[Title 50 CFR ]
[Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) - October 1, 1999 Edition]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]


          50



          Wildlife and Fisheries



[[Page i]]

          PARTS 1 TO 199

                         Revised as of October 1, 1999

          CONTAINING
          A CODIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS
          OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY
          AND FUTURE EFFECT

          AS OF OCTOBER 1, 1999
          With Ancillaries
          Published by
          the Office of the Federal Register
          National Archives and Records
          Administration

          as a Special Edition of
          the Federal Register



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                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                            WASHINGTON : 1999



               For sale by U.S. Government Printing Office
 Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328



[[Page iii]]




                            Table of Contents



                                                                    Page
  Explanation.................................................       v

  Title 50:

          Chapter I--United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 
          Department of the Interior..........................       3

  Finding Aids:

      Material Approved for Incorporation by Reference........     855

      Table of CFR Titles and Chapters........................     857

      Alphabetical List of Agencies Appearing in the CFR......     875

      List of CFR Sections Affected...........................     885



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                     ----------------------------

                     Cite this Code:  CFR
                     To cite the regulations in 
                       this volume use title, 
                       part and section number. 
                       Thus,  50 CFR 1.1 refers 
                       to title 50, part 1, 
                       section 1.

                     ----------------------------

[[Page v]]



                               EXPLANATION

    The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and 
permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive 
departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Code is divided 
into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to Federal 
regulation. Each title is divided into chapters which usually bear the 
name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into 
parts covering specific regulatory areas.
    Each volume of the Code is revised at least once each calendar year 
and issued on a quarterly basis approximately as follows:

Title 1 through Title 16.................................as of January 1
Title 17 through Title 27..................................as of April 1
Title 28 through Title 41...................................as of July 1
Title 42 through Title 50................................as of October 1

    The appropriate revision date is printed on the cover of each 
volume.

LEGAL STATUS

    The contents of the Federal Register are required to be judicially 
noticed (44 U.S.C. 1507). The Code of Federal Regulations is prima facie 
evidence of the text of the original documents (44 U.S.C. 1510).

HOW TO USE THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

    The Code of Federal Regulations is kept up to date by the individual 
issues of the Federal Register. These two publications must be used 
together to determine the latest version of any given rule.
    To determine whether a Code volume has been amended since its 
revision date (in this case, October 1, 1999), consult the ``List of CFR 
Sections Affected (LSA),'' which is issued monthly, and the ``Cumulative 
List of Parts Affected,'' which appears in the Reader Aids section of 
the daily Federal Register. These two lists will identify the Federal 
Register page number of the latest amendment of any given rule.

EFFECTIVE AND EXPIRATION DATES

    Each volume of the Code contains amendments published in the Federal 
Register since the last revision of that volume of the Code. Source 
citations for the regulations are referred to by volume number and page 
number of the Federal Register and date of publication. Publication 
dates and effective dates are usually not the same and care must be 
exercised by the user in determining the actual effective date. In 
instances where the effective date is beyond the cut-off date for the 
Code a note has been inserted to reflect the future effective date. In 
those instances where a regulation published in the Federal Register 
states a date certain for expiration, an appropriate note will be 
inserted following the text.

OMB CONTROL NUMBERS

    The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-511) requires 
Federal agencies to display an OMB control number with their information 
collection request.

[[Page vi]]

Many agencies have begun publishing numerous OMB control numbers as 
amendments to existing regulations in the CFR. These OMB numbers are 
placed as close as possible to the applicable recordkeeping or reporting 
requirements.

OBSOLETE PROVISIONS

    Provisions that become obsolete before the revision date stated on 
the cover of each volume are not carried. Code users may find the text 
of provisions in effect on a given date in the past by using the 
appropriate numerical list of sections affected. For the period before 
January 1, 1986, consult either the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1949-
1963, 1964-1972, or 1973-1985, published in seven separate volumes. For 
the period beginning January 1, 1986, a ``List of CFR Sections 
Affected'' is published at the end of each CFR volume.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

    What is incorporation by reference? Incorporation by reference was 
established by statute and allows Federal agencies to meet the 
requirement to publish regulations in the Federal Register by referring 
to materials already published elsewhere. For an incorporation to be 
valid, the Director of the Federal Register must approve it. The legal 
effect of incorporation by reference is that the material is treated as 
if it were published in full in the Federal Register (5 U.S.C. 552(a)). 
This material, like any other properly issued regulation, has the force 
of law.
    What is a proper incorporation by reference? The Director of the 
Federal Register will approve an incorporation by reference only when 
the requirements of 1 CFR part 51 are met. Some of the elements on which 
approval is based are:
    (a) The incorporation will substantially reduce the volume of 
material published in the Federal Register.
    (b) The matter incorporated is in fact available to the extent 
necessary to afford fairness and uniformity in the administrative 
process.
    (c) The incorporating document is drafted and submitted for 
publication in accordance with 1 CFR part 51.
    Properly approved incorporations by reference in this volume are 
listed in the Finding Aids at the end of this volume.
    What if the material incorporated by reference cannot be found? If 
you have any problem locating or obtaining a copy of material listed in 
the Finding Aids of this volume as an approved incorporation by 
reference, please contact the agency that issued the regulation 
containing that incorporation. If, after contacting the agency, you find 
the material is not available, please notify the Director of the Federal 
Register, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC 
20408, or call (202) 523-4534.

CFR INDEXES AND TABULAR GUIDES

    A subject index to the Code of Federal Regulations is contained in a 
separate volume, revised annually as of January 1, entitled CFR Index 
and Finding Aids. This volume contains the Parallel Table of Statutory 
Authorities and Agency Rules. A list of CFR titles, chapters, and parts 
and an alphabetical list of agencies publishing in the CFR are also 
included in this volume.
    An index to the text of ``Title 3--The President'' is carried within 
that volume.
    The Federal Register Index is issued monthly in cumulative form. 
This index is based on a consolidation of the ``Contents'' entries in 
the daily Federal Register.
    A List of CFR Sections Affected (LSA) is published monthly, keyed to 
the revision dates of the 50 CFR titles.

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REPUBLICATION OF MATERIAL

    There are no restrictions on the republication of material appearing 
in the Code of Federal Regulations.

INQUIRIES

    For a legal interpretation or explanation of any regulation in this 
volume, contact the issuing agency. The issuing agency's name appears at 
the top of odd-numbered pages.
    For inquiries concerning CFR reference assistance, call 202-523-5227 
or write to the Director, Office of the Federal Register, National 
Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408.

SALES

    The Government Printing Office (GPO) processes all sales and 
distribution of the CFR. For payment by credit card, call 202-512-1800, 
M-F, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. e.s.t. or fax your order to 202-512-2233, 24 hours 
a day. For payment by check, write to the Superintendent of Documents, 
Attn: New Orders, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. For GPO 
Customer Service call 202-512-1803.

ELECTRONIC SERVICES

    The full text of the Code of Federal Regulations, The United States 
Government Manual, the Federal Register, Public Laws, Weekly Compilation 
of Presidential Documents and the Privacy Act Compilation are available 
in electronic format at www.access.gpo.gov/nara (``GPO Access''). For 
more information, contact Electronic Information Dissemination Services, 
U.S. Government Printing Office. Phone 202-512-1530, or 888-293-6498 
(toll-free). E-mail, gpoaccess@gpo.gov.
    The Office of the Federal Register also offers a free service on the 
National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) World Wide Web 
site for public law numbers, Federal Register finding aids, and related 
information. Connect to NARA's web site at www.nara.gov/fedreg. The NARA 
site also contains links to GPO Access.

                              Raymond A. Mosley,
                                    Director,
                          Office of the Federal Register.

October 1, 1999.



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                               THIS TITLE

    Title 50--Fish and Wildlife is composed of three volumes. The parts 
in these volumes are arranged in the following order: Parts 1-199, parts 
200-599 and part 600 to end. The first volume (parts 1-199) contains the 
current regulations issued under chapter I--United States Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. The second volume (parts 
200-599) contains the current regulations issued under chapter II--
National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, Department of Commerce; chapter III--International 
Fishing and Related Activities, chapter IV--Joint Regulations (United 
States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior and 
National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, Department of Commerce); Endangered Species Committee 
regulations; and chapter V--Marine Mammal Commission. The third volume 
(part 600 to end) contains the current regulations issued under chapter 
VI--Fishery Conservation and Management, National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce. The contents of 
these volumes represent all current regulations codified under this 
title of the CFR as of October 1, 1999.

    Alphabetical listings of endangered and threatened wildlife and 
plants appear in part 17.

    The OMB control numbers for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration appear in 15 CFR 902.1.

    For this volume, Cheryl E. Sirofchuck was Chief Editor. The Code of 
Federal Regulations publication program is under the direction of 
Frances D. McDonald, assisted by Alomha S. Morris.

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[[Page 1]]



                    TITLE 50--WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES




                   (This book contains parts 1 to 199)

  --------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Part

Chapter I--United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 
  Department of the Interior................................           1

Cross References: Commercial fishing on Red Lake Indian Reservation, 
  Bureau of Indian Affairs: 25 CFR part 242.

  Disposal of certain wild animals in national parks, National Park 
Service: 36 CFR part 10.

  Exchanges of land for migratory bird or other wildlife refuges, Bureau 
of Land Management: 43 CFR 2200.0-1--2272.1.

  Fishing in coastal waters, lakes, rivers, bays, etc., Corps of 
Engineers: 33 CFR part 209.

  Fishing, hunting, trapping, and protection of wildlife in national 
forests and wildlife refuges, Forest Service: 36 CFR part 241, 
Secs. 261.8, 261.9.

  Fishing, hunting, trapping, and protection of wildlife in national 
parks, memorials, recreation areas, etc., National Park Service: 36 CFR 
2.2 and 2.3, and parts 7, 20.

  Fishing and hunting in reservoir areas, Corps of Engineers: 36 CFR 
327.8.

  Free entry of animals, birds and products of American fisheries under 
specified conditions, Customs Service: 19 CFR 10.70--10.83.

  Grazing areas for wildlife maintenance, Bureau of Land Management: 43 
CFR Subpart 4110.

  Making pictures, television production, or sound tracks on areas 
administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service or the 
National Park Service: 43 CFR 5.1.

[[Page 3]]



 CHAPTER I--UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE 
                                INTERIOR




  --------------------------------------------------------------------

                    SUBCHAPTER A--GENERAL PROVISIONS
Part                                                                Page
1               Definitions.................................           5
2               Field organization..........................           5
3               Nondiscrimination--contracts, permits, and 
                    use of facilities.......................           6

   SUBCHAPTER B--TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, 
       BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS

10              General provisions..........................           8
11              Civil procedures............................          28
12              Seizure and forfeiture procedures...........          31
13              General permit procedures...................          40
14              Importation, exportation, and transportation 
                    of wildlife.............................          50
15              Wild Bird Conservation Act..................          76
16              Injurious wildlife..........................          89
17              Endangered and threatened wildlife and 
                    plants..................................          96
18              Marine mammals..............................         427
19              Airborne hunting............................         454
20              Migratory bird hunting......................         455
21              Migratory bird permits......................         476
22              Eagle permits...............................         500
23              Endangered species convention...............         510
24              Importation and exportation of plants.......         550

            SUBCHAPTER C--THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM

25              Administrative provisions...................         553
26              Public entry and use........................         558
27              Prohibited acts.............................         564
28              Enforcement, penalty, and procedural 
                    requirements for violations of parts 25, 
                    26, and 27..............................         570

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29              Land use management.........................         572
30              Range and feral animal management...........         583
31              Wildlife species management.................         583
32              Hunting and fishing.........................         584
34              Refuge revenue sharing with counties........         663
35              Wilderness preservation and management......         667
36              Alaska National Wildlife Refuges............         670
37              Geological and geophysical exploration of 
                    the coastal plain, Arctic National 
                    Wildlife Refuge, Alaska.................         695
38              Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.......         717

                        SUBCHAPTER D  [RESERVED]

        SUBCHAPTER E--MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS

70              National fish hatcheries....................         721
71              Hunting and fishing on national fish 
                    hatchery areas..........................         722

  SUBCHAPTER F--FEDERAL AID TO STATES IN FISH AND WILDLIFE RESTORATION

80              Administrative requirements, Federal Aid in 
                    Fish and Federal Aid in Wildlife 
                    Restoration Acts........................         724
81              Conservation of endangered and threatened 
                    species of fish, wildlife, and plants--
                    cooperation with the States.............         732
82              Administrative procedures for grants-in-aid 
                    (Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972)..         736
83              Rules implementing the Fish and Wildlife 
                    Conservation Act of 1980................         740
85              Clean Vessel Act Grant Program..............         746

                 SUBCHAPTER G--MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

90              Feeding depredating migratory waterfowl.....         756
91              Migratory bird hunting and conservation 
                    stamp contest...........................         758

                SUBCHAPTER H--NATIONAL WILDLIFE MONUMENTS

96-99           [Reserved]
100             Subsistence management regulations for 
                    public lands in Alaska..................         763
101-199         [Reserved]

Appendix A to Chapter I--Codes for the Representation of 
  Names of Countries (Established by the International 
  Organization for Standardization).........................         851

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                    SUBCHAPTER A--GENERAL PROVISIONS





PART 1--DEFINITIONS--Table of Contents




Sec.
1.1  Meaning of terms.
1.2  Authorized representative.
1.3  Service.
1.4  Director.
1.5  Officer in Charge.
1.6  Person.
1.7  Regional director.
1.8  Secretary.

    Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301.

    Source: 31 FR 16002, Dec. 15, 1966, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 1.1   Meaning of terms.

    As used in this chapter, unless separately defined, terms shall have 
the meaning ascribed in this part.



Sec. 1.2   Authorized representative.

    Authorized representative means the subordinate official to which a 
principal official has delegated authority to act on a particular matter 
or a class of matters. The Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is 
frequently the authorized representative of the Secretary of the 
Interior, as also may be a regional director or an officer in charge of 
a Service field installation.



Sec. 1.3   Service.

    Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Department of the Interior.



Sec. 1.4  Director.

    Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the 
authorized representative of such official.

[48 FR 44833, Sept. 30, 1983]



Sec. 1.5  Officer in Charge.

    Officer in Charge means any person in charge of a national fish 
hatchery, national wildlife refuge, research center, or other U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service installation, or the authorized representative of 
such official.

[48 FR 44833, Sept. 30, 1983]



Sec. 1.6   Person.

    Person means an individual, club, association, partnership, 
corporation, or private or public body, any one or all, as the context 
requires.



Sec. 1.7  Regional director.

    Regional director means the official in charge of a region of the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the authorized representative of such 
official.

[48 FR 44833, Sept. 30, 1983]



Sec. 1.8  Secretary.

    Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or the authorized 
representative of such official.

[48 FR 44833, Sept. 30, 1983]



PART 2--FIELD ORGANIZATION--Table of Contents




Sec.
2.1  Regional offices.
2.2  Locations of regional offices.

    Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301.



Sec. 2.1  Regional offices.

    The program operations of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are 
performed at various types of field installations, such as ecological 
services stations, endangered species stations, fishery assistance 
offices, national fish hatcheries, national wildlife refuges, research 
laboratories and wildlife assistance offices. Generally, field 
installations are responsible to the regional director who has 
jurisdiction over Service activities in the State(s) encompassed by the 
region. Unless otherwise stated for a particular matter in the 
regulations, all persons may secure from the regional offices 
information or make submittals or requests, as well as obtain forms and 
instructions as to the scope and contents of papers or reports required 
of the public.

[48 FR 44833, Sept. 30, 1983]



Sec. 2.2  Locations of regional offices.

    The geographic jurisdictions and addresses of the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife regional offices are as follows:
    (a) Portland Regional Office (Region 1--comprising the States of 
California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington; the 
Commonwealth of the

[[Page 6]]

Northern Mariana Islands; and American Samoa, Guam and other Pacific 
possessions), Eastside Federal Complex, 911 N.E. 11th Avenue, Portland, 
Oregon 97232.
    (b) Albuquerque Regional Office (Region 2--comprising the States of 
Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas), 500 Gold Avenue, SW, Room 9018 
(P.O. Box 1306), Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103.
    (c) Twin Cities Regional Office (Region 3--comprising the States of 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and 
Wisconsin), One Federal Drive, Bishop Henry Whipple Federal Building, 
Fort Snelling, MN 55111.
    (d) Atlanta Regional Office (Region 4--comprising the States of 
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, 
North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee; the Commonwealth of Puerto 
Rico; and the Virgin Islands and Caribbean possessions), 1875 Century 
Center Boulevard, Suite 200, Atlanta, Georgia 30345.
    (e) Hadley Regional Office (Region 5--comprising the States of 
Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and 
West Virginia; and the District of Columbia), 300 Westgate Center Drive, 
Hadley, Massachusetts 01035.
    (f) Denver Regional Office (Region 6--comprising the States of 
Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah 
and Wyoming), 134 Union Boulevard (P.O. Box 25486), Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, Colorado 80225.
    (g) Alaska Regional Office (Region 7--comprising the State of 
Alaska), 1011 E. Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503.

[48 FR 44833, Sept. 30, 1983, as amended at 60 FR 40302, Aug. 8, 1995; 
63 FR 52633, Oct. 1, 1998]



PART 3--NONDISCRIMINATION--CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES--Table of Contents




Sec.
3.1  Discrimination prohibited.
3.2  Federal financial assistance.
3.3  Discrimination by contractors and permittees prohibited.

    Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301. Interpret or apply sec. 602, 78 Stat. 252; 
42 U.S.C. 2000d-1; E.O. 10925, E.O. 11114.

    Source: 31 FR 16002, Dec. 15, 1966, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 3.1  Discrimination prohibited.

    No person shall, on the ground of race, color, creed, or national 
origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or 
be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or segregation 
under any program or activity, or in the use of any facility or 
accommodation of the Service.



Sec. 3.2  Federal financial assistance.

    The provisions of 43 CFR part 17, which implements title VI of the 
Civil Rights Act of 1964, are applicable to any program or activity for 
which Federal financial assistance is provided under any law 
administered by the Service, including the programs and activities that 
are federally assisted under the laws listed in Appendix A of 43 CFR 
part 17.



Sec. 3.3  Discrimination by contractors and permittees prohibited.

    The provisions of part III of Executive Order 10925 (3 CFR, 1959-
1963 Comp. p. 448) and the provisions of Executive Order 11114 (3 CFR, 
1959-1963 Comp. p. 774), as they may be amended, and the regulations of 
the President's Council on Equal Opportunity, the President's Committee 
on Equal Employment Opportunity, contained in 41 CFR part 60, and the 
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are applicable to all 
agreements, or modifications thereof, between the Service and any person 
for supplies, services or facilities, or for the use of any Government 
property, services or facilities.
    (a) Any person who provides public accommodations, facilities, 
services, or privileges upon any land under the control or 
administration of the Service through a permit, contract, concession 
contract, or other form of agreement with the Service is prohibited from 
discriminating by segregation or otherwise against any person because of 
race, color, creed, or national origin in the furnishing or refusing to 
furnish

[[Page 7]]

such person any accommodation, facility, service, or privilege which is 
offered to or enjoyed by the general public, and will agree to abide by 
the prohibitions against discrimination contained in the permit, 
contract, or agreement.
    (b) Any person who uses, occupies, or possesses any land under the 
administration or control of the Service through a permit, contract, 
concession contract, or other form of agreement with the Bureau is 
prohibited, in conjunction with the acts or activities authorized or 
permitted by such permit, contract, or agreement, from discriminating 
against any employee or applicant for employment or maintaining any 
employment practice which discriminates in any manner because of race, 
color, creed, or national origin, and will agree to abide by the 
prohibitions against discrimination contained in the permit, contract, 
or agreement.

[[Page 8]]



   SUBCHAPTER B--TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, 
       BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS





PART 10--GENERAL PROVISIONS--Table of Contents




                         Subpart A--Introduction

Sec.
10.1  Purpose of regulations.
10.2  Scope of regulations.
10.3  Other applicable laws.
10.4  When regulations apply.

                         Subpart B--Definitions

10.11  Scope of definitions.
10.12  Definitions.
10.13  List of Migratory Birds.

                          Subpart C--Addresses

10.21  Director.
10.22  Law enforcement offices.

    Authority: 18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 703-712; 16 U.S.C. 668a-d; 19 
U.S.C. 1202, 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543; 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384, 1401-1407; 16 
U.S.C. 742a-742j-l; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378.

    Source: 38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, unless otherwise noted.



                         Subpart A--Introduction



Sec. 10.1  Purpose of regulations.

    The regulations of this Subchapter B are promulgated to implement 
the following statutes enforced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
which regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, 
barter, exportation, and importation of wildlife:

Lacey Act, 18 U.S.C. 42.
Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378.
Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 16 U.S.C. 703-712.
Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668a-668d.
Endangered Species Act of 1973, 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543.
Tariff Classification Act of 1962, 19 U.S.C. 1202, [Schedule 1, Part 
15D, Headnote 2(d), T.S.U.S.].
Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956, 16 U.S.C. 742a-742j-l.
Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384, 1401-1407.

[38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, as amended at 53 FR 6649, Mar. 2, 1988]



Sec. 10.2  Scope of regulations.

    The various parts of this subchapter B are interrelated, and 
particular note should be taken that the parts must be construed with 
reference to each other.



Sec. 10.3  Other applicable laws.

    No statute or regulation of any State shall be construed to relieve 
a person from the restrictions, conditions, and requirements contained 
in this subchapter B. In addition, nothing in this subchapter B, nor any 
permit issued under this subchapter B, shall be construed to relieve a 
person from any other requirements imposed by a statute or regulation of 
any State or of the United States, including any applicable health, 
quarantine, agricultural, or customs laws or regulations, or other 
Service enforced statutes or regulations.



Sec. 10.4  When regulations apply.

    The regulations of this subchapter B shall apply to all matters 
arising after the effective date of such regulations, with the following 
exceptions:
    (a) Civil penalty proceedings. Except as otherwise provided in 
Sec. 11.25, the civil penalty assessment procedures contained in this 
subchapter B shall apply only to any proceeding instituted by notice of 
violation dated subsequent to the effective date of these regulations, 
regardless of when the act or omission which is the basis of a civil 
penalty proceeding occurred.
    (b) Permits. The regulations in this subchapter B shall apply to any 
permit application received after the effective date of the appropriate 
regulations in this subchapter B and, insofar as appropriate, to any 
permit which is renewed after such effective date.

[38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, as amended at 39 FR 1159, Jan. 4, 1974]

[[Page 9]]



                         Subpart B--Definitions



Sec. 10.11  Scope of definitions.

    In addition and subject to definitions contained in applicable 
statutes and subsequent parts or sections of this subchapter B, words or 
their variants shall have the meanings ascribed in this subpart. 
Throughout this subchapter B words in the singular form shall include 
the plural, words in the plural form shall include the singular, and 
words in the masculine form shall include the feminine.



Sec. 10.12  Definitions.

    Aircraft means any contrivance used for flight in the air.
    Amphibians means a member of the class, Amphibia, including, but not 
limited to, frogs, toads, and salamanders; including any part, product, 
egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding 
fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a 
processed food product.
    Animal means an organism of the animal kingdom, as distinguished 
from the plant kingdom; including any part, product, egg, or offspring 
thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether 
or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food 
product.
    Birds means a member of the class, Aves; including any part, 
product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof 
(excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product 
or in a processed food product.
    Country of exportation means the last country from which the animal 
was exported before importation into the United States.
    Country of origin means the country where the animal was taken from 
the wild, or the country of natal origin of the animal.
    Crustacean means a member of the class, Crustacea, including but not 
limited to, crayfish, lobsters, shrimps, crabs, barnacles, and some 
terrestrial forms; including any part, product, egg, or offspring 
thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether 
or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food 
product.
    Director means the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Department of the Interior, or his authorized representative.
    Endangered wildlife means any wildlife listed in Sec. 17.11 or 
Sec. 17.12 of this subchapter.
    Fish means a member of any of the following classes:
    (1) Cyclostomata, including, but not limited to, hagfishes and 
lampreys;
    (2) Elasmobranchii, including but not limited to, sharks, skates, 
and rays; and
    (3) Pisces, including but not limited to trout, perch, bass, 
minnows, and catfish; including any part, product, egg, or offspring 
thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether 
or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food 
product.
    Fish or wildlife means any wild animal, whether alive or dead, 
including without limitation any wild mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, 
fish, mollusk, crustacean, arthropod, coelenterate, or other 
invertebrate, whether or not bred, hatched, or born in captivity, and 
including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof.
    Foreign commerce includes, among other things, any transaction (1) 
between persons within one foreign country, or (2) between persons in 
two or more foreign countries, or (3) between a person within the United 
States and a person in one or more foreign countries, or (4) between 
persons within the United States, where the fish or wildlife in question 
are moving in any country or countries outside the United States.
    Fossil means the remains of an animal of past geological ages which 
has been preserved in the earth's crust through mineralization of the 
object.
    Import means to land on, bring into, or introduce into, or attempt 
to land on, bring into, or introduce into any place subject to the 
jurisdiction of the United States, whether or not such landing, 
bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning 
of the tariff laws of the United States.

[[Page 10]]

    Injurious Wildlife means any wildlife for which a permit is required 
under subpart B of part 16 of this subchapter before being imported into 
or shipped between the continental United States, the District of 
Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of 
the United States.
    Mammal means a member of the class, Mammalia; including any part, 
product, egg, or offspring, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding 
fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a 
processed food product.
    Migratory bird means any bird, whatever its origin and whether or 
not raised in captivity, which belongs to a species listed in 
Sec. 10.13, or which is a mutation or a hybrid of any such species, 
including any part, nest, or egg of any such bird, or any product, 
whether or not manufactured, which consists, or is composed in whole or 
part, of any such bird or any part, nest, or egg thereof.
    Migratory game birds: See Sec. 20.11 of this subchapter.
    Mollusk means a member of the phylum, Mollusca, including but not 
limited to, snails, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops, abalone, squid, 
and octopuses; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, 
or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not 
included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.
    Permit means any document designated as a ``permit,'' ``license,'' 
``certificate,'' or any other document issued by the Service to 
authorize, limit, or describe activity and signed by an authorized 
official of the Service.
    Person means any individual, firm, corporation, association, 
partnership, club, or private body, any one or all, as the context 
requires.
    Plant means any member of the plant kingdom, including seeds, roots 
and other parts thereof.
    Possession means the detention and control, or the manual or ideal 
custody of anything which may be the subject of property, for one's use 
and enjoyment, either as owner or as the proprietor of a qualified right 
in it, and either held personally or by another who exercises it in 
one's place and name. Possession includes the act or state of possessing 
and that condition of facts under which one can exercise his power over 
a corporeal thing at his pleasure to the exclusion of all other persons. 
Possession includes constructive possession which means not actual but 
assumed to exist, where one claims to hold by virtue of some title, 
without having actual custody.
    Public as used in referring to museums, zoological parks, and 
scientific or educational institutions, refers to such as are open to 
the general public and are either established, maintained, and operated 
as a governmental service or are privately endowed and organized but not 
operated for profit.
    Reptile means a member of the class, Reptilia, including but not 
limited to, turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and alligators; 
including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body 
or parts thereof, whether or not included in a manufactured product or 
in a processed food product.
    Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or his authorized 
representative.
    Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Department of the Interior.
    Shellfish means an aquatic invertebrate animal having a shell, 
including, but not limited to, (a) an oyster, clam, or other mollusk; 
and (b) a lobster or other crustacean; or any part, product, egg, or 
offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding 
fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a 
processed food product.
    State means any State of the United States, the District of 
Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin 
Islands, and Guam.
    Take means to pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or 
collect, or attempt to pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, 
or collect. (With reference to marine mammals, see Part 18 of this 
subchapter.)
    Transportation means to ship, convey, carry or transport by any 
means whatever, and deliver or receive for such shipment, conveyance, 
carriage, or transportation.
    United States means the several States of the United States of 
America,

[[Page 11]]

the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American 
Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and Guam.
    Whoever means the same as person.
    Wildlife means the same as fish or wildlife.

[38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, as amended at 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977; 
42 FR 59358, Nov. 16, 1977; 45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 50 FR 52889, 
Dec. 26, 1985]



Sec. 10.13  List of Migratory Birds.

    The following is a list of all species of migratory birds protected 
by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-711) and subject to the 
regulations on migratory birds contained in this subchapter B of title 
50 CFR. The species listed are those protected by the Convention for the 
Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, United States-Great 
Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 Stat. 1702, T.S. No. 628; the 
Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, 
February 7, 1936, United States-Mexico, 50 Stat. 1311, T.S. No. 912; the 
Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of 
Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, United States-Japan, 
25 U.S.T. 3329, T.I.A.S. No. 7990; and the Convention for the 
Conservation of Migratory Birds and Their Environment, United States-
U.S.S.R., November 26, 1976, 92 Stat. 3110, T.I.A.S. 9073, 16 U.S.C. 
703, 712. The species are listed two ways. In the first part of the List 
species are arranged alphabetically by English (common) name groups, 
with the scientific name following the English (common) name. All 
species of ducks are listed together under the heading ``Ducks''. In the 
second part of the List, species are listed by scientific name arranged 
in taxonomic order. Taxonomy and nomenclature follows the American 
Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American Birds (6th Edition, 
1983).

                         I. Alphabetical Listing

Accentor, Siberian, Prunella montanella
Albatross:
    Black-footed, Diomedea nigripes
    Laysan, Diomedea immutabilis
    Short-tailed, Diomedea albatrus
    Yellow-nosed, Diomedea chlororhynchos
Anhinga, Anhinga anhinga
Ani:
    Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris
    Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani
Auklet:
    Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus
    Crested, Aethia cristatella
    Least, Aethia pusilla
    Parakeet, Cyclorrhynchus psittacula
    Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata
    Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea
Avocet, American, Recurvirostra americana
Barn-Owl, Common, Tyto alba
Beardless-Tyrannulet, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe
Becard, Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae
Bittern:
    American, Botaurus lentiginosus
    Chinese, Ixobrychus sinensis
    Least, Ixobrychus exilis
    Schrenk's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus
Black-Hawk, Common, Buteogallus anthracinus
Blackbird:
    Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus
    Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus
    Rusty, Euphagus carolinus
    Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis
    Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor
    Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
    Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus
Bluebird:
    Eastern, Sialia sialis
    Mountain, Sialia currucoides
    Western, Sialia mexicana
Bluethroat, Luscinia svecica
Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
Booby:
    Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii
    Brown, Sula leucogaster
    Masked, Sula dactylatra
    Red-footed, Sula sula
Brambling, Fringilla montifringilla
Brant, Branta bernicla
Bufflehead (see DUCKS)
Bullfinch:
    Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
    Puerto Rican, Loxigilla portoricensis
Bunting:
    Indigo, Passerina cyanea
    Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys
    Lazuli, Passerina amoena
    McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus
    Painted, Passerina ciris
    Reed (see Reed-Bunting)
    Rustic, Emberiza rustica
    Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis
    Varied, Passerina versicolor
Bushtit, Psaltriparus minimus
Canvasback (see DUCKS)
Caracara, Crested, Polyborus plancus
Cardinal, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis
Carib, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus
Catbird, Gray, Dumetella carolinensis
Chat, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens
Chickadee (see Tit):
    Black-capped, Parus atricapillus
    Boreal, Parus hudsonicus
    Carolina, Parus carolinensis

[[Page 12]]

    Chestnut-backed, Parus rufescens
    Mexican, Parus sclateri
    Mountain, Parus gambeli
Chuck-will's-widow, Caprimulgus carolinensis
Condor, California, Gymnogyps californianus
Coot:
    American, Fulica americana
    Caribbean, Fulica caribaea
    Eurasian, Fulica atra
Cormorant:
    Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus
    Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus
    Great, Phalacrocorax carbo
    Olivaceous, Phalacrocorax olivaceus
    Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus
    Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile
Cowbird:
    Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus
    Brown-headed, Molothrus ater
    Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis
Crake:
    Corn, Crex crex
    Yellow-breasted, Porzana flaviventer
Crane:
    Common, Grus grus
    Sandhill, Grus canadensis
    Whooping, Grus americana
Creeper, Brown, Certhia americana
Crossbill:
    Red, Loxia curvirostra
    White-winged, Loxia leucoptera
Crow:
    American, Corvus brachyrhynchos
    Fish, Corvus ossifragus
    Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis
    Mexican, Corvus imparatus
    Northwestern, Corvus caurinus
    White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus
Cuckoo:
    Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
    Common, Cuculus canorus
    Hawk (see Hawk-Cuckoo)
    Lizard (see Lizard-Cuckoo)
    Mangrove, Coccyzus minor
    Oriental, Cuculus saturatus
    Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus
Curlew (see Whimbrel):
    Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis
    Eskimo, Numenius borealis
    Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis
    Least, Numenius minutus
    Long-billed, Numenius americanus
Dickcissel, Spiza americana
Dipper, American, Cinclus mexicanus
Dotterel, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus
Dove:
    Ground (see Ground-Dove)
    Inca, Columbina inca
    Mourning, Zenaida macroura
    Quail (see Quail-Dove)
    White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi
    White-winged, Zenaida asiatica
    Zenaida, Zenaida aurita
Dovekie, Alle alle
Dowitcher:
    Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus
    Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus

                                  Ducks

American Black Duck, Anas rubripes
Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola
Canvasback, Aythya valisineria
Eider:
    Common, Somateria mollissima
    King, Somateria spectabilis
    Spectacled, Somateria fischeri
    Steller's, Polysticta stelleri
Gadwall, Anas strepera
Garganey, Anas querquedula
Goldeneye:
    Barrow's, Bucephala islandica
    Common, Bucephala clangula
Harlequin Duck, Histrionicus histrionicus
Hawaiian Duck, Anas wyvilliana
Laysan Duck, Anas laysanensis
Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos
Masked Duck, Oxyura dominica
Merganser
    Common, Mergus merganser
    Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus
    Red-breasted, Mergus serrator
Mottled Duck, Anas fulvigula
Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis
Pintail:
    Northern, Anas acuta
    White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis
Pochard:
    Baer's, Aythya baeri
    Common, Aythya ferina
Redhead, Aythya americana
Ring-necked Duck, Aythya collaris
Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
Scaup:
    Greater, Aythya marila
    Lesser, Aythya affinis
Scoter:
    Black, Melanitta nigra
    Surf, Melanitta perspicillata
    White-winged, Melanitta fusca
Shoveler, Northern, Anas clypeata
Smew, Mergellus albellus
Teal:
    Baikal, Anas formosa
    Blue-winged, Anas discors
    Cinnamon, Anas cyanoptera
    Falcated, Anas falcata
    Green-winged, Anas crecca
Tufted Duck, Aythya fuligula
Whistling-Duck:
    Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis
    Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor
    West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea
Wigeon:
    American, Anas americana
    Eurasian, Anas penelope
Wood Duck, Aix sponsa

                              End of Ducks

Dunlin, Calidris alpina
Eagle:
    Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
    Golden, Aquila chrysaetos
    Sea (see Sea-Eagle)
    White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla

[[Page 13]]

Egret:
    Cattle, Bubulcus ibis
    Chinese, Egretta eulophotes
    Great, Casmerodius albus
    Plumed, Egretta intermedia
    Reddish, Egretta rufescens
    Snowy, Egretta thula
Eider (see DUCKS)
Elaenia, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica
Emerald, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus
Euphonia, Antillean, Euphonia musica
Falcon:
    Aplomado, Falco femoralis
    Peregrine, Falco peregrinus
    Prairie, Falco mexicanus
Fieldfare, Turdus pilaris
Finch:
    Cassin's, Carpodacus cassinii
    House, Carpodacus mexicanus
    Purple, Carpodacus purpureus
    Rosy, Leucosticte arctoa
Flamingo, Greater, Phoenicopterus ruber
Flicker, Northern, Colaptes auratus
Flycatcher:
    Acadian, Empidonax virescens
    Alder, Empidonax alnorum
    Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens
    Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus
    Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons
    Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri
    Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer
    Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana
    Gray, Empidonax wrightii
    Gray-spotted, Muscicapa griseisticta
    Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus
    Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii
    Least, Empidonax minimus
    Narcissus, Muscicapa narcissina
    Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi
    Olive-sided, Contopus borealis
    Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum
    Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus
    Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris
    Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus
    Western, Empidonax difficilis
    Willow, Empidonax traillii
    Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris
Frigatebird:
    Great, Fregata minor
    Magnificent, Fregata magnificens
    Lesser, Fregata ariel
Fulmar, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis
Gadwall (see DUCKS)
Gallinule, Purple, Porphyrula martinica
Gannet, Northern, Sula bassanus
Garganey (see DUCKS)
Gnatcatcher:
    Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps
    Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura
    Blue-gray, Polioptila caerulea
Godwit:
    Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica
    Black-tailed, Limosa limosa
    Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica
    Marbled, Limosa fedoa
Golden-Plover, Lesser, Pluvialis dominica
Goldeneye (see DUCKS)
Goldfinch:
    American, Carduelis tristis
    Lawrence's, Carduelis lawrencei
    Lesser, Carduelis psaltria
Goose:
    Barnacle, Branta leucopsis
    Bean, Anser fabalis
    Canada, Branta canadensis
    Emperor, Chen canagica
    Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons
    Hawaiian, Nesochen sandvicensis
    Ross', Chen rossii
    Snow, Chen caerulescens
Goshawk, Northern, Accipiter gentilis
Grackle:
    Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major
    Common, Quiscalus quiscula
    Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus
    Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger
Grasshopper-Warbler, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis
Grassquit:
    Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor
    Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivacea
Grebe:
    Eared, Podiceps nigricollis
    Horned, Podiceps auritus
    Least, Tachybaptus dominicus
    Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps
    Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena
    Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis
Greenfinch, Oriental, Carduelis sinica
Greenshank, Common, Tringa nebularia
Grosbeak:
    Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus
    Blue, Guiraca caerulea
    Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno
    Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus
    Pine, Pinicola enucleator
    Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus
    Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus
Ground-Dove:
    Common, Columbina passerina
    Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti
Guillemot:
    Black, Cepphus grylle
    Pigeon, Cepphus columba
Gull:
    Bonaparte's, Larus philadelphia
    California, Larus californicus
    Common Black-headed, Larus ridibundus
    Franklin's, Larus pipixcan
    Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus
    Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens
    Great Black-backed, Larus marinus
    Heermann's, Larus heermanni
    Herring, Larus argentatus
    Iceland, Larus glaucoides
    Ivory, Pagophila eburnea
    Laughing, Larus atricilla
    Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus
    Little, Larus minutus
    Mew, Larus canus
    Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis
    Ross', Rhodostethia rosea
    Sabine's, Xema sabini

[[Page 14]]

    Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus
    Thayer's, Larus thayeri
    Western, Larus occidentalis
    Yellow-footed, Larus livens
Gyrfalcon, Falco rusticolus
Harrier, Northern, Circus cyaneus
Hawfinch, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Hawk:
    Asiatic Sparrow, Accipiter gularis
    Black (see Black-Hawk)
    Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus
    Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii
    Ferruginous, Buteo regalis
    Gray, Buteo nitidus
    Harris', Parabuteo unicinctus
    Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius
    Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus
    Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis
    Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus
    Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus
    Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus
    Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni
    White-tailed, Buteo albicaudatus
    Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus
Hawk-Cuckoo, Hodgson's, Cuculus fugax
Hawk-Owl, Northern, Surnia ulula
Heron:
    Great Blue, Ardea herodias
    Green-backed, Butorides striatus
    Little Blue, Egretta caerulea
    Night (see Night-Heron)
    Pacific Reef, Egretta sacra
    Tricolored, Egretta tricolor
Hoopoe, Upupa epops
House-Martin, Common, Delichon urbica
Hummingbird (see Carib, Emerald, Mango, Starthroat, Woodstar, Violet-
ear):
    Allen's, Selasphorus sasin
    Anna's, Calypte anna
    Antillean Crested, Orthorhynchus cristatus
    Berylline, Amazilia beryllina
    Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri
    Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae
    Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris
    Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus
    Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis
    Calliope, Stellula calliope
    Costa's, Calypte costae
    Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer
    Magnificent, Eugenes fulgens
    Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris
    Rufous, Selasphorus rufus
    Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps
    White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis
Ibis:
    Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus
    Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber
    White, Eudocimus albus
    White-faced, Plegadis chihi
Jabiru, Jabiru mycteria
Jacana, Northern, Jacana spinosa
Jaeger:
    Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus
    Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus
    Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus
Jay:
    Blue, Cyanocitta cristata
    Brown, Cyanocorax morio
    Gray, Perisoreus canadensis
    Gray-breasted, Aphelocoma ultramarina
    Green, Cyanocorax yncas
    Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus
    Scrub, Aphelocoma coerulescens
    Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri
Junco:
    Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis
    Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus
Kestrel:
    American, Falco sparverius
    Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus
Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
Kingbird:
    Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans
    Couch's, Tyrannus couchii
    Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus
    Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis
    Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
    Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris
    Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus
    Western, Tyrannus verticalis
Kingfisher:
    Belted, Ceryle alcyon
    Green, Chloroceryle americana
    Ringed, Cyeryle torquata
Kinglet:
    Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa
    Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula
Kiskadee, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus
Kite:
    American Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus
    Black, Milvus migrans
    Black-shouldered, Elanus caeruleus
    Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus
    Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis
    Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis
Kittiwake:
    Black-legged, Larus tridactyla
    Red-legged, Larus brevirostris
Knot:
    Great, Calidris tenuirostris
    Red, Calidris canutus
Lapwing, Northern, Vanellus vanellus
Lark, Horned, Eremophila alpestris
Limpkin, Aramus guarauna
Lizard-Cuckoo, Puerto Rican, Saurothera vieilloti
Longspur:
    Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus
    Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus
    McCown's, Calcarius mccownii
    Smith's, Calcarius pictus
Loon:
    Arctic, Gavia arctica
    Common, Gavia immer
    Red-throated, Gavia stellata
    Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii
Magpie:
    Black-billed, Pica pica
    Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli
Mallard (see DUCKS)
Mango:
    Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus
    Green, Anthracothorax viridis

[[Page 15]]

Martin:
    Caribbean, Progne dominicensis
    Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca
    Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea
    House (see House-Martin)
    Purple, Progne subis
Meadowlark:
    Eastern, Sturnella magna
    Western, Sturnella neglecta
Merganser (see DUCKS)
Merlin, Falco columbarius
Mockingbird, Northern, Mimus polyglottos
Moorhen, Common, Gallinula chloropus
Murre:
    Common, Uria aalge
    Thick-billed, Uria lomvia
Murrelet:
    Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus
    Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri
    Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris
    Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus
    Xantus', Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
Needletail, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus
Night-Heron:
    Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax
    Japanese, Nycticorax goisagi
    Malay, Nycticorax melanolophus
    Yellow-crowned, Nycticorax violaceus
Nighthawk:
    Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii
    Common, Chordeiles minor
    Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis
Nightjar:
    Buff-collared, Caprimulgus ridgwayi
    Jungle, Caprimulgus indicus
    Puerto Rican, Caprimulgus noctitherus
Noddy:
    Black, Anous minutus
    Blue-gray, Procelsterna cerulea
    Brown, Anous stolidus
    Lesser, Anous tenuirostris
Nutcracker, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana
Nuthatch:
    Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla
    Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea
    Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis
    White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis
Oldsquaw (see DUCKS)
Oriole:
    Altamira, Icterus gularis
    Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda
    Black-cowled, Icterus dominicensis
    Black-vented, Icterus wagleri
    Hooded, Icterus cucullatus
    Northern, Icterus galbula
    Orchard, Icterus spurius
    Scott's, Icterus parisorum
    Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus
Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus
Owl:
    Barn (see Barn-Owl)
    Barred, Strix varia
    Boreal, Aegolius funereus
    Burrowing, Athene cunicularia
    Elf, Micrathene whitneyi
    Flammulated, Otus flammeolus
    Great Gray, Strix nebulosa
    Great Horned, Bubo virginianus
    Hawk (see Hawk-Owl)
    Long-eared, Asio otus
    Pygmy (see Pygmy-Owl)
    Saw-whet (see Saw-Whet Owl)
    Screech (see Screech-Owl)
    Short-eared, Asio flammeus
    Snowy, Nyctea scandiaca
    Spotted, Strix occidentalis
Oystercatcher:
    American, Haematopus palliatus
    Black, Haematopus bachmani
Parula:
    Northern, Parula americana
    Tropical, Parula pitiayumi
Pauraque, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis
Pelican:
    American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
    Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis
Petrel:
    Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata
    Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca
    Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii
    Cook's, Pterodroma cookii
    Dark-rumped, Pterodroma phaeopygia
    Herald, Pterodroma arminjoniana
    Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta
    Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata
    Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima
    Storm (see Storm-Petrel)
    White-necked, Pterodroma externa
Pewee:
    Greater, Contopus pertinax
    Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris
    Wood (see Wood-Pewee)
Phainopepla, Phainopepla nitens
Phalarope:
    Red, Phalaropus fulicaria
    Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus
    Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor
Phoebe:
    Black, Sayornis nigricans
    Eastern, Sayornis phoebe
    Say's, Sayornis saya
Pigeon:
    Band-tailed, Columba fasciata
    Plain, Columba inornata
    Red-billed, Columba flavirostris
    Scaly-naped, Columba squamosa
    White-crowned, Columba leucocephala
Pintail (see DUCKS)
Pipit:
    Pechora, Anthus gustavi
    Red-throated, Anthus cervinus
    Sprague's, Anthus spragueii
    Tree (see Tree-Pipit)
    Water, Anthus spinoletta
Plover:
    Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola
    Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula
    Golden (see Golden-Plover)
    Great Sand, Charadrius leschenaultii
    Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius
    Mongolian, Charadrius mongolus
    Mountain, Charadrius montanus

[[Page 16]]

    Piping, Charadrius melodus
    Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus
    Snowy, Charadrius alexandrinus
    Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia
Pochard (see DUCKS)
Poorwill, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
Puffin:
    Atlantic, Fratercula arctica
    Horned, Fratercula corniculata
    Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata
Pygmy-Owl:
    Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum
    Northern, Glaucidium gnoma
Pyrrhuloxia, Cardinalis sinuatus
Quail-Dove:
    Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea
    Key West, Geotrygon chrysia
    Ruddy, Geotrygon montana
Rail:
    Black, Laterallus jamaicensis
    Clapper, Rallus longirostris
    King, Rallus elegans
    Sora (see Sora)
    Virginia, Rallus limicola
    Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis
Raven:
    Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus
    Common, Corvus corax
Razorbill, Alca torda
Redhead (see DUCKS)
Redpoll:
    Common, Carduelis flammea
    Hoary, Carduelis hornemanni
Redshank, Spotted, Tringa erythropus
Redstart:
    American, Setophaga ruticilla
    Painted, Myioborus pictus
    Slaty-throated, Myioborus miniatus
Reed-Bunting:
    Common, Emberiza schoeniculus
    Pallas', Emberiza pallasi
Roadrunner, Greater, Geococcyx californianus
Robin:
    American, Turdus migratorius
    Clay-colored, Turdus grayi
    Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus
Rosefinch, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus
Rough-winged Swallow, Northern, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
Rubythroat, Siberian, Luscinia calliope
Ruff, Philomachus pugnax
Sanderling, Calidris alba
Sandpiper:
    Baird's, Calidris bairdii
    Broad-billed, Limicola falcinellus
    Buff-breasted, Tryngites subruficollis
    Common, Actitis hypoleucos
    Curlew, Calidris ferruginea
    Least, Calidris minutilla
    Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis
    Pectoral, Calidris melanotos
    Purple, Calidris maritima
    Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis
    Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla
    Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata
    Solitary, Tringa solitaria
    Spoonbill, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus
    Spotted, Actitis macularia
    Stilt, Calidris himantopus
    Terek, Xenus cinereus
    Upland, Bartramia longicauda
    Western, Calidris mauri
    White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis
    Wood, Tringa glareola
Sapsucker:
    Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber
    Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus
    Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius
Saw-whet Owl, Northern, Aegolius acadicus
Scaup (see DUCKS)
Scoter (see DUCKS)
Screech-Owl:
    Eastern, Otus asio
    Puerto Rican, Otus nudipes
    Western, Otus kennicottii
    Whiskered, Otus trichopsis
Sea-Eagle, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus
Seedeater, White-collared, Sporophila torqueola
Shearwater:
    Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri
    Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas
    Buller's, Puffinus bulleri
    Christmas, Puffinus nativitatus
    Cory's, Calonectris diomedea
    Flesh-footed, Puffinus carneipes
    Greater, Puffinus gravis
    Little, Puffinus assimilis
    Manx, Puffinus puffinus
    Pink-footed, Puffinus creatopus
    Short-tailed, Puffinus tenuirostris
    Sooty, Puffinus griseus
    Townsend's, Puffinus auricularis
    Wedge-tailed, Puffinus pacificus
Shoveler (see DUCKS)
Shrike:
    Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus
    Northern, Lanius excubitor
Siskin, Pine, Carduelis pinus
Skimmer, Black, Rhynchops niger
Skua:
    Great, Catharacta skua
    South Polar, Catharacta maccormicki
Skylark, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis
Smew (see DUCKS)
Snipe:
    Common, Gallinago gallinago
    Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus
    Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura
    Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala
Solitaire, Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi
Sora, Porzana carolina
Sparrow:
    American Tree, Spizella arborea
    Bachman's, Aimophila aestivalis
    Baird's, Ammodramus bairdii
    Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis
    Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata
    Botteri's, Aimophila botterii
    Brewer's, Spizella breweri
    Cassin's, Aimophila cassinii
    Chipping, Spizella passerina
    Clay-colored, Spizella pallida
    Field, Spizella pusilla

[[Page 17]]

    Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata
    Fox, Passerella iliaca
    Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla
    Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum
    Harris', Zonotrichia querula
    Henslow's, Ammodramus henslowii
    Lark, Chondestes grammacus
    Le Conte's, Ammodramus leconteii
    Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii
    Olive, Arremenops rufivirgatus
    Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruificeps
    Rufous-winged, Aimophila carpalis
    Sage, Amphispiza belli
    Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis
    Seaside, Ammodramus maritimus
    Sharp-tailed, Ammodramus caudacutus
    Song, Melospiza melodia
    Swamp, Melospiza georgiana
    Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus
    White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys
    White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis
    Worthen's, Spizella wortheni
Spoonbill, Roseate, Ajaia ajaja
Starling:
    Ashy, Sturnus cineraceus
    Violet-backed, Sturnus philippensis
Starthroat, Plain-capped Heliomaster constantii,
Stilt, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus
Stint:
    Little, Calidris minuta
    Long-toed, Calidris subminuta
    Rufous-necked, Calidris ruficollis
    Temminck's, Calidris temminckii
Stork, Wood, Mycteria americana
Storm-Petrel:
    Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa
    Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro
    Black, Oceanodroma melania
    Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata
    Leach's, Oceanodroma leucorhoa
    Least, Oceanodroma microsoma
    Sooty, Oceanodroma tristrami
    Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys
    White-faced, Pelagadroma marina
    Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus
Surfbird, Aphriza virgata
Swallow:
    Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis
    Bank, Riparia riparia
    Barn, Hirundo rustica
    Cave, Hirundo fulva
    Cliff, Hirundo pyrrhonota
    Rough-winged (see Rough-winged Swallow)
    Tree, Tachycineta bicolor
    Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina
Swan:
    Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator
    Tundra, Cygnus columbianus
    Whooper, Cygnus cygnus
Swift:
    Antillean Palm, Tachornis pheonicobia
    Black, Cypseloides niger
    Chimney, Chaetura pelagica
    Common, Apus apus
    Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus
    Needle-tailed (see Needletail)
    Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi
    White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris
    White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis
Tanager:
    Hepatic, Piranga flava
    Puerto Rican, Neospingus speculiferus
    Scarlet, Piranga olivacea
    Stripe-headed, Spindalis zena
    Summer, Piranga rubra
    Western, Piranga ludoviciana
Tattler:
    Gray-tailed, Heteroscelus brevipes
    Wandering, Heteroscelus incanus
Teal (see DUCKS)
Tern:
    Aleutian, Sterna aleutica
    Arctic, Sterna paradisaea
    Black, Chlidonias niger
    Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana
    Bridled, Sterna anaethetus
    Caspian, Sterna caspia
    Common, Sterna hirundo
    Elegant, Sterna elegans
    Forster's, Sterna forsteri
    Gray-backed, Sterna lunata
    Gull-billed, Sterna nilotica
    Least, Sterna antillarum
    Little, Sterna albifrons
    Roseate, Sterna dougallii
    Royal, Sterna maxima
    Sandwich, Sterna sandvicensis
    Sooty, Sterna fuscata
    White, Gygis alba
    White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus
Thrasher:
    Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei
    Brown, Toxostoma rufum
    California, Toxostoma redivivum
    Crissal, Toxostoma crissale
    Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre
    Le Conte's, Toxostoma lecontei
    Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre
    Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus
    Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus
Thrush:
    Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola
    Blue Rock, Monticola solitarius
    Dusky, Turdus naumanni
    Eye-browed, Turdus obscurus
    Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus
    Hawaiian, Phaeornis obscurus
    Hermit, Catharus guttatus
    Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus
    Small Kauai, Phaeornis palmeri
    Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus
    Varied, Ixoreus naevius
    Wood, Hylocichla minima
Tit, Siberian, Parus cinctus
Titmouse:
    Bridled, Parus wollweberi
    Plain, Parus inornatus
    Tufted, Parus bicolor
Towhee:
    Abert's, Pipilo aberti
    Brown, Pipilo fuscus
    Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus
    Rufous-sided, Pipilo erythrophthalmus

[[Page 18]]

Tree-Pipit, Olive, Anthus hodgsoni
Trogon:
    Eared, Euptilotus neoxenus
    Elegant, Trogon elegans
Tropicbird:
    Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus
    Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda
    White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus
Turnstone:
    Black, Arenaria melanocephala
    Ruddy, Arenaria interpres
Veery, Catharus fuscescens
Verdin, Auriparus flaviceps
Violet-Ear, Green, Colibri thalassinus
Vireo:
    Bell's Vireo bellii
    Black-capped, Vireo atricapillus
    Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus
    Gray, Vireo vicinior
    Hutton's, Vireo huttoni
    Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus
    Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri
    Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus
    Solitary, Vireo solitarius
    Warbling, Vireo gilvus
    White-eyed, Vireo griseus
    Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons
Vulture:
    Black, Coragyps atratus
    Turkey, Cathartes aura
Wagtail:
    Black-backed, Motacilla lugens
    Gray, Motacilla cinerea
    White, Motacilla alba
    Yellow, Motacilla flava
Warbler:
    Adelaide's, Dendroica adelaidae
    Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis
    Bachman's Vermivora bachmanii
    Bay-breasted, Dendroica castanea
    Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia
    Black-throated Blue, Dendroica caerulescens
    Black-throated Gray, Dendroica nigrescens
    Black-throated Green, Dendroica virens
    Blackburnian, Dendroica fusca
    Blackpoll, Dendroica striata
    Blue-winged, Vermivora pinus
    Canada, Wilsonia canadensis
    Cape May, Dendroica tigrina
    Cerulean, Dendroica cerulea
    Chestnut-sided, Dendroica pensylvanica
    Colima, Vermivora crissalis
    Connecticut, Oporornis agilis
    Elfin Woods, Dendroica angelae
    Golden-cheeked, Dendroica chrysoparia
    Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus
    Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera
    Grace's, Dendroica graciae
    Grasshopper (see Grasshopper-Warbler)
    Hermit, Dendroica occidentalis
    Hooded, Wilsonia citrina
    Kentucky, Oporornis formosus
    Kirtland's, Dendroica kirtlandii
    Lucy's, Vermivora luciae
    MacGillivray's, Oporornis tolmiei
    Magnolia, Dendroica magnolia
    Mourning, Oporornis philadelphia
    Nashville, Vermivora ruficapilla
    Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus
    Orange-crowned, Vermivora celata
    Palm, Dendroica palmarum
    Parula (see Parula)
    Pine, Dendroica pinus
    Prairie, Dendroica discolor
    Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea
    Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons
    Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons
    Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii
    Tennessee, Vermivora peregrina
    Townsend's, Dendroica townsendi
    Virgina's, Vermivora virginiae
    Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus
    Wilson's, Wilsonia pusilla
    Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorus
    Yellow, Dendroica petechia
    Yellow-rumped, Dendroica coronata
    Yellow-throated, Dendroica dominica
Waterthrush:
    Louisiana, Seiurus motacilla
    Northern, Seiurus noveboracensis
Waxwing:
    Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus
    Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum
Wheatear, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe
Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus
Whistling-Duck (see DUCKS)
Wigeon (see DUCKS)
Willet, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
Wood-Pewee:
    Eastern, Contopus virens
    Western, Contopus sordidulus
Woodcock:
    American, Scolopax minor
    Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola
Woodpecker:
    Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus
    Black-backed, Picoides arcticus
    Downy, Picoides pubescens
    Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis
    Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons
    Hairy, Picoides villosus
    Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis
    Ladder-backed, Picoides scalaris
    Lewis', Melanerpes lewis
    Nuttall's, Picoides nuttallii
    Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus
    Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis
    Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus
    Red-cockaded, Picoides borealis
    Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
    Strickland's, Picoides stricklandi
    Three-toed, Picoides tridactylus
    White-headed, Picoides albolarvatus
Woodstar, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae
Wren:
    Bewick's Thryomanes bewickii
    Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
    Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus
    Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus
    House, Troglodytes aedon
    Marsh, Cistothorus palustris
    Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus
    Sedge, Cistothorus platensis

[[Page 19]]

    Winter, Troglodytes troglodytes
Wryneck, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla
Yellowlegs:
Greater, Tringa melanoleuca
Lesser, Tringa flavipes
Yellowthroat:
    Common, Geothlypis trichas
    Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala

                          II. Taxonomic Listing

Order GAVIIFORMES

Family GAVIIDAE
    Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon
    Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon
    Gavia immer, Common Loon
    Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon

Order PODICIPEDIFORMES

Family PODICIPEDIDAE

    Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe
    Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe
    Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe
    Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe
    Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe
    Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe

Order PROCELLARIIFORMES

Family DIOMEDEIDAE

    Diomedea albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross
    Diomedea nigripes, Black-footed Albatross
    Diomedea immutabilis, Laysan Albatross
    Diomedea chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross

Family PROCELLARIIDAE

    Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar
    Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel
    Pterodroma phaeopygia, Dark-rumped Petrel
    Pterodroma externa, White-necked Petrel
    Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel
    Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel
    Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel
    Pterodroma arminjoniana, Herald Petrel
    Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel
    Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel
    Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel
    Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater
    Puffinus creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus gravis, Greater Shearwater
    Puffinus pacificus, Wedge-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus bulleri, Buller's Shearwater
    Puffinus griseus, Sooty Shearwater
    Puffinus tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater
    Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater
    Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater
    Puffinus auricularis, Townsend's Shearwater
    Puffinus assimilis, Little Shearwater
    Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater

Family HYDROBATIDAE

    Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel
    Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tristrami, Sooty Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel

Order PELECANIFORMES

Family PHAETHONTIDAE

    Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird
    Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird
    Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird

Family SULIDAE

    Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby
    Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby
    Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby
    Sula sula, Red-footed Booby
    Sula bassanus, Northern Gannet

Family PELECANIDAE

    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican
    Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican
Family PHALACROCORACIDAE
    Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax olivaceus, Olivaceous Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant

Family ANHINGIDAE

    Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga

Family FREGATIDAE

    Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird
    Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird
    Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird

Order CICONIIFORMES

Family ARDEIDAE

    Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern
    Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern
    Ixobrychus sinensis, Chinese Bittern
    Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenk's Bittern
    Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron
    Casmerodius albus, Great Egret
    Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret
    Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef Heron
    Egretta intermedia, Plumed Egret
    Egretta thula, Snowy Egret
    Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron
    Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron
    Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret

[[Page 20]]

    Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret
    Butorides striatus, Green-backed Heron
    Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron
    Nycticorax melanolophus, Malay Night-Heron
    Nycticorax goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron
    Nycticorax violaceus, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE

    Eudocimus albus, White Ibis
    Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis
    Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis
    Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis
    Ajaia ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill

Family CICONIIDAE

    Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru
    Mycteria americana, Wood Stork

Order PHOENICOPTERIFORMES

Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE

    Phoenicopterus ruber, Greater Flamingo

Order ANSERIFORMES

Family ANATIDAE

    Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck
    Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan
    Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan
    Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan
    Anser fabalis, Bean Goose
    Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose
    Chen caerulescens, Snow Goose
    Chen rossii, Ross' Goose
    Chen canagica, Emperor Goose
    Branta bernicla, Brant
    Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose
    Branta canadensis, Canada Goose
    Nesochen sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose
    Aix sponsa, Wood Duck
    Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal
    Anas formosa, Baikal Teal
    Anas falcata, Falcated Teal
    Anas rubripes, American Black Duck
    Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck
    Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard
    Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck
    Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck
    Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail
    Anas acuta, Northern Pintail
    Anas querquedula, Garganey
    Anas discors, Blue-winged Teal
    Anas cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal
    Anas clypeata, Northern Shoveler
    Anas strepera, Gadwall
    Anas penelope, Eurasian Wigeon
    Anas americana, American Wigeon
    Aythya ferina, Common Pochard
    Aythya valisineria, Canvasback
    Aythya americana, Redhead
    Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard
    Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck
    Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck
    Aythya marila, Greater Scaup
    Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup
    Somateria mollissima, Common Eider
    Somateria spectabilis, King Eider
    Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider
    Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider
    Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck
    Clangula hyemalis, Oldsquaw
    Melanitta nigra, Black Scoter
    Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter
    Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter
    Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye
    Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye
    Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead
    Mergellus albellus, Smew
    Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser
    Mergus merganser, Common Merganser
    Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser
    Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck
    Oxyura dominica, Masked Duck

Order FALCONIFORMES

Family CATHARTIDAE

    Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture
    Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture
    Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor

Family ACCIPITRIDAE

    Pandion haliaetus, Osprey
    Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite
    Elanoides forficatus, American Swallow-tailed Kite
    Elanus caeruleus, Black-shouldered Kite
    Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite
    Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite
    Milvus migrans, Black Kite
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle
    Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle
    Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle
    Circus cyaneus, Northern Harrier
    Accipiter gularis, Asiatic Sparrow Hawk
    Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk
    Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk
    Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk
    Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-Hawk
    Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris' Hawk
    Buteo nitidus, Gray Hawk
    Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk
    Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk
    Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk
    Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk
    Buteo albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk
    Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk
    Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk
    Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk
    Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk
    Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk
    Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle

Family FALCONIDAE

    Polyborus plancus, Crested Caracara
    Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel
    Falco sparverius, American Kestrel
    Falco columbarius, Merlin
    Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon

[[Page 21]]

    Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon
    Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon
    Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon

Order GRUIFORMES

Family RALLIDAE

    Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail
    Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail
    Crex crex, Corn Crake
    Rallus longirostris, Clapper Rail
    Rallus elegans, King Rail
    Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail
    Porzana carolina, Sora
    Porzana flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake
    Porphyrula martinica, Purple Gallinule
    Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen
    Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot
    Fulica americana, American Coot
    Fulica caribaea, Caribbean Coot

Family ARAMIDAE

    Aramus guarauna, Limpkin

Family GRUIDAE

    Grus canadensis, Sandhill Crane
    Grus grus, Common Crane
    Grus americana, Whooping Crane

Order CHARADRIIFORMES

Family CHARADRIIDAE

    Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing
    Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover
    Pluvialis dominica, Lesser Golden-Plover
    Charadrius mongolus, Mongolian Plover
    Charadrius leschenaultii, Great Sand Plover
    Charadrius alexandrinus, Snowy Plover
    Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover
    Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover
    Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover
    Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover
    Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover
    Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer
    Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover
    Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel

Family HAEMATOPODIDAE

    Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher
    Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE

    Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt
    Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet

Family JACANIDAE

    Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana

Family, SCOLOPACIDAE

    Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank
    Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs
    Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs
    Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper
    Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank
    Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper
    Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper
    Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Willet
    Heteroscelus incanus, Wandering Tattler
    Heteroscelus brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler
    Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper
    Actitis macularia, Spotted Sandpiper
    Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper
    Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper
    Numenius minutus, Least Curlew
    Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew
    Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel
    Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew
    Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew
    Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew
    Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit
    Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit
    Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit
    Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit
    Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone
    Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone
    Aphriza virgata, Surfbird
    Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot
    Calidris canutus, Red Knot
    Calidris alba, Sanderling
    Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper
    Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper
    Calidris ruficollis, Rufous-necked Stint
    Calidris minuta, Little Stint
    Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint
    Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint
    Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper
    Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper
    Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper
    Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper
    Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
    Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper
    Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper
    Calidris alpina, Dunlin
    Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper
    Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper
    Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, Spoonbill Sandpiper
    Limicola falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper
    Tryngites subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper
    Philomachus pugnax, Ruff
    Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher
    Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher
    Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe
    Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe
    Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe
    Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe
    Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock
    Scolopax minor, American Woodcock
    Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope
    Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope
    Phalaropus fulicaria, Red Phalarope

Family LARIDAE

    Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger
    Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger
    Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger
    Catharacta skua, Great Skua
    Catharacta maccormicki, South Polar Skua
    Larus atricilla, Laughing Gull
    Larus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull
    Larus minutus, Little Gull

[[Page 22]]

    Larus ridibundus, Common Black-headed Gull
    Larus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull
    Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull
    Larus canus, Mew Gull
    Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull
    Larus californicus, California Gull
    Larus argentatus, Herring Gull
    Larus thayeri, Thayer's Gull
    Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull
    Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull
    Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull
    Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull
    Larus occidentalis, Western Gull
    Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull
    Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull
    Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull
    Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake
    Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake
    Rhodostethia rosea, Ross' Gull
    Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull
    Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull
    Sterna nilotica, Gull-billed Tern
    Sterna caspia, Caspian Tern
    Sterna maxima, Royal Tern
    Sterna elegans, Elegant Tern
    Sterna sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern
    Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern
    Sterna hirundo, Common Tern
    Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern
    Sterna aleutica, Aleutian Tern
    Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern
    Sterna antillarum, Least Tern
    Sterna albifrons, Little Tern
    Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern
    Sterna lunata, Gray-backed Tern
    Sterna anaethetus, Bridled Tern
    Sterna fuscata, Sooty Tern
    Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern
    Chlidonias niger, Black Tern
    Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy
    Anous minutus, Black Noddy
    Anous tenuirostris, Lesser Noddy
    Procelsterna cerulea, Blue-Gray Noddy
    Gygis alba, White Tern
    Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer

Family ALCIDAE

    Alle alle, Dovekie
    Uria aalge, Common Murre
    Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre
    Alca torda, Razorbill
    Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot
    Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot
    Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet
    Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Xantus' Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet
    Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet
    Cyclorrhynchus psittacula, Parakeet Auklet
    Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet
    Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet
    Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet
    Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet
    Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin
    Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin
    Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin

Order COLUMBIFORMES

Family COLUMBIDAE

    Columba squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon
    Columba leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon
    Columba flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon
    Columba inornata, Plain Pigeon
    Columba fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon
    Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove
    Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove
    Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove
    Columbina inca, Inca Dove
    Columbina passerina, Common Ground-Dove
    Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove
    Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove
    Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove

Order CUCULIFORMES

Family CUCULIDAE

    Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus saturatus, Oriental Cuckoo
    Cuculus fugax, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo
    Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner
    Saurothera vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo
    Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani
    Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani

Order STRIGIFORMES

Family TYTONIDAE

    Tyto alba, Common Barn-Owl

Family STRIGIDAE

    Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl
    Otus asio, Eastern Screech-Owl
    Otus kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl
    Otus trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl
    Otus nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl
    Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl
    Nyctea scandiaca, Snowy Owl
    Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk-Owl
    Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl
    Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl
    Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl
    Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl
    Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl
    Strix varia, Barred Owl
    Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl
    Asio otus, Long-eared Owl
    Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl
    Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl
    Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl

Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES


[[Page 23]]


Family CAPRIMULGIDAE

    Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk
    Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk
    Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk
    Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque
    Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill
    Caprimulgus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow
    Caprimulgus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar
    Caprimulgus vociferus, Whip-poor-will
    Caprimulgus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar
    Caprimulgus indicus, Jungle Nightjar

Order APODIFORMES

Family APODIDAE

    Cypseloides niger, Black Swift
    Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift
    Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift
    Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift
    Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail
    Apus apus, Common Swift
    Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift
    Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift
    Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm Swift

Family TROCHILIDAE

    Colibri thalassinus, Green Violet-ear
    Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango
    Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango
    Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib
    Orthorhynchus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird
    Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald
    Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird
    Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird
    Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird
    Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird
    Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird
    Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird
    Eugenes fulgens, Magnificent Hummingbird
    Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat
    Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar
    Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird
    Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird
    Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird
    Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird
    Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird
    Stellula calliope, Calliope Hummingbird
    Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird
    Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird
    Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird

Order TROGONIFORMES

Family TROGONIDAE

    Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon
    Euptilotus neoxenus, Eared Trogon

Order CORACIIFORMES

Family UPUPIDAE

    Upupa epops, Hoopoe

Family ALCEDINIDAE

    Ceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher
    Ceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher

Order PICIFORMES

Family PICIDAE

    Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck
    Melanerpes lewis, Lewis' Woodpecker
    Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker
    Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker
    Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker
    Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker
    Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker
    Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker
    Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker
    Picoides scalaris, Ladder-Backed Woodpecker
    Picoides nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker
    Picoides pubescens, Downy Woodpecker
    Picoides villosus, Hairy Woodpecker
    Picoides stricklandi, Strickland's Woodpecker
    Picoides borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker
    Picoides albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker
    Picoides tridactylus, Three-toed Woodpecker
    Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker
    Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker
    Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker
    Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker

Order PASSERIFORMES

Family TYRANNIDAE

    Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia
    Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet
    Contopus borealis, Olive-sided Flycatcher
    Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee
    Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee
    Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee
    Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee
    Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
    Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher
    Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher
    Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher
    Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher
    Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher
    Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher
    Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher

[[Page 24]]

    Empidonax difficilis, Western Flycatcher
    Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher
    Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe
    Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe
    Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe
    Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher
    Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher
    Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher
    Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee
    Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulpher-bellied Flycatcher
    Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird
    Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird
    Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird
    Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird
    Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird
    Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird
    Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird
    Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird
    Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
    Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher
    Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard

Family ALAUDIDAE

    Alauda arvensis, Eurasian Skylark
    Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark

Family HIRUNDINIDAE

    Progne subis, Purple Martin
    Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin
    Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin
    Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin
    Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow
    Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow
    Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow
    Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow
    Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow
    Hirundo pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow
    Hirundo fulva, Cave Swallow
    Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow
    Delichon urbica, Common House-Martin

Family CORVIDAE

    Perisoreus canadensis, Gray Jay
    Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay
    Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay
    Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay
    Cyanocorax morio, Brown Jay
    Aphelocoma coerulescens, Scrub Jay
    Aphelocoma ultramarina, Gray-breasted Jay
    Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay
    Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker
    Pica pica, Black-billed Magpie
    Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie
    Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow
    Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow
    Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow
    Corvus imparatus, Mexican Crow
    Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow
    Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow
    Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven
    Corvus corax, Common Raven

Family PARIDAE

    Parus atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee
    Parus carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee
    Parus sclateri, Mexican Chickadee
    Parus gambeli, Mountain Chickadee
    Parus cinctus, Siberian Tit
    Parus hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee
    Parus rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee
    Parus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse
    Parus inornatus, Plain Titmouse
    Parus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse

Family REMIZIDAE

    Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin

Family AEGITHALIDAE

    Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit

Family SITTIDAE

    Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch
    Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch

Family CERTHIIDAE

    Certhia americana, Brown Creeper

Family TROGLODYTIDAE

    Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren
    Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren
    Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren
    Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren
    Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren
    Troglodytes aedon, House Wren
    Troglodytes troglodytes, Winter Wren
    Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren
    Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren

Family CINCLIDAE

    Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper

Family MUSCICAPIDAE

Subfamily SYLVIINAE

    Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler
    Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler
    Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler
    Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet
    Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet
    Polioptila caerulea, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher

Subfamily MUSCICAPINAE

    Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-spotted Flycatcher

[[Page 25]]

    Muscicapa narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher

Subfamily TURDINAE

    Luscinia calliope, Siberian Rubythroat
    Luscinia svecica, Bluethroat
    Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock Thrush
    Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear
    Sialis sialis, Eastern Bluebird
    Sialis mexicana, Western Bluebird
    Sialis currucoides, Mountain Bluebird
    Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire
    Phaeornis obscurus, Hawaiian Thrush
    Phaeornis palmeri, Small Kauai Thrush
    Catharus fuscescens, Veery
    Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush
    Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush
    Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush
    Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush
    Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush
    Turdus obscurus, Eye-browed Thrush
    Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush
    Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare
    Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Robin
    Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin
    Turdus migratorius, American Robin
    Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush
    Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush

Family MIMIDAE

    Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird
    Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird
    Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher
    Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher
    Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher
    Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher
    Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher
    Toxostoma lecontei, Le Conte's Thrasher
    Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher

Family PRUNELLIDAE

    Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor

Family MOTACILLIDAE

    Motacilla flava, Yellow Wagtail
    Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail
    Motacilla alba, White Wagtail
    Motacilla lugens, Black-backed Wagtail
    Anthur hodgsoni, Olive Tree-Pipit
    Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit
    Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit
    Anthus spinoletta, Water Pipit
    Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit

Family BOMBYCILLIDAE

    Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing
    Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing

Family PTILOGONATIDAE

    Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla

Family LANIIDAE

    Lanius excubitor, Northern Shrike
    Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike

Family STURNIDAE

    Sturnus philippensis, Violet-backed Starling
    Sturnus cineraceus, Ashy Starling

Family VIREONIDAE

    Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo
    Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo
    Vireo bellii, Bells' Vireo
    Vireo atricapillus, Black-capped Vireo
    Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo
    Vireo solitarius, Solitary Vireo
    Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo
    Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo
    Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo
    Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo
    Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo
    Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo

Family EMBERIZIDAE

Subfamily PARULINAE

    Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler
    Vermivora pinus, Blue-winged Warbler
    Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler
    Vermivora peregrina, Tennessee Warbler
    Vermivora celata, Orange-crowned Warbler
    Vermivora ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler
    Vermivora virginiae, Virginia's Warbler
    Vermivora crissalis, Colima Warbler
    Vermivora luciae, Lucy's Warbler
    Parula americana, Northern Parula
    Parula pitiayumi, Tropical Parula
    Dendroica petechia, Yellow Warbler
    Dendroica pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler
    Dendroica magnolia, Magnolia Warbler
    Dendroica tigrina, Cape May Warbler
    Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler
    Dendroica coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler
    Dendroica nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler
    Dendroica townsendi, Townsend's Warbler
    Dendroica occidentalis, Hermit Warbler
    Dendroica virens, Black-throated Green Warbler
    Dendroica chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler
    Dendroica fusca, Blackburnian Warbler
    Dendroica dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler
    Dendroica graciae, Grace's Warbler
    Dendroica adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler
    Dendroica pinus, Pine Warbler
    Dendroica kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler
    Dendroica discolor, Prairie Warbler
    Dendroica palmarum, Palm Warbler
    Dendroica castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler
    Dendroica striata, Blackpoll Warbler
    Dendroica cerulea, Cerulean Warbler
    Dendroica angelae, Elfin Woods Warbler
    Mniotilta varia, Black-and-White Warbler
    Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart
    Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler
    Helmitheros vermivorus, Worm-eating Warbler
    Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler
    Seiurus aurocapillus, Ovenbird
    Seiurus noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush
    Seiurus motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush

[[Page 26]]

    Oporornis formosus, Kentucky Warbler
    Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler
    Oporornis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler
    Oporornis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler
    Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat
    Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat
    Wilsonia citrina, Hooded Warbler
    Wilsonia pusilla, Wilson's Warbler
    Wilsonia canadensis, Canada Warbler
    Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler
    Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart
    Myioborus miniatus, Slaty-throated Redstart
    Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler
    Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler
    Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat
    Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler

Subfamily THRAUPINAE

    Spindalis zena, Stripe-headed Tanager
    Neospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager
    Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager
    Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager
    Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager
    Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager
    Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia

Subfamily CARDINALINAE

    Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    Cardinalis cardinals, Northern Cardinal
    Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia
    Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak
    Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak
    Guiraca caerulea, Blue Grosbeak
    Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting
    Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting
    Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting
    Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting
    Spiza americana, Dickcissel

Subfamily EMBERIZINAE

    Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow
    Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee
    Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Rufous-sided Towhee
    Pipilo fuscus, Brown Towhee
    Pipilo aberti, Abert's Towhee
    Sporophila torqueola, White-collared Seedeater
    Tiaris olivacea, Yellow-faced Grassquit
    Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit
    Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch
    Aimophila aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow
    Aimophila botterii, Botteri's Sparrow
    Aimophila cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow
    Aimophila carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow
    Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow
    Spizella arborea, American Tree Sparrow
    Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow
    Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow
    Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow
    Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow
    Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow
    Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow
    Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow
    Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow
    Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow
    Amphispiza belli, Sage Sparrow
    Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow
    Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting
    Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow
    Ammodramus bairdii, Baird's Sparrow
    Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow
    Ammodramus henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow
    Ammodramus leconteii, Le Conte's Sparrow
    Ammodramus caudacutus, Sharp-tailed Sparrow
    Ammodramus maritimus, Seaside Sparrow
    Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow
    Melosipza melodia, Song Sparrow
    Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow
    Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow
    Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow
    Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia querula, Harris' Sparrow
    Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco
    Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco
    Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting
    Emberiza pallasi, Pallas' Reed-Bunting
    Emberiza schoeniculus, Common Reed-Bunting
    Calcarius mccownii, McCown's Longspur
    Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur
    Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur
    Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur
    Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting
    Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting

Subfamily ICTERINAE

    Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink
    Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird
    Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird
    Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
    Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
    Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark
    Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird
    Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird
    Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird
    Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle

[[Page 27]]

    Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle
    Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle
    Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird
    Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird
    Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird
    Icterus dominicensis, Black-cowled Oriole
    Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole
    Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole
    Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole
    Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole
    Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole
    Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole
    Icterus galbula, Northern Oriole
    Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole

Family FRINGILLIDAE

Subfamily FRINGILLINAE

    Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling

Subfamily CARDUELINAE

    Leucosticte arctoa, Rosy Finch
    Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak
    Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch
    Carpodacus purpureus, Purple Finch
    Carpodacus cassinii, Cassin's Finch
    Carpodacus mexicanus, House Finch
    Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill
    Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill
    Carduelis flammea, Common Redpoll
    Carduelis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll
    Carduelis pinus, Pine Siskin
    Carduelis psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch
    Carduelis lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch
    Carduelis tristis, American Goldfinch
    Carduelis sinica, Oriental Greenfinch
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch
    Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak
    Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch

[50 FR 13710, Apr. 5, 1985]



                          Subpart C--Addresses



Sec. 10.21  Director.

    (a) Mail forwarded to the Director for law enforcement purposes 
should be addressed: Chief, Division of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 3247, Arlington, VA 22203-3247.
    (b) Mail sent to the Director regarding permits for the Convention 
on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Fauna 
(CITES), injurious wildlife, Wild Bird Conservation Act species, 
international movement of all ESA-listed endangered or threatened 
species, and scientific research on, exhibition of, or interstate 
commerce in nonnative ESA-listed endangered and threatened species 
should be addressed to: Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
(Attention: Office of Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 
700, Arlington, VA 22203. Address mail for the following permits to the 
Regional Director. In the address include one of the following: for 
import/export licenses and exception to designated port permits 
(Attention: Import/export license); for native endangered and threatened 
species (Attention: Endangered/threatened species permit); and for 
migratory birds and eagles (Attention: Migratory bird permit office). 
You can find addresses for regional offices at 50 CFR 2.2.

[55 FR 48851, Nov. 23, 1990, as amended at 63 FR 52633, Oct. 1, 1998]



Sec. 10.22  Law enforcement offices.

    Service law enforcement offices and their areas of responsibility 
follow. Mail should be addressed: ``Assistant Regional Director, 
Division of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
(appropriate address below)'':

              Areas of Responsibility and Office Addresses

California, Hawaii, Idaho. Nevada, Oregon, Washington, American Samoa, 
          Guam, the Marshall Islands, Northern Mariana Islands, and the 
          Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (District 1):
  Eastside Federal Complex, 911 N.E. 11th. Avenue, Portland, OR 97232-
          4181, Telephone: 503-231-6125.
Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas (District 2):
  P.O. Box 329, Albuquerque, NM 87103, Telephone: 505-766-2091
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and 
          Wisconsin (District 3):
  P.O. Box 45--Federal Building, Ft. Snelling, Twin Cities, MN 55111, 
          Telephone: 612-725-3530.
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, 
          North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico, and 
          the Virgin Islands (District 4):
  P.O. Box 4839, Atlanta, GA 30302, Telephone: 404-331-5872
Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, 
          Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, 
          Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West 
          Virginia (District 5):
  P.O. Box 129, New Town Branch, Boston, MA 02258, Telephone: 617-965-
          2298
Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, 
          and Wyoming (District 6):

[[Page 28]]

  P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225, Telephone: 
          303-236-7540
Alaska (District 7):
  P.O. Box 92597, Anchorage, AK 99509-2597, Telephone: 907-786-3311
Any foreign country (Washington Office):
  P.O. Box 3247, Arlington, VA 22203-3247, Telephone: 703-358-1949.

(Pub. L. 97-79, 95 Stat. 1072; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378)

[48 FR 1313, Jan. 12, 1983; 48 FR 37040, Aug. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 
FR 31291, Aug. 6, 1984; 51 FR 23551, June 30, 1986; 53 FR 6649, Mar. 2, 
1988; 55 FR 48851, Nov. 23, 1990]



PART 11--CIVIL PROCEDURES--Table of Contents




                         Subpart A--Introduction

Sec.
11.1  Purpose of regulations.
11.2  Scope of regulations.
11.3  Filing of documents.

                     Subpart B--Assessment Procedure

11.11  Notice of violation.
11.12  Petition for relief.
11.13  Decision by the Director.
11.14  Notice of assessment.
11.15  Request for a hearing.
11.16  Final administrative decision.
11.17  Payment of final assessment.

                Subpart C--Hearing and Appeal Procedures

11.21  Commencement of hearing procedures.
11.22  Appearance and practice.
11.23  Hearings.
11.24  Final administrative action.
11.25  Appeal.
11.26  Reporting service.

    Authority: Lacey Act, 83 Stat. 279-281, 18 U.S.C. 42-44; Lacey Act 
Amendments of 1981, 95 Stat. 1073-1080, 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.; Bald 
Eagle Protection Act, sec. 2, 54 Stat. 251, 16 U.S.C. 668a; Endangered 
Species Act of 1973, sec. 11(f), 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1540(f); Marine 
Mammal Protection Act of 1972, sec. 112(a), 86 Stat. 1042, 16 U.S.C. 
1382.

    Source: 39 FR 1159, Jan. 4, 1974, unless otherwise noted.



                         Subpart A--Introduction



Sec. 11.1  Purpose of regulations.

    The regulations contained in this part provide uniform rules and 
procedures for the assessment of civil penalties in connection with 
violations of certain laws and regulations enforced by the Service.



Sec. 11.2  Scope of regulations.

    The regulations contained in this part apply only to actions arising 
under the following laws and regulations issued thereunder:

Lacey Act, 18 U.S.C. 43;
Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.;
Bald Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668-668d;
Endangered Species Act of 1973, 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.; 
and Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384 and 1401-
1407.

[47 FR 56860, Dec. 21, 1982]



Sec. 11.3  Filing of documents.

    (a) Whenever a document or other paper is required to be filed under 
this part within a certain time, such document or paper will be 
considered filed as of the date of the postmark if mailed, or the date 
actually delivered to the office where filing is required. The time 
periods set forth in this part shall begin to run as of the day 
following the date of the document or other paper.
    (b) If an oral or written application is made to the Director up to 
10 calendar days after the expiration of a time period established in 
this part for the required filing of documents or other papers, the 
Director may permit a late filing within a fixed period where reasonable 
grounds are found for an inability or failure to file within the time 
period required. All such extensions shall be in writing. Except as 
provided in this subsection, no other requests for an extension of time 
may be granted.



                     Subpart B--Assessment Procedure



Sec. 11.11  Notice of violation.

    (a) A notice of violation (hereinafter ``notice''), shall be issued 
by the Director and served personally or by registered or certified 
mail, return receipt requested, upon the person believed to be subject 
to a civil penalty (the respondent). The notice shall contain: (1) A 
concise statement of the facts believed to show a violation, (2) a 
specific reference to the provisions of the statute or regulation 
allegedly violated, and (3) the amount of penalty proposed to be 
assessed. The notice may also

[[Page 29]]

contain an initial proposal for compromise or settlement of the case. 
The notice shall also advise the respondent of his right to file a 
petition for relief pursuant to Sec. 11.12, or to await the Director's 
notice of assessment.
    (b) The respondent shall have 45 days from the date of the notice of 
violation in which to respond. During this time he may:
    (1) Undertake informal discussions with the Director;
    (2) Accept the proposed penalty, or the compromise, if any, offered 
in the notice;
    (3) File a petition for relief; or
    (4) Take no action, and await the Director's decision, pursuant to 
Sec. 11.13.
    (c) Acceptance of the proposed penalty or the compromise shall be 
deemed to be a waiver of the notice ef assessment required by 
Sec. 11.14, and of the opportunity for a hearing. Any counter offer of 
settlement shall be deemed a rejection of the proposed offer of 
compromise.



Sec. 11.12  Petition for relief.

    If the respondent so chooses he may ask that no penalty be assessed 
or that the amount be reduced, and he may admit or contest the legal 
sufficiency of the charge and the Director's allegations of facts, by 
filing a petition for relief (hereinafter ``petition'') with the 
Director at the address specified in the notice within 45 days of the 
date thereof. The petition shall be in writing and signed by the 
respondent. If the respondent is a corporation, the petition must be 
signed by an officer authorized to sign such documents. It must set 
forth in full the legal or other reasons for the relief.



Sec. 11.13  Decision by the Director.

    Upon expiration of the period required or granted for filing of a 
petition for relief, the Director shall proceed to make an assessment of 
a civil penalty, taking into consideration information available to him 
and such showing as may have been made by the respondent, either 
pursuant to Sec. 11.11 or Sec. 11.12, or upon further request of the 
Director.



Sec. 11.14  Notice of assessment.

    The Director shall notify the respondent by a written notice of 
assessment, by personal service or by registered or certified mail, 
return receipt requested, of his decision pursuant to Sec. 11.13. He 
shall set forth therein the facts and conclusions upon which he decided 
that the violation did occur and appropriateness of the penalty 
assessed.



Sec. 11.15  Request for a hearing.

    Except where a right to request a hearing is deemed to have been 
waived as provided in Sec. 11.11, the respondent may, within 45 calendar 
days from the date of the notice of assessment referred to in 
Sec. 11.14, file a dated, written request for a hearing with the 
Hearings Division, Office of Hearings and Appeals, U.S. Department of 
the Interior, 4015 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22203. The 
request should state the respondent's preference as to the place and 
date for a hearing. The request must enclose a copy of the notice of 
violation and notice of assessment. A copy of the request shall be 
served upon the Director personally or by registered or certified mail, 
return receipt requested, at the address specified in the notice.



Sec. 11.16  Final administrative decision.

    (a) Where no request for a hearing is filed as provided in 
Sec. 11.15 the Director's assessment shall become effective and shall 
constitute the final administrative decision of the Secretary on the 
45th calendar day from the date of the notice of assessment.
    (b) If a request for a hearing is timely filed in accordance with 
Sec. 11.15, the date of the final administrative decision in the matter 
shall be as provided in subpart C of this part.



Sec. 11.17  Payment of final assessment.

    When a final administrative decision becomes effective in accordance 
with this part 11, the respondent shall have 20 calendar days from the 
date of the final administrative decision within which to make full 
payment of the penalty assessed. Payment will be timely only if received 
in Office of the Director during normal business hours, on or

[[Page 30]]

before the 20th day. Upon a failure to pay the penalty, the Solicitor of 
the Department may request the Attorney General to institute a civil 
action in the U.S. District Court to collect the penalty.



                Subpart C--Hearing and Appeal Procedures



Sec. 11.21  Commencement of hearing procedures.

    Proceedings under this subpart are commenced upon the timely filing 
with the Hearings Division of a request for a hearing, as provided in 
Sec. 11.15 of subpart B. Upon receipt of a request for a hearing, the 
Hearings Division will assign an administrative law judge to the case. 
Notice of assignment will be given promptly to the parties, and 
thereafter, all pleadings, papers, and other documents in the proceeding 
shall be filed directly with the administrative law judge, with copies 
served on the opposing party.



Sec. 11.22  Appearance and practice.

    (a) Subject to the provisions of 43 CFR 1.3, the respondent may 
appear in person, by representative, or by counsel, and may participate 
fully in these proceedings.
    (b) Department counsel designated by the Solicitor of the Department 
shall represent the Director in these proceedings. Upon notice to the 
Director of the assignment of an administrative law judge to the case, 
said counsel shall enter his appearance on behalf of the Director and 
shall file all petitions and correspondence exchanged by the Director 
and the respondent pursuant to subpart B of this part, which shall 
become part of the hearing record. Thereinafter, service upon the 
Director in these proceedings shall be made to his counsel.



Sec. 11.23  Hearings.

    (a) The administrative law judge shall have all powers accorded by 
law and necessary to preside over the parties and the proceedings and to 
make decisions in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 554-557. Failure to appear at 
the time set for hearing shall be deemed a waiver of the right to a 
hearing and consent to the making of a decision on the record made at 
the hearing. Copies of the transcript may be inspected or copied.
    (b) The transcript of testimony, the exhibits, and all papers, 
documents, and requests filed in the proceedings, shall constitute the 
record for decision. The judge will render a written decision upon the 
record, which shall set forth his findings of fact and conclusions of 
law, and the reasons and basis therefor, and an assessment of a penalty, 
if any.



Sec. 11.24  Final administrative action.

    Unless a notice of request for an appeal is filed in accordance with 
Sec. 11.25 of this subpart C, the administrative law judge's decision 
shall constitute the final administrative determination of the Secretary 
in the matter and shall become effective 30 calendar days from the date 
of the decision.



Sec. 11.25  Appeal.

    (a) Either the respondent or the Director may seek an appeal from 
the decision of an administrative law judge rendered subsequent to 
January 1, 1974, by the filing of a ``Notice of Request for Appeal'' 
with the Director, Office of Hearings and Appeals, U.S. Department of 
the Interior, 4015 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22203, within 
30 calendar days of the date of the administrative law judge's decision. 
Such notice shall be accompanied by proof of service on the 
administrative law judge and the opposing party.
    (b) Upon receipt of such a request, the Director, Office of Hearings 
and Appeals, shall appoint an ad hoc appeals board to determine whether 
an appeal should be granted, and to hear and decide an appeal. To the 
extent they are not inconsistent herewith, the provisions of subpart G 
of the Department Hearings and Appeals Procedures in 43 CFR part 4 shall 
apply to appeal proceedings under this subpart. The determination of the 
board to grant or deny an appeal, as well as its decision on the merits 
of an appeal, shall be in writing and become effective as the final 
administrative determination of the Secretary in the proceeding on the 
date it is rendered, unless otherwise specified therein.

[[Page 31]]



Sec. 11.26  Reporting service.

    Copies of decisions in civil penalty proceedings instituted under 
statutes referred to in subpart A of this part and rendered subsequent 
to June 3, 1970, may be obtained by letter of request addressed to the 
Director, Office of Hearings and Appeals, U.S. Department of the 
Interior, 4015 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22203. Fees for 
this service shall be as established by the Director of that Office.



PART 12--SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES--Table of Contents




                      Subpart A--General Provisions

Sec.
12.1  Purpose of regulations.
12.2  Scope of regulations.
12.3  Definitions.
12.4  Filing of documents.
12.5  Seizure by other agencies.
12.6  Bonded release.

                   Subpart B--Preliminary Requirements

12.11  Notification of seizure.
12.12  Appraisement.

                    Subpart C--Forfeiture Proceedings

12.21  Criminal prosecutions.
12.22  Civil actions to obtain forfeiture.
12.23  Administrative forfeiture proceedings.
12.24  Petition for remission of forfeiture.
12.25  Transfers in settlement of civil penalty claims.

         Subpart D--Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property

12.30  Purpose.
12.31  Accountability.
12.32  Effect of prior illegality.
12.33  Disposal.
12.34  Return to the wild.
12.35  Use by the Service or transfer to another government agency for 
          official use.
12.36  Donation or loan.
12.37  Sale.
12.38  Destruction.
12.39  Information on property available for disposal.

    Subpart E--Restoration of Proceeds and Recovery of Storage Costs

12.41  Petition for restoration of proceeds.
12.42  Recovery of certain storage costs.

                      Subpart F--Return of Property

12.51  Return procedure.

    Authority: Act of September 6, 1966, 5 U.S.C. 301; Bald and Golden 
Eagles Protection Act, 16, U.S.C. 668-668b; National Wildlife Refuge 
System Administration Act, 16 U.S.C. 668dd(e)-(f); Migratory Bird Treaty 
Act, 16 U.S.C. 704, 706-707, 712; Migratory Bird Hunting and 
Conservation Stamp Act, 16 U.S.C. 718f-718g; Fish and Wildlife Act of 
1956 [Airborne Hunting Amendments], 16 U.S.C. 742j-l(d)-(f); Black Bass 
Act, 16 U.S.C. 852d-853; Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 
1375-1377, 1382; Endangered Species Act of 1973, 16 U.S.C. 1540; Lacey 
Act, 18 U.S.C. 43, 44; Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 95 Stat. 1073-1080, 
16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.; Tariff Act of 1930, 19 U.S.C. 1602-1624; Fish 
and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 742l; Exotic Organisms, 
E.O. 11987, 42 FR 26949; American Indian Religious Freedom Act, 42 
U.S.C. 1996.

    Source: 45 FR 17864, Mar. 19, 1980, unless otherwise noted.



                      Subpart A--General Provisions



Sec. 12.1  Purpose of regulations.

    The regulations of this part establish procedures relating to 
property seized or subject to forfeiture under various laws enforced by 
the Service.



Sec. 12.2  Scope of regulations.

    Except as hereinafter provided, the regulations of this part apply 
to all property seized or subject to forfeiture under any of the 
following laws:
    (a) The Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668 et seq.;
    (b) The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act, 16 
U.S.C. 668dd et seq.;
    (c) The Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.;
    (d) The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, 16 U.S.C. 718 et seq.;
    (e) The Airborne Hunting Act, 16 U.S.C. 742j-1;
    (f) The Black Bass Act, 16 U.S.C. 851 et seq.;
    (g) The Marine Mammal Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.;
    (h) The Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.; and
    (i) The Lacey Act, 18 U.S.C. 43-44.
    (j) The Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.

[45 FR 17864, Mar. 19, 1980; 45 FR 31725, May 14, 1980, as amended at 47 
FR 56860, Dec. 21, 1982]

[[Page 32]]



Sec. 12.3  Definitions.

    (a) As used in this part:
    (1) Attorney General means the Attorney General of the United States 
or an authorized representative;
    (2) Disposal includes, but is not limited to, remission, return to 
the wild, use by the Service or transfer to another government agency 
for official use, donation or loan, sale, or destruction.
    (3) Domestic value means the price at which the seized property or 
similar property is freely offered for sale at the time and place of 
appraisement, in the same quantity or quantities as seized, and in the 
oridinary course of trade. If there is no market for the seized property 
at the place of appraisement, such value in the principal market nearest 
to the place of appraisement shall be reported.
    (4) Solicitor means the Solicitor of the Department of the Interior 
or an authorized representative.
    (b) The definitions of paragraph (a) of this section are in addition 
to, and not in lieu of, those contained in Secs. 1.1 through 1.8 and 
10.12 of this title.

[45 FR 17864, Mar. 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 17525, Apr. 23, 1982]



Sec. 12.4  Filing of documents.

    (a) Whenever any document is required by this part to be filed or 
served within a certain period of time, such document will be considered 
filed or served as of the date of receipt by the party with or upon whom 
filing or service is required. The time periods established by this part 
shall begin to run on the day following the date of filing or service.
    (b) If an oral or written application is made before the expiration 
of a time period established by this part, an extension of such period 
for a fixed number of days may be granted where there are reasonable 
grounds for the failure to file or serve the document within the period 
required. Any such extension shall be in writing. Except as provided in 
this paragraph, no other requests for an extension shall be granted.



Sec. 12.5  Seizure by other agencies.

    Any authorized employee or officer of any other Federal agency who 
has seized any wildlife or other property under any of the laws listed 
in Sec. 12.2 will, if so requested, deliver such seizure to the 
appropriate Special Agent in Charge designated in Sec. 10.22 of this 
title, or to an authorized designee, who shall either hold such seized 
wildlife or other property or arrange for its proper handling and care.



Sec. 12.6  Bonded release.

    (a) Subject to the conditions set forth in paragraphs (b) and (c) of 
this section, and to such additional conditions as may be appropriate, 
the Service, in its discretion, may accept an appearance bond or other 
security (including, but not limited to, payment of the value as 
determined under Sec. 12.12) in place of any property seized under the 
Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.; Marine Mammal Protection 
Act, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.; Lacey Act, 18 U.S.C. 43; Lacey Act 
Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.; Airborne Hunting Act, 16 
U.S.C. 742j-1; or Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668 et seq.
    (b) Property may be released under this section only to the owner or 
consignee.
    (c) Property may be released under this section only if possession 
thereof will not violate or frustrate the purpose or policy of any 
applicable law or regulation.

[45 FR 17864, Mar. 19, 1980; 45 FR 31725, May 14, 1980, as amended at 47 
FR 56860, Dec. 21, 1982]



                   Subpart B--Preliminary Requirements



Sec. 12.11  Notification of seizure.

    Except where the owner or consignee is personally notified or 
seizure is made pursuant to a search warrant, the Service shall, as soon 
as practicable following the seizure or other receipt of seized wildlife 
or other property, mail a notification of seizure by registered or 
certified mail, return receipt requested, to the owner or consignee, if 
known or easily ascertainable. Such notification shall describe the 
seized wildlife or other property, and shall

[[Page 33]]

state the time, place, and reason for the seizure.



Sec. 12.12  Appraisement.

    The Service shall determine the value of any cargo, of a vessel or 
other conveyance employed in unlawful taking, seized under the Marine 
Mammal Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq., and the value of any 
property seized under the Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et 
seq.; Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668 et seq.; Airborne Hunting Act, 
16 U.S.C. 742j-1, et seq.; or the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 16 
U.S.C. 3371 et seq. If the seized property may lawfully be sold in the 
United States, its domestic value shall be determined in accordance with 
Sec. 12.3. If the seized property may not lawfully be sold in the United 
States, its value shall be determined by other reasonable means.

[47 FR 56860, Dec. 21, 1982]



                    Subpart C--Forfeiture Proceedings



Sec. 12.21  Criminal prosecutions.

    If property is subject to criminal forfeiture, such forfeiture will 
be obtained in accordance with the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.



Sec. 12.22  Civil actions to btain forfeiture.

    The Solicitor may request the Attorney General to file a civil 
action to obtain forfeiture of any property subject to forfeiture under 
the Airborne Hunting Act, 16 U.S.C. 742j-1; Lacey Act, 18 U.S.C. 43-44; 
Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.; Black Bass Act, 16 
U.S.C. 851 et seq.; Marine Mammal Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et 
seq.; Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.; Migratory Bird 
Hunting Stamp Act, 16 U.S.C. 718 et seq.; Eagle Protection Act, 16 
U.S.C. 668 et seq.; or Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.. 
Before any such action is filed against property subject to forfeiture 
under the Lacey Act, 18 U.S.C 43, or against property, other than the 
cargo of a vessel or other conveyance employed in unlawful taking, 
subject to forfeiture under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 
1361 et seq., a civil penalty must first be assessed in accordance with 
the statute and applicable regulations, and no such action may be filed 
more than 30 days after the conclusion of civil penalty assessment 
proceedings.

[47 FR 56860, Dec. 21, 1982]



Sec. 12.23  Administrative forfeiture proceedings.

    (a) When authorized. Whenever any property subject to forfeiture 
under the Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668 et seq., or Airborne 
Hunting Act, 16 U.S.C. 742j-1, or any wildlife or plant subject to 
forfeiture under the Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq., or 
any fish, wildlife or plant subject to forfeiture under the Lacey Act 
Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq., is determined under 
Sec. 12.12 to have a value not greater than $100,000, the Solicitor may 
obtain forfeiture of such property in accordance with this section.
    (b) Procedure--(1) Notice of proposed forfeiture. As soon as 
practicable following seizure, the Solicitor shall issue a notice of 
proposed forfeiture.
    (A) Publication. The notice shall be published once a week for at 
least three successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in 
the locality where the property was seized. If the value of the seized 
property as determined under Sec. 12.12 does not exceed $1000, the 
notice may be published by posting, instead of newspaper publication, 
for at least three successive weeks in a conspicuous place accessible to 
the public at the Service's enforcement office, the U.S. District Court 
or the U.S. Customhouse nearest the place of seizure. In cases of 
posting, the date of initial posting shall be indicated on the notice. 
In addition to newspaper publication or posting, a reasonable effort 
shall be made to serve the notice personally or by registered or 
certified mail, return receipt requested, on each person whose 
whereabouts and interest in the seized property are known or easily 
ascertainable.
    (B) Contents. The notice shall be in substantially the same form as 
a complaint for forfeiture filed in United States District Court. The 
notice shall describe the property, including, in the case of motor 
vehicles, the license, registration, motor, and serial numbers. The 
notice shall state the time and place of seizure, as well as the reason

[[Page 34]]

therefor, and shall specify the value of the property as determined 
under Sec. 12.12. The notice shall contain a specific reference to the 
provisions of the laws or regulations allegedly violated and under which 
the property is subject to forfeiture. The notice shall state that any 
person desiring to claim the property must file a claim and a bond in 
accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and shall state that 
if a proper claim and bond are not received by the proper office within 
the time prescribed by such paragraph, the property will be declared 
forfeited to the United States and disposed of according to law. The 
notice shall also advise interested persons of their right to file a 
petition for remission of forfeiture in accordance with Sec. 12.24.
    (2) Filing a claim and bond. Upon issuance of the notice of proposed 
forfeiture, any person claiming the seized property may file with the 
Solicitor's office indicated in the notice a claim to the property and a 
bond in the penal sum of $5,000, or ten per centum of the value of the 
claimed property, whichever is lower, but not less than $250. Any claim 
and bond must be received in such office within 30 days after the date 
of first publication or posting of the notice of proposed forfeiture. 
The claim shall state the claimant's interest in the property. The bond 
filed with the claim shall be on a United States Customs Form 4615 or on 
a similar form provided by the Department. There shall be endorsed on 
the bond a list or schedule in substantially the following form which 
shall be signed by the claimant in the presence of the witnesses to the 
bond, and attested by the witnesses:

    List or schedule containing a particular description of seized 
article, claim for which is covered by the within bond, to wit:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
    The foregoing list is correct.

Claimant ____________________
    Attest: ____________________


The claim and bond referred to in this paragraph shall not entitle the 
claimant or any other person to possession of the property.
    (3) Transmittal to Attorney General. As soon as practicable after 
timely receipt by the proper office of a proper claim and bond in 
accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the Solicitor shall 
transmit such claim and bond to the Attorney General for institution of 
forfeiture proceedings in U.S. District Court.
    (4) Motion for stay. Upon issuance of the notice of proposed 
forfeiture, any person claiming the seized property may file with the 
Solicitor's regional or field office indicated in the notice a motion to 
stay administrative forfeiture proceedings. Any motion for stay must be 
filed within 30 days after the date of first publication or posting of 
the notice of the proposed forfeiture. Each motion must contain:
    (i) The claimant's verified statement showing that he or she holds 
absolute, fee simple title to the seized property, free and clear of all 
liens, encumbrances, security interests, or other third-party interests, 
contingent or vested; and (ii) the claimant's offer to pay in advance 
all reasonable costs anticipated to be incurred in the storage, care, 
and maintenance of the seized property for which administrative 
forfeiture is sought. Where a stay of administrative forfeiture 
proceedings would not injure or impair the rights of any third parties 
and where the claimant has agreed to pay in advance anticipated, 
reasonable storage costs associated with the granting of a stay, the 
Regional or Field Solicitor as appropriate may, in his discretion, grant 
the motion for stay and specify reasonable and prudent conditions 
therefor, including but not limited to the duration of the stay, a 
description of the factors which would automatically terminate the stay, 
and any requirement for a bond (including amount) to secure the payment 
of storage and other maintenance costs. If a motion for stay is denied, 
or if a stay is terminated for any reason, the claimant must file, if he 
or she has not already done so, a claim and bond in accordance with 
paragraph (b)(2) of this section not later than 30 days after receipt of 
the Solicitor's Office denial or termination order. Failure to file the 
claim and bond within 30 days will result in summary foreiture under 
paragraph (c) of this section.
    (c) Summary forfeiture. If a proper claim and bond are not received 
by the

[[Page 35]]

proper office within 30 days as specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this 
section, the Solicitor shall declare the property forfeited. The 
declaration of forfeiture shall be in writing, and shall be sent by 
registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, to the Service 
and to each person whose whereabouts and prior interest in the seized 
property are known or easily ascertainable. The declaration shall be in 
substantially the same form as a default judgment of forfeiture entered 
in United States District Court. The declaration shall describe the 
property and state the time, place, and reason for its seizure. The 
declaration shall identify the notice of proposed forfeiture, describing 
the dates and manner of publication of the notice and any efforts made 
to serve the notice personally or by mail. The declaration shall state 
that in response to the notice a proper claim and bond were not timely 
received by the proper office from any claimant, and that therefore all 
potential claimants are deemed to admit the truth of the allegations of 
the notice. The declaration shall conclude with an order of condemnation 
and forfeiture of the property to the United States for disposition 
according to law.

[45 FR 17864, Mar. 19, 1980, as amended at 46 FR 44759, Sept. 8, 1981; 
47 FR 56860, Dec. 21, 1982; 50 FR 6350, Feb. 15, 1985]



Sec. 12.24  Petition for remission of forfeiture.

    (a) Any person who has an interest in cargo, of a vessel or other 
conveyance employed in unlawful taking, subject to forfeiture under the 
Marine Mammal Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq., or any person who 
has an interest in any property subject to forfeiture under the 
Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.; Eagle Protection Act, 16 
U.S.C. 668 et seq.; Airborne Hunting Act, 16 U.S.C. 742j-1; or the Lacey 
Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq., or any person who has 
incurred or is alleged to have incurred a forfeiture of any such 
property, may file with the Solicitor or, when forfeiture proceedings 
have been brought in U.S. District Court, the Attorney General, a 
petition for remission of forfeiture.
    (b) A petition filed with the Solicitor need not be in any 
particular form, but it must be received before disposition of the 
property and must contain the following:
    (1) A description of the property;
    (2) The time and place of seizure;
    (3) Evidence of the petitioner's interest in the property, including 
contracts, bills of sale, invoices, security interests, certificates of 
title, and other satisfactory evidence; and
    (4) A statement of all facts and circumstances relied upon by the 
petitioner to justify remission of the forfeiture.
    (c) The petition shall be signed by the petitioner or the 
petitioner's attorney at law. If the petitioner is a corporation, the 
petition must be signed by an authorized officer, supervisory employee, 
or attorney at law, and the corporate seal shall be properly affixed to 
the signature.
    (d) A false statement in the petition may subject the petitioner to 
prosecution under title 18, U.S. Code, section 1001.
    (e) Upon receiving the petition, the Solicitor shall decide whether 
or not to grant relief. In making a decision, the Solicitor shall 
consider the information submitted by the petitioner, as well as any 
other available information relating to the matter.
    (f) If the Solicitor finds the existence of such mitigating 
circumstances as to justify remission or mitigation of the forfeiture or 
alleged forfeiture, the Solicitor may remit or mitigate the same upon 
such terms and conditions as may be reasonable and just or may order 
discontinuance of any proceeding under Sec. 12.23
    (g) If the Solicitor decides that relief should not be granted, the 
Solicitor shall so notify the petitioner in writing, stating in the 
notification the reasons for denying relief. The petitioner may then 
file a supplemental petition, but no supplemental petition shall be 
considered unless it is received within 60 days from the date of the 
Solicitor's notification denying the original petition.

[45 FR 17864, Mar. 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 56861, Dec. 21, 1982]

[[Page 36]]



Sec. 12.25  Transfers in settlement of civil penalty claims.

    In the discretion of the Solicitor, an owner of wildlife or plants 
who may be liable for civil penalty under the Endangered Species Act, 16 
U.S.C. 1531 et seq.; Lacey Act, 18 U.S.C. 43; Lacey Act Amendments of 
1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.; Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668 et 
seq.; or Marine Mammal Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq., may be 
given an opportunity to completely or partially settle the civil penalty 
claim by transferring to the United States all right, title, and 
interest in any wildlife or plants that are subject to forfeiture. Such 
transfer may be accomplished by the owner's execution and return of a 
U.S. Customs Form 4607 or a similar compromise transfer of property 
instrument provided by the Department.

[47 FR 56861, Dec. 21, 1982]



         Subpart D--Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property

    Source: 47 FR 17525, Apr. 23, 1982, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 12.30  Purpose.

    Upon forfeiture or abandonment of any property to the United States 
under this part the Director shall dispose of such property under the 
provisions of this subpart D.



Sec. 12.31  Accountability.

    All property forfeited or abandoned under this part must be 
accounted for in official records. These records must include the 
following information:
    (a) A description of the item.
    (b) The date and place of the item's seizure (if any) and forfeiture 
or abandonment.
    (c) The investigative case file number with which the item was 
associated.
    (d) The name of any person known to have or to have had an interest 
in the item.
    (e) The date, place, and manner of the item's initial disposal.
    (f) Name of the official responsible for the initial disposal.
    (g) Domestic value of the property.



Sec. 12.32  Effect of prior illegality.

    The effect of any prior illegality on a subsequent holder of any 
wildlife or plant disposed of or subject to disposal is terminated upon 
forfeiture or abandonment, but the prohibitions, restrictions, 
conditions, or requirements which apply to a particular species of 
wildlife or plant under the laws or regulations of the United States or 
any State, including any applicable conservation, health, quarantine, 
agricultural, or Customs laws or regulations remain in effect as to the 
conduct of such holder.



Sec. 12.33  Disposal.

    (a) The Director shall dispose of any wildlife or plant forfeited or 
abandoned under the authority of this part, subject to the restrictions 
provided in this subpart, by one of the following means, unless the item 
is the subject of a petition for remission of forfeiture under 
Sec. 12.24 of this part, or disposed of by court order:
    (1) Return to the wild;
    (2) Use by the Service or transfer to another government agency for 
official use;
    (3) Donation or loan;
    (4) Sale; or
    (5) Destruction.

In the exercise of the disposal authority, the Director ordinarily must 
dispose of any wildlife or plant in the order in which the disposal 
methods appear in this paragraph (a) of this section.
    (b) The Director shall dispose of any other property forfeited or 
abandoned under the authority of this part (including vehicles, vessels, 
aircraft, cargo, guns, nets, traps, and other equipment), except 
wildlife or plants, in accordance with current Federal Property 
Management Regulations (41 CFR chapter 101) and Interior Property 
Management Regulations (41 CFR chapter 114), unless the item is the 
subject of a petition for remission of forfeiture under Sec. 12.24 of 
this part, or disposed of by court order.
    (c) The Director shall dispose of property according to the 
following schedule, unless the property is the subject of a petition for 
remission of forfeiture under Sec. 12.24 of this part:

[[Page 37]]

    (1) Any live wildlife or plant and any wildlife or plant that the 
Director determines is liable to perish, deteriorate, decay, waste, or 
greatly decrease in value by keeping, or that the expense of keeping is 
disproportionate to its value may be disposed of immediately after 
forfeiture or abandonment; and
    (2) All other property may be disposed of no sooner than 60 days 
after forfeiture or abandonment.
    (d) If the property is the subject of a petition for remission of 
forfeiture under Sec. 12.24 of this part, the Director may not dispose 
of the property until the Solicitor or Attorney General makes a final 
decision not to grant relief.



Sec. 12.34  Return to the wild.

    (a) Any live member of a native species of wildlife which is capable 
of surviving may be released to the wild in suitable habitat within the 
historical range of the species in the United States with the permission 
of the landowner, unless release poses an imminent danger to public 
health or safety.
    (b) Any live member of a native species of plant which is capable of 
surviving may be transplanted in suitable habitat on Federal or other 
protected lands within the historical range of the species in the United 
States with the permission of the landowner.
    (c) Any live member of an exotic species of wildlife (including 
injurious wildlife) or plant may not be returned to the wild in the 
U.S., but may be returned to one of the following countries for return 
to suitable habitat in accordance with the provisions of Sec. 12.35 of 
this part if it is capable of surviving:
    (1) The country of export (if known) after consultation with and at 
the expense of the country of export, or
    (2) A country within the historic range of the species which is 
party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of 
Wild Fauna and Flora (TIAS 8249) after consultation with and at the 
expense of such country.



Sec. 12.35  Use by the Service or transfer to another government agency for official use.

    (a) Wildlife and plants may be used by the Service or transferred to 
another government agency (including foreign agencies) for official use 
including, but not limited to, one or more of the following purposes:
    (1) Training government officials to perform their official duties;
    (2) Identifying protected wildlife or plants, including forensic 
identification or research;
    (3) Educating the public concerning the conservation of wildlife or 
plants;
    (4) Conducting law enforcement operations in performance of official 
duties;
    (5) Enhancing the propagation or survival of a species or other 
scientific purposes;
    (6) Presenting as evidence in a legal proceeding involving the 
wildlife or plant; or
    (7) Returning to the wild in accordance with Sec. 12.34 of this 
part.
    (b) Each transfer and the terms of the transfer must be documented.
    (c) The agency receiving the wildlife or plants may be required to 
bear all costs of care, storage, and transportation in connection with 
the transfer from the date of seizure to the date of delivery.



Sec. 12.36  Donation or loan.

    (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, wildlife and 
plants may be donated or loaned for scientific, educational, or public 
display purposes to any person who demonstrates the ability to provide 
adequate care and security for the item.
    (b) Any donation or loan may be made only after execution of a 
transfer document between the Director and the donee/borrower, which is 
subject to the following conditions:
    (1) The purpose for which the wildlife or plants are to be used must 
be stated on the transfer document;
    (2) Any attempt by the donee/borrower to use the donation or loan 
for any other purpose except that stated on the transfer document 
entitles the Director to immediate repossession of the wildlife or 
plants;

[[Page 38]]

    (3) The donee/borrower must pay all costs associated with the 
transfer, including the costs of care, storage, transportation, and 
return to the Service (if applicable);
    (4) The donee/borrower may be required to account periodically for 
the donation or loan;
    (5) The donee/borrower is not relieved from the prohibitions, 
restrictions, conditions, or requirements which may apply to a 
particular species of wildlife or plant imposed by the laws or 
regulations of the United States or any State, including any applicable 
health, quarantine, agricultural, or Customs laws or regulations.
    (6) Any attempt by a donee to retransfer the donation during the 
time period specified in the transfer document within which the donee 
may not retransfer the donation without the prior authorization of the 
Director entitles the Director to immediate repossession of the wildlife 
or plants;
    (7) Any attempt by a borrower to retransfer the loan without the 
prior authorization of the Director entitles the Director to immediate 
repossession of the wildlife or plants;
    (8) Subject to applicable limitations of law, duly authorized 
Service officers at all reasonable times shall, upon notice, be afforded 
access to the place where the donation or loan is kept and an 
opportunity to inspect it;
    (9) Any donation is subject to conditions specified in the transfer 
document, the violation of which causes the property to revert to the 
United States;
    (10) Any loan is for an indefinite period of time unless a date on 
which the loan must be returned to the Service is stated on the transfer 
document; and
    (11) Any loan remains the property of the United States, and the 
Director may demand its return at any time.
    (c) Wildlife and plants may be donated to individual American 
Indians for the practice of traditional American Indian religions. Any 
donation of the parts of bald or golden eagles to American Indians may 
only be made to individuals authorized by permit issued in accordance 
with Sec. 22.22 of this title to possess such items.
    (d) Edible wildlife, fit for human consumption, may be donated to a 
non-profit, tax-exempt charitable organization for use as food, but not 
for barter or sale.
    (e) Wildlife and plants may be loaned to government agencies 
(including foreign agencies) for official use. Each transfer and the 
terms of the transfer must be documented.



Sec. 12.37  Sale.

    (a) Wildlife and plants may be sold or offered for sale, except any 
species which at the time it is to be sold or offered for sale falls 
into one of the following categories:
    (1) Listed in Sec. 10.13 of this title as a migratory bird protected 
by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712);
    (2) Protected under the Eagle Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 668-668d);
    (3) Listed in Sec. 23.33 of this title as ``Appendix I'' under the 
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna 
and Flora;
    (4) Listed in Sec. 17.11 of this title as ``endangered'' or 
``threatened'' under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 
1533), unless the item or species may be lawfully traded in interstate 
commerce; and
    (5) Protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 
1361-1407), unless the item or species may be lawfully traded in 
interstate commerce.
    (b) Wildlife and plants must be sold in accordance with current 
Federal Property Management Regulations (41 CFR chapter 101) and 
Interior Property Management Regulations (41 CFR chapter 114) or U.S. 
Customs laws and regulations, except the Director may sell any wildlife 
or plant immediately for its fair market value if the Director 
determines that it is liable to perish, deteriorate, decay, waste, or 
greatly decrease in value by keeping, or that the expense of keeping it 
is disproportionate to its value.
    (c) Wildlife or plants which may not be possessed lawfully by 
purchasers under the laws of the State where held may be moved to a 
State where possession is lawful and may be sold.
    (d) Wildlife or plants purchased at sale are subject to the 
prohibitions, restrictions, conditions, or requirements which apply to a 
particular species of wildlife or plant imposed by the laws or

[[Page 39]]

regulations of the United States or any State, including any applicable 
conservation, health, quarantine, agricultural, or Customs laws or 
regulations, except as provided by Sec. 12.32 of this part.
    (e) The Director may use the proceeds of sale to reimburse the 
Service for any costs which by law the Service is authorized to recover 
or to pay any rewards which by law may be paid from sums the Service 
receives.



Sec. 12.38  Destruction.

    (a) Wildlife and plants not otherwise disposed of must be destroyed.
    (b) When destroyed, the fact, manner, and date of destruction and 
the type and quantity destroyed must be certified by the official 
actually destroying the items.



Sec. 12.39  Information on property available for disposal.

    Persons interested in obtaining information on property which is 
available for disposal should contact the appropriate Special Agent in 
Charge listed in Sec. 10.22 of this title.



    Subpart E--Restoration of Proceeds and Recovery of Storage Costs



Sec. 12.41  Petition for restoration of proceeds.

    (a) Any person claiming any property or interest therein which has 
been forfeited under the Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.; 
Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668 et seq.; Airborne Hunting Act, 16 
U.S.C. 742j-1; or the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371 et 
seq., and sold according to law, or any person claiming cargo or an 
interest therein, of a vessel or other conveyance employed in unlawful 
taking which has been forfeited under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, 
16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq., and sold according to law, may file with the 
Solicitor or, where forfeiture proceedings have been brought in U.S. 
District Court, the Attorney General, a petition for restoration of 
proceeds.
    (b) A petition filed with the Solicitor need not be in any 
particular form, but it must be received within three months after the 
date of sale of the property and must contain the following:
    (1) A description of the property;
    (2) The time and place of seizure;
    (3) Evidence of the petitioner's interest in the property, including 
contracts, bills of sale, invoices, security interests, certificates of 
title, and other satisfactory evidence;
    (4) A request for restoration of the proceeds or such part thereof 
as is claimed by the petitioner; and
    (5) A statement of all facts and circumstances relied upon by the 
petitioner to justify restoration of the proceeds, including proof that 
the petitioner did not know of the seizure before the declaration or 
order of forfeiture and was in such circumstances as prevented the 
petitioner from knowing of the same.
    (c) The petition shall be signed by the petitioner or the 
petitioner's attorney at law. If the petitioner is a corporation, the 
petition must be signed by an authorized officer, supervisory employee, 
or attorney at law, and the corporate seal shall be properly affixed to 
the signature.
    (d) A false statement in the petition may subject the petitioner to 
prosecution under title 18, U.S. Code, section 1001.
    (e) Upon receiving the petition, the Solicitor shall decide whether 
or not to grant relief. In making a decision, the Solicitor shall 
consider the information submitted by the petitioner, as well as any 
other available information relating to the matter.
    (f) If the Solicitor finds the existence of such mitigating 
circumstances as to justify restoration of the proceeds or any part 
thereof and that the petitioner did not know of the seizure before the 
declaration or order of forfeiture and was in such circumstances as 
prevented the petitioner from knowing of the same, the Solicitor may 
order the proceeds or any part thereof restored to the petitioner, after 
deducting from such proceeds the costs of seizure, storage, forfeiture 
and disposition, the duties, if any, accruing on the seized property, 
and any sum due on a lien for freight, charges, or contribution in 
general average, notice of which has been filed with the Solicitor 
according to law.

[[Page 40]]

    (g) If the Solicitor decides that relief should not be granted, the 
Solicitor shall so notify the petitioner in writing, stating in the 
notification the reasons for denying relief. The petitioner may then 
file a supplemental petition, but no supplemental petition shall be 
considered unless it is received within 60 days from the date of the 
Solicitor's notification denying the original petition.

[45 FR 17864, Mar. 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 56861, Dec. 21, 1982]



Sec. 12.42  Recovery of certain storage costs.

    If any wildlife, plant, or evidentiary item is seized and forfeited 
under the Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq., any person 
whose act or omission was the basis for the seizure may be charged a 
reasonable fee for expenses to the United States connected with the 
transfer, board, handling, or storage of such property. If any fish, 
wildlife or plant is seized in connection with a violation of the Lacey 
Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371, et seq., any person convicted 
thereof, or assessed a civil penalty therefor, may be assessed a 
reasonable fee for expenses of the United States connected with the 
storage, care and maintenance of such property. Within a reasonable time 
after forfeiture, the Service shall send to such person by registered or 
certified mail, return receipt requested, a bill for such fee. The bill 
shall contain an itemized statement of the applicable costs, together 
with instructions on the time and manner of payment. Payment shall be 
made in accordance with the bill. The recipient of any assessment of 
costs under this section who has an objection to the reasonableness of 
the costs described in the bill may, within 30 days of the date on which 
he received the bill, file written objections with the Regional Director 
of the Fish and Wildlife Service for the Region in which the seizure 
occurred. Upon receipt of the written objections, the appropriate 
Regional Director will promptly review them and within 30 days mail his 
final decision to the party who filed objections. In all cases, the 
Regional Director's decision shall constitute final administrative 
action on the matter.

[47 FR 56861, Dec. 21, 1982]



                      Subpart F--Return of Property



Sec. 12.51  Return procedure.

    If, at the conclusion of the appropriate proceedings, seized 
property is to be returned to the owner or consignee, the Solicitor or 
Service shall issue a letter or other document authorizing its return. 
This letter or other document shall be delivered personally or sent by 
registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, and shall 
identify the owner or consignee, the seized property, and, if 
appropriate, the bailee of the seized property. It shall also provide 
that upon presentation of the letter or other document and proper 
identification, and the signing of a receipt provided by the Service, 
the seized property is authorized to be released, provided it is 
properly marked in accordance with applicable State or Federal 
requirements.



PART 13--GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES--Table of Contents




                         Subpart A--Introduction

Sec.
13.1  General.
13.2  Purpose of regulations.
13.3  Scope of regulations.
13.4  Emergency variation from requirements.
13.5  Information collection requirements.

                   Subpart B--Application for Permits

13.11  Application procedures.
13.12  General information requirements on applications for permits.

                    Subpart C--Permit Administration

13.21  Issuance of permits.
13.22  Renewal of permits.
13.23  Amendment of permits.
13.24  Right of succession by certain persons.
13.25  Transfer of permits and scope of permit authorization.
13.26  Discontinuance of permit activity.
13.27  Permit suspension.
13.28  Permit revocation.
13.29  Review procedures.

                          Subpart D--Conditions

13.41  Humane conditions.

[[Page 41]]

13.42  Permits are specific.
13.43  Alteration of permits.
13.44  Display of permit.
13.45  Filing of reports.
13.46  Maintenance of records.
13.47  Inspection requirement.
13.48  Compliance with conditions of permit.
13.49  Surrender of permit.
13.50  Acceptance of liability.

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 668a, 704, 712, 742j-1, 1382, 1538(d), 1539, 
1540(f), 3374, 4901-4916; 18 U.S.C. 42; 19 U.S.C. 1202; E.O. 11911, 41 
FR 15683; 31 U.S.C. 9701.

    Source: 39 FR 1161, Jan. 4, 1974, unless otherwise noted.



                         Subpart A--Introduction



Sec. 13.1  General.

    Each person intending to engage in an activity for which a permit is 
required by this subchapter B shall, before commencing such activity, 
obtain a valid permit authorizing such activity. Each person who desires 
to obtain the permit privileges authorized by this subchapter must make 
application for such permit in accordance with the requirements of this 
part 13 and the other regulations in this subchapter which set forth the 
additional requirements for the specific permits desired. If the 
activity for which permission is sought is covered by the requirements 
of more than one part of this subchapter, the requirements of each part 
must be met. If the information required for each specific permitted 
activity is included, one application will be accepted for all permits 
required, and a single permit will be issued.



Sec. 13.2  Purpose of regulations.

    The regulations contained in this part provide uniform rules, 
conditions, and procedures for the application for and the issuance, 
denial, suspension, revocation, and general administration of all 
permits issued pursuant to this subchapter B.

[54 FR 38147, Sept. 14, 1989]



Sec. 13.3  Scope of regulations.

    The provisions in this part are in addition to, and are not in lieu 
of, other permit regulations of this subchapter and apply to all permits 
issued thereunder, including ``Import and Marking'' (part 14), ``Feather 
Imports'' (part 15), ``Injurious Wildlife'' (part 16), ``Endangered 
Wildlife and Plants'' (part 17), ``Marine Mammals'' (part 18), 
``Migratory Birds'' (part 21), ``Eagles'' (part 22) and ``Endangered 
Species Convention'' (part 23). As used in this part 13, the term 
``permit'' shall refer to either a license, permit, or certificate as 
the context may require.

[42 FR 10465, Feb. 22, 1977, as amended at 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977; 
45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980]



Sec. 13.4  Emergency variation from requirements.

    The Director may approve variations from the requirements of this 
part when he finds that an emergency exists and that the proposed 
variations will not hinder effective administration of this subchapter 
B, and will not be unlawful.



Sec. 13.5  Information collection requirements.

    (a) The Office of Management and Budget approved the information 
collection requirements contained in this part 13 under 44 U.S.C. and 
assigned OMB Control Number 1018-0092. The Service may not conduct or 
sponsor, and you are not required to respond, to a collection of 
information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. We 
are collecting this information to provide information necessary to 
evaluate permit applications. We will use this information to review 
permit applications and make decisions, according to criteria 
established in various Federal wildlife conservation statutes and 
regulations, on the issuance, suspension, revocation, or denial permits. 
You must respond to obtain or retain a permit.
    (b) We estimate the public reporting burden for these reporting 
requirements to vary from 15 minutes to 4 hours per response, with an 
average of 0.803 hours per response, including time for reviewing 
instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and 
reviewing the forms. Direct comments regarding the burden estimate or 
any other aspect of these reporting requirements to the Service 
Information Collection Control Officer, MS-222 ARLSQ, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 20240, or the Office of

[[Page 42]]

Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (1018-0092), 
Washington, DC 20603.

[63 FR 52634, Oct. 1, 1998]



                   Subpart B--Application for Permits



Sec. 13.11  Application procedures.

    The Service may not issue a permit for any activity authorized by 
this subchapter B unless the applicant has filed an application in 
accordance with the following procedures. Applicants do not have to 
submit a separate application for each permit unless otherwise required 
by this subchapter.
    (a) Forms. Applications must be submitted in writing on a Federal 
Fish and Wildlife License/Permit Application (Form 3-200) or as 
otherwise specifically directed by the Service.
    (b) Forwarding instructions. Applications for permits in the 
following categories should be forwarded to the issuing office indicated 
below.
    (1) Migratory bird banding permits (50 CFR 21.22)--Bird Banding 
Laboratory, Office of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Laurel, Maryland 20708. (Special application forms must be used 
for bird banding permits. They may be obtained by writing to the Bird 
Banding Laboratory).
    (2) Exception to designated port (50 CFR part 14), import/export 
license (50 CFR 14.93), migratory bird permit, other than banding (50 
CFR part 21) and Bald or Golden eagle permits (50 CFR part 22)--
Assistant Regional Director for Law Enforcement of District in which the 
applicant resides (see 50 CFR 10.22 for addresses and boundaries of the 
Law Enforcement Districts).
    (3) Feather quota (50 CFR part 15), injurious wildlife (50 CFR part 
16), endangered and threatened species (50 CFR part 17), marine mammal 
(50 CFR part 18) and permits and certificates for the Convention on 
International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (50 CFR part 23)--U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Federal Wildlife Permit Office, P.O. Box 
3654, Arlington, Virginia 22203.
    (c) Time notice. The Service will process all applications as 
quickly as possible. However, it cannot guarantee final action within 
the time limits the applicant requests. Applicants for endangered 
species and marine mammal permits should submit applications to the 
Office of Management Authority which are postmarked at least 90 calendar 
days prior to the requested effective date. Applicants for all other 
permits should submit applications to the issuing office which are 
postmarked at least 60 days prior to the requested effective date.
    (d) Fees. (1) Unless otherwise exempted by this paragraph, 
applicants for issuance or renewal of permits must pay the required 
permit processing fee at the time of application. Applicants should pay 
fees by check or money order made payable to ``U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service.'' The Service will not refund any application fee under any 
circumstances if the Service has processed the application. However, the 
Service may return the application fee if the applicant withdraws the 
application before the Service has significantly processed it.
    (2) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(4) of this section the fee 
for processing any application is $25.00. If regulations in this 
subchapter require more than one type of permit for an activity, and the 
permits are issued by the same office, the issuing office may issue one 
consolidated permit authorizing the activity. The issuing office may 
charge only the highest single fee for the activity permitted.
    (3) A fee shall not be charged to any Federal, State or local 
government agency, nor to any individual or institution under contract 
to such agency for the proposed activities. The fee may be waived or 
reduced for public institutions (see 50 CFR 10.12). Proof of such status 
must accompany the application.
    (4) Nonstandard fees.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Type of permit                             Fee
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Import/Export License (Section 14.93).......  $50.
Marine Mammal (Section 18.31)...............  $100.
Migratory Bird-Banding or Marking (21.22)...  None.
Bald or Golden Eagles (Part 22).............  None.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (e) Abandoned or incomplete applications. Upon receipt of an 
incomplete or improperly executed application, or if the applicant does 
not submit the proper fees, the issuing office will notify the applicant 
of the deficiency. If the

[[Page 43]]

applicant fails to supply the correct information to complete the 
application or to pay the required fees within 45 calendar days of the 
date of notification, the Service will consider the application 
abandoned. The Service will not refund any fees for an abandoned 
application.

[47 FR 30785, July 15, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 52889, Dec. 26, 1985; 
54 FR 4031, Jan. 27, 1989; 54 FR 38147, Sept. 14, 1989; 61 FR 31868, 
June 21, 1996]



Sec. 13.12  General information requirements on applications for permits.

    (a) General information required for all applications. All 
applications must contain the following information:
    (1) Applicant's full name, mailing address, telephone number(s), 
and,
    (i) If the applicant is an individual, the date of birth, height, 
weight, hair color, eye color, sex, and any business or institutional 
affiliation of the applicant related to the requested permitted 
activity; or
    (ii) If the applicant is a corporation, firm, partnership, 
association, institution, or public or private agency, the name and 
address of the president or principal officer and of the registered 
agent for the service of process;
    (2) Location where the requested permitted activity is to occur or 
be conducted;
    (3) Reference to the part(s) and section(s) of this subchapter B as 
listed in paragraph (b) of this section under which the application is 
made for a permit or permits, together with any additional 
justification, including supporting documentation as required by the 
referenced part(s) and section(s);
    (4) If the requested permitted activity involves the import or re-
export of wildlife or plants from or to any foreign country, and the 
country of origin, or the country of export or re-export restricts the 
taking, possession, transportation, exportation, or sale of wildlife or 
plants, documentation as indicated in Sec. 14.52(c) of this subchapter 
B;
    (5) Certification in the following language:

    I hereby certify that I have read and am familiar with the 
regulations contained in title 50, part 13, of the Code of Federal 
Regulations and the other applicable parts in subchapter B of chapter I 
of title 50, Code of Federal Regulations, and I further certify that the 
information submitted in this application for a permit is complete and 
accurate to the best of my knowledge and belief. I understand that any 
false statement herein may subject me to suspension or revocation of 
this permit and to the criminal penalties of 18 U.S.C. 1001.

    (6) Desired effective date of permit except where issuance date is 
fixed by the part under which the permit is issued;
    (7) Date;
    (8) Signature of the applicant; and
    (9) Such other information as the Director determines relevant to 
the processing of the application.
    (b) Additional information required on permit applications. As 
stated in paragraph (a)(3) of this section certain additional 
information is required on all applications. These additional 
requirements may be found by referring to the section of this subchapter 
B cited after the type of permit for which application is being made:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Type of permit                           Section
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Importation at nondesignated ports:
  Scientific................................................       14.31
  Deterioration prevention..................................       14.32
  Economic hardship.........................................       14.33
Marking of package or container:
  Symbol marking............................................       14.83
  Import/export license.....................................       14.93
Feather import quota: Importation or entry..................       15.21
Injurious wildlife: Importation or shipment.................       16.22
Endangered wildlife and plant permits:
  Similarity of appearance..................................       17.52
  Scientific, enhancement of propagation or survival,              17.22
   incidental taking for wildlife...........................
  Scientific, propagation, or survival for plants...........       17.62
  Economic hardship for wildlife............................       17.23
  Economic hardship for plants..............................       17.63
Threatened wildlife and plant permits:
  Similarity of appearance..................................       17.52
  General for wildlife......................................       17.32
  American alligator-buyer or tanner........................    17.42(a)
  General for plants........................................       17.72
Marine mammals permits:
  Scientific research.......................................       18.31
  Public display............................................       18.31
Migratory bird permits:
  Banding or marking........................................       21.22
  Scientific collecting.....................................       21.23
  Taxidermist...............................................       21.24
  Waterfowl sale and disposal...............................       21.25
  Special aviculturist......................................       21.26
  Special purpose...........................................       21.27
  Falconry..................................................       21.28
  Raptor propagation permit.................................       21.30
  Depredation control.......................................       21.41
Eagle permits:
  Scientific or exhibition..................................       22.21
  Indian religious use......................................       22.22
  Depredation control.......................................       22.23
  Falconry purposes.........................................       22.24

[[Page 44]]

 
  Take of golden eagle nests................................       22.25
Endangered Species Convention permits.......................       23.15
------------------------------------------------------------------------



[39 FR 1161, Jan. 4, 1974, as amended at 42 FR 10465, Feb. 22, 1977; 42 
FR 32377, June 24, 1977; 44 FR 54006, Sept. 17, 1979; 44 FR 59083, Oct. 
12, 1979; 45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 45 FR 78154, Nov. 25, 1980; 46 FR 
42680, Aug. 24, 1981; 48 FR 31607, July 8, 1983; 48 FR 57300, Dec. 29, 
1983; 50 FR 39687, Sept. 30, 1985; 50 FR 45408, Oct. 31, 1985; 54 FR 
38147, Sept. 14, 1989]



                    Subpart C--Permit Administration



Sec. 13.21  Issuance of permits.

    (a) No permit may be issued prior to the receipt of a written 
application therefor, unless a written variation from the requirements, 
as authorized by Sec. 13.4, is inserted into the official file of the 
Bureau. An oral or written representation of an employee or agent of the 
United States Government, or an action of such employee or agent, shall 
not be construed as a permit unless it meets the requirements of a 
permit as defined in 50 CFR 10.12.
    (b) Upon receipt of a properly executed application for a permit, 
the Director shall issue the appropriate permit unless:
    (1) The applicant has been assessed a civil penalty or convicted of 
any criminal provision of any statute or regulation relating to the 
activity for which the application is filed, if such assessment or 
conviction evidences a lack of responsibility.
    (2) The applicant has failed to disclose material information 
required, or has made false statements as to any material fact, in 
connection with his application;
    (3) The applicant has failed to demonstrate a valid justification 
for the permit and a showing of responsibility;
    (4) The authorization requested potentially threatens a wildlife or 
plant population, or
    (5) The Director finds through further inquiry or investigation, or 
otherwise, that the applicant is not qualified.
    (c) Disqualifying factors. Any one of the following will disqualify 
a person from receiving permits issued under this part.
    (1) A conviction, or entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, 
for a felony violation of the Lacey Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 
or the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act disqualifies any such person 
from receiving or exercising the privileges of a permit, unless such 
disqualification has been expressly waived by the Director in response 
to a written petition.
    (2) The revocation of a permit for reasons found in Sec. 13.28 
(a)(1) or (a)(2) disqualifies any such person from receiving or 
exercising the privileges of a similar permit for a period of five years 
from the date of the final agency decision on such revocation.
    (3) The failure to pay any required fees or assessed costs and 
penalties, whether or not reduced to judgement disqualifies such person 
from receiving or exercising the privileges of a permit as long as such 
moneys are owed to the United States. This requirement shall not apply 
to any civil penalty presently subject to administrative or judicial 
appeal; provided that the pendency of a collection action brought by the 
United States or its assignees shall not constitute an appeal within the 
meaning of this subsection.
    (4) The failure to submit timely, accurate, or valid reports as 
required may disqualify such person from receiving or exercising the 
privileges of a permit as long as the deficiency exists.
    (d) Use of supplemental information. The issuing officer, in making 
a determination under this subsection, may use any information available 
that is relevant to the issue. This may include any prior conviction, or 
entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, or assessment of civil or 
criminal penalty for a violation of any Federal or State law or 
regulation governing the permitted activity. It may also include any 
prior permit revocations or suspensions, or any reports of State or 
local officials. The issuing officer shall consider all relevant facts 
or information available, and may make independent inquiry or 
investigation to verify information or substantiate qualifications 
asserted by the applicant.
    (e) Conditions of issuance and acceptance. (1) Any permit 
automatically incorporates within its terms the conditions and 
requirements of subpart D of

[[Page 45]]

this part and of any part(s) or section(s) specifically authorizing or 
governing the activity for which the permit is issued.
    (2) Any person accepting and holding a permit under this subchapter 
B acknowledges the necessity for close regulation and monitoring of the 
permitted activity by the Government. By accepting such permit, the 
permittee consents to and shall allow entry by agents or employees of 
the Service upon premises where the permitted activity is conducted at 
any reasonable hour. Service agents or employees may enter such premises 
to inspect the location; any books, records, or permits required to be 
kept by this subchapter B; and any wildlife or plants kept under 
authority of the permit.
    (f) Term of permit. Unless otherwise modified, a permit is valid 
during the period specified on the face of the permit. Such period shall 
include the effective date and the date of expiration.
    (g) Denial. The issuing officer may deny a permit to any applicant 
who fails to meet the issuance criteria set forth in this section or in 
the part(s) or section(s) specifically governing the activity for which 
the permit is requested.

[39 FR 1161, Jan. 4, 1974, as amended at 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977; 47 
FR 30785, July 15, 1982; 54 FR 38148, Sept. 14, 1989]



Sec. 13.22  Renewal of permits.

    (a) Application for renewal. Applicants for renewal of a permit must 
submit a written application at least 30 days prior to the expiration 
date of the permit. Applicants must certify in the form required by 
Sec. 13.12(a)(5) that all statements and information in the original 
application remain current and correct, unless previously changed or 
corrected. If such information is no longer current or correct, the 
applicant must provide corrected information.
    (b) Renewal criteria. The Service shall issue a renewal of a permit 
if the applicant meets the criteria for issuance in Sec. 13.21(b) and is 
not disqualified under Sec. 13.21(c).
    (c) Continuation of permitted activity. Any person holding a valid, 
renewable permit, who has complied with this section, may continue the 
activities authorized by the expired permit until the Service has acted 
on such person's application for renewal.
    (d) Denial. The issuing officer may deny renewal of a permit to any 
applicant who fails to meet the issuance criteria set forth in 
Sec. 13.21 of this part, or in the part(s) or section(s) specifically 
governing the activity for which the renewal is requested.

[54 FR 38148, Sept. 14, 1989]



Sec. 13.23  Amendment of permits.

    (a) Permittee's request. Where circumstances have changed so that a 
permittee desires to have any condition of his permit modified, such 
permittee must submit a full written justification and supporting 
information in conformity with this part and the part under which the 
permit was issued.
    (b) The Service reserves the right to amend any permit for just 
cause at any time during its term, upon written finding of necessity, 
provided that any such amendment of a permit issued under Sec. 17.22(b) 
through (d) or Sec. 17.32(b) through (d) of this subchapter shall be 
consistent with the requirements of Sec. 17.22(b)(5), (c)(5) and (d)(5) 
or Sec. 17.32(b)(5), (c)(5) and (d)(5) of this subchapter, respectively.
    (c) Change of name or address. A permittee is not required to obtain 
a new permit if there is a change in the legal individual or business 
name, or in the mailing address of the permittee. A permittee is 
required to notify the issuing office within 10 calendar days of such 
change. This provision does not authorize any change in location of the 
conduct of the permitted activity when approval of the location is a 
qualifying condition of the permit.

[54 FR 38148, Sept. 14, 1989, as amended at 64 FR 32711, June 17, 1999]



Sec. 13.24  Right of succession by certain persons.

    (a) Certain persons other than the permittee are authorized to carry 
on a permitted activity for the remainder of the term of a current 
permit, provided they comply with the provisions of paragraph (b) of 
this section. Such persons are the following:
    (1) The surviving spouse, child, executor, administrator, or other 
legal

[[Page 46]]

representative of a deceased permittee; or
    (2) A receiver or trustee in bankruptcy or a court designated 
assignee for the benefit of creditors.
    (b) In order to qualify for the authorization provided in this 
section, the person or persons desiring to continue the activity shall 
furnish the permit to the issuing officer for endorsement within 90 days 
from the date the successor begins to carry on the activity.
    (c) In the case of permits issued under Sec. 17.22(b) through (d) or 
Sec. 17.32(b) through (d) of this subchapter B, the successor's 
authorization under the permit is also subject to a determination by the 
Service that:
    (1) The successor meets all of the qualifications under this part 
for holding a permit;
    (2) The successor has provided adequate written assurances that it 
will provide sufficient funding for the conservation plan or Agreement 
and will implement the relevant terms and conditions of the permit, 
including any outstanding minimization and mitigation requirements; and
    (3) The successor has provided such other information as the Service 
determines is relevant to the processing of the request.

[64 FR 32711, June 17, 1999]



Sec. 13.25  Transfer of permits and scope of permit authorization.

    (a) Except as otherwise provided for in this section, permits issued 
under this part are not transferable or assignable.
    (b) Permits issued under Sec. 17.22(b) through (d) or Sec. 17.32(b) 
through (d) of this subchapter B may be transferred in whole or in part 
through a joint submission by the permittee and the proposed transferee, 
or in the case of a deceased permittee, the deceased permittee's legal 
representative and the proposed transferee, provided the Service 
determines that:
    (1) The proposed transferee meets all of the qualifications under 
this part for holding a permit;
    (2) The proposed transferee has provided adequate written assurances 
that it will provide sufficient funding for the conservation plan or 
Agreement and will implement the relevant terms and conditions of the 
permit, including any outstanding minimization and mitigation 
requirements; and
    (3) The proposed transferee has provided such other information as 
the Service determines is relevant to the processing of the submission.
    (c) Except as otherwise stated on the face of the permit, any person 
who is under the direct control of the permittee, or who is employed by 
or under contract to the permittee for purposes authorized by the 
permit, may carry out the activity authorized by the permit.
    (d) In the case of permits issued under Sec. 17.22(b)-(d) or 
Sec. 17.32(b)-(d) of this subchapter to a State or local governmental 
entity, a person is under the direct control of the permittee where:
    (1) The person is under the jurisdiction of the permittee and the 
permit provides that such person(s) may carry out the authorized 
activity; or
    (2) The person has been issued a permit by the governmental entity 
or has executed a written instrument with the governmental entity, 
pursuant to the terms of the implementing agreement.

[64 FR 32711, June 17, 1999, as amended at 64 FR 52676, Sept. 30, 1999]



Sec. 13.26  Discontinuance of permit activity.

    When a permittee, or any successor to a permittee as provided for by 
Sec. 13.24, discontinues activities authorized by a permit, the 
permittee shall within 30 calendar days of the discontinuance return the 
permit to the issuing office together with a written statement 
surrendering the permit for cancellation. The permit shall be deemed 
void and cancelled upon its receipt by the issuing office. No refund of 
any fees paid for issuance of the permit or for any other fees or costs 
associated with a permitted activity shall be made when a permit is 
surrendered for cancellation for any reason prior to the expiration date 
stated on the face of the permit.

[54 FR 38149, Sept. 14, 1989]



Sec. 13.27  Permit suspension.

    (a) Criteria for suspension. The privileges of exercising some or 
all of the permit authority may be suspended at

[[Page 47]]

any time if the permittee is not in compliance with the conditions of 
the permit, or with any applicable laws or regulations governing the 
conduct of the permitted activity. The issuing officer may also suspend 
all or part of the privileges authorized by a permit if the permittee 
fails to pay any fees, penalties or costs owed to the Government. Such 
suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines 
that the permittee has corrected the deficiencies.
    (b) Procedure for suspension. (1) When the issuing officer believes 
there are valid grounds for suspending a permit the permittee shall be 
notified in writing of the proposed suspension by certified or 
registered mail. This notice shall identify the permit to be suspended, 
the reason(s) for such suspension, the actions necessary to correct the 
deficiencies, and inform the permittee