/m3.  Full facepiece air purifying respirator  
                                with high efficiency filters.3          
                               Tight fitting powered air purifying      
                                respirator with high efficiency         
                                filters.3                               
                               Full facepiece supplied air respirator   
                                operated in demand mode.                
                               \1/2\ mask or full facepiece supplied air
                                respirator operated in a continuous-flow
                                mode.                                   
                               Full facepiece self-contained breathing  
                                apparatus (SCBA) operated in demand     
                                mode.                                   
Not in excess of 50,000 ug/m3  \1/2\ mask supplied air respirator       
                                operated in pressure demand or other    
                                positive-pressure mode.                 
Not in excess of 100,000 ug/   Full facepiece supplied air respirator   
 m3.                            operated in pressure demand or other    
                                positive-pressure mode--e.g., type CE   
                                abrasive blasting respirators operated  
                                in a positive-pressure mode.            
Greater than 100,000 ug/m3     Full facepiece SCBA operated in pressure 
 unknown concentration, or      demand or other positive-pressure mode. 
 fire fighting.                                                         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Respirators specified for higher concentrations can be used at lower
  concentrations of lead.                                               
\2\ Full facepiece is required if the lead aerosols cause eye or skin   
  irritation at the use concentrations.                                 
\3\ A high efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) means a filter that is a
  99.97 percent efficient against particles of 0.3 micron size or       
  larger.                                                               

    (g) Protective work clothing and equipment--(1) Provision and use. 
Where an employee is exposed to lead above the PEL without regard to the 
use of respirators, where employees are exposed to lead compounds which 
may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g. lead arsenate, lead azide), and 
as interim protection for employees performing tasks as specified in 
paragraph (d)(2) of this section, the employer shall provide at no cost 
to the employee and assure

[[Page 91]]

that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and 
equipment that prevents contamination of the employee and the employee's 
garments such as, but not limited to:
    (i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;
    (ii) Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe coverlets; and
    (iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective 
equipment which complies with Sec. 1910.133 of this chapter.
    (2) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The employer shall provide the 
protective clothing required in paragraph (g)(1) of this section in a 
clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily to employees whose 
exposure levels without regard to a respirator are over 200 g/
m3 of lead as an 8-hour TWA.
    (ii) The employer shall provide for the cleaning, laundering, and 
disposal of protective clothing and equipment required by paragraph 
(g)(1) of this section.
    (iii) The employer shall repair or replace required protective 
clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.
    (iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is 
removed at the completion of a work shift only in change areas provided 
for that purpose as prescribed in paragraph (i)(2) of this section.
    (v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing 
which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed 
container in the change area which prevents dispersion of lead outside 
the container.
    (vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or 
launders protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful 
effects of exposure to lead.
    (vii) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated 
protective clothing and equipment required by paragraph (g)(2)(v) of 
this section are labeled as follows:

    Caution: Clothing contaminated with lead. Do not remove dust by 
blowing or shaking. Dispose of lead contaminated wash water in 
accordance with applicable local, state, or federal regulations.

    (viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of lead from 
protective clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means 
which disperses lead into the air.
    (h) Housekeeping--(1) All surfaces shall be maintained as free as 
practicable of accumulations of lead.
    (2) Clean-up of floors and other surfaces where lead accumulates 
shall wherever possible, be cleaned by vacuuming or other methods that 
minimize the likelihood of lead becoming airborne.
    (3) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only 
where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and 
found not to be effective.
    (4) Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be 
equipped with HEPA filters and used and emptied in a manner which 
minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.
    (5) Compressed air shall not be used to remove lead from any surface 
unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation 
system designed to capture the airborne dust created by the compressed 
air.
    (i) Hygiene facilities and practices. (1) The employer shall assure 
that in areas where employees are exposed to lead above the PEL without 
regard to the use of respirators, food or beverage is not present or 
consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are 
not applied.
    (2) Change areas. (i) The employer shall provide clean change areas 
for employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, and as 
interim protection for employees performing tasks as specified in 
paragraph (d)(2) of this section, without regard to the use of 
respirators.
    (ii) The employer shall assure that change areas are equipped with 
separate storage facilities for protective work clothing and equipment 
and for street clothes which prevent cross-contamination.
    (iii) The employer shall assure that employees do not leave the 
workplace wearing any protective clothing or equipment that is required 
to be worn during the work shift.

[[Page 92]]

    (3) Showers. (i) The employer shall provide shower facilities, where 
feasible, for use by employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above 
the PEL.
    (ii) The employer shall assure, where shower facilities are 
available, that employees shower at the end of the work shift and shall 
provide an adequate supply of cleansing agents and towels for use by 
affected employees.
    (4) Eating facilities. (i) The employer shall provide lunchroom 
facilities or eating areas for employees whose airborne exposure to lead 
is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.
    (ii) The employer shall assure that lunchroom facilities or eating 
areas are as free as practicable from lead contamination and are readily 
accessible to employees.
    (iii) The employer shall assure that employees whose airborne 
exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of a 
respirator, wash their hands and face prior to eating, drinking, smoking 
or applying cosmetics.
    (iv) The employer shall assure that employees do not enter lunchroom 
facilities or eating areas with protective work clothing or equipment 
unless surface lead dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, 
or other cleaning method that limits dispersion of lead dust.
    (5) Hand washing facilities. (i) The employer shall provide adequate 
handwashing facilities for use by employees exposed to lead in 
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.51(f).
    (ii) Where showers are not provided the employer shall assure that 
employees wash their hands and face at the end of the work-shift.
    (j) Medical surveillance--(1) General. (i) The employer shall make 
available initial medical surveillance to employees occupationally 
exposed on any day to lead at or above the action level. Initial medical 
surveillance consists of biological monitoring in the form of blood 
sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels.
    (ii) The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program in 
accordance with paragraphs (j)(2) and (j)(3) of this section for all 
employees who are or may be exposed by the employer at or above the 
action level for more than 30 days in any consecutive 12 months;
    (iii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and 
procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed 
physician.
    (iv) The employer shall make available the required medical 
surveillance including multiple physician review under paragraph 
(j)(3)(iii) without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and 
place.
    (2) Biological monitoring--(i) Blood lead and ZPP level sampling and 
analysis. The employer shall make available biological monitoring in the 
form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin 
levels to each employee covered under paragraphs (j)(1)(i) and (ii) of 
this section on the following schedule:
    (A) For each employee covered under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this 
section, at least every 2 months for the first 6 months and every 6 
months thereafter;
    (B) For each employee covered under paragraphs (j)(1) (i) or (ii) of 
this section whose last blood sampling and analysis indicated a blood 
lead level at or above 40 g/dl, at least every two months. This 
frequency shall continue until two consecutive blood samples and 
analyses indicate a blood lead level below 40 g/dl; and
    (C) For each employee who is removed from exposure to lead due to an 
elevated blood lead level at least monthly during the removal period.
    (ii) Follow-up blood sampling tests. Whenever the results of a blood 
lead level test indicate that an employee's blood lead level exceeds the 
numerical criterion for medical removal under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of 
this section, the employer shall provide a second (follow-up) blood 
sampling test within two weeks after the employer receives the results 
of the first blood sampling test.
    (iii) Accuracy of blood lead level sampling and analysis. Blood lead 
level sampling and analysis provided pursuant to this section shall have 
an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95 percent) within plus or minus 
15 percent or 6 g/dl, whichever is greater, and shall be 
conducted by a laboratory approved by OSHA.

[[Page 93]]

    (iv) Employee notification. (A) Within five working days after the 
receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall notify each 
employee in writing of his or her blood lead level; and
    (B) The employer shall notify each employee whose blood lead level 
exceeds 40 g/dl that the standard requires temporary medical 
removal with Medical Removal Protection benefits when an employee's 
blood lead level exceeds the numerical criterion for medical removal 
under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section.
    (3) Medical examinations and consultations--(i) Frequency. The 
employer shall make available medical examinations and consultations to 
each employee covered under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section on the 
following schedule:
    (A) At least annually for each employee for whom a blood sampling 
test conducted at any time during the preceding 12 months indicated a 
blood lead level at or above 40 g/dl;
    (B) As soon as possible, upon notification by an employee either 
that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated 
with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice 
concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on the 
employee's ability to procreate a healthy child, that the employee is 
pregnant, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing 
during a respirator fitting test or during use; and
    (C) As medically appropriate for each employee either removed from 
exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to 
health, or otherwise limited pursuant to a final medical determination.
    (ii) Content. The content of medical examinations made available 
pursuant to paragraph (j)(3)(i)(B)-(C) of this section shall be 
determined by an examining physician and, if requested by an employee, 
shall include pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of male 
fertility. Medical examinations made available pursuant to paragraph 
(j)(3)(i)(A) of this section shall include the following elements:
    (A) A detailed work history and a medical history, with particular 
attention to past lead exposure (occupational and non-occupational), 
personal habits (smoking, hygiene), and past gastrointestinal, 
hematologic, renal, cardiovascular, reproductive and neurological 
problems;
    (B) A thorough physical examination, with particular attention to 
teeth, gums, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, cardiovascular, and 
neurological systems. Pulmonary status should be evaluated if 
respiratory protection will be used;
    (C) A blood pressure measurement;
    (D) A blood sample and analysis which determines:
    (1) Blood lead level;
    (2) Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, red cell indices, and 
examination of peripheral smear morphology;
    (3) Zinc protoporphyrin;
    (4) Blood urea nitrogen; and,
    (5) Serum creatinine;
    (E) A routine urinalysis with microscopic examination; and
    (F) Any laboratory or other test relevant to lead exposure which the 
examining physician deems necessary by sound medical practice.
    (iii) Multiple physician review mechanism. (A) If the employer 
selects the initial physician who conducts any medical examination or 
consultation provided to an employee under this section, the employee 
may designate a second physician:
    (1) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the 
initial physician; and
    (2) To conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory 
tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.
    (B) The employer shall promptly notify an employee of the right to 
seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial 
physician conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to 
this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and 
payment for, the multiple physician review mechanism upon the employee 
doing the following within fifteen (15) days after receipt of the 
foregoing notification, or receipt of the initial physician's written 
opinion, whichever is later:

[[Page 94]]

    (1) The employee informing the employer that he or she intends to 
seek a second medical opinion, and
    (2) The employee initiating steps to make an appointment with a 
second physician.
    (C) If the findings, determinations or recommendations of the second 
physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer 
and the employee shall assure that efforts are made for the two 
physicians to resolve any disagreement.
    (D) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their 
disagreement, then the employer and the employee through their 
respective physicians shall designate a third physician:
    (1) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the 
prior physicians; and
    (2) To conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests 
and discussions with the prior physicians as the third physician deems 
necessary to resolve the disagreement of the prior physicians.
    (E) The employer shall act consistent with the findings, 
determinations and recommendations of the third physician, unless the 
employer and the employee reach an agreement which is otherwise 
consistent with the recommendations of at least one of the three 
physicians.
    (iv) Information provided to examining and consulting physicians. 
(A) The employer shall provide an initial physician conducting a medical 
examination or consultation under this section with the following 
information:
    (1) A copy of this regulation for lead including all Appendices;
    (2) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate 
to the employee's exposure;
    (3) The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level to 
lead and to any other toxic substance (if applicable);
    (4) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be 
used;
    (5) Prior blood lead determinations; and
    (6) All prior written medical opinions concerning the employee in 
the employer's possession or control.
    (B) The employer shall provide the foregoing information to a second 
or third physician conducting a medical examination or consultation 
under this section upon request either by the second or third physician, 
or by the employee.
    (v) Written medical opinions. (A) The employer shall obtain and 
furnish the employee with a copy of a written medical opinion from each 
examining or consulting physician which contains only the following 
information:
    (1) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any 
detected medical condition which would place the employee at increased 
risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to 
lead;
    (2) Any recommended special protective measures to be provided to 
the employee, or limitations to be placed upon the employee's exposure 
to lead;
    (3) Any recommended limitation upon the employee's use of 
respirators, including a determination of whether the employee can wear 
a powered air purifying respirator if a physician determines that the 
employee cannot wear a negative pressure respirator; and
    (4) The results of the blood lead determinations.
    (B) The employer shall instruct each examining and consulting 
physician to:
    (1) Not reveal either in the written opinion or orally, or in any 
other means of communication with the employer, findings, including 
laboratory results, or diagnoses unrelated to an employee's occupational 
exposure to lead; and
    (2) Advise the employee of any medical condition, occupational or 
nonoccupational, which dictates further medical examination or 
treatment.
    (vi) Alternate physician determination mechanisms. The employer and 
an employee or authorized employee representative may agree upon the use 
of any alternate physician determination mechanism in lieu of the 
multiple physician review mechanism provided by paragraph (j)(3)(iii) of 
this section so long as the alternate mechanism is as expeditious and 
protective as the requirements contained in this paragraph.

[[Page 95]]

    (4) Chelation. (i) The employer shall assure that any person whom he 
retains, employs, supervises or controls does not engage in prophylactic 
chelation of any employee at any time.
    (ii) If therapeutic or diagnostic chelation is to be performed by 
any person in paragraph (j)(4)(i) of this section, the employer shall 
assure that it be done under the supervision of a licensed physician in 
a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring and 
that the employee is notified in writing prior to its occurrence.
    (k) Medical removal protection--(1) Temporary medical removal and 
return of an employee--(i) Temporary removal due to elevated blood lead 
level. The employer shall remove an employee from work having an 
exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a 
periodic and a follow-up blood sampling test conducted pursuant to this 
section indicate that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 50 
g/dl; and,
    (ii) Temporary removal due to a final medical determination. (A) The 
employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead 
at or above the action level on each occasion that a final medical 
determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion 
that the employee has a detected medical condition which places the 
employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from 
exposure to lead.
    (B) For the purposes of this section, the phrase final medical 
determination means the written medical opinion on the employees' health 
status by the examining physician or, where relevant, the outcome of the 
multiple physician review mechanism or alternate medical determination 
mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this 
section.
    (C) Where a final medical determination results in any recommended 
special protective measures for an employee, or limitations on an 
employee's exposure to lead, the employer shall implement and act 
consistent with the recommendation.
    (iii) Return of the employee to former job status. (A) The employer 
shall return an employee to his or her former job status:
    (1) For an employee removed due to a blood lead level at or above 50 
g/dl when two consecutive blood sampling tests indicate that 
the employee's blood lead level is at or below 40 g/dl;
    (2) For an employee removed due to a final medical determination, 
when a subsequent final medical determination results in a medical 
finding, determination, or opinion that the employee no longer has a 
detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk 
of material impairment to health from exposure to lead.
    (B) For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an 
employer return an employee to his or her former job status is not 
intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would 
have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job 
classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining 
agreement.
    (iv) Removal of other employee special protective measure or 
limitations. The employer shall remove any limitations placed on an 
employee or end any special protective measures provided to an employee 
pursuant to a final medical determination when a subsequent final 
medical determination indicates that the limitations or special 
protective measures are no longer necessary.
    (v) Employer options pending a final medical determination. Where 
the multiple physician review mechanism, or alternate medical 
determination mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance 
provisions of this section, has not yet resulted in a final medical 
determination with respect to an employee, the employer shall act as 
follows:
    (A) Removal. The employer may remove the employee from exposure to 
lead, provide special protective measures to the employee, or place 
limitations upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, 
determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have 
reviewed the employee's health status.
    (B) Return. The employer may return the employee to his or her 
former job status, end any special protective measures provided to the 
employee,

[[Page 96]]

and remove any limitations placed upon the employee, consistent with the 
medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the 
physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status, with two 
exceptions.
    (1) If the initial removal, special protection, or limitation of the 
employee resulted from a final medical determination which differed from 
the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial 
physician or;
    (2) If the employee has been on removal status for the preceding 
eighteen months due to an elevated blood lead level, then the employer 
shall await a final medical determination.
    (2) Medical removal protection benefits--(i) Provision of medical 
removal protection benefits. The employer shall provide an employee up 
to eighteen (18) months of medical removal protection benefits on each 
occasion that an employee is removed from exposure to lead or otherwise 
limited pursuant to this section.
    (ii) Definition of medical removal protection benefits. For the 
purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer provide 
medical removal protection benefits means that, as long as the job the 
employee was removed from continues, the employer shall maintain the 
total normal earnings, seniority and other employment rights and 
benefits of an employee, including the employee's right to his or her 
former job status as though the employee had not been medically removed 
from the employee's job or otherwise medically limited.
    (iii) Follow-up medical surveillance during the period of employee 
removal or limitation. During the period of time that an employee is 
medically removed from his or her job or otherwise medically limited, 
the employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection 
benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical 
surveillance made available pursuant to this section.
    (iv) Workers' compensation claims. If a removed employee files a 
claim for workers' compensation payments for a lead-related disability, 
then the employer shall continue to provide medical removal protection 
benefits pending disposition of the claim. To the extent that an award 
is made to the employee for earnings lost during the period of removal, 
the employer's medical removal protection obligation shall be reduced by 
such amount. The employer shall receive no credit for workers' 
compensation payments received by the employee for treatment- related 
expenses.
    (v) Other credits. The employer's obligation to provide medical 
removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to 
the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost 
during the period of removal either from a publicly or employer-funded 
compensation program, or receives income from employment with another 
employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.
    (vi) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an 
employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an 
employee from exposure to lead or otherwise places limitations on an 
employee due to the effects of lead exposure on the employee's medical 
condition, the employer shall provide medical removal protection 
benefits to the employee equal to that required by paragraph (k)(2) (i) 
and (ii) of this section.
    (l) Employee information and training--(1) General. (i) The employer 
shall communicate information concerning lead hazards according to the 
requirements of OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard for the 
construction industry, 29 CFR 1926.59, including but not limited to the 
requirements concerning warning signs and labels, material safety data 
sheets (MSDS), and employee information and training. In addition, 
employers shall comply with the following requirements:
    (ii) For all employees who are subject to exposure to lead at or 
above the action level on any day or who are subject to exposure to lead 
compounds which may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g. lead arsenate, 
lead azide), the employer shall provide a training program in accordance 
with paragraph (l)(2) of this section and assure employee participation.
    (iii) The employer shall provide the training program as initial 
training prior to the time of job assignment or

[[Page 97]]

prior to the start up date for this requirement, whichever comes last.
    (iv) The employer shall also provide the training program at least 
annually for each employee who is subject to lead exposure at or above 
the action level on any day.
    (2) Training program. The employer shall assure that each employee 
is trained in the following:
    (i) The content of this standard and its appendices;
    (ii) The specific nature of the operations which could result in 
exposure to lead above the action level;
    (iii) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, use, and limitations 
of respirators;
    (iv) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance 
program, and the medical removal protection program including 
information concerning the adverse health effects associated with 
excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse 
reproductive effects on both males and females and hazards to the fetus 
and additional precautions for employees who are pregnant);
    (v) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the 
employee's job assignment including training of employees to follow 
relevant good work practices described in Appendix B of this section;
    (vi) The contents of any compliance plan in effect;
    (vii) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not 
routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be 
used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician; and
    (viii) The employee's right of access to records under 29 CFR 
1910.20.
    (3) Access to information and training materials. (i) The employer 
shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this 
standard and its appendices.
    (ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials 
relating to the employee information and training program to affected 
employees and their designated representatives, and to the Assistant 
Secretary and the Director.
    (m) Signs--(1) General. (i) The employer may use signs required by 
other statutes, regulations or ordinances in addition to, or in 
combination with, signs required by this paragraph.
    (ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near 
any sign required by this paragraph which contradicts or detracts from 
the meaning of the required sign.
    (2) Signs. (i) The employer shall post the following warning signs 
in each work area where an employees exposure to lead is above the PEL.

WARNING
LEAD WORK AREA
POISON
NO SMOKING OR EATING

    (ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this paragraph 
are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily 
visible.
    (n) Recordkeeping--(1) Exposure assessment. (i) The employer shall 
establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring and other 
data used in conducting employee exposure assessments as required in 
paragraph (d) of this section.
    (ii) Exposure monitoring records shall include:
    (A) The date(s), number, duration, location and results of each of 
the samples taken if any, including a description of the sampling 
procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where 
applicable;
    (B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and 
evidence of their accuracy;
    (C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;
    (D) Name, social security number, and job classification of the 
employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the 
measurement is intended to represent; and
    (E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of 
employee exposure.
    (iii) The employer shall maintain monitoring and other exposure 
assessment records in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.20.
    (2) Medical surveillance. (i) The employer shall establish and 
maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical 
surveillance as required by paragraph (j) of this section.
    (ii) This record shall include:

[[Page 98]]

    (A) The name, social security number, and description of the duties 
of the employee;
    (B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;
    (C) Results of any airborne exposure monitoring done on or for that 
employee and provided to the physician; and
    (D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to lead.
    (iii) The employer shall keep, or assure that the examining 
physician keeps, the following medical records:
    (A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and 
work history required under paragraph (j) of this section;
    (B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any 
standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references 
to that information;
    (C) A copy of the results of biological monitoring.
    (iv) The employer shall maintain or assure that the physician 
maintains medical records in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 
1910.20.
    (3) Medical removals. (i) The employer shall establish and maintain 
an accurate record for each employee removed from current exposure to 
lead pursuant to paragraph (k) of this section.
    (ii) Each record shall include:
    (A) The name and social security number of the employee;
    (B) The date of each occasion that the employee was removed from 
current exposure to lead as well as the corresponding date on which the 
employee was returned to his or her former job status;
    (C) A brief explanation of how each removal was or is being 
accomplished; and
    (D) A statement with respect to each removal indicating whether or 
not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level.
    (iii) The employer shall maintain each medical removal record for at 
least the duration of an employee's employment.
    (4) Objective data for exemption from requirement for initial 
monitoring. (i) For purposes of this section, objective data are 
information demonstrating that a particular product or material 
containing lead or a specific process, operation, or activity involving 
lead cannot release dust or fumes in concentrations at or above the 
action level under any expected conditions of use. Objective data can be 
obtained from an industry-wide study or from laboratory product test 
results from manufacturers of lead containing products or materials. The 
data the employer uses from an industry-wide survey must be obtained 
under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, types of 
material, control methods, work practices and environmental conditions 
in the employer's current operations.
    (ii) The employer shall maintain the record of the objective data 
relied upon for at least 30 years.
    (5) Availability. The employer shall make available upon request all 
records required to be maintained by paragraph (n) of this section to 
affected employees, former employees, and their designated 
representatives, and to the Assistant Secretary and the Director for 
examination and copying.
    (6) Transfer of records. (i) Whenever the employer ceases to do 
business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records 
required to be maintained by paragraph (n) of this section.
    (ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no 
successor employer to receive and retain the records required to be 
maintained by this section for the prescribed period, these records 
shall be transmitted to the Director.
    (iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records 
required to be maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the 
Director at least 3 months prior to the disposal of such records and 
shall transmit those records to the Director if requested within the 
period.
    (iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements 
involving transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.20(h).
    (o) Observation of monitoring. (1) Employee observation. The 
employer shall provide affected employees or their designated 
representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee 
exposure to lead conducted pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section.

[[Page 99]]

    (2) Observation procedures. (i) Whenever observation of the 
monitoring of employee exposure to lead requires entry into an area 
where the use of respirators, protective clothing or equipment is 
required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the 
use of such respirators, clothing and equipment, and shall require the 
observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health 
procedures.
    (ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be 
entitled to:
    (A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;
    (B) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of lead performed at 
the place of exposure; and
    (C) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results 
when returned by the laboratory.
    (p) Effective date. This standard (Sec. 1926.62) shall become 
effective June 3, 1993.
    (q) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices to this 
section is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations 
not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing 
obligation.
    (r) Startup dates. (1) The requirements of paragraphs (c) through 
(o) of this section, including administrative controls and feasible work 
practice controls, but not including engineering controls specified in 
paragraph (e)(1) of this section, shall be complied with as soon as 
possible, but no later than 60 days from the effective date of this 
section.
    (2) Feasible engineering controls specified by paragraph (e)(1) of 
this section shall be implemented as soon as possible, but no later than 
120 days from the effective date of this section.

   Appendix A to Sec. 1926.62--Substance Data Sheet for Occupational 
                            Exposure to Lead

                       I. Substance Identification

    A. Substance: Pure lead (Pb) is a heavy metal at room temperature 
and pressure and is a basic chemical element. It can combine with 
various other substances to form numerous lead compounds.
    B. Compounds covered by the standard: The word lead when used in 
this interim final standard means elemental lead, all inorganic lead 
compounds and a class of organic lead compounds called lead soaps. This 
standard does not apply to other organic lead compounds.
    C. Uses: Exposure to lead occurs in several different occupations in 
the construction industry, including demolition or salvage of structures 
where lead or lead-containing materials are present; removal or 
encapsulation of lead-containing materials, new construction, 
alteration, repair, or renovation of structures that contain lead or 
materials containing lead; installation of products containing lead. In 
addition, there are construction related activities where exposure to 
lead may occur, including transportation, disposal, storage, or 
containment of lead or materials containing lead on construction sites, 
and maintenance operations associated with construction activities.
    D. Permissible exposure: The permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by 
the standard is 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50 
g/m3), averaged over an 8-hour workday.
    E. Action level: The interim final standard establishes an action 
level of 30 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (30 g/
m3), averaged over an 8-hour workday. The action level 
triggers several ancillary provisions of the standard such as exposure 
monitoring, medical surveillance, and training.

                         II. Health Hazard Data

    A. Ways in which lead enters your body. When absorbed into your body 
in certain doses, lead is a toxic substance. The object of the lead 
standard is to prevent absorption of harmful quantities of lead. The 
standard is intended to protect you not only from the immediate toxic 
effects of lead, but also from the serious toxic effects that may not 
become apparent until years of exposure have passed. Lead can be 
absorbed into your body by inhalation (breathing) and ingestion 
(eating). Lead (except for certain organic lead compounds not covered by 
the standard, such as tetraethyl lead) is not absorbed through your 
skin. When lead is scattered in the air as a dust, fume respiratory 
tract. Inhalation of airborne lead is generally the most important 
source of occupational lead absorption. You can also absorb lead through 
your digestive system if lead gets into your mouth and is swallowed. If 
you handle food, cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or make-up which have lead 
on them or handle them with hands contaminated with lead, this will 
contribute to ingestion. A significant portion of the lead that you 
inhale or ingest gets into your blood stream. Once in your blood stream, 
lead is circulated throughout your body and stored in various organs and 
body tissues. Some of this lead is quickly filtered out of your body and 
excreted, but some remains in the blood and other tissues. As exposure 
to lead continues, the amount stored in your body will increase if you 
are

[[Page 100]]

absorbing more lead than your body is excreting. Even though you may not 
be aware of any immediate symptoms of disease, this lead stored in your 
tissues can be slowly causing irreversible damage, first to individual 
cells, then to your organs and whole body systems.
    B. Effects of overexposure to lead--(1) Short term (acute) 
overexposure. Lead is a potent, systemic poison that serves no known 
useful function once absorbed by your body. Taken in large enough doses, 
lead can kill you in a matter of days. A condition affecting the brain 
called acute encephalopathy may arise which develops quickly to 
seizures, coma, and death from cardiorespiratory arrest. A short term 
dose of lead can lead to acute encephalopathy. Short term occupational 
exposures of this magnitude are highly unusual, but not impossible. 
Similar forms of encephalopathy may, however, arise from extended, 
chronic exposure to lower doses of lead. There is no sharp dividing line 
between rapidly developing acute effects of lead, and chronic effects 
which take longer to acquire. Lead adversely affects numerous body 
systems, and causes forms of health impairment and disease which arise 
after periods of exposure as short as days or as long as several years.
    (2) Long-term (chronic) overexposure. Chronic overexposure to lead 
may result in severe damage to your blood-forming, nervous, urinary and 
reproductive systems. Some common symptoms of chronic overexposure 
include loss of appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, anxiety, 
constipation, nausea, pallor, excessive tiredness, weakness, insomnia, 
headache, nervous irritability, muscle and joint pain or soreness, fine 
tremors, numbness, dizziness, hyperactivity and colic. In lead colic 
there may be severe abdominal pain. Damage to the central nervous system 
in general and the brain (encephalopathy) in particular is one of the 
most severe forms of lead poisoning. The most severe, often fatal, form 
of encephalopathy may be preceded by vomiting, a feeling of dullness 
progressing to drowsiness and stupor, poor memory, restlessness, 
irritability, tremor, and convulsions. It may arise suddenly with the 
onset of seizures, followed by coma, and death. There is a tendency for 
muscular weakness to develop at the same time. This weakness may 
progress to paralysis often observed as a characteristic ``wrist drop'' 
or ``foot drop'' and is a manifestation of a disease to the nervous 
system called peripheral neuropathy. Chronic overexposure to lead also 
results in kidney disease with few, if any, symptoms appearing until 
extensive and most likely permanent kidney damage has occurred. Routine 
laboratory tests reveal the presence of this kidney disease only after 
about two-thirds of kidney function is lost. When overt symptoms of 
urinary dysfunction arise, it is often too late to correct or prevent 
worsening conditions, and progression to kidney dialysis or death is 
possible. Chronic overexposure to lead impairs the reproductive systems 
of both men and women. Overexposure to lead may result in decreased sex 
drive, impotence and sterility in men. Lead can alter the structure of 
sperm cells raising the risk of birth defects. There is evidence of 
miscarriage and stillbirth in women whose husbands were exposed to lead 
or who were exposed to lead themselves. Lead exposure also may result in 
decreased fertility, and abnormal menstrual cycles in women. The course 
of pregnancy may be adversely affected by exposure to lead since lead 
crosses the placental barrier and poses risks to developing fetuses. 
Children born of parents either one of whom were exposed to excess lead 
levels are more likely to have birth defects, mental retardation, 
behavioral disorders or die during the first year of childhood. 
Overexposure to lead also disrupts the blood-forming system resulting in 
decreased hemoglobin (the substance in the blood that carries oxygen to 
the cells) and ultimately anemia. Anemia is characterized by weakness, 
pallor and fatigability as a result of decreased oxygen carrying 
capacity in the blood.
    (3) Health protection goals of the standard. Prevention of adverse 
health effects for most workers from exposure to lead throughout a 
working lifetime requires that a worker's blood lead level (BLL, also 
expressed as PbB) be maintained at or below forty micrograms per 
deciliter of whole blood (40 g/dl). The blood lead levels of 
workers (both male and female workers) who intend to have children 
should be maintained below 30 g/dl to minimize adverse 
reproductive health effects to the parents and to the developing fetus. 
The measurement of your blood lead level (BLL) is the most useful 
indicator of the amount of lead being absorbed by your body. Blood lead 
levels are most often reported in units of milligrams (mg) or micrograms 
(g) of lead (1 mg=1000 g) per 100 grams (100g), 100 
milliliters (100 ml) or deciliter (dl) of blood. These three units are 
essentially the same. Sometime BLLs are expressed in the form of mg% or 
g%. This is a shorthand notation for 100g, 100 ml, or dl. 
(References to BLL measurements in this standard are expressed in the 
form of g/dl.)
    BLL measurements show the amount of lead circulating in your blood 
stream, but do not give any information about the amount of lead stored 
in your various tissues. BLL measurements merely show current absorption 
of lead, not the effect that lead is having on your body or the effects 
that past lead exposure may have already caused. Past research into 
lead-related diseases, however, has focused heavily on associations 
between BLLs and various diseases. As a result, your

[[Page 101]]

BLL is an important indicator of the likelihood that you will gradually 
acquire a lead-related health impairment or disease.
    Once your blood lead level climbs above 40 g/dl, your risk 
of disease increases. There is a wide variability of individual response 
to lead, thus it is difficult to say that a particular BLL in a given 
person will cause a particular effect. Studies have associated fatal 
encephalopathy with BLLs as low as 150 g/dl. Other studies have 
shown other forms of diseases in some workers with BLLs well below 80 
g/dl. Your BLL is a crucial indicator of the risks to your 
health, but one other factor is also extremely important. This factor is 
the length of time you have had elevated BLLs. The longer you have an 
elevated BLL, the greater the risk that large quantities of lead are 
being gradually stored in your organs and tissues (body burden). The 
greater your overall body burden, the greater the chances of substantial 
permanent damage. The best way to prevent all forms of lead-related 
impairments and diseases--both short term and long term--is to maintain 
your BLL below 40 g/dl. The provisions of the standard are 
designed with this end in mind.
    Your employer has prime responsibility to assure that the provisions 
of the standard are complied with both by the company and by individual 
workers. You, as a worker, however, also have a responsibility to assist 
your employer in complying with the standard. You can play a key role in 
protecting your own health by learning about the lead hazards and their 
control, learning what the standard requires, following the standard 
where it governs your own actions, and seeing that your employer 
complies with provisions governing his or her actions.
    (4) Reporting signs and symptoms of health problems. You should 
immediately notify your employer if you develop signs or symptoms 
associated with lead poisoning or if you desire medical advice 
concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead or your 
ability to have a healthy child. You should also notify your employer if 
you have difficulty breathing during a respirator fit test or while 
wearing a respirator. In each of these cases, your employer must make 
available to you appropriate medical examinations or consultations. 
These must be provided at no cost to you and at a reasonable time and 
place. The standard contains a procedure whereby you can obtain a second 
opinion by a physician of your choice if your employer selected the 
initial physician.

          Appendix B to Sec. 1926.62--Employee Standard Summary

    This appendix summarizes key provisions of the interim final 
standard for lead in construction that you as a worker should become 
familiar with.

           I. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)--Paragraph (C)

    The standard sets a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 
micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50 g/m3), 
averaged over an 8-hour workday which is referred to as a time-weighted 
average (TWA). This is the highest level of lead in air to which you may 
be permissibly exposed over an 8-hour workday. However, since this is an 
8-hour average, short exposures above the PEL are permitted so long as 
for each 8-hour work day your average exposure does not exceed this 
level. This interim final standard, however, takes into account the fact 
that your daily exposure to lead can extend beyond a typical 8-hour 
workday as the result of overtime or other alterations in your work 
schedule. To deal with this situation, the standard contains a formula 
which reduces your permissible exposure when you are exposed more than 8 
hours. For example, if you are exposed to lead for 10 hours a day, the 
maximum permitted average exposure would be 40 g/m3.

                 II. Exposure Assessment--Paragraph (D)

    If lead is present in your workplace in any quantity, your employer 
is required to make an initial determination of whether any employee's 
exposure to lead exceeds the action level (30 g/m3 
averaged over an 8-hour day). Employee exposure is that exposure which 
would occur if the employee were not using a respirator. This initial 
determination requires your employer to monitor workers' exposures 
unless he or she has objective data which can demonstrate conclusively 
that no employee will be exposed to lead in excess of the action level. 
Where objective data is used in lieu of actual monitoring the employer 
must establish and maintain an accurate record, documenting its 
relevancy in assessing exposure levels for current job conditions. If 
such objective data is available, the employer need proceed no further 
on employee exposure assessment until such time that conditions have 
changed and the determination is no longer valid.
    Objective data may be compiled from various sources, e.g., insurance 
companies and trade associations and information from suppliers or 
exposure data collected from similar operations. Objective data may also 
comprise previously-collected sampling data including area monitoring. 
If it cannot be determined through using objective data that worker 
exposure is less than the action level, your employer must conduct 
monitoring or must rely on relevant previous personal sampling, if 
available. Where monitoring is required for the initial determination, 
it may be limited to a representative number of employees who are 
reasonably expected to have the highest exposure levels. If your 
employer has conducted appropriate air sampling for lead in the past 12 
months, he or she may use

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these results, provided they are applicable to the same employee tasks 
and exposure conditions and meet the requirements for accuracy as 
specified in the standard. As with objective data, if such results are 
relied upon for the initial determination, your employer must establish 
and maintain a record as to the relevancy of such data to current job 
conditions.
    If there have been any employee complaints of symptoms which may be 
attributable to exposure to lead or if there is any other information or 
observations which would indicate employee exposure to lead, this must 
also be considered as part of the initial determination.
    If this initial determination shows that a reasonable possibility 
exists that any employee may be exposed, without regard to respirators, 
over the action level, your employer must set up an air monitoring 
program to determine the exposure level representative of each employee 
exposed to lead at your workplace. In carrying out this air monitoring 
program, your employer is not required to monitor the exposure of every 
employee, but he or she must monitor a representative number of 
employees and job types. Enough sampling must be done to enable each 
employee's exposure level to be reasonably represent full shift 
exposure. In addition, these air samples must be taken under conditions 
which represent each employee's regular, daily exposure to lead. 
Sampling performed in the past 12 months may be used to determine 
exposures above the action level if such sampling was conducted during 
work activities essentially similar to present work conditions.
    The standard lists certain tasks which may likely result in 
exposures to lead in excess of the PEL and, in some cases, exposures in 
excess of 50 times the PEL. If you are performing any of these tasks, 
your employer must provide you with appropriate respiratory protection, 
protective clothing and equipment, change areas, hand washing 
facilities, biological monitoring, and training until such time that an 
exposure assessment is conducted which demonstrates that your exposure 
level is below the PEL.
    If you are exposed to lead and air sampling is performed, your 
employer is required to notify you in writing within 5 working days of 
the air monitoring results which represent your exposure. If the results 
indicate that your exposure exceeds the PEL (without regard to your use 
of a respirator), then your employer must also notify you of this in 
writing, and provide you with a description of the corrective action 
that has been taken or will be taken to reduce your exposure.
    Your exposure must be rechecked by monitoring, at least every six 
months if your exposure is at or over the action level but below the 
PEL. Your employer may discontinue monitoring for you if 2 consecutive 
measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are at or below the action 
level. Air monitoring must be repeated every 3 months if you are exposed 
over the PEL. Your employer must continue monitoring for you at this 
frequency until 2 consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, 
are below the PEL but above the action level, at which time your 
employer must repeat monitoring of your exposure every six months and 
may discontinue monitoring only after your exposure drops to or below 
the action level. However, whenever there is a change of equipment, 
process, control, or personnel or a new type of job is added at your 
workplace which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, your 
employer must perform additional monitoring.

                III. Methods of Compliance--Paragraph (E)

    Your employer is required to assure that no employee is exposed to 
lead in excess of the PEL as an 8-hour TWA. The interim final standard 
for lead in construction requires employers to institute engineering and 
work practice controls including administrative controls to the extent 
feasible to reduce employee exposure to lead. Where such controls are 
feasible but not adequate to reduce exposures below the PEL they must be 
used nonetheless to reduce exposures to the lowest level that can be 
accomplished by these means and then supplemented with appropriate 
respiratory protection.
    Your employer is required to develop and implement a written 
compliance program prior to the commencement of any job where employee 
exposures may reach the PEL as an 8-hour TWA. The interim final standard 
identifies the various elements that must be included in the plan. For 
example, employers are required to include a description of operations 
in which lead is emitted, detailing other relevant information about the 
operation such as the type of equipment used, the type of material 
involved, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and 
maintenance practices. In addition, your employer's compliance plan must 
specify the means that will be used to achieve compliance and, where 
engineering controls are required, include any engineering plans or 
studies that have been used to select the control methods. If 
administrative controls involving job rotation are used to reduce 
employee exposure to lead, the job rotation schedule must be included in 
the compliance plan. The plan must also detail the type of protective 
clothing and equipment, including respirators, housekeeping and hygiene 
practices that will be used to protect you from the adverse effects of 
exposure to lead.
    The written compliance program must be made available, upon request, 
to affected

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employees and their designated representatives, the Assistant Secretary 
and the Director.
    Finally, the plan must be reviewed and updated at least every 6 
months to assure it reflects the current status in exposure control.

                IV. Respiratory Protection--Paragraph (F)

    Your employer is required to provide and assure your use of 
respirators when your exposure to lead is not controlled below the PEL 
by other means. The employer must pay the cost of the respirator. 
Whenever you request one, your employer is also required to provide you 
a respirator even if your air exposure level is not above the PEL. You 
might desire a respirator when, for example, you have received medical 
advice that your lead absorption should be decreased. Or, you may intend 
to have children in the near future, and want to reduce the level of 
lead in your body to minimize adverse reproductive effects. While 
respirators are the least satisfactory means of controlling your 
exposure, they are capable of providing significant protection if 
properly chosen, fitted, worn, cleaned, maintained, and replaced when 
they stop providing adequate protection.
    Your employer is required to select respirators from the types 
listed in Table I of the Respiratory Protection section of the standard 
(Sec. 1926.62 (f)). Any respirator chosen must be approved by the 
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the 
provisions of 42 CFR part 84. This respirator selection table will 
enable your employer to choose a type of respirator that will give you a 
proper amount of protection based on your airborne lead exposure. Your 
employer may select a type of respirator that provides greater 
protection than that required by the standard; that is, one recommended 
for a higher concentration of lead than is present in your workplace. 
For example, a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) is much more 
protective than a typical negative pressure respirator, and may also be 
more comfortable to wear. A PAPR has a filter, cartridge, or canister to 
clean the air, and a power source that continuously blows filtered air 
into your breathing zone. Your employer might make a PAPR available to 
you to ease the burden of having to wear a respirator for long periods 
of time. The standard provides that you can obtain a PAPR upon request.
    Your employer must also start a Respiratory Protection Program. This 
program must include written procedures for the proper selection, use, 
cleaning, storage, and maintenance of respirators.
    Your employer must ensure that your respirator facepiece fits 
properly. Proper fit of a respirator facepiece is critical to your 
protection from airborne lead. Obtaining a proper fit on each employee 
may require your employer to make available several different types of 
respirator masks. To ensure that your respirator fits properly and that 
facepiece leakage is minimal, your employer must give you either a 
qualitative or quantitative fit test as specified in Appendix A of the 
Respiratory Protection standard located at 29 CFR 1910.134.
    You must also receive from your employer proper training in the use 
of respirators. Your employer is required to teach you how to wear a 
respirator, to know why it is needed, and to understand its limitations.
    The standard provides that if your respirator uses filter elements, 
you must be given an opportunity to change the filter elements whenever 
an increase in breathing resistance is detected. You also must be 
permitted to periodically leave your work area to wash your face and 
respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation. If 
you ever have difficulty in breathing during a fit test or while using a 
respirator, your employer must make a medical examination available to 
you to determine whether you can safely wear a respirator. The result of 
this examination may be to give you a positive pressure respirator 
(which reduces breathing resistance) or to provide alternative means of 
protection.

        V. Protective Work Clothing and Equipment--Paragraph (G)

    If you are exposed to lead above the PEL as an 8-hour TWA, without 
regard to your use of a respirator, or if you are exposed to lead 
compounds such as lead arsenate or lead azide which can cause skin and 
eye irritation, your employer must provide you with protective work 
clothing and equipment appropriate for the hazard. If work clothing is 
provided, it must be provided in a clean and dry condition at least 
weekly, and daily if your airborne exposure to lead is greater than 200 
g/m3. Appropriate protective work clothing and 
equipment can include coveralls or similar full-body work clothing, 
gloves, hats, shoes or disposable shoe coverlets, and face shields or 
vented goggles. Your employer is required to provide all such equipment 
at no cost to you. In addition, your employer is responsible for 
providing repairs and replacement as necessary, and also is responsible 
for the cleaning, laundering or disposal of protective clothing and 
equipment.
    The interim final standard requires that your employer assure that 
you follow good work practices when you are working in areas where your 
exposure to lead may exceed the PEL. With respect to protective clothing 
and equipment, where appropriate, the following procedures should be 
observed prior to beginning work:
    1. Change into work clothing and shoe covers in the clean section of 
the designated changing areas;

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    2. Use work garments of appropriate protective gear, including 
respirators before entering the work area; and
    3. Store any clothing not worn under protective clothing in the 
designated changing area.
    Workers should follow these procedures upon leaving the work area:
    1. HEPA vacuum heavily contaminated protective work clothing while 
it is still being worn. At no time may lead be removed from protective 
clothing by any means which result in uncontrolled dispersal of lead 
into the air;
    2. Remove shoe covers and leave them in the work area;
    3. Remove protective clothing and gear in the dirty area of the 
designated changing area. Remove protective coveralls by carefully 
rolling down the garment to reduce exposure to dust.
    4. Remove respirators last; and
    5. Wash hands and face.
    Workers should follow these procedures upon finishing work for the 
day (in addition to procedures described above):
    1. Where applicable, place disposal coveralls and shoe covers with 
the abatement waste;
    2. Contaminated clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered or 
disposed of must be placed in closed containers in the change room.
    3. Clean protective gear, including respirators, according to 
standard procedures;
    4. Wash hands and face again. If showers are available, take a 
shower and wash hair. If shower facilities are not available at the work 
site, shower immediately at home and wash hair.

                     VI. Housekeeping--Paragraph (H)

    Your employer must establish a housekeeping program sufficient to 
maintain all surfaces as free as practicable of accumulations of lead 
dust. Vacuuming is the preferred method of meeting this requirement, and 
the use of compressed air to clean floors and other surfaces is 
generally prohibited unless removal with compressed air is done in 
conjunction with ventilation systems designed to contain dispersal of 
the lead dust. Dry or wet sweeping, shoveling, or brushing may not be 
used except where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been 
tried and do not work. Vacuums must be used equipped with a special 
filter called a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and 
emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the 
workplace.

          VII. Hygiene Facilities and Practices--Paragraph (I)

    The standard requires that hand washing facilities be provided where 
occupational exposure to lead occurs. In addition, change areas, showers 
(where feasible), and lunchrooms or eating areas are to be made 
available to workers exposed to lead above the PEL. Your employer must 
assure that except in these facilities, food and beverage is not present 
or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are 
not applied, where airborne exposures are above the PEL. Change rooms 
provided by your employer must be equipped with separate storage 
facilities for your protective clothing and equipment and street clothes 
to avoid cross-contamination. After showering, no required protective 
clothing or equipment worn during the shift may be worn home. It is 
important that contaminated clothing or equipment be removed in change 
areas and not be worn home or you will extend your exposure and expose 
your family since lead from your clothing can accumulate in your house, 
car, etc.
    Lunchrooms or eating areas may not be entered with protective 
clothing or equipment unless surface dust has been removed by vacuuming, 
downdraft booth, or other cleaning method. Finally, workers exposed 
above the PEL must wash both their hands and faces prior to eating, 
drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.
    All of the facilities and hygiene practices just discussed are 
essential to minimize additional sources of lead absorption from 
inhalation or ingestion of lead that may accumulate on you, your 
clothes, or your possessions. Strict compliance with these provisions 
can virtually eliminate several sources of lead exposure which 
significantly contribute to excessive lead absorption.

                VIII. Medical Surveillance--Paragraph (J)

    The medical surveillance program is part of the standard's 
comprehensive approach to the prevention of lead-related disease. Its 
purpose is to supplement the main thrust of the standard which is aimed 
at minimizing airborne concentrations of lead and sources of ingestion. 
Only medical surveillance can determine if the other provisions of the 
standard have affectively protected you as an individual. Compliance 
with the standard's provision will protect most workers from the adverse 
effects of lead exposure, but may not be satisfactory to protect 
individual workers (1) who have high body burdens of lead acquired over 
past years, (2) who have additional uncontrolled sources of non-
occupational lead exposure, (3) who exhibit unusual variations in lead 
absorption rates, or (4) who have specific non-work related medical 
conditions which could be aggravated by lead exposure (e.g., renal 
disease, anemia). In

[[Page 105]]

addition, control systems may fail, or hygiene and respirator programs 
may be inadequate. Periodic medical surveillance of individual workers 
will help detect those failures. Medical surveillance will also be 
important to protect your reproductive ability-regardless of whether you 
are a man or woman.
    All medical surveillance required by the interim final standard must 
be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician. The 
employer must provide required medical surveillance without cost to 
employees and at a reasonable time and place. The standard's medical 
surveillance program has two parts--periodic biological monitoring and 
medical examinations. Your employer's obligation to offer you medical 
surveillance is triggered by the results of the air monitoring program. 
Full medical surveillance must be made available to all employees who 
are or may be exposed to lead in excess of the action level for more 
than 30 days a year and whose blood lead level exceeds 40 g/dl. 
Initial medical surveillance consisting of blood sampling and analysis 
for lead and zinc protoporphyrin must be provided to all employees 
exposed at any time (1 day) above the action level.
    Biological monitoring under the standard must be provided at least 
every 2 months for the first 6 months and every 6 months thereafter 
until your blood lead level is below 40 g/dl. A zinc 
protoporphyrin (ZPP) test is a very useful blood test which measures an 
adverse metabolic effect of lead on your body and is therefore an 
indicator of lead toxicity.
    If your BLL exceeds 40 g/dl the monitoring frequency must 
be increased from every 6 months to at least every 2 months and not 
reduced until two consecutive BLLs indicate a blood lead level below 40 
g/dl. Each time your BLL is determined to be over 40 
g/dl, your employer must notify you of this in writing within 
five working days of his or her receipt of the test results. The 
employer must also inform you that the standard requires temporary 
medical removal with economic protection when your BLL exceeds 50 
g/dl. (See Discussion of Medical Removal Protection-Paragraph 
(k).) Anytime your BLL exceeds 50 g/dl your employer must make 
available to you within two weeks of receipt of these test results a 
second follow-up BLL test to confirm your BLL. If the two tests both 
exceed 50 g/dl, and you are temporarily removed, then your 
employer must make successive BLL tests available to you on a monthly 
basis during the period of your removal.
    Medical examinations beyond the initial one must be made available 
on an annual basis if your blood lead level exceeds 40 g/dl at 
any time during the preceding year and you are being exposed above the 
airborne action level of 30 g/m3 for 30 or more days 
per year. The initial examination will provide information to establish 
a baseline to which subsequent data can be compared.
    An initial medical examination to consist of blood sampling and 
analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin must also be made available 
(prior to assignment) for each employee being assigned for the first 
time to an area where the airborne concentration of lead equals or 
exceeds the action level at any time. In addition, a medical examination 
or consultation must be made available as soon as possible if you notify 
your employer that you are experiencing signs or symptoms commonly 
associated with lead poisoning or that you have difficulty breathing 
while wearing a respirator or during a respirator fit test. You must 
also be provided a medical examination or consultation if you notify 
your employer that you desire medical advice concerning the effects of 
current or past exposure to lead on your ability to procreate a healthy 
child.
    Finally, appropriate follow-up medical examinations or consultations 
may also be provided for employees who have been temporarily removed 
from exposure under the medical removal protection provisions of the 
standard. (See Part IX, below.)
    The standard specifies the minimum content of pre-assignment and 
annual medical examinations. The content of other types of medical 
examinations and consultations is left up to the sound discretion of the 
examining physician. Pre-assignment and annual medical examinations must 
include (1) a detailed work history and medical history; (2) a thorough 
physical examination, including an evaluation of your pulmonary status 
if you will be required to use a respirator; (3) a blood pressure 
measurement; and (4) a series of laboratory tests designed to check your 
blood chemistry and your kidney function. In addition, at any time upon 
your request, a laboratory evaluation of male fertility will be made 
(microscopic examination of a sperm sample), or a pregnancy test will be 
given.
    The standard does not require that you participate in any of the 
medical procedures, tests, etc. which your employer is required to make 
available to you. Medical surveillance can, however, play a very 
important role in protecting your health. You are strongly encouraged, 
therefore, to participate in a meaningful fashion. The standard contains 
a multiple physician review mechanism which will give you a chance to 
have a physician of your choice directly participate in the medical 
surveillance program. If you are dissatisfied with an examination by a 
physician chosen by your employer, you can select a second physician to 
conduct an independent analysis. The two doctors would attempt to 
resolve any differences of opinion, and select a third physician to 
resolve any firm dispute. Generally your employer will choose the 
physician who conducts medical

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surveillance under the lead standard-unless you and your employer can 
agree on the choice of a physician or physicians. Some companies and 
unions have agreed in advance, for example, to use certain independent 
medical laboratories or panels of physicians. Any of these arrangements 
are acceptable so long as required medical surveillance is made 
available to workers.
    The standard requires your employer to provide certain information 
to a physician to aid in his or her examination of you. This information 
includes (1) the standard and its appendices, (2) a description of your 
duties as they relate to occupational lead exposure, (3) your exposure 
level or anticipated exposure level, (4) a description of any personal 
protective equipment you wear, (5) prior blood lead level results, and 
(6) prior written medical opinions concerning you that the employer has. 
After a medical examination or consultation the physician must prepare a 
written report which must contain (1) the physician's opinion as to 
whether you have any medical condition which places you at increased 
risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead, (2) any 
recommended special protective measures to be provided to you, (3) any 
blood lead level determinations, and (4) any recommended limitation on 
your use of respirators. This last element must include a determination 
of whether you can wear a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) if you 
are found unable to wear a negative pressure respirator.
    The medical surveillance program of the interim lead standard may at 
some point in time serve to notify certain workers that they have 
acquired a disease or other adverse medical condition as a result of 
occupational lead exposure. If this is true, these workers might have 
legal rights to compensation from public agencies, their employers, 
firms that supply hazardous products to their employers, or other 
persons. Some states have laws, including worker compensation laws, that 
disallow a worker who learns of a job-related health impairment to sue, 
unless the worker sues within a short period of time after learning of 
the impairment. (This period of time may be a matter of months or 
years.) An attorney can be consulted about these possibilities. It 
should be stressed that OSHA is in no way trying to either encourage or 
discourage claims or lawsuits. However, since results of the standard's 
medical surveillance program can significantly affect the legal remedies 
of a worker who has acquired a job-related disease or impairment, it is 
proper for OSHA to make you aware of this.
    The medical surveillance section of the standard also contains 
provisions dealing with chelation. Chelation is the use of certain drugs 
(administered in pill form or injected into the body) to reduce the 
amount of lead absorbed in body tissues. Experience accumulated by the 
medical and scientific communities has largely confirmed the 
effectiveness of this type of therapy for the treatment of very severe 
lead poisoning. On the other hand, it has also been established that 
there can be a long list of extremely harmful side effects associated 
with the use of chelating agents. The medical community has balanced the 
advantages and disadvantages resulting from the use of chelating agents 
in various circumstances and has established when the use of these 
agents is acceptable. The standard includes these accepted limitations 
due to a history of abuse of chelation therapy by some lead companies. 
The most widely used chelating agents are calcium disodium EDTA, (Ca Na2 
EDTA), Calcium Disodium Versenate (Versenate), and d-penicillamine 
(pencillamine or Cupramine).
    The standard prohibits ``prophylactic chelation'' of any employee by 
any person the employer retains, supervises or controls. Prophylactic 
chelation is the routine use of chelating or similarly acting drugs to 
prevent elevated blood levels in workers who are occupationally exposed 
to lead, or the use of these drugs to routinely lower blood lead levels 
to predesignated concentrations believed to be ``safe''. It should be 
emphasized that where an employer takes a worker who has no symptoms of 
lead poisoning and has chelation carried out by a physician (either 
inside or outside of a hospital) solely to reduce the worker's blood 
lead level, that will generally be considered prophylactic chelation. 
The use of a hospital and a physician does not mean that prophylactic 
chelation is not being performed. Routine chelation to prevent increased 
or reduce current blood lead levels is unacceptable whatever the 
setting.
    The standard allows the use of ``therapeutic'' or ``diagnostic'' 
chelation if administered under the supervision of a licensed physician 
in a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring. 
Therapeutic chelation responds to severe lead poisoning where there are 
marked symptoms. Diagnostic chelation involved giving a patient a dose 
of the drug then collecting all urine excreted for some period of time 
as an aid to the diagnosis of lead poisoning.
    In cases where the examining physician determines that chelation is 
appropriate, you must be notified in writing of this fact before such 
treatment. This will inform you of a potentially harmful treatment, and 
allow you to obtain a second opinion.

              IX. Medical Removal Protection--Paragraph (K)

    Excessive lead absorption subjects you to increased risk of disease. 
Medical removal protection (MRP) is a means of protecting

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you when, for whatever reasons, other methods, such as engineering 
controls, work practices, and respirators, have failed to provide the 
protection you need. MRP involves the temporary removal of a worker from 
his or her regular job to a place of significantly lower exposure 
without any loss of earnings, seniority, or other employment rights or 
benefits. The purpose of this program is to cease further lead 
absorption and allow your body to naturally excrete lead which has 
previously been absorbed. Temporary medical removal can result from an 
elevated blood lead level, or a medical opinion. For up to 18 months, or 
for as long as the job the employee was removed from lasts, protection 
is provided as a result of either form of removal. The vast majority of 
removed workers, however, will return to their former jobs long before 
this eighteen month period expires.
    You may also be removed from exposure even if your blood lead level 
is below 50 g/dl if a final medical determination indicates 
that you temporarily need reduced lead exposure for medical reasons. If 
the physician who is implementing your employers medical program makes a 
final written opinion recommending your removal or other special 
protective measures, your employer must implement the physician's 
recommendation. If you are removed in this manner, you may only be 
returned when the doctor indicates that it is safe for you to do so.
    The standard does not give specific instructions dealing with what 
an employer must do with a removed worker. Your job assignment upon 
removal is a matter for you, your employer and your union (if any) to 
work out consistent with existing procedures for job assignments. Each 
removal must be accomplished in a manner consistent with existing 
collective bargaining relationships. Your employer is given broad 
discretion to implement temporary removals so long as no attempt is made 
to override existing agreements. Similarly, a removed worker is provided 
no right to veto an employer's choice which satisfies the standard.
    In most cases, employers will likely transfer removed employees to 
other jobs with sufficiently low lead exposure. Alternatively, a 
worker's hours may be reduced so that the time weighted average exposure 
is reduced, or he or she may be temporarily laid off if no other 
alternative is feasible.
    In all of these situation, MRP benefits must be provided during the 
period of removal--i.e., you continue to receive the same earnings, 
seniority, and other rights and benefits you would have had if you had 
not been removed. Earnings includes more than just your base wage; it 
includes overtime, shift differentials, incentives, and other 
compensation you would have earned if you had not been removed. During 
the period of removal you must also be provided with appropriate follow-
up medical surveillance. If you were removed because your blood lead 
level was too high, you must be provided with a monthly blood test. If a 
medical opinion caused your removal, you must be provided medical tests 
or examinations that the doctor believes to be appropriate. If you do 
not participate in this follow up medical surveillance, you may lose 
your eligibility for MRP benefits.
    When you are medically eligible to return to your former job, your 
employer must return you to your ``former job status.'' This means that 
you are entitled to the position, wages, benefits, etc., you would have 
had if you had not been removed. If you would still be in your old job 
if no removal had occurred that is where you go back. If not, you are 
returned consistent with whatever job assignment discretion your 
employer would have had if no removal had occurred. MRP only seeks to 
maintain your rights, not expand them or diminish them.
    If you are removed under MRP and you are also eligible for worker 
compensation or other compensation for lost wages, your employer's MRP 
benefits obligation is reduced by the amount that you actually receive 
from these other sources. This is also true if you obtain other 
employment during the time you are laid off with MRP benefits.
    The standard also covers situations where an employer voluntarily 
removes a worker from exposure to lead due to the effects of lead on the 
employee's medical condition, even though the standard does not require 
removal. In these situations MRP benefits must still be provided as 
though the standard required removal. Finally, it is important to note 
that in all cases where removal is required, respirators cannot be used 
as a substitute. Respirators may be used before removal becomes 
necessary, but not as an alternative to a transfer to a low exposure 
job, or to a lay-off with MRP benefits.

           X. Employee Information and Training--Paragraph (L)

    Your employer is required to provide an information and training 
program for all employees exposed to lead above the action level or who 
may suffer skin or eye irritation from lead compounds such as lead 
arsenate or lead azide. The program must train these employees regarding 
the specific hazards associated with their work environment, protective 
measures which can be taken, including the contents of any compliance 
plan in effect, the danger of lead to their bodies (including their 
reproductive systems), and their rights under the standard. All 
employees must be trained prior to initial assignment to areas where 
there is a possibility of exposure over the action level.

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    This training program must also be provided at least annually 
thereafter unless further exposure above the action level will not 
occur.

                        XI. Signs--Paragraph (M)

    The standard requires that the following warning sign be posted in 
work areas where the exposure to lead exceeds the PEL:

WARNING
LEAD WORK AREA
POISON
NO SMOKING OR EATING

    These signs are to be posted and maintained in a manner which 
assures that the legend is readily visible.

                    XII. Recordkeeping--Paragraph (N)

    Your employer is required to keep all records of exposure monitoring 
for airborne lead. These records must include the name and job 
classification of employees measured, details of the sampling and 
analytical techniques, the results of this sampling, and the type of 
respiratory protection being worn by the person sampled. Such records 
are to be retained for at least 30 years. Your employer is also required 
to keep all records of biological monitoring and medical examination 
results. These records must include the names of the employees, the 
physician's written opinion, and a copy of the results of the 
examination. Medical records must be preserved and maintained for the 
duration of employment plus 30 years. However, if the employee's 
duration of employment is less than one year, the employer need not 
retain that employee's medical records beyond the period of employment 
if they are provided to the employee upon termination of employment.
    Recordkeeping is also required if you are temporarily removed from 
your job under the medical removal protection program. This record must 
include your name and social security number, the date of your removal 
and return, how the removal was or is being accomplished, and whether or 
not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level. Your 
employer is required to keep each medical removal record only for as 
long as the duration of an employee's employment.
    The standard requires that if you request to see or copy 
environmental monitoring, blood lead level monitoring, or medical 
removal records, they must be made available to you or to a 
representative that you authorize. Your union also has access to these 
records. Medical records other than BLL's must also be provided upon 
request to you, to your physician or to any other person whom you may 
specifically designate. Your union does not have access to your personal 
medical records unless you authorize their access.

             XIII. Observation of Monitoring--Paragraph (O)

    When air monitoring for lead is performed at your workplace as 
required by this standard, your employer must allow you or someone you 
designate to act as an observer of the monitoring. Observers are 
entitled to an explanation of the measurement procedure, and to record 
the results obtained. Since results will not normally be available at 
the time of the monitoring, observers are entitled to record or receive 
the results of the monitoring when returned by the laboratory. Your 
employer is required to provide the observer with any personal 
protective devices required to be worn by employees working in the area 
that is being monitored. The employer must require the observer to wear 
all such equipment and to comply with all other applicable safety and 
health procedures.

                   XIV. Effective Date--Paragraph (P)

    The standard's effective date is June 3, 1993. Employer obligations 
under the standard begin as of that date with full implementation of 
engineering controls as soon as possible but no later than within 4 
months, and all other provisions completed as soon as possible, but no 
later than within 2 months from the effective date.

                     XV. For Additional Information

    A. A copy of the interim standard for lead in construction can be 
obtained free of charge by calling or writing the OSHA Office of 
Publications, room N-3101, United States Department of Labor, 
Washington, DC 20210: Telephone (202) 219-4667.
    B. Additional information about the standard, its enforcement, and 
your employer's compliance can be obtained from the nearest OSHA Area 
Office listed in your telephone directory under United States 
Government/Department of Labor.

       Appendix C to Sec. 1926.62--Medical Surveillance Guidelines

                              Introduction

    The primary purpose of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 
1970 is to assure, so far as possible, safe and healthful working 
conditions for every working man and woman. The interim final 
occupational health standard for lead in construction is designed to 
protect workers exposed to inorganic lead including metallic lead, all 
inorganic lead compounds and organic lead soaps.
    Under this interim final standard occupational exposure to inorganic 
lead is to be limited to 50 g/m3 (micrograms per 
cubic meter) based on an 8 hour time-weighted average (TWA). This 
permissible exposure limit

[[Page 109]]

(PEL) must be achieved through a combination of engineering, work 
practice and administrative controls to the extent feasible. Where these 
controls are in place but are found not to reduce employee exposures to 
or below the PEL, they must be used nonetheless, and supplemented with 
respirators to meet the 50 g/m3 exposure limit.
    The standard also provides for a program of biological monitoring 
for employees exposed to lead above the action level at any time, and 
additional medical surveillance for all employees exposed to levels of 
inorganic lead above 30 g/m3 (TWA) for more than 30 
days per year and whose BLL exceeds 40 g/dl.
    The purpose of this document is to outline the medical surveillance 
provisions of the interim standard for inorganic lead in construction, 
and to provide further information to the physician regarding the 
examination and evaluation of workers exposed to inorganic lead.
    Section 1 provides a detailed description of the monitoring 
procedure including the required frequency of blood testing for exposed 
workers, provisions for medical removal protection (MRP), the 
recommended right of the employee to a second medical opinion, and 
notification and recordkeeping requirements of the employer. A 
discussion of the requirements for respirator use and respirator 
monitoring and OSHA's position on prophylactic chelation therapy are 
also included in this section.
    Section 2 discusses the toxic effects and clinical manifestations of 
lead poisoning and effects of lead intoxication on enzymatic pathways in 
heme synthesis. The adverse effects on both male and female reproductive 
capacity and on the fetus are also discussed.
    Section 3 outlines the recommended medical evaluation of the worker 
exposed to inorganic lead, including details of the medical history, 
physical examination, and recommended laboratory tests, which are based 
on the toxic effects of lead as discussed in Section 2.
    Section 4 provides detailed information concerning the laboratory 
tests available for the monitoring of exposed workers. Included also is 
a discussion of the relative value of each test and the limitations and 
precautions which are necessary in the interpretation of the laboratory 
results.

I. Medical Surveillance and Monitoring Requirements for Workers Exposed 
                            to Inorganic Lead

    Under the interim final standard for inorganic lead in the 
construction industry, initial medical surveillance consisting of 
biological monitoring to include blood lead and ZPP level determination 
shall be provided to employees exposed to lead at or above the action 
level on any one day. In addition, a program of biological monitoring is 
to be made available to all employees exposed above the action level at 
any time and additional medical surveillance is to be made available to 
all employees exposed to lead above 30 g/m3 TWA for 
more than 30 days each year and whose BLL exceeds 40 g/dl. This 
program consists of periodic blood sampling and medical evaluation to be 
performed on a schedule which is defined by previous laboratory results, 
worker complaints or concerns, and the clinical assessment of the 
examining physician.
    Under this program, the blood lead level (BLL) of all employees who 
are exposed to lead above 30 g/m3 for more than 30 
days per year or whose blood lead is above 40 g/dl but exposed 
for no more than 30 days per year is to be determined at least every two 
months for the first six months of exposure and every six months 
thereafter. The frequency is increased to every two months for employees 
whose last blood lead level was 40 g/dl or above. For employees 
who are removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead, a 
new blood lead level must be measured monthly. A zinc protoporphyrin 
(ZPP) measurement is strongly recommended on each occasion that a blood 
lead level measurement is made.
    An annual medical examination and consultation performed under the 
guidelines discussed in Section 3 is to be made available to each 
employee exposed above 30 g/m3 for more than 30 days 
per year for whom a blood test conducted at any time during the 
preceding 12 months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 
g/dl. Also, an examination is to be given to all employees 
prior to their assignment to an area in which airborne lead 
concentrations reach or exceed the 30 g/m3 for more 
than 30 days per year. In addition, a medical examination must be 
provided as soon as possible after notification by an employee that the 
employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead 
intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice regarding lead 
exposure and the ability to procreate a healthy child, or that the 
employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator 
fitting test or during respirator use. An examination is also to be made 
available to each employee removed from exposure to lead due to a risk 
of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited or 
specially protected pursuant to medical recommendations.
    Results of biological monitoring or the recommendations of an 
examining physician may necessitate removal of an employee from further 
lead exposure pursuant to the standard's medical removal protection 
(MRP) program. The object of the MRP program is to provide temporary 
medical removal to workers either with substantially elevated blood lead 
levels or otherwise at

[[Page 110]]

risk of sustaining material health impairment from continued substantial 
exposure to lead.
    Under the standard's ultimate worker removal criteria, a worker is 
to be removed from any work having an eight hour TWA exposure to lead of 
30 g/m3 when his or her blood lead level reaches 50 
g/dl and is confirmed by a second follow-up blood lead level 
performed within two weeks after the employer receives the results of 
the first blood sampling test. Return of the employee to his or her job 
status depends on a worker's blood lead level declining to 40 
g/dl.
    As part of the interim standard, the employer is required to notify 
in writing each employee whose blood lead level exceeds 40 g/
dl. In addition each such employee is to be informed that the standard 
requires medical removal with MRP benefits, discussed below, when an 
employee's blood lead level exceeds the above defined limit.
    In addition to the above blood lead level criterion, temporary 
worker removal may also take place as a result of medical determinations 
and recommendations. Written medical opinions must be prepared after 
each examination pursuant to the standard. If the examining physician 
includes a medical finding, determination or opinion that the employee 
has a medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of 
material health impairment from exposure to lead, then the employee must 
be removed from exposure to lead at or above 30 g/
m3. Alternatively, if the examining physician recommends 
special protective measures for an employee (e.g., use of a powered air 
purifying respirator) or recommends limitations on an employee's 
exposure to lead, then the employer must implement these 
recommendations.
    Recommendations may be more stringent than the specific provisions 
of the standard. The examining physician, therefore, is given broad 
flexibility to tailor special protective procedures to the needs of 
individual employees. This flexibility extends to the evaluation and 
management of pregnant workers and male and female workers who are 
planning to raise children. Based on the history, physical examination, 
and laboratory studies, the physician might recommend special protective 
measures or medical removal for an employee who is pregnant or who is 
planning to conceive a child when, in the physician's judgment, 
continued exposure to lead at the current job would pose a significant 
risk. The return of the employee to his or her former job status, or the 
removal of special protections or limitations, depends upon the 
examining physician determining that the employee is no longer at 
increased risk of material impairment or that special measures are no 
longer needed.
    During the period of any form of special protection or removal, the 
employer must maintain the worker's earnings, seniority, and other 
employment rights and benefits (as though the worker had not been 
removed) for a period of up to 18 months or for as long as the job the 
employee was removed from lasts if less than 18 months. This economic 
protection will maximize meaningful worker participation in the medical 
surveillance program, and is appropriate as part of the employer's 
overall obligation to provide a safe and healthful workplace. The 
provisions of MRP benefits during the employee's removal period may, 
however, be conditioned upon participation in medical surveillance.
    The lead standard provides for a multiple physician review in cases 
where the employee wishes a second opinion concerning potential lead 
poisoning or toxicity. If an employee wishes a second opinion, he or she 
can make an appointment with a physician of his or her choice. This 
second physician will review the findings, recommendations or 
determinations of the first physician and conduct any examinations, 
consultations or tests deemed necessary in an attempt to make a final 
medical determination. If the first and second physicians do not agree 
in their assessment they must try to resolve their differences. If they 
cannot reach an agreement then they must designate a third physician to 
resolve the dispute.
    The employer must provide examining and consulting physicians with 
the following specific information: A copy of the lead regulations and 
all appendices, a description of the employee's duties as related to 
exposure, the exposure level or anticipated level to lead and any other 
toxic substances (if applicable), a description of personal protective 
equipment used, blood lead levels, and all prior written medical 
opinions regarding the employee in the employer's possession or control. 
The employer must also obtain from the physician and provide the 
employee with a written medical opinion containing blood lead levels, 
the physicians's opinion as to whether the employee is at risk of 
material impairment to health, any recommended protective measures for 
the employee if further exposure is permitted, as well as any 
recommended limitations upon an employee's use of respirators.
    Employers must instruct each physician not to reveal to the employer 
in writing or in any other way his or her findings, laboratory results, 
or diagnoses which are felt to be unrelated to occupational lead 
exposure. They must also instruct each physician to advise the employee 
of any occupationally or non-occupationally related medical condition 
requiring further treatment or evaluation.
    The standard provides for the use of respirators where engineering 
and other primary controls are not effective. However, the use of 
respirator protection shall not be used in lieu of temporary medical 
removal

[[Page 111]]

due to elevated blood lead levels or findings that an employee is at 
risk of material health impairment. This is based on the numerous 
inadequacies of respirators including skin rash where the facepiece 
makes contact with the skin, unacceptable stress to breathing in some 
workers with underlying cardiopulmonary impairment, difficulty in 
providing adequate fit, the tendency for respirators to create 
additional hazards by interfering with vision, hearing, and mobility, 
and the difficulties of assuring the maximum effectiveness of a 
complicated work practice program involving respirators. Respirators do, 
however, serve a useful function where engineering and work practice 
controls are inadequate by providing supplementary, interim, or short-
term protection, provided they are properly selected for the environment 
in which the employee will be working, properly fitted to the employee, 
maintained and cleaned periodically, and worn by the employee when 
required.
    In its interim final standard on occupational exposure to inorganic 
lead in the construction industry, OSHA has prohibited prophylactic 
chelation. Diagnostic and therapeutic chelation are permitted only under 
the supervision of a licensed physician with appropriate medical 
monitoring in an acceptable clinical setting. The decision to initiate 
chelation therapy must be made on an individual basis and take into 
account the severity of symptoms felt to be a result of lead toxicity 
along with blood lead levels, ZPP levels, and other laboratory tests as 
appropriate. EDTA and penicillamine which are the primary chelating 
agents used in the therapy of occupational lead poisoning have 
significant potential side effects and their use must be justified on 
the basis of expected benefits to the worker. Unless frank and severe 
symptoms are present, therapeutic chelation is not recommended, given 
the opportunity to remove a worker from exposure and allow the body to 
naturally excrete accumulated lead. As a diagnostic aid, the chelation 
mobilization test using CA-EDTA has limited applicability. According to 
some investigators, the test can differentiate between lead-induced and 
other nephropathies. The test may also provide an estimation of the 
mobile fraction of the total body lead burden.
    Employers are required to assure that accurate records are 
maintained on exposure assessment, including environmental monitoring, 
medical surveillance, and medical removal for each employee. Exposure 
assessment records must be kept for at least 30 years. Medical 
surveillance records must be kept for the duration of employment plus 30 
years except in cases where the employment was less than one year. If 
duration of employment is less than one year, the employer need not 
retain this record beyond the term of employment if the record is 
provided to the employee upon termination of employment. Medical removal 
records also must be maintained for the duration of employment. All 
records required under the standard must be made available upon request 
to the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health 
and the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and 
Health. Employers must also make environmental and biological monitoring 
and medical removal records available to affected employees and to 
former employees or their authorized employee representatives. Employees 
or their specifically designated representatives have access to their 
entire medical surveillance records.
    In addition, the standard requires that the employer inform all 
workers exposed to lead at or above 30 g/m3 of the 
provisions of the standard and all its appendices, the purpose and 
description of medical surveillance and provisions for medical removal 
protection if temporary removal is required. An understanding of the 
potential health effects of lead exposure by all exposed employees along 
with full understanding of their rights under the lead standard is 
essential for an effective monitoring program.

              II. Adverse Health Effects of Inorganic Lead

    Although the toxicity of lead has been known for 2,000 years, the 
knowledge of the complex relationship between lead exposure and human 
response is still being refined. Significant research into the toxic 
properties of lead continues throughout the world, and it should be 
anticipated that our understanding of thresholds of effects and margins 
of safety will be improved in future years. The provisions of the lead 
standard are founded on two prime medical judgments: First, the 
prevention of adverse health effects from exposure to lead throughout a 
working lifetime requires that worker blood lead levels be maintained at 
or below 40 g/dl and second, the blood lead levels of workers, 
male or female, who intend to parent in the near future should be 
maintained below 30 g/dl to minimize adverse reproductive 
health effects to the parents and developing fetus. The adverse effects 
of lead on reproduction are being actively researched and OSHA 
encourages the physician to remain abreast of recent developments in the 
area to best advise pregnant workers or workers planning to conceive 
children.
    The spectrum of health effects caused by lead exposure can be 
subdivided into five developmental stages: Normal, physiological changes 
of uncertain significance, pathophysiological changes, overt symptoms 
(morbidity), and mortality. Within this process there are no sharp 
distinctions, but rather a continuum of effects. Boundaries between 
categories overlap due to the wide variation of individual responses and 
exposures

[[Page 112]]

in the working population. OSHA's development of the lead standard 
focused on pathophysiological changes as well as later stages of 
disease.
    1. Heme Synthesis Inhibition. The earliest demonstrated effect of 
lead involves its ability to inhibit at least two enzymes of the heme 
synthesis pathway at very low blood levels. Inhibition of delta 
aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALA-D) which catalyzes the conversion of 
delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to protoporphyrin is observed at a blood 
lead level below 20 g/dl. At a blood lead level of 40 
g/dl, more than 20% of the population would have 70% inhibition 
of ALA-D. There is an exponential increase in ALA excretion at blood 
lead levels greater than 40 g/dl.
    Another enzyme, ferrochelatase, is also inhibited at low blood lead 
levels. Inhibition of ferrochelatase leads to increased free erythrocyte 
protoporphyrin (FEP) in the blood which can then bind to zinc to yield 
zinc protoporphyrin. At a blood lead level of 50 g/dl or 
greater, nearly 100% of the population will have an increase in FEP. 
There is also an exponential relationship between blood lead levels 
greater than 40 g/dl and the associated ZPP level, which has 
led to the development of the ZPP screening test for lead exposure.
    While the significance of these effects is subject to debate, it is 
OSHA's position that these enzyme disturbances are early stages of a 
disease process which may eventually result in the clinical symptoms of 
lead poisoning. Whether or not the effects do progress to the later 
stages of clinical disease, disruption of these enzyme processes over a 
working lifetime is considered to be a material impairment of health.
    One of the eventual results of lead-induced inhibition of enzymes in 
the heme synthesis pathway is anemia which can be asymptomatic if mild 
but associated with a wide array of symptoms including dizziness, 
fatigue, and tachycardia when more severe. Studies have indicated that 
lead levels as low as 50 g/dl can be associated with a definite 
decreased hemoglobin, although most cases of lead-induced anemia, as 
well as shortened red-cell survival times, occur at lead levels 
exceeding 80 g/dl. Inhibited hemoglobin synthesis is more 
common in chronic cases whereas shortened erythrocyte life span is more 
common in acute cases.
    In lead-induced anemias, there is usually a reticulocytosis along 
with the presence of basophilic stippling, and ringed sideroblasts, 
although none of the above are pathognomonic for lead-induced anemia.
    2. Neurological Effects. Inorganic lead has been found to have toxic 
effects on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The earliest 
stages of lead-induced central nervous system effects first manifest 
themselves in the form of behavioral disturbances and central nervous 
system symptoms including irritability, restlessness, insomnia and other 
sleep disturbances, fatigue, vertigo, headache, poor memory, tremor, 
depression, and apathy. With more severe exposure, symptoms can progress 
to drowsiness, stupor, hallucinations, delirium, convulsions and coma.
    The most severe and acute form of lead poisoning which usually 
follows ingestion or inhalation of large amounts of lead is acute 
encephalopathy which may arise precipitously with the onset of 
intractable seizures, coma, cardiorespiratory arrest, and death within 
48 hours.
    While there is disagreement about what exposure levels are needed to 
produce the earliest symptoms, most experts agree that symptoms 
definitely can occur at blood lead levels of 60 g/dl whole 
blood and therefore recommend a 40 g/dl maximum. The central 
nervous system effects frequently are not reversible following 
discontinued exposure or chelation therapy and when improvement does 
occur, it is almost always only partial.
    The peripheral neuropathy resulting from lead exposure 
characteristically involves only motor function with minimal sensory 
damage and has a marked predilection for the extensor muscles of the 
most active extremity. The peripheral neuropathy can occur with varying 
degrees of severity. The earliest and mildest form which can be detected 
in workers with blood lead levels as low as 50 g/dl is 
manifested by slowing of motor nerve conduction velocity often without 
clinical symptoms. With progression of the neuropathy there is 
development of painless extensor muscle weakness usually involving the 
extensor muscles of the fingers and hand in the most active upper 
extremity, followed in severe cases by wrist drop or, much less 
commonly, foot drop.
    In addition to slowing of nerve conduction, electromyographical 
studies in patients with blood lead levels greater than 50 g/dl 
have demonstrated a decrease in the number of acting motor unit 
potentials, an increase in the duration of motor unit potentials, and 
spontaneous pathological activity including fibrillations and 
fasciculations. Whether these effects occur at levels of 40 g/
dl is undetermined.
    While the peripheral neuropathies can occasionally be reversed with 
therapy, again such recovery is not assured particularly in the more 
severe neuropathies and often improvement is only partial. The lack of 
reversibility is felt to be due in part to segmental demyelination.
    3. Gastrointestinal. Lead may also affect the gastrointestinal 
system producing abdominal colic or diffuse abdominal pain, 
constipation, obstipation, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Lead 
colic rarely develops at blood lead levels below 80 g/dl.

[[Page 113]]

    4. Renal. Renal toxicity represents one of the most serious health 
effects of lead poisoning. In the early stages of disease nuclear 
inclusion bodies can frequently be identified in proximal renal tubular 
cells. Renal function remains normal and the changes in this stage are 
probably reversible. With more advanced disease there is progressive 
interstitial fibrosis and impaired renal function. Eventually extensive 
interstitial fibrosis ensues with sclerotic glomeruli and dilated and 
atrophied proximal tubules; all represent end stage kidney disease. 
Azotemia can be progressive, eventually resulting in frank uremia 
necessitating dialysis. There is occasionally associated hypertension 
and hyperuricemia with or without gout.
    Early kidney disease is difficult to detect. The urinalysis is 
normal in early lead nephropathy and the blood urea nitrogen and serum 
creatinine increase only when two-thirds of kidney function is lost. 
Measurement of creatinine clearance can often detect earlier disease as 
can other methods of measurement of glomerular filtration rate. An 
abnormal Ca-EDTA mobilization test has been used to differentiate 
between lead-induced and other nephropathies, but this procedure is not 
widely accepted. A form of Fanconi syndrome with aminoaciduria, 
glycosuria, and hyperphosphaturia indicating severe injury to the 
proximal renal tubules is occasionally seen in children.
    5. Reproductive effects. Exposure to lead can have serious effects 
on reproductive function in both males and females. In male workers 
exposed to lead there can be a decrease in sexual drive, impotence, 
decreased ability to produce healthy sperm, and sterility. Malformed 
sperm (teratospermia), decreased number of sperm (hypospermia), and 
sperm with decreased motility (asthenospermia) can all occur. 
Teratospermia has been noted at mean blood lead levels of 53 g/
dl and hypospermia and asthenospermia at 41 g/dl. Furthermore, 
there appears to be a dose-response relationship for teratospermia in 
lead exposed workers.
    Women exposed to lead may experience menstrual disturbances 
including dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia and amenorrhea. Following exposure 
to lead, women have a higher frequency of sterility, premature births, 
spontaneous miscarriages, and stillbirths.
    Germ cells can be affected by lead and cause genetic damage in the 
egg or sperm cells before conception and result in failure to implant, 
miscarriage, stillbirth, or birth defects.
    Infants of mothers with lead poisoning have a higher mortality 
during the first year and suffer from lowered birth weights, slower 
growth, and nervous system disorders.
    Lead can pass through the placental barrier and lead levels in the 
mother's blood are comparable to concentrations of lead in the umbilical 
cord at birth. Transplacental passage becomes detectable at 12-14 weeks 
of gestation and increases until birth.
    There is little direct data on damage to the fetus from exposure to 
lead but it is generally assumed that the fetus and newborn would be at 
least as susceptible to neurological damage as young children. Blood 
lead levels of 50-60 g/dl in children can cause significant 
neurobehavioral impairments and there is evidence of hyperactivity at 
blood levels as low as 25 g/dl. Given the overall body of 
literature concerning the adverse health effects of lead in children, 
OSHA feels that the blood lead level in children should be maintained 
below 30 g/dl with a population mean of 15 g/dl. Blood 
lead levels in the fetus and newborn likewise should not exceed 30 
g/dl.
    Because of lead's ability to pass through the placental barrier and 
also because of the demonstrated adverse effects of lead on reproductive 
function in both the male and female as well as the risk of genetic 
damage of lead on both the ovum and sperm, OSHA recommends a 30 
g/dl maximum permissible blood lead level in both males and 
females who wish to bear children.
    6. Other toxic effects. Debate and research continue on the effects 
of lead on the human body. Hypertension has frequently been noted in 
occupationally exposed individuals although it is difficult to assess 
whether this is due to lead's adverse effects on the kidney or if some 
other mechanism is involved. Vascular and electrocardiographic changes 
have been detected but have not been well characterized. Lead is thought 
to impair thyroid function and interfere with the pituitary-adrenal 
axis, but again these effects have not been well defined.

                         III. Medical Evaluation

    The most important principle in evaluating a worker for any 
occupational disease including lead poisoning is a high index of 
suspicion on the part of the examining physician. As discussed in 
Section 2, lead can affect numerous organ systems and produce a wide 
array of signs and symptoms, most of which are non-specific and subtle 
in nature at least in the early stages of disease. Unless serious 
concern for lead toxicity is present, many of the early clues to 
diagnosis may easily be overlooked.
    The crucial initial step in the medical evaluation is recognizing 
that a worker's employment can result in exposure to lead. The worker 
will frequently be able to define exposures to lead and lead containing 
materials but often will not volunteer this information unless 
specifically asked. In other situations the worker may not know of any 
exposures to lead but the suspicion might be raised on the part of the 
physician because of the industry or occupation of the worker.

[[Page 114]]

Potential occupational exposure to lead and its compounds occur in many 
occupations in the construction industry, including demolition and 
salvaging operations, removal or encapsulation of materials containing 
lead, construction, alteration, repair or renovation of structures 
containing lead, transportation, disposal, storage or containment of 
lead or lead-containing materials on construction sites, and maintenance 
operations associated with construction activities.
    Once the possibility for lead exposure is raised, the focus can then 
be directed toward eliciting information from the medical history, 
physical exam, and finally from laboratory data to evaluate the worker 
for potential lead toxicity.
    A complete and detailed work history is important in the initial 
evaluation. A listing of all previous employment with information on job 
description, exposure to fumes or dust, known exposures to lead or other 
toxic substances, a description of any personal protective equipment 
used, and previous medical surveillance should all be included in the 
worker's record. Where exposure to lead is suspected, information 
concerning on-the-job personal hygiene, smoking or eating habits in work 
areas, laundry procedures, and use of any protective clothing or 
respiratory protection equipment should be noted. A complete work 
history is essential in the medical evaluation of a worker with 
suspected lead toxicity, especially when long term effects such as 
neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are considered.
    The medical history is also of fundamental importance and should 
include a listing of all past and current medical conditions, current 
medications including proprietary drug intake, previous surgeries and 
hospitalizations, allergies, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and 
also non-occupational lead exposures such as hobbies (hunting, riflery). 
Also known childhood exposures should be elicited. Any previous history 
of hematological, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, psychological, 
gynecological, genetic, or reproductive problems should be specifically 
noted.
    A careful and complete review of systems must be performed to assess 
both recognized complaints and subtle or slowly acquired symptoms which 
the worker might not appreciate as being significant. The review of 
symptoms should include the following:
    1. General--weight loss, fatigue, decreased appetite.
    2. Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat (HEENT)--headaches, visual 
disturbances or decreased visual acuity, hearing deficits or tinnitus, 
pigmentation of the oral mucosa, or metallic taste in mouth.
    3. Cardio-pulmonary--shortness of breath, cough, chest pains, 
palpitations, or orthopnea.
    4. Gastrointestinal--nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, 
constipation or diarrhea.
    5. Neurologic--irritability, insomnia, weakness (fatigue), 
dizziness, loss of memory, confusion, hallucinations, incoordination, 
ataxia, decreased strength in hands or feet, disturbances in gait, 
difficulty in climbing stairs, or seizures.
    6. Hematologic--pallor, easy fatigability, abnormal blood loss, 
melena.
    7. Reproductive (male and female and spouse where relevant)--history 
of infertility, impotence, loss of libido, abnormal menstrual periods, 
history of miscarriages, stillbirths, or children with birth defects.
    8. Musculo-skeletal--muscle and joint pains.
    The physical examination should emphasize the neurological, 
gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems. The worker's weight and 
blood pressure should be recorded and the oral mucosa checked for 
pigmentation characteristic of a possible Burtonian or lead line on the 
gingiva. It should be noted, however, that the lead line may not be 
present even in severe lead poisoning if good oral hygiene is practiced.
    The presence of pallor on skin examination may indicate an anemia 
which, if severe, might also be associated with a tachycardia. If an 
anemia is suspected, an active search for blood loss should be 
undertaken including potential blood loss through the gastrointestinal 
tract.
    A complete neurological examination should include an adequate 
mental status evaluation including a search for behavioral and 
psychological disturbances, memory testing, evaluation for irritability, 
insomnia, hallucinations, and mental clouding. Gait and coordination 
should be examined along with close observation for tremor. A detailed 
evaluation of peripheral nerve function including careful sensory and 
motor function testing is warranted. Strength testing particularly of 
extensor muscle groups of all extremities is of fundamental importance.
    Cranial nerve evaluation should also be included in the routine 
examination.
    The abdominal examination should include auscultation for bowel 
sounds and abdominal bruits and palpation for organomegaly, masses, and 
diffuse abdominal tenderness.
    Cardiovascular examination should evaluate possible early signs of 
congestive heart failure. Pulmonary status should be addressed 
particularly if respirator protection is contemplated.
    As part of the medical evaluation, the interim lead standard 
requires the following laboratory studies:

    1. Blood lead level
    2. Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, red cell indices, and 
examination of the peripheral blood smear to evaluate red blood cell 
morphology

[[Page 115]]

    3. Blood urea nitrogen
    4. Serum creatinine
    5. Routine urinalysis with microscopic examination.
    6. A zinc protoporphyrin level.

    In addition to the above, the physician is authorized to order any 
further laboratory or other tests which he or she deems necessary in 
accordance with sound medical practice. The evaluation must also include 
pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of male fertility if 
requested by the employee. Additional tests which are probably not 
warranted on a routine basis but may be appropriate when blood lead and 
ZPP levels are equivocal include delta aminolevulinic acid and 
coproporphyrin concentrations in the urine, and dark-field illumination 
for detection of basophilic stippling in red blood cells.
    If an anemia is detected further studies including a careful 
examination of the peripheral smear, reticulocyte count, stool for 
occult blood, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, bilirubin, and, 
if appropriate, vitamin B12 and folate may be of value in attempting to 
identify the cause of the anemia.
    If a peripheral neuropathy is suspected, nerve conduction studies 
are warranted both for diagnosis and as a basis to monitor any therapy.
    If renal disease is questioned, a 24 hour urine collection for 
creatinine clearance, protein, and electrolytes may be indicated. 
Elevated uric acid levels may result from lead-induced renal disease and 
a serum uric acid level might be performed.
    An electrocardiogram and chest x-ray may be obtained as deemed 
appropriate.
    Sophisticated and highly specialized testing should not be done 
routinely and where indicated should be under the direction of a 
specialist.

                        IV. Laboratory Evaluation

    The blood lead level at present remains the single most important 
test to monitor lead exposure and is the test used in the medical 
surveillance program under the lead standard to guide employee medical 
removal. The ZPP has several advantages over the blood lead level. 
Because of its relatively recent development and the lack of extensive 
data concerning its interpretation, the ZPP currently remains an 
ancillary test.
    This section will discuss the blood lead level and ZPP in detail and 
will outline their relative advantages and disadvantages. Other blood 
tests currently available to evaluate lead exposure will also be 
reviewed.
    The blood lead level is a good index of current or recent lead 
absorption when there is no anemia present and when the worker has not 
taken any chelating agents. However, blood lead levels along with 
urinary lead levels do not necessarily indicate the total body burden of 
lead and are not adequate measures of past exposure. One reason for this 
is that lead has a high affinity for bone and up to 90% of the body's 
total lead is deposited there. A very important component of the total 
lead body burden is lead in soft tissue (liver, kidney, and brain). This 
fraction of the lead body burden, the biologically active lead, is not 
entirely reflected by blood lead levels since it is a function of the 
dynamics of lead absorption, distribution, deposition in bone and 
excretion. Following discontinuation of exposure to lead, the excess 
body burden is only slowly mobilized from bone and other relatively 
stable body stores and excreted. Consequently, a high blood lead level 
may only represent recent heavy exposure to lead without a significant 
total body excess and likewise a low blood lead level does not exclude 
an elevated total body burden of lead.
    Also due to its correlation with recent exposures, the blood lead 
level may vary considerably over short time intervals.
    To minimize laboratory error and erroneous results due to 
contamination, blood specimens must be carefully collected after 
thorough cleaning of the skin with appropriate methods using lead-free 
blood containers and analyzed by a reliable laboratory. Under the 
standard, samples must be analyzed in laboratories which are approved by 
OSHA. Analysis is to be made using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, 
anodic stripping voltammetry or any method which meets the accuracy 
requirements set forth by the standard.
    The determination of lead in urine is generally considered a less 
reliable monitoring technique than analysis of whole blood primarily due 
to individual variability in urinary excretion capacity as well as the 
technical difficulty of obtaining accurate 24 hour urine collections. In 
addition, workers with renal insufficiency, whether due to lead or some 
other cause, may have decreased lead clearance and consequently urine 
lead levels may underestimate the true lead burden. Therefore, urine 
lead levels should not be used as a routine test.
    The zinc protoporphyrin test, unlike the blood lead determination, 
measures an adverse metabolic effect of lead and as such is a better 
indicator of lead toxicity than the level of blood lead itself. The 
level of ZPP reflects lead absorption over the preceding 3 to 4 months, 
and therefore is a better indicator of lead body burden. The ZPP 
requires more time than the blood lead to read significantly elevated 
levels; the return to normal after discontinuing lead exposure is also 
slower. Furthermore, the ZPP test is simpler, faster, and less expensive 
to perform and no contamination is possible. Many investigators believe 
it is the most reliable

[[Page 116]]

means of monitoring chronic lead absorption.
    Zinc protoporphyrin results from the inhibition of the enzyme 
ferrochelatase which catalyzes the insertion of an iron molecule into 
the protoporphyrin molecule, which then becomes heme. If iron is not 
inserted into the molecule then zinc, having a greater affinity for 
protoporphyrin, takes the place of the iron, forming ZPP.
    An elevation in the level of circulating ZPP may occur at blood lead 
levels as low as 20-30 g/dl in some workers. Once the blood 
lead level has reached 40 g/dl there is more marked rise in the 
ZPP value from its normal range of less than 100 g/dl100 ml. 
Increases in blood lead levels beyond 40 g/100 g are associated 
with exponential increases in ZPP.
    Whereas blood lead levels fluctuate over short time spans, ZPP 
levels remain relatively stable. ZPP is measured directly in red blood 
cells and is present for the cell's entire 120 day life-span. Therefore, 
the ZPP level in blood reflects the average ZPP production over the 
previous 3-4 months and consequently the average lead exposure during 
that time interval.
    It is recommended that a hematocrit be determined whenever a 
confirmed ZPP of 50 g/100 ml whole blood is obtained to rule 
out a significant underlying anemia. If the ZPP is in excess of 100 
g/100 ml and not associated with abnormal elevations in blood 
lead levels, the laboratory should be checked to be sure that blood 
leads were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry anodic 
stripping voltammetry, or any method which meets the accuracy 
requirements set forth by the standard by an OSHA approved laboratory 
which is experienced in lead level determinations. Repeat periodic blood 
lead studies should be obtained in all individuals with elevated ZPP 
levels to be certain that an associated elevated blood lead level has 
not been missed due to transient fluctuations in blood leads.
    ZPP has a characteristic fluorescence spectrum with a peak at 594 nm 
which is detectable with a hematofluorimeter. The hematofluorimeter is 
accurate and portable and can provide on-site, instantaneous results for 
workers who can be frequently tested via a finger prick.
    However, careful attention must be given to calibration and quality 
control procedures. Limited data on blood lead-ZPP correlations and the 
ZPP levels which are associated with the adverse health effects 
discussed in Section 2 are the major limitations of the test. Also it is 
difficult to correlate ZPP levels with environmental exposure and there 
is some variation of response with age and sex. Nevertheless, the ZPP 
promises to be an important diagnostic test for the early detection of 
lead toxicity and its value will increase as more data is collected 
regarding its relationship to other manifestations of lead poisoning.
    Levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the urine are also used 
as a measure of lead exposure. Increasing concentrations of ALA are 
believed to result from the inhibition of the enzyme delta-
aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALA-D). Although the test is relatively 
easy to perform, inexpensive, and rapid, the disadvantages include 
variability in results, the necessity to collect a complete 24 hour 
urine sample which has a specific gravity greater than 1.010, and also 
the fact that ALA decomposes in the presence of light.
    The pattern of porphyrin excretion in the urine can also be helpful 
in identifying lead intoxication. With lead poisoning, the urine 
concentrations of coproporphyrins I and II, porphobilinogen and 
uroporphyrin I rise. The most important increase, however, is that of 
coproporphyrin III; levels may exceed 5,000 g/l in the urine in 
lead poisoned individuals, but its correlation with blood lead levels 
and ZPP are not as good as those of ALA. Increases in urinary porphyrins 
are not diagnostic of lead toxicity and may be seen in porphyria, some 
liver diseases, and in patients with high reticulocyte counts.
    Summary. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's interim 
standard for inorganic lead in the construction industry places 
significant emphasis on the medical surveillance of all workers exposed 
to levels of inorganic lead above 30 g/m3 TWA. The 
physician has a fundamental role in this surveillance program, and in 
the operation of the medical removal protection program.
    Even with adequate worker education on the adverse health effects of 
lead and appropriate training in work practices, personal hygiene and 
other control measures, the physician has a primary responsibility for 
evaluating potential lead toxicity in the worker. It is only through a 
careful and detailed medical and work history, a complete physical 
examination and appropriate laboratory testing that an accurate 
assessment can be made. Many of the adverse health effects of lead 
toxicity are either irreversible or only partially reversible and 
therefore early detection of disease is very important.
    This document outlines the medical monitoring program as defined by 
the occupational safety and health standard for inorganic lead. It 
reviews the adverse health effects of lead poisoning and describes the 
important elements of the history and physical examinations as they 
relate to these adverse effects. Finally, the appropriate laboratory 
testing for evaluating lead exposure and toxicity is presented.
    It is hoped that this review and discussion will give the physician 
a better understanding of the OSHA standard with the ultimate goal of 
protecting the health and well-being

[[Page 117]]

of the worker exposed to lead under his or her care.
[58 FR 26627, May 4, 1993, as amended at 58 FR 34218, June 24, 1993; 61 
FR 5510, Feb. 13, 1996; 63 FR 1296, Jan. 8, 1998]



Sec. 1926.64  Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Purpose. This section contains requirements for preventing or 
minimizing the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, 
flammable, or explosive chemicals. These releases may result in toxic, 
fire or explosion hazards.
    (a) Application. (1) This section applies to the following:
    (i) A process which involves a chemical at or above the specified 
threshold quantities listed in Appendix A to this section;
    (ii) A process which involves a flammable liquid or gas (as defined 
in Sec. 1926.59(c) of this part) on site in one location, in a quantity 
of 10,000 pounds (4535.9 kg) or more except for:
    (A) Hydrocarbon fuels used solely for workplace consumption as a 
fuel (e.g., propane used for comfort heating, gasoline for vehicle 
refueling), if such fuels are not a part of a process containing another 
highly hazardous chemical covered by this standard;
    (B) Flammable liquids stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred 
which are kept below their normal boiling point without benefit of 
chilling or refrigeration.
    (2) This section does not apply to:
    (i) Retail facilities;
    (ii) Oil or gas well drilling or servicing operations; or,
    (iii) Normally unoccupied remote facilities.
    (b) Definitions. Atmospheric tank means a storage tank which has 
been designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 
p.s.i.g. (pounds per square inch gauge, 3.45 Kpa).
    Boiling point means the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 
14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (p.s.i.a.) (760 mm.). For the 
purposes of this section, where an accurate boiling point is unavailable 
for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a 
constant boiling point, the 10 percent point of a distillation performed 
in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of 
Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, may be used as the boiling point of 
the liquid.
    Catastrophic release means a major uncontrolled emission, fire, or 
explosion, involving one or more highly hazardous chemicals, that 
presents serious danger to employees in the workplace.
    Facility means the buildings, containers or equipment which contain 
a process.
    Highly hazardous chemical means a substance possessing toxic, 
reactive, flammable, or explosive properties and specified by paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section.
    Hot work means work involving electric or gas welding, cutting, 
brazing, or similar flame or spark-producing operations.
    Normally unoccupied remote facility means a facility which is 
operated, maintained or serviced by employees who visit the facility 
only periodically to check its operation and to perform necessary 
operating or maintenance tasks. No employees are permanently stationed 
at the facility. Facilities meeting this definition are not contiguous 
with, and must be geographically remote from all other buildings, 
processes or persons.
    Process means any activity involving a highly hazardous chemical 
including any use, storage, manufacturing, handling, or the on-site 
movement of such chemicals, or combination of these activities. For 
purposes of this definition, any group of vessels which are 
interconnected and separate vessels which are located such that a highly 
hazardous chemical could be involved in a potential release shall be 
considered a single process.
    Replacement in kind means a replacement which satisfies the design 
specification.
    Trade secret means any confidential formula, pattern, process, 
device, information or compilation of information that is used in an 
employer's business, and that gives the employer an opportunity to 
obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. Appendix 
D contained in Sec. 1926.59 sets out the criteria to be used in 
evaluating trade secrets.

[[Page 118]]

    (c) Employee participation. (1) Employers shall develop a written 
plan of action regarding the implementation of the employee 
participation required by this paragraph.
    (2) Employers shall consult with employees and their representatives 
on the conduct and development of process hazards analyses and on the 
development of the other elements of process safety management in this 
standard.
    (3) Employers shall provide to employees and their representatives 
access to process hazard analyses and to all other information required 
to be developed under this standard.
    (d) Process safety information. In accordance with the schedule set 
forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the employer shall complete a 
compilation of written process safety information before conducting any 
process hazard analysis required by the standard. The compilation of 
written process safety information is to enable the employer and the 
employees involved in operating the process to identify and understand 
the hazards posed by those processes involving highly hazardous 
chemicals. This process safety information shall include information 
pertaining to the hazards of the highly hazardous chemicals used or 
produced by the process, information pertaining to the technology of the 
process, and information pertaining to the equipment in the process.
    (1) Information pertaining to the hazards of the highly hazardous 
chemicals in the process. This information shall consist of at least the 
following:
    (i) Toxicity information;
    (ii) Permissible exposure limits;
    (iii) Physical data;
    (iv) Reactivity data:
    (v) Corrosivity data;
    (vi) Thermal and chemical stability data; and
    (vii) Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materials 
that could foreseeably occur.

    Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 
1926.59(g) may be used to comply with this requirement to the extent 
they contain the information required by this subparagraph.

    (2) Information pertaining to the technology of the process. (i) 
Information concerning the technology of the process shall include at 
least the following:
    (A) A block flow diagram or simplified process flow diagram (see 
Appendix B to this section);
    (B) Process chemistry;
    (C) Maximum intended inventory;
    (D) Safe upper and lower limits for such items as temperatures, 
pressures, flows or compositions; and,
    (E) An evaluation of the consequences of deviations, including those 
affecting the safety and health of employees.
    (ii) Where the original technical information no longer exists, such 
information may be developed in conjunction with the process hazard 
analysis in sufficient detail to support the analysis.
    (3) Information pertaining to the equipment in the process. (i) 
Information pertaining to the equipment in the process shall include:
    (A) Materials of construction;
    (B) Piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID's);
    (C) Electrical classification;
    (D) Relief system design and design basis;
    (E) Ventilation system design;
    (F) Design codes and standards employed;
    (G) Material and energy balances for processes built after May 26, 
1992; and,
    (H) Safety systems (e.g. interlocks, detection or suppression 
systems).
    (ii) The employer shall document that equipment complies with 
recognized and generally accepted good engineering practices.
    (iii) For existing equipment designed and constructed in accordance 
with codes, standards, or practices that are no longer in general use, 
the employer shall determine and document that the equipment is 
designed, maintained, inspected, tested, and operating in a safe manner.
    (e) Process hazard analysis. (1) The employer shall perform an 
initial process hazard analysis (hazard evaluation) on processes covered 
by this standard. The process hazard analysis shall be appropriate to 
the complexity of the process and shall identify, evaluate, and control 
the hazards involved in the process. Employers shall determine and

[[Page 119]]

document the priority order for conducting process hazard analyses based 
on a rationale which includes such considerations as extent of the 
process hazards, number of potentially affected employees, age of the 
process, and operating history of the process. The process hazard 
analysis shall be conducted as soon as possible, but not later than the 
following schedule:
    (i) No less than 25 percent of the initial process hazards analyses 
shall be completed by May 26, 1994;
    (ii) No less than 50 percent of the initial process hazards analyses 
shall be completed by May 26, 1995;
    (iii) No less than 75 percent of the initial process hazards 
analyses shall be completed by May 26, 1996;
    (iv) All initial process hazards analyses shall be completed by May 
26, 1997.
    (v) Process hazards analyses completed after May 26, 1987 which meet 
the requirements of this paragraph are acceptable as initial process 
hazards analyses. These process hazard analyses shall be updated and 
revalidated, based on their completion date, in accordance with 
paragraph (e)(6) of this standard.
    (2) The employer shall use one or more of the following 
methodologies that are appropriate to determine and evaluate the hazards 
of the process being analyzed.
    (i) What-If;
    (ii) Checklist;
    (iii) What-If/Checklist;
    (iv) Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP);
    (v) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA);
    (vi) Fault-Tree Analysis; or
    (vii) An appropriate equivalent methodology.
    (3) The process hazard analysis shall address:
    (i) The hazards of the process;
    (ii) The identification of any previous incident which had a likely 
potential for catastrophic consequences in the workplace;
    (iii) Engineering and administrative controls applicable to the 
hazards and their interrelationships such as appropriate application of 
detection methodologies to provide early warning of releases. 
(Acceptable detection methods might include process monitoring and 
control instrumentation with alarms, and detection hardware such as 
hydrocarbon sensors.);
    (iv) Consequences of failure of engineering and administrative 
controls;
    (v) Facility siting;
    (vi) Human factors; and
    (vii) A qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and 
health effects of failure of controls on employees in the workplace.
    (4) The process hazard analysis shall be performed by a team with 
expertise in engineering and process operations, and the team shall 
include at least one employee who has experience and knowledge specific 
to the process being evaluated. Also, one member of the team must be 
knowledgeable in the specific process hazard analysis methodology being 
used.
    (5) The employer shall establish a system to promptly address the 
team's findings and recommendations; assure that the recommendations are 
resolved in a timely manner and that the resolution is documented; 
document what actions are to be taken; complete actions as soon as 
possible; develop a written schedule of when these actions are to be 
completed; communicate the actions to operating, maintenance and other 
employees whose work assignments are in the process and who may be 
affected by the recommendations or actions.
    (6) At least every five (5) years after the completion of the 
initial process hazard analysis, the process hazard analysis shall be 
updated and revalidated by a team meeting the requirements in paragraph 
(e)(4) of this section, to assure that the process hazard analysis is 
consistent with the current process.
    (7) Employers shall retain process hazards analyses and updates or 
revalidations for each process covered by this section, as well as the 
documented resolution of recommendations described in paragraph (e)(5) 
of this section for the life of the process.
    (f) Operating procedures. (1) The employer shall develop and 
implement

[[Page 120]]

written operating procedures that provide clear instructions for safely 
conducting activities involved in each covered process consistent with 
the process safety information and shall address at least the following 
elements.
    (i) Steps for each operating phase:
    (A) Initial startup;
    (B) Normal operations;
    (C) Temporary operations;
    (D) Emergency shutdown including the conditions under which 
emergency shutdown is required, and the assignment of shutdown 
responsibility to qualified operators to ensure that emergency shutdown 
is executed in a safe and timely manner.
    (E) Emergency operations;
    (F) Normal shutdown; and,
    (G) Startup following a turnaround, or after an emergency shutdown.
    (ii) Operating limits:
    (A) Consequences of deviation; and
    (B) Steps required to correct or avoid deviation.
    (iii) Safety and health considerations:
    (A) Properties of, and hazards presented by, the chemicals used in 
the process;
    (B) Precautions necessary to prevent exposure, including engineering 
controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment;
    (C) Control measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne 
exposure occurs;
    (D) Quality control for raw materials and control of hazardous 
chemical inventory levels; and,
    (E) Any special or unique hazards.
    (iv) Safety systems and their functions.
    (2) Operating procedures shall be readily accessible to employees 
who work in or maintain a process.
    (3) The operating procedures shall be reviewed as often as necessary 
to assure that they reflect current operating practice, including 
changes that result from changes in process chemicals, technology, and 
equipment, and changes to facilities. The employer shall certify 
annually that these operating procedures are current and accurate.
    (4) The employer shall develop and implement safe work practices to 
provide for the control of hazards during operations such as lockout/
tagout; confined space entry; opening process equipment or piping; and 
control over entrance into a facility by maintenance, contractor, 
laboratory, or other support personnel. These safe work practices shall 
apply to employees and contractor employees.
    (g) Training--(1) Initial training. (i) Each employee presently 
involved in operating a process, and each employee before being involved 
in operating a newly assigned process, shall be trained in an overview 
of the process and in the operating procedures as specified in paragraph 
(f) of this section. The training shall include emphasis on the specific 
safety and health hazards, emergency operations including shutdown, and 
safe work practices applicable to the employee's job tasks.
    (ii) In lieu of initial training for those employees already 
involved in operating a process on May 26, 1992, an employer may certify 
in writing that the employee has the required knowledge, skills, and 
abilities to safely carry out the duties and responsibilities as 
specified in the operating procedures.
    (2) Refresher training. Refresher training shall be provided at 
least every three years, and more often if necessary, to each employee 
involved in operating a process to assure that the employee understands 
and adheres to the current operating procedures of the process. The 
employer, in consultation with the employees involved in operating the 
process, shall determine the appropriate frequency of refresher 
training.
    (3) Training documentation. The employer shall ascertain that each 
employee involved in operating a process has received and understood the 
training required by this paragraph. The employer shall prepare a record 
which contains the identity of the employee, the date of training, and 
the means used to verify that the employee understood the training.
    (h) Contractors--(1) Application. This paragraph applies to 
contractors performing maintenance or repair, turnaround, major 
renovation, or specialty work on or adjacent to a covered process. It 
does not apply to contractors providing incidental services which do

[[Page 121]]

not influence process safety, such as janitorial work, food and drink 
services, laundry, delivery or other supply services.
    (2) Employer responsibilities. (i) The employer, when selecting a 
contractor, shall obtain and evaluate information regarding the contract 
employer's safety performance and programs.
    (ii) The employer shall inform contract employers of the known 
potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards related to the 
contractor's work and the process.
    (iii) The employer shall explain to contract employers the 
applicable provisions of the emergency action plan required by paragraph 
(n) of this section.
    (iv) The employer shall develop and implement safe work practices 
consistent with paragraph (f)(4) of this section, to control the 
entrance, presence and exit of contract employers and contract employees 
in covered process areas.
    (v) The employer shall periodically evaluate the performance of 
contract employers in fulfilling their obligations as specified in 
paragraph (h)(3) of this section.
    (vi) The employer shall maintain a contract employee injury and 
illness log related to the contractor's work in process areas.
    (3) Contract employer responsibilities. (i) The contract employer 
shall assure that each contract employee is trained in the work 
practices necessary to safely perform his/her job.
    (ii) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee 
is instructed in the known potential fire, explosion, or toxic release 
hazards related to his/her job and the process, and the applicable 
provisions of the emergency action plan.
    (iii) The contract employer shall document that each contract 
employee has received and understood the training required by this 
paragraph. The contract employer shall prepare a record which contains 
the identity of the contract employee, the date of training, and the 
means used to verify that the employee understood the training.
    (iv) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee 
follows the safety rules of the facility including the safe work 
practices required by paragraph (f)(4) of this section.
    (v) The contract employer shall advise the employer of any unique 
hazards presented by the contract employer's work, or of any hazards 
found by the contract employer's work.
    (i) Pre-startup safety review. (1) The employer shall perform a pre-
startup safety review for new facilities and for modified facilities 
when the modification is significant enough to require a change in the 
process safety information.
    (2) The pre-startup safety review shall confirm that prior to the 
introduction of highly hazardous chemicals to a process:
    (i) Construction and equipment is in accordance with design 
specifications;
    (ii) Safety, operating, maintenance, and emergency procedures are in 
place and are adequate;
    (iii) For new facilities, a process hazard analysis has been 
performed and recommendations have been resolved or implemented before 
startup; and modified facilities meet the requirements contained in 
management of change, paragraph (l).
    (iv) Training of each employee involved in operating a process has 
been completed.
    (j) Mechanical integrity--(1) Application. Paragraphs (j)(2) through 
(j)(6) of this section apply to the following process equipment:
    (i) Pressure vessels and storage tanks;
    (ii) Piping systems (including piping components such as valves);
    (iii) Relief and vent systems and devices;
    (iv) Emergency shutdown systems;
    (v) Controls (including monitoring devices and sensors, alarms, and 
interlocks) and,
    (vi) Pumps.
    (2) Written procedures. The employer shall establish and implement 
written procedures to maintain the on-going integrity of process 
equipment.
    (3) Training for process maintenance activities. The employer shall 
train each employee involved in maintaining the on-going integrity of 
process equipment in an overview of that process

[[Page 122]]

and its hazards and in the procedures applicable to the employee's job 
tasks to assure that the employee can perform the job tasks in a safe 
manner.
    (4) Inspection and testing. (i) Inspections and tests shall be 
performed on process equipment.
    (ii) Inspection and testing procedures shall follow recognized and 
generally accepted good engineering practices.
    (iii) The frequency of inspections and tests of process equipment 
shall be consistent with applicable manufacturers' recommendations and 
good engineering practices, and more frequently if determined to be 
necessary by prior operating experience.
    (iv) The employer shall document each inspection and test that has 
been performed on process equipment. The documentation shall identify 
the date of the inspection or test, the name of the person who performed 
the inspection or test, the serial number or other identifier of the 
equipment on which the inspection or test was performed, a description 
of the inspection or test performed, and the results of the inspection 
or test.
    (5) Equipment deficiencies. The employer shall correct deficiencies 
in equipment that are outside acceptable limits (defined by the process 
safety information in paragraph (d) of this section) before further use 
or in a safe and timely manner when necessary means are taken to assure 
safe operation.
    (6) Quality assurance. (i) In the construction of new plants and 
equipment, the employer shall assure that equipment as it is fabricated 
is suitable for the process application for which they will be used.
    (ii) Appropriate checks and inspections shall be performed to assure 
that equipment is installed properly and consistent with design 
specifications and the manufacturer's instructions.
    (iii) The employer shall assure that maintenance materials, spare 
parts and equipment are suitable for the process application for which 
they will be used.
    (k) Hot work permit. (1) The employer shall issue a hot work permit 
for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process.
    (2) The permit shall document that the fire prevention and 
protection requirements in 29 CFR 1926.352 have been implemented prior 
to beginning the hot work operations; it shall indicate the date(s) 
authorized for hot work; and identify the object on which hot work is to 
be performed. The permit shall be kept on file until completion of the 
hot work operations.
    (l) Management of change. (1) The employer shall establish and 
implement written procedures to manage changes (except for 
``replacements in kind'') to process chemicals, technology, equipment, 
and procedures; and, changes to facilities that affect a covered 
process.
    (2) The procedures shall assure that the following considerations 
are addressed prior to any change:
    (i) The technical basis for the proposed change;
    (ii) Impact of change on safety and health;
    (iii) Modifications to operating procedures;
    (iv) Necessary time period for the change; and,
    (v) Authorization requirements for the proposed change.
    (3) Employees involved in operating a process and maintenance and 
contract employees whose job tasks will be affected by a change in the 
process shall be informed of, and trained in, the change prior to start-
up of the process or affected part of the process.
    (4) If a change covered by this paragraph results in a change in the 
process safety information required by paragraph (d) of this section, 
such information shall be updated accordingly.
    (5) If a change covered by this paragraph results in a change in the 
operating procedures or practices required by paragraph (f) of this 
section, such procedures or practices shall be updated accordingly.
    (m) Incident investigation. (1) The employer shall investigate each 
incident which resulted in, or could reasonably have resulted in a 
catastrophic release of highly hazardous chemical in the workplace.
    (2) An incident investigation shall be initiated as promptly as 
possible, but not later than 48 hours following the incident.
    (3) An incident investigation team shall be established and consist 
of at least one person knowledgeable in the process involved, including 
a contract

[[Page 123]]

employee if the incident involved work of the contractor, and other 
persons with appropriate knowledge and experience to thoroughly 
investigate and analyze the incident.
    (4) A report shall be prepared at the conclusion of the 
investigation which includes at a minimum:
    (i) Date of incident;
    (ii) Date investigation began;
    (iii) A description of the incident;
    (iv) The factors that contributed to the incident; and,
    (v) Any recommendations resulting from the investigation.
    (5) The employer shall establish a system to promptly address and 
resolve the incident report findings and recommendations. Resolutions 
and corrective actions shall be documented.
    (6) The report shall be reviewed with all affected personnel whose 
job tasks are relevant to the incident findings including contract 
employees where applicable.
    (7) Incident investigation reports shall be retained for five years.
    (n) Emergency planning and response. The employer shall establish 
and implement an emergency action plan for the entire plant in 
accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1926.35(a). In addition, the 
emergency action plan shall include procedures for handling small 
releases. Employers covered under this standard may also be subject to 
the hazardous waste and emergency response provisions contained in 29 
CFR 1926.65(a), (p) and (q).
    (o) Compliance audits. (1) Employers shall certify that they have 
evaluated compliance with the provisions of this section at least every 
three years to verify that the procedures and practices developed under 
the standard are adequate and are being followed.
    (2) The compliance audit shall be conducted by at least one person 
knowledgeable in the process.
    (3) A report of the findings of the audit shall be developed.
    (4) The employer shall promptly determine and document an 
appropriate response to each of the findings of the compliance audit, 
and document that deficiencies have been corrected.
    (5) Employers shall retain the two (2) most recent compliance audit 
reports.
    (p) Trade secrets. (1) Employers shall make all information 
necessary to comply with the section available to those persons 
responsible for compiling the process safety information (required by 
paragraph (d) of this section), those assisting in the development of 
the process hazard analysis (required by paragraph (e) of this section), 
those responsible for developing the operating procedures (required by 
paragraph (f) of this section), and those involved in incident 
investigations (required by paragraph (m) of this section), emergency 
planning and response (paragraph (n) of this section) and compliance 
audits (paragraph (o) of this section) without regard to possible trade 
secret status of such information.
    (2) Nothing in this paragraph shall preclude the employer from 
requiring the persons to whom the information is made available under 
paragraph (p)(1) of this section to enter into confidentiality 
agreements not to disclose the information as set forth in 29 CFR 
1926.59.
    (3) Subject to the rules and procedures set forth in 29 CFR 
1926.59(i) (1) through (12), employees and their designated 
representatives shall have access to trade secret information contained 
within the process hazard analysis and other documents required to be 
developed by this standard.

 Appendix A to Sec. 1926.64--List of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, Toxics 
                        and Reactives (Mandatory)

    This Appendix contains a listing of toxic and reactive highly 
hazardous chemicals which present a potential for a catastrophic event 
at or above the threshold quantity.

                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Chemical Name                         CAS*      TQ** 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Acetaldehyde.......................................      75-07-0    2500
Acrolein (2-Propenal)..............................     107-02-8     150
Acrylyl Chloride...................................     814-68-6     250
Allyl Chloride.....................................     107-05-1    1000
Allylamine.........................................     107-11-9    1000
Alkylaluminums.....................................       Varies    5000
Ammonia, Anhydrous.................................    7664-41-7   10000
Ammonia solutions (greater than 44% ammonia by                          
 weight)...........................................    7664-41-7   15000
Ammonium Perchlorate...............................    7790-98-9     500
Ammonium Permanganate..............................    7787-36-2    7500
Arsine (also called Arsenic Hydride)...............    7784-42-1     100
Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether............................     542-88-1     100

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Boron Trichloride..................................   10294-34-5    2500
Boron Trifluoride..................................    7637-07-2     250
Bromine............................................    7726-95-6    1500
Bromine Chloride...................................   13863-41-7    1500
Bromine Pentafluoride..............................    7789-30-2    2500
Bromine Trifluoride................................    7787-71-5   15000
3-Bromopropyne (also called Propargyl Bromide).....     106-96-7     100
Butyl Hydroperoxide (Tertiary).....................      75-91-2    5000
Butyl Perbenzoate (Tertiary).......................     614-45-9    7500
Carbonyl Chloride (see Phosgene)...................      75-44-5     100
* Carbonyl Fluoride................................     353-50-4    2500
Cellulose Nitrate (concentration greater than 12.6%                     
 nitrogen..........................................    9004-70-0    2500
Chlorine...........................................    7782-50-5    1500
Chlorine Dioxide...................................   10049-04-4    1000
Chlorine Pentrafluoride............................   13637-63-3    1000
Chlorine Trifluoride...............................    7790-91-2    1000
Chlorodiethylaluminum (also called Diethylaluminum                      
 Chloride).........................................      96-10-6    5000
1-Chloro-2,4-Dinitrobenzene........................      97-00-7    5000
Chloromethyl Methyl Ether..........................     107-30-2     500
Chloropicrin.......................................      76-06-2     500
Chloropicrin and Methyl Bromide mixture............         None    1500
Chloropicrin and Methyl Chloride mixture...........         None    1500
Cumene Hydroperoxide...............................      80-15-9    5000
Cyanogen...........................................     460-19-5    2500
Cyanogen Chloride..................................     506-77-4     500
Cyanuric Fluoride..................................     675-14-9     100
Diacetyl Peroxide (concentration greater than 70%).     110-22-5    5000
Diazomethane.......................................     334-88-3     500
Dibenzoyl Peroxide.................................      94-36-0    7500
Diborane...........................................   19287-45-7     100
Dibutyl Peroxide (Tertiary)........................     110-05-4    5000
Dichloro Acetylene.................................    7572-29-4     250
Dichlorosilane.....................................    4109-96-0    2500
Diethylzinc........................................     557-20-0   10000
Diisopropyl Peroxydicarbonate......................     105-64-6    7500
Dilauroyl Peroxide.................................     105-74-8    7500
Dimethyldichlorosilane.............................      75-78-5    1000
Dimethylhydrazine, 1,1-............................      57-14-7    1000
Dimethylamine, Anhydrous...........................     124-40-3    2500
2,4-Dinitroaniline.................................      97-02-9    5000
Ethyl Methyl Ketone Peroxide (also Methyl Ethyl                         
 Ketone Peroxide; concentration greater than 60%)..    1338-23-4    5000
Ethyl Nitrite......................................     109-95-5    5000
Ethylamine.........................................      75-04-7    7500
Ethylene Fluorohydrin..............................     371-62-0     100
Ethylene Oxide.....................................      75-21-8    5000
Ethyleneimine......................................     151-56-4    1000
Fluorine...........................................    7782-41-4    1000
Formaldehyde (Formalin)............................      50-00-0    1000
Furan..............................................     110-00-9     500
Hexafluoroacetone..................................     684-16-2    5000
Hydrochloric Acid, Anhydrous.......................    7647-01-0    5000
Hydrofluoric Acid, Anhydrous.......................    7664-39-3    1000
Hydrogen Bromide...................................   10035-10-6    5000
Hydrogen Chloride..................................    7647-01-0    5000
Hydrogen Cyanide, Anhydrous........................      74-90-8    1000
Hydrogen Fluoride..................................    7664-39-3    1000
Hydrogen Peroxide (52% by weight or greater).......    7722-84-1    7500
Hydrogen Selenide..................................    7783-07-5     150
Hydrogen Sulfide...................................    7783-06-4    1500
Hydroxylamine......................................    7803-49-8    2500
Iron, Pentacarbonyl................................   13463-40-6     250
Isopropylamine.....................................      75-31-0    5000
Ketene.............................................     463-51-4     100
Methacrylaldehyde..................................      78-85-3    1000
Methacryloyl Chloride..............................     920-46-7     150
Methacryloyloxyethyl Isocyanate....................   30674-80-7     100
Methyl Acrylonitrile...............................     126-98-7     250
Methylamine, Anhydrous.............................      74-89-5    1000
Methyl Bromide.....................................      74-83-9    2500
Methyl Chloride....................................      74-87-3   15000
Methyl Chloroformate...............................      79-22-1     500
Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (concentration greater                     
 than 60%).........................................    1338-23-4    5000
Methyl Fluoroacetate...............................     453-18-9     100
Methyl Fluorosulfate...............................     421-20-5     100
Methyl Hydrazine...................................      60-34-4     100
Methyl Iodide......................................      74-88-4    7500
Methyl Isocyanate..................................     624-83-9     250
Methyl Mercaptan...................................      74-93-1    5000
Methyl Vinyl Ketone................................      79-84-4     100
Methyltrichlorosilane..............................      75-79-6     500
Nickel Carbonly (Nickel Tetracarbonyl).............   13463-39-3     150
Nitric Acid (94.5% by weight or greater)...........    7697-37-2     500
Nitric Oxide.......................................   10102-43-9     250
Nitroaniline (para Nitroaniline....................     100-01-6    5000
Nitromethane.......................................      75-52-5    2500
Nitrogen Dioxide...................................   10102-44-0     250
Nitrogen Oxides (NO; NO(2); N2O4; N2O3)............   10102-44-0     250
Nitrogen Tetroxide (also called Nitrogen Peroxide).   10544-72-6     250
Nitrogen Trifluoride...............................    7783-54-2    5000
Nitrogen Trioxide..................................   10544-73-7     250
Oleum (65% to 80% by weight; also called Fuming                         
 Sulfuric Acid)....................................    8014-94-7    1000
Osmium Tetroxide...................................   20816-12-0     100
Oxygen Difluoride (Fluorine Monoxide)..............    7783-41-7     100
Ozone..............................................   10028-15-6     100
Pentaborane........................................   19624-22-7     100
Peracetic Acid (concentration greater 60% Acetic                        
 Acid; also called Peroxyacetic Acid)..............      79-21-0    1000
Perchloric Acid (concentration greater than 60% by                      
 weight)...........................................    7601-90-3    5000
Perchloromethyl Mercaptan..........................     594-42-3     150

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Perchloryl Fluoride................................    7616-94-6    5000
Peroxyacetic Acid (concentration greater than 60%                       
 Acetic Acid; also called Peracetic Acid)..........      79-21-0    1000
Phosgene (also called Carbonyl Chloride)...........      75-44-5     100
Phosphine (Hydrogen Phosphide).....................    7803-51-2     100
Phosphorus Oxychloride (also called Phosphoryl                          
 Chloride).........................................   10025-87-3    1000
Phosphorus Trichloride.............................    7719-12-2    1000
Phosphoryl Chloride (also called Phosphorus                             
 Oxychloride)......................................   10025-87-3    1000
Propargyl Bromide..................................     106-96-7     100
Propyl Nitrate.....................................      627-3-4    2500
Sarin..............................................     107-44-8     100
Selenium Hexafluoride..............................    7783-79-1    1000
Stibine (Antimony Hydride).........................    7803-52-3     500
Sulfur Dioxide (liquid)............................    7446-09-5    1000
Sulfur Pentafluoride...............................    5714-22-7     250
Sulfur Tetrafluoride...............................    7783-60-0     250
Sulfur Trioxide (also called Sulfuric Anhydride)...    7446-11-9    1000
Sulfuric Anhydride (also called Sulfur Trioxide)...    7446-11-9    1000
Tellurium Hexafluoride.............................    7783-80-4     250
Tetrafluoroethylene................................     116-14-3    5000
Tetrafluorohydrazine...............................   10036-47-2    5000
Tetramethyl Lead...................................      75-74-1    1000
Thionyl Chloride...................................    7719-09-7     250
Trichloro (chloromethyl) Silane....................    1558-25-4     100
Trichloro (dichlorophenyl) Silane..................   27137-85-5    2500
Trichlorosilane....................................   10025-78-2    5000
Trifluorochloroethylene............................      79-38-9   10000
Trimethyoxysilane..................................    2487-90-3   1500 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Chemical Abstract Service Number                                      
** Threshold Quantity in Pounds (Amount necessary to be covered by this 
  standard.)                                                            

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 Appendix B to Sec. 1926.64--Block Flow Diagram and Simplified Process 
                       Flow Diagram (Nonmandatory)
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.008


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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.009



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 Appendix C to Sec. 1926.64--Compliance Guidelines and Recommendations 
              for Process Safety Management (Nonmandatory)

    This appendix serves as a nonmandatory guideline to assist employers 
and employees in complying with the requirements of this section, as 
well as provides other helpful recommendations and information. Examples 
presented in this appendix are not the only means of achieving the 
performance goals in the standard. This appendix neither adds nor 
detracts from the requirements of the standard.
    1. Introduction to Process Safety Management. The major objective of 
process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals is to prevent 
unwanted releases of hazardous chemicals especially into locations which 
could expose employees and others to serious hazards. An effective 
process safety management program requires a systematic approach to 
evaluating the whole process. Using this approach the process design, 
process technology, operational and maintenance activities and 
procedures, nonroutine activities and procedures, emergency preparedness 
plans and procedures, training programs, and other elements which impact 
the process are all considered in the evaluation. The various lines of 
defense that have been incorporated into the design and operation of the 
process to prevent or mitigate the release of hazardous chemicals need 
to be evaluated and strengthened to assure their effectiveness at each 
level. Process safety management is the proactive identification, 
evaluation and mitigation or prevention of chemical releases that could 
occur as a result of failures in process, procedures or equipment.
    The process safety management standard targets highly hazardous 
chemicals that have the potential to cause a catastrophic incident. This 
standard as a whole is to aid employers in their efforts to prevent or 
mitigate episodic chemical releases that could lead to a catastrophe in 
the workplace and possibly to the surrounding community. To control 
these types of hazards, employers need to develop the necessary 
expertise, experiences, judgement and proactive initiative within their 
workforce to properly implement and maintain an effective process safety 
management program as envisioned in the OSHA standard. This OSHA 
standard is required by the Clean Air Act Amendments as is the 
Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Management Plan. Employers, who 
merge the two sets of requirements into their process safety management 
program, will better assure full compliance with each as well as 
enhancing their relationship with the local community.
    While OSHA believes process safety management will have a positive 
effect on the safety of employees in workplaces and also offers other 
potential benefits to employers (increased productivity), smaller 
businesses which may have limited resources available to them at this 
time, might consider alternative avenues of decreasing the risks 
associated with highly hazardous chemicals at their workplaces. One 
method which might be considered is the reduction in the inventory of 
the highly hazardous chemical. This reduction in inventory will result 
in a reduction of the risk or potential for a catastrophic incident. 
Also, employers including small employers may be able to establish more 
efficient inventory control by reducing the quantities of highly 
hazardous chemicals on site below the established threshold quantities. 
This reduction can be accomplished by ordering smaller shipments and 
maintaining the minimum inventory necessary for efficient and safe 
operation. When reduced inventory is not feasible, then the employer 
might consider dispersing inventory to several locations on site. 
Dispersing storage into locations where a release in one location will 
not cause a release in another location is a practical method to also 
reduce the risk or potential for catastrophic incidents.
    2. Employee Involvement in Process Safety Management. Section 304 of 
the Clean Air Act Amendments states that employers are to consult with 
their employees and their representatives regarding the employers 
efforts in the development and implementation of the process safety 
management program elements and hazard assessments. Section 304 also 
requires employers to train and educate their employees and to inform 
affected employees of the findings from incident investigations required 
by the process safety management program. Many employers, under their 
safety and health programs, have already established means and methods 
to keep employees and their representatives informed about relevant 
safety and health issues and employers may be able to adapt these 
practices and procedures to meet their obligations under this standard. 
Employers who have not implemented an occupational safety and health 
program may wish to form a safety and health committee of employees and 
management representatives to help the employer meet the obligations 
specified by this standard. These committees can become a significant 
ally in helping the employer to implement and maintain an effective 
process safety management program for all employees.
    3. Process Safety Information. Complete and accurate written 
information concerning process chemicals, process technology, and 
process equipment is essential to an effective process safety management 
program and to a process hazards analysis. The compiled information will 
be a necessary resource to a variety of users including the team that 
will

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perform the process hazards analysis as required under paragraph (e); 
those developing the training programs and the operating procedures; 
contractors whose employees will be working with the process; those 
conducting the pre-startup reviews; local emergency preparedness 
planners; and insurance and enforcement officials.
    The information to be compiled about the chemicals, including 
process intermediates, needs to be comprehensive enough for an accurate 
assessment of the fire and explosion characteristics, reactivity 
hazards, the safety and health hazards to workers, and the corrosion and 
erosion effects on the process equipment and monitoring tools. Current 
material safety data sheet (MSDS) information can be used to help meet 
this requirement which must be supplemented with process chemistry 
information including runaway reaction and over pressure hazards if 
applicable.
    Process technology information will be a part of the process safety 
information package and it is expected that it will include diagrams of 
the type shown in Appendix B of this section as well as employer 
established criteria for maximum inventory levels for process chemicals; 
limits beyond which would be considered upset conditions; and a 
qualitative estimate of the consequences or results of deviation that 
could occur if operating beyond the established process limits. 
Employers are encouraged to use diagrams which will help users 
understand the process.
    A block flow diagram is used to show the major process equipment and 
interconnecting process flow lines and show flow rates, stream 
composition, temperatures, and pressures when necessary for clarity. The 
block flow diagram is a simplified diagram.
    Process flow diagrams are more complex and will show all main flow 
streams including valves to enhance the understanding of the process, as 
well as pressures and temperatures on all feed and product lines within 
all major vessels, in and out of headers and heat exchangers, and points 
of pressure and temperature control. Also, materials of construction 
information, pump capacities and pressure heads, compressor horsepower 
and vessel design pressures and temperatures are shown when necessary 
for clarity. In addition, major components of control loops are usually 
shown along with key utilities on process flow diagrams.
    Piping and instrument diagrams (P&Ids) may be the more appropriate 
type of diagrams to show some of the above details and to display the 
information for the piping designer and engineering staff. The P&IDs are 
to be used to describe the relationships between equipment and 
instrumentation as well as other relevant information that will enhance 
clarity. Computer software programs which do P&Ids or other diagrams 
useful to the information package, may be used to help meet this 
requirement.
    The information pertaining to process equipment design must be 
documented. In other words, what were the codes and standards relied on 
to establish good engineering practice. These codes and standards are 
published by such organizations as the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, American Petroleum Institute, American National Standards 
Institute, National Fire Protection Association, American Society for 
Testing and Materials, National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Inspectors, National Association of Corrosion Engineers, American 
Society of Exchange Manufacturers Association, and model building code 
groups.
    In addition, various engineering societies issue technical reports 
which impact process design. For example, the American Institute of 
Chemical Engineers has published technical reports on topics such as two 
phase flow for venting devices. This type of technically recognized 
report would constitute good engineering practice.
    For existing equipment designed and constructed many years ago in 
accordance with the codes and standards available at that time and no 
longer in general use today, the employer must document which codes and 
standards were used and that the design and construction along with the 
testing, inspection and operation are still suitable for the intended 
use. Where the process technology requires a design which departs from 
the applicable codes and standards, the employer must document that the 
design and construction is suitable for the intended purpose.
    4. Process Hazard Analysis. A process hazard analysis (PHA), 
sometimes called a process hazard evaluation, is one of the most 
important elements of the process safety management program. A PHA is an 
organized and systematic effort to identify and analyze the significance 
of potential hazards associated with the processing or handling of 
highly hazardous chemicals. A PHA provides information which will assist 
employers and employees in making decisions for improving safety and 
reducing the consequences of unwanted or unplanned releases of hazardous 
chemicals. A PHA is directed toward analyzing potential causes and 
consequences of fires, explosions, releases of toxic or flammable 
chemicals and major spills of hazardous chemicals. The PHA focuses on 
equipment, instrumentation, utilities, human actions (routine and 
nonroutine), and external factors that might impact the process. These 
considerations assist in determining the hazards and potential failure 
points or failure modes in a process.
    The selection of a PHA methodology or technique will be influenced 
by many factors including the amount of existing knowledge about the 
process. Is it a process that has

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been operated for a long period of time with little or no innovation and 
extensive experience has been generated with its use? Or, is it a new 
process or one which has been changed frequently by the inclusion of 
innovative features? Also, the size and complexity of the process will 
influence the decision as to the appropriate PHA methodology to use. All 
PHA methodologies are subject to certain limitations. For example, the 
checklist methodology works well when the process is very stable and no 
changes are made, but it is not as effective when the process has 
undergone extensive change. The checklist may miss the most recent 
changes and consequently the changes would not be evaluated. Another 
limitation to be considered concerns the assumptions made by the team or 
analyst. The PHA is dependent on good judgement and the assumptions made 
during the study need to be documented and understood by the team and 
reviewer and kept for a future PHA.
    The team conducting the PHA need to understand the methodology that 
is going to be used. A PHA team can vary in size from two people to a 
number of people with varied operational and technical backgrounds. Some 
team members may only be a part of the team for a limited time. The team 
leader needs to be fully knowledgeable in the proper implementation of 
the PHA methodology that is to be used and should be impartial in the 
evaluation. The other full or part time team members need to provide the 
team with expertise in areas such as process technology, process design, 
operating procedures and practices, including how the work is actually 
performed, alarms, emergency procedures, instrumentation, maintenance 
procedures, both routine and nonroutine tasks, including how the tasks 
are authorized, procurement of parts and supplies, safety and health, 
and any other relevant subject as the need dictates. At least one team 
member must be familiar with the process.
    The ideal team will have an intimate knowledge of the standards, 
codes, specifications and regulations applicable to the process being 
studied. The selected team members need to be compatible and the team 
leader needs to be able to manage the team and the PHA study. The team 
needs to be able to work together while benefiting from the expertise of 
others on the team or outside the team, to resolve issues, and to forge 
a consensus on the findings of the study and the recommendations.
    The application of a PHA to a process may involve the use of 
different methodologies for various parts of the process. For example, a 
process involving a series of unit operations of varying sizes, 
complexities, and ages may use different methodologies and team members 
for each operation. Then the conclusions can be integrated into one 
final study and evaluation. A more specific example is the use of a 
checklist PHA for a standard boiler or heat exchanger and the use of a 
Hazard and Operability PHA for the overall process. Also, for batch type 
processes like custom batch operations, a generic PHA of a 
representative batch may be used where there are only small changes of 
monomer or other ingredient ratios and the chemistry is documented for 
the full range and ratio of batch ingredients. Another process that 
might consider using a generic type of PHA is a gas plant. Often these 
plants are simply moved from site to site and therefore, a generic PHA 
may be used for these movable plants. Also, when an employer has several 
similar size gas plants and no sour gas is being processed at the site, 
then a generic PHA is feasible as long as the variations of the 
individual sites are accounted for in the PHA. Finally, when an employer 
has a large continuous process which has several control rooms for 
different portions of the process such as for a distillation tower and a 
blending operation, the employer may wish to do each segment separately 
and then integrate the final results.
    Additionally, small businesses which are covered by this rule, will 
often have processes that have less storage volume, less capacity, and 
less complicated than processes at a large facility. Therefore, OSHA 
would anticipate that the less complex methodologies would be used to 
meet the process hazard analysis criteria in the standard. These process 
hazard analyses can be done in less time and with a few people being 
involved. A less complex process generally means that less data, P&IDs, 
and process information is needed to perform a process hazard analysis.
    Many small businesses have processes that are not unique, such as 
cold storage lockers or water treatment facilities. Where employer 
associations have a number of members with such facilities, a generic 
PHA, evolved from a checklist or what-if questions, could be developed 
and used by each employer effectively to reflect his/her particular 
process; this would simplify compliance for them.
    When the employer has a number of processes which require a PHA, the 
employer must set up a priority system of which PHAs to conduct first. A 
preliminary or gross hazard analysis may be useful in prioritizing the 
processes that the employer has determined are subject to coverage by 
the process safety management standard. Consideration should first be 
given to those processes with the potential of adversely affecting the 
largest number of employees. This prioritizing should consider the 
potential severity of a chemical release, the number of potentially 
affected employees, the operating history of the process such as the 
frequency of chemical releases, the age of the process and any other 
relevant factors. These factors would suggest a ranking order and would 
suggest

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either using a weighing factor system or a systematic ranking method. 
The use of a preliminary hazard analysis would assist an employer in 
determining which process should be of the highest priority and thereby 
the employer would obtain the greatest improvement in safety at the 
facility.
    Detailed guidance on the content and application of process hazard 
analysis methodologies is available from the American Institute of 
Chemical Engineers' Center for Chemical Process Safety (see Appendix D).
    5. Operating Procedures and Practices. Operating procedures describe 
tasks to be performed, data to be recorded, operating conditions to be 
maintained, samples to be collected, and safety and health precautions 
to be taken. The procedures need to be technically accurate, 
understandable to employees, and revised periodically to ensure that 
they reflect current operations. The process safety information package 
is to be used as a resource to better assure that the operating 
procedures and practices are consistent with the known hazards of the 
chemicals in the process and that the operating parameters are accurate. 
Operating procedures should be reviewed by engineering staff and 
operating personnel to ensure that they are accurate and provide 
practical instructions on how to actually carry out job duties safely.
    Operating procedures will include specific instructions or details 
on what steps are to be taken or followed in carrying out the stated 
procedures. These operating instructions for each procedure should 
include the applicable safety precautions and should contain appropriate 
information on safety implications. For example, the operating 
procedures addressing operating parameters will contain operating 
instructions about pressure limits, temperature ranges, flow rates, what 
to do when an upset condition occurs, what alarms and instruments are 
pertinent if an upset condition occurs, and other subjects. Another 
example of using operating instructions to properly implement operating 
procedures is in starting up or shutting down the process. In these 
cases, different parameters will be required from those of normal 
operation. These operating instructions need to clearly indicate the 
distinctions between startup and normal operations such as the 
appropriate allowances for heating up a unit to reach the normal 
operating parameters. Also the operating instructions need to describe 
the proper method for increasing the temperature of the unit until the 
normal operating temperature parameters are achieved.
    Computerized process control systems add complexity to operating 
instructions. These operating instructions need to describe the logic of 
the software as well as the relationship between the equipment and the 
control system; otherwise, it may not be apparent to the operator.
    Operating procedures and instructions are important for training 
operating personnel. The operating procedures are often viewed as the 
standard operating practices (SOPs) for operations. Control room 
personnel and operating staff, in general, need to have a full 
understanding of operating procedures. If workers are not fluent in 
English then procedures and instructions need to be prepared in a second 
language understood by the workers. In addition, operating procedures 
need to be changed when there is a change in the process as a result of 
the management of change procedures. The consequences of operating 
procedure changes need to be fully evaluated and the information 
conveyed to the personnel. For example, mechanical changes to the 
process made by the maintenance department (like changing a valve from 
steel to brass or other subtle changes) need to be evaluated to 
determine if operating procedures and practices also need to be changed. 
All management of change actions must be coordinated and integrated with 
current operating procedures and operating personnel must be oriented to 
the changes in procedures before the change is made. When the process is 
shutdown in order to make a change, then the operating procedures must 
be updated before startup of the process.
    Training in how to handle upset conditions must be accomplished as 
well as what operating personnel are to do in emergencies such as when a 
pump seal fails or a pipeline ruptures. Communication between operating 
personnel and workers performing work within the process area, such as 
nonroutine tasks, also must be maintained. The hazards of the tasks are 
to be conveyed to operating personnel in accordance with established 
procedures and to those performing the actual tasks. When the work is 
completed, operating personnel should be informed to provide closure on 
the job.
    6. Employee Training. All employees, including maintenance and 
contractor employees, involved with highly hazardous chemicals need to 
fully understand the safety and health hazards of the chemicals and 
processes they work with for the protection of themselves, their fellow 
employees and the citizens of nearby communities. Training conducted in 
compliance with 1926.59, the Hazard Communication standard, will help 
employees to be more knowledgeable about the chemicals they work with as 
well as familiarize them with reading and understanding MSDS. However, 
additional training in subjects such as operating procedures and safety 
work practices, emergency evacuation and response, safety procedures, 
routine and nonroutine work authorization activities, and other areas 
pertinent to process safety and health will need to be covered by an 
employer's training program.

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    In establishing their training programs, employers must clearly 
define the employees to be trained and what subjects are to be covered 
in their training. Employers in setting up their training program will 
need to clearly establish the goals and objectives they wish to achieve 
with the training that they provide to their employees. The learning 
goals or objectives should be written in clear measurable terms before 
the training begins. These goals and objectives need to be tailored to 
each of the specific training modules or segments. Employers should 
describe the important actions and conditions under which the employee 
will demonstrate competence or knowledge as well as what is acceptable 
performance.
    Hands-on-training where employees are able to use their senses 
beyond listening, will enhance learning. For example, operating 
personnel, who will work in a control room or at control panels, would 
benefit by being trained at a simulated control panel or panels. Upset 
conditions of various types could be displayed on the simulator, and 
then the employee could go through the proper operating procedures to 
bring the simulator panel back to the normal operating parameters. A 
training environment could be created to help the trainee feel the full 
reality of the situation but, of course, under controlled conditions. 
This realistic type of training can be very effective in teaching 
employees correct procedures while allowing them to also see the 
consequences of what might happens if they do not follow established 
operating procedures. Other training techniques using videos or on-the-
job training can also be very effective for teaching other job tasks, 
duties, or other important information. An effective training program 
will allow the employee to fully participate in the training process and 
to practice their skill or knowledge.
    Employers need to periodically evaluate their training programs to 
see if the necessary skills, knowledge, and routines are being properly 
understood and implemented by their trained employees. The means or 
methods for evaluating the training should be developed along with the 
training program goals and objectives. Training program evaluation will 
help employers to determine the amount of training their employees 
understood, and whether the desired results were obtained. If, after the 
evaluation, it appears that the trained employees are not at the level 
of knowledge and skill that was expected, the employer will need to 
revise the training program, provide retraining, or provide more 
frequent refresher training sessions until the deficiency is resolved. 
Those who conducted the training and those who received the training 
should also be consulted as to how best to improve the training process. 
If there is a language barrier, the language known to the trainees 
should be used to reinforce the training messages and information.
    Careful consideration must be given to assure that employees 
including maintenance and contract employees receive current and updated 
training. For example, if changes are made to a process, impacted 
employees must be trained in the changes and understand the effects of 
the changes on their job tasks (e.g., any new operating procedures 
pertinent to their tasks). Additionally, as already discussed the 
evaluation of the employee's absorption of training will certainly 
influence the need for training.
    7. Contractors. Employers who use contractors to perform work in and 
around processes that involve highly hazardous chemicals, will need to 
establish a screening process so that they hire and use contractors who 
accomplish the desired job tasks without compromising the safety and 
health of employees at a facility. For contractors, whose safety 
performance on the job is not known to the hiring employer, the employer 
will need to obtain information on injury and illness rates and 
experience and should obtain contractor references. Additionally, the 
employer must assure that the contractor has the appropriate job skills, 
knowledge and certifications (such as for pressure vessel welders). 
Contractor work methods and experiences should be evaluated. For 
example, does the contractor conducting demolition work swing loads over 
operating processes or does the contractor avoid such hazards?
    Maintaining a site injury and illness log for contractors is another 
method employers must use to track and maintain current knowledge of 
work activities involving contract employees working on or adjacent to 
covered processes. Injury and illness logs of both the employer's 
employees and contract employees allow an employer to have full 
knowledge of process injury and illness experience. This log will also 
contain information which will be of use to those auditing process 
safety management compliance and those involved in incident 
investigations.
    Contract employees must perform their work safely. Considering that 
contractors often perform very specialized and potentially hazardous 
tasks such as confined space entry activities and nonroutine repair 
activities it is quite important that their activities be controlled 
while they are working on or near a covered process. A permit system or 
work authorization system for these activities would also be helpful to 
all affected employers. The use of a work authorization system keeps an 
employer informed of contract employee activities, and as a benefit the 
employer will have better coordination and more management control over 
the work being performed in the process area. A well run and well 
maintained process where employee safety is fully recognized will 
benefit all of those who work in the facility whether

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they be contract employees or employees of the owner.
    8. Pre-Startup Safety. For new processes, the employer will find a 
PHA helpful in improving the design and construction of the process from 
a reliability and quality point of view. The safe operation of the new 
process will be enhanced by making use of the PHA recommendations before 
final installations are completed. P&IDs are to be completed along with 
having the operating procedures in place and the operating staff trained 
to run the process before startup. The initial startup procedures and 
normal operating procedures need to be fully evaluated as part of the 
pre-startup review to assure a safe transfer into the normal operating 
mode for meeting the process parameters.
    For existing processes that have been shutdown for turnaround, or 
modification, etc., the employer must assure that any changes other than 
``replacement in kind'' made to the process during shutdown go through 
the management of change procedures. P&IDs will need to be updated as 
necessary, as well as operating procedures and instructions. If the 
changes made to the process during shutdown are significant and impact 
the training program, then operating personnel as well as employees 
engaged in routine and nonroutine work in the process area may need some 
refresher or additional training in light of the changes. Any incident 
investigation recommendations, compliance audits or PHA recommendations 
need to be reviewed as well to see what impacts they may have on the 
process before beginning the startup.
    9. Mechanical Integrity. Employers will need to review their 
maintenance programs and schedules to see if there are areas where 
``breakdown'' maintenance is used rather than an on-going mechanical 
integrity program. Equipment used to process, store, or handle highly 
hazardous chemicals needs to be designed, constructed, installed and 
maintained to minimize the risk of releases of such chemicals. This 
requires that a mechanical integrity program be in place to assure the 
continued integrity of process equipment. Elements of a mechanical 
integrity program include the identification and categorization of 
equipment and instrumentation, inspections and tests, testing and 
inspection frequencies, development of maintenance procedures, training 
of maintenance personnel, the establishment of criteria for acceptable 
test results, documentation of test and inspection results, and 
documentation of manufacturer recommendations as to meantime to failure 
for equipment and instrumentation.
    The first line of defense an employer has available is to operate 
and maintain the process as designed, and to keep the chemicals 
contained. This line of defense is backed up by the next line of defense 
which is the controlled release of chemicals through venting to 
scrubbers or flares, or to surge or overflow tanks which are designed to 
receive such chemicals, etc. These lines of defense are the primary 
lines of defense or means to prevent unwanted releases. The secondary 
lines of defense would include fixed fire protection systems like 
sprinklers, water spray, or deluge systems, monitor guns, etc., dikes, 
designed drainage systems, and other systems which would control or 
mitigate hazardous chemicals once an unwanted release occurs. These 
primary and secondary lines of defense are what the mechanical integrity 
program needs to protect and strengthen these primary and secondary 
lines of defenses where appropriate.
    The first step of an effective mechanical integrity program is to 
compile and categorize a list of process equipment and instrumentation 
for inclusion in the program. This list would include pressure vessels, 
storage tanks, process piping, relief and vent systems, fire protection 
system components, emergency shutdown systems and alarms and interlocks 
and pumps. For the categorization of instrumentation and the listed 
equipment the employer would prioritize which pieces of equipment 
require closer scrutiny than others. Meantime to failure of various 
instrumentation and equipment parts would be known from the 
manufacturers data or the employer's experience with the parts, which 
would then influence the inspection and testing frequency and associated 
procedures. Also, applicable codes and standards such as the National 
Board Inspection Code, or those from the American Society for Testing 
and Material, American Petroleum Institute, National Fire Protection 
Association, American National Standards Institute, American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, and other groups, provide information to help 
establish an effective testing and inspection frequency, as well as 
appropriate methodologies.
    The applicable codes and standards provide criteria for external 
inspections for such items as foundation and supports, anchor bolts, 
concrete or steel supports, guy wires, nozzles and sprinklers, pipe 
hangers, grounding connections, protective coatings and insulation, and 
external metal surfaces of piping and vessels, etc. These codes and 
standards also provide information on methodologies for internal 
inspection, and a frequency formula based on the corrosion rate of the 
materials of construction. Also, erosion both internal and external 
needs to be considered along with corrosion effects for piping and 
valves. Where the corrosion rate is not known, a maximum inspection 
frequency is recommended, and methods of developing the corrosion rate 
are available in the codes. Internal inspections need to cover items 
such as vessel shell, bottom and head; metallic linings; nonmetallic 
linings; thickness

[[Page 134]]

measurements for vessels and piping; inspection for erosion, corrosion, 
cracking and bulges; internal equipment like trays, baffles, sensors and 
screens for erosion, corrosion or cracking and other deficiencies. Some 
of these inspections may be performed by state or local government 
inspectors under state and local statutes. However, each employer needs 
to develop procedures to ensure that tests and inspections are conducted 
properly and that consistency is maintained even where different 
employees may be involved. Appropriate training is to be provided to 
maintenance personnel to ensure that they understand the preventive 
maintenance program procedures, safe practices, and the proper use and 
application of special equipment or unique tools that may be required. 
This training is part of the overall training program called for in the 
standard.
    A quality assurance system is needed to help ensure that the proper 
materials of construction are used, that fabrication and inspection 
procedures are proper, and that installation procedures recognize field 
installation concerns. The quality assurance program is an essential 
part of the mechanical integrity program and will help to maintain the 
primary and secondary lines of defense that have been designed into the 
process to prevent unwanted chemical releases or those which control or 
mitigate a release. ``As built'' drawings, together with certifications 
of coded vessels and other equipment, and materials of construction need 
to be verified and retained in the quality assurance documentation. 
Equipment installation jobs need to be properly inspected in the field 
for use of proper materials and procedures and to assure that qualified 
craftsmen are used to do the job. The use of appropriate gaskets, 
packing, bolts, valves, lubricants and welding rods need to be verified 
in the field. Also, procedures for installation of safety devices need 
to be verified, such as the torque on the bolts on ruptured disc 
installations, uniform torque on flange bolts, proper installation of 
pump seals, etc. If the quality of parts is a problem, it may be 
appropriate to conduct audits of the equipment supplier's facilities to 
better assure proper purchases of required equipment which is suitable 
for its intended service. Any changes in equipment that may become 
necessary will need to go through the management of change procedures.
    10. Nonroutine Work Authorizations. Nonroutine work which is 
conducted in process areas needs to be controlled by the employer in a 
consistent manner. The hazards identified involving the work that is to 
be accomplished must be communicated to those doing the work, but also 
to those operating personnel whose work could affect the safety of the 
process. A work authorization notice or permit must have a procedure 
that describes the steps the maintenance supervisor, contractor 
representative or other person needs to follow to obtain the necessary 
clearance to get the job started. The work authorization procedures need 
to reference and coordinate, as applicable, lockout/tagout procedures, 
line breaking procedures, confined space entry procedures and hot work 
authorizations. This procedure also needs to provide clear steps to 
follow once the job is completed in order to provide closure for those 
that need to know the job is now completed and equipment can be returned 
to normal.
    11. Managing Change. To properly manage changes to process 
chemicals, technology, equipment and facilities, one must define what is 
meant by change. In this process safety management standard, change 
includes all modifications to equipment, procedures, raw materials and 
processing conditions other than ``replacement in kind.'' These changes 
need to be properly managed by identifying and reviewing them prior to 
implementation of the change. For example, the operating procedures 
contain the operating parameters (pressure limits, temperature ranges, 
flow rates, etc.) and the importance of operating within these limits. 
While the operator must have the flexibility to maintain safe operation 
within the established parameters, any operation outside of these 
parameters requires review and approval by a written management of 
change procedure.
    Management of change covers such as changes in process technology 
and changes to equipment and instrumentation. Changes in process 
technology can result from changes in production rates, raw materials, 
experimentation, equipment unavailability, new equipment, new product 
development, change in catalyst and changes in operating conditions to 
improve yield or quality. Equipment changes include among others change 
in materials of construction, equipment specifications, piping pre-
arrangements, experimental equipment, computer program revisions and 
changes in alarms and interlocks. Employers need to establish means and 
methods to detect both technical changes and mechanical changes.
    Temporary changes have caused a number of catastrophes over the 
years, and employers need to establish ways to detect temporary changes 
as well as those that are permanent. It is important that a time limit 
for temporary changes be established and monitored since, without 
control, these changes may tend to become permanent. Temporary changes 
are subject to the management of change provisions. In addition, the 
management of change procedures are used to insure that the equipment 
and procedures are returned to their original or designed conditions at 
the end of the temporary change. Proper documentation and review of 
these changes is invaluable in assuring that the safety and health 
considerations are being

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incorporated into the operating procedures and the process.
    Employers may wish to develop a form or clearance sheet to 
facilitate the processing of changes through the management of change 
procedures. A typical change form may include a description and the 
purpose of the change, the technical basis for the change, safety and 
health considerations, documentation of changes for the operating 
procedures, maintenance procedures, inspection and testing, P&IDs, 
electrical classification, training and communications, pre-startup 
inspection, duration if a temporary change, approvals and authorization. 
Where the impact of the change is minor and well understood, a check 
list reviewed by an authorized person with proper communication to 
others who are affected may be sufficient. However, for a more complex 
or significant design change, a hazard evaluation procedure with 
approvals by operations, maintenance, and safety departments may be 
appropriate. Changes in documents such as P&IDs, raw materials, 
operating procedures, mechanical integrity programs, electrical 
classifications, etc., need to be noted so that these revisions can be 
made permanent when the drawings and procedure manuals are updated. 
Copies of process changes need to be kept in an accessible location to 
ensure that design changes are available to operating personnel as well 
as to PHA team members when a PHA is being done or one is being updated.
    12. Investigation of Incidents. Incident investigation is the 
process of identifying the underlying causes of incidents and 
implementing steps to prevent similar events from occurring. The intent 
of an incident investigation is for employers to learn from past 
experiences and thus avoid repeating past mistakes. The incidents for 
which OSHA expects employers to become aware and to investigate are the 
types of events which result in or could reasonably have resulted in a 
catastrophic release. Some of the events are sometimes referred to as 
``near misses,'' meaning that a serious consequence did not occur, but 
could have.
    Employers need to develop in-house capability to investigate 
incidents that occur in their facilities. A team needs to be assembled 
by the employer and trained in the techniques of investigation including 
how to conduct interviews of witnesses, needed documentation and report 
writing. A multi-disciplinary team is better able to gather the facts of 
the event and to analyze them and develop plausible scenarios as to what 
happened, and why. Team members should be selected on the basis of their 
training, knowledge and ability to contribute to a team effort to fully 
investigate the incident. Employees in the process area where the 
incident occurred should be consulted, interviewed or made a member of 
the team. Their knowledge of the events form a significant set of facts 
about the incident which occurred. The report, its findings and 
recommendations are to be shared with those who can benefit from the 
information. The cooperation of employees is essential to an effective 
incident investigation. The focus of the investigation should be to 
obtain facts, and not to place blame. The team and the investigation 
process should clearly deal with all involved individuals in a fair, 
open and consistent manner.
    13. Emergency Preparedness. Each employer must address what actions 
employees are to take when there is an unwanted release of highly 
hazardous chemicals. Emergency preparedness or the employer's tertiary 
(third) lines of defense are those that will be relied on along with the 
secondary lines of defense when the primary lines of defense which are 
used to prevent an unwanted release fail to stop the release. Employers 
will need to decide if they want employees to handle and stop small or 
minor incidental releases. Whether they wish to mobilize the available 
resources at the plant and have them brought to bear on a more 
significant release. Or whether employers want their employees to 
evacuate the danger area and promptly escape to a preplanned safe zone 
area, and allow the local community emergency response organizations to 
handle the release. Or whether the employer wants to use some 
combination of these actions. Employers will need to select how many 
different emergency preparedness or tertiary lines of defense they plan 
to have and then develop the necessary plans and procedures, and 
appropriately train employees in their emergency duties and 
responsibilities and then implement these lines of defense.
    Employers at a minimum must have an emergency action plan which will 
facilitate the prompt evacuation of employees when an unwanted release 
of highly hazardous chemical. This means that the employer will have a 
plan that will be activated by an alarm system to alert employees when 
to evacuate and, that employees who are physically impaired, will have 
the necessary support and assistance to get them to the safe zone as 
well. The intent of these requirements is to alert and move employees to 
a safe zone quickly. Delaying alarms or confusing alarms are to be 
avoided. The use of process control centers or similar process buildings 
in the process area as safe areas is discouraged. Recent catastrophes 
have shown that a large life loss has occurred in these structures 
because of where they have been sited and because they are not 
necessarily designed to withstand over-pressures from shockwaves 
resulting from explosions in the process area.
    Unwanted incidental releases of highly hazardous chemicals in the 
process area must be addressed by the employer as to

[[Page 136]]

what actions employees are to take. If the employer wants employees to 
evacuate the area, then the emergency action plan will be activated. For 
outdoor processes where wind direction is important for selecting the 
safe route to a refuge area, the employer should place a wind direction 
indicator such as a wind sock or pennant at the highest point that can 
be seen throughout the process area. Employees can move in the direction 
of cross wind to upwind to gain safe access to the refuge area by 
knowing the wind direction.
    If the employer wants specific employees in the release area to 
control or stop the minor emergency or incidental release, these actions 
must be planned for in advance and procedures developed and implemented. 
Preplanning for handling incidental releases for minor emergencies in 
the process area needs to be done, appropriate equipment for the hazards 
must be provided, and training conducted for those employees who will 
perform the emergency work before they respond to handle an actual 
release. The employer's training program, including the Hazard 
Communication standard training is to address the training needs for 
employees who are expected to handle incidental or minor releases.
    Preplanning for releases that are more serious than incidental 
releases is another important line of defense to be used by the 
employer. When a serious release of a highly hazardous chemical occurs, 
the employer through preplanning will have determined in advance what 
actions employees are to take. The evacuation of the immediate release 
area and other areas as necessary would be accomplished under the 
emergency action plan. If the employer wishes to use plant personnel 
such as a fire brigade, spill control team, a hazardous materials team, 
or use employees to render aid to those in the immediate release area 
and control or mitigate the incident, these actions are covered by 
1926.65, the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response 
(HAZWOPER) standard. If outside assistance is necessary, such as through 
mutual aid agreements between employers or local government emergency 
response organizations, these emergency responders are also covered by 
HAZWOPER. The safety and health protections required for emergency 
responders are the responsibility of their employers and of the on-scene 
incident commander.
    Responders may be working under very hazardous conditions and 
therefore the objective is to have them competently led by an on-scene 
incident commander and the commander's staff, properly equipped to do 
their assigned work safely, and fully trained to carry out their duties 
safely before they respond to an emergency. Drills, training exercises, 
or simulations with the local community emergency response planners and 
responder organizations is one means to obtain better preparedness. This 
close cooperation and coordination between plant and local community 
emergency preparedness managers will also aid the employer in complying 
with the Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Management Plan 
criteria.
    One effective way for medium to large facilities to enhance 
coordination and communication during emergencies for on plant 
operations and with local community organizations is for employers to 
establish and equip an emergency control center. The emergency control 
center would be sited in a safe zone area so that it could be occupied 
throughout the duration of an emergency. The center would serve as the 
major communication link between the on-scene incident commander and 
plant or corporate management as well as with the local community 
officials. The communication equipment in the emergency control center 
should include a network to receive and transmit information by 
telephone, radio or other means. It is important to have a backup 
communication network in case of power failure or one communication 
means fails. The center should also be equipped with the plant layout 
and community maps, utility drawings including fire water, emergency 
lighting, appropriate reference materials such as a government agency 
notification list, company personnel phone list, SARA Title III reports 
and material safety data sheets, emergency plans and procedures manual, 
a listing with the location of emergency response equipment, mutual aid 
information, and access to meteorological or weather condition data and 
any dispersion modeling data.
    14. Compliance Audits. Employers need to select a trained individual 
or assemble a trained team of people to audit the process safety 
management system and program. A small process or plant may need only 
one knowledgeable person to conduct an audit. The audit is to include an 
evaluation of the design and effectiveness of the process safety 
management system and a field inspection of the safety and health 
conditions and practices to verify that the employer's systems are 
effectively implemented. The audit should be conducted or lead by a 
person knowledgeable in audit techniques and who is impartial towards 
the facility or area being audited. The essential elements of an audit 
program include planning, staffing, conducting the audit, evaluation and 
corrective action, follow-up and documentation.
    Planning in advance is essential to the success of the auditing 
process. Each employer needs to establish the format, staffing, 
scheduling and verification methods prior to conducting the audit. The 
format should be designed to provide the lead auditor with a procedure 
or checklist which details the requirements of each section of the 
standard. The names of the audit team members

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should be listed as part of the format as well. The checklist, if 
properly designed, could serve as the verification sheet which provides 
the auditor with the necessary information to expedite the review and 
assure that no requirements of the standard are omitted. This 
verification sheet format could also identify those elements that will 
require evaluation or a response to correct deficiencies. This sheet 
could also be used for developing the follow-up and documentation 
requirements.
    The selection of effective audit team members is critical to the 
success of the program. Team members should be chosen for their 
experience, knowledge, and training and should be familiar with the 
processes and with auditing techniques, practices and procedures. The 
size of the team will vary depending on the size and complexity of the 
process under consideration. For a large, complex, highly instrumented 
plant, it may be desirable to have team members with expertise in 
process engineering and design, process chemistry, instrumentation and 
computer controls, electrical hazards and classifications, safety and 
health disciplines, maintenance, emergency preparedness, warehousing or 
shipping, and process safety auditing. The team may use part-time 
members to provide for the depth of expertise required as well as for 
what is actually done or followed, compared to what is written.
    An effective audit includes a review of the relevant documentation 
and process safety information, inspection of the physical facilities, 
and interviews with all levels of plant personnel. Utilizing the audit 
procedure and checklist developed in the preplanning stage, the audit 
team can systematically analyze compliance with the provisions of the 
standard and any other corporate policies that are relevant. For 
example, the audit team will review all aspects of the training program 
as part of the overall audit. The team will review the written training 
program for adequacy of content, frequency of training, effectiveness of 
training in terms of its goals and objectives as well as to how it fits 
into meeting the standard's requirements, documentation, etc. Through 
interviews, the team can determine the employee's knowledge and 
awareness of the safety procedures, duties, rules, emergency response 
assignments, etc. During the inspection, the team can observe actual 
practices such as safety and health policies, procedures, and work 
authorization practices. This approach enables the team to identify 
deficiencies and determine where corrective actions or improvements are 
necessary.
    An audit is a technique used to gather sufficient facts and 
information, including statistical information, to verify compliance 
with standards. Auditors should select as part of their preplanning a 
sample size sufficient to give a degree of confidence that the audit 
reflects the level of compliance with the standard. The audit team, 
through this systematic analysis, should document areas which require 
corrective action as well as those areas where the process safety 
management system is effective and working in an effective manner. This 
provides a record of the audit procedures and findings, and serves as a 
baseline of operation data for future audits. It will assist future 
auditors in determining changes or trends from previous audits.
    Corrective action is one of the most important parts of the audit. 
It includes not only addressing the identified deficiencies, but also 
planning, followup, and documentation. The corrective action process 
normally begins with a management review of the audit findings. The 
purpose of this review is to determine what actions are appropriate, and 
to establish priorities, timetables, resource allocations and 
requirements and responsibilities. In some cases, corrective action may 
involve a simple change in procedure or minor maintenance effort to 
remedy the concern. Management of change procedures need to be used, as 
appropriate, even for what may seem to be a minor change. Many of the 
deficiencies can be acted on promptly, while some may require 
engineering studies or indepth review of actual procedures and 
practices. There may be instances where no action is necessary and this 
is a valid response to an audit finding. All actions taken, including an 
explanation where no action is taken on a finding, needs to be 
documented as to what was done and why.
    It is important to assure that each deficiency identified is 
addressed, the corrective action to be taken noted, and the audit person 
or team responsible be properly documented by the employer. To control 
the corrective action process, the employer should consider the use of a 
tracking system. This tracking system might include periodic status 
reports shared with affected levels of management, specific reports such 
as completion of an engineering study, and a final implementation report 
to provide closure for audit findings that have been through management 
of change, if appropriate, and then shared with affected employees and 
management. This type of tracking system provides the employer with the 
status of the corrective action. It also provides the documentation 
required to verify that appropriate corrective actions were taken on 
deficiencies identified in the audit.

       Appendix D to Sec. 1926.64--Sources of Further Information 
                             (Nonmandatory)

    1. Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of 
Chemical Engineers,

[[Page 138]]

345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, (212) 705-7319.
    2. ``Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures,'' American 
Institute of Chemical Engineers; 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 
10017.
    3. ``Guidelines for Technical Management of Chemical Process 
Safety,'' Center for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute 
of Chemical Engineers; 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017.
    4. ``Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry,'' Chemical 
Manufacturers Association; 2501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037.
    5. ``Safe Warehousing of Chemicals,'' Chemical Manufacturers 
Association; 2501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037.
    6. ``Management of Process Hazards,'' American Petroleum Institute 
(API Recommended Practice 750); 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, DC 
20005.
    7. ``Improving Owner and Contractor Safety Performance,'' American 
Petroleum Institute (API Recommended Practice 2220); API, 1220 L Street 
N.W., Washington, DC 20005.
    8. Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA's Manager Guide), First 
Edition, September 1991; CMA, 2501 M Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037.
    9. ``Improving Construction Safety Performance,'' Report A- 3, The 
Business Roundtable; The Business Roundtable, 200 Park Avenue, New York, 
NY 10166. (Report includes criteria to evaluate contractor safety 
performance and criteria to enhance contractor safety performance).
    10. ``Recommended Guidelines for Contractor Safety and Health,'' 
Texas Chemical Council; Texas Chemical Council, 1402 Nueces Street, 
Austin, TX 78701-1534.
    11. ``Loss Prevention in the Process Industries,'' Volumes I and II; 
Frank P. Lees, Butterworth; London 1983.
    12. ``Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines,'' 1989; U.S. 
Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
    13. ``Safety and Health Guide for the Chemical Industry,'' 1986, 
(OSHA 3091); U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health 
Administration; 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20210.
    14. ``Review of Emergency Systems,'' June 1988; U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, 
Washington, DC 20460.
    15. ``Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis, Emergency Planning 
for Extremely Hazardous Substances,'' December 1987; U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Emergency Management Administration 
(FEMA) and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Washington, DC 
20460.
    16. ``Accident Investigation...A New Approach,'' 1983, National 
Safety Council; 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991.
    17. ``Fire & Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide,'' 6th 
Edition, May 1987, Dow Chemical Company; Midland, Michigan 48674.
    18. ``Chemical Exposure Index,'' May 1988, Dow Chemical Company; 
Midland, Michigan 48674.
[58 FR 35115, June 30, 1993]



Sec. 1926.65  Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

    (a) Scope, application, and definitions--(1) Scope. This section 
covers the following operations, unless the employer can demonstrate 
that the operation does not involve employee exposure or the reasonable 
possibility for employee exposure to safety or health hazards:
    (i) Clean-up operations required by a governmental body, whether 
Federal, state, local or other involving hazardous substances that are 
conducted at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites (including, but not 
limited to, the EPA's National Priority Site List (NPL), state priority 
site lists, sites recommended for the EPA NPL, and initial 
investigations of government identified sites which are conducted before 
the presence or absence of hazardous substances has been ascertained);
    (ii) Corrective actions involving clean-up operations at sites 
covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as 
amended (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.);
    (iii) Voluntary clean-up operations at sites recognized by Federal, 
state, local or other governmental bodies as uncontrolled hazardous 
waste sites;
    (iv) Operations involving hazardous wastes that are conducted at 
treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities regulated by 40 CFR 
parts 264 and 265 pursuant to RCRA; or by agencies under agreement with 
U.S.E.P.A. to implement RCRA regulations; and
    (v) Emergency response operations for releases of, or substantial 
threats of releases of, hazardous substances without regard to the 
location of the hazard.
    (2) Application. (i) All requirements of part 1910 and part 1926 of 
title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations apply pursuant to their 
terms to hazardous waste and emergency response operations whether 
covered by this section or not. If there is a conflict or overlap,

[[Page 139]]

the provision more protective of employee safety and health shall apply 
without regard to 29 CFR 1926.20(e)(1).
    (ii) Hazardous substance clean-up operations within the scope of 
paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iii) of this section must comply 
with all paragraphs of this section except paragraphs (p) and (q).
    (iii) Operations within the scope of paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this 
section must comply only with the requirements of paragraph (p) of this 
section.

    Notes and Exceptions: (A) All provisions of paragraph (p) of this 
section cover any treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) operation 
regulated by 40 CFR parts 264 and 265 or by state law authorized under 
RCRA, and required to have a permit or interim status from EPA pursuant 
to 40 CFR 270.1 or from a state agency pursuant to RCRA.
    (B) Employers who are not required to have a permit or interim 
status because they are conditionally exempt small quantity generators 
under 40 CFR 261.5 or are generators who qualify under 40 CFR 262.34 for 
exemptions from regulation under 40 CFR parts 264, 265 and 270 
(``excepted employers'') are not covered by paragraphs (p)(1) through 
(p)(7) of this section. Excepted employers who are required by the EPA 
or state agency to have their employees engage in emergency response or 
who direct their employees to engage in emergency response are covered 
by paragraph (p)(8) of this section, and cannot be exempted by (p)(8)(i) 
of this section. Excepted employers who are not required to have 
employees engage in emergency response, who direct their employees to 
evacuate in the case of such emergencies and who meet the requirements 
of paragraph (p)(8)(i) of this section are exempt from the balance of 
paragraph (p)(8) of this section.
    (C) If an area is used primarily for treatment, storage or disposal, 
any emergency response operations in that area shall comply with 
paragraph (p)(8) of this section. In other areas not used primarily for 
treatment, storage, or disposal, any emergency response operations shall 
comply with paragraph (q) of this section. Compliance with the 
requirements of paragraph (q) of this section shall be deemed to be in 
compliance with the requirements of paragraph (p)(8) of this section.

    (iv) Emergency response operations for releases of, or substantial 
threats of releases of, hazardous substances which are not covered by 
paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iv) of this section must only comply 
with the requirements of paragraph (q) of this section.
    (3) Definitions--Buddy system means a system of organizing employees 
into work groups in such a manner that each employee of the work group 
is designated to be observed by at least one other employee in the work 
group. The purpose of the buddy system is to provide rapid assistance to 
employees in the event of an emergency.
    Clean-up operation means an operation where hazardous substances are 
removed, contained, incinerated, neutralized, stabilized, cleared-up, or 
in any other manner processed or handled with the ultimate goal of 
making the site safer for people or the environment.
    Decontamination means the removal of hazardous substances from 
employees and their equipment to the extent necessary to preclude the 
occurrence of foreseeable adverse health affects.
    Emergency response or responding to emergencies means a response 
effort by employees from outside the immediate release area or by other 
designated responders (i.e., mutual-aid groups, local fire departments, 
etc.) to an occurrence which results, or is likely to result, in an 
uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance. Responses to incidental 
releases of hazardous substances where the substance can be absorbed, 
neutralized, or otherwise controlled at the time of release by employees 
in the immediate release area, or by maintenance personnel are not 
considered to be emergency responses within the scope of this standard. 
Responses to releases of hazardous substances where there is no 
potential safety or health hazard (i.e., fire, explosion, or chemical 
exposure) are not considered to be emergency responses.
    Facility means (A) any building, structure, installation, equipment, 
pipe or pipeline (including any pipe into a sewer or publicly owned 
treatment works), well, pit, pond, lagoon, impoundment, ditch, storage 
container, motor vehicle, rolling stock, or aircraft, or (B) any site or 
area where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed 
of, or placed, or otherwise come to be located; but does not include any 
consumer product in consumer use or any water-borne vessel.

[[Page 140]]

    Hazardous materials response (HAZMAT) team means an organized group 
of employees, designated by the employer, who are expected to perform 
work to handle and control actual or potential leaks or spills of 
hazardous substances requiring possible close approach to the substance. 
The team members perform responses to releases or potential releases of 
hazardous substances for the purpose of control or stabilization of the 
incident. A HAZMAT team is not a fire brigade nor is a typical fire 
brigade a HAZMAT team. A HAZMAT team, however, may be a separate 
component of a fire brigade or fire department.
    Hazardous substance means any substance designated or listed under 
paragraphs (A) through (D) of this definition, exposure to which results 
or may result in adverse affects on the health or safety of employees:
    (A) Any substance defined under section 101(14) of CERCLA;
    (B) Any biological agent and other disease-causing agent which after 
release into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, 
or assimilation into any person, either directly from the environment or 
indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably be 
anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, 
genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in 
reproduction) or physical deformations in such persons or their 
offspring;
    (C) Any substance listed by the U.S. Department of Transportation as 
hazardous materials under 49 CFR 172.101 and appendices; and
    (D) Hazardous waste as herein defined.
    Hazardous waste means--(A) A waste or combination of wastes as 
defined in 40 CFR 261.3, or
    (B) Those substances defined as hazardous wastes in 49 CFR 171.8.
    Hazardous waste operation means any operation conducted within the 
scope of this standard.
    Hazardous waste site or Site means any facility or location within 
the scope of this standard at which hazardous waste operations take 
place.
    Health hazard means a chemical, mixture of chemicals or a pathogen 
for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least 
one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles 
that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The 
term health hazard includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or 
highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, 
sensitizers, heptaotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act 
on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, 
eyes, or mucous membranes. It also includes stress due to temperature 
extremes. Further definition of the terms used above can be found in 
appendix A to 29 CFR 1926.59.
    IDLH or Immediately dangerous to life or health means an atmospheric 
concentration of any toxic, corrosive or asphyxiant substance that poses 
an immediate threat to life or would cause irreversible or delayed 
adverse health effects or would interfere with an individual's ability 
to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.
    Oxygen deficiency means that concentration of oxygen by volume below 
which atmosphere supplying respiratory protection must be provided. It 
exists in atmospheres where the percentage of oxygen by volume is less 
than 19.5 percent oxygen.
    Permissible exposure limit means the exposure, inhalation or dermal 
permissible exposure limit specified either in Sec. 1926.55, elsewhere 
in subpart D, or in other pertinent sections of this part.
    Published exposure level means the exposure limits published in 
``NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Health Standards'' dated 1986 
incorporated by reference, or if none is specified, the exposure limits 
published in the standards specified by the American Conference of 
Governmental Industrial Hygienists in their publication ``Threshold 
Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1987-88'' dated 1987 
incorporated by reference.
    Post emergency response means that portion of an emergency response 
performed after the immediate threat of a release has been stabilized or 
eliminated and clean-up of the site has begun. If post emergency 
response is performed by an employer's own employees who were part of 
the initial

[[Page 141]]

emergency response, it is considered to be part of the initial response 
and not post emergency response. However, if a group of an employer's 
own employees, separate from the group providing initial response, 
performs the clean-up operation, then the separate group of employees 
would be considered to be performing post-emergency response and subject 
to paragraph (q)(11) of this section.
    Qualified person means a person with specific training, knowledge 
and experience in the area for which the person has the responsibility 
and the authority to control.
    Site safety and health supervisor (or official) means the individual 
located on a hazardous waste site who is responsible to the employer and 
has the authority and knowledge necessary to implement the site safety 
and health plan and verify compliance with applicable safety and health 
requirements.
    Small quantity qenerator means a generator of hazardous wastes who 
in any calendar month generates no more than 1,000 kilograms (2,205 
pounds) of hazardous waste in that month.
    Uncontrolled hazardous waste site, means an area identified as an 
uncontrolled hazardous waste site by a governmental body, whether 
Federal, state, local or other where an accumulation of hazardous 
substances creates a threat to the health and safety of individuals or 
the environment or both. Some sites are found on public lands such as 
those created by former municipal, county or state landfills where 
illegal or poorly managed waste disposal has taken place. Other sites 
are found on private property, often belonging to generators or former 
generators of hazardous substance wastes. Examples of such sites 
include, but are not limited to, surface impoundments, landfills, dumps, 
and tank or drum farms. Normal operations at TSD sites are not covered 
by this definition.

    (b) Safety and health program.

    Note to (b): Safety and health programs developed and implemented to 
meet other Federal, state, or local regulations are considered 
acceptable in meeting this requirement if they cover or are modified to 
cover the topics required in this paragraph. An additional or separate 
safety and health program is not required by this paragraph.

    (1) General. (i) Employers shall develop and implement a written 
safety and health program for their employees involved in hazardous 
waste operations. The program shall be designed to identify, evaluate, 
and control safety and health hazards, and provide for emergency 
response for hazardous waste operations.
    (ii) The written safety and health program shall incorporate the 
following:
    (A) An organizational structure;
    (B) A comprehensive workplan;
    (C) A site-specific safety and health plan which need not repeat the 
employer's standard operating procedures required in paragraph 
(b)(1)(ii)(F) of this section;
    (D) The safety and health training program;
    (E) The medical surveillance program;
    (F) The employer's standard operating procedures for safety and 
health; and
    (G) Any necessary interface between general program and site 
specific activities.
    (iii) Site excavation. Site excavations created during initial site 
preparation or during hazardous waste operations shall be shored or 
sloped as appropriate to prevent accidental collapse in accordance with 
subpart P of 29 CFR part 1926.
    (iv) Contractors and sub-contractors. An employer who retains 
contractor or sub-contractor services for work in hazardous waste 
operations shall inform those contractors, sub-contractors, or their 
representatives of the site emergency response procedures and any 
potential fire, explosion, health, safety or other hazards of the 
hazardous waste operation that have been identified by the employer, 
including those identified in the employer's information program.
    (v) Program availability. The written safety and health program 
shall be made available to any contractor or subcontractor or their 
representative who will be involved with the hazardous waste operation; 
to employees; to employee designated representatives; to OSHA personnel, 
and to personnel of other Federal, state, or local agencies

[[Page 142]]

with regulatory authority over the site.
    (2) Organizational structure part of the site program--(i) The 
organizationa1 structure part of the program shall establish the 
specific chain of command and specify the overall responsibilities of 
supervisors and employees. It shall include, at a minimum, the following 
elements:
    (A) A general supervisor who has the responsibility and authority to 
direct all hazardous waste operations.
    (B) A site safety and health supervisor who has the responsibility 
and authority to develop and implement the site safety and health plan 
and verify compliance.
    (C) All other personnel needed for hazardous waste site operations 
and emergency response and their general functions and responsibilities.
    (D) The lines of authority, responsibility, and communication.
    (ii) The organizational structure shall be reviewed and updated as 
necessary to reflect the current status of waste site operations.
    (3) Comprehensive workplan part of the site program. The 
comprehensive workplan part of the program shall address the tasks and 
objectives of the site operations and the logistics and resources 
required to reach those tasks and objectives.
    (i) The comprehensive workplan shall address anticipated clean-up 
activities as well as normal operating procedures which need not repeat 
the employer's procedures available elsewhere.
    (ii) The comprehensive workplan shall define work tasks and 
objectives and identify the methods for accomplishing those tasks and 
objectives.
    (iii) The comprehensive workplan shall establish personnel 
requirements for implementing the plan.
    (iv) The comprehensive workplan shall provide for the implementation 
of the training required in paragraph (e) of this section.
    (v) The comprehensive workplan shall provide for the implementation 
of the required informational programs required in paragraph (i) of this 
section.
    (vi) The comprehensive workplan shall provide for the implementation 
of the medical surveillance program described in paragraph (f) of this 
section.
    (4) Site-specific safety and health plan part of the program--(i) 
General. The site safety and health plan, which must be kept on site, 
shall address the safety and health hazards of each phase of site 
operation and include the requirements and procedures for employee 
protection.
    (ii) Elements. The site safety and health plan, as a minimum, shall 
address the following:
    (A) A safety and health risk or hazard analysis for each site task 
and operation found in the workplan.
    (B) Employee training assignments to assure compliance with 
paragraph (e) of this section.
    (C) Personal protective equipment to be used by employees for each 
of the site tasks and operations being conducted as required by the 
personal protective equipment program in paragraph (g)(5) of this 
section.
    (D) Medical surveillance requirements in accordance with the program 
in paragraph (f) of this section.
    (E) Frequency and types of air monitoring, personnel monitoring, and 
environmental sampling techniques and instrumentation to be used, 
including methods of maintenance and calibration of monitoring and 
sampling equipment to be used.
    (F) Site control measures in accordance with the site control 
program required in paragraph (d) of this section.
    (G) Decontamination procedures in accordance with paragraph (k) of 
this section.
    (H) An emergency response plan meeting the requirements of paragraph 
(l) of this section for safe and effective responses to emergencies, 
including the necessary PPE and other equipment.
    (I) Confined space entry procedures.
    (J) A spill containment program meeting the requirements of 
paragraph (j) of this section.
    (iii) Pre-entry briefing. The site specific safety and health plan 
shall provide for pre-entry briefings to be held prior to initiating any 
site activity, and at such other times as necessary to ensure that 
employees are apprised of the site safety and health plan and

[[Page 143]]

that this plan is being followed. The information and data obtained from 
site characterization and analysis work required in paragraph (c) of 
this section shall be used to prepare and update the site safety and 
health plan.
    (iv) Effectiveness of site safety and health plan. Inspections shall 
be conducted by the site safety and health supervisor or, in the absence 
of that individual, another individual who is knowledgeable in 
occupational safety and health, acting on behalf of the employer as 
necessary to determine the effectiveness of the site safety and health 
plan. Any deficiencies in the effectiveness of the site safety and 
health plan shall be corrected by the employer.
    (c) Site characterization and analysis--(1) General. Hazardous waste 
sites shall be evaluated in accordance with this paragraph to identify 
specific site hazards and to determine the appropriate safety and health 
control procedures needed to protect employees from the identified 
hazards.
    (2) Preliminary evaluation. A preliminary evaluation of a site's 
characteristics shall be performed prior to site entry by a qualified 
person in order to aid in the selection of appropriate employee 
protection methods prior to site entry. Immediately after initial site 
entry, a more detailed evaluation of the site's specific characteristics 
shall be performed by a qualified person in order to further identify 
existing site hazards and to further aid in the selection of the 
appropriate engineering controls and personal protective equipment for 
the tasks to be performed.
    (3) Hazard identification. All suspected conditions that may pose 
inhalation or skin absorption hazards that are immediately dangerous to 
life or health (IDLH), or other conditions that may cause death or 
serious harm, shall be identified during the preliminary survey and 
evaluated during the detailed survey. Examples of such hazards include, 
but are not limited to, confined space entry, potentially explosive or 
flammable situations, visible vapor clouds, or areas where biological 
indicators such as dead animals or vegetation are located.
    (4) Required information. The following information to the extent 
available shall be obtained by the employer prior to allowing employees 
to enter a site:
    (i) Location and approximate size of the site.
    (ii) Description of the response activity and/or the job task to be 
performed.
    (iii) Duration of the planned employee activity.
    (iv) Site topography and accessibility by air and roads.
    (v) Safety and health hazards expected at the site.
    (vi) Pathways for hazardous substance dispersion.
    (vii) Present status and capabilities of emergency response teams 
that would provide assistance to hazardous waste clean-up site employees 
at the time of an emergency.
    (viii) Hazardous substances and health hazards involved or expected 
at the site, and their chemical and physical properties.
    (5) Personal protective equipment. Personal protective equipment 
(PPE) shall be provided and used during initial site entry in accordance 
with the following requirements:
    (i) Based upon the results of the preliminary site evaluation, an 
ensemble of PPE shall be selected and used during initial site entry 
which will provide protection to a level of exposure below permissible 
exposure limits and published exposure levels for known or suspected 
hazardous substances and health hazards, and which will provide 
protection against other known and suspected hazards identified during 
the preliminary site evaluation. If there is no permissible exposure 
limit or published exposure level, the employer may use other published 
studies and information as a guide to appropriate personal protective 
equipment.
    (ii) If positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus is not 
used as part of the entry ensemble, and if respiratory protection is 
warranted by the potential hazards identified during the preliminary 
site evaluation, an escape self-contained breathing apparatus of at 
least five minute's duration shall be carried by employees during 
initial site entry.
    (iii) If the preliminary site evaluation does not produce sufficient 
information to identify the hazards or suspected hazards of the site, an 
ensemble

[[Page 144]]

providing protection equivalent to Level B PPE shall be provided as 
minimum protection, and direct reading instruments shall be used as 
appropriate for identifying IDLH conditions. (See appendix B for a 
description of Level B hazards and the recommendations for Level B 
protective equipment.)
    (iv) Once the hazards of the site have been identified, the 
appropriate PPE shall be selected and used in accordance with paragraph 
(g) of this section.
    (6) Monitoring. The following monitoring shall be conducted during 
initial site entry when the site evaluation produces information that 
shows the potential for ionizing radiation or IDLH conditions, or when 
the site information is not sufficient reasonably to eliminate these 
possible conditions:
    (i) Monitoring with direct reading instruments for hazardous levels 
of ionizing radiation.
    (ii) Monitoring the air with appropriate direct reading test 
equipment (i.e., combustible gas meters, detector tubes) for IDLH and 
other conditions that may cause death or serious harm (combustible or 
explosive atmospheres, oxygen deficiency, toxic substances).
    (iii) Visually observing for signs of actual or potential IDLH or 
other dangerous conditions.
    (iv) An ongoing air monitoring program in accordance with paragraph 
(h) of this section shall be implemented after site characterization has 
determined the site is safe for the start-up of operations.
    (7) Risk identification. Once the presence and concentrations of 
specific hazardous substances and health hazards have been established, 
the risks associated with these substances shall be identified. 
Employees who will be working on the site shall be informed of any risks 
that have been identified. In situations covered by the Hazard 
Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1926.59, training required by that 
standard need not be duplicated.

    Note to (c)(7).--Risks to consider include, but are not limited to:
    (a) Exposures exceeding the permissible exposure limits and 
published exposure levels.
    (b) IDLH concentrations.
    (c) Potential skin absorption and irritation sources.
    (d) Potential eye irritation sources.
    (e) Explosion sensitivity and flammability ranges.
    (f) Oxygen deficiency.

    (8) Employee notification. Any information concerning the chemical, 
physical, and toxicologic properties of each substance known or expected 
to be present on site that is available to the employer and relevant to 
the duties an employee is expected to perform shall be made available to 
the affected employees prior to the commencement of their work 
activities. The employer may utilize information developed for the 
hazard communication standard for this purpose.
    (d) Site control--(1) General. Appropriate site control procedures 
shall be implemented to control employee exposure to hazardous 
substances before clean-up work begins.
    (2) Site control program. A site control program for protecting 
employees which is part of the employer's site safety and health program 
required in paragraph (b) of this section shall be developed during the 
planning stages of a hazardous waste clean-up operation and modified as 
necessary as new information becomes available.
    (3) Elements of the site control program. The site control program 
shall, as a minimum, include: A site map; site work zones; the use of a 
``buddy system''; site communications including alerting means for 
emergencies; the standard operating procedures or safe work practices; 
and, identification of the nearest medical assistance. Where these 
requirements are covered elsewhere they need not be repeated.
    (e) Training--(1) General. (i) All employees working on site (such 
as but not limited to equipment operators, general laborers and others) 
exposed to hazardous substances, health hazards, or safety hazards and 
their supervisors and management responsible for the site shall receive 
training meeting the requirements of this paragraph before they are 
permitted to engage in hazardous waste operations that could expose them 
to hazardous substances, safety, or health hazards, and they shall 
receive review training as specified in this paragraph.
    (ii) Employees shall not be permitted to participate in or supervise 
field activities until they have been trained to

[[Page 145]]

a level required by their job function and responsibility.
    (2) Elements to be covered. The training shall thoroughly cover the 
following:
    (i) Names of personnel and alternates responsible for site safety 
and health;
    (ii) Safety, health and other hazards present on the site;
    (iii) Use of personal protective equipment;
    (iv) Work practices by which the employee can minimize risks from 
hazards;
    (v) Safe use of engineering controls and equipment on the site;
    (vi) Medical surveillance requirements, including recognition of 
symptoms and signs which might indicate overexposure to hazards; and
    (vii) The contents of paragraphs (G) through (J) of the site safety 
and health plan set forth in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section.
    (3) Initial training. (i) General site workers (such as equipment 
operators, general laborers and supervisory personnel) engaged in 
hazardous substance removal or other activities which expose or 
potentially expose workers to hazardous substances and health hazards 
shall receive a minimum of 40 hours of instruction off the site, and a 
minimum of three days actual field experience under the direct 
supervision of a trained, experienced supervisor.
    (ii) Workers on site only occasionally for a specific limited task 
(such as, but not limited to, ground water monitoring, land surveying, 
or geo-physical surveying) and who are unlikely to be exposed over 
permissible exposure limits and published exposure limits shall receive 
a minimum of 24 hours of instruction off the site, and the minimum of 
one day actual field experience under the direct supervision of a 
trained, experienced supervisor.
    (iii) Workers regularly on site who work in areas which have been 
monitored and fully characterized indicating that exposures are under 
permissible exposure limits and published exposure limits where 
respirators are not necessary, and the characterization indicates that 
there are no health hazards or the possibility of an emergency 
developing, shall receive a minimum of 24 hours of instruction off the 
site and the minimum of one day actual field experience under the direct 
supervision of a trained, experienced supervisor.
    (iv) Workers with 24 hours of training who are covered by paragraphs 
(e)(3)(ii) and (e)(3)(iii) of this section, and who become general site 
workers or who are required to wear respirators, shall have the 
additional 16 hours and two days of training necessary to total the 
training specified in paragraph (e)(3)(i).
    (4) Management and supervisor training. On-site management and 
supervisors directly responsible for, or who supervise employees engaged 
in, hazardous waste operations shall receive 40 hours initial training, 
and three days of supervised field experience (the training may be 
reduced to 24 hours and one day if the only area of their responsibility 
is employees covered by paragraphs (e)(3)(ii) and (e)(3)(iii)) and at 
least eight additional hours of specialized training at the time of job 
assignment on such topics as, but not limited to, the employer's safety 
and health program and the associated employee training program, 
personal protective equipment program, spill containment program, and 
health hazard monitoring procedure and techniques.
    (5) Qualifications for trainers. Trainers shall be qualified to 
instruct employees about the subject matter that is being presented in 
training. Such trainers shall have satisfactorily completed a training 
program for teaching the subjects they are expected to teach, or they 
shall have the academic credentials and instructional experience 
necessary for teaching the subjects. Instructors shall demonstrate 
competent instructional skills and knowledge of the applicable subject 
matter.
    (6) Training certification. Employees and supervisors that have 
received and successfully completed the training and field experience 
specified in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(4) of this section shall be 
certified by their instructor or the head instructor and trained 
supervisor as having successfully completed the necessary training. A 
written certificate shall be given to each person so certified. Any 
person who has not been so certified or who does not meet the 
requirements of paragraph (e)(9) of this section shall be prohibited

[[Page 146]]

from engaging in hazardous waste operations.
    (7) Emergency response. Employees who are engaged in responding to 
hazardous emergency situations at hazardous waste clean-up sites that 
may expose them to hazardous substances shall be trained in how to 
respond to such expected emergencies.
    (8) Refresher training. Employees specified in paragraph (e)(1) of 
this section, and managers and supervisors specified in paragraph (e)(4) 
of this section, shall receive eight hours of refresher training 
annually on the items specified in paragraph (e)(2) and/or (e)(4) of 
this section, any critique of incidents that have occurred in the past 
year that can serve as training examples of related work, and other 
relevant topics.
    (9) Equivalent training. Employers who can show by documentation or 
certification that an employee's work experience and/or training has 
resulted in training equivalent to that training required in paragraphs 
(e)(1) through (e)(4) of this section shall not be required to provide 
the initial training requirements of those paragraphs to such employees 
and shall provide a copy of the certification or documentation to the 
employee upon request. However, certified employees or employees with 
equivalent training new to a site shall receive appropriate, site 
specific training before site entry and have appropriate supervised 
field experience at the new site. Equivalent training includes any 
academic training or the training that existing employees might have 
already received from actual hazardous waste site work experience.
    (f) Medical surveillance--(1) General. Employers engaged in 
operations specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iv) of this 
section and not covered by (a)(2)(iii) exceptions and employers of 
employees specified in paragraph (q)(9) shall institute a medical 
surveillance program in accordance with this paragraph.
    (2) Employees covered. The medical surveillance program shall be 
instituted by the employer for the following employees:
    (i) All employees who are or may be exposed to hazardous substances 
or health hazards at or above the permissible exposure limits or, if 
there is no permissible exposure limit, above the published exposure 
levels for these substances, without regard to the use of respirators, 
for 30 days or more a year;
    (ii) All employees who wear a respirator for 30 days or more a year 
or as required by Sec. 1926.103;
    (iii) All employees who are injured, become ill or develop signs or 
symptoms due to possible overexposure involving hazardous substances or 
health hazards from an emergency response or hazardous waste operation; 
and
    (iv) Members of HAZMAT teams.
    (3) Frequency of medical examinations and consultations. Medical 
examinations and consultations shall be made available by the employer 
to each employee covered under paragraph (f)(2) of this section on the 
following schedules:
    (i) For employees covered under paragraphs (f)(2)(i), (f)(2)(ii), 
and (f)(2)(iv):
    (A) Prior to assignment;
    (B) At least once every twelve months for each employee covered 
unless the attending physician believes a longer interval (not greater 
than biennially) is appropriate;
    (C) At termination of employment or reassignment to an area where 
the employee would not be covered if the employee has not had an 
examination within the last six months;
    (D) As soon as possible upon notification by an employee that the 
employee has developed signs or symptoms indicating possible 
overexposure to hazardous substances or health hazards, or that the 
employee has been injured or exposed above the permissible exposure 
limits or published exposure levels in an emergency situation;
    (E) At more frequent times, if the examining physician determines 
that an increased frequency of examination is medically necessary.
    (ii) For employees covered under paragraph (f)(2)(iii) and for all 
employees including those of employers covered by paragraph (a)(1)(v) 
who may have been injured, received a health impairment, developed signs 
or symptoms which may have resulted from exposure to hazardous 
substances resulting from an emergency incident, or exposed during an 
emergency incident to

[[Page 147]]

hazardous substances at concentrations above the permissible exposure 
limits or the published exposure levels without the necessary personal 
protective equipment being used:
    (A) As soon as possible following the emergency incident or 
development of signs or symptoms;
    (B) At additional times, if the examining physician determines that 
follow-up examinations or consultations are medically necessary.
    (4) Content of medical examinations and consultations. (i) Medical 
examinations required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section shall include 
a medical and work history (or updated history if one is in the 
employee's file) with special emphasis on symptoms related to the 
handling of hazardous substances and health hazards, and to fitness for 
duty including the ability to wear any required PPE under conditions 
(i.e., temperature extremes) that may be expected at the work site.
    (ii) The content of medical examinations or consultations made 
available to employees pursuant to paragraph (f) shall be determined by 
the attending physician. The guidelines in the Occupational Safety and 
Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities (See appendix 
D, Reference 10) should be consulted.
    (5) Examination bv a physician and costs. All medical examinations 
and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a 
licensed physician, preferably one knowledgeable in occupational 
medicine, and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without 
loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.
    (6) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall 
provide one copy of this standard and its appendices to the attending 
physician, and in addition the following for each employee:
    (i) A description of the employee's duties as they relate to the 
employee's exposures.
    (ii) The employee's exposure levels or anticipated exposure levels.
    (iii) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to 
be used.
    (iv) Information from previous medical examinations of the employee 
which is not readily available to the examining physician.
    (v) Information required by Sec. 1926.103.
    (7) Physician's written opinion. (i) The employer shall obtain and 
furnish the employee with a copy of a written opinion from the attending 
physician containing the following:
    (A) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any 
detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased 
risk of material impairment of the employee's health from work in 
hazardous waste operations or emergency response, or from respirator 
use.
    (B) The physician's recommended limitations upon the employee's 
assigned work.
    (C) The results of the medical examination and tests if requested by 
the employee.
    (D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician 
of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions 
which require further examination or treatment.
    (ii) The written opinion obtained by the employer shall not reveal 
specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposures.
    (8) Recordkeeping. (i) An accurate record of the medical 
surveillance required by paragraph (f) of this section shall be 
retained. This record shall be retained for the period specified and 
meet the criteria of 29 CFR 1926.33.
    (ii) The record required in paragraph (f)(8)(i) of this section 
shall include at least the following information:
    (A) The name and social security number of the employee;
    (B) Physician's written opinions, recommended limitations, and 
results of examinations and tests;
    (C) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to hazardous 
substances;
    (D) A copy of the information provided to the examining physician by 
the employer, with the exception of the standard and its appendices.
    (g) Engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective 
equipment for employee protection. Engineering controls, work practices, 
personal protective equipment, or a combination of

[[Page 148]]

these shall be implemented in accordance with this paragraph to protect 
employees from exposure to hazardous substances and safety and health 
hazards.
    (1) Engineering controls, work practices and PPE for substances 
regulated either in Sec. 1926.55, elsewhere in subpart D, or in other 
pertinent sections of this part. (i) Engineering controls and work 
practices shall be instituted to reduce and maintain employee exposure 
to or below the permissible exposure limits for substances regulated 
either in Sec. 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part, except 
to the extent that such controls and practices are not feasible.

    Note to (g)(1)(i): Engineering controls which may be feasible 
include the use of pressurized cabs or control booths on equipment, and/
or the use of remotely operated material handling equipment. Work 
practices which may be feasible are removing all non-essential employees 
from potential exposure during opening of drums, wetting down dusty 
operations and locating employees upwind of possible hazards.

    (ii) Whenever engineering controls and work practices are not 
feasible or not required, any reasonable combination of engineering 
controls, work practices and PPE shall be used to reduce and maintain 
employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limits or dose 
limits for substances regulated either in Sec. 1926.55 or other 
pertinent sections of this part.
    (iii) The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee 
rotation as a means of compliance with permissible exposure limits or 
dose limits except when there is no other feasible way of complying with 
the airborne or dermal dose limits for ionizing radiation.
    (iv) The provisions of subpart D shall be followed.
    (2) Engineering controls, work practices, and PPE for substances not 
regulated either in Sec. 1926.55, elsewhere in subpart D, or in other 
pertinent sections of this part. An appropriate combination of 
engineering controls, work practices and personal protective equipment 
shall be used to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below 
published exposure levels for hazardous substances and health hazards 
not regulated either in Sec. 1926.55, elsewhere in subpart D, or in 
other pertinent sections of this part. The employer may use the 
published literature and MSDS as a guide in making the employer's 
determination as to what level of protection the employer believes is 
appropriate for hazardous substances and health hazards for which there 
is no permissible exposure limit or published exposure limit.
    (3) Personal protective equipment selection. (i) Personal protective 
equipment (PPE) shall be selected and used which will protect employees 
from the hazards and potential hazards they are likely to encounter as 
identified during the site characterization and analysis.
    (ii) Personal protective equipment selection shall be based on an 
evaluation of the performance characteristics of the PPE relative to the 
requirements and limitations of the site, the task-specific conditions 
and duration, and the hazards and potential hazards identified at the 
site.
    (iii) Positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, or 
positive pressure air-line respirators equipped with an escape air 
supply, shall be used when chemical exposure levels present will create 
a substantial possibility of immediate death, immediate serious illness 
or injury, or impair the ability to escape.
    (iv) Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suits (protection 
equivalent to Level A protection as recommended in appendix B) shall be 
used in conditions where skin absorption of a hazardous substance may 
result in a substantial possibility of immediate death, immediate 
serious illness or injury, or impair the ability to escape.
    (v) The level of protection provided by PPE selection shall be 
increased when additional information on site conditions indicates that 
increased protection is necessary to reduce employee exposures below 
permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels for hazardous 
substances and health hazards. (See appendix B for guidance on selecting 
PPE ensembles.)

    Note to (g)(3): The level of employee protection provided may be 
decreased when additional information or site conditions show that 
decreased protection will not result in hazardous exposures to 
employees.

    (vi) Personal protective equipment shall be selected and used to 
meet the

[[Page 149]]

requirements of subpart E of this part and additional requirements 
specified in this section.
    (4) Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suits. (i) Totally-
encapsulating suits shall protect employees from the particular hazards 
which are identified during site characterization and analysis.
    (ii) Totally-encapsulating suits shall be capable of maintaining 
positive air pressure. (See appendix A for a test method which may be 
used to evaluate this requirement.)
    (iii) Totally-encapsulating suits shall be capable of preventing 
inward test gas leakage of more than 0.5 percent. (See appendix A for a 
test method which may be used to evaluate this requirement.)
    (5) Personal protective equipment (PPE) program. A written personal 
protective equipment program, which is part of the employer's safety and 
health program required in paragraph (b) of this section or required in 
paragraph (p)(1) of this section and which is also a part of the site-
specific safety and health plan shall be established. The PPE program 
shall address the elements listed below. When elements, such as donning 
and doffing procedures, are provided by the manufacturer of a piece of 
equipment and are attached to the plan, they need not be rewritten into 
the plan as long as they adequately address the procedure or element.
    (i) PPE selection based upon site hazards,
    (ii) PPE use and limitations of the equipment,
    (iii) Work mission duration,
    (iv) PPE maintenance and storage,
    (v) PPE decontamination and disposal,
    (vi) PPE training and proper fitting,
    (vii) PPE donning and doffing procedures,
    (viii) PPE inspection procedures prior to, during, and after use,
    (ix) Evaluation of the effectiveness of the PPE program, and
    (x) Limitations during temperature extremes, heat stress, and other 
appropriate medical considerations.
    (h) Monitoring--(1) General. (i) Monitoring shall be performed in 
accordance with this paragraph where there may be a question of employee 
exposure to hazardous concentrations of hazardous substances in order to 
assure proper selection of engineering controls, work practices and 
personal protective equipment so that employees are not exposed to 
levels which exceed permissible exposure limits, or published exposure 
levels if there are no permissible exposure limits, for hazardous 
substances.
    (ii) Air monitoring shall be used to identify and quantify airborne 
levels of hazardous substances and safety and health hazards in order to 
determine the appropriate level of employee protection needed on site.
    (2) Initial entry. Upon initial entry, representative air monitoring 
shall be conducted to identify any IDLH condition, exposure over 
permissible exposure limits or published exposure levels, exposure over 
a radioactive material's dose limits or other dangerous condition such 
as the presence of flammable atmospheres or oxygen-deficient 
environments.
    (3) Periodic monitoring. Periodic monitoring shall be conducted when 
the possibility of an IDLH condition or flammable atmosphere has 
developed or when there is indication that exposures may have risen over 
permissible exposure limits or published exposure levels since prior 
monitoring. Situations where it shall be considered whether the 
possibility that exposures have risen are as follows:
    (i) When work begins on a different portion of the site.
    (ii) When contaminants other than those previously identified are 
being handled.
    (iii) When a different type of operation is initiated (e.g., drum 
opening as opposed to exploratory well drilling).
    (iv) When employees are handling leaking drums or containers or 
working in areas with obvious liquid contamination (e.g., a spill or 
lagoon).
    (4) Monitoring of high-risk employees. After the actual clean-up 
phase of any hazardous waste operation commences; for example, when 
soil, surface water or containers are moved or disturbed; the employer 
shall monitor those employees likely to have the highest exposures to 
hazardous substances and health hazards likely to be present above 
permissible exposure limits or

[[Page 150]]

published exposure levels by using personal sampling frequently enough 
to characterize employee exposures. If the employees likely to have the 
highest exposure are over permissible exposure limits or published 
exposure limits, then monitoring shall continue to determine all 
employees likely to be above those limits. The employer may utilize a 
representative sampling approach by documenting that the employees and 
chemicals chosen for monitoring are based on the criteria stated above.

    Note to (h): It is not required to monitor employees engaged in site 
characterization operations covered by paragraph (c) of this section.

    (i) Informational programs. Employers shall develop and implement a 
program, which is part of the employer's safety and health program 
required in paragraph (b) of this section, to inform employees, 
contractors, and subcontractors (or their representative) actually 
engaged in hazardous waste operations of the nature, level and degree of 
exposure likely as a result of participation in such hazardous waste 
operations. Employees, contractors and subcontractors working outside of 
the operations part of a site are not covered by this standard.
    (j) Handling drums and containers--(1) General. (i) Hazardous 
substances and contaminated soils, liquids, and other residues shall be 
handled, transported, labeled, and disposed of in accordance with this 
paragraph.
    (ii) Drums and containers used during the clean-up shall meet the 
appropriate DOT, OSHA, and EPA regulations for the wastes that they 
contain.
    (iii) When practical, drums and containers shall be inspected and 
their integrity shall be assured prior to being moved. Drums or 
containers that cannot be inspected before being moved because of 
storage conditions (i.e., buried beneath the earth, stacked behind other 
drums, stacked several tiers high in a pile, etc.) shall be moved to an 
accessible location and inspected prior to further handling.
    (iv) Unlabelled drums and containers shall be considered to contain 
hazardous substances and handled accordingly until the contents are 
positively identified and labeled.
    (v) Site operations shall be organized to minimize the amount of 
drum or container movement.
    (vi) Prior to movement of drums or containers, all employees exposed 
to the transfer operation shall be warned of the potential hazards 
associated with the contents of the drums or containers.
    (vii) U.S. Department of Transportation specified salvage drums or 
containers and suitable quantities of proper absorbent shall be kept 
available and used in areas where spills, leaks, or ruptures may occur.
    (viii) Where major spills may occur, a spill containment program, 
which is part of the employer's safety and health program required in 
paragraph (b) of this section, shall be implemented to contain and 
isolate the entire volume of the hazardous substance being transferred.
    (ix) Drums and containers that cannot be moved without rupture, 
leakage, or spillage shall be emptied into a sound container using a 
device classified for the material being transferred.
    (x) A ground-penetrating system or other type of detection system or 
device shall be used to estimate the location and depth of buried drums 
or containers.
    (xi) Soil or covering material shall be removed with caution to 
prevent drum or container rupture.
    (xii) Fire extinguishing equipment meeting the requirements of 
subpart F of this part shall be on hand and ready for use to control 
incipient fires.
    (2) Openinq drums and containers. The following procedures shall be 
followed in areas where drums or containers are being opened:
    (i) Where an airline respirator system is used, connections to the 
source of air supply shall be protected from contamination and the 
entire system shall be protected from physical damage.
    (ii) Employees not actually involved in opening drums or containers 
shall be kept a safe distance from the drums or containers being opened.
    (iii) If employees must work near or adjacent to drums or containers 
being opened, a suitable shield that does not interfere with the work 
operation shall be placed between the employee and the drums or 
containers being opened

[[Page 151]]

to protect the employee in case of accidental explosion.
    (iv) Controls for drum or container opening equipment, monitoring 
equipment, and fire suppression equipment shall be located behind the 
explosion-resistant barrier.
    (v) When there is a reasonable possibility of flammable atmospheres 
being present, material handling equipment and hand tools shall be of 
the type to prevent sources of ignition.
    (vi) Drums and containers shall be opened in such a manner that 
excess interior pressure will be safely relieved. If pressure can not be 
relieved from a remote location, appropriate shielding shall be placed 
between the employee and the drums or containers to reduce the risk of 
employee injury.
    (vii) Employees shall not stand upon or work from drums or 
containers.
    (3) Material handling equipment. Material handiing equipment used to 
transfer drums and containers shall be selected, positioned and operated 
to minimize sources of ignition related to the equipment from igniting 
vapors released from ruptured drums or containers.
    (4) Radioactive wastes. Drums and containers containing radioactive 
wastes shall not be handled until such time as their hazard to employees 
is properly assessed.
    (5) Shock sensitive wastes. As a minimum, the following special 
precautions shall be taken when drums and containers containing or 
suspected of containing shock-sensitive wastes are handled:
    (i) All non-essential employees shall be evacuated from the area of 
transfer.
    (ii) Material handling equipment shall be provided with explosive 
containment devices or protective shields to protect equipment operators 
from exploding containers.
    (iii) An employee alarm system capable of being perceived above 
surrounding light and noise conditions shall be used to signal the 
commencement and completion of explosive waste handling activities.
    (iv) Continuous communications (i.e., portable radios, hand signals, 
telephones, as appropriate) shall be maintained between the employee-in-
charge of the immediate handling area and both the site safety and 
health supervisor and the command post until such time as the handling 
operation is completed. Communication equipment or methods that could 
cause shock sensitive materials to explode shall not be used.
    (v) Drums and containers under pressure, as evidenced by bulging or 
swelling, shall not be moved until such time as the cause for excess 
pressure is determined and appropriate containment procedures have been 
implemented to protect employees from explosive relief of the drum.
    (vi) Drums and containers containing packaged laboratory wastes 
shall be considered to contain shock-sensitive or explosive materials 
until they have been characterized.

    Caution: Shipping of shock sensitive wastes may be prohibited under 
U.S. Department of Transportation regulations. Employers and their 
shippers should refer to 49 CFR 173.21 and 173.50.

    (6) Laboratory waste packs. In addition to the requirements of 
paragraph (j)(5) of this section, the following precautions shall be 
taken, as a minimum, in handling laboratory waste packs (lab packs):
    (i) Lab packs shall be opened only when necessary and then only by 
an individual knowledgeable in the inspection, classification, and 
segregation of the containers within the pack according to the hazards 
of the wastes.
    (ii) If crystalline material is noted on any container, the contents 
shall be handled as a shock-sensitive waste until the contents are 
identified.
    (7) Sampling of drum and container contents. Sampling of containers 
and drums shall be done in accordance with a sampling procedure which is 
part of the site safety and health plan developed for and available to 
employees and others at the specific worksite.
    (8) Shipping and transport. (i) Drums and containers shall be 
identified and classified prior to packaging for shipment.
    (ii) Drum or container staging areas shall be kept to the minimum 
number necessary to identify and classify materials safely and prepare 
them for transport.
    (iii) Staging areas shall be provided with adequate access and 
egress routes.

[[Page 152]]

    (iv) Bulking of hazardous wastes shall be permitted only after a 
thorough characterization of the materials has been completed.
    (9) Tank and vault procedures. (i) Tanks and vaults containing 
hazardous substances shall be handled in a manner similar to that for 
drums and containers, taking into consideration the size of the tank or 
vault.
    (ii) Appropriate tank or vault entry procedures as described in the 
employer's safety and health plan shall be followed whenever employees 
must enter a tank or vault.
    (k) Decontamination--(1) General. Procedures for all phases of 
decontamination shall be developed and implemented in accordance with 
this paragraph.
    (2) Decontamination procedures. (i) A decontamination procedure 
shall be developed, communicated to employees and implemented before any 
employees or equipment may enter areas on site where potential for 
exposure to hazardous substances exists.
    (ii) Standard operating procedures shall be developed to minimize 
employee contact with hazardous substances or with equipment that has 
contacted hazardous substances.
    (iii) All employees leaving a contaminated area shall be 
appropriately decontaminated; all contaminated clothing and equipment 
leaving a contaminated area shall be appropriately disposed of or 
decontaminated.
    (iv) Decontamination procedures shall be monitored by the site 
safety and health supervisor to determine their effectiveness. When such 
procedures are found to be ineffective, appropriate steps shall be taken 
to correct any deficiencies.
    (3) Location. Decontamination shall be performed in geographical 
areas that will minimize the exposure of uncontaminated employees or 
equipment to contaminated employees or equipment.
    (4) Equipment and solvents. All equipment and solvents used for 
decontamination shall be decontaminated or disposed of properly.
    (5) Personal protective clothing and equipment. (i) Protective 
clothing and equipment shall be decontaminated, cleaned, laundered, 
maintained or replaced as needed to maintain their effectiveness.
    (ii) Employees whose non-impermeable clothing becomes wetted with 
hazardous substances shall immediately remove that clothing and proceed 
to shower. The clothing shall be disposed of or decontaminated before it 
is removed from the work zone.
    (6) Unauthorized employees. Unauthorized employees shall not remove 
protective clothing or equipment from change rooms.
    (7) Commercial laundries or cleaning establishments. Commercial 
laundries or cleaning establishments that decontaminate protective 
clothing or equipment shall be informed of the potentially harmful 
effects of exposures to hazardous substances.
    (8) Showers and change rooms. Where the decontamination procedure 
indicates a need for regular showers and change rooms outside of a 
contaminated area, they shall be provided and meet the requirements of 
29 CFR 1910.141. If temperature conditions prevent the effective use of 
water, then other effective means for cleansing shall be provided and 
used.
    (l) Emergency response by employees at uncontrolled hazardous waste 
sites--(1) Emergency response plan. (i) An emergency response plan shall 
be developed and implemented by all employers within the scope of 
paragraphs (a)(1) (i)-(ii) of this section to handle anticipated 
emergencies prior to the commencement of hazardous waste operations. The 
plan shall be in writing and available for inspection and copying by 
employees, their representatives, OSHA personnel and other governmental 
agencies with relevant responsibilities.
    (ii) Employers who will evacuate their employees from the danger 
area when an emergency occurs, and who do not permit any of their 
employees to assist in handling the emergency, are exempt from the 
requirements of this paragraph if they provide an emergency action plan 
complying with Sec. 1926.35 of this part.
    (2) Elements of an emergency response plan. The employer shall 
develop an emergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, 
as a minimum, the following:

[[Page 153]]

    (i) Pre-emergency planning.
    (ii) Personnel roles, lines of authority, and communication.
    (iii) Emergency recognition and prevention.
    (iv) Safe distances and places of refuge.
    (v) Site security and control.
    (vi) Evacuation routes and procedures.
    (vii) Decontamination procedures which are not covered by the site 
safety and health plan.
    (viii) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.
    (ix) Emergency alerting and response procedures.
    (x) Critique of response and follow-up.
    (xi) PPE and emergency equipment.
    (3) Procedures for handling emergency incidents. (i) In addition to 
the elements for the emergency response plan required in paragraph 
(1)(2) of this section, the following elements shall be included for 
emergency response plans:
    (A) Site topography, layout, and prevailing weather conditions.
    (B) Procedures for reporting incidents to local, state, and federal 
governmental agencies.
    (ii) The emergency response plan shall be a separate section of the 
Site Safety and Health Plan.
    (iii) The emergency response plan shall be compatible and integrated 
with the disaster, fire and/or emergency response plans of local, state, 
and federal agencies.
    (iv) The emergency response plan shall be rehearsed regularly as 
part of the overall training program for site operations.
    (v) The site emergency response plan shall be reviewed periodically 
and, as necessary, be amended to keep it current with new or changing 
site conditions or information.
    (vi) An employee alarm system shall be installed in accordance with 
29 CFR 1926.159 to notify employees of an emergency situation; to stop 
work activities if necessary; to lower background noise in order to 
speed communication; and to begin emergency procedures.
    (vii) Based upon the information available at time of the emergency, 
the employer shall evaluate the incident and the site response 
capabilities and proceed with the appropriate steps to implement the 
site emergency response plan.
    (m) Illumination. Areas accessible to employees shall be lighted to 
not less than the minimum illumination intensities listed in the 
following Table D-65.1 while any work is in progress:

     Table D-65.1--Minimum Illumination Intensities in Foot-Candles     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Foot-candles                      Area or operations      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
5......................................   General site areas.           
3......................................   Excavation and waste areas,   
                                          accessways, active storage    
                                          areas, loading platforms,     
                                          refueling, and field          
                                          maintenance areas.            
5......................................   Indoors: Warehouses,          
                                          corridors, hallways, and      
                                          exitways.                     
5......................................   Tunnels, shafts, and general  
                                          underground work areas.       
                                          (Exception: Minimum of 10 foot-
                                          candles is required at tunnel 
                                          and shaft heading during      
                                          drilling mucking, and scaling.
                                          Mine Safety and Health        
                                          Administration approved cap   
                                          lights shall be acceptable for
                                          use in the tunnel heading.)   
10.....................................   General shops (e.g.,          
                                          mechanical and electrical     
                                          equipment rooms, active       
                                          storerooms, barracks or living
                                          quarters, locker or dressing  
                                          rooms, dining areas, and      
                                          indoor toilets and workrooms.)
30.....................................   First aid stations,           
                                          infirmaries, and offices.     
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (n) Sanitation at temporary workplaces--(1) Potable water. (i) An 
adequate supply of potable water shall be provided on the site.
    (ii) Portable containers used to dispense drinking water shall be 
capable of being tightly closed, and equipped with a tap. Water shall 
not be dipped from containers.
    (iii) Any container used to distribute drinking water shall be 
clearly marked as to the nature of its contents and not used for any 
other purpose.
    (iv) Where single service cups (to be used but once) are supplied, 
both a sanitary container for the unused cups and a receptacle for 
disposing of the used cups shall be provided.
    (2) Nonpotable water. (i) Outlets for nonpotable water, such as 
water for firefighting purposes, shall be identified to indicate clearly 
that the water is unsafe and is not to be used for drinking, washing, or 
cooking purposes.
    (ii) There shall be no cross-connection, open or potential, between 
a system furnishing potable water and a system furnishing nonpotable 
water.

[[Page 154]]

    (3) Toilet facilities. (i) Toilets shall be provided for employees 
according to the following Table D-65.2.

                     Table D-65.2--Toilet Facilities                    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Minimum number of     
            Number of employees                      facilities         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
20 or fewer...............................   One.                       
More than 20, fewer than 200..............   One toilet seat and one    
                                             urinal per 40 employees.   
More than 200.............................   One toilet seat and one    
                                             urinal per 50 employees.   
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (ii) Under temporary field conditions, provisions shall be made to 
assure that at least one toilet facility is available.
    (iii) Hazardous waste sites not provided with a sanitary sewer shall 
be provided with the following toilet facilities unless prohibited by 
local codes:
    (A) Chemical toilets;
    (B) Recirculating toilets;
    (C) Combustion toilets; or
    (D) Flush toilets.
    (iv) The requirements of this paragraph for sanitation facilities 
shall not apply to mobile crews having transportation readily available 
to nearby toilet facilities.
    (v) Doors entering toilet facilities shall be provided with entrance 
locks controlled from inside the facility.
    (4) Food handling. All food service facilities and operations for 
employees shall meet the applicable laws, ordinances, and regulations of 
the jurisdictions in which they are located.
    (5) Temporary sleeping quarters. When temporary sleeping quarters 
are provided, they shall be heated, ventilated, and lighted.
    (6) Washing facilities. The employer shall provide adequate washing 
facilities for employees engaged in operations where hazardous 
substances may be harmful to employees. Such facilities shall be in near 
proximity to the worksite; in areas where exposures are below 
permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels and which are 
under the controls of the employer; and shall be so equipped as to 
enable employees to remove hazardous substances from themselves.
    (7) Showers and change rooms. When hazardous waste clean-up or 
removal operations commence on a site and the duration of the work will 
require six months or greater time to complete, the employer shall 
provide showers and change rooms for all employees exposed to hazardous 
substances and health hazards involved in hazardous waste clean-up or 
removal operations.
    (i) Showers shall be provided and shall meet the requirements of 29 
CFR 1926.51(f)(4).
    (ii) Change rooms shall be provided and shall meet the requirements 
of 29 CFR 1926.51(i). Change rooms shall consist of two separate change 
areas separated by the shower area required in paragraph (n)(7)(i) of 
this section. One change area, with an exit leading off the worksite, 
shall provide employees with a clean area where they can remove, store, 
and put on street clothing. The second area, with an exit to the 
worksite, shall provide employees with an area where they can put on, 
remove and store work clothing and personal protective equipment.
    (iii) Showers and change rooms shall be located in areas where 
exposures are below the permissible exposure limits and published 
exposure levels. If this cannot be accomplished, then a ventilation 
system shall be provided that will supply air that is below the 
permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels.
    (iv) Employers shall assure that employees shower at the end of 
their work shift and when leaving the hazardous waste site.
    (o) New technology programs. (1) The employer shall develop and 
implement procedures for the introduction of effective new technologies 
and equipment developed for the improved protection of employees working 
with hazardous waste clean-up operations, and the same shall be 
implemented as part of the site safety and health program to assure that 
employee protection is being maintained.
    (2) New technologies, equipment or control measures available to the 
industry, such as the use of foams, absorbents, adsorbents, 
neutralizers, or other means to suppress the level of air contaminates 
while excavating the site or for spill control, shall be evaluated by 
employers or their representatives. Such an evaluation shall be done to 
determine the effectiveness of the new methods, materials, or equipment 
before implementing their use on a large

[[Page 155]]

scale for enhancing employee protection. Information and data from 
manufacturers or suppliers may be used as part of the employer's 
evaluation effort. Such evaluations shall be made available to OSHA upon 
request.
    (p) Certain operations conducted under the Resource Conservation and 
Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Employers conducting operations at 
treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities specified in paragraph 
(a)(1)(iv) of this section shall provide and implement the programs 
specified in this paragraph. See the ``Notes and Exceptions'' to 
paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section for employers not covered.)''.
    (1) Safety and health program. The employer shall develop and 
implement a written safety and health program for employees involved in 
hazardous waste operations that shall be available for inspection by 
employees, their representatives and OSHA personnel. The program shall 
be designed to identify, evaluate and control safety and health hazards 
in their facilities for the purpose of employee protection, to provide 
for emergency response meeting the requirements of paragraph (p)(8) of 
this section and to address as appropriate site analysis, engineering 
controls, maximum exposure limits, hazardous waste handling procedures 
and uses of new technologies.
    (2) Hazard communication program. The employer shall implement a 
hazard communication program meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.59 
as part of the employer's safety and program.

    Note to 1926.65--The exemption for hazardous waste provided in 
Sec. 1926.59 is applicable to this section.

    (3) Medical surveillance program. The employer shall develop and 
implement a medical surveillance program meeting the requirements of 
paragraph (f) of this section.
    (4) Decontamination program. The employer shall develop and 
implement a decontamination procedure meeting the requirements of 
paragraph (k) of this section.
    (5) New technology program. The employer shall develop and implement 
procedures meeting the requirements of paragraph (o) of this section for 
introducing new and innovative equipment into the workplace.
    (6) Material handling program. Where employees will be handling 
drums or containers, the employer shall develop and implement procedures 
meeting the requirements of paragraphs (j)(1) (ii) through (viii) and 
(xi) of this section, as well as (j)(3) and (j)(8) of this section prior 
to starting such work.
    (7) Training program--(i) New employees. The employer shall develop 
and implement a training program, which is part of the employer's safety 
and health program, for employees exposed to health hazards or hazardous 
substances at TSD operations to enable the employees to perform their 
assigned duties and functions in a safe and healthful manner so as not 
endanger themselves or other employees. The initial training shall be 
for 24 hours and refresher training shall be for eight hours annually. 
Employees who have received the initial training required by this 
paragraph shall be given a written certificate attesting that they have 
successfully completed the necessary training.
    (ii) Current employees. Employers who can show by an employee's 
previous work experience and/or training that the employee has had 
training equivalent to the initial training required by this paragraph, 
shall be considered as meeting the initial training requirements of this 
paragraph as to that employee. Equivalent training includes the training 
that existing employees might have already received from actual site 
work experience. Current employees shall receive eight hours of 
refresher training annually.
    (iii) Trainers. Trainers who teach initial training shall have 
satisfactorily completed a training course for teaching the subjects 
they are expected to teach or they shall have the academic credentials 
and instruction experience necessary to demonstrate a good command of 
the subject matter of the courses and competent instructional skills.
    (8) Emergency response program--(i) Emergency response plan. An 
emergency response plan shall be developed and implemented by all 
employers. Such plans need not duplicate any of the

[[Page 156]]

subjects fully addressed in the employer's contingency planning required 
by permits, such as those issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, provided that the contingency plan is made part of the emergency 
response plan. The emergency response plan shall be a written portion of 
the employers safety and health program required in paragraph (p)(1) of 
this section. Employers who will evacuate their employees from the 
worksite location when an emergency occurs and who do not permit any of 
their employees to assist in handling the emergency are exempt from the 
requirements of paragraph (p)(8) if they provide an emergency action 
plan complying with Sec. 1926.35 of this part.
    (ii) Elements of an emergency response plan. The employer shall 
develop an emergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, 
as a minimum, the following areas to the extent that they are not 
addressed in any specific program required in this paragraph:
    (A) Pre-emergency planning and coordination with outside parties.
    (B) Personnel roles, lines of authority, and communication.
    (C) Emergency recognition and prevention.
    (D) Safe distances and places of refuge.
    (E) Site security and control.
    (F) Evacuation routes and procedures.
    (G) Decontamination procedures.
    (H) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.
    (I) Emergency alerting and response procedures.
    (J) Critique of response and follow-up.
    (K) PPE and emergency equipment.
    (iii) Training. (A) Training for emergency response employees shall 
be completed before they are called upon to perform in real emergencies. 
Such training shall include the elements of the emergency response plan, 
standard operating procedures the employer has established for the job, 
the personal protective equipment to be worn and procedures for handling 
emergency incidents.

    Exception 1: An employer need not train all employees to the degree 
specified if the employer divides the work force in a manner such that a 
sufficient number of employees who have responsibility to control 
emergencies have the training specified, and all other employees, who 
may first respond to an emergency incident, have sufficient awareness 
training to recognize that an emergency response situation exists and 
that they are instructed in that case to summon the fully trained 
employees and not attempt control activities for which they are not 
trained.
    Exception 2: An employer need not train all employees to the degree 
specified if arrangements have been made in advance for an outside 
fully-trained emergency response team to respond in a reasonable period 
and all employees, who may come to the incident first, have sufficient 
awareness training to recognize that an emergency response situation 
exists and they have been instructed to call the designated outside 
fully-trained emergency response team for assistance.

    (B) Employee members of TSD facility emergency response 
organizations shall be trained to a level of competence in the 
recognition of health and safety hazards to protect themselves and other 
employees. This would include training in the methods used to minimize 
the risk from safety and health hazards; in the safe use of control 
equipment; in the selection and use of appropriate personal protective 
equipment; in the safe operating procedures to be used at the incident 
scene; in the techniques of coordination with other employees to 
minimize risks; in the appropriate response to over exposure from health 
hazards or injury to themselves and other employees; and in the 
recognition of subsequent symptoms which may result from over exposures.
    (C) The employer shall certify that each covered employee has 
attended and successfully completed the training required in paragraph 
(p)(8)(iii) of this section, or shall certify the employee's competency 
at least yearly. The method used to demonstrate competency for 
certification of training shall be recorded and maintained by the 
employer.
    (iv) Procedures for handling emergency incidents. (A) In addition to 
the elements for the emergency response plan required in paragraph 
(p)(8)(ii) of this section, the following elements shall be included for 
emergency response plans to the extent that they do not repeat

[[Page 157]]

any information already contained in the emergency response plan:
    (1) Site topography, layout, and prevailing weather conditions.
    (2) Procedures for reporting incidents to local, state, and federal 
governmental agencies.
    (B) The emergency response plan shall be compatible and integrated 
with the disaster, fire and/or emergency response plans of local, state, 
and federal agencies.
    (C) The emergency response plan shall be rehearsed regularly as part 
of the overall training program for site operations.
    (D) The site emergency response plan shall be reviewed periodically 
and, as necessary, be amended to keep it current with new or changing 
site conditions or information.
    (E) An employee alarm system shall be installed in accordance with 
29 CFR 1926.159 to notify employees of an emergency situation; to stop 
work activities if necessary; to lower background noise in order to 
speed communication; and to begin emergency procedures.
    (F) Based upon the information available at time of the emergency, 
the employer shall evaluate the incident and the site response 
capabilities and proceed with the appropriate steps to implement the 
site emergency response plan.
    (q) Emerqency response to hazardous substance releases. This 
paragraph covers employers whose employees are engaged in emergency 
response no matter where it occurs except that it does not cover 
employees engaged in operations specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) 
through (a)(1)(iv) of this section. Those emergency response 
organizations who have developed and implemented programs equivalent to 
this paragraph for handling releases of hazardous substances pursuant to 
section 303 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 
(Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, 42 U.S.C. 
11003) shall be deemed to have met the requirements of this paragraph.
    (1) Emergency response plan. An emergency response plan shall be 
developed and implemented to handle anticipated emergencies prior to the 
commencement of emergency response operations. The plan shall be in 
writing and available for inspection and copying by employees, their 
representatives and OSHA personnel. Employers who will evacuate their 
employees from the danger area when an emergency occurs, and who do not 
permit any of their employees to assist in handling the emergency, are 
exempt from the requirements of this paragraph if they provide an 
emergency action plan in accordance with Sec. 1926.35 of this part.
    (2) Elements of an emergency response plan. The employer shall 
develop an emergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, 
as a minimum, the following to the extent that they are not addressed 
elsewhere:
    (i) Pre-emergency planning and coordination with outside parties.
    (ii) Personnel roles, lines of authority, training, and 
communication.
    (iii) Emergency recognition and prevention.
    (iv) Safe distances and places of refuge.
    (v) Site security and control.
    (vi) Evacuation routes and procedures.
    (vii) Decontamination.
    (viii) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.
    (ix) Emergency alerting and response procedures.
    (x) Critique of response and follow-up.
    (xi) PPE and emergency equipment.
    (xii) Emergency response organizations may use the local emergency 
response plan or the state emergency response plan or both, as part of 
their emergency response plan to avoid duplication. Those items of the 
emergency response plan that are being properly addressed by the SARA 
Title III plans may be substituted into their emergency plan or 
otherwise kept together for the employer and employee's use.
    (3) Procedures for handlinq emergency response. (i) The senior 
emergency response official responding to an emergency shall become the 
individual in charge of a site-specific Incident Command System (ICS). 
All emergency responders and their communications shall be coordinated 
and controlled through the individual in charge of the

[[Page 158]]

ICS assisted by the senior official present for each employer.

    Note to (q)(3)(i).--The senior official at an emergency response is 
the most senior official on the site who has the responsibility for 
controlling the operations at the site. Initially it is the senior 
officer on the first-due piece of responding emergency apparatus to 
arrive on the incident scene. As more senior officers arrive (i.e., 
battalion chief, fire chief, state law enforcement official, site 
coordinator, etc.) the position is passed up the line of authority which 
has been previously established.

    (ii) The individual in charge of the ICS shall identify, to the 
extent possible, all hazardous substances or conditions present and 
shall address as appropriate site analysis, use of engineering controls, 
maximum exposure limits, hazardous substance handling procedures, and 
use of any new technologies.
    (iii) Based on the hazardous substances and/or conditions present, 
the individual in charge of the ICS shall implement appropriate 
emergency operations, and assure that the personal protective equipment 
worn is appropriate for the hazards to be encountered. However, personal 
protective equipment shall meet, at a minimum, the criteria contained in 
29 CFR 1926.97 when worn while performing fire fighting operations 
beyond the incipient stage for any incident.
    (iv) Employees engaged in emergency response and exposed to 
hazardous substances presenting an inhalation hazard or potential 
inhalation hazard shall wear positive pressure self-contained breathing 
apparatus while engaged in emergency response, until such time that the 
individual in charge of the ICS determines through the use of air 
monitoring that a decreased level of respiratory protection will not 
result in hazardous exposures to employees.
    (v) The individual in charge of the ICS shall limit the number of 
emergency response personnel at the emergency site, in those areas of 
potential or actual exposure to incident or site hazards, to those who 
are actively performing emergency operations. However, operations in 
hazardous areas shall be performed using the buddy system in groups of 
two or more.
    (vi) Back-up personnel shall stand by with equipment ready to 
provide assistance or rescue. Advance first aid support personnel, as a 
minimum, shall also stand by with medical equipment and transportation 
capability.
    (vii) The individual in charge of the ICS shall designate a safety 
official, who is knowledgable in the operations being implemented at the 
emergency response site, with specific responsibility to identify and 
evaluate hazards and to provide direction with respect to the safety of 
operations for the emergency at hand.
    (viii) When activities are judged by the safety official to be an 
IDLH condition and/or to involve an imminent danger condition, the 
safety official shall have the authority to alter, suspend, or terminate 
those activities. The safety official shall immediately inform the 
individual in charge of the ICS of any actions needed to be taken to 
correct these hazards at the emergency scene.
    (ix) After emergency operations have terminated, the individual in 
charge of the ICS shall implement appropriate decontamination 
procedures.
    (x) When deemed necessary for meeting the tasks at hand, approved 
self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus may be used with 
approved cylinders from other approved self-contained compressed air 
breathing apparatus provided that such cylinders are of the same 
capacity and pressure rating. All compressed air cylinders used with 
self-contained breathing apparatus shall meet U.S. Department of 
Transportation and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 
criteria.
    (4) Skilled support personnel. Personnel, not necessarily an 
employer's own employees, who are skilled in the operation of certain 
equipment, such as mechanized earth moving or digging equipment or crane 
and hoisting equipment, and who are needed temporarily to perform 
immediate emergency support work that cannot reasonably be performed in 
a timely fashion by an employer's own employees, and who will be or may 
be exposed to the hazards at an emergency response scene, are not 
required to meet the training required in this paragraph for the 
employer's regular employees. However,

[[Page 159]]

these personnel shall be given an initial briefing at the site prior to 
their participation in any emergency response. The initial briefing 
shall include instruction in the wearing of appropriate personal 
protective equipment, what chemical hazards are involved, and what 
duties are to be performed. All other appropriate safety and health 
precautions provided to the employer's own employees shall be used to 
assure the safety and health of these personnel.
    (5) Specialist employees. Employees who, in the course of their 
regular job duties, work with and are trained in the hazards of specific 
hazardous substances, and who will be called upon to provide technical 
advice or assistance at a hazardous substance release incident to the 
individual in charge, shall receive training or demonstrate competency 
in the area of their specialization annually.
    (6) Training. Training shall be based on the duties and function to 
be performed by each responder of an emergency response organization. 
The skill and knowledge levels required for all new responders, those 
hired after the effective date of this standard, shall be conveyed to 
them through training before they are permitted to take part in actual 
emergency operations on an incident. Employees who participate, or are 
expected to participate, in emergency response, shall be given training 
in accordance with the following paragraphs:
    (i) First responder awareness level. First responders at the 
awareness level are individuals who are likely to witness or discover a 
hazardous substance release and who have been trained to initiate an 
emergency response sequence by notifying the proper authorities of the 
release. They would take no further action beyond notifying the 
authorities of the release. First responders at the awareness level 
shall have sufficient training or have had sufficient experience to 
objectively demonstrate competency in the following areas:
    (A) An understanding of what hazardous substances are, and the risks 
associated with them in an incident.
    (B) An understanding of the potential outcomes associated with an 
emergency created when hazardous substances are present.
    (C) The ability to recognize the presence of hazardous substances in 
an emergency.
    (D) The ability to identify the hazardous substances, if possible.
    (E) An understanding of the role of the first responder awareness 
individual in the employer's emergency response plan including site 
security and control and the U.S. Department of Transportation's 
Emergency Response Guidebook.
    (F) The ability to realize the need for additional resources, and to 
make appropriate notifications to the communication center.
    (ii) First responder operations level. First responders at the 
operations level are individuals who respond to releases or potential 
releases of hazardous substances as part of the initial response to the 
site for the purpose of protecting nearby persons, property, or the 
environment from the effects of the release. They are trained to respond 
in a defensive fashion without actually trying to stop the release. 
Their function is to contain the release from a safe distance, keep it 
from spreading, and prevent exposures. First responders at the 
operational level shall have received at least eight hours of training 
or have had sufficient experience to objectively demonstrate competency 
in the following areas in addition to those listed for the awareness 
level and the employer shall so certify:
    (A) Knowledge of the basic hazard and risk assessment techniques.
    (B) Know how to select and use proper personal protective equipment 
provided to the first responder operational level.
    (C) An understanding of basic hazardous materials terms.
    (D) Know how to perform basic control, containment and/or 
confinement operations within the capabilities of the resources and 
personal protective equipment available with their unit.
    (E) Know how to implement basic decontamination procedures.
    (F) An understanding of the relevant standard operating procedures 
and termination procedures.
    (iii) Hazardous materials technician. Hazardous materials 
technicians are

[[Page 160]]

individuals who respond to releases or potential releases for the 
purpose of stopping the release. They assume a more aggressive role than 
a first responder at the operations level in that they will approach the 
point of release in order to plug, patch or otherwise stop the release 
of a hazardous substance. Hazardous materials technicians shall have 
received at least 24 hours of training equal to the first responder 
operations level and in addition have competency in the following areas 
and the employer shall so certify:
    (A) Know how to implement the employer's emergency response plan.
    (B) Know the classification, identification and verification of 
known and unknown materials by using field survey instruments and 
equipment.
    (C) Be able to function within an assigned role in the Incident 
Command System.
    (D) Know how to select and use proper specialized chemical personal 
protective equipment provided to the hazardous materials technician.
    (E) Understand hazard and risk assessment techniques.
    (F) Be able to perform advance control, containment, and/or 
confinement operations within the capabilities of the resources and 
personal protective equipment available with the unit.
    (G) Understand and implement decontamination procedures.
    (H) Understand termination procedures.
    (I) Understand basic chemical and toxicological terminology and 
behavior.
    (iv) Hazardous materials specialist. Hazardous materials specialists 
are individuals who respond with and provide support to hazardous 
materials technicians. Their duties parallel those of the hazardous 
materials technician, however, those duties require a more directed or 
specific knowledge of the various substances they may be called upon to 
contain. The hazardous materials specialist would also act as the site 
liaison with Federal, state, local and other government authorities in 
regards to site activities. Hazardous materials specialists shall have 
received at least 24 hours of training equal to the technician level and 
in addition have competency in the following areas and the employer 
shall so certify:
    (A) Know how to implement the local emergency response plan.
    (B) Understand classification, identification and verification of 
known and unknown materials by using advanced survey instruments and 
equipment.
    (C) Know of the state emergency response plan.
    (D) Be able to select and use proper specialized chemical personal 
protective equipment provided to the hazardous materials specialist.
    (E) Understand in-depth hazard and risk techniques.
    (F) Be able to perform specialized control, containment, and/or 
confinement operations within the capabilities of the resources and 
personal protective equipment available.
    (G) Be able to determine and implement decontamination procedures.
    (H) Have the ability to develop a site safety and control plan.
    (I) Understand chemical, radiological and toxicological terminology 
and behavior.
    (v) On scene incident commander. Incident commanders, who will 
assume control of the incident scene beyond the first responder 
awareness level, shall receive at least 24 hours of training equal to 
the first responder operations level and in addition have competency in 
the following areas and the employer shall so certify:
    (A) Know and be able to implement the employer's incident command 
system.
    (B) Know how to implement the employer's emergency response plan.
    (C) Know and understand the hazards and risks associated with 
employees working in chemical protective clothing.
    (D) Know how to implement the local emergency response plan.
    (E) Know of the state emergency response plan and of the Federal 
Regional Response Team.
    (F) Know and understand the importance of decontamination 
procedures.
    (7) Trainers. Trainers who teach any of the above training subjects 
shall have satisfactorily completed a training course for teaching the 
subjects they are expected to teach, such as the courses offered by the 
U.S. National

[[Page 161]]

Fire Academy, or they shall have the training and/or academic 
credentials and instructional experience necessary to demonstrate 
competent instructional skills and a good command of the subject matter 
of the courses they are to teach.
    (8) Refresher training. (i) Those employees who are trained in 
accordance with paragraph (q)(6) of this section shall receive annual 
refresher training of sufficient content and duration to maintain their 
competencies, or shall demonstrate competency in those areas at least 
yearly.
    (ii) A statement shall be made of the training or competency, and if 
a statement of competency is made, the employer shall keep a record of 
the methodology used to demonstrate competency.
    (9) Medical surveillance and consultation. (i) Members of an 
organized and designated HAZMAT team and hazardous materials specialists 
shall receive a baseline physical examination and be provided with 
medical surveillance as required in paragraph (f) of this section.
    (ii) Any emergency response employees who exhibits signs or symptoms 
which may have resulted from exposure to hazardous substances during the 
course of an emergency incident, either immediately or subsequently, 
shall be provided with medical consultation as required in paragraph 
(f)(3)(ii) of this section.
    (10) Chemical protective clothing. Chemical protective clothing and 
equipment to be used by organized and designated HAZMAT team members, or 
to be used by hazardous materials specialists, shall meet the 
requirements of paragraphs (g) (3) through (5) of this section.
    (11) Post-emergency response operations. Upon completion of the 
emergency response, if it is determined that it is necessary to remove 
hazardous substances, health hazards, and materials contaminated with 
them (such as contaminated soil or other elements of the natural 
environment) from the site of the incident, the employer conducting the 
clean-up shall comply with one of the following:
    (i) Meet all of the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (o) of 
this section; or
    (ii) Where the clean-up is done on plant property using plant or 
workplace employees, such employees shall have completed the training 
requirements of the following: 29 CFR 1926.35, 1926.59, and 1926.103, 
and other appropriate safety and health training made necessary by the 
tasks that they are expected to be performed such as personal protective 
equipment and decontamination procedures. All equipment to be used in 
the performance of the clean-up work shall be in serviceable condition 
and shall have been inspected prior to use.

  Appendices to Sec. 1926.65--Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency 
                                Response

    Note: The following appendices serve as non-mandatory guidelines to 
assist employees and employers in complying with the appropriate 
requirements of this section. However Sec. 1926.65(g) makes mandatory in 
certain circumstances the use of Level A and Level B PPE protection.

 Appendix A to Sec. 1926.65--Personal Protective Equipment Test Methods

    This appendix sets forth the non-mandatory examples of tests which 
may be used to evaluate compliance with Sec. 1926.65(g)(4) (ii) and 
(iii). Other tests and other challenge agents may be used to evaluate 
compliance.

     A. Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit pressure test

    1.0--Scope
    1.1  This practice measures the ability of a gas tight totally-
encapsulating chemical protective suit material, seams, and closures to 
maintain a fixed positive pressure. The results of this practice allow 
the gas tight integrity of a totally-encapsulating chemical protective 
suit to be evaluated.
    1.2  Resistance of the suit materials to permeation, penetration, 
and degradation by specific hazardous substances is not determined by 
this test method.
    2.0--Definition of terms
    2.1 Totally-encapsulated chemical protective suit (TECP suit) means 
a full body garment which is constructed of protective clothing 
materials; covers the wearer's torso, head, arms, legs and respirator; 
may cover the wearer's hands and feet with tightly attached gloves and 
boots; completely encloses the wearer and respirator by itself or in 
combination with the wearer's gloves and boots.

[[Page 162]]

    2.2 Protective clothing material means any material or combination 
of materials used in an item of clothing for the purpose of isolating 
parts of the body from direct contact with a potentially hazardous 
liquid or gaseous chemicals.
    2.3 Gas tight means, for the purpose of this test method, the 
limited flow of a gas under pressure from the inside of a TECP suit to 
atmosphere at a prescribed pressure and time interval.
    3.0--Summary of test method
    3.1 The TECP suit is visually inspected and modified for the test. 
The test apparatus is attached to the suit to permit inflation to the 
pre-test suit expansion pressure for removal of suit wrinkles and 
creases. The pressure is lowered to the test pressure and monitored for 
three minutes. If the pressure drop is excessive, the TECP suit fails 
the test and is removed from service. The test is repeated after leak 
location and repair.
    4.0--Required Supplies
    4.1 Source of compressed air.
    4.2 Test apparatus for suit testing, including a pressure 
measurement device with a sensitivity of at least \1/4\ inch water 
gauge.
    4.3 Vent valve closure plugs or sealing tape.
    4.4 Soapy water solution and soft brush.
    4.5 Stop watch or appropriate timing device.
    5.0--Safety Precautions
    5.1 Care shall be taken to provide the correct pressure safety 
devices required for the source of compressed air used.
    6.0--Test Procedure
    6.1 Prior to each test, the tester shall perform a visual inspection 
of the suit. Check the suit for seam integrity by visually examining the 
seams and gently pulling on the seams. Ensure that all air supply lines, 
fittings, visor, zippers, and valves are secure and show no signs of 
deterioration.
    6.1.1 Seal off the vent valves along with any other normal inlet or 
exhaust points (such as umbilical air line fittings or face piece 
opening) with tape or other appropriate means (caps, plugs, fixture, 
etc.). Care should be exercised in the sealing process not to damage any 
of the suit components.
    6.1.2 Close all closure assemblies.
    6.1.3 Prepare the suit for inflation by providing an improvised 
connection point on the suit for connecting an airline. Attach the 
pressure test apparatus to the suit to permit suit inflation from a 
compressed air source equipped with a pressure indicating regulator. The 
leak tightness of the pressure test apparatus should be tested before 
and after each test by closing off the end of the tubing attached to the 
suit and assuring a pressure of three inches water gauge for three 
minutes can be maintained. If a component is removed for the test, that 
component shall be replaced and a second test conducted with another 
component removed to permit a complete test of the ensemble.
    6.1.4 The pre-test expansion pressure (A) and the suit test pressure 
(B) shall be supplied by the suit manufacturer, but in no case shall 
they be less than: (A)=three inches water gauge; and (B)=two inches 
water gauge. The ending suit pressure (C) shall be no less than 80 
percent of the test pressure (B); i.e., the pressure drop shall not 
exceed 20 percent of the test pressure (B).
    6.1.5 Inflate the suit until the pressure inside is equal to 
pressure (A), the pre-test expansion suit pressure. Allow at least one 
minute to fill out the wrinkles in the suit. Release sufficient air to 
reduce the suit pressure to pressure (B), the suit test pressure. Begin 
timing. At the end of three minutes, record the suit pressure as 
pressure (C), the ending suit pressure. The difference between the suit 
test pressure and the ending suit test pressure (B-C) shall be defined 
as the suit pressure drop.
    6.1.6 If the suit pressure drop is more than 20 percent of the suit 
test pressure (B) during the three-minute test period, the suit fails 
the test and shall be removed from service.
    7.0--Retest Procedure
    7.1 If the suit fails the test check for leaks by inflating the suit 
to pressure (A) and brushing or wiping the entire suit (including seams, 
closures, lens gaskets, glove-to-sleeve joints, etc.) with a mild soap 
and water solution. Observe the suit for the formation of soap bubbles, 
which is an indication of a leak. Repair all identified leaks.
    7.2 Retest the TECP suit as outlined in Test procedure 6.0.
    8.0--Report
    8.1 Each TECP suit tested by this practice shall have the following 
information recorded:
    8.1.1 Unique identification number, identifying brand name, date of 
purchase, material of construction, and unique fit features, e.g., 
special breathing apparatus.
    8.1.2 The actual values for test pressures (A), (B), and (C) shall 
be recorded along with the specific observation times. If the ending 
pressure (C) is less than 80 percent of the test pressure (B), the suit 
shall be identified as failing the test. When possible, the specific 
leak location shall be identified in the test records. Retest pressure 
data shall be recorded as an additional test.
    8.1.3 The source of the test apparatus used shall be identified and 
the sensitivity of the pressure gauge shall be recorded.
    8.1.4 Records shall be kept for each pressure test even if repairs 
are being made at the test location.

                                 CAUTION

    Visually inspect all parts of the suit to be sure they are 
positioned correctly and secured tightly before putting the suit back 
into service. Special care should be taken to

[[Page 163]]

examine each exhaust valve to make sure it is not blocked.
    Care should also be exercised to assure that the inside and outside 
of the suit is completely dry before it is put into storage.

 B. Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit qualitative leak test

    1.0--Scope
    1.1 This practice semi-qualitatively tests gas tight totally-
encapsulating chemical protective suit integrity by detecting inward 
leakage of ammonia vapor. Since no modifications are made to the suit to 
carry out this test, the results from this practice provide a realistic 
test for the integrity of the entire suit.
    1.2 Resistance of the suit materials to permeation, penetration, and 
degradation is not determined by this test method. ASTM test methods are 
available to test suit materials for these characteristics and the tests 
are usually conducted by the manufacturers of the suits.
    2.0--Definition of terms
    2.1 Totally-encapsulated chemical protective suit (TECP suit) means 
a full body garment which is constructed of protective clothing 
materials; covers the wearer's torso, head, arms, legs and respirator; 
may cover the wearer's hands and feet with tightly attached gloves and 
boots; completely encloses the wearer and respirator by itself or in 
combination with the wearer's gloves, and boots.
    2.2 Protective clothing material means any material or combination 
of materials used in an item of clothing for the purpose of isolating 
parts of the body from direct contact with a potentially hazardous 
liquid or gaseous chemicals.
    2.3 Gas tight means, for the purpose of this test method, the 
limited flow of a gas under pressure from the inside of a TECP suit to 
atmosphere at a prescribed pressure and time interval.
    2.4 Intrusion Coefficient means a number expressing the level of 
protection provided by a gas tight totally-encapsulating chemical 
protective suit. The intrusion coefficient is calculated by dividing the 
test room challenge agent concentration by the concentration of 
challenge agent found inside the suit. The accuracy of the intrusion 
coefficient is dependent on the challenge agent monitoring methods. The 
larger the intrusion coefficient the greater the protection provided by 
the TECP suit.
    3.0--Summary of recommended practice
    3.1 The volume of concentrated aqueous ammonia solution (ammonia 
hydroxide NH4 OH) required to generate the test atmosphere is 
determined using the directions outlined in 6.1. The suit is donned by a 
person wearing the appropriate respiratory equipment (either a positive 
pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or a positive pressure 
supplied air respirator) and worn inside the enclosed test room. The 
concentrated aqueous ammonia solution is taken by the suited individual 
into the test room and poured into an open plastic pan. A two-minute 
evaporation period is observed before the test room concentration is 
measured, using a high range ammonia length of stain detector tube. When 
the ammonia vapor reaches a concentration of between 1000 and 1200 ppm, 
the suited individual starts a standardized exercise protocol to stress 
and flex the suit. After this protocol is completed, the test room 
concentration is measured again. The suited individual exits the test 
room and his stand-by person measures the ammonia concentration inside 
the suit using a low range ammonia length of stain detector tube or 
other more sensitive ammonia detector. A stand-by person is required to 
observe the test individual during the test procedure; aid the person in 
donning and doffing the TECP suit; and monitor the suit interior. The 
intrusion coefficient of the suit can be calculated by dividing the 
average test area concentration by the interior suit concentration. A 
colorimetric ammonia indicator strip of bromophenol blue or equivalent 
is placed on the inside of the suit face piece lens so that the suited 
individual is able to detect a color change and know if the suit has a 
significant leak. If a color change is observed the individual shall 
leave the test room immediately.
    4.0--Required supplies
    4.1 A supply of concentrated aqueous ammonium hydroxide (58% by 
weight).
    4.2 A supply of bromophenol/blue indicating paper or equivalent, 
sensitive to 5-10 ppm ammonia or greater over a two-minute period of 
exposure. [pH 3.0 (yellow) to pH 4.6 (blue)]
    4.3 A supply of high range (0.5-10 volume percent) and low range (5-
700 ppm) detector tubes for ammonia and the corresponding sampling pump. 
More sensitive ammonia detectors can be substituted for the low range 
detector tubes to improve the sensitivity of this practice.
    4.4 A shallow plastic pan (PVC) at least 
12:14:1
and a half pint plastic container (PVC) with tightly closing lid.
    4.5 A graduated cylinder or other volumetric measuring device of at 
least 50 milliliters in volume with an accuracy of at least 
1 milliliters.

                         5.0--Safety precautions

    5.1  Concentrated aqueous ammonium hydroxide, NH4 OH, is 
a corrosive volatile liquid requiring eye, skin, and respiratory 
protection. The person conducting the test shall review the MSDS for 
aqueous ammonia.
    5.2  Since the established permissible exposure limit for ammonia is 
35 ppm as a 15

[[Page 164]]

minute STEL, only persons wearing a positive pressure self-contained 
breathing apparatus or a positive pressure supplied air respirator shall 
be in the chamber. Normally only the person wearing the totally-
encapsulating suit will be inside the chamber. A stand-by person shall 
have a positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, or a 
positive pressure supplied air respirator available to enter the test 
area should the suited individual need assistance.
    5.3  A method to monitor the suited individual must be used during 
this test. Visual contact is the simplest but other methods using 
communication devices are acceptable.
    5.4  The test room shall be large enough to allow the exercise 
protocol to be carried out and then to be ventilated to allow for easy 
exhaust of the ammonia test atmosphere after the test(s) are completed.
    5.5  Individuals shall be medically screened for the use of 
respiratory protection and checked for allergies to ammonia before 
participating in this test procedure.

                           6.0--Test procedure

    6.1.1  Measure the test area to the nearest foot and calculate its 
volume in cubic feet. Multiply the test area volume by 0.2 milliliters 
of concentrated aqueous ammonia solution per cubic foot of test area 
volume to determine the approximate volume of concentrated aqueous 
ammonia required to generate 1000 ppm in the test area.
    6.1.2  Measure this volume from the supply of concentrated aqueous 
ammonia and place it into a closed plastic container.
    6.1.3  Place the container, several high range ammonia detector 
tubes, and the pump in the clean test pan and locate it near the test 
area entry door so that the suited individual has easy access to these 
supplies.
    6.2.1  In a non-contaminated atmosphere, open a pre-sealed ammonia 
indicator strip and fasten one end of the strip to the inside of the 
suit face shield lens where it can be seen by the wearer. Moisten the 
indicator strip with distilled water. Care shall be taken not to 
contaminate the detector part of the indicator paper by touching it. A 
small piece of masking tape or equivalent should be used to attach the 
indicator strip to the interior of the suit face shield.
    6.2.2  If problems are encountered with this method of attachment, 
the indicator strip can be attached to the outside of the respirator 
face piece lens being used during the test.
    6.3  Don the respiratory protective device normally used with the 
suit, and then don the TECP suit to be tested. Check to be sure all 
openings which are intended to be sealed (zippers, gloves, etc.) are 
completely sealed. DO NOT, however, plug off any venting valves.
    6.4  Step into the enclosed test room such as a closet, bathroom, or 
test booth, equipped with an exhaust fan. No air should be exhausted 
from the chamber during the test because this will dilute the ammonia 
challenge concentrations.
    6.5  Open the container with the pre-measured volume of concentrated 
aqueous ammonia within the enclosed test room, and pour the liquid into 
the empty plastic test pan. Wait two minutes to allow for adequate 
volatilization of the concentrated aqueous ammonia. A small mixing fan 
can be used near the evaporation pan to increase the evaporation rate of 
the ammonia solution.
    6.6  After two minutes a determination of the ammonia concentration 
within the chamber should be made using the high range colorimetric 
detector tube. A concentration of 1000 ppm ammonia or greater shall be 
generated before the exercises are started.
    6.7  To test the integrity of the suit the following four minute 
exercise protocol should be followed:
    6.7.1  Raising the arms above the head with at least 15 raising 
motions completed in one minute.
    6.7.2  Walking in place for one minute with at least 15 raising 
motions of each leg in a one-minute period.
    6.7.3  Touching the toes with a least 10 complete motions of the 
arms from above the head to touching of the toes in a one-minute period.
    6.7.4  Knee bends with at least 10 complete standing and squatting 
motions in a one-minute period.
    6.8  If at any time during the test the colorimetric indicating 
paper should change colors, the test should be stopped and section 6.10 
and 6.12 initiated (See para.4.2).
    6.9  After completion of the test exercise, the test area 
concentration should be measured again using the high range colorimetric 
detector tube.
    6.10  Exit the test area.
    6.11  The opening created by the suit zipper or other appropriate 
suit penetration should be used to determine the ammonia concentration 
in the suit with the low range length of stain detector tube or other 
ammonia monitor. The internal TECP suit air should be sampled far enough 
from the enclosed test area to prevent a false ammonia reading.
    6.12  After completion of the measurement of the suit interior 
ammonia concentration the test is concluded and the suit is doffed and 
the respirator removed.
    6.13  The ventilating fan for the test room should be turned on and 
allowed to run for enough time to remove the ammonia gas. The fan shall 
be vented to the outside of the building.
    6.14  Any detectable ammonia in the suit interior (five ppm ammonia 
(NH3) or more for the length of stain detector tube) 
indicates that the suit has failed the test. When

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other ammonia detectors are used a lower level of detection is possible, 
and it should be specified as the pass/fail criteria.
    6.15  By following this test method, an intrusion coefficient of 
approximately 200 or more can be measured with the suit in a completely 
operational condition. If the intrusion coefficient is 200 or more, then 
the suit is suitable for emergency response and field use.

                         7.0--Retest procedures

    7.1  If the suit fails this test, check for leaks by following the 
pressure test in test A above.
    7.2  Retest the TECP suit as outlined in the test procedure 6.0.

                               8.0--Report

    8.1  Each gas tight totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit 
tested by this practice shall have the following information recorded.
    8.1.1  Unique identification number, identifying brand name, date of 
purchase, material of construction, and unique suit features; e.g., 
special breathing apparatus.
    8.1.2  General description of test room used for test.
    8.1.3  Brand name and purchase date of ammonia detector strips and 
color change data.
    8.1.4  Brand name, sampling range, and expiration date of the length 
of stain ammonia detector tubes. The brand name and model of the 
sampling pump should also be recorded. If another type of ammonia 
detector is used, it should be identified along with its minimum 
detection limit for ammonia.
    8.1.5  Actual test results shall list the two test area 
concentrations, their average, the interior suit concentration, and the 
calculated intrusion coefficient. Retest data shall be recorded as an 
additional test.
    8.2  The evaluation of the data shall be specified as ``suit 
passed'' or ``suit failed,'' and the date of the test. Any detectable 
ammonia (five ppm or greater for the length of stain detector tube) in 
the suit interior indicates the suit has failed this test. When other 
ammonia detectors are used, a lower level of detection is possible and 
it should be specified as the pass fail criteria.

                                 CAUTION

    Visually inspect all parts of the suit to be sure they are 
positioned correctly and secured tightly before putting the suit back 
into service. Special care should be taken to examine each exhaust valve 
to make sure it is not blocked.
    Care should also be exercised to assure that the inside and outside 
of the suit is completely dry before it is put into storage.

 Appendix B to Sec. 1926.65--General Description and Discussion of the 
                Levels of Protection and Protective Gear

    This appendix sets forth information about personal protective 
equipment (PPE) protection levels which may be used to assist employers 
in complying with the PPE requirements of this section.
    As required by the standard, PPE must be selected which will protect 
employees from the specific hazards which they are likely to encounter 
during their work on-site.
    Selection of the appropriate PPE is a complex process which should 
take into consideration a variety of factors. Key factors involved in 
this process are identification of the hazards, or suspected hazards; 
their routes of potential hazard to employees (inhalation, skin 
absorption, ingestion, and eye or skin contact); and the performance of 
the PPE materials (and seams) in providing a barrier to these hazards. 
The amount of protection provided by PPE is material-hazard specific. 
That is, protective equipment materials will protect well against some 
hazardous substances and poorly, or not at all, against others. In many 
instances, protective equipment materials cannot be found which will 
provide continuous protection from the particular hazardous substance. 
In these cases the breakthrough time of the protective material should 
exceed the work durations.
    Other factors in this selection process to be considered are 
matching the PPE to the employee's work requirements and task-specific 
conditions. The durability of PPE materials, such as tear strength and 
seam strength, should be considered in relation to the employee's tasks. 
The effects of PPE in relation to heat stress and task duration are a 
factor in selecting and using PPE. In some cases layers of PPE may be 
necessary to provide sufficient protection, or to protect expensive PPE 
inner garments, suits or equipment.
    The more that is known about the hazards at the site, the easier the 
job of PPE selection becomes. As more information about the hazards and 
conditions at the site becomes available, the site supervisor can make 
decisions to up-grade or down-grade the level of PPE protection to match 
the tasks at hand.
    The following are guidelines which an employer can use to begin the 
selection of the appropriate PPE. As noted above, the site information 
may suggest the use of combinations of PPE selected from the different 
protection levels (i.e., A, B, C, or D) as being more suitable to the 
hazards of the work. It should be cautioned that the listing below does 
not fully address the performance of the specific PPE material in 
relation to the specific hazards at the job site, and that PPE

[[Page 166]]

selection, evaluation and re-selection is an ongoing process until 
sufficient information about the hazards and PPE performance is 
obtained.
    Part A. Personal protective equipment is divided into four 
categories based on the degree of protection afforded. (See Part B of 
this appendix for further explanation of Levels A, B, C, and D hazards.)
    I. Level A-- To be selected when the greatest level of skin, 
respiratory, and eye protection is required.
    The following constitute Level A equipment; it may be used as 
appropriate;
    1. Positive pressure, full face-piece self-contained breathing 
apparatus (SCBA), or positive pressure supplied air respirator with 
escape SCBA, approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety 
and Health (NIOSH).
    2. Totally-encapsulating chemical-protective suit.
    3. Coveralls.\1\
    4. Long underwear.\1\
    5. Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant.
    6. Gloves, inner, chemical-resistant.
    7. Boots, chemical-resistant, steel toe and shank.
    8. Hard hat (under suit).\1\
    9. Disposable protective suit, gloves and boots (depending on suit 
construction, may be worn over totally-encapsulating suit).
    II. Level B--The highest level of respiratory protection is 
necessary but a lesser level of skin protection is needed.
    The following constitute Level B equipment; it may be used as 
appropriate.
    1. Positive pressure, full-facepiece self-contained breathing 
apparatus (SCBA), or positive pressure supplied air respirator with 
escape SCBA (NIOSH approved).
    2. Hooded chemical-resistant clothing (overalls and long-sleeved 
jacket; coveralls; one or two-piece chemical-splash suit; disposable 
chemical-resistant overalls).
    3. Coveralls. \1\
    4. Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant.
    5. Gloves, inner, chemical-resistant.
    6. Boots, outer, chemical-resistant steel toe and shank.
    7. Boot-covers, outer, chemical-resistant (disposable).\1\
    8. Hard hat. \1\
    9. [Reserved]
    10. Face shield. \1\
    III. Level C--The concentration(s) and type(s) of airborne 
substance(s) is known and the criteria for using air purifying 
respirators are met.
    The following constitute Level C equipment; it may be used as 
appropriate.
    1. Full-face or half-mask, air purifying respirators (NIOSH 
approved).
    2. Hooded chemical-resistant clothing (overalls; two-piece chemical-
splash suit; disposable chemical-resistant overalls).
    3. Coveralls. \1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


    \1\ Optional, as applicable.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    4. Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant.
    5. Gloves, inner, chemical-resistant.
    6. Boots (outer), chemical-resistant steel toe and shank. \1\
    7. Boot-covers, outer, chemical-resistant (disposable) \1\.
    8. Hard hat. \1\
    9. Escape mask. \1\
    10. Face shield. \1\
    IV. Level D--A work uniform affording minimal protection, used for 
nuisance contamination only.
    The following constitute Level D equipment; it may be used as 
appropriate:
    1. Coveralls.
    2. Gloves. \1\
    3. Boots/shoes, chemical-resistant steel toe and shank.
    4. Boots, outer, chemical-resistant (disposable). \1\
    5. Safety glasses or chemical splash goggles*.
    6. Hard hat. \1\
    7. Escape mask. \1\
    8. Face shield. \1\
    Part B. The types of hazards for which levels A, B, C, and D 
protection are appropriate are described below:
    I. Level A--Level A protection should be used when:
    1. The hazardous substance has been identified and requires the 
highest level of protection for skin, eyes, and the respiratory system 
based on either the measured (or potential for) high concentration of 
atmospheric vapors, gases, or particulates; or the site operations and 
work functions involve a high potential for splash, immersion, or 
exposure to unexpected vapors, gases, or particulates of materials that 
are harmful to skin or capable of being absorbed through the skin;
    2. Substances with a high degree of hazard to the skin are known or 
suspected to be present, and skin contact is possible; or
    3. Operations are being conducted in confined, poorly ventilated 
areas, and the absence of conditions requiring Level A have not yet been 
determined.
    II. Level B--Level B protection should be used when:
    1. The type and atmospheric concentration of substances have been 
identified and require a high level of respiratory protection, but less 
skin protection;
    2. The atmosphere contains less than 19.5 percent oxygen; or
    3. The presence of incompletely identified vapors or gases is 
indicated by a direct-reading organic vapor detection instrument, but 
vapors and gases are not suspected of containing high levels of 
chemicals harmful to skin or capable of being absorbed through the skin.


[[Page 167]]


    Note: This involves atmospheres with IDLH concentrations of specific 
substances that present severe inhalation hazards and that do not 
represent a severe skin hazard; or that do not meet the criteria for use 
of air-purifying respirators.

    III. Level C--Level C protection should be used when:
    1. The atmospheric contaminants, liquid splashes, or other direct 
contact will not adversely affect or be absorbed through any exposed 
skin;
    2. The types of air contaminants have been identified, 
concentrations measured, and an air-purifying respirator is available 
that can remove the contaminants; and
    3. All criteria for the use of air-purifying respirators are met.
    IV. Level D--Level D protection should be used when:
    1. The atmosphere contains no known hazard; and
    2. Work functions preclude splashes, immersion, or the potential for 
unexpected inhalation of or contact with hazardous levels of any 
chemicals.

    Note: As stated before, combinations of personal protective 
equipment other than those described for Levels A, B, C, and D 
protection may be more appropriate and may be used to provide the proper 
level of protection.

    As an aid in selecting suitable chemical protective clothing, it 
should be noted that the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has 
developed standards on chemical protective clothing. The standards that 
have been adopted by include:
    NFPA 1991--Standard on Vapor-Protective Suits for Hazardous Chemical 
Emergencies (EPA Level A Protective Clothing).
    NFPA 1992--Standard on Liquid Splash-Protective Suits for Hazardous 
Chemical Emergencies (EPA Level B Protective Clothing).
    NFPA 1993--Standard on Liquid Splash-Protective Suits for Non-
emergency, Non-flammable Hazardous Chemical Situations (EPA Level B 
Protective Clothing).
    These standards apply documentation and performance requirements to 
the manufacture of chemical protective suits. Chemical protective suits 
meeting these requirements are labelled as compliant with the 
appropriate standard. It is recommended that chemical protective suits 
that meet these standards be used.

            Appendix C to Sec. 1926.65--Compliance Guidelines

    1. Occupational Safety and Health Program. Each hazardous waste site 
clean-up effort will require an occupational safety and health program 
headed by the site coordinator or the employer's representative. The 
purpose of the program will be the protection of employees at the site 
and will be an extension of the employer's overall safety and health 
program. The program will need to be developed before work begins on the 
site and implemented as work proceeds as stated in paragraph (b). The 
program is to facilitate coordination and communication of safety and 
health issues among personnel responsible for the various activities 
which will take place at the site. It will provide the overall means for 
planning and implementing the needed safety and health training and job 
orientation of employees who will be working at the site. The program 
will provide the means for identifying and controlling worksite hazards 
and the means for monitoring program effectiveness. The program will 
need to cover the responsibilities and authority of the site coordinator 
or the employer's manager on the site for the safety and health of 
employees at the site, and the relationships with contractors or support 
services as to what each employer's safety and health responsibilities 
are for their employees on the site. Each contractor on the site needs 
to have its own safety and health program so structured that it will 
smoothly interface with the program of the site coordinator or principal 
contractor.
    Also those employers involved with treating, storing or disposal of 
hazardous waste as covered in paragraph (p) must have implemented a 
safety and health program for their employees. This program is to 
include the hazard communication program required in paragraph (p)(1) 
and the training required in paragraphs (p)(7) and (p)(8) as parts of 
the employers comprehensive overall safety and health program. This 
program is to be in writing.
    Each site or workplace safety and health program will need to 
include the following: (1) Policy statements of the line of authority 
and accountability for implementing the program, the objectives of the 
program and the role of the site safety and health supervisor or manager 
and staff; (2) means or methods for the development of procedures for 
identifying and controlling workplace hazards at the site; (3) means or 
methods for the development and communication to employees of the 
various plans, work rules, standard operating procedures and practices 
that pertain to individual employees and supervisors; (4) means for the 
training of supervisors and employees to develop the needed skills and 
knowledge to perform their work in a safe and healthful manner; (5) 
means to anticipate and prepare for emergency situations; and (6) means 
for obtaining information feedback to aid in evaluating the program and 
for improving the effectiveness of the program. The management and 
employees should be trying continually to improve

[[Page 168]]

the effectiveness of the program thereby enhancing the protection being 
afforded those working on the site.
    Accidents on the site or workplace should be investigated to provide 
information on how such occurrences can be avoided in the future. When 
injuries or illnesses occur on the site or workplace, they will need to 
be investigated to determine what needs to be done to prevent this 
incident from occurring again. Such information will need to be used as 
feedback on the effectiveness of the program and the information turned 
into positive steps to prevent any reoccurrence. Receipt of employee 
suggestions or complaints relating to safety and health issues involved 
with site or workplace activities is also a feedback mechanism that can 
be used effectively to improve the program and may serve in part as an 
evaluative tool(s).
    For the development and implementation of the program to be the most 
effective, professional safety and health personnel should be used. 
Certified Safety Professionals, Board Certified Industrial Hygienists or 
Registered Professional Safety Engineers are good examples of 
professional stature for safety and health managers who will administer 
the employer's program.
    2. Training. The training programs for employees subject to the 
requirements of paragraph (e) of this standard should address: the 
safety and health hazards employees should expect to find on hazardous 
waste clean-up sites; what control measures or techniques are effective 
for those hazards; what monitoring procedures are effective in 
characterizing exposure levels; what makes an effective employer's 
safety and health program; what a site safety and health plan should 
include; hands on training with personal protective equipment and 
clothing they may be expected to use; the contents of the OSHA standard 
relevant to the employee's duties and function; and, employee's 
responsibilities under OSHA and other regulations. Supervisors will need 
training in their responsibilities under the safety and health program 
and its subject areas such as the spill containment program, the 
personal protective equipment program, the medical surveillance program, 
the emergency response plan and other areas.
    The training programs for employees subject to the requirements of 
paragraph (p) of this standard should address: the employers safety and 
health program elements impacting employees; the hazard communication 
program; the medical surveillance program; the hazards and the controls 
for such hazards that employees need to know for their job duties and 
functions. All require annual refresher training.
    The training programs for employees covered by the requirements of 
paragraph (q) of this standard should address those competencies 
required for the various levels of response such as: the hazards 
associated with hazardous substances; hazard identification and 
awareness; notification of appropriate persons; the need for and use of 
personal protective equipment including respirators; the decontamination 
procedures to be used; preplanning activities for hazardous substance 
incidents including the emergency reponse plan; company standard 
operating procedures for hazardous substance emergency responses; the 
use of the incident command system and other subjects. Hands-on training 
should be stressed whenever possible. Critiques done after an incident 
which include an evaluation of what worked and what did not and how 
could the incident be better handled the next time may be counted as 
training time.
    For hazardous materials specialists (usually members of hazardous 
materials teams), the training should address the care, use and/or 
testing of chemical protective clothing including totally encapsulating 
suits, the medical surveillance program, the standard operating 
procedures for the hazardous materials team including the use of 
plugging and patching equipment and other subject areas.
    Officers and leaders who may be expected to be in charge at an 
incident should be fully knowledgeable of their company's incident 
command system. They should know where and how to obtain additional 
assistance and be familiar with the local district's emergency response 
plan and the state emergency response plan.
    Specialist employees such as technical experts, medical experts or 
environmental experts that work with hazardous materials in their 
regular jobs, who may be sent to the incident scene by the shipper, 
manufacturer or governmental agency to advise and assist the person in 
charge of the incident should have training on an annual basis. Their 
training should include the care and use of personal protective 
equipment including respirators; knowledge of the incident command 
system and how they are to relate to it; and those areas needed to keep 
them current in their respective field as it relates to safety and 
health involving specific hazardous substances.
    Those skilled support personnel, such as employees who work for 
public works departments or equipment operators who operate bulldozers, 
sand trucks, backhoes, etc., who may be called to the incident scene to 
provide emergency support assistance, should have at least a safety and 
health briefing before entering the area of potential or actual 
exposure. These skilled support personnel, who have not been a part of 
the emergency response plan and do not meet the training requirements, 
should be made aware of the hazards they face and should be provided all 
necessary protective clothing and equipment required for their tasks.

[[Page 169]]

    There are two National Fire Protection Association standards, NFPA 
472--``Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous 
Material Incidents'' and NFPA 471--``Recommended Practice for Responding 
to Hazardous Material Incidents'', which are excellent resource 
documents to aid fire departments and other emergency response 
organizations in developing their training program materials. NFPA 472 
provides guidance on the skills and knowledge needed for first responder 
awareness level, first responder operations level, hazmat technicians, 
and hazmat specialist. It also offers guidance for the officer corp who 
will be in charge of hazardous substance incidents.
    3. Decontamination. Decontamination procedures should be tailored to 
the specific hazards of the site, and may vary in complexity and number 
of steps, depending on the level of hazard and the employee's exposure 
to the hazard. Decontamination procedures and PPE decontamination 
methods will vary depending upon the specific substance, since one 
procedure or method may not work for all substances. Evaluation of 
decontamination methods and procedures should be performed, as 
necessary, to assure that employees are not exposed to hazards by re-
using PPE. References in appendix D may be used for guidance in 
establishing an effective decontamination program. In addition, the U.S. 
Coast Guard's Manual, ``Policy Guidance for Response to Hazardous 
Chemical Releases,'' U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC 
(COMDTINST M16465.30) is a good reference for establishing an effective 
decontamination program.
    4. Emergency response plans. States, along with designated districts 
within the states, will be developing or have developed local emergency 
response plans. These state and district plans should be utilized in the 
emergency response plans called for in the standard. Each employer 
should assure that its emergency response plan is compatible with the 
local plan. The major reference being used to aid in developing the 
state and local district plans is the Hazardous Materials Emergency 
Planning Guide, NRT-1. The current Emergency Response Guidebook from the 
U.S. Department of Transportation, CMA's CHEMTREC and the Fire Service 
Emergency Management Handbook may also be used as resources.
    Employers involved with treatment, storage, and disposal facilities 
for hazardous waste, which have the required contingency plan called for 
by their permit, would not need to duplicate the same planning elements. 
Those items of the emergency response plan that are properly addressed 
in the contingency plan may be substituted into the emergency response 
plan required in 1926.65 or otherwise kept together for employer and 
employee use.
    5. Personal protective equipment programs. The purpose of personal 
protective clothing and equipment (PPE) is to shield or isolate 
individuals from the chemical, physical, and biologic hazards that may 
be encountered at a hazardous substance site.
    As discussed in appendix B, no single combination of protective 
equipment and clothing is capable of protecting against all hazards. 
Thus PPE should be used in conjunction with other protective methods and 
its effectiveness evaluated periodically.
    The use of PPE can itself create significant worker hazards, such as 
heat stress, physical and psychological stress, and impaired vision, 
mobility, and communication. For any given situation, equipment and 
clothing should be selected that provide an adequate level of 
protection. However, over-protection, as well as under-protection, can 
be hazardous and should be avoided where possible.
    Two basic objectives of any PPE program should be to protect the 
wearer from safety and health hazards, and to prevent injury to the 
wearer from incorrect use and/or malfunction of the PPE. To accomplish 
these goals, a comprehensive PPE program should include hazard 
identification, medical monitoring, environmental surveillance, 
selection, use, maintenance, and decontamination of PPE and its 
associated training.
    The written PPE program should include policy statements, 
procedures, and guidelines. Copies should be made available to all 
employees, and a reference copy should be made available at the 
worksite. Technical data on equipment, maintenance manuals, relevant 
regulations, and other essential information should also be collected 
and maintained.
    6. Incident command system (ICS). Paragraph 1926.65(q)(3)(ii) 
requires the implementation of an ICS. The ICS is an organized approach 
to effectively control and manage operations at an emergency incident. 
The individual in charge of the ICS is the senior official responding to 
the incident. The ICS is not much different than the ``command post'' 
approach used for many years by the fire service. During large complex 
fires involving several companies and many pieces of apparatus, a 
command post would be established. This enabled one individual to be in 
charge of managing the incident, rather than having several officers 
from different companies making separate, and sometimes conflicting, 
decisions. The individual in charge of the command post would delegate 
responsibility for performing various tasks to subordinate officers. 
Additionally, all communications were routed through the command post to 
reduce the number of radio transmissions and eliminate confusion. 
However, strategy, tactics, and all decisions were made by one 
individual.
    The ICS is a very similar system, except it is implemented for 
emergency response to

[[Page 170]]

all incidents, both large and small, that involve hazardous substances.
    For a small incident, the individual in charge of the ICS may 
perform many tasks of the ICS. There may not be any, or little, 
delegation of tasks to subordinates. For example, in response to a small 
incident, the individual in charge of the ICS, in addition to normal 
command activities, may become the safety officer and may designate only 
one employee (with proper equipment) as a back-up to provide assistance 
if needed. OSHA does recommend, however, that at least two employees be 
designated as back-up personnel since the assistance needed may include 
rescue.
    To illustrate the operation of the ICS, the following scenario might 
develop during a small incident, such as an overturned tank truck with a 
small leak of flammable liquid.
    The first responding senior officer would implement and take command 
of the ICS. That person would size-up the incident and determine if 
additional personnel and apparatus were necessary; would determine what 
actions to take to control the leak; and, determine the proper level of 
personal protective equipment. If additional assistance is not needed, 
the individual in charge of the ICS would implement actions to stop and 
control the leak using the fewest number of personnel that can 
effectively accomplish the tasks. The individual in charge of the ICS 
then would designate himself as the safety officer and two other 
employees as a back-up in case rescue may become necessary. In this 
scenario, decontamination procedures would not be necessary.
    A large complex incident may require many employees and difficult, 
time-consuming efforts to control. In these situations, the individual 
in charge of the ICS will want to delegate different tasks to 
subordinates in order to maintain a span of control that will keep the 
number of subordinates, that are reporting, to a manageable level.
    Delegation of task at large incidents may be by location, where the 
incident scene is divided into sectors, and subordinate officers 
coordinate activities within the sector that they have been assigned.
    Delegation of tasks can also be by function. Some of the functions 
that the individual in charge of the ICS may want to delegate at a large 
incident are: medical services; evacuation; water supply; resources 
(equipment, apparatus); media relations; safety; and, site control 
(integrate activities with police for crowd and traffic control). Also 
for a large incident, the individual in charge of the ICS will designate 
several employees as back-up personnel; and a number of safety officers 
to monitor conditions and recommend safety precautions.
    Therefore, no matter what size or complexity an incident may be, by 
implementing an ICS there will be one individual in charge who makes the 
decisions and gives directions; and, all actions, and communications are 
coordinated through one central point of command. Such a system should 
reduce confusion, improve safety, organize and coordinate actions, and 
should facilitate effective management of the incident.
    7. Site Safety and Control Plans. The safety and security of 
response personnel and others in the area of an emergeny response 
incident site should be of primary concern to the incident commander. 
The use of a site safety and control plan could greatly assist those in 
charge of assuring the safety and health of employees on the site.
    A comprehensive site safety and control plan should include the 
following: summary analysis of hazards on the site and a risk analysis 
of those hazards; site map or sketch; site work zones (clean zone, 
transition or decontamination zone, work or hot zone); use of the buddy 
system; site communications; command post or command center; standard 
operating procedures and safe work practices; medical assistance and 
triage area; hazard monitoring plan (air contaminate monitoring, etc.); 
decontamination procedures and area; and other relevant areas. This plan 
should be a part of the employer's emergency response plan or an 
extension of it to the specific site.
    8. Medical surveillance programs. Workers handling hazardous 
substances may be exposed to toxic chemicals, safety hazards, biologic 
hazards, and radiation. Therefore, a medical surveillance program is 
essential to assess and monitor workers' health and fitness for 
employment in hazardous waste operations and during the course of work; 
to provide emergency and other treatment as needed; and to keep accurate 
records for future reference.
    The Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous 
Waste Site Activities developed by the National Institute for 
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Occupational Safety and 
Health Administration (OSHA), the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and the 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); October 1985 provides an 
excellent example of the types of medical testing that should be done as 
part of a medical surveillance program.
    9. New Technology and Spill Containment Programs. Where hazardous 
substances may be released by spilling from a container that will expose 
employees to the hazards of the materials, the employer will need to 
implement a program to contain and control the spilled material. Diking 
and ditching, as well as use of absorbents like diatomaceous earth, are 
traditional techniques which have proven to be effective over the years. 
However, in recent years new products have come into the marketplace, 
the use of which complement and increase the effectiveness of

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these traditional methods. These new products also provide emergency 
responders and others with additional tools or agents to use to reduce 
the hazards of spilled materials.
    These agents can be rapidly applied over a large area and can be 
uniformly applied or otherwise can be used to build a small dam, thus 
improving the workers' ability to control spilled material. These 
application techniques enhance the intimate contact between the agent 
and the spilled material allowing for the quickest effect by the agent 
or quickest control of the spilled material. Agents are available to 
solidify liquid spilled materials, to suppress vapor generation from 
spilled materials, and to do both. Some special agents, which when 
applied as recommended by the manufacturer, will react in a controlled 
manner with the spilled material to neutralize acids or caustics, or 
greatly reduce the level of hazard of the spilled material.
    There are several modern methods and devices for use by emergency 
response personnel or others involved with spill control efforts to 
safely apply spill control agents to control spilled material hazards. 
These include portable pressurized applicators similar to hand-held 
portable fire extinguishing devices, and nozzle and hose systems similar 
to portable fire fighting foam systems which allow the operator to apply 
the agent without having to come into contact with the spilled material. 
The operator is able to apply the agent to the spilled material from a 
remote position.
    The solidification of liquids provides for rapid containment and 
isolation of hazardous substance spills. By directing the agent at run-
off points or at the edges of the spill, the reactant solid will 
automatically create a barrier to slow or stop the spread of the 
material. Clean-up of hazardous substances is greatly improved when 
solidifying agents, acid or caustic neutralizers, or activated carbon 
adsorbents are used. Properly applied, these agents can totally solidify 
liquid hazardous substances or neutralize or absorb them, which results 
in materials which are less hazardous and easier to handle, transport, 
and dispose of. The concept of spill treatment, to create less hazardous 
substances, will improve the safety and level of protection of employees 
working at spill clean-up operations or emergency response operations to 
spills of hazardous substances.
    The use of vapor suppression agents for volatile hazardous 
substances, such as flammable liquids and those substances which present 
an inhalation hazard, is important for protecting workers. The rapid and 
uniform distribution of the agent over the surface of the spilled 
material can provide quick vapor knockdown. There are temporary and 
long-term foam-type agents which are effective on vapors and dusts, and 
activated carbon adsorption agents which are effective for vapor control 
and soaking-up of the liquid. The proper use of hose lines or hand-held 
portable pressurized applicators provides good mobility and permits the 
worker to deliver the agent from a safe distance without having to step 
into the untreated spilled material. Some of these systems can be 
recharged in the field to provide coverage of larger spill areas than 
the design limits of a single charged applicator unit. Some of the more 
effective agents can solidify the liquid flammable hazardous substances 
and at the same time elevate the flashpoint above 140 deg. F so the 
resulting substance may be handled as a nonhazardous waste material if 
it meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 40 CFR part 261 
requirements (See particularly Sec. 261.21).
    All workers performing hazardous substance spill control work are 
expected to wear the proper protective clothing and equipment for the 
materials present and to follow the employer's established standard 
operating procedures for spill control. All involved workers need to be 
trained in the established operating procedures; in the use and care of 
spill control equipment; and in the associated hazards and control of 
such hazards of spill containment work.
    These new tools and agents are the things that employers will want 
to evaluate as part of their new technology program. The treatment of 
spills of hazardous substances or wastes at an emergency incident as 
part of the immediate spill containment and control efforts is sometimes 
acceptable to EPA and a permit exception is described in 40 CFR 
264.1(g)(8) and 265.1(c)(11).

                 Appendix D to Sec. 1926.65--References

    The following references may be consulted for further information on 
the subject of this standard:
    1. OSHA Instruction DFO CPL 2.70--January 29, 1986, Special Emphasis 
Program: Hazardous Waste Sites.
    2. OSHA Instruction DFO CPL 2-2.37A--January 29, 1986, Technical 
Assistance and Guidelines for Superfund and Other Hazardous Waste Site 
Activities.
    3. OSHA Instruction DTS CPL 2.74--January 29, 1986, Hazardous Waste 
Activity Form, OSHA 175.
    4. Hazardous Waste Inspections Reference Manual, U.S. Department of 
Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1986.
    5. Memorandum of Understanding Among the National Institute for 
Occupational Safety and Health, the Occupational Safety and Health 
Administration, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States 
Environmental Protection Agency, Guidance for Worker Protection During 
Hazardous Waste Site Investigations and Clean-up and Hazardous Substance 
Emergencies. December 18, 1980.

[[Page 172]]

    6. National Priorities List, 1st Edition, October 1984; U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, Revised periodically.
    7. The Decontamination of Response Personnel, Field Standard 
Operating Procedures (F.S.O.P.) 7; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Hazardous Response Support 
Division, December 1984.
    8. Preparation of a Site Safety Plan, Field Standard Operating 
Procedures (F.S.O.P.) 9; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of 
Emergency and Remedial Response, Hazardous Response Support Division, 
April 1985.
    9. Standard Operating Safety Guidelines; U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Hazardous 
Response Support Division, Environmental Response Team; November 1984.
    10. Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous 
Waste Site Activities, National Institute for Occupational Safety and 
Health (NIOSH), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); 
October 1985.
    11. Protecting Health and Safety at Hazardous Waste Sites: An 
Overview, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/625/9-85/006; 
September 1985.
    12. Hazardous Waste Sites and Hazardous Substance Emergencies, NIOSH 
Worker Bulletin, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public 
Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for 
Occupational Safety and Health; December 1982.
    13. Personal Protective Equipment for Hazardous Materials Incidents: 
A Selection Guide; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public 
Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for 
Occupational Safety and Health; October 1984.
    14. Fire Service Emergency Management Handbook, International 
Association of Fire Chiefs Foundation, 101 East Holly Avenue, Unit 10B, 
Sterling, VA 22170, January 1985.
    15. Emergency Response Guidebook, U.S Department of Transportation, 
Washington, DC, 1987.
    16. Report to the Congress on Hazardous Materials Training, Planning 
and Preparedness, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, 
July 1986.
    17. Workbook for Fire Command, Alan V. Brunacini and J. David 
Beageron, National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, 
Quincy, MA 02269, 1985.
    18. Fire Command, Alan V. Brunacini, National Fire Protection 
Association, Batterymarch Park,, Quincy, MA 02269, 1985.
    19. Incident Command System, Fire Protection Publications, Oklahoma 
State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, 1983.
    20. Site Emergency Response Planning, Chemical Manufacturers 
Association, Washington, DC 20037, 1986.
    21. Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide, NRT-1, 
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, March 1987.
    22. Community Teamwork: Working Together to Promote Hazardous 
Materials Transportation Safety. U.S. Department of Transportation, 
Washington, DC, May 1983.
    23. Disaster Planning Guide for Business and Industry, Federal 
Emergency Management Agency, Publication No. FEMA 141, August 1987.

        Appendix to Sec. 1926.65--Training Curriculum Guidelines

    The following non-mandatory general criteria may be used for 
assistance in developing site-specific training curriculum used to meet 
the training requirements of 29 CFR 1926.65(e); 29 CFR 1926.65(p)(7), 
(p)(8)(iii); and 29 CFR 1926.65(q)(6), (q)(7), and (q)(8). These are 
generic guidelines and they are not presented as a complete training 
curriculum for any specific employer. Site-specific training programs 
must be developed on the basis of a needs assessment of the hazardous 
waste site, RCRA/TSDF, or emergency response operation in accordance 
with 29 CFR 1926.65.

    It is noted that the legal requirements are set forth in the 
regulatory text of Sec. 1926.65. The guidance set forth here presents a 
highly effective program that in the areas covered would meet or exceed 
the regulatory requirements. In addition, other approaches could meet 
the regulatory requirements.

    Suggested General Criteria
    Definitions:
    Competent means possessing the skills, knowledge, experience, and 
judgment to perform assigned tasks or activities satisfactorily as 
determined by the employer.
    Demonstration means the showing by actual use of equipment or 
procedures.
    Hands-on training means training in a simulated work environment 
that permits each student to have experience performing tasks, making 
decisions, or using equipment appropriate to the job assignment for 
which the training is being conducted.
    Initial training means training required prior to beginning work.
    Lecture means an interactive discourse with a class lead by an 
instructor.
    Proficient means meeting a stated level of achievement.
    Site-specific means individual training directed to the operations 
of a specific job site.
    Training hours means the number of hours devoted to lecture, 
learning activities, small group work sessions, demonstration, 
evaluations, or hands-on experience.

    Suggested Core Criteria:
    1. Training facility. The training facility should have available 
sufficient resources,

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equipment, and site locations to perform didactic and hands-on training 
when appropriate. Training facilities should have sufficient 
organization, support staff, and services to conduct training in each of 
the courses offered.
    2. Training Director. Each training program should be under the 
direction of a training director who is responsible for the program. The 
Training Director should have a minimum of two years of employee 
education experience.
    3. Instructors. Instructors should be deem competent on the basis of 
previous documented experience in their area of instruction, successful 
completion of a ``train-the-trainer'' program specific to the topics 
they will teach, and an evaluation of instructional competence by the 
Training Director.
    Instructors should be required to maintain professional competency 
by participating in continuing education or professional development 
programs or by completing successfully an annual refresher course and 
having an annual review by the Training Director.
    The annual review by the Training Director should include 
observation of an instructor's delivery, a review of those observations 
with the trainer, and an analysis of any instructor or class evaluations 
completed by the students during the previous year.
    4. Course materials. The Training Director should approve all course 
materials to be used by the training provider. Course materials should 
be reviewed and updated at least annually. Materials and equipment 
should be in good working order and maintained properly.
    All written and audio-visual materials in training curricula should 
be peer reviewed by technically competent outside reviewers or by a 
standing advisory committee.
    Reviews should possess expertise in the following disciplines were 
applicable: occupational health, industrial hygiene and safety, 
chemical/environmental engineering, employee education, or emergency 
response. One or more of the peer reviewers should be a employee 
experienced in the work activities to which the training is directed.
    5. Students. The program for accepting students should include:
    a. Assurance that the student is or will be involved in work where 
chemical exposures are likely and that the student possesses the skills 
necessary to perform the work.
    b. A policy on the necessary medical clearance.
    6. Ratios. Student-instructor ratios should not exceed 30 students 
per instructor. Hands-on activity requiring the use of personal 
protective equipment should have the following student-instructor 
ratios. For Level C or Level D personal protective equipment the ratio 
should be 10 students per instructor. For Level A or Level B personal 
protective equipment the ratio should be 5 students per instructor.
    7. Proficiency assessment. Proficiency should be evaluated and 
documented by the use of a written assessment and a skill demonstration 
selected and developed by the Training Director and training staff. The 
assessment and demonstration should evaluate the knowledge and 
individual skills developed in the course of training. The level of 
minimum achievement necessary for proficiency shall be specified in 
writing by the Training Director.
    If a written test is used, there should be a minimum of 50 
questions. If a written test is used in combination with a skills 
demonstration, a minimum of 25 questions should be used. If a skills 
demonstration is used, the tasks chosen and the means to rate successful 
completion should be fully documented by the Training Director.
    The content of the written test or of the skill demonstration shall 
be relevant to the objectives of the course. The written test and skill 
demonstration should be updated as necessary to reflect changes in the 
curriculum and any update should be approved by the Training Director.
    The proficiency assessment methods, regardless of the approach or 
combination of approaches used, should be justified, document and 
approved by the Training Director.
    The proficiency of those taking the additional courses for 
supervisors should be evaluated and document by using proficiency 
assessment methods acceptable to the Training Director. These 
proficiency assessment methods must reflect the additional 
responsibilities borne by supervisory personnel in hazardous waste 
operations or emergency response.
    8. Course certificate. Written documentation should be provided to 
each student who satisfactorily completes the training course. The 
documentation should include:
    a. Student's name.
    b. Course title.
    c. Course date.
    d. Statement that the student has successfully completed the course.
    e. Name and address of the training provider.
    f. An individual identification number for the certificate.
    g. List of the levels of personal protective equipment used by the 
student to complete the course.
    This documentation may include a certificate and an appropriate 
wallet-sized laminated card with a photograph of the student and the 
above information. When such course certificate cards are used, the 
individual identification number for the training certificate should be 
shown on the card.
    9. Recordkeeping. Training providers should maintain records listing 
the dates courses were presented, the names of the individual

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course attenders, the names of those students successfully completing 
each course, and the number of training certificates issued to each 
successful student. These records should be maintained for a minimum of 
five years after the date an individual participated in a training 
program offered by the training provider. These records should be 
available and provided upon the student's request or as mandated by law.
    10. Program quality control. The Training Director should conduct or 
direct an annual written audit of the training program. Program 
modifications to address deficiencies, if any, should be documented, 
approved, and implemented by the training provider. The audit and the 
program modification documents should be maintained at the training 
facility.

    Suggested Program Quality Control Criteria
    Factors listed here are suggested criteria for determining the 
quality and appropriateness of employee health and safety training for 
hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

    A. Training Plan.
    Adequacy and appropriateness of the training program's curriculum 
development, instructor training, distribution of course materials, and 
direct student training should be considered, including
    1. The duration of training, course content, and course schedules/
agendas;
    2. The different training requirements of the various target 
populations, as specified in the appropriate generic training 
curriculum;
    3. The process for the development of curriculum, which includes 
appropriate technical input, outside review, evaluation, program 
pretesting.
    4. The adequate and appropriate inclusion of hands-on, 
demonstration, and instruction methods;
    5. Adequate monitoring of student safety, progress, and performance 
during the training.

    B. Program management, Training Director, staff, and consultants.
    Adequacy and appropriateness of staff performance and delivering an 
effective training program should be considered, including
    1. Demonstration of the training director's leadership in assuring 
quality of health and safety training.
    2. Demonstration of the competency of the staff to meet the demands 
of delivering high quality hazardous waste employee health and safety 
training.
    3. Organization charts establishing clear lines of authority.
    4. Clearly defined staff duties including the relationship of the 
training staff to the overall program.
    5. Evidence that the training organizational structure suits the 
needs of the training program.
    6. Appropriateness and adequacy of the training methods used by the 
instructors.
    7. Sufficiency of the time committed by the training director and 
staff to the training program.
    8. Adequacy of the ratio of training staff to students.
    9. Availability and commitment of the training program of adequate 
human and equipment resources in the areas of
    a. Health effects,
    b. Safety,
    c. Personal protective equipment (PPE),
    d. Operational procedures,
    e. Employee protection practices/procedures.
    10. Appropriateness of management controls.
    11. Adequacy of the organization and appropriate resources assigned 
to assure appropriate training.
    12. In the case of multiple-site training programs, adequacy of 
satellite centers management.

    C. Training facilities and resources.
    Adequacy and appropriateness of the facilities and resources for 
supporting the training program should be considered, including,
    1. Space and equipment to conduct the training.
    2. Facilities for representative hands-on training.
    3. In the case of multiple-site programs, equipment and facilities 
at the satellite centers.
    4. Adequacy and appropriateness of the quality control and 
evaluations program to account for instructor performance.
    5. Adequacy and appropriateness of the quality control and 
evaluation program to ensure appropriate course evaluation, feedback, 
updating, and corrective action.
    6. Adequacy and appropriateness of disciplines and expertise being 
used within the quality control and evaluation program.
    7. Adequacy and appropriateness of the role of student evaluations 
to provide feedback for training program improvement.

    D. Quality control and evaluation.
    Adequacy and appropriateness of quality control and evaluation plans 
for training programs should be considered, including:
    1. A balanced advisory committee and/or competent outside reviewers 
to give overall policy guidance;
    2. Clear and adequate definition of the composition and active 
programmatic role of the advisory committee or outside reviewers.
    3. Adequacy of the minutes or reports of the advisory committee or 
outside reviewers' meetings or written communication.
    4. Adequacy and appropriateness of the quality control and 
evaluations program to account for instructor performance.

[[Page 175]]

    5. Adequacy and appropriateness of the quality control and 
evaluation program to ensure appropriate course evaluation, feedback, 
updating, and corrective action.
    6. Adequacy and appropriateness of disciplines and expertise being 
used within the quality control and evaluation program.
    7. Adequacy and appropriateness of the role of student evaluations 
to provide feedback for training program improvement.

    E. Students
    Adequacy and appropriateness of the program for accepting students 
should be considered, including
    1. Assurance that the student already possess the necessary skills 
for their job, including necessary documentation.
    2. Appropriateness of methods the program uses to ensure that 
recruits are capable of satisfactorily completing training.
    3. Review and compliance with any medical clearance policy.

    F. Institutional Environment and Administrative Support
    The adequacy and appropriateness of the institutional environment 
and administrative support system for the training program should be 
considered, including
    1. Adequacy of the institutional commitment to the employee training 
program.
    2. Adequacy and appropriateness of the administrative structure and 
administrative support.

    G. Summary of Evaluation Questions
    Key questions for evaluating the quality and appropriateness of an 
overall training program should include the following:
    1. Are the program objectives clearly stated?
    2. Is the program accomplishing its objectives?
    3. Are appropriate facilities and staff available?
    4. Is there an appropriate mix of classroom, demonstration, and 
hands-on training?
    5. Is the program providing quality employee health and safety 
training that fully meets the intent of regulatory requirements?
    6. What are the program's main strengths?
    7. What are the program's main weaknesses?
    8. What is recommended to improve the program?
    9. Are instructors instructing according to their training outlines?
    10. Is the evaluation tool current and appropriate for the program 
content?
    11. Is the course material current and relevant to the target group?

    Suggested Training Curriculum Guidelines
    The following training curriculum guidelines are for those 
operations specifically identified in 29 CFR 1926.65 as requiring 
training. Issues such as qualifications of instructors, training 
certification, and similar criteria appropriate to all categories of 
operations addressed in 1926.65 have been covered in the preceding 
section and are not re-addressed in each of the generic guidelines. 
Basic core requirements for training programs that are addressed include
    1. General Hazardous Waste Operations
    2. RCRA operations--Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities.
    3. Emergency Response.

    A. General Hazardous Waste Operations and Site-specific Training
    1. Off-site training.
    Minimum training course content for hazardous waste operations, 
required by 29 CFR 1926.65(e), should include the following topics or 
procedures:
    a. Regulatory knowledge.
    (1) A review of 29 CFR 1926.65 and the core elements of an 
occupational safety and health program.
    (2) The content of a medical surveillance program as outlined in 29 
CFR 1926.65(f).
    (3) The content of an effective site safety and health plan 
consistent with the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.65(b)(4)(ii).
    (4) Emergency response plan and procedures as outlined in 29 CFR 
1910.38 and 29 CFR 1926.65(l).
    (5) Adequate illumination.
    (6) Sanitation recommendation and equipment.
    (7) Review and explanation of OSHA's hazard-communication standard 
(29 CFR 1910.1200) and lock-out-tag-out standard (29 CFR 1910.147).
    (8) Review of other applicable standards including but not limited 
to those in the construction standards (29 CFR Part 1926).
    (9) Rights and responsibilities of employers and employees under 
applicable OSHA and EPA laws.
    b. Technical knowledge.
    (1) Type of potential exposures to chemical, biological, and 
radiological hazards; types of human responses to these hazards and 
recognition of those responses; principles of toxicology and information 
about acute and chronic hazards; health and safety considerations of new 
technology.
    (2) Fundamentals of chemical hazards including but not limited to 
vapor pressure, boiling points, flash points, ph, other physical and 
chemical properties.
    (3) Fire and explosion hazards of chemicals.
    (4) General safety hazards such as but not limited to electrical 
hazards, powered equipment hazards, motor vehicle hazards, walking-
working surface hazards, excavation hazards, and hazards associated with 
working in hot and cold temperature extremes.
    (5) Review and knowledge of confined space entry procedures in 29 
CFR 1910.146.
    (6) Work practices to minimize employee risk from site hazards.

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    (7) Safe use of engineering controls, equipment, and any new 
relevant safety technology or safety procedures.
    (8) Review and demonstration of competency with air sampling and 
monitoring equipment that may be used in a site monitoring program.
    (9) Container sampling procedures and safeguarding; general drum and 
container handling procedures including special requirement for 
laboratory waste packs, shock-sensitive wastes, and radioactive wastes.
    (10) The elements of a spill control program.
    (11) Proper use and limitations of material handling equipment.
    (12) Procedures for safe and healthful preparation of containers for 
shipping and transport.
    (13) Methods of communication including those used while wearing 
respiratory protection.
    c. Technical skills.
    (1) Selection, use maintenance, and limitations of personal 
protective equipment including the components and procedures for 
carrying out a respirator program to comply with 29 CFR 1910.134.
    (2) Instruction in decontamination programs including personnel, 
equipment, and hardware; hands-on training including level A, B, and C 
ensembles and appropriate decontamination lines; field activities 
including the donning and doffing of protective equipment to a level 
commensurate with the employee's anticipated job function and 
responsibility and to the degree required by potential hazards.
    (3) Sources for additional hazard information; exercises using 
relevant manuals and hazard coding systems.
    d. Additional suggested items.
    (1) A laminated, dated card or certificate with photo, denoting 
limitations and level of protection for which the employee is trained 
should be issued to those students successfully completing a course.
    (2) Attendance should be required at all training modules, with 
successful completion of exercises and a final written or oral 
examination with at least 50 questions.
    (3) A minimum of one-third of the program should be devoted to 
hands-on exercises.
    (4) A curriculum should be established for the 8-hour refresher 
training required by 29 CFR 1926.65(e)(8), with delivery of such courses 
directed toward those areas of previous training that need improvement 
or reemphasis.
    (5) A curriculum should be established for the required 8-hour 
training for supervisors. Demonstrated competency in the skills and 
knowledge provided in a 40-hour course should be a prerequisite for 
supervisor training.
    2. Refresher training.
    The 8-hour annual refresher training required in 29 CFR 
1926.65(e)(8) should be conducted by qualified training providers. 
Refresher training should include at a minimum the following topics and 
procedures:
    (a) Review of and retraining on relevant topics covered in the 40-
hour program, as appropriate, using reports by the students on their 
work experiences.
    (b) Update on developments with respect to material covered in the 
40-hour course.
    (c) Review of changes to pertinent provisions of EPA or OSHA 
standards or laws.
    (d) Introduction of additional subject areas as appropriate.
    (e) Hands-on review of new or altered PPE or decontamination 
equipment or procedures. Review of new developments in personal 
protective equipment.
    (f) Review of newly developed air and contaminant monitoring 
equipment.
    3. On-site training.
    a. The employer should provide employees engaged in hazardous waste 
site activities with information and training prior to initial 
assignment into their work area, as follows:
    (1) The requirements of the hazard communication program including 
the location and availability of the written program, required lists of 
hazardous chemicals, and material safety data sheets.
    (2) Activities and locations in their work area where hazardous 
substance may be present.
    (3) Methods and observations that may be used to detect the present 
or release of a hazardous chemical in the work area (such as monitoring 
conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, visual 
appearances, or other evidence (sight, sound or smell) of hazardous 
chemicals being released, and applicable alarms from monitoring devices 
that record chemical releases.
    (4) The physical and health hazards of substances known or 
potentially present in the work area.
    (5) The measures employees can take to help protect themselves from 
work-site hazards, including specific procedures the employer has 
implemented.
    (6) An explanation of the labeling system and material safety data 
sheets and how employees can obtain and use appropriate hazard 
information.
    (7) The elements of the confined space program including special 
PPE, permits, monitoring requirements, communication procedures, 
emergency response, and applicable lock-out procedures.
    b. The employer should provide hazardous waste employees information 
and training and should provide a review and access to the site safety 
and plan as follows:
    (1) Names of personnel and alternate responsible for site safety and 
health.

[[Page 177]]

    (2) Safety and health hazards present on the site.
    (3) Selection, use, maintenance, and limitations of personal 
protective equipment specific to the site.
    (4) Work practices by which the employee can minimize risks from 
hazards.
    (5) Safe use of engineering controls and equipment available on 
site.
    (6) Safe decontamination procedures established to minimize employee 
contact with hazardous substances, including:
    (A) Employee decontamination,
    (B) Clothing decontamination, and
    (C) Equipment decontamination.
    (7) Elements of the site emergency response plan, including:
    (A) Pre-emergency planning.
    (B) Personnel roles and lines of authority and communication.
    (C) Emergency recognition and prevention.
    (D) Safe distances and places of refuge.
    (E) Site security and control.
    (F) Evacuation routes and procedures.
    (G) Decontamination procedures not covered by the site safety and 
health plan.
    (H) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.
    (I) Emergency equipment and procedures for handling emergency 
incidents.
    c. The employer should provide hazardous waste employees information 
and training on personal protective equipment used at the site, such as 
the following:
    (1) PPE to be used based upon known or anticipated site hazards.
    (2) PPE limitations of materials and construction; limitations 
during temperature extremes, heat stress, and other appropriate medical 
considerations; use and limitations of respirator equipment as well as 
documentation procedures as outlined in 29 CFR 1910.134.
    (3) PPE inspection procedures prior to, during, and after use.
    (4) PPE donning and doffing procedures.
    (5) PPE decontamination and disposal procedures.
    (6) PPE maintenance and storage.
    (7) Task duration as related to PPE limitations.
    d. The employer should instruct the employee about the site medical 
surveillance program relative to the particular site, including
    (1) Specific medical surveillance programs that have been adapted 
for the site.
    (2) Specific signs and symptoms related to exposure to hazardous 
materials on the site.
    (3) The frequency and extent of periodic medical examinations that 
will be used on the site.
    (4) Maintenance and availability of records.
    (5) Personnel to be contacted and procedures to be followed when 
signs and symptoms of exposures are recognized.
    e. The employees will review and discuss the site safety plan as 
part of the training program. The location of the site safety plan and 
all written programs should be discussed with employees including a 
discussion of the mechanisms for access, review, and references 
described.

    B. RCRA Operations Training for Treatment, Storage and Disposal 
Facilities.
    1. As a minimum, the training course required in 29 CFR 1926.65 (p) 
should include the following topics:
    (a) Review of the applicable paragraphs of 29 CFR 1926.65 and the 
elements of the employer's occupational safety and health plan.
    (b) Review of relevant hazards such as, but not limited to, 
chemical, biological, and radiological exposures; fire and explosion 
hazards; thermal extremes; and physical hazards.
    (c) General safety hazards including those associated with 
electrical hazards, powered equipment hazards, lock-out-tag-out 
procedures, motor vehicle hazards and walking-working surface hazards.
    (d) Confined-space hazards and procedures.
    (e) Work practices to minimize employee risk from workplace hazards.
    (f) Emergency response plan and procedures including first aid 
meeting the requirements of paragraph (p)(8).
    (g) A review of procedures to minimize exposure to hazardous waste 
and various type of waste streams, including the materials handling 
program and spill containment program.
    (h) A review of hazard communication programs meeting the 
requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200.
    (i) A review of medical surveillance programs meeting the 
requirements of 29 CFR 1926.65(p)(3) including the recognition of signs 
and symptoms of overexposure to hazardous substance including known 
synergistic interactions.
    (j) A review of decontamination programs and procedures meeting the 
requirements of 29 CFR 1926.65(p)(4).
    (k) A review of an employer's requirements to implement a training 
program and its elements.
    (l) A review of the criteria and programs for proper selection and 
use of personal protective equipment, including respirators.
    (m) A review of the applicable appendices to 29 CFR 1926.65.
    (n) Principles of toxicology and biological monitoring as they 
pertain to occupational health.
    (o) Rights and responsibilities of employees and employers under 
applicable OSHA and EPA laws.
    (p) Hands-on exercises and demonstrations of competency with 
equipment to illustrate the basic equipment principles that may be used 
during the performance of work duties, including the donning and doffing 
of PPE.

[[Page 178]]

    (q) Sources of reference, efficient use of relevant manuals, and 
knowledge of hazard coding systems to include information contained in 
hazardous waste manifests.
    (r) At least 8 hours of hands-on training.
    (s) Training in the job skills required for an employee's job 
function and responsibility before they are permitted to participate in 
or supervise field activities.
    2. The individual employer should provide hazardous waste employees 
with information and training prior to an employee's initial assignment 
into a work area. The training and information should cover the 
following topics:
    (a) The Emergency response plan and procedures including first aid.
    (b) A review of the employer's hazardous waste handling procedures 
including the materials handling program and elements of the spill 
containment program, location of spill response kits or equipment, and 
the names of those trained to respond to releases.
    (c) The hazardous communication program meeting the requirements of 
29 CFR 1910.1200.
    (d) A review of the employer's medical surveillance program 
including the recognition of signs and symptoms of exposure to relevant 
hazardous substance including known synergistic interactions.
    (e) A review of the employer's decontamination program and 
procedures.
    (f) An review of the employer's training program and the parties 
responsible for that program.
    (g) A review of the employer's personal protective equipment program 
including the proper selection and use of PPE based upon specific site 
hazards.
    (h) All relevant site-specific procedures addressing potential 
safety and health hazards. This may include, as appropriate, biological 
and radiological exposures, fire and explosion hazards, thermal hazards, 
and physical hazards such as electrical hazards, powered equipment 
hazards, lock-out-tag-out hazards, motor vehicle hazards, and walking-
working surface hazards.
    (i) Safe use engineering controls and equipment on site.
    (j) Names of personnel and alternates responsible for safety and 
health.

    C. Emergency response training.
    Federal OSHA standards in 29 CFR 1926.65(q) are directed toward 
private sector emergency responders. Therefore, the guidelines provided 
in this portion of the appendix are directed toward that employee 
population. However, they also impact indirectly through State OSHA or 
USEPA regulations some public sector emergency responders. Therefore, 
the guidelines provided in this portion of the appendix may be applied 
to both employee populations.
    States with OSHA state plans must cover their employees with 
regulations at least as effective as the Federal OSHA standards. Public 
employees in states without approved state OSHA programs covering 
hazardous waste operations and emergency response are covered by the 
U.S. EPA under 40 CFR 311, a regulation virtually identical to 
Sec. 1926.65.
    Since this is a non-mandatory appendix and therefore not an 
enforceable standard, OSHA recommends that those employers, employees or 
volunteers in public sector emergency response organizations outside 
Federal OSHA jurisdiction consider the following criteria in developing 
their own training programs. A unified approach to training at the 
community level between emergency response organizations covered by 
Federal OSHA and those not covered directly by Federal OSHA can help 
ensure an effective community response to the release or potential 
release of hazardous substances in the community.
    a. General considerations.
    Emergency response organizations are required to consider the topics 
listed in Sec. 1926.65(q)(6). Emergency response organizations may use 
some or all of the following topics to supplement those mandatory topics 
when developing their response training programs. Many of the topics 
would require an interaction between the response provider and the 
individuals responsible for the site where the response would be 
expected.
    (1) Hazard recognition, including:
    (A) Nature of hazardous substances present,
    (B) Practical applications of hazard recognition, including 
presentations on biology, chemistry, and physics.
    (2) Principles of toxicology, biological monitoring, and risk 
assessment.
    (3) Safe work practices and general site safety.
    (4) Engineering controls and hazardous waste operations.
    (5) Site safety plans and standard operating procedures.
    (6) Decontamination procedures and practices.
    (7) Emergency procedures, first aid, and self-rescue.
    (8) Safe use of field equipment.
    (9) Storage, handling, use and transportation of hazardous 
substances.
    (10) Use, care, and limitations of personal protective equipment.
    (11) Safe sampling techniques.
    (12) Rights and responsibilities of employees under OSHA and other 
related laws concerning right-to-know, safety and health, compensations 
and liability.
    (13) Medical monitoring requirements.
    (14) Community relations.
    b. Suggested criteria for specific courses.
    (1) First responder awareness level.

[[Page 179]]

    (A) Review of and demonstration of competency in performing the 
applicable skills of 29 CFR 1926.65(q).
    (B) Hands-on experience with the U.S. Department of Transportation's 
Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) and familiarization with OSHA 
standard 29 CFR 1926.60.
    (C) Review of the principles and practices for analyzing an incident 
to determine both the hazardous substances present and the basic hazard 
and response information for each hazardous substance present.
    (D) Review of procedures for implementing actions consistent with 
the local emergency response plan, the organization's standard operating 
procedures, and the current edition of DOT's ERG including emergency 
notification procedures and follow-up communications.
    (E) Review of the expected hazards including fire and explosions 
hazards, confined space hazards, electrical hazards, powered equipment 
hazards, motor vehicle hazards, and walking-working surface hazards.
    (F) Awareness and knowledge of the competencies for the First 
Responder at the Awareness Level covered in the National Fire Protection 
Association's Standard No. 472, Professional Competence of Responders to 
Hazardous Materials Incidents.
    (2) First responder operations level.
    (A) Review of and demonstration of competency in performing the 
applicable skills of 29 CFR 1926.65(q).
    (B) Hands-on experience with the U.S. Department of Transportation's 
Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG), manufacturer material safety data 
sheets, CHEMTREC/CANUTEC, shipper or manufacturer contacts and other 
relevant sources of information addressing hazardous substance releases. 
Familiarization with OSHA standard 29 CFR 1926.60.
    (C) Review of the principles and practices for analyzing an incident 
to determine the hazardous substances present, the likely behavior of 
the hazardous substance and its container, the types of hazardous 
substance transportation containers and vehicles, the types and 
selection of the appropriate defensive strategy for containing the 
release.
    (D) Review of procedures for implementing continuing response 
actions consistent with the local emergency response plan, the 
organization's standard operating procedures, and the current edition of 
DOT's ERG including extended emergency notification procedures and 
follow-up communications.
    (E) Review of the principles and practice for proper selection and 
use of personal protective equipment.
    (F) Review of the principles and practice of personnel and equipment 
decontamination.
    (G) Review of the expected hazards including fire and explosions 
hazards, confined space hazards, electrical hazards, powered equipment 
hazards, motor vehicle hazards, and walking-working surface hazards.
    (H) Awareness and knowledge of the competencies for the First 
Responder at the Operations Level covered in the National Fire 
Protection Association's Standard No. 472, Professional Competence of 
Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents.
    (3) Hazardous materials technician.
    (A) Review of and demonstration of competency in performing the 
applicable skills of 29 CFR 1926.65(q).
    (B) Hands-on experience with written and electronic information 
relative to response decision making including but not limited to the 
U.S. Department of Transportation's Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG), 
manufacturer material safety data sheets, CHEMTREC/CANUTEC, shipper or 
manufacturer contacts, computer data bases and response models, and 
other relevant sources of information addressing hazardous substance 
releases. Familiarization with 29 CFR 1926.60.
    (C) Review of the principles and practices for analyzing an incident 
to determine the hazardous substances present, their physical and 
chemical properties, the likely behavior of the hazardous substance and 
its container, the types of hazardous substance transportation 
containers and vehicles involved in the release, the appropriate 
strategy for approaching release sites and containing the release.
    (D) Review of procedures for implementing continuing response 
actions consistent with the local emergency response plan, the 
organization's standard operating procedures, and the current edition of 
DOT's ERG including extended emergency notification procedures and 
follow-up communications.
    (E) Review of the principles and practice for proper selection and 
use of personal protective equipment.
    (F) Review of the principles and practices of establishing exposure 
zones, proper decontamination and medical surveillance stations and 
procedures.
    (G) Review of the expected hazards including fire and explosions 
hazards, confined space hazards, electrical hazards, powered equipment 
hazards, motor vehicle hazards, and walking-working surface hazards.
    (H) Awareness and knowledge of the competencies for the Hazardous 
Materials Technician covered in the National Fire Protection 
Association's Standard No. 472, Professional Competence of Responders to 
Hazardous Materials Incidents.
    (4) Hazardous materials specialist.
    (A) Review of and demonstration of competency in performing the 
applicable skills of 29 CFR 1926.65(q).
    (B) Hands-on experience with retrieval and use of written and 
electronic information relative to response decision making including 
but not limited to the U.S. Department of Transportation's Emergency 
Response

[[Page 180]]

Guidebook (ERG), manufacturer material safety data sheets, CHEMTREC/
CANUTEC, shipper or manufacturer contacts, computer data bases and 
response models, and other relevant sources of information addressing 
hazardous substance releases. Familiarization with 29 CFR 1926.60.
    (C) Review of the principles and practices for analyzing an incident 
to determine the hazardous substances present, their physical and 
chemical properties, and the likely behavior of the hazardous substance 
and its container, vessel, or vehicle.
    (D) Review of the principles and practices for identification of the 
types of hazardous substance transportation containers, vessels and 
vehicles involved in the release; selecting and using the various types 
of equipment available for plugging or patching transportation 
containers, vessels or vehicles; organizing and directing the use of 
multiple teams of hazardous material technicians and selecting the 
appropriate strategy for approaching release sites and containing or 
stopping the release.
    (E) Review of procedures for implementing continuing response 
actions consistent with the local emergency response plan, the 
organization's standard operating procedures, including knowledge of the 
available public and private response resources, establishment of an 
incident command post, direction of hazardous material technician teams, 
and extended emergency notification procedures and follow-up 
communications.
    (F) Review of the principles and practice for proper selection and 
use of personal protective equipment.
    (G) Review of the principles and practices of establishing exposure 
zones and proper decontamination, monitoring and medical surveillance 
stations and procedures.
    (H) Review of the expected hazards including fire and explosions 
hazards, confined space hazards, electrical hazards, powered equipment 
hazards, motor vehicle hazards, and walking-working surface hazards.
    (I) Awareness and knowledge of the competencies for the Off-site 
Specialist Employee covered in the National Fire Protection 
Association's Standard No. 472, Professional Competence of Responders to 
Hazardous Materials Incidents.
    (5) Incident commander.
    The incident commander is the individual who, at any one time, is 
responsible for and in control of the response effort. This individual 
is the person responsible for the direction and coordination of the 
response effort. An incident commander's position should be occupied by 
the most senior, appropriately trained individual present at the 
response site. Yet, as necessary and appropriate by the level of 
response provided, the position may be occupied by many individuals 
during a particular response as the need for greater authority, 
responsibility, or training increases. It is possible for the first 
responder at the awareness level to assume the duties of incident 
commander until a more senior and appropriately trained individual 
arrives at the response site.
    Therefore, any emergency responder expected to perform as an 
incident commander should be trained to fulfill the obligations of the 
position at the level of response they will be providing including the 
following:
    (A) Ability to analyze a hazardous substance incident to determine 
the magnitude of the response problem.
    (B) Ability to plan and implement an appropriate response plan 
within the capabilities of available personnel and equipment.
    (C) Ability to implement a response to favorably change the outcome 
of the incident in a manner consistent with the local emergency response 
plan and the organization's standard operating procedures.
    (D) Ability to evaluate the progress of the emergency response to 
ensure that the response objectives are being met safely, effectively, 
and efficiently.
    (E) Ability to adjust the response plan to the conditions of the 
response and to notify higher levels of response when required by the 
changes to the response plan.
[58 FR 35129, June 30, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 43275, Aug. 22, 1994: 
61 FR 5510, Feb. 13, 1996]



Sec. 1926.66  Criteria for design and construction of spray booths.

    (a) Definitions applicable to this section--(1) Aerated solid 
powders. Aerated powders shall mean any powdered material used as a 
coating material which shall be fluidized within a container by passing 
air uniformly from below. It is common practice to fluidize such 
materials to form a fluidized powder bed and then dip the part to be 
coated into the bed in a manner similar to that used in liquid dipping. 
Such beds are also used as sources for powder spray operations.
    (2) Spraying area. Any area in which dangerous quantities of 
flammable vapors or mists, or combustible residues, dusts, or deposits 
are present due to the operation of spraying processes.
    (3) Spray booth. A power-ventilated structure provided to enclose or 
accommodate a spraying operation to confine and limit the escape of 
spray, vapor, and residue, and to safely conduct or direct them to an 
exhaust system.
    (4) Waterwash spray booth. A spray booth equipped with a water 
washing system designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust 
ducts and to

[[Page 181]]

permit the recovery of overspray finishing material.
    (5) Dry spray booth. A spray booth not equipped with a water washing 
system as described in paragraph (a)(4) of this section. A dry spray 
booth may be equipped with
    (i) Distribution or baffle plates to promote an even flow of air 
through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the 
exhaust duct; or
    (ii) Overspray dry filters to minimize dusts; or
    (iii) Overspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering 
exhaust ducts; or
    (iv) Overspray dry filter rolls designed to minimize dusts or 
residues entering exhaust ducts; or
    (v) Where dry powders are being sprayed, with powder collection 
systems so arranged in the exhaust to capture oversprayed material.
    (6) Fluidized bed. A container holding powder coating material which 
is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of 
such material through which the preheated object to be coated is 
immersed and transported.
    (7) Electrostatic fluidized bed. A container holding powder coating 
material which is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported 
expanded cloud of such material which is electrically charged with a 
charge opposite to the charge of the object to be coated; such object is 
transported, through the container immediately above the charged and 
aerated materials in order to be coated.
    (8) Approved. Shall mean approved and listed by a nationally 
recognized testing laboratory.
    (9) Listed. See ``approved'' in paragraph (a)(8) of this section.
    (b) Spray booths--(1) Construction. Spray booths shall be 
substantially constructed of steel, securely and rigidly supported, or 
of concrete or masonry except that aluminum or other substantial 
noncombustible material may be used for intermittent or low volume 
spraying. Spray booths shall be designed to sweep air currents toward 
the exhaust outlet.
    (2) Interiors. The interior surfaces of spray booths shall be smooth 
and continuous without edges and otherwise designed to prevent pocketing 
of residues and facilitate cleaning and washing without injury.
    (3) Floors. The floor surface of a spray booth and operator's 
working area, if combustible, shall be covered with noncombustible 
material of such character as to facilitate the safe cleaning and 
removal of residues.
    (4) Distribution or baffle plates. Distribution or baffle plates, if 
installed to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the 
deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct, shall be of 
noncombustible material and readily removable or accessible on both 
sides for cleaning. Such plates shall not be located in exhaust ducts.
    (5) Dry type overspray collectors--(exhaust air filters). In 
conventional dry type spray booths, overspray dry filters or filter 
rolls, if installed, shall conform to the following:
    (i) The spraying operations except electrostatic spraying operations 
shall be so designed, installed and maintained that the average air 
velocity over the open face of the booth (or booth cross section during 
spraying operations) shall be not less than 100 linear feet per minute. 
Electrostatic spraying operations may be conducted with an air velocity 
over the open face of the booth of not less than 60 linear feet per 
minute, or more, depending on the volume of the finishing material being 
applied and its flammability and explosion characteristics. Visible 
gauges or audible alarm or pressure activated devices shall be installed 
to indicate or insure that the required air velocity is maintained. 
Filter rolls shall be inspected to insure proper replacement of filter 
media.
    (ii) All discarded filter pads and filter rolls shall be immediately 
removed to a safe, well-detached location or placed in a water-filled 
metal container and disposed of at the close of the day's operation 
unless maintained completely in water.
    (iii) The location of filters in a spray booth shall be so as to not 
reduce the effective booth enclosure of the articles being sprayed.
    (iv) Space within the spray booth on the downstream and upstream 
sides of

[[Page 182]]

filters shall be protected with approved automatic sprinklers.
    (v) Filters or filter rolls shall not be used when applying a spray 
material known to be highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and 
ignition.
    (vi) Clean filters or filter rolls shall be noncombustible or of a 
type having a combustibility not in excess of class 2 filters as listed 
by Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. Filters and filter rolls shall not 
be alternately used for different types of coating materials, where the 
combination of materials may be conducive to spontaneous ignition.
    (6) Frontal area. Each spray booth having a frontal area larger than 
9 square feet shall have a metal deflector or curtain not less than 2 
\1/2\ inches (5.35 cm) deep installed at the upper outer edge of the 
booth over the opening.
    (7) Conveyors. Where conveyors are arranged to carry work into or 
out of spray booths, the openings therefor shall be as small as 
practical.
    (8) Separation of operations. Each spray booth shall be separated 
from other operations by not less than 3 feet (0.912 m), or by a greater 
distance, or by such partition or wall as to reduce the danger from 
juxtaposition of hazardous operations. See also paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section.
    (9) Cleaning. Spray booths shall be so installed that all portions 
are readily accessible for cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 
feet (0.912 m) on all sides shall be kept free from storage or 
combustible construction.
    (10) Illumination. When spraying areas are illuminated through glass 
panels or other transparent materials, only fixed lighting units shall 
be used as a source of illumination. Panels shall effectively isolate 
the spraying area from the area in which the lighting unit is located, 
and shall be of a noncombustible material of such a nature or so 
protected that breakage will be unlikely. Panels shall be so arranged 
that normal accumulations of residue on the exposed surface of the panel 
will not be raised to a dangerous temperature by radiation or conduction 
from the source of illumination.
    (c) Electrical and other sources of ignition--(1) Conformance. All 
electrical equipment, open flames and other sources of ignition shall 
conform to the requirements of this paragraph, except as follows:
    (i) Electrostatic apparatus shall conform to the requirements of 
paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section;
    (ii) Drying, curing, and fusion apparatus shall conform to the 
requirements of paragraph (g) of this section;
    (iii) [Reserved]
    (iv) Powder coating equipment shall conform to the requirements of 
paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
    (2) Minimum separation. There shall be no open flame or spark 
producing equipment in any spraying area nor within 20 feet (6.08 m) 
thereof, unless separated by a partition.
    (3) Hot surfaces. Space-heating appliances, steampipes, or hot 
surfaces shall not be located in a spraying area where deposits of 
combustible residues may readily accumulate.
    (4) Wiring conformance. Electrical wiring and equipment shall 
conform to the provisions of this paragraph and shall otherwise be in 
accordance with subpart S of this part.
    (5) Combustible residues, areas. Unless specifically approved for 
locations containing both deposits of readily ignitable residue and 
explosive vapors, there shall be no electrical equipment in any spraying 
area, whereon deposits of combustible residues may readily accumulate, 
except wiring in rigid conduit or in boxes or fittings containing no 
taps, splices, or terminal connections.
    (6) Wiring type approved. Electrical wiring and equipment not 
subject to deposits of combustible residues but located in a spraying 
area as herein defined shall be of explosion-proof type approved for 
Class I, group D locations and shall otherwise conform to the provisions 
of subpart S of this part, for Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. 
Electrical wiring, motors, and other equipment outside of but within 20 
feet (6.08 m) of any spraying area, and not separated therefrom by 
partitions, shall not produce sparks under normal operating conditions 
and shall otherwise conform to the provisions of subpart S of this part 
for Class I, Division 2 Hazardous Locations.
    (7) Lamps. Electric lamps outside of, but within 20 feet (6.08 m) of 
any spraying area, and not separated therefrom

[[Page 183]]

by a partition, shall be totally enclosed to prevent the falling of hot 
particles and shall be protected from mechanical injury by suitable 
guards or by location.
    (8) Portable lamps. Portable electric lamps shall not be used in any 
spraying area during spraying operations. Portable electric lamps, if 
used during cleaning or repairing operations, shall be of the type 
approved for hazardous Class I locations.
    (9) Grounding. (i) All metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts, 
and piping systems conveying flammable or combustible liquids or aerated 
solids shall be properly electrically grounded in an effective and 
permanent manner.
    (d) Ventilation--(1) Conformance. Ventilating and exhaust systems 
shall be in accordance with the Standard for Blower and Exhaust Systems 
for Vapor Removal, NFPA No. 91-1961, where applicable and shall also 
conform to the provisions of this section.
    (2) General. All spraying areas shall be provided with mechanical 
ventilation adequate to remove flammable vapors, mists, or powders to a 
safe location and to confine and control combustible residues so that 
life is not endangered. Mechanical ventilation shall be kept in 
operation at all times while spraying operations are being conducted and 
for a sufficient time thereafter to allow vapors from drying coated 
articles and drying finishing material residue to be exhausted.
    (3) Independent exhaust. Each spray booth shall have an independent 
exhaust duct system discharging to the exterior of the building, except 
that multiple cabinet spray booths in which identical spray finishing 
material is used with a combined frontal area of not more than 18 square 
feet may have a common exhaust. If more than one fan serves one booth, 
all fans shall be so interconnected that one fan cannot operate without 
all fans being operated.
    (4) Fan-rotating element. The fan-rotating element shall be 
nonferrous or nonsparking or the casing shall consist of or be lined 
with such material. There shall be ample clearance between the fan-
rotating element and the fan casing to avoid a fire by friction, 
necessary allowance being made for ordinary expansion and loading to 
prevent contact between moving parts and the duct or fan housing. Fan 
blades shall be mounted on a shaft sufficiently heavy to maintain 
perfect alignment even when the blades of the fan are heavily loaded, 
the shaft preferably to have bearings outside the duct and booth. All 
bearings shall be of the self-lubricating type, or lubricated from the 
outside duct.
    (5) Electric motors. Electric motors driving exhaust fans shall not 
be placed inside booths or ducts. See also paragraph (c) of this 
section.
    (6) Belts. Belts shall not enter the duct or booth unless the belt 
and pulley within the duct or booth are thoroughly enclosed.
    (7) Exhaust ducts. Exhaust ducts shall be constructed of steel and 
shall be substantially supported. Exhaust ducts without dampers are 
preferred; however, if dampers are installed, they shall be maintained 
so that they will be in a full open position at all times the 
ventilating system is in operation.
    (i) Exhaust ducts shall be protected against mechanical damage and 
have a clearance from unprotected combustible construction or other 
combustible material of not less than 18 inches (45.72 cm).
    (ii) If combustible construction is provided with the following 
protection applied to all surfaces within 18 inches (45.72 cm), 
clearances may be reduced to the distances indicated:

                                                                        
                                                                        
                                                                        
                                                                        
(a) 28-gage sheet metal on 1/4-inch         12 inches (30.48 cm).       
 asbestos mill board.                                                   
(b) 28-gage sheet metal on 1/8-inch         9 inches (22.86 cm).        
 asbestos mill board spaced out 1 inch                                  
 (2.54 cm) on noncombustible spacers.                                   
(c) 22-gage sheet metal on 1-inch rockwool  3 inches (7.62 cm).         
 batts reinforced with wire mesh or the                                 
 equivalent.                                                            
(d) Where ducts are protected with an                                   
 approved automatic sprinkler system,                                   
 properly maintained, the clearance                                     
 required in paragraph (d)(7)(i) of this                                
 section may be reduced to 6 inches (15.24                              
 cm).                                                                   
                                                                        

    (8) Discharge clearance. Unless the spray booth exhaust duct 
terminal is from a water-wash spray booth, the terminal discharge point 
shall be not less than 6 feet from any combustible exterior wall or roof 
nor discharge in the direction of any combustible construction or 
unprotected opening in

[[Page 184]]

any noncombustible exterior wall within 25 feet (7.6 m).
    (9) Air exhaust. Air exhaust from spray operations shall not be 
directed so that it will contaminate makeup air being introduced into 
the spraying area or other ventilating intakes, nor directed so as to 
create a nuisance. Air exhausted from spray operations shall not be 
recirculated.
    (10) Access doors. When necessary to facilitate cleaning, exhaust 
ducts shall be provided with an ample number of access doors.
    (11) Room intakes. Air intake openings to rooms containing spray 
finishing operations shall be adequate for the efficient operation of 
exhaust fans and shall be so located as to minimize the creation of dead 
air pockets.
    (12) Drying spaces. Freshly sprayed articles shall be dried only in 
spaces provided with adequate ventilation to prevent the formation of 
explosive vapors. In the event adequate and reliable ventilation is not 
provided such drying spaces shall be considered a spraying area.
    (e) Fixed electrostatic apparatus--(1) Conformance. Where 
installation and use of electrostatic spraying equipment is used, such 
installation and use shall conform to all other paragraphs of this 
section, and shall also conform to the requirements of this paragraph.
    (2) Type approval. Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in 
connection with coating operations shall be of approved types.
    (3) Location. Transformers, power packs, control apparatus, and all 
other electrical portions of the equipment, with the exception of high-
voltage grids, electrodes, and electrostatic atomizing heads and their 
connections, shall be located outside of the spraying area, or shall 
otherwise conform to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.
    (4) Support. Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads shall be 
adequately supported in permanent locations and shall be effectively 
insulated from the ground. Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads 
which are permanently attached to their bases, supports, or 
reciprocators, shall be deemed to comply with this section. Insulators 
shall be nonporous and noncombustible.
    (5) Insulators, grounding. High-voltage leads to electrodes shall be 
properly insulated and protected from mechanical injury or exposure to 
destructive chemicals. Electrostatic atomizing heads shall be 
effectively and permanently supported on suitable insulators and shall 
be effectively guarded against accidental contact or grounding. An 
automatic means shall be provided for grounding the electrode system 
when it is electrically deenergized for any reason. All insulators shall 
be kept clean and dry.
    (6) Safe distance. A safe distance shall be maintained between goods 
being painted and electrodes or electrostatic atomizing heads or 
conductors of at least twice the sparking distance. A suitable sign 
indicating this safe distance shall be conspicuously posted near the 
assembly.
    (7) Conveyors required. Goods being painted using this process are 
to be supported on conveyors. The conveyors shall be so arranged as to 
maintain safe distances between the goods and the electrodes or 
electrostatic atomizing heads at all times. Any irregularly shaped or 
other goods subject to possible swinging or movement shall be rigidly 
supported to prevent such swinging or movement which would reduce the 
clearance to less than that specified in paragraph (e)(6) of this 
section.
    (8) Prohibition. This process is not acceptable where goods being 
coated are manipulated by hand. When finishing materials are applied by 
electrostatic equipment which is manipulated by hand, see paragraph (f) 
of this section for applicable requirements.
    (9) Fail-safe controls. Electrostatic apparatus shall be equipped 
with automatic controls which will operate without time delay to 
disconnect the power supply to the high voltage transformer and to 
signal the operator under any of the following conditions:
    (i) Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment 
from any cause.
    (ii) Stoppage of the conveyor carrying goods through the high 
voltage field.

[[Page 185]]

    (iii) Occurrence of a ground or of an imminent ground at any point 
on the high voltage system.
    (iv) Reduction of clearance below that specified in paragraph (e)(6) 
of this section.
    (10) Guarding. Adequate booths, fencing, railings, or guards shall 
be so placed about the equipment that they, either by their location or 
character or both, assure that a safe isolation of the process is 
maintained from plant storage or personnel. Such railings, fencing, and 
guards shall be of conducting material, adequately grounded.
    (11) Ventilation. Where electrostatic atomization is used the 
spraying area shall be so ventilated as to insure safe conditions from a 
fire and health standpoint.
    (12) Fire protection. All areas used for spraying, including the 
interior of the booth, shall be protected by automatic sprinklers where 
this protection is available. Where this protection is not available, 
other approved automatic extinguishing equipment shall be provided.
    (f) Electrostatic hand spraying equipment--(1) Application. This 
paragraph shall apply to any equipment using electrostatically charged 
elements for the atomization and/or, precipitation of materials for 
coatings on articles, or for other similar purposes in which the 
atomizing device is hand held and manipulated during the spraying 
operation.
    (2) Conformance. Electrostatic hand spraying equipment shall conform 
with the other provisions of this section.
    (3) Equipment approval and specifications. Electrostatic hand spray 
apparatus and devices used in connection with coating operations shall 
be of approved types. The high voltage circuits shall be designed so as 
to not produce a spark of sufficient intensity to ignite any vapor-air 
mixtures nor result in appreciable shock hazard upon coming in contact 
with a grounded object under all normal operating conditions. The 
electrostatically charged exposed elements of the handgun shall be 
capable of being energized only by a switch which also controls the 
coating material supply.
    (4) Electrical support equipment. Transformers, powerpacks, control 
apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment, with the 
exception of the handgun itself and its connections to the power supply 
shall be located outside of the spraying area or shall otherwise conform 
to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.
    (5) Spray gun ground. The handle of the spraying gun shall be 
electrically connected to ground by a metallic connection and to be so 
constructed that the operator in normal operating position is in 
intimate electrical contact with the grounded handle.
    (6) Grounding-general. All electrically conductive objects in the 
spraying area shall be adequately grounded. This requirement shall apply 
to paint containers, wash cans, and any other objects or devices in the 
area. The equipment shall carry a prominent permanently installed 
warning regarding the necessity for this grounding feature.
    (7) Maintenance of grounds. Objects being painted or coated shall be 
maintained in metallic contact with the conveyor or other grounded 
support. Hooks shall be regularly cleaned to insure this contact and 
areas of contact shall be sharp points or knife edges where possible. 
Points of support of the object shall be concealed from random spray 
where feasible and where the objects being sprayed are supported from a 
conveyor, the point of attachment to the conveyor shall be so located as 
to not collect spray material during normal operation.
    (8) Interlocks. The electrical equipment shall be so interlocked 
with the ventilation of the spraying area that the equipment cannot be 
operated unless the ventilation fans are in operation.
    (9) Ventilation. The spraying operation shall take place within a 
spray area which is adequately ventilated to remove solvent vapors 
released from the operation.
    (g) Drying, curing, or fusion apparatus--(1) Conformance. Drying, 
curing, or fusion apparatus in connection with spray application of 
flammable and combustible finishes shall conform to the Standard for 
Ovens and Furnaces, NFPA 86A-1969, where applicable and shall also 
conform with the following requirements of this paragraph.

[[Page 186]]

    (2) Alternate use prohibited. Spray booths, rooms, or other 
enclosures used for spraying operations shall not alternately be used 
for the purpose of drying by any arrangement which will cause a material 
increase in the surface temperature of the spray booth, room, or 
enclosure.
    (3) Adjacent system interlocked. Except as specifically provided in 
paragraph (g)(4) of this section, drying, curing, or fusion units 
utilizing a heating system having open flames or which may produce 
sparks shall not be installed in a spraying area, but may be installed 
adjacent thereto when equipped with an interlocked ventilating system 
arranged to:
    (i) Thoroughly ventilate the drying space before the heating system 
can be started;
    (ii) Maintain a safe atmosphere at any source of ignition;
    (iii) Automatically shut down the heating system in the event of 
failure of the ventilating system.
    (4) Alternate use permitted. Automobile refinishing spray booths or 
enclosures, otherwise installed and maintained in full conformity with 
this section, may alternately be used for drying with portable 
electrical infrared drying apparatus when conforming with the following:
    (i) Interior (especially floors) of spray enclosures shall be kept 
free of overspray deposits.
    (ii) During spray operations, the drying apparatus and electrical 
connections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray 
enclosure nor in any other location where spray residues may be 
deposited thereon.
    (iii) The spraying apparatus, the drying apparatus, and the 
ventilating system of the spray enclosure shall be equipped with 
suitable interlocks so arranged that:
    (a) The spraying apparatus cannot be operated while the drying 
apparatus is inside the spray enclosure.
    (b) The spray enclosure will be purged of spray vapors for a period 
of not less than 3 minutes before the drying apparatus can be energized.
    (c) The ventilating system will maintain a safe atmosphere within 
the enclosure during the drying process and the drying apparatus will 
automatically shut off in the event of failure of the ventilating 
system.
    (iv) All electrical wiring and equipment of the drying apparatus 
shall conform with the applicable sections of subpart S of this part. 
Only equipment of a type approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous 
locations shall be located within 18 inches (45.72 cm) of floor level. 
All metallic parts of the drying apparatus shall be properly 
electrically bonded and grounded.
    (v) The drying apparatus shall contain a prominently located, 
permanently attached warning sign indicating that ventilation should be 
maintained during the drying period and that spraying should not be 
conducted in the vicinity that spray will deposit on apparatus.
[58 FR 35149, June 30, 1993]



        Subpart E--Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment

    Authority:  Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 
(Construction Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333); secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); 
Secretary of Labor's Orders 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 
(48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), or 6-96 (62 FR 111), as applicable; 
and 29 CFR part 11.



Sec. 1926.95  Criteria for personal protective equipment.

    (a) Application. Protective equipment, including personal protective 
equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing, 
respiratory devices, and protective shields and barriers, shall be 
provided, used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition 
wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes or 
environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or mechanical 
irritants encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or 
impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, 
inhalation or physical contact.
    (b) Employee-owned equipment. Where employees provide their own 
protective equipment, the employer shall be responsible to assure its 
adequacy, including proper maintenance, and sanitation of such 
equipment.

[[Page 187]]

    (c) Design. All personal protective equipment shall be of safe 
design and construction for the work to be performed.
[58 FR 35152, June 30, 1993]



Sec. 1926.96  Occupational foot protection.

    Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements and 
specifications in American National Standard for Men's Safety-Toe 
Footwear, Z41.1-1967.
[58 FR 35152, June 30, 1993]



Secs. 1926.97--1926.98  [Reserved]



Sec. 1926.100  Head protection.

    (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of 
head injury from impact, or from falling or flying objects, or from 
electrical shock and burns, shall be protected by protective helmets.
    (b) Helmets for the protection of employees against impact and 
penetration of falling and flying objects shall meet the specifications 
contained in American National Standards Institute, Z89.1-1969, Safety 
Requirements for Industrial Head Protection.
    (c) Helmets for the head protection of employees exposed to high 
voltage electrical shock and burns shall meet the specifications 
contained in American National Standards Institute, Z89.2-1971.



Sec. 1926.101  Hearing protection.

    (a) Wherever it is not feasible to reduce the noise levels or 
duration of exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise 
Exposures, in Sec. 1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and 
used.
    (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or 
determined individually by competent persons.
    (c) Plain cotton is not an acceptable protective device.



Sec. 1926.102  Eye and face protection.

    (a) General. (1) Employees shall be provided with eye and face 
protection equipment when machines or operations present potential eye 
or face injury from physical, chemical, or radiation agents.
    (2) Eye and face protection equipment required by this Part shall 
meet the requirements specified in American National Standards 
Institute, Z87.1-1968, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and 
Face Protection.
    (3) Employees whose vision requires the use of corrective lenses in 
spectacles, when required by this regulation to wear eye protection, 
shall be protected by goggles or spectacles of one of the following 
types:
    (i) Spectacles whose protective lenses provide optical correction;
    (ii) Goggles that can be worn over corrective spectacles without 
disturbing the adjustment of the spectacles;
    (iii) Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the 
protective lenses.
    (4) Face and eye protection equipment shall be kept clean and in 
good repair. The use of this type equipment with structural or optical 
defects shall be prohibited.
    (5) Table E-1 shall be used as a guide in the selection of face and 
eye protection for the hazards and operations noted.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.010


[[Page 188]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.011


    *Non-side shield spectacles are available for limited hazard use 
requiring only frontal protection.
    **See Table E-2, in paragraph (b) of this section, Filter Lens Shade 
Numbers for Protection Against Radiant Energy.

                                                  Applications                                                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                            Recommended protectors: Bold type   
                Operation                            Hazards              numbers signify preferred protection  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Acetylene--Burning, Acetylene--Cutting,    Sparks, harmful rays,        7, 8, 9.                                
 Acetylene--Welding.                        molten metal, flying                                                
                                            particles.                                                          
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chemical Handling........................  Splash, acid burns, fumes..  2, 10 (For severe exposure add 10 over  
                                                                         2).                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chipping.................................  Flying particles...........  1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7A, 8A.                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electric (arc) welding...................  Sparks, intense rays,        9, 11, (11 in combination with 4, 5, 6, 
                                            molten metal.                in tinted lenses, advisable).          
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Furnace operations.......................  Glare, heat, molten metal..  7, 8, 9 (For severe exposure add 10).   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Grinding--Light..........................  Flying particles...........  1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10.                      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Grinding--Heavy..........................  Flying particles...........  1 , 3, 7A, 8A (For severe exposure add  
                                                                         10).                                   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Laboratory...............................  Chemical splash, glass       2 (10 when in combination with 4, 5, 6).
                                            breakage.                                                           
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Machining................................  Flying particles...........  1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10.                      
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molten metals............................  Heat, glare, sparks, splash  7, 8, (10 in combination with 4, 5, 6,  
                                                                         in tinted lenses).                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Spot welding.............................  Flying particles, sparks...  1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10.                      
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (6) Protectors shall meet the following minimum requirements:
    (i) They shall provide adequate protection against the particular 
hazards for which they are designed.
    (ii) They shall be reasonably comfortable when worn under the 
designated conditions.
    (iii) They shall fit snugly and shall not unduly interfere with the 
movements of the wearer.
    (iv) They shall be durable.
    (v) They shall be capable of being disinfected.
    (vi) They shall be easily cleanable.
    (7) Every protector shall be distinctly marked to facilitate 
identification only of the manufacturer.
    (8) When limitations or precautions are indicated by the 
manufacturer, they shall be transmitted to the user and care taken to 
see that such limitations and precautions are strictly observed.
    (b) Protection against radiant energy--(1) Selection of shade 
numbers for welding filter. Table E-2 shall be used as a guide for the 
selection of the proper shade

[[Page 189]]

numbers of filter lenses or plates used in welding. Shades more dense 
than those listed may be used to suit the individual's needs.

   Table E-2--Filter Lens Shade Numbers for Protection Against Radiant  
                                 Energy                                 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Shade  
                      Welding operation                         number  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shielded metal-arc welding \1/16\-, \3/32\-, \1/8\-, \5/32\-            
 inch diameter electrodes...................................          10
Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) \1/16\-, \3/32\-, \1/             
 8\-, \5/32\-inch diameter electrodes.......................          11
Gas-shielded arc welding (ferrous) \1/16\-, \3/32\-, \1/8\-,            
 \5/32\-inch diameter electrodes............................          12
Shielded metal-arc welding \3/16\-, \7/32\-, \1/4\-inch                 
 diameter electrodes........................................          12
\5/16\-, \3/8\-inch diameter electrodes.....................          14
Atomic hydrogen welding.....................................       10-14
Carbon-arc welding..........................................          14
Soldering...................................................           2
Torch brazing...............................................      3 or 4
Light cutting, up to 1 inch.................................      3 or 4
Medium cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches..........................      4 or 5
Heavy cutting, over 6 inches................................      5 or 6
Gas welding (light), up to \1/8\-inch.......................      4 or 5
Gas welding (medium), \1/8\-inch to \1/2\-inch..............      5 or 6
Gas welding (heavy), over \1/2\-inch........................      6 or 8
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Laser protection. (i) Employees whose occupation or assignment 
requires exposure to laser beams shall be furnished suitable laser 
safety goggles which will protect for the specific wavelength of the 
laser and be of optical density (O.D.) adequate for the energy involved. 
Table E-3 lists the maximum power or energy density for which adequate 
protection is afforded by glasses of optical densities from 5 through 8.

                 Table E-3--Selecting Laser Safety Glass                
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Intensity, CW maximum                     Attenuation                  
power density (watts/cm ------------------------------------------------
           2)            Optical density (O.D.)     Attenuation factor  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-2...................                 5                     10 5      
10-1...................                 6                     10 6      
1.0....................                 7                     10 7      
10.0...................                 8                     10 8      
------------------------------------------------------------------------


Output levels falling between lines in this table shall require the 
higher optical density.
    (ii) All protective goggles shall bear a label identifying the 
following data:
    (a) The laser wavelengths for which use is intended;
    (b) The optical density of those wavelengths;
    (c) The visible light transmission.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 
FR 35160, June 30, 1993]



Sec. 1926.103  Respiratory protection.

    Note:  The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.134 of this 
chapter.

[63 FR 1297; Jan. 8, 1998]



Sec. 1926.104  Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for 
employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard actually 
subjected to in-service loading, as distinguished from static load 
testing, shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used 
again for employee safeguarding.
    (b) Lifelines shall be secured above the point of operation to an 
anchorage or structural member capable of supporting a minimum dead 
weight of 5,400 pounds.
    (c) Lifelines used on rock-scaling operations, or in areas where the 
lifeline may be subjected to cutting or abrasion, shall be a minimum of 
\7/8\-inch wire core manila rope. For all other lifeline applications, a 
minimum of \3/4\-inch manila or equivalent, with a minimum breaking 
strength of 5,400 pounds, shall be used.
    (d) Safety belt lanyard shall be a minimum of \1/2\-inch nylon, or 
equivalent, with a maximum length to provide for a fall of no greater 
than 6 feet. The rope shall have a nominal breaking strength of 5,400 
pounds.
    (e) All safety belt and lanyard hardware shall be drop forged or 
pressed steel, cadmium plated in accordance with type 1, Class B plating 
specified in Federal Specification QQ-P-416. Surface shall be smooth and 
free of sharp edges.
    (f) All safety belt and lanyard hardware, except rivets, shall be 
capable of withstanding a tensile loading of 4,000 pounds without 
cracking, breaking, or taking a permanent deformation.



Sec. 1926.105  Safety nets.

    (a) Safety nets shall be provided when workplaces are more than 25 
feet

[[Page 190]]

above the ground or water surface, or other surfaces where the use of 
ladders, scaffolds, catch platforms, temporary floors, safety lines, or 
safety belts is impractical.
    (b) Where safety net protection is required by this part, operations 
shall not be undertaken until the net is in place and has been tested.
    (c)(1) Nets shall extend 8 feet beyond the edge of the work surface 
where employees are exposed and shall be installed as close under the 
work surface as practical but in no case more than 25 feet below such 
work surface. Nets shall be hung with sufficient clearance to prevent 
user's contact with the surfaces or structures below. Such clearances 
shall be determined by impact load testing.
    (2) It is intended that only one level of nets be required for 
bridge construction.
    (d) The mesh size of nets shall not exceed 6 inches by 6 inches. All 
new nets shall meet accepted performance standards of 17,500 foot-pounds 
minimum impact resistance as determined and certified by the 
manufacturers, and shall bear a label of proof test. Edge ropes shall 
provide a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.
    (e) Forged steel safety hooks or shackles shall be used to fasten 
the net to its supports.
    (f) Connections between net panels shall develop the full strength 
of the net.



Sec. 1926.106  Working over or near water.

    (a) Employees working over or near water, where the danger of 
drowning exists, shall be provided with U.S. Coast Guard-approved life 
jacket or buoyant work vests.
    (b) Prior to and after each use, the buoyant work vests or life 
preservers shall be inspected for defects which would alter their 
strength or buoyancy. Defective units shall not be used.
    (c) Ring buoys with at least 90 feet of line shall be provided and 
readily available for emergency rescue operations. Distance between ring 
buoys shall not exceed 200 feet.
    (d) At least one lifesaving skiff shall be immediately available at 
locations where employees are working over or adjacent to water.



Sec. 1926.107  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

    (a) Contaminant means any material which by reason of its action 
upon, within, or to a person is likely to cause physical harm.
    (b) Lanyard means a rope, suitable for supporting one person. One 
end is fastened to a safety belt or harness and the other end is secured 
to a substantial object or a safety line.
    (c) Lifeline means a rope, suitable for supporting one person, to 
which a lanyard or safety belt (or harness) is attached.
    (d) O.D. means optical density and refers to the light refractive 
characteristics of a lens.
    (e) Radiant energy means energy that travels outward in all 
directions from its sources.
    (f) Safety belt means a device, usually worn around the waist which, 
by reason of its attachment to a lanyard and lifeline or a structure, 
will prevent a worker from falling.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979]



                Subpart F--Fire Protection and Prevention

    Authority:  Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 
(40 U.S.C. 333); secs. 4, 6, and 8, Occupational Safety and Health Act 
of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 
(36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), or 6-96 (62 FR 
111) as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.



Sec. 1926.150  Fire protection.

    (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall be responsible for 
the development of a fire protection program to be followed throughout 
all phases of the construction and demolition work, and he shall provide 
for the firefighting equipment as specified in this subpart. As fire 
hazards occur, there shall be no delay in providing the necessary 
equipment.
    (2) Access to all available firefighting equipment shall be 
maintained at all times.
    (3) All firefighting equipment, provided by the employer, shall be 
conspicuously located.

[[Page 191]]

    (4) All firefighting equipment shall be periodically inspected and 
maintained in operating condition. Defective equipment shall be 
immediately replaced.
    (5) As warranted by the project, the employer shall provide a 
trained and equipped firefighting organization (Fire Brigade) to assure 
adequate protection to life.
    (b) Water supply. (1) A temporary or permanent water supply, of 
sufficient volume, duration, and pressure, required to properly operate 
the firefighting equipment shall be made available as soon as 
combustible materials accumulate.
    (2) Where underground water mains are to be provided, they shall be 
installed, completed, and made available for use as soon as practicable.
    (c) Portable firefighting equipment-- (1) Fire extinguishers and 
small hose lines. (i) A fire extinguisher, rated not less than 2A, shall 
be provided for each 3,000 square feet of the protected building area, 
or major fraction thereof. Travel distance from any point of the 
protected area to the nearest fire extinguisher shall not exceed 100 
feet.
    (ii) One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be 
substituted for a fire extinguisher having a 2A rating.
    (iii) A \1/2\-inch diameter garden-type hose line, not to exceed 100 
feet in length and equipped with a nozzle, may be substituted for a 2A-
rated fire extinguisher, providing it is capable of discharging a 
minimum of 5 gallons per minute with a minimum hose stream range of 30 
feet horizontally. The garden-type hose lines shall be mounted on 
conventional racks or reels. The number and location of hose racks or 
reels shall be such that at least one hose stream can be applied to all 
points in the area.
    (iv) One or more fire extinguishers, rated not less than 2A, shall 
be provided on each floor. In multistory buildings, at least one fire 
extinguisher shall be located adjacent to stairway.
    (v) Extinguishers and water drums, subject to freezing, shall be 
protected from freezing.
    (vi) A fire extinguisher, rated not less than 10B, shall be provided 
within 50 feet of wherever more than 5 gallons of flammable or 
combustible liquids or 5 pounds of flammable gas are being used on the 
jobsite. This requirement does not apply to the integral fuel tanks of 
motor vehicles.
    (vii) Carbon tetrachloride and other toxic vaporizing liquid fire 
extinguishers are prohibited.
    (viii) Portable fire extinguishers shall be inspected periodically 
and maintained in accordance with Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire 
Extinguishers, NFPA No. 10A-1970.
    (ix) Fire extinguishers which have been listed or approved by a 
nationally recognized testing laboratory, shall be used to meet the 
requirements of this subpart.
    (x) Table F-1 may be used as a guide for selecting the appropriate 
portable fire extinguishers.

[[Page 192]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.012


    (2) Fire hose and connections. (i) One hundred feet, or less, of 
1\1/2\-inch hose, with a nozzle capable of discharging water at 25 
gallons or more per minute, may be substituted for a fire extinguisher 
rated not more than 2A in the designated area provided that the hose 
line can reach all points in the area.
    (ii) If fire hose connections are not compatible with local 
firefighting equipment, the contractor shall provide adapters, or 
equivalent, to permit connections.
    (iii) During demolition involving combustible materials, charged 
hose lines, supplied by hydrants, water tank trucks with pumps, or 
equivalent, shall be made available.
    (d) Fixed firefighting equipment--(1) Sprinkler protection. (i) If 
the facility being constructed includes the installation of automatic 
sprinkler protection, the installation shall closely follow the 
construction and be placed in service as soon as applicable laws permit 
following completion of each story.
    (ii) During demolition or alterations, existing automatic sprinkler 
installations shall be retained in service as long as reasonable. The 
operation of sprinkler control valves shall be permitted only by 
properly authorized persons. Modification of sprinkler systems to permit 
alterations or additional demolition should be expedited so that the 
automatic protection may be returned to service as quickly as possible. 
Sprinkler control valves shall be checked daily at close of work to 
ascertain that the protection is in service.
    (2) Standpipes. In all structures in which standpipes are required, 
or where standpipes exist in structures being altered, they shall be 
brought up as soon as applicable laws permit, and shall be maintained as 
construction progresses in such a manner that they are always ready for 
fire protection use. The standpipes shall be provided with Siamese fire 
department connections on the outside of the structure, at the street 
level, which shall be conspicuously marked. There shall be at least one 
standard hose outlet at each floor.
    (e) Fire alarm devices. (1) An alarm system, e.g., telephone system, 
siren, etc., shall be established by the employer whereby employees on 
the site and the local fire department can be alerted for an emergency.

[[Page 193]]

    (2) The alarm code and reporting instructions shall be conspicuously 
posted at phones and at employee entrances.
    (f) Fire cutoffs. (1) Fire walls and exit stairways, required for 
the completed buildings, shall be given construction priority. Fire 
doors, with automatic closing devices, shall be hung on openings as soon 
as practicable.
    (2) Fire cutoffs shall be retained in buildings undergoing 
alterations or demolition until operations necessitate their removal.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 
FR 35162, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 31432, June 20, 1996]



Sec. 1926.151  Fire prevention.

    (a) Ignition hazards. (1) Electrical wiring and equipment for light, 
heat, or power purposes shall be installed in compliance with the 
requirements of subpart K of this part.
    (2) Internal combustion engine powered equipment shall be so located 
that the exhausts are well away from combustible materials. When the 
exhausts are piped to outside the building under construction, a 
clearance of at least 6 inches shall be maintained between such piping 
and combustible material.
    (3) Smoking shall be prohibited at or in the vicinity of operations 
which constitute a fire hazard, and shall be conspicuously posted: ``No 
Smoking or Open Flame.''
    (4) Portable battery powered lighting equipment, used in connection 
with the storage, handling, or use of flammable gases or liquids, shall 
be of the type approved for the hazardous locations.
    (5) The nozzle of air, inert gas, and steam lines or hoses, when 
used in the cleaning or ventilation of tanks and vessels that contain 
hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors, shall be bonded 
to the tank or vessel shell. Bonding devices shall not be attached or 
detached in hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors.
    (b) Temporary buildings. (1) No temporary building shall be erected 
where it will adversely affect any means of exit.
    (2) Temporary buildings, when located within another building or 
structure, shall be of either noncombustible construction or of 
combustible construction having a fire resistance of not less than 1 
hour.
    (3) Temporary buildings, located other than inside another building 
and not used for the storage, handling, or use of flammable or 
combustible liquids, flammable gases, explosives, or blasting agents, or 
similar hazardous occupancies, shall be located at a distance of not 
less than 10 feet from another building or structure. Groups of 
temporary buildings, not exceeding 2,000 square feet in aggregate, 
shall, for the purposes of this part, be considered a single temporary 
building.
    (c) Open yard storage. (1) Combustible materials shall be piled with 
due regard to the stability of piles and in no case higher than 20 feet.
    (2) Driveways between and around combustible storage piles shall be 
at least 15 feet wide and maintained free from accumulation of rubbish, 
equipment, or other articles or materials. Driveways shall be so spaced 
that a maximum grid system unit of 50 feet by 150 feet is produced.
    (3) The entire storage site shall be kept free from accumulation of 
unnecessary combustible materials. Weeds and grass shall be kept down 
and a regular procedure provided for the periodic cleanup of the entire 
area.
    (4) When there is a danger of an underground fire, that land shall 
not be used for combustible or flammable storage.
    (5) Method of piling shall be solid wherever possible and in orderly 
and regular piles. No combustible material shall be stored outdoors 
within 10 feet of a building or structure.
    (6) Portable fire extinguishing equipment, suitable for the fire 
hazard involved, shall be provided at convenient, conspicuously 
accessible locations in the yard area. Portable fire extinguishers, 
rated not less than 2A, shall be placed so that maximum travel distance 
to the nearest unit shall not exceed 100 feet.
    (d) Indoor storage. (1) Storage shall not obstruct, or adversely 
affect, means of exit.
    (2) All materials shall be stored, handled, and piled with due 
regard to their fire characteristics.

[[Page 194]]

    (3) Noncompatible materials, which may create a fire hazard, shall 
be segregated by a barrier having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour.
    (4) Material shall be piled to minimize the spread of fire 
internally and to permit convenient access for firefighting. Stable 
piling shall be maintained at all times. Aisle space shall be maintained 
to safely accommodate the widest vehicle that may be used within the 
building for firefighting purposes.
    (5) Clearance of at least 36 inches shall be maintained between the 
top level of the stored material and the sprinkler deflectors.
    (6) Clearance shall be maintained around lights and heating units to 
prevent ignition of combustible materials.
    (7) A clearance of 24 inches shall be maintained around the path of 
travel of fire doors unless a barricade is provided, in which case no 
clearance is needed. Material shall not be stored within 36 inches of a 
fire door opening.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 51 
FR 25318, July 11, 1986]



Sec. 1926.152  Flammable and combustible liquids.

    (a) General requirements. (1) Only approved containers and portable 
tanks shall be used for storage and handling of flammable and 
combustible liquids. Approved safety cans or Department of 
Transportation approved containers shall be used for the handling and 
use of flammable liquids in quantities of 5 gallons or less, except that 
this shall not apply to those flammable liquid materials which are 
highly viscid (extremely hard to pour), which may be used and handled in 
original shipping containers. For quantities of one gallon or less, the 
original container may be used, for storage, use and handling of 
flammable liquids.
    (2) Flammable or combustible liquids shall not be stored in areas 
used for exits, stairways, or normally used for the safe passage of 
people.
    (b) Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids. (1) No more 
than 25 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored in a 
room outside of an approved storage cabinet. For storage of liquefied 
petroleum gas, see Sec. 1926.153.
    (2) Quantities of flammable and combustible liquid in excess of 25 
gallons shall be stored in an acceptable or approved cabinet meeting the 
following requirements:
    (i) Acceptable wooden storage cabinets shall be constructed in the 
following manner, or equivalent: The bottom, sides, and top shall be 
constructed of an exterior grade of plywood at least 1 inch in 
thickness, which shall not break down or delaminate under standard fire 
test conditions. All joints shall be rabbeted and shall be fastened in 
two directions with flathead wood screws. When more than one door is 
used, there shall be a rabbeted overlap of not less than 1 inch. Steel 
hinges shall be mounted in such a manner as to not lose their holding 
capacity due to loosening or burning out of the screws when subjected to 
fire. Such cabinets shall be painted inside and out with fire retardant 
paint.
    (ii) Approved metal storage cabinets will be acceptable.
    (iii) Cabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering, 
``Flammable--Keep Fire Away.''
    (3) Not more than 60 gallons of flammable or 120 gallons of 
combustible liquids shall be stored in any one storage cabinet. Not more 
than three such cabinets may be located in a single storage area. 
Quantities in excess of this shall be stored in an inside storage room.
    (4)(i) Inside storage rooms shall be constructed to meet the 
required fire-resistive rating for their use. Such construction shall 
comply with the test specifications set forth in Standard Methods of 
Fire Test of Building Construction and Material, NFPA 251-1969.
    (ii) Where an automatic extinguishing system is provided, the system 
shall be designed and installed in an approved manner. Openings to other 
rooms or buildings shall be provided with noncombustible liquid-tight 
raised sills or ramps at least 4 inches in height, or the floor in the 
storage area shall be at least 4 inches below the surrounding floor. 
Openings shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doors. The 
room shall be liquid-tight where the walls join the floor. A permissible 
alternate to the sill or ramp is an open-grated trench, inside of the

[[Page 195]]

room, which drains to a safe location. Where other portions of the 
building or other buildings are exposed, windows shall be protected as 
set forth in the Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA No. 80-1970, 
for Class E or F openings. Wood of at least 1-inch nominal thickness may 
be used for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay, and 
similar installations.
    (iii) Materials which will react with water and create a fire hazard 
shall not be stored in the same room with flammable or combustible 
liquids.
    (iv) Storage in inside storage rooms shall comply with Table F-2 
following:

                                                    Table F-2                                                   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                         Total  
                                                                                                       allowable
                                                                                                      quantities
         Fire protection provided                 Fire resistance                Maximum size          gals./sq.
                                                                                                       ft./floor
                                                                                                         area   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yes......................................  2 hrs.......................  500 sq. ft.................          10
No.......................................  2 hrs.......................  500 sq. ft.................           4
Yes......................................  1 hr........................  150 sq. ft.................           5
No.......................................  1 hr........................  150 sq. ft.................           2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Fire protection system shall be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide or other system approved by a      
  nationally recognized testing laboratory for this purpose.                                                    

    (v) Electrical wiring and equipment located in inside storage rooms 
shall be approved for Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. For 
definition of Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations, see 
Sec. 1926.449.
    (vi) Every inside storage room shall be provided with either a 
gravity or a mechanical exhausting system. Such system shall commence 
not more than 12 inches above the floor and be designed to provide for a 
complete change of air within the room at least 6 times per hour. If a 
mechanical exhausting system is used, it shall be controlled by a switch 
located outside of the door. The ventilating equipment and any lighting 
fixtures shall be operated by the same switch. An electric pilot light 
shall be installed adjacent to the switch if flammable liquids are 
dispensed within the room. Where gravity ventilation is provided, the 
fresh air intake, as well as the exhausting outlet from the room, shall 
be on the exterior of the building in which the room is located.
    (vii) In every inside storage room there shall be maintained one 
clear aisle at least 3 feet wide. Containers over 30 gallons capacity 
shall not be stacked one upon the other.
    (viii) Flammable and combustible liquids in excess of that permitted 
in inside storage rooms shall be stored outside of buildings in 
accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
    (5) Quantity. The quantity of flammable or combustible liquids kept 
in the vicinity of spraying operations shall be the minimum required for 
operations and should ordinarily not exceed a supply for 1 day or one 
shift. Bulk storage of portable containers of flammable or combustible 
liquids shall be in a separate, constructed building detached from other 
important buildings or cut off in a standard manner.
    (c) Storage outside buildings. (1) Storage of containers (not more 
than 60 gallons each) shall not exceed 1,100 gallons in any one pile or 
area. Piles or groups of containers shall be separated by a 5-foot 
clearance. Piles or groups of containers shall not be nearer than 20 
feet to a building.
    (2) Within 200 feet of each pile of containers, there shall be a 12-
foot-wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
    (3) The storage area shall be graded in a manner to divert possible 
spills away from buildings or other exposures, or shall be surrounded by 
a curb or earth dike at least 12 inches high. When curbs or dikes are 
used, provisions shall be made for draining off accumulations of ground 
or rain water, or spills of flammable or combustible liquids. Drains 
shall terminate at a safe location and shall be accessible to operation 
under fire conditions.
    (4) Outdoor portable tank storage: (i) Portable tanks shall not be 
nearer than 20 feet from any building. Two or more portable tanks, 
grouped together, having a combined capacity in excess of 2,200 gallons, 
shall be separated by a 5-foot-clear area. Individual portable tanks 
exceeding 1,100 gallons shall be separated by a 5-foot-clear area.
    (ii) Within 200 feet of each portable tank, there shall be a 12-
foot-wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
    (5) Storage areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, and other 
combustible material not necessary to the storage.

[[Page 196]]

    (6) Portable tanks, not exceeding 660 gallons, shall be provided 
with emergency venting and other devices, as required by chapters III 
and IV of NFPA 30-1969, The Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
    (7) Portable tanks, in excess of 660 gallons, shall have emergency 
venting and other devices, as required by chapters II and III of The 
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, NFPA 30-1969.
    (d) Fire control for flammable or combustible liquid storage. (1) At 
least one portable fire extinguisher, having a rating of not less than 
20-B units, shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet from, 
the door opening into any room used for storage of more than 60 gallons 
of flammable or combustible liquids.
    (2) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not 
less than 20-B units shall be located not less than 25 feet, nor more 
than 75 feet, from any flammable liquid storage area located outside.
    (3) When sprinklers are provided, they shall be installed in 
accordance with the Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 
NFPA 13-1969.
    (4) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not 
less than 20-B:C units shall be provided on all tank trucks or other 
vehicles used for transporting and/or dispensing flammable or 
combustible liquids.
    (e) Dispensing liquids. (1) Areas in which flammable or combustible 
liquids are transferred at one time, in quantities greater than 5 
gallons from one tank or container to another tank or container, shall 
be separated from other operations by 25-feet distance or by 
construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour. Drainage or 
other means shall be provided to control spills. Adequate natural or 
mechanical ventilation shall be provided to maintain the concentration 
of flammable vapor at or below 10 percent of the lower flammable limit.
    (2) Transfer of flammable liquids from one container to another 
shall be done only when containers are electrically interconnected 
(bonded).
    (3) Flammable or combustible liquids shall be drawn from or 
transferred into vessels, containers, or tanks within a building or 
outside only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means 
of a device drawing through the top, or from a container, or portable 
tanks, by gravity or pump, through an approved self-closing valve. 
Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks 
is prohibited.
    (4) The dispensing units shall be protected against collision 
damage.
    (5) Dispensing devices and nozzles for flammable liquids shall be of 
an approved type.
    (f) Handling liquids at point of final use. (1) Flammable liquids 
shall be kept in closed containers when not actually in use.
    (2) Leakage or spillage of flammable or combustible liquids shall be 
disposed of promptly and safely.
    (3) Flammable liquids may be used only where there are no open 
flames or other sources of ignition within 50 feet of the operation, 
unless conditions warrant greater clearance.
    (g) Service and refueling areas. (1) Flammable or combustible 
liquids shall be stored in approved closed containers, in tanks located 
underground, or in aboveground portable tanks.
    (2) The tank trucks shall comply with the requirements covered in 
the Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 
NFPA No. 385-1966.
    (3) The dispensing hose shall be an approved type.
    (4) The dispensing nozzle shall be an approved automatic-closing 
type without a latch-open device.
    (5) Underground tanks shall not be abandoned.
    (6) Clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) shall be 
provided at a location remote from dispensing devices to shut off the 
power to all dispensing devices in the event of an emergency.
    (7)(i) Heating equipment of an approved type may be installed in the 
lubrication or service area where there is no dispensing or transferring 
of flammable liquids, provided the bottom of the heating unit is at 
least 18 inches above the floor and is protected from physical damage.
    (ii) Heating equipment installed in lubrication or service areas, 
where

[[Page 197]]

flammable liquids are dispensed, shall be of an approved type for 
garages, and shall be installed at least 8 feet above the floor.
    (8) There shall be no smoking or open flames in the areas used for 
fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, 
receiving or dispensing of flammable or combustible liquids.
    (9) Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be 
posted.
    (10) The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off 
during the fueling operation.
    (11) Each service or fueling area shall be provided with at least 
one fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C located so 
that an extinguisher will be within 75 feet of each pump, dispenser, 
underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service area.
    (h) Scope. This section applies to the handling, storage, and use of 
flammable and combustible liquids with a flashpoint below 200 deg.F 
(93.33 deg.C). This section does not apply to:
    (1) Bulk transportation of flammable and combustible liquids; and
    (2) Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers 
connected with oil burning equipment.
    (i) Tank storage--(1) Design and construction of tanks--(i) 
Materials. (A) Tanks shall be built of steel except as provided in 
paragraphs (i)(1)(i) (B) through (E) of this section.
    (B) Tanks may be built of materials other than steel for 
installation underground or if required by the properties of the liquid 
stored. Tanks located above ground or inside buildings shall be of 
noncombustible construction.
    (C) Tanks built of materials other than steel shall be designed to 
specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering 
design for the material used.
    (D) Unlined concrete tanks may be used for storing flammable or 
combustible liquids having a gravity of 40 deg.API or heavier. Concrete 
tanks with special lining may be used for other services provided the 
design is in accordance with sound engineering practice.
    (E) [Reserved]
    (F) Special engineering consideration shall be required if the 
specific gravity of the liquid to be stored exceeds that of water or if 
the tanks are designed to contain flammable or combustible liquids at a 
liquid temperature below 0 deg.F.
    (ii) Fabrication. (A) [Reserved]
    (B) Metal tanks shall be welded, riveted, and caulked, brazed, or 
bolted, or constructed by use of a combination of these methods. Filler 
metal used in brazing shall be nonferrous metal or an alloy having a 
melting point above 1000 deg.F. and below that of the metal joined.
    (iii) Atmospheric tanks. (A) Atmospheric tanks shall be built in 
accordance with acceptable good standards of design. Atmospheric tanks 
may be built in accordance with:
    (1) Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., Subjects No. 142, Standard for 
Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1968; No. 
58, Standard for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible 
Liquids, Fifth Edition, December 1961; or No. 80, Standard for Steel 
Inside Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel, September 1963.
    (2) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12A, Specification 
for Oil Storage Tanks with Riveted Shells, Seventh Edition, September 
1951, or No. 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, Third Edition, 
1966.
    (3) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12B, Specification 
for Bolted Production Tanks, Eleventh Edition, May 1958, and Supplement 
1, March 1962; No. 12D, Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, 
Seventh Edition, August 1957; or No. 12F, Specification for Small Welded 
Production Tanks, Fifth Edition, March 1961. Tanks built in accordance 
with these standards shall be used only as production tanks for storage 
of crude petroleum in oil-producing areas.
    (B) Tanks designed for underground service not exceeding 2,500 
gallons (9,462.5 L) capacity may be used aboveground.
    (C) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels may be used as 
atmospheric tanks.
    (D) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a 
flammable or combustible liquid at a temperature at or above its boiling 
point.
    (iv) Low pressure tanks. (A) The normal operating pressure of the 
tank

[[Page 198]]

shall not exceed the design pressure of the tank.
    (B) Low-pressure tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable 
standards of design. Low-pressure tanks may be built in accordance with:
    (1) American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 620. Recommended Rules 
for the Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage 
Tanks, Third Edition, 1966.
    (2) The principles of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section 
VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 1968.
    (C) Atmospheric tanks built according to Underwriters' Laboratories, 
Inc., requirements in paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A) of this section and shall 
be limited to 2.5 p.s.i.g. under emergency venting conditions.

This paragraph may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 
p.s.i.g.
    (D) Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks.
    (v) Pressure vessels. (A) The normal operating pressure of the 
vessel shall not exceed the design pressure of the vessel.
    (B) Pressure vessels shall be built in accordance with the Code for 
Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code 1968.
    (vi) Provisions for internal corrosion. When tanks are not designed 
in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute, American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.'s, 
standards, or if corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in 
the design formulas used, additional metal thickness or suitable 
protective coatings or linings shall be provided to compensate for the 
corrosion loss expected during the design life of the tank.
    (2) Installation of outside aboveground tanks. (i) [Reserved]
    (ii) Spacing (shell-to-shell) between aboveground tanks. (A) The 
distance between any two flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks 
shall not be less than 3 feet (0.912 m).
    (B) Except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, 
the distance between any two adjacent tanks shall not be less than one-
sixth the sum of their diameters. When the diameter of one tank is less 
than one-half the diameter of the adjacent tank, the distance between 
the two tanks shall not be less than one-half the diameter of the 
smaller tank.
    (C) Where crude petroleum in conjunction with production facilities 
are located in noncongested areas and have capacities not exceeding 
126,000 gallons (3,000 barrels), the distance between such tanks shall 
not be less than 3 feet (0.912 m).
    (D) Where unstable flammable or combustible liquids are stored, the 
distance between such tanks shall not be less than one-half the sum of 
their diameters.
    (E) When tanks are compacted in three or more rows or in an 
irregular pattern, greater spacing or other means shall be provided so 
that inside tanks are accessible for firefighting purposes.
    (F) The minimum separation between a liquefied petroleum gas 
container and a flammable or combustible liquid storage tank shall be 20 
feet (6.08 m), except in the case of flammable or combustible liquid 
tanks operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. or equipped with 
emergency venting which will permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. in 
which case the provisions of paragraphs (i)(2)(ii) (A) and (B) of this 
section shall apply. Suitable means shall be taken to prevent the 
accumulation of flammable or combustible liquids under adjacent 
liquefied petroleum gas containers such as by diversion curbs or 
grading. When flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks are within a 
diked area, the liquefied petroleum gas containers shall be outside the 
diked area and at least 10 feet (3.04 m) away from the centerline of the 
wall of the diked area. The foregoing provisions shall not apply when 
liquefied petroleum gas containers of 125 gallons (473.125 L) or less 
capacity are installed adjacent to fuel oil supply tanks of 550 gallons 
(2,081.75 L) or less capacity.
    (iii) [Reserved]
    (iv) Normal venting for aboveground tanks. (A) Atmospheric storage 
tanks shall be adequately vented to prevent the development of vacuum or 
pressure sufficient to distort the roof of a cone

[[Page 199]]

roof tank or exceeding the design pressure in the case of other 
atmospheric tanks, as a result of filling or emptying, and atmospheric 
temperature changes.
    (B) Normal vents shall be sized either in accordance with: (1) The 
American Petroleum Institute Standard 2000 (1968), Venting Atmospheric 
and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks; or (2) other accepted standard; or (3) 
shall be at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, 
whichever is larger but in no case less than 1\1/4\ inch (3.175 cm) 
nominal inside diameter.
    (C) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels shall be adequately 
vented to prevent development of pressure or vacuum, as a result of 
filling or emptying and atmospheric temperature changes, from exceeding 
the design pressure of the tank or vessel. Protection shall also be 
provided to prevent overpressure from any pump discharging into the tank 
or vessel when the pump discharge pressure can exceed the design 
pressure of the tank or vessel.
    (D) If any tank or pressure vessel has more than one fill or 
withdrawal connection and simultaneous filling or withdrawal can be 
made, the vent size shall be based on the maximum anticipated 
simultaneous flow.
    (E) Unless the vent is designed to limit the internal pressure 2.5 
p.s.i. or less, the outlet of vents and vent drains shall be arranged to 
discharge in such a manner as to prevent localized overheating of any 
part of the tank in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.
    (F) Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IA liquids shall be 
equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when 
venting to pressure or vacuum conditions. Tanks and pressure vessels 
storing Class IB and IC liquids shall be equipped with venting devices 
which shall be normally closed except when venting under pressure or 
vacuum conditions, or with approved flame arresters.
    Exemption: Tanks of 3,000 bbls. (84 m\3\) capacity or less 
containing crude petroleum in crude-producing areas; and, outside 
aboveground atmospheric tanks under 1,000 gallons (3,785 L) capacity 
containing other than Class IA flammable liquids may have open vents. 
(See paragraph (i)(2)(vi)(B) of this section.)
    (G) Flame arresters or venting devices required in paragraph 
(i)(2)(iv)(F) of this section may be omitted for Class IB and IC liquids 
where conditions are such that their use may, in case of obstruction, 
result in tank damage.
    (v) Emergency relief venting for fire exposure for aboveground 
tanks. (A) Every aboveground storage tank shall have some form of 
construction or device that will relieve excessive internal pressure 
caused by exposure fires.
    (B) In a vertical tank the construction referred to in paragraph 
(i)(2)(v)(A) of this section may take the form of a floating roof, 
lifter roof, a weak roof-to-shell seam, or other approved pressure 
relieving construction. The weak roof-to-shell seam shall be constructed 
to fail preferential to any other seam.
    (C) Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon 
pressure relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal 
and emergency vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or 
bottom of the tank if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. 
If unstable liquids are stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting 
from polymerization, decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity 
shall be taken into account. The total capacity of both normal and 
emergency venting devices shall be not less than that derived from Table 
F-10 except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(v) (E) or (F) of this 
section. Such device may be a self-closing manhole cover, or one using 
long bolts that permit the cover to lift under internal pressure, or an 
additional or larger relief valve or valves. The wetted area of the tank 
shall be calculated on the basis of 55 percent of the total exposed area 
of a sphere or spheroid, 75 percent of the total exposed area of a 
horizontal tank and the first 30 feet (9.12 m) above grade of the 
exposed shell area of a vertical tank.

[[Page 200]]



  Table F-10--Wetted Area Versus Cubic Feet (Meters) Free Air Per Hour  
                     [14.7 psia and 60 F. (15.55 C)]                    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Square                  Square              
Square feet  CFH (m\3\H)     feet         CFH        feet         CFH   
   (m\2\)                   (m\2\)      (m\3\H)     (m\2\)      (m\3\H) 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
20 (1.84)..      21,100                                                 
                (590.8)   200 (18.4)     211,000                        
                                         (5,908)       1,000            
                                                      (90.2)     524,000
                                                                (14,672)
30 (2.76)..      31,600                                                 
                (884.8)     250 (23)     239,000                        
                                         (6,692)       1,200            
                                                     (110.4)     557,000
                                                                (15,596)
40 (3.68)..      42,100                                                 
              (1,178.8)   300 (27.6)     265,000                        
                                         (7,420)       1,400            
                                                     (128.8)     587,000
                                                                (16,436)
50 (4.6)...      52,700                                                 
              (1,475.6)   350 (32.2)     288,000                        
                                         (8,064)       1,600            
                                                     (147.2)     614,000
                                                                (17,192)
60 (5.52)..      63,200                                                 
              (1,769.6)   400 (36.8)     312,000                        
                                         (8,736)       1,800            
                                                     (165.6)     639,000
                                                                (17,892)
70 (6.44)..      73,700                                                 
              (2,063.6)     500 (46)     354,000                        
                                         (9,912)       2,000            
                                                     (180.4)     662,000
                                                                (18,536)
80 (7.36)..      84,200                                                 
              (2,357.6)   600 (55.2)     392,000                        
                                        (10,976)       2,400            
                                                     (220.8)     704,000
                                                                (19,712)
90 (8.28)..      94,800                                                 
              (2,654.4)   700 (64.4)     428,000                        
                                        (11,984)       2,800            
                                                     (257.6)     742,000
                                                                (20,776)
100 (9.2)..     105,000                                                 
                (2,940)   800 (73.6)     462,000                        
                                        (12,936)         and            
120 (11.04)     126,000                                                 
                (3,528)   900 (82.8)     493,000                        
                                        (13,804)        over            
140 (12.88)     147,000                                                 
                (4,116)        1,000                                    
                              (90.2)     524,000                        
                                        (14,672)                        
160 (14.72)     168,000                                                 
                (4,704)                                                 
180 (16.56)     190,000                                                 
                (5,320)                                                 
200 (18.4).     211,000                                                 
                (5,908)                                                 
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (D) For tanks and storage vessels designed for pressure over 1 
p.s.i.g., the total rate of venting shall be determined in accordance 
with Table F-10, except that when the exposed wetted area of the surface 
is greater than 2,800 square feet (257.6 m\2\), the total rate of 
venting shall be calculated by the following formula:


CFH=1,107A 0.82

Where:

    CFH=Venting requirement, in cubic feet (meters) of free air per 
hour.
    A=Exposed wetted surface, in square feet (m\2\).

    Note: The foregoing formula is based on Q=21,000A 0.82.

    (E) The total emergency relief venting capacity for any specific 
stable liquid may be determined by the following formula:


V=1337L  M

    V=Cubic feet (meters) of free air per hour from Table F-10.
    L=Latent heat of vaporization of specific liquid in B.t.u. per 
pound.
    M=Molecular weight of specific liquids.

    (F) The required airflow rate of paragraph (i)(2)(v) (C) or (E) of 
this section may be multiplied by the appropriate factor listed in the 
following schedule when protection is provided as indicated. Only one 
factor may be used for any one tank.

    0.5 for drainage in accordance with paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this 
section for tanks over 200 square feet (18.4 m\2\) of wetted area.
    0.3 for approved water spray.
    0.3 for approved insulation.
    0.15 for approved water spray with approved insulation.

    (G) The outlet of all vents and vent drains on tanks equipped with 
emergency venting to permit pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. shall be 
arranged to discharge in such a way as to prevent localized overheating 
of any part of the tank, in the event vapors from such vents are 
ignited.
    (H) Each commercial tank venting device shall have stamped on it the 
opening pressure, the pressure at which the valve reaches the full open 
position, and the flow capacity at the latter pressure, expressed in 
cubic feet (meters) per hour of air at 60 deg.F. (15.55 deg.C) and at a 
pressure of 14.7 p.s.i.a.
    (I) The flow capacity of tank venting devices 12 inches (30.48 cm) 
and smaller in nominal pipe size shall be determined by actual test of 
each type and size of vent. These flow tests may be conducted by the 
manufacturer if certified by a qualified impartial observer, or may be 
conducted by an outside agency. The flow capacity of tank venting 
devices larger than 12 inches (30.48 cm) nominal pipe size, including 
manhole covers with long bolts or equivalent, may be calculated provided 
that the opening pressure is actually measured, the rating pressure and 
corresponding free orifice area are stated, the word ``calculated'' 
appears on the nameplate, and the computation is based on a flow 
coefficient of 0.5 applied to the rated orifice area.
    (vi) Vent piping for aboveground tanks. (A) Vent piping shall be 
constructed in

[[Page 201]]

accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
    (B) Where vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Class I liquids are 
adjacent to buildings or public ways, they shall be located so that the 
vapors are released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less 
than 12 feet (3.648 m) above the adjacent ground level. In order to aid 
their dispersion, vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away 
from closely adjacent walls. Vent outlets shall be located so that 
flammable vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and 
shall be at least 5 feet (1.52 m) from building openings.
    (C) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as 
to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors 
they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are subject to the 
same fire exposure.
    (vii) Drainage, dikes, and walls for aboveground tanks--(A) Drainage 
and diked areas. The area surrounding a tank or a group of tanks shall 
be provided with drainage as in paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this 
section, or shall be diked as provided in (i)(2)(vii)(C) of this 
section, to prevent accidental discharge of liquid from endangering 
adjoining property or reaching waterways.
    (B) Drainage. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is 
by means of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall 
comply with the following:
    (1) [Reserved]
    (2) The drainage system shall terminate in vacant land or other area 
or in an impounding basin having a capacity not smaller than that of the 
largest tank served. This termination area and the route of the drainage 
system shall be so located that, if the flammable or combustible liquids 
in the drainage system are ignited, the fire will not seriously expose 
tanks or adjoining property.
    (C) Diked areas. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways 
is accomplished by retaining the liquid around the tank by means of a 
dike, the volume of the diked area shall comply with the following 
requirements:
    (1) Except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(C)(2) of this 
section, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less 
than the greatest amount of liquid that can be released from the largest 
tank within the diked area, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the 
diked area enclosing more than one tank shall be calculated by deducting 
the volume of the tanks other than the largest tank below the height of 
the dike.
    (2) For a tank or group of tanks with fixed roofs containing crude 
petroleum with boilover characteristics, the volumetric capacity of the 
diked area shall be not less than the capacity of the largest tank 
served by the enclosure, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked 
enclosure shall be calculated by deducting the volume below the height 
of the dike of all tanks within the enclosure.
    (3) Walls of the diked area shall be of earth, steel, concrete or 
solid masonry designed to be liquidtight and to withstand a full 
hydrostatic head. Earthen walls 3 feet (0.912 m) or more in height shall 
have a flat section at the top not less than 2 feet (0.608 m) wide. The 
slope of an earthen wall shall be consistent with the angle of repose of 
the material of which the wall is constructed.
    (4) The walls of the diked area shall be restricted to an average 
height of 6 feet (1.824 m) above interior grade.
    (5) [Reserved]
    (6) No loose combustible material, empty or full drum or barrel, 
shall be permitted within the diked area.
    (viii) Tank openings other than vents for aboveground tanks.
    (A)-(C) [Reserved]
    (D) Openings for gaging shall be provided with a vaportight cap or 
cover.
    (E) For Class IB and Class IC liquids other than crude oils, 
gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and 
installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static 
electricity. A fill pipe entering the top of a tank shall terminate 
within 6 inches (15.24 cm) of the bottom of the tank and shall be 
installed to avoid excessive vibration.
    (F) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall 
be located outside of buildings at a location

[[Page 202]]

free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1.52 m) away 
from any building opening. Such connection shall be closed and 
liquidtight when not in use. The connection shall be properly 
identified.
    (3) Installation of underground tanks--(i) Location. Excavation for 
underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid 
undermining of foundations of existing structures. Underground tanks or 
tanks under buildings shall be so located with respect to existing 
building foundations and supports that the loads carried by the latter 
cannot be transmitted to the tank. The distance from any part of a tank 
storing Class I liquids to the nearest wall of any basement or pit shall 
be not less than 1 foot (0.304 m), and to any property line that may be 
built upon, not less than 3 feet (0.912 m). The distance from any part 
of a tank storing Class II or Class III liquids to the nearest wall of 
any basement, pit or property line shall be not less than 1 foot (0.304 
m).
    (ii) Depth and cover. Underground tanks shall be set on firm 
foundations and surrounded with at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) of 
noncorrosive, inert materials such as clean sand, earth, or gravel well 
tamped in place. The tank shall be placed in the hole with care since 
dropping or rolling the tank into the hole can break a weld, puncture or 
damage the tank, or scrape off the protective coating of coated tanks. 
Tanks shall be covered with a minimum of 2 feet (0.608 m) of earth, or 
shall be covered with not less than 1 foot (0.304 m) of earth, on top of 
which shall be placed a slab of reinforced concrete not less than 4 
inches (10.16 cm) thick. When underground tanks are, or are likely to 
be, subject to traffic, they shall be protected against damage from 
vehicles passing over them by at least 3 feet (0.912 m) of earth cover, 
or 18 inches (45.72 cm) of well-tamped earth, plus 6 inches (15.24 cm) 
of reinforced concrete or 8 inches (20.32 cm) of asphaltic concrete. 
When asphaltic or reinforced concrete paving is used as part of the 
protection, it shall extend at least 1 foot (0.304 m) horizontally 
beyond the outline of the tank in all directions.
    (iii) Corrosion protection. Corrosion protection for the tank and 
its piping shall be provided by one or more of the following methods:
    (A) Use of protective coatings or wrappings;
    (B) Cathodic protection; or,
    (C) Corrosion resistant materials of construction.
    (iv) Vents. (A) Location and arrangement of vents for Class I 
liquids. Vent pipes from tanks storing Class I liquids shall be so 
located that the discharge point is outside of buildings, higher than 
the fill pipe opening, and not less than 12 feet (3.648 m) above the 
adjacent ground level. Vent pipes shall discharge only upward in order 
to disperse vapors. Vent pipes 2 inches (5.08 cm) or less in nominal 
inside diameter shall not be obstructed by devices that will cause 
excessive back pressure. Vent pipe outlets shall be so located that 
flammable vapors will not enter building openings, or be trapped under 
eaves or other obstructions. If the vent pipe is less than 10 feet (3.04 
m) in length, or greater than 2 inches (5.08 cm) in nominal inside 
diameter, the outlet shall be provided with a vacuum and pressure relief 
device or there shall be an approved flame arrester located in the vent 
line at the outlet or within the approved distance from the outlet.
    (B) Size of vents. Each tank shall be vented through piping adequate 
in size to prevent blow-back of vapor or liquid at the fill opening 
while the tank is being filled. Vent pipes shall be not less than 1\1/4\ 
inch (3.175 cm) nominal inside diameter.
      

                                         Table F-11--Vent Line Diameters                                        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                             Pipe length \1\                    
                  Maximum flow GPM (L)                  --------------------------------------------------------
                                                          50 feet (15.2 m)  100 feet (30.4 m)  200 feet (60.8 m)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Inches  (cm)       Inches  (cm)       Inches  (cm)
                                                                                                                
100 (378.5)............................................    1\1/4\  (3.175)    1\1/4\  (3.175)    1\1/4\  (3.175)
200 (757)..............................................    1\1/4\  (3.175)    1\1/4\  (3.175)    1\1/4\  (3.175)
300 (1,135.5)..........................................    1\1/4\  (3.175)    1\1/4\  (3.175)     1\1/2\  (3.81)

[[Page 203]]

                                                                                                                
400 (1,514)............................................    1\1/4\  (3.175)     1\1/2\  (3.81)        2  (5.08)  
500 (1,892.5)..........................................     1\1/2\  (3.81)     1\1/2\  (3.81)        2  (5.08)  
600 (2,271)............................................     1\1/2\  (3.81)         2 (5.08)           2 (5.08)  
700 (2,649.5)..........................................         2 (5.08)           2 (5.08)           2 (5.08)  
800 (3,028)............................................         2 (5.08)           2 (5.08)           3 (7.62)  
900 (3,406.5)..........................................         2 (5.08)           2 (5.08)           3 (7.62)  
1,000 (3,785)..........................................         2 (5.08)           2 (5.08)           3 (7.62)  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Vent lines of 50 ft. (15.2 m), 100 ft. (30.4 m), and 200 ft. (60.8 m) of pipe plus 7 ells.                  
                                                                                                                

    (C) Location and arrangement of vents for Class II or Class III 
liquids. Vent pipes from tanks storing Class II or Class III flammable 
liquids shall terminate outside of the building and higher than the fill 
pipe opening. Vent outlets shall be above normal snow level. They may be 
fitted with return bends, coarse screens or other devices to minimize 
ingress of foreign material.
    (D) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph 
(3)(iv)(C) of this section. Vent pipes shall be so laid as to drain 
toward the tank without sags or traps in which liquid can collect. They 
shall be located so that they will not be subjected to physical damage. 
The tank end of the vent pipe shall enter the tank through the top.
    (E) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as 
to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors 
they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are filled 
simultaneously.
    (v) Tank openings other than vents. (A) Connections for all tank 
openings shall be vapor or liquid tight.
    (B) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe, 
shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. If inside a 
building, each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow 
and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or 
other approved device.
    (C) Fill and discharge lines shall enter tanks only through the top. 
Fill lines shall be sloped toward the tank.
    (D) For Class IB and Class IC liquids other than crude oils, 
gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and 
installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static 
electricity by terminating within 6 inches (15.24 cm) of the bottom of 
the tank.
    (E) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall 
be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of 
ignition and not less than 5 feet (1.52 m) away from any building 
opening. Such connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in 
use. The connection shall be properly identified.
    (4) Installation of tanks inside of buildings--(i) Location. Tanks 
shall not be permitted inside of buildings except as provided in 
paragraphs (e), (g), (h), or (i) of this section.
    (ii) Vents. Vents for tanks inside of buildings shall be as provided 
in paragraphs (i)(2) (iv), (v), (vi)(B), and (3)(iv) of this section, 
except that emergency venting by the use of weak roof seams on tanks 
shall not be permitted. Vents shall discharge vapors outside the 
buildings.
    (iii) Vent piping. Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance 
with paragraph (c) of this section.
    (iv) Tank openings other than vents. (A) Connections for all tank 
openings shall be vapor or liquidtight. Vents are covered in paragraph 
(i)(4)(ii) of this section.
    (B) Each connection to a tank inside of buildings through which 
liquid can normally flow shall be provided with an internal or an 
external valve located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. 
Such valves, when external, and their connections to the tank shall be 
of steel except when the chemical characteristics of the liquid stored 
are incompatible with steel. When materials other than steel are 
necessary, they shall be suitable for the pressures, structural 
stresses, and temperatures involved, including fire exposures.

[[Page 204]]

    (C) Flammable or combustible liquid tanks located inside of 
buildings, except in one-story buildings designed and protected for 
flammable or combustible liquid storage, shall be provided with an 
automatic-closing heat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection 
below the liquid level, except for connections used for emergency 
disposal, to prevent continued flow in the event of fire in the vicinity 
of the tank. This function may be incorporated in the valve required in 
paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(B) of this section, and if a separate valve, shall 
be located adjacent to the valve required in paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(B) of 
this section.
    (D) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe (see 
paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(F) of this section), shall be provided with a 
vaportight cap or cover. Each such opening shall be protected against 
liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded 
check valve or other approved device.
    (E) For Class IB and Class IC liquids other than crude oils, 
gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and 
installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static 
electricity by terminating within 6 inches (15.24 cm) of the bottom of 
the tank.
    (F) The fill pipe inside of the tank shall be installed to avoid 
excessive vibration of the pipe.
    (G) The inlet of the fill pipe shall be located outside of buildings 
at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet 
(1.52 m) away from any building opening. The inlet of the fill pipe 
shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The fill connection 
shall be properly identified.
    (H) Tanks inside buildings shall be equipped with a device, or other 
means shall be provided, to prevent overflow into the building.
    (5) Supports, foundations, and anchorage for all tank locations--(i) 
General. Tank supports shall be installed on firm foundations. Tank 
supports shall be of concrete, masonry, or protected steel. Single wood 
timber supports (not cribbing) laid horizontally may be used for outside 
aboveground tanks if not more than 12 inches (30.48 cm) high at their 
lowest point.
    (ii) Fire resistance. Steel supports or exposed piling shall be 
protected by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 
2 hours, except that steel saddles need not be protected if less than 12 
inches (30.48 cm) high at their lowest point. Water spray protection or 
its equivalent may be used in lieu of fire-resistive materials to 
protect supports.
    (iii) Spheres. The design of the supporting structure for tanks such 
as spheres shall receive special engineering consideration.
    (iv) Load distribution. Every tank shall be so supported as to 
prevent the excessive concentration of loads on the supporting portion 
of the shell.
    (v) Foundations. Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations 
made of concrete, masonry, piling, or steel. Tank foundations shall be 
designed to minimize the possibility of uneven settling of the tank and 
to minimize corrosion in any part of the tank resting on the foundation.
    (vi) Flood areas. Where a tank is located in an area that may be 
subjected to flooding, the applicable precautions outlined in this 
subdivision shall be observed.
    (A) No aboveground vertical storage tank containing a flammable or 
combustible liquid shall be located so that the allowable liquid level 
within the tank is below the established maximum flood stage, unless the 
tank is provided with a guiding structure such as described in 
paragraphs (i)(5)(vi) (M), (N), and (O) of this section.
    (B) Independent water supply facilities shall be provided at 
locations where there is no ample and dependable public water supply 
available for loading partially empty tanks with water.
    (C) In addition to the preceding requirements, each tank so located 
that more than 70 percent, but less than 100 percent, of its allowable 
liquid storage capacity will be submerged at the established maximum 
flood stage, shall be safeguarded by one of the following methods: Tank 
shall be raised, or its height shall be increased, until its top extends 
above the maximum flood stage a distance equivalent to 30 percent or 
more of its allowable liquid storage capacity: Provided, however, That 
the submerged part of the tank

[[Page 205]]

shall not exceed two and one-half times the diameter. Or, as an 
alternative to the foregoing, adequate noncombustible structural guides, 
designed to permit the tank to float vertically without loss of product, 
shall be provided.
    (D) Each horizontal tank so located that more than 70 percent of its 
storage capacity will be submerged at the established flood stage, shall 
be anchored, attached to a foundation of concrete or of steel and 
concrete, of sufficient weight to provide adequate load for the tank 
when filled with flammable or combustible liquid and submerged by flood 
waters to the established flood stage, or adequately secured by other 
means.
    (E) [Reserved]
    (F) At locations where there is no ample and dependable water 
supply, or where filling of underground tanks with liquids is 
impracticable because of the character of their contents, their use, or 
for other reasons, each tank shall be safeguarded against movement when 
empty and submerged by high ground water or flood waters by anchoring, 
weighting with concrete or other approved solid loading material, or 
securing by other means. Each such tank shall be so constructed and 
installed that it will safely resist external pressures due to high 
ground water or flood waters.
    (G) At locations where there is an ample and dependable water supply 
available, underground tanks containing flammable or combustible 
liquids, so installed that more than 70 percent of their storage 
capacity will be submerged at the maximum flood stage, shall be so 
anchored, weighted, or secured by other means, as to prevent movement of 
such tanks when filled with flammable or combustible liquids, and 
submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage.
    (H) Pipe connections below the allowable liquid level in a tank 
shall be provided with valves or cocks located as closely as practicable 
to the tank shell. Such valves and their connections to tanks shall be 
of steel or other material suitable for use with the liquid being 
stored. Cast iron shall not be permitted.
    (I) At locations where an independent water supply is required, it 
shall be entirely independent of public power and water supply. 
Independent source of water shall be available when flood waters reach a 
level not less than 10 feet (3.04 m) below the bottom of the lowest tank 
on a property.
    (J) The self-contained power and pumping unit shall be so located or 
so designed that pumping into tanks may be carried on continuously 
throughout the rise in flood waters from a level 10 feet (3.04 m) below 
the lowest tank to the level of the potential flood stage.
    (K) Capacity of the pumping unit shall be such that the rate of rise 
of water in all tanks shall be equivalent to the established potential 
average rate of rise of flood waters at any stage.
    (L) Each independent pumping unit shall be tested periodically to 
insure that it is in satisfactory operating condition.
    (M) Structural guides for holding floating tanks above their 
foundations shall be so designed that there will be no resistance to the 
free rise of a tank, and shall be constructed of noncombustible 
material.
    (N) The strength of the structure shall be adequate to resist 
lateral movement of a tank subject to a horizontal force in any 
direction equivalent to not less than 25 pounds per square foot (1.05 kg 
m\2\) acting on the projected vertical cross-sectional area of the tank.
    (O) Where tanks are situated on exposed points or bends in a 
shoreline where swift currents in flood waters will be present, the 
structures shall be designed to withstand a unit force of not less than 
50 pounds per square foot (2.1 kg m\2\).
    (P) The filling of a tank to be protected by water loading shall be 
started as soon as flood waters reach a dangerous flood stage. The rate 
of filling shall be at least equal to the rate of rise of the 
floodwaters (or the established average potential rate of rise).
    (Q) Sufficient fuel to operate the water pumps shall be available at 
all times to insure adequate power to fill all tankage with water.
    (R) All valves on connecting pipelines shall be closed and locked in 
closed position when water loading has been completed.

[[Page 206]]

    (S) Where structural guides are provided for the protection of 
floating tanks, all rigid connections between tanks and pipelines shall 
be disconnected and blanked off or blinded before the floodwaters reach 
the bottom of the tank, unless control valves and their connections to 
the tank are of a type designed to prevent breakage between the valve 
and the tank shell.
    (T) All valves attached to tanks other than those used in connection 
with water loading operations shall be closed and locked.
    (U) If a tank is equipped with a swing line, the swing pipe shall be 
raised to and secured at its highest position.
    (V) Inspections. The Assistant Secretary or his designated 
representative shall make periodic inspections of all plants where the 
storage of flammable or combustible liquids is such as to require 
compliance with the foregoing requirements, in order to assure the 
following:
    (1) That all flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks are in 
compliance with these requirements and so maintained.
    (2) That detailed printed instructions of what to do in flood 
emergencies are properly posted.
    (3) That station operators and other employees depended upon to 
carry out such instructions are thoroughly informed as to the location 
and operation of such valves and other equipment necessary to effect 
these requirements.
    (vii) Earthquake areas. In areas subject to earthquakes, the tank 
supports and connections shall be designed to resist damage as a result 
of such shocks.
    (6) Sources of ignition. In locations where flammable vapors may be 
present, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition by eliminating 
or controlling sources of ignition. Sources of ignition may include open 
flames, lightning, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, 
frictional heat, sparks (static, electrical, and mechanical), 
spontaneous ignition, chemical and physical-chemical reactions, and 
radiant heat.
    (7) Testing--(i) General. All tanks, whether shop built or field 
erected, shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in 
accordance with the applicable paragraphs of the code under which they 
were built. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code 
stamp, American Petroleum Institute (API) monogram, or the label of the 
Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., on a tank shall be evidence of 
compliance with this strength test. Tanks not marked in accordance with 
the above codes shall be strength tested before they are placed in 
service in accordance with good engineering principles and reference 
shall be made to the sections on testing in the codes listed in 
paragraphs (i)(1) (iii)(A), (iv)(B), or (v)(B) of this section.
    (ii) Strength. When the vertical length of the fill and vent pipes 
is such that when filled with liquid the static head imposed upon the 
bottom of the tank exceeds 10 pounds per square inch (68.94 kPa), the 
tank and related piping shall be tested hydrostatically to a pressure 
equal to the static head thus imposed.
    (iii) Tightness. In addition to the strength test called for in 
paragraphs (i)(7) (i) and (ii) of this section, all tanks and 
connections shall be tested for tightness. Except for underground tanks, 
this tightness test shall be made at operating pressure with air, inert 
gas, or water prior to placing the tank in service. In the case of 
field-erected tanks the strength test may be considered to be the test 
for tank tightness. Underground tanks and piping, before being covered, 
enclosed, or placed in use, shall be tested for tightness 
hydrostatically, or with air pressure at not less than 3 pounds per 
square inch (20.68 kPa) and not more than 5 pounds per square inch 
(34.47 kPa).
    (iv) Repairs. All leaks or deformations shall be corrected in an 
acceptable manner before the tank is placed in service. Mechanical 
caulking is not permitted for correcting leaks in welded tanks except 
pinhole leaks in the roof.
    (v) Derated operations. Tanks to be operated at pressures below 
their design pressure may be tested by the applicable provisions of 
paragraphs (i)(7) (i) or (ii) of this section, based upon the pressure 
developed under full emergency venting of the tank.
    (j) Piping, valves, and fittings--(1) General--(i) Design. The 
design (including

[[Page 207]]

selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of 
piping systems containing flammable or combustible liquids shall be 
suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses. 
Conformity with the applicable provisions of Pressure Piping, ANSI B31 
series and the provisions of this paragraph, shall be considered prima 
facie evidence of compliance with the foregoing provisions.
    (ii) Exceptions. This paragraph does not apply to any of the 
following:
    (A) Tubing or casing on any oil or gas wells and any piping 
connected directly thereto.
    (B) Motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary 
engines.
    (C) Piping within the scope of any applicable boiler and pressures 
vessel code.
    (iii) Definitions. As used in this paragraph, piping systems consist 
of pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, the 
pressure containing parts of other components such as expansion joints 
and strainers, and devices which serve such purposes as mixing, 
separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow.
    (2) Materials for piping, valves, and fittings--(i) Required 
materials. Materials for piping, valves, or fittings shall be steel, 
nodular iron, or malleable iron, except as provided in paragraphs (j)(2) 
(ii), (iii) and (iv) of this section.
    (ii) Exceptions. Materials other than steel, nodular iron, or 
malleable iron may be used underground, or if required by the properties 
of the flammable or combustible liquid handled. Material other than 
steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron shall be designed to 
specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering 
practices for the material used.
    (iii) Linings. Piping, valves, and fittings may have combustible or 
noncombustible linings.
    (iv) Low-melting materials. When low-melting point materials such as 
aluminum and brass or materials that soften on fire exposure such as 
plastics, or non-ductile materials such as cast iron, are necessary, 
special consideration shall be given to their behavior on fire exposure. 
If such materials are used in above ground piping systems or inside 
buildings, they shall be suitably protected against fire exposure or so 
located that any spill resulting from the failure of these materials 
could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures or 
can be readily controlled by remote valves.
    (3) Pipe joints. Joints shall be made liquid tight. Welded or 
screwed joints or approved connectors shall be used. Threaded joints and 
connections shall be made up tight with a suitable lubricant or piping 
compound. Pipe joints dependent upon the friction characteristics of 
combustible materials for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be 
used inside buildings. They may be used outside of buildings above or 
below ground. If used above ground, the piping shall either be secured 
to prevent disengagement at the fitting or the piping system shall be so 
designed that any spill resulting from such disengagement could not 
unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures, and could be 
readily controlled by remote valves.
    (4) Supports. Piping systems shall be substantially supported and 
protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from 
settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.
    (5) Protection against corrosion. All piping for flammable or 
combustible liquids, both aboveground and underground, where subject to 
external corrosion, shall be painted or otherwise protected.
    (6) Valves. Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of 
valves to operate the system properly and to protect the plant. Piping 
systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of 
valves to control properly the flow of liquid in normal operation and in 
the event of physical damage. Each connection to pipelines, by which 
equipments such as tankcars or tank vehicles discharge liquids by means 
of pumps into storage tanks, shall be provided with a check valve for 
automatic protection against backflow if the piping arrangement is such 
that backflow from the system is possible.
    (7) Testing. All piping before being covered, enclosed, or placed in 
use shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum 
anticipated

[[Page 208]]

pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the 
maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds 
per square inch gage at the highest point of the system. This test shall 
be maintained for a sufficient time to complete visual inspection of all 
joints and connections, but for at least 10 minutes.
    (k) Marine service stations--(1) Dispensing. (i) The dispensing area 
shall be located away from other structures so as to provide room for 
safe ingress and egress of craft to be fueled. Dispensing units shall in 
all cases be at least 20 feet (6.08 m) from any activity involving fixed 
sources of ignition.
    (ii) Dispensing shall be by approved dispensing units with or 
without integral pumps and may be located on open piers, wharves, or 
floating docks or on shore or on piers of the solid fill type.
    (iii) Dispensing nozzles shall be automatic-closing without a hold-
open latch.
    (2) Tanks and pumps. (i) Tanks, and pumps not integral with the 
dispensing unit, shall be on shore or on a pier of the solid fill type, 
except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2) (ii) and (iii) of this section.
    (ii) Where shore location would require excessively long supply 
lines to dispensers, tanks may be installed on a pier provided that 
applicable portions of paragraph (b) of this section relative to 
spacing, diking, and piping are complied with and the quantity so stored 
does not exceed 1,100 gallons (4,163.5 L) aggregate capacity.
    (iii) Shore tanks supplying marine service stations may be located 
above ground, where rock ledges or high water table make underground 
tanks impractical.
    (iv) Where tanks are at an elevation which would produce gravity 
head on the dispensing unit, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a 
pressure control valve positioned adjacent to and outside the tank block 
valve specified in Sec. 1926.152(c)(8) of this section, so adjusted that 
liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank in case of piping or hose 
failure.
    (3) Piping. (i) Piping between shore tanks and dispensing units 
shall be as described in paragraph (k)(2)(iii) of this section, except 
that, where dispensing is from a floating structure, suitable lengths of 
oil-resistant flexible hose may be employed between the shore piping and 
the piping on the floating structure as made necessary by change in 
water level or shoreline.

   Table F-19--Electrical Equipment Hazardous Areas--Service Stations   
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Class I                                
           Location              Group D     Extent of classified area  
                                division                                
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Underground tank:                                                       
  Fill opening...............           1  Any pit, box or space below  
                                            grade level, any part of    
                                            which is within the Division
                                            1 or 2 classified area.     
                                        2  Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm)   
                                            above grade level within a  
                                            horizontal radius of 10 feet
                                            (3.04 m) from a loose fill  
                                            connection and within a     
                                            horizontal radius of 5 feet 
                                            (1.52 m) from a tight fill  
                                            connection.                 
  Vent--Discharging upward...           1  Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of   
                                            open end of vent, extending 
                                            in all directions.          
                                        2  Area between 3 feet (0.912 m)
                                            and 5 feet (1.52 m) of open 
                                            end of vent, extending in   
                                            all directions.             
Dispenser:                                                              
  Pits.......................           1  Any pit, box or space below  
                                            grade level, any part of    
                                            which is within the Division
                                            1 or 2 classified area.     
  Dispenser enclosure........           1  The area 4 feet (1.216 m)    
                                            vertically above base within
                                            the enclosure and 18 inches 
                                            (45.72 cm) horizontally in  
                                            all directions.             
  Outdoor....................           2  Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm)   
                                            above grade level within 20 
                                            feet (6.08 m) horizontally  
                                            of any edge of enclosure.   
Indoor:                                                                 
  With mechanical ventilation           2  Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm)   
                                            above grade or floor level  
                                            within 20 feet (6.08 m)     
                                            horizontally of any edge of 
                                            enclosure.                  
  With gravity ventilation...           2  Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm)   
                                            above grade or floor level  
                                            within 25 feet (7.6 m)      
                                            horizontally of any edge of 
                                            enclosure.                  
  Remote pump--Outdoor.......           1  Any pit, box or space below  
                                            grade level if any part is  
                                            within a horizontal distance
                                            of 10 feet (3.04 m) from any
                                            edge of pump.               

[[Page 209]]

                                                                        
                                        2  Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of   
                                            any edge of pump, extending 
                                            in all directions. Also up  
                                            to 18 inches (45.72 cm)     
                                            above grade level within 10 
                                            feet (3.04 m) horizontally  
                                            from any edge of pump.      
  Remote pump--Indoor........           1  Entire area within any pit.  
                                        2  Within 5 feet (1.52 m) of any
                                            edge of pump, extending in  
                                            all directions. Also up to 3
                                            feet (3.04 m) above floor or
                                            grade level within 25 feet  
                                            (6.08 m) horizontally from  
                                            any edge of pump.           
  Lubrication or service room           1  Entire area within any pit.  
                                        2  Area up to 18 inches (45.72  
                                            cm) above floor or grade    
                                            level within entire         
                                            lubrication room.           
  Dispenser for Class I                 2  Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of   
   liquids.                                 any fill or dispensing      
                                            point, extending in all     
                                            directions.                 
  Special enclosure inside              1  Entire enclosure.            
   building per Sec.                                                    
   1910.106(f)(1)(ii).                                                  
  Sales, storage and rest         (\1\  )  If there is any opening to   
   rooms.                                   these rooms within the      
                                            extent of a Division 1 area,
                                            the entire room shall be    
                                            classified as Division 1.   
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Ordinary.                                                           

    (ii) A readily accessible valve to shut off the supply from shore 
shall be provided in each pipeline at or near the approach to the pier 
and at the shore end of each pipeline adjacent to the point where 
flexible hose is attached.
    (iii) Piping shall be located so as to be protected from physical 
damage.
    (iv) Piping handling Class I liquids shall be grounded to control 
stray currents.
    (4) Definition; as used in this section: Marine service station 
shall mean that portion of a property where flammable or combustible 
liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on 
shore, piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks of self-
propelled craft, and shall include all facilities used in connection 
therewith.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 51 
FR 25318, July 11, 1986; 58 FR 35162, June 30, 1993; 63 FR 33469, June 
18, 1998]

    Effective Date Note:  At 63 FR 33469, June 18, 1998, Sec. 1926.152 
was amended by revising paragraph (a)(1), effective Aug. 17, 1998. For 
the convenience of the user, the superseded text is set forth as 
follows:

Sec. 1926.152  Flammable and combustible liquids.

    (a) * * * (1) Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be 
used for storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids. 
Approved metal safety cans shall be used for the handling and use of 
flammable liquids in quantities greater than one gallon, except that 
this shall not apply to those flammable liquid materials which are 
highly viscid (extremely hard to pour), which may be used and handled in 
original shipping containers. For quantities of one gallon or less, only 
the original container or approved metal safety cans shall be used for 
storage, use, and handling of flammable liquids.

                                * * * * *



Sec. 1926.153  Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system shall have 
containers, valves, connectors, manifold valve assemblies, and 
regulators of an approved type.
    (2) All cylinders shall meet the Department of Transportation 
specification identification requirements published in 49 CFR Part 178, 
Shipping Container Specifications.
    (3) Definition. As used in this section, Containers--All vessels, 
such as tanks, cylinders, or drums, used for transportation or storing 
liquefied petroleum gases.
    (b) Welding on LP-Gas containers. Welding is prohibited on 
containers.
    (c) Container valves and container accessories. (1) Valves, 
fittings, and accessories connected directly to the container, including 
primary shut off valves, shall have a rated working pressure of at least 
250 p.s.i.g. and shall be

[[Page 210]]

of material and design suitable for LP-Gas service.
    (2) Connections to containers, except safety relief connections, 
liquid level gauging devices, and plugged openings, shall have shutoff 
valves located as close to the container as practicable.
    (d) Safety devices. (1) Every container and every vaporizer shall be 
provided with one or more approved safety relief valves or devices. 
These valves shall be arranged to afford free vent to the outer air with 
discharge not less than 5 feet horizontally away from any opening into a 
building which is below such discharge.
    (2) Shutoff valves shall not be installed between the safety relief 
device and the container, or the equipment or piping to which the safety 
relief device is connected, except that a shutoff valve may be used 
where the arrangement of this valve is such that full required capacity 
flow through the safety relief device is always afforded.
    (3) Container safety relief devices and regulator relief vents shall 
be located not less than 5 feet in any direction from air openings into 
sealed combustion system appliances or mechanical ventilation air 
intakes.
    (e) Dispensing. (1) Filling of fuel containers for trucks or motor 
vehicles from bulk storage containers shall be performed not less than 
10 feet from the nearest masonry-walled building, or not less than 25 
feet from the nearest building or other construction and, in any event, 
not less than 25 feet from any building opening.
    (2) Filling of portable containers or containers mounted on skids 
from storage containers shall be performed not less than 50 feet from 
the nearest building.
    (f) Requirements for appliances. (1) LP-Gas consuming appliances 
shall be approved types.
    (2) Any appliance that was originally manufactured for operation 
with a gaseous fuel other than LP-Gas, and is in good condition, may be 
used with LP-Gas only after it is properly converted, adapted, and 
tested for performance with LP-Gas before the appliance is placed in 
use.
    (g) Containers and regulating equipment installed outside of 
buildings or structures. Containers shall be upright upon firm 
foundations or otherwise firmly secured. The possible effect on the 
outlet piping of settling shall be guarded against by a flexible 
connection or special fitting.
    (h) Containers and equipment used inside of buildings or structures. 
(1) When operational requirements make portable use of containers 
necessary, and their location outside of buildings or structures is 
impracticable, containers and equipment shall be permitted to be used 
inside of buildings or structures in accordance with paragraphs (h)(2) 
through (11) of this section.
    (2) Containers in use means connected for use.
    (3) Systems utilizing containers having a water capacity greater 
than 2\1/2\ pounds (nominal 1 pound LP-Gas capacity) shall be equipped 
with excess flow valves. Such excess flow valves shall be either 
integral with the container valves or in the connections to the 
container valve outlets.
    (4) Regulators shall be either directly connected to the container 
valves or to manifolds connected to the container valves. The regulator 
shall be suitable for use with LP-Gas. Manifolds and fittings connecting 
containers to pressure regulator inlets shall be designed for at least 
250 p.s.i.g. service pressure.
    (5) Valves on containers having water capacity greater than 50 
pounds (nominal 20 pounds LP-Gas capacity) shall be protected from 
damage while in use or storage.
    (6) Aluminum piping or tubing shall not be used.
    (7) Hose shall be designed for a working pressure of at least 250 
p.s.i.g. Design, construction, and performance of hose, and hose 
connections shall have their suitability determined by listing by a 
nationally recognized testing agency. The hose length shall be as short 
as practicable. Hoses shall be long enough to permit compliance with 
spacing provisions of paragraphs (h)(1) through (13) of this section, 
without kinking or straining, or causing hose to be so close to a burner 
as to be damaged by heat.
    (8) Portable heaters, including salamanders, shall be equipped with 
an approved automatic device to shut off the flow of gas to the main 
burner, and

[[Page 211]]

pilot if used, in the event of flame failure. Such heaters, having 
inputs above 50,000 B.t.u. per hour, shall be equipped with either a 
pilot, which must be lighted and proved before the main burner can be 
turned on, or an electrical ignition system.

    Note: The provisions of this subparagraph do not apply to portable 
heaters under 7,500 B.t.u. per hour input when used with containers 
having a maximum water capacity of 2\1/2\ pounds.


    (9) Container valves, connectors, regulators, manifolds, piping, and 
tubing shall not be used as structural supports for heaters.
    (10) Containers, regulating equipment, manifolds, pipe, tubing, and 
hose shall be located to minimize exposure to high temperatures or 
physical damage.
    (11) Containers having a water capacity greater than 2\1/2\ pounds 
(nominal 1 pound LP-Gas capacity) connected for use shall stand on a 
firm and substantially level surface and, when necessary, shall be 
secured in an upright position.
    (12) The maximum water capacity of individual containers shall be 
245 pounds (nominal 100 pounds LP-Gas capacity).
    (13) For temporary heating, heaters (other than integral heater-
container units) shall be located at least 6 feet from any LP-Gas 
container. This shall not prohibit the use of heaters specifically 
designed for attachment to the container or to a supporting standard, 
provided they are designed and installed so as to prevent direct or 
radiant heat application from the heater onto the containers. Blower and 
radiant type heaters shall not be directed toward any LP-Gas container 
within 20 feet.
    (14) If two or more heater-container units, of either the integral 
or nonintegral type, are located in an unpartitioned area on the same 
floor, the container or containers of each unit shall be separated from 
the container or containers of any other unit by at least 20 feet.
    (15) When heaters are connected to containers for use in an 
unpartitioned area on the same floor, the total water capacity of 
containers, manifolded together for connection to a heater or heaters, 
shall not be greater than 735 pounds (nominal 300 pounds LP-Gas 
capacity). Such manifolds shall be separated by at least 20 feet.
    (16) Storage of containers awaiting use shall be in accordance with 
paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section.
    (i) Multiple container systems. (1) Valves in the assembly of 
multiple container systems shall be arranged so that replacement of 
containers can be made without shutting off the flow of gas in the 
system. This provision is not to be construed as requiring an automatic 
changeover device.
    (2) Heaters shall be equipped with an approved regulator in the 
supply line between the fuel cylinder and the heater unit. Cylinder 
connectors shall be provided with an excess flow valve to minimize the 
flow of gas in the event the fuel line becomes ruptured.
    (3) Regulators and low-pressure relief devices shall be rigidly 
attached to the cylinder valves, clyinders, supporting standards, the 
building walls, or otherwise rigidly secured, and shall be so installed 
or protected from the elements.
    (j) Storage of LPG containers. Storage of LPG within buildings is 
prohibited.
    (k) Storage outside of buildings. (1) Storage outside of buildings, 
for containers awaiting use, shall be located from the nearest building 
or group of buildings, in accordance with the following:

                                Table F-3                               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Distance 
                  Quantity of LP-Gas stored                     (feet)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
500 lbs. or less............................................           0
501 to 6,000 lbs............................................          10
6,001 to 10,000 lbs.........................................          20
Over 10,000 lbs.............................................          25
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Containers shall be in a suitable ventilated enclosure or 
otherwise protected against tampering.
    (l) Fire protection. Storage locations shall be provided with at 
least one approved portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not 
less than 20-B:C.
    (m) Systems utilizing containers other than DOT containers--(1) 
Application. This paragraph applies specifically to systems utilizing 
storage containers other than those constructed in accordance with DOT 
specifications. Paragraph (b) of this section applies to this

[[Page 212]]

paragraph unless otherwise noted in paragraph (b) of this section.
    (2) Design pressure and classification of storage containers. 
Storage containers shall be designed and classified in accordance with 
Table F-31.

                               Table F-31                               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Minimum design pressure of    
                                        container, lb. per sq. in. gage 
                                     -----------------------------------
                                                       1949 edition of  
                    For gases with                    ASME Code (Par. U-
                 vapor press. Not to     1949 and     200, U-201); 1950,
 Container type   exceed lb. per sq.     earlier      1952, 1956, 1959, 
                  in. gage at 100F.    editions of     1962, 1965, and  
                       (37.8C.)         ASME Code     1968 (Division 1) 
                                      (Par. U-68, U-   editions of ASME 
                                           69)        Code; All editions
                                                       of API-ASME Code 
                                                             \3\        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ 80.........          \1\ 80            \1\ 80              \1\ 100  
100............             100               100                  125  
125............             125               125                  156  
150............             150               150                  187  
175............             175               175                  219  
\2\ 200........             215               200                  250  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ New storage containers of the 80 type have not been authorized since
  Dec. 31, 1947.                                                        
\2\ Container type may be increased by increments of 25. The minimum    
  design pressure of containers shall be 100% of the container type     
  designation when constructed under 1949 or earlier editions of the    
  ASME Code (Par. U-68 and U-69). The minimum design pressure of        
  containers shall be 125% of the container type designation when       
  constructed under: (1) the 1949 ASME Code (Par. U-200 and U-201), (2) 
  1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, and 1968 (Division 1) editions of 
  the ASME Code, and (3) all editions of the API-ASME Code.             
\3\ Construction of containers under the API-ASME Code is not authorized
  after July 1, 1961.                                                   

    (3) Containers with foundations attached (portable or semiportable b 
containers with suitable steel ``runners'' or ``skids'' and popularly 
known in the industry as ``skid tanks'') shall be designed, installed, 
and used in accordance with these rules subject to the following 
provisions:
    (i) If they are to be used at a given general location for a 
temporary period not to exceed 6 months they need not have fire-
resisting foundations or saddles but shall have adequate ferrous metal 
supports.
    (ii) They shall not be located with the outside bottom of the 
container shell more than 5 feet (1.52 m) above the surface of the 
ground unless fire-resisting supports are provided.
    (iii) The bottom of the skids shall not be less than 2 inches (5.08 
cm) or more than 12 inches (30.48 cm) below the outside bottom of the 
container shell.
    (iv) Flanges, nozzles, valves, fittings, and the like, having 
communication with the interior of the container, shall be protected 
against physical damage.
    (v) When not permanently located on fire-resisting foundations, 
piping connections shall be sufficiently flexible to minimize the 
possibility of breakage or leakage of connections if the container 
settles, moves, or is otherwise displaced.
    (vi) Skids, or lugs for attachment of skids, shall be secured to the 
container in accordance with the code or rules under which the container 
is designed and built (with a minimum factor of safety of four) to 
withstand loading in any direction equal to four times the weight of the 
container and attachments when filled to the maximum permissible loaded 
weight.
    (4) Field welding where necessary shall be made only on saddle 
plates or brackets which were applied by the manufacturer of the tank.
    (n) When LP-Gas and one or more other gases are stored or used in 
the same area, the containers shall be marked to identify their content. 
Marking shall be in compliance with American National Standard Z48.1-
1954, ``Method of Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers To Identify 
the Material Contained.''
    (o) Damage from vehicles. When damage to LP-Gas systems from 
vehicular traffic is a possibility, precautions against such damage 
shall be taken.

[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 
FR 35170, June 30, 1993]



Sec. 1926.154  Temporary heating devices.

    (a) Ventilation. (1) Fresh air shall be supplied in sufficient 
quantities to maintain the health and safety of workmen. Where natural 
means of fresh air supply is inadequate, mechanical ventilation shall be 
provided.
    (2) When heaters are used in confined spaces, special care shall be 
taken to provide sufficient ventilation in order to ensure proper 
combustion, maintain the health and safety of workmen, and limit 
temperature rise in the area.
    (b) Clearance and mounting. (1) Temporary heating devices shall be 
installed to provide clearance to combustible material not less than the 
amount shown in Table F-4.
    (2) Temporary heating devices, which are listed for installation 
with lesser clearances than specified in Table F-4,

[[Page 213]]

may be installed in accordance with their approval.

                                Table F-4                               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            Minimum clearance, (inches) 
                                          ------------------------------
            Heating appliances                                  Chimney 
                                             Sides     Rear    connector
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Room heater, circulating type............        12        12         18
Room heater, radiant type................        36        36         18
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (3) Heaters not suitable for use on wood floors shall not be set 
directly upon them or other combustible materials. When such heaters are 
used, they shall rest on suitable heat insulating material or at least 
1-inch concrete, or equivalent. The insulating material shall extend 
beyond the heater 2 feet or more in all directions.
    (4) Heaters used in the vicinity of combustible tarpaulins, canvas, 
or similar coverings shall be located at least 10 feet from the 
coverings. The coverings shall be securely fastened to prevent ignition 
or upsetting of the heater due to wind action on the covering or other 
material.
    (c) Stability. Heaters, when in use, shall be set horizontally 
level, unless otherwise permitted by the manufacturer's markings.
    (d) Solid fuel salamanders. Solid fuel salamanders are prohibited in 
buildings and on scaffolds.
    (e) Oil-fired heaters. (1) Flammable liquid-fired heaters shall be 
equipped with a primary safety control to stop the flow of fuel in the 
event of flame failure. Barometric or gravity oil feed shall not be 
considered a primary safety control.
    (2) Heaters designed for barometric or gravity oil feed shall be 
used only with the integral tanks.
    (3) [Reserved]
    (4) Heaters specifically designed and approved for use with separate 
supply tanks may be directly connected for gravity feed, or an automatic 
pump, from a supply tank.



Sec. 1926.155  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

    (a) Approved, for the purpose of this subpart, means equipment that 
has been listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing 
laboratory such as Factory Mutual Engineering Corp., or Underwriters' 
Laboratories, Inc., or Federal agencies such as Bureau of Mines, or U.S. 
Coast Guard, which issue approvals for such equipment.
    (b) Closed container means a container so sealed by means of a lid 
or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at 
ordinary temperatures.
    (c) Combustible liquids mean any liquid having a flash point at or 
above 140 deg. F. (60 deg. C.), and below 200 deg. F. (93.4 deg. C.).
    (d) Combustion means any chemical process that involves oxidation 
sufficient to produce light or heat.
    (e) Fire brigade means an organized group of employees that are 
knowledgeable, trained, and skilled in the safe evacuation of employees 
during emergency situations and in assisting in fire fighting 
operations.
    (f) Fire resistance means so resistant to fire that, for specified 
time and under conditions of a standard heat intensity, it will not fail 
structurally and will not permit the side away from the fire to become 
hotter than a specified temperature. For purposes of this part, fire 
resistance shall be determined by the Standard Methods of Fire Tests of 
Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-1969.
    (g) Flammable means capable of being easily ignited, burning 
intensely, or having a rapid rate of flame spread.
    (h) Flammable liquids means any liquid having a flash point below 
140 deg. F. and having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per 
square inch (absolute) at 100 deg. F.
    (i) Flash point of the liquid means the temperature at which it 
gives off vapor sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with the air 
near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used as determined 
by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified below.
    (1) The flash point of liquids having a viscosity less than 45 
Saybolt Universal Second(s) at 100 deg. F. (37.8 deg. C.) and a flash 
point below 175 deg. F. (79.4 deg. C.) shall be determined in accordance 
with the Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by the Tag Closed 
Tester, ASTM D-56-69.

[[Page 214]]

    (2) The flash point of liquids having a viscosity of 45 Saybolt 
Universal Second(s) or more at 175 deg. F. (79.4 deg. C.) or higher 
shall be determined in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for 
Flash Point by the Pensky Martens Closed Tester, ASTM D-93-69.
    (j) Liquefied petroleum gases, LPG and LP Gas mean and include any 
material which is composed predominantly of any of the following 
hydrocarbons, or mixtures of them, such as propane, propylene, butane 
(normal butane or iso-butane), and butylenes.
    (k) Portable tank means a closed container having a liquid capacity 
more than 60 U.S. gallons, and not intended for fixed installation.
    (l) Safety can means an approved closed container, of not more than 
5 gallons capacity, having a flash-arresting screen, spring-closing lid 
and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal 
pressure when subjected to fire exposure.
    (m) Vapor pressure means the pressure, measured in pounds per square 
inch (absolute), exerted by a volatile liquid as determined by the 
``Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid 
Method).'' (ASTM D-323-58).



                Subpart G--Signs, Signals, and Barricades

    Authority: Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 
(Construction Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333); secs. 4, 6, 8, Occupational 
Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of 
Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), or 9-83 (48 FR 
35736), as applicable.



Sec. 1926.200  Accident prevention signs and tags.

    (a) General. Signs and symbols required by this subpart shall be 
visible at all times when work is being performed, and shall be removed 
or covered promptly when the hazards no longer exist.
    (b) Danger signs. (1) Danger signs (see Figure G-1) shall be used 
only where an immediate hazard exists.
    (2) Danger signs shall have red as the predominating color for the 
upper panel; black outline on the borders; and a white lower panel for 
additional sign wording.
    (c) Caution signs. (1) Caution signs (see Figure G-2) shall be used 
only to warn against potential hazards or to caution against unsafe 
practices.
    (2) Caution signs shall have yellow as the predominating color; 
black upper panel and borders: yellow lettering of ``caution'' on the 
black panel; and the lower yellow panel for additional sign wording. 
Black lettering shall be used for additional wording.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.013

    (3) Standard color of the background shall be yellow; and the panel, 
black with yellow letters. Any letters used against the yellow 
background shall be black. The colors shall be those of opaque glossy 
samples as specified in Table 1 of American National Standard Z53.1-
1967.
    (d) Exit signs. Exit signs, when required, shall be lettered in 
legible red letters, not less than 6 inches high, on a white field and 
the principal stroke of the letters shall be at least three-fourths inch 
in width.
    (e) Safety instruction signs. Safety instruction signs, when used, 
shall be white with green upper panel with white letters to convey the 
principal message. Any additional wording on the sign shall be black 
letters on the white background.
    (f) Directional signs. Directional signs, other than automotive 
traffic signs specified in paragraph (g) of this section, shall be white 
with a black panel and a white directional symbol. Any additional 
wording on the sign shall be black letters on the white background.
    (g) Traffic signs. (1) Construction areas shall be posted with 
legible traffic signs at points of hazard.

[[Page 215]]

    (2) All traffic control signs or devices used for protection of 
construction workmen shall conform to American National Standards 
Institute D6.1-1971, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for 
Streets and Highways.
    (h) Accident prevention tags. (1) Accident prevention tags shall be 
used as a temporary means of warning employees of an existing hazard, 
such as defective tools, equipment, etc. They shall not be used in place 
of, or as a substitute for, accident prevention signs.
    (2) Specifications for accident prevention tags similar to those in 
Table G-1 shall apply.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC30OC91.014

    (i) Additional rules. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 
Z35.1-1968, Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs, and Z35.2-
1968, Specifications for Accident Prevention Tags, contain rules which 
are additional to the rules prescribed in this section. The employer 
shall comply with ANSI

[[Page 216]]

Z35.1-1968 and Z35.2-1968 with respect to rules not specifically 
prescribed in this subpart.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 
FR 35173, June 30, 1993]



Sec. 1926.201  Signaling.

    (a) Flagmen. (1) When operations are such that signs, signals, and 
barricades do not provide the necessary protection on or adjacent to a 
highway or street, flagmen or other appropriate traffic controls shall 
be provided.
    (2) Signaling directions by flagmen shall conform to American 
National Standards Institute D6.1-1971, Manual on Uniform Traffic 
Control Devices for Streets and Highways.
    (3) Hand signaling by flagmen shall be by use of red flags at least 
18 inches square or sign paddles, and in periods of darkness, red 
lights.
    (4) Flagmen shall be provided with and shall wear a red or orange 
warning garment while flagging. Warning garments worn at night shall be 
of reflectorized material.
    (b) Crane and hoist signals. Regulations for crane and hoist 
signaling will be found in applicable American National Standards 
Institute standards.



Sec. 1926.202  Barricades.

    Barricades for protection of employees shall conform to the portions 
of the American National Standards Institute D6.1-1971, Manual on 
Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, relating to 
barricades.



Sec. 1926.203  Definitions applicable to this subpart.

    (a) Barricade means an obstruction to deter the passage of persons 
or vehicles.
    (b) Signs are the warnings of hazard, temporarily or permanently 
affixed or placed, at locations where hazards exist.
    (c) Signals are moving signs, provided by workers, such as flagmen, 
or by devices, such as flashing lights, to warn of possible or existing 
hazards.
    (d) Tags are temporary signs, usually attached to a piece of 
equipment or part of a structure, to warn of existing or immediate 
hazards.



        Subpart H--Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal

    Authority: Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 
(Construction Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333); Secs. 4, 6, 8, Occupational 
Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of 
Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 
35736), or 1-90 (50 FR 9033), as applicable. Section 1926.250 also 
issued under 29 CFR Part 1911.



Sec. 1926.250  General requirements for storage.

    (a) General. (1) All materials stored in tiers shall be stacked, 
racked, blocked, interlocked, or otherwise secured to prevent sliding, 
falling or collapse.
    (2) Maximum safe load limits of floors within buildings and 
structures, in pounds per square foot, shall be conspicuously posted in 
all storage areas, except for floor or slab on grade. Maximum safe loads 
shall not be exceeded.
    (3) Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear to provide for the 
free and safe movement of material handling equipment or employees. Such 
areas shall be kept in good repair.
    (4) When a difference in road or working levels exist, means such as 
ramps, blocking, or grading shall be used to ensure the safe movement of 
vehicles between the two levels.
    (b) Material storage. (1) Material stored inside buildings under 
construction shall not be placed within 6 feet of any hoistway or inside 
floor openings, nor within 10 feet of an exterior wall which does not 
extend above the top of the material stored.
    (2) Each employee required to work on stored material in silos, 
hoppers, tanks, and similar storage areas shall be equipped with 
personal fall arrest equipment meeting the requirements of subpart M of 
this part.
    (3) Noncompatible materials shall be segregated in storage.
    (4) Bagged materials shall be stacked by stepping back the layers 
and cross-keying the bags at least every 10 bags high.
    (5) Materials shall not be stored on scaffolds or runways in excess 
of supplies needed for immediate operations.
    (6) Brick stacks shall not be more than 7 feet in height. When a 
loose

[[Page 217]]

brick stack reaches a height of 4 feet, it shall be tapered back 2 
inches in every foot of height above the 4-foot level.
    (7) When masonry blocks are stacked higher than 6 feet, the stack 
shall be tapered back one-half block per tier above the 6-foot level.
    (8) Lumber:
    (i) Used lumber shall have all nails withdrawn before stacking.
    (ii) Lumber shall be stacked on level and solidly supported sills.
    (iii) Lumber shall be so stacked as to be stable and self-
supporting.
    (iv) Lumber piles shall not exceed 20 feet in height provided that 
lumber to be handled manually shall not be stacked more than 16 feet 
high.
    (9) Structural steel, poles, pipe, bar stock, and other cylindrical 
materials, unless racked, shall be stacked and blocked so as to prevent 
spreading or tilting.
    (c) Housekeeping. Storage areas shall be kept free from accumulation 
of materials that constitute hazards from tripping, fire, explosion, or 
pest harborage. Vegetation control will be exercised when necessary.
    (d) Dockboards (bridge plates). (1) Portable and powered dockboards 
shall be strong enough to carry the load imposed on them.
    (2) Portable dockboards shall be secured in position, either by 
being anchored or equipped with devices which will prevent their 
slipping.
    (3) Handholds, or other effective means, shall be provided on 
portable dockboards to permit safe handling.
    (4) Positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars 
from being moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 49 
FR 18295, Apr. 30, 1984; 54 FR 24334, June 7, 1989; 58 FR 35173, June 
30, 1993; 59 FR 40729, Aug. 9, 1994; 61 FR 5510, Feb. 13, 1996]



Sec. 1926.251  Rigging equipment for material handling.

    (a) General. (1) Rigging equipment for material handling shall be 
inspected prior to use on each shift and as necessary during its use to 
ensure that it is safe. Defective rigging equipment shall be removed 
from service.
    (2) Rigging equipment shall not be loaded in excess of its 
recommended safe working load, as prescribed in Tables H-1 through H-20 
in this subpart, following Sec. 1926.252(e) for the specific equipment.
    (3) Rigging equipment, when not in use, shall be removed from the 
immediate work area so as not to present a hazard to employees.
    (4) Special custom design grabs, hooks, clamps, or other lifting 
accessories, for such units as modular panels, prefabricated structures 
and similar materials, shall be marked to indicate the safe working 
loads and shall be proof-tested prior to use to 125 percent of their 
rated load.
    (5) Scope. This section applies to slings used in conjunction with 
other material handling equipment for the movement of material by 
hoisting, in employments covered by this part. The types of slings 
covered are those made from alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, 
natural or synthetic fiber rope (conventional three strand 
construction), and synthetic web (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene).
    (6) Inspections. Each day before being used, the sling and all 
fastenings and attachments shall be inspected for damage or defects by a 
competent person designated by the employer. Additional inspections 
shall be performed during sling use, where service conditions warrant. 
Damaged or defective slings shall be immediately removed from service.
    (b) Alloy steel chains. (1) Welded alloy steel chain slings shall 
have permanently affixed durable identification stating size, grade, 
rated capacity, and sling manufacturer.
    (2) Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear-shaped links, welded or 
mechanical coupling links, or other attachments, when used with alloy 
steel chains, shall have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the 
chain.
    (3) Job or shop hooks and links, or makeshift fasteners, formed from 
bolts, rods, etc., or other such attachments, shall not be used.
    (4) Rated capacity (working load limit) for alloy steel chain slings 
shall conform to the values shown in Table H-1.

[[Page 218]]

    (5) Whenever wear at any point of any chain link exceeds that shown 
in Table H-2, the assembly shall be removed from service.
    (6) Inspections. (i) In addition to the inspection required by other 
paragraphs of this section, a thorough periodic inspection of alloy 
steel chain slings in use shall be made on a regular basis, to be 
determined on the basis of (A) frequency of sling use; (B) severity of 
service conditions; (C) nature of lifts being made; and (D) experience 
gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances. Such 
inspections shall in no event be at intervals greater than once every 12 
months.
    (ii) The employer shall make and maintain a record of the most 
recent month in which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly 
inspected, and shall make such record available for examination.
    (c) Wire rope. (1) Tables H-3 through H-14 shall be used to 
determine the safe working loads of various sizes and classifications of 
improved plow steel wire rope and wire rope slings with various types of 
terminals. For sizes, classifications, and grades not included in these 
tables, the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer for 
specific, identifiable products shall be followed, provided that a 
safety factor of not less than 5 is maintained.
    (2) Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles 
shall be covered or blunted.
    (3) Wire rope shall not be secured by knots, except on haul back 
lines on scrapers.
    (4) The following limitations shall apply to the use of wire rope:
    (i) An eye splice made in any wire rope shall have not less than 
three full tucks. However, this requirement shall not operate to 
preclude the use of another form of splice or connection which can be 
shown to be as efficient and which is not otherwise prohibited.
    (ii) Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless 
rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, or in pulling 
loads, shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.
    (iii) Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, or bull wires shall not be 
formed by wire rope clips or knots.
    (iv) Wire rope shall not be used if, in any length of eight 
diameters, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds 10 percent 
of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs of 
excessive wear, corrosion, or defect.
    (5) When U-bolt wire rope clips are used to form eyes, Table H-20 
shall be used to determine the number and spacing of clips.
    (i) When used for eye splices, the U-bolt shall be applied so that 
the ``U'' section is in contact with the dead end of the rope.
    (6) Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other 
makeshift devices.
    (7) Sling legs shall not be kinked.
    (8) Slings used in a basket hitch shall have the loads balanced to 
prevent slippage.
    (9) Slings shall be padded or protected from the sharp edges of 
their loads.
    (10) Hands or fingers shall not be placed between the sling and its 
load while the sling is being tightened around the load.
    (11) Shock loading is prohibited.
    (12) A sling shall not be pulled from under a load when the load is 
resting on the sling.
    (13) Minimum sling lengths. (i) Cable laid and 6  x  19 and 6  x  37 
slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 10 times the 
component rope diameter between splices, sleeves or end fittings.
    (ii) Braided slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 
40 times the component rope diameter between the loops or end fittings.
    (iii) Cable laid grommets, strand laid grommets and endless slings 
shall have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times their body 
diameter.
    (14) Safe operating temperatures. Fiber core wire rope slings of all 
grades shall be permanently removed from service if they are exposed to 
temperatures in excess of 200 deg.F (93.33 deg.C). When nonfiber core 
wire rope slings of any grade are used at temperatures above 400 deg.F 
(204.44 deg.C) or below minus 60 deg.F (15.55 deg.C), recommendations of 
the sling manufacturer regarding use at that temperature shall be 
followed.

[[Page 219]]

    (15) End attachments. (i) Welding of end attachments, except covers 
to thimbles, shall be performed prior to the assembly of the sling.
    (ii) All welded end attachments shall not be used unless proof 
tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity at twice their rated 
capacity prior to initial use. The employer shall retain a certificate 
of the proof test, and make it available for examination.
    (d) Natural rope, and synthetic fiber--(1) General. When using 
natural or synthetic fiber rope slings, Tables H-15, 16, 17, and 18 
shall apply.
    (2) All splices in rope slings provided by the employer shall be 
made in accordance with fiber rope manufacturers recommendations.
    (i) In manila rope, eye splices shall contain at least three full 
tucks, and short splices shall contain at least six full tucks (three on 
each side of the centerline of the splice).
    (ii) In layed synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall contain at 
least four full tucks, and short splices shall contain at least eight 
full tucks (four on each side of the centerline of the splice).
    (iii) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed short (flush with the 
surface of the rope) immediately adjacent to the full tucks. This 
precaution applies to both eye and short splices and all types of fiber 
rope. For fiber ropes under 1-inch diameter, the tails shall project at 
least six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck. For fiber ropes 1-
inch diameter and larger, the tails shall project at least 6 inches 
beyond the last full tuck. In applications where the projecting tails 
may be objectionable, the tails shall be tapered and spliced into the 
body of the rope using at least two additional tucks (which will require 
a tail length of approximately six rope diameters beyond the last full 
tuck).
    (iv) For all eye splices, the eye shall be sufficiently large to 
provide an included angle of not greater than 60 deg. at the splice when 
the eye is placed over the load or support.
    (v) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.
    (3) Safe operating temperatures. Natural and synthetic fiber rope 
slings, except for wet frozen slings, may be used in a temperature range 
from minus 20 deg.F (-28.88 deg.C) to plus 180 deg.F (82.2 deg.C) 
without decreasing the working load limit. For operations outside this 
temperature range and for wet frozen slings, the sling manufacturer's 
recommendations shall be followed.
    (4) Splicing. Spliced fiber rope slings shall not be used unless 
they have been spliced in accordance with the following minimum 
requirements and in accordance with any additional recommendations of 
the manufacturer:
    (i) In manila rope, eye splices shall consist of at least three full 
tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three 
on each side of the splice center line.
    (ii) In synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall consist of at least 
four full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least eight full 
tucks, four on each side of the center line.
    (iii) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed flush with the surface 
of the rope immediately adjacent to the full tucks. This applies to all 
types of fiber rope and both eye and short splices. For fiber rope under 
1 inch (2.54 cm) in diameter, the tail shall project at least six rope 
diameters beyond the last full tuck. For fiber rope 1 inch (2.54 cm) in 
diameter and larger, the tail shall project at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) 
beyond the last full tuck. Where a projecting tail interferes with the 
use of the sling, the tail shall be tapered and spliced into the body of 
the rope using at least two additional tucks (which will require a tail 
length of approximately six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck).
    (iv) Fiber rope slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope 
between eye splices equal to 10 times the rope diameter.
    (v) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.
    (vi) Clamps not designed specifically for fiber ropes shall not be 
used for splicing.
    (vii) For all eye splices, the eye shall be of such size to provide 
an included angle of not greater than 60 degrees at the splice when the 
eye is placed over the load or support.
    (5) End attachments. Fiber rope slings shall not be used if end 
attachments in contact with the rope have sharp edges or projections.

[[Page 220]]

    (6) Removal from service. Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings 
shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following 
conditions are present:
    (i) Abnormal wear.
    (ii) Powdered fiber between strands.
    (iii) Broken or cut fibers.
    (iv) Variations in the size or roundness of strands.
    (v) Discoloration or rotting.
    (vi) Distortion of hardware in the sling.
    (e) Synthetic webbing (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene). (1) The 
employer shall have each synthetic web sling marked or coded to show:
    (i) Name or trademark of manufacturer.
    (ii) Rated capacities for the type of hitch.
    (iii) Type of material.
    (2) Rated capacity shall not be exceeded.
    (3) Webbing. Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and 
width and selvage edges shall not be split from the webbing's width.
    (4) Fittings. Fittings shall be:
    (i) Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling; and
    (ii) Free of all sharp edges that could in any way damage the 
webbing.
    (5) Attachment of end fittings to webbing and formation of eyes. 
Stitching shall be the only method used to attach end fittings to 
webbing and to form eyes. The thread shall be in an even pattern and 
contain a sufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking 
strength of the sling.
    (6) Environmental conditions. When synthetic web slings are used, 
the following precautions shall be taken:
    (i) Nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, 
mists or liquids of acids or phenolics are present.
    (ii) Polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where 
fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.
    (iii) Web slings with aluminum fittings shall not be used where 
fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.
    (7) Safe operating temperatures. Synthetic web slings of polyester 
and nylon shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 180 deg.F 
(82.2 deg.C). Polypropylene web slings shall not be used at temperatures 
in excess of 200 deg.F (93.33 deg.C).
    (8) Removal from service. Synthetic web slings shall be immediately 
removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:
    (i) Acid or caustic burns;
    (ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;
    (iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;
    (iv) Broken or worn stitches; or
    (v) Distortion of fittings.
    (f) Shackles and hooks. (1) Table H-19 shall be used to determine 
the safe working loads of various sizes of shackles, except that higher 
safe working loads are permissible when recommended by the manufacturer 
for specific, identifiable products, provided that a safety factor of 
not less than 5 is maintained.
    (2) The manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed in 
determining the safe working loads of the various sizes and types of 
specific and identifiable hooks. All hooks for which no applicable 
manufacturer's recommendations are available shall be tested to twice 
the intended safe working load before they are initially put into use. 
The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of such 
tests.

                Table H-1--Rated Capacity (Working Load Limit), for Alloy Steel Chain Slings \1\                
                                   Rated Capacity (Working Load Limit), Pounds                                  
                                  [Horizontal angles shown in parentheses] (2)                                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Double sling vertical angle (1)     Triple and quadruple sling  
                                 Single branch ---------------------------------        vertical angle (1)      
      Chain size (inches)       sling--90 deg.                                  --------------------------------
                                    loading      30 deg.    45 deg.    60 deg.    30 deg.    45 deg.    60 deg. 
                                                (60 deg.)  (45 deg.)  (30 deg.)  (60 deg.)  (45 deg.)  (30 deg.)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\.........................        3,250         5,560      4,550      3,250      8,400      6,800      4,900
\3/8\.........................        6,600        11,400      9,300      6,600     17,000     14,000      9,900
\1/2\.........................       11,250        19,500     15,900     11,250     29,000     24,000     17,000
\5/8\.........................       16,500        28,500     23,300     16,500     43,000     35,000     24,500
\3/4\.........................       23,000        39,800     32,500     23,000     59,500     48,500     34,500

[[Page 221]]

                                                                                                                
\7/8\.........................       28,750        49,800     40,600     28,750     74,500     61,000     43,000
1.............................       38,750        67,100     54,800     38,750    101,000     82,000     58,000
1\1/8\........................       44,500        77,000     63,000     44,500    115,500     94,500     66,500
1\1/4\........................       57,500        99,500     81,000     57,500    149,000    121,500     86,000
1\3/8\........................       67,000       116,000     94,000     67,000    174,000    141,000    100,500
1\1/2\........................       80,000       138,000    112,500     80,000    207,000    169,000    119,500
1\3/4\........................      100,000       172,000    140,000    100,000    258,000    210,000    150,000
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Other grades of proof tested steel chain include Proof Coil, BBB Coil and Hi-Test Chain. These grades are   
  not recommended for overhead lifting and therefore are not covered by this code.                              
(1) Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading measured as the included angle between the inclined 
  leg and the vertical.                                                                                         
(2) Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading between the inclined leg and the horizontal plane of
  the load.                                                                                                     


         Table H-2--Maximum Allowable Wear at any Point of Link         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Maximum 
                                                               allowable
                     Chain size (inches)                         wear   
                                                                (inch)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\.......................................................      \3/64\
\3/8\.......................................................      \5/64\
\1/2\.......................................................      \7/64\
\5/8\.......................................................      \9/64\
\3/4\.......................................................      \5/32\
\7/8\.......................................................     \11/64\
1...........................................................      \3/16\
1\1/8\......................................................      \7/32\
1\1/4\......................................................       \1/4\
1\3/8\......................................................      \9/32\
1\1/2\......................................................      \5/16\
1\3/4\......................................................     \11/32\
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                Table H-3--Rated Capacities for Single Leg Slings                               
              6 x 19 and 6 x 37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope with Fiber Core (FC)              
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Rope                                      Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)                           
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Vertical                       Choker                  Vertical basket \1\    
   Dia.      Constr.  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 (inches)                  HT        MS         S        HT        MS         S        HT        MS         S   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\.....    6 x 19       0.49       0.51      0.55      0.37      0.38      0.41      0.99       1.0       1.1
\5/16\....    6 x 19       0.76       0.79      0.85      0.57      0.59      0.64       1.5       1.6       1.7
\3/8\.....    6 x 19        1.1        1.1       1.2      0.80      0.85      0.91       2.1       2.2       2.4
\7/16\....    6 x 19        1.4        1.5       1.6       1.1       1.1       1.2       2.9       3.0       3.3
\1/2\.....    6 x 19        1.8        2.0       2.1       1.4       1.5       1.6       3.7       3.9       4.3
\9/16\....    6 x 19        2.3        2.5       2.7       1.7       1.9       2.0       4.6       5.0       5.4
\5/8\.....    6 x 19        2.8        3.1       3.3       2.1       2.3       2.5       5.6       6.2       6.7
\3/4\.....    6 x 19        3.9        4.4       4.8       2.9       3.3       3.6       7.8       8.8       9.5
\7/8\.....    6 x 19        5.1        5.9       6.4       3.9       4.5       4.8      10.0      12.0      13.0
1.........    6 x 19        6.7        7.7       8.4       5.0       5.8       6.3      13.0      15.0      17.0
1\1/8\....    6 x 19        8.4        9.5      10.0       6.3       7.1       7.9      17.0      19.0      21.0
1\1/4\....    6 x 37        9.8       11.0      12.0       7.4       8.3       9.2      20.0      22.0      25.0
1\3/8\....    6 x 37       12.0       13.0      15.0       8.9      10.0      11.0      24.0      27.0      30.0
1\1/2\....    6 x 37       14.0       16.0      17.0      10.0      12.0      13.0      28.0      32.0      35.0
1\5/8\....    6 x 37       16.0       18.0      21.0      12.0      14.0      15.0      33.0      37.0      41.0
1\3/4\....    6 x 37       19.0       21.0      24.0      14.0      16.0      18.0      38.0      43.0      48.0
2.........    6 x 37       25.0       28.0      31.0      18.0      21.0      23.0      49.0      55.0      62.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ These values only apply when the D/d ratio for HT slings is 10 or greater, and for MS and S Slings is 20 or 
  greater where:                                                                                                
D=Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent. d=Diameter of rope.                         
HT=Hand Tucked Splice and Hidden Tuck Splice. For hidden tuck splice (IWRC) use values in HT columns.           
MS=Mechanical Splice.                                                                                           
S=Swaged or Zinc Poured Socket.                                                                                 

[[Page 222]]

                                                                                                                


                                Table H-4--Rated Capacities for Single Leg Slings                               
     6 x 19 and 6 x 37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC)     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Rope                                      Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)                           
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Vertical                       Choker                  Vertical basket \1\    
   Dia.      Constr.  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 (inches)                  HT        MS         S        HT        MS         S        HT        MS         S   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\.....    6 x 19       0.53       0.56      0.59      0.40      0.42      0.44       1.0       1.1       1.2
\5/16\....    6 x 19       0.81       0.87      0.92      0.61      0.65      0.69       1.6       1.7       1.8
\3/8\.....    6 x 19        1.1        1.2       1.3      0.86      0.93      0.98       2.3       2.5       2.6
\7/16\....    6 x 19        1.5        1.7       1.8       1.2       1.3       1.3       3.1       3.4       3.5
\1/2\.....    6 x 19        2.0        2.2       2.3       1.5       1.6       1.7       3.9       4.4       4.6
\9/16\....    6 x 19        2.5        2.7       2.9       1.8       2.1       2.2       4.9       5.5       5.8
\5/8\.....    6 x 19        3.0        3.4       3.6       2.2       2.5       2.7       6.0       6.8       7.2
\3/4\.....    6 x 19        4.2        4.9       5.1       3.1       3.6       3.8       8.4       9.7      10.0
\7/8\.....    6 x 19        5.5        6.6       6.9       4.1       4.9       5.2      11.0      13.0      14.0
1.........    6 x 19        7.2        8.5       9.0       5.4       6.4       6.7      14.0      17.0      18.0
1\1/8\....    6 x 19        9.0       10.0      11.0       6.8       7.8       8.5      18.0      21.0      23.0
1\1/4\....    6 x 37       10.0       12.0      13.0       7.9       9.2       9.9      21.0      24.0      26.0
1\3/8\....    6 x 37       13.0       15.0      16.0       9.6      11.0      12.0      25.0      29.0      32.0
1\1/2\....    6 x 37       15.0       17.0      19.0      11.0      13.0      14.0      30.0      35.0      38.0
1\5/8\....    6 x 37       18.0       20.0      22.0      13.0      15.0      17.0      35.0      41.0      44.0
1\3/4\....    6 x 37       20.0       24.0      26.0      15.0      18.0      19.0      41.0      47.0      51.0
2.........    6 x 37       26.0       30.0      33.0      20.0      23.0      25.0      53.0      61.0      66.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ These values only apply when the D/d ratio for HT slings is 10 or greater, and for MS and S Slings is 20 or 
  greater where:                                                                                                
D=Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent. d=Diameter of rope.                         
HT=Hand Tucked Splice: For hidden tuck splice (IWRC) use Table H-3 values in HT column.                         
MS=Mechanical Splice.                                                                                           
S=Swaged or Zinc Poured Socket.                                                                                 


            Table H-5--Rated Capacities for Single Leg Slings           
                 Cable Laid Rope--Mechanical Splice Only                
  7 x 7 x 7 and 7 x 7 x 19 Construction Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope  
       7 x 6 x 19 IWRC Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Rope                  Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Vertical basket
Dia. (inches)     Constr.       Vertical       Choker          \1\      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\........  7 x 7 x 7          0.50          0.38            1.0     
\3/8\........  7 x 7 x 7           1.1          0.81            2.2     
\1/2\........  7 x 7 x 7           1.8           1.4            3.7     
\5/8\........  7 x 7 x 7           2.8           2.1            5.5     
\3/4\........  7 x 7 x 7           3.8           2.9            7.6     
\5/8\........  7 x 7 x 19          2.9           2.2            5.8     
\3/4\........  7 x 7 x 19          4.1           3.0            8.1     
\7/8\........  7 x 7 x 19          5.4           4.0           11.0     
1............  7 x 7 x 19          6.9           5.1           14.0     
1\1/8\.......  7 x 7 x 19          8.2           6.2           16.0     
1\1/4\.......  7 x 7 x 19          9.9           7.4           20.0     
\3/4\........  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19           3.8           2.8            7.6     
\7/8\........  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19           5.0           3.8           10.0     
1............  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19           6.4           4.8           13.0     
1\1/8\.......  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19           7.7           5.8           15.0     
1\1/4\.......  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19           9.2           6.9           18.0     
1\5/16\......  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19          10.0           7.5           20.0     
1\3/8\.......  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19          11.0           8.2           22.0     
1\1/2\.......  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19          13.0           9.6           26.0     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ These values only apply when the D/d ratio in 10 or greater where:  
  D=Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent.   
  d=Diameter of rope.                                                   
\2\ IWRC.                                                               


                                Table H-6--Rated Capacities for Single Leg Slings                               
                                         8-Part and 6-Part Braided Rope                                         
                          6 x 7 and 6 x 19 Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope                          
                                7 x 7 Construction Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope                               
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Component ropes                                Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)         
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Vertical           Choker        Basket vertical
                                                           ------------------------------------  to 30 deg. \1\ 
                Diameter (inches)                  Constr.                                     -----------------
                                                             8-Part   6-Part   8-Part   6-Part   8-Part   6-Part
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\3/32\...........................................   6 x 7      0.42     0.32     0.32     0.24     0.74     0.55
\1/8\............................................    6 x 7     0.76     0.57     0.57     0.42      1.3     0.98
\3/16\...........................................    6 x 7      1.7      1.3      1.3     0.94      2.9      2.2
\3/32\...........................................    7 x 7     0.51     0.39     0.38     0.29     0.89     0.67
\1/8\............................................    7 x 7     0.95     0.71     0.71     0.53      1.6      1.2
\3/16\...........................................    7 x 7      2.1      1.5      1.5      1.2      3.6      2.7

[[Page 223]]

                                                                                                                
\3/16\...........................................   6 x 19      1.7      1.3      1.3     0.98      3.0      2.2
\1/4\............................................   6 x 19      3.1      2.3      2.3      1.7      5.3      4.0
\5/16\...........................................   6 x 19      4.8      3.6      3.6      2.7      8.3      6.2
\3/8\............................................   6 x 19      6.8      5.1      5.1      3.8     12.0      8.9
\7/16\...........................................   6 x 19      9.3      6.9      6.9      5.2     16.0     12.0
\1/2\............................................   6 x 19     12.0      9.0      9.0      6.7     21.0     15.0
\9/16\...........................................   6 x 19     15.0     11.0     11.0      8.5     26.0     20.0
\5/8\............................................   6 x 19     19.0     14.0     14.0     10.0     32.0     24.0
\3/4\............................................   6 x 19     27.0     20.0     20.0     15.0     46.0     35.0
\7/8\............................................   6 x 19     36.0     27.0     27.0     20.0     62.0     47.0
1................................................   6 x 19     47.0     35.0     35.0     26.0     81.0     61.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 20 or greater where: D=Diameter of curvature around which the 
  body of the sling is bent. d=Diameter of component rope.                                                      


                          Table H-7--Rated Capacities for 2-Leg and 3-Leg Bridle Slings                         
              6 x 19 and 6 x 37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Fiber Core (FC)              
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Rope                                      Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)                            
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   2-leg bridle slings                            3-leg bridle slings           
                    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Dia.              30 deg. \1\ (60   45 deg. angle    60 deg. \1\    30 deg. \1\      45 deg.     60 deg. \1\ 
 (inches)   Constr.     deg.) \2\    ----------------  (30 deg.) \2\  (60 deg.) \2\      angle     (30 deg.) \2\
                    -----------------                -----------------------------------------------------------
                        HT      MS      HT      MS       HT      MS     HT      MS     HT     MS     HT      MS 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\....   6 x 19     0.85     0.88    0.70    0.72    0.49    0.51     1.3    1.3    1.0    1.1    0.74    0.7
\5/16\...   6 x 19      1.3      1.4     1.1     1.1    0.76    0.79     2.0    2.0    1.6    1.7     1.1    1.2
\3/8\....   6 x 19      1.8      1.9     1.5     1.6     1.1     1.1     2.8    2.9    2.3    2.4     1.6    1.7
\7/16\...   6 x 19      2.5      2.6     2.0     2.2     1.4     1.5     3.7    4.0    3.0    3.2     2.1    2.3
\1/2\....   6 x 19      3.2      3.4     2.6     2.8     1.8     2.0     4.8    5.1    3.9    4.2     2.8    3.0
\9/16\...   6 x 19      4.0      4.3     3.2     3.5     2.3     2.5     6.0    6.5    4.9    5.3     3.4    3.7
\5/8\....   6 x 19      4.8      5.3     4.0     4.4     2.8     3.1     7.3    8.0    5.9    6.5     4.2    4.6
\3/4\....   6 x 19      6.8      7.6     5.5     6.2     3.9     4.4    10.0   11.0    8.3    9.3     5.8    6.6
\7/8\....   6 x 19      8.9     10.0     7.3     8.4     5.1     5.9    13.0   15.0   11.0   13.0     7.7    8.9
1........   6 x 19     11.0     13.0     9.4    11.0     6.7     7.7    17.0   20.0   14.0   16.0    10.0   11.0
1\1/8\...   6 x 19     14.0     16.0    12.0    13.0     8.4     9.5    22.0   24.0   18.0   20.0    13.0   14.0
1\1/4\...   6 x 37     17.0     19.0    14.0    16.0     9.8    11.0    25.0   29.0   21.0   23.0    15.0   17.0
1\3/8\...   6 x 37     20.0     23.0    17.0    19.0    12.0    13.0    31.0   35.0   25.0   28.0    18.0   20.0
1\1/2\...   6 x 37     24.0     27.0    20.0    22.0    14.0    16.0    36.0   41.0   30.0   33.0    21.0   24.0
1\5/8\...   6 x 37     28.0     32.0    23.0    26.0    16.0    18.0    43.0   48.0   35.0   39.0    25.0   28.0
1\3/4\...   6 x 37     33.0     37.0    27.0    30.0    19.0    21.0    49.0   56.0   40.0   45.0    28.0   32.0
2........   6 x 37     43.0     48.0    35.0    39.0    25.0    28.0    64.0   72.0   52.0   59.0    37.0   41.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HT=Hand Tucked Splice.                                                                                          
MS=Mechanical Splice.                                                                                           
\1\ Vertical angles.                                                                                            
\2\ Horizontal angles.                                                                                          


                          Table H-8--Rated Capacities for 2-Leg and 3-Leg Bridle Slings                         
     6 x 19 and 6 x 37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC)     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Rope                                      Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)                            
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   2-leg bridle slings                            3-leg bridle slings           
                    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Dia.              30 deg. \1\ (60   45 deg. angle    60 deg. \1\    30 deg. \1\      45 deg.     60 deg. \1\ 
 (inches)   Constr.     deg.) \2\    ----------------  (30 deg.) \2\  (60 deg.) \2\      angle     (30 deg.) \2\
                    -----------------                -----------------------------------------------------------
                        HT      MS      HT      MS       HT      MS     HT      MS     HT     MS     HT      MS 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\....   6 x 19     0.92     0.97    0.75    0.79    0.53    0.56     1.4    1.4    1.1    1.2    0.79   0.84
\5/16\...   6 x 19      1.4      1.5     1.1     1.2    1.81    0.87     2.1    2.3    1.7    1.8     1.2    1.3
\3/8\....   6 x 19      2.0      2.1     1.6     1.8     1.1     1.2     3.0    3.2    2.4    2.6     1.7    1.9
\7/16\...   6 x 19      2.7      2.9     2.2     2.4     1.5     1.7     4.0    4.4    3.3    3.6     2.3    2.5
\1/2\....   6 x 19      3.4      3.8     2.8     3.1     2.0     2.2     5.1    5.7    4.2    4.6     3.0    3.3
\9/16\...   6 x 19      4.3      4.8     3.5     3.9     2.5     2.7     6.4    7.1    5.2    5.8     3.7    4.1

[[Page 224]]

                                                                                                                
\5/8\....   6 x 19      5.2      5.9     4.2     4.8     3.0     3.4     7.8    8.8    6.4    7.2     4.5    5.1
\3/4\....   6 x 19      7.3      8.4     5.9     6.9     4.2     4.9    11.0   13.0    8.9   10.0     6.3    7.3
\7/8\....   6 x 19      9.6     11.0     7.8     9.3     5.5     6.6    14.0   17.0   12.0   14.0     8.3    9.9
1........   6 x 19     12.0     15.0    10.0    12.0     7.2     8.5    19.0   22.0   15.0   18.0    11.0   13.0
1\1/8\...   6 x 19     16.0     18.0    13.0    15.0     9.0    10.0    23.0   27.0   19.0   22.0    13.0   16.0
1\1/4\...   6 x 37     18.0     21.0    15.0    17.0    10.0    12.0    27.0   32.0   22.0   26.0    16.0   18.0
1\3/8\...   6 x 37     22.0     25.0    18.0    21.0    13.0    15.0    33.0   38.0   27.0   31.0    19.0   22.0
1\1/2\...   6 x 37     26.0     30.0    21.0    25.0    15.0    17.0    39.0   45.0   32.0   37.0    23.0   26.0
1\5/8\...   6 x 37     31.0     35.0    25.0    29.0    18.0    20.0    46.0   53.0   38.0   43.0    27.0   31.0
1\3/4\...   6 x 37     35.0     41.0    29.0    33.0    20.0    24.0    53.0   61.0   43.0   50.0    31.0   35.0
2........   6 x 37     46.0     53.0    37.0    43.0    26.0    30.0    68.0   79.0   56.0   65.0    40.0   46.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HT=Hand Tucked Splice.                                                                                          
MS=Mechanical Splice.                                                                                           
\1\ Vertical angles.                                                                                            
\2\ Horizontal angles.                                                                                          


                                              Table H-9--Rated Capacities for 2-Leg and 3-Leg Bridle Slings                                             
                                                         Cable Laid Rope--Mechanical Splice Only                                                        
                                          7 x 7 x 7 and 7 x 7 x 19 Construction Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope                                          
                                               7 x 6 x 19 IWRC Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope                                              
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Rope                                                          Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                      2-leg bridle sling                     3-leg bridle sling         
                                                                           -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Dia. (inches)                            Constr.              30 deg. \1\   45 deg.   60 deg. \1\    30 deg. \1\   45 deg.   60 deg. \1\ 
                                                                            (60 deg.) \2\   angle   (30 deg.) \2\  (60 deg.) \2\   angle   (30 deg.) \2\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\......................................  7 x 7 x 7....................        0.87        0.71        0.50            1.3         1.1        0.75   
\3/8\......................................  7 x 7 x 7....................         1.9         1.5         1.1            2.8         2.3         1.6   
\1/2\......................................  7 x 7 x 7....................         3.2         2.6         1.8            4.8         3.9         2.8   
\5/8\......................................  7 x 7 x 7....................         4.8         3.9         2.8            7.2         5.9         4.2   
\3/4\......................................  7 x 7 x 7....................         6.6         5.4         3.8            9.9         8.1         5.7   
\5/8\......................................  7 x 7 x 19...................         5.0         4.1         2.9            7.5         6.1         4.3   
\3/4\......................................  7 x 7 x 19...................         7.0         5.7         4.1           10.0         8.6         6.1   
\7/8\......................................  7 x 7 x 19...................         9.3         7.6         5.4           14.0        11.0         8.1   
1..........................................  7 x 7 x 19...................        12.0         9.7         6.9           18.0        14.0        10.0   
1\1/8\.....................................  7 x 7 x 19...................        14.0        12.0         8.2           21.0        17.0        12.0   
1\1/4\.....................................  7 x 7 x 19...................        17.0        14.0         9.9           26.0        21.0        15.0   
\3/4\......................................  7 x 6 x 19 IWRC..............         6.6         5.4         3.8            9.9         8.0         5.7   
\7/8\......................................  7 x 6 x 19 IWRC..............         8.7         7.1         5.0           13.0        11.0         7.5   
1..........................................  7 x 6 x 19 IWRC..............        11.0         9.0         6.4           17.0        13.0         9.6   
1\1/8\.....................................  7 x 6 x 19 IWRC..............        13.0        11.0         7.7           20.0        16.0        11.0   
1\1/4\.....................................  7 x 6 x 19 IWRC..............        16.0        13.0         9.2           24.0        20.0        14.0   
1\5/16\....................................  7 x 6 x 19 IWRC..............        17.0        14.0        10.0           26.0        21.0        15.0   
1\3/8\.....................................  7 x 6 x 19 IWRC..............        19.0        15.0        11.0           28.0        23.0        16.0   
1\1/2\.....................................  7 x 6 x 19 IWRC..............        22.0        18.0        13.0           33.0        27.0        19.0   
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Vertical angles.                                                                                                                                    
\2\ Horizontal angles.                                                                                                                                  


                         Table H-10--Rated Capacities for 2-Leg and 3-Leg Bridle Slings                         
                                         8-Part and 6-Part Braided Rope                                         
                          6 x 7 and 6 x 19 Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope                          
                                7 x 7 Construction Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope                               
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Rope                                      Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)                            
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   2-leg bridle slings                            3-leg bridle slings           
                    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     30 deg. \1\ (60   45 deg. angle    60 deg. \1\    30 deg. \1\      45 deg.     60 deg. \1\ 
   Dia.     Constr.     deg.) \2\    ----------------  (30 deg.) \2\  (60 deg.) \2\      angle     (30 deg.) \2\
 (inches)           -----------------                -----------------------------------------------------------
                                      8-Part  6-Part             6-             6-     8-     6-             6- 
                      8-Part  6-Part                   8-Part   Part  8-Part   Part   Part   Part  8-Part   Part
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\3/32\...    6 x 7     0.74     0.55    0.60    0.45    0.42    0.32     1.1   0.83   0.90   0.68    0.64   0.48
\1/8\....    6 x 7      1.3     0.98     1.1    0.80    0.76    0.57     2.0    1.5    1.6    1.2     1.1   0.85

[[Page 225]]

                                                                                                                
\3/16\...    6 x 7      2.9      2.2     2.4     1.8     1.7     1.3     4.4    3.3    3.6    2.7     2.5    1.9
\3/32\...    7 x 7     0.89     0.67    0.72    0.55    0.51    0.39     1.3    1.0    1.1   0.82    0.77   0.58
\1/8\....    7 x 7      1.6      1.2     1.3     1.0    0.95    0.71     2.5    1.8    2.0    1.5     1.4    1.1
\3/16\...    7 x 7      3.6      2.7     2.9     2.2     2.1     1.5     5.4    4.0    4.4    3.3     3.1    2.3
\3/16\...   6 x 19      3.0      2.2     2.4     1.8     1.7     1.3     4.5    3.4    3.7    2.8     2.6    1.9
\1/4\....   6 x 19      5.3      4.0     4.3     3.2     3.1     2.3     8.0    6.0    6.5    4.9     4.6    3.4
\5/16\...   6 x 19      8.3      6.2     6.7     5.0     4.8     3.6    12.0    9.3   10.0    7.6     7.1    5.4
\3/8\....   6 x 19     12.0      8.9     9.7     7.2     6.8     5.1    18.0   13.0   14.0   11.0    10.0    7.7
\7/16\...   6 x 19     16.0     12.0    13.0     9.8     9.3     6.9    24.0   18.0   20.0   15.0    14.0   10.0
\1/2\....   6 x 19     21.0     15.0    17.0    13.0    12.0     9.0    31.0   23.0   25.0   19.0    18.0   13.0
\9/16\...   6 x 19     26.0     20.0    21.0    16.0    15.0    11.0    39.0   29.0   32.0   24.0    23.0   17.0
\5/8\....   6 x 19     32.0     24.0    26.0    20.0    19.0    14.0    48.0   36.0   40.0   30.0    28.0   21.0
\3/4\....   6 x 19     46.0     35.0    38.0    28.0    27.0    20.0    69.0   52.0   56.0   42.0    40.0   30.0
\7/8\....   6 x 19     62.0     47.0    51.0    38.0    36.0    27.0    94.0   70.0   76.0   57.0    54.0   40.0
1........   6 x 19     81.0     61.0    66.0    50.0    47.0    35.0    22.0   91.0   99.0   74.0    70.0   53.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Vertical angles.                                                                                            
\2\ Horizontal angles.                                                                                          


    Table H-11--Rated Capacities for Strand Laid Grommet--Hand Tucked   
                     Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Rope body                Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Vertical basket
Dia. (inches)     Constr.       Vertical       Choker          \1\      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\........     7 x 19          0.85          0.64            1.7     
\5/16\.......     7 x 19           1.3           1.0            2.6     
\3/8\........     7 x 19           1.9           1.4            3.8     
\7/16\.......     7 x 19           2.6           1.9            5.2     
\1/2\........     7 x 19           3.3           2.5            6.7     
\9/16\.......     7 x 19           4.2           3.1            8.4     
\5/8\........     7 x 19           5.2           3.9          10.00     
\3/4\........     7 x 19           7.4           5.6           15.0     
\7/8\........     7 x 19          10.0           7.5           20.0     
1............     7 x 19          13.0           9.7           26.0     
1\1/8\.......     7 x 19          16.0          12.0           32.0     
1\1/4\.......     7 x 37          18.0          14.0           37.0     
1\3/8\.......     7 x 37          22.0          16.0           44.0     
1\1/2\.......     7 x 37          26.0          19.0           52.0     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 5 or greater where:   
  D=Diameter of curvature around which rope is bent. d=Diameter of rope 
  body.                                                                 


    Table H-12--Rated Capacities for Cable Laid Grommet--Hand Tucked    
  7 x 6 x 7 and 7 x 6 x 19 Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope  
          7 x 7 x 7 Construction Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Cable body               Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Vertical basket
Dia. (inches)     Constr.       Vertical       Choker          \1\      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\3/8\........  7 x 6 x 7           1.3          0.95            2.5     
\9/16\.......  7 x 6 x 7           2.8           2.1            5.6     
\5/8\........  7 x 6 x 7           3.8           2.8            7.6     
\3/8\........  7 x 7 x 7           1.6           1.2            3.2     
\9/16\.......  7 x 7 x 7           3.5           2.6            6.9     
\5/8\........  7 x 7 x 7           4.5           3.4            9.0     
\5/8\........  7 x 6 x 19          3.9           3.0            7.9     
\3/4\........  7 x 6 x 19          5.1           3.8           10.0     
\15/16\......  7 x 6 x 19          7.9           5.9           16.0     
1\1/8\.......  7 x 6 x 19         11.0           8.4           22.0     
1\5/16\......  7 x 6 x 19         15.0          11.0           30.0     
1\1/2\.......  7 x 6 x 19         19.0          14.0           39.0     
1\11/16\.....  7 x 6 x 19         24.0          18.0           49.0     
1\7/8\.......  7 x 6 x 19         30.0          22.0           60.0     
2\1/4\.......  7 x 6 x 19         42.0          31.0           84.0     
2\5/8\.......  7 x 6 x 19         56.0          42.0          112.0     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 5 or greater where:   
  D=Diameter of curvature around which cable body is bent. d=Diameter of
  cable body.                                                           


 Table H-13--Rated Capacities for Strand Laid Endless Slings-Mechanical 
                                  Joint                                 
                     Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Rope body                Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Vertical basket
Dia. (inches)     Constr.       Vertical       Choker          \1\      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\........  \2\ 6 x 19         0.92          0.69            1.8     
\3/8\........  \2\ 6 x 19          2.0           1.5            4.1     
\1/2\........  \2\ 6 x 19          3.6           2.7            7.2     
\5/8\........  \2\ 6 x 19          5.6           4.2           11.0     
\3/4\........  \2\ 6 x 19          8.0           6.0           16.0     
\7/8\........  \2\ 6 x 19         11.0           8.1           21.0     

[[Page 226]]

                                                                        
1............  \2\ 6 x 19         14.0          10.0           28.0     
1\1/8\.......  \2\ 6 x 19         18.0          13.0           35.0     
1\1/4\.......  \2\ 6 x 37         21.0          15.0           41.0     
1\3/8\.......  \2\ 6 x 37         25.0          19.0           50.0     
1\1/2\.......  \2\ 6 x 37         29.0          22.0           59.0     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 5 or greater where:   
  D=Diameter of curvature around which rope is bent. d=Diameter of rope 
  body.                                                                 
\2\ IWRC.                                                               


  Table H-14--Rated Capacities For Cable Laid Endless Slings-Mechanical 
                                  Joint                                 
7 x 7 x 7 and 7 x 7 x 19 Construction Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope 7 x
         6 x 19 IWRC Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Cable body               Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.)    
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Vertical basket
Dia. (inches)     Constr.       Vertical       Choker          \1\      
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/4\........  7 x 7 x 7          0.83          0.62            1.6     
\3/8\........  7 x 7 x 7           1.8           1.3            3.5     
\1/2\........  7 x 7 x 7           3.0           2.3            6.1     
\5/8\........  7 x 7 x 7           4.5           3.4            9.1     
\3/4\........  7 x 7 x 7           6.3           4.7           12.0     
\5/8\........  7 x 7 x 19          4.7           3.5            9.5     
\3/4\........  7 x 7 x 19          6.7           5.0           13.0     
\7/8\........  7 x 7 x 19          8.9           6.6           18.0     
1............  7 x 7 x 19         11.0           8.5           22.0     
1\1/8\.......  7 x 7 x 19         14.0          10.0           28.0     
1\1/4\.......  7 x 7 x 19         17.0          12.0           33.0     
\3/4\........  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19           6.2           4.7           12.0     
\7/8\........  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19           8.3           6.2           16.0     
1............  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19          10.0           7.9           21.0     
1\1/8\.......  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19          13.0           9.7           26.0     
1\1/4\.......  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19          16.0          12.0           31.0     
1\3/8\.......  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19          18.0          14.0           37.0     
1\1/2\.......  \2\ 7 x 6 x                                              
                      19          22.0          16.0           43.0     
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ These values only apply when the D/d value is 5 or greater where:   
  D=Diameter of curvature around which cable body is bent. d=Diameter of
  cable body.                                                           
\2\ IWRC.                                                               

[[Page 227]]

                                                                        


                                                                                 Table H-15--Manila Rope Slings                                                                                 
                                                                        [Angle of rope to vertical shown in parentheses]                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Rated capacity in pounds (safety factor=5)                                                       
                                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Rope       Nominal      Minimum                                   Eye and eye sling                                                              Endless sling                              
  diameter    weight per    breaking  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 nominal in   100 ft. in  strength in                                  Basket hitch; angle of rope to horizontal                                   Basket hitch; angle of rope to horizontal    
   inches       pounds       pounds      Vertical      Choker   ------------------------------------------------------  Vertical     Choker   --------------------------------------------------
                                          hitch        hitch      90 deg. (0   60 deg. (30   45 deg. (45  30 deg. (60     hitch       hitch    90 deg. (0  60 deg. (30  45 deg. (45  30 deg. (60
                                                                    deg.)         deg.)         deg.)        deg.)                                deg.)       deg.)        deg.)        deg.)   
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1/2\......         7.5        2,650          550          250        1,100          900           750           550         950         500       1,900        1,700        1,400          950 
\9/16\.....        10.4        3,450          700          350        1,400        1,200         1,000           700       1,200         600       2,500        2,200        1,800        1,200 
\5/8\......        13.3        4,400          900          450        1,800        1,500         1,200           900       1,600         800       3,200        2,700        2,200        1,600 
\3/4\......        16.7        5,400        1,100          550        2,200        1,900         1,500         1,100       2,000         950       3,900        3,400        2,800        2,000 
\13/16\....        19.5        6,500        1,300          650        2,600        2,300         1,800         1,300       2,300       1,200       4,700        4,100        3,300        2,300 
\7/8\......        22.5        7,700        1,500          750        3,100        2,700         2,200         1,500       2,800       1,400       5,600        4,800        3,900        2,800 
1..........        27.0        9,000        1,800          900        3,600        3,100         2,600         1,800       3,200       1,600       6,500        5,600        4,600        3,200 
1\1/16\....        31.3       10,500        2,100        1,100        4,200        3,600         3,000         2,100       3,800       1,900       7,600        6,600        5,400        3,800 
1\1/8\.....        36.0       12,000        2,400        1,200        4,800        4,200         3,400         2,400       4,300       2,200       8,600        7,500        6,100        4,300 
1\1/4\.....        41.7       13,500        2,700        1,400        5,400        4,700         3,800         2,700       4,900       2,400       9,700        8,400        6,900        4,900 
1\5/16\....        47.9       15,000        3,000        1,500        6,000        5,200         4,300         3,000       5,400       2,700      11,000        9,400        7,700        5,400 
1\1/2\.....        59.9       18,500        3,700        1,850        7,400        6,400         5,200         3,700       6,700       3,300      13,500       11,500        9,400        6,700 
1\5/8\.....        74.6       22,500        4,500        2,300        9,000        7,800         6,400         4,500       8,100       4,100      16,000       14,000       11,500        8,000 
1\3/4\.....        89.3       26,500        5,300        2,700       10,500        9,200         7,500         5,300       9,500       4,800      19,000       16,500       13,500        9,500 
2..........       107.5       31,000        6,200        3,100       12,500       10,500         8,800         6,200      11,000       5,600      22,500       19,500       16,000       11,000 
2\1/3\.....       125.0       36,000        7,200        3,600       14,500       12,500        10,000         7,200      13,000       6,500      26,000       22,500       18,500       13,000 
2\1/4\.....       146.0       41,000        8,200        4,100       16,500       14,000        11,500         8,200      15,000       7,400      29,500       25,500       21,000       15,000 
2\1/2\.....       166.7       46.500        9,300        4,700       18,500       16,000        13,000         9,300      16,500       8,400      33,500       29,000       23,500       16,500 
2\5/8\.....       190.8       52,000       10,500        5,200       21,000       18,000        14,500        10,500      18,500       9,500      37,500       32,500       26,500       18,500 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                                                  Table H-16--Nylon Rope Slings                                                                                 
                                                                        [Angle of rope to vertical shown in parentheses]                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Rated capacity in pounds (safety factor=9)                                                       
                                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Rope       Nominal      Minimum                                   Eye and eye sling                                                              Endless sling                              
  diameter    weight per    breaking  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 nominal in   100 ft. in  strength in                                  Basket hitch; angle of rope to horizontal                                   Basket hitch; angle of rope to horizontal    
   inches       pounds       pounds      Vertical      Choker   ----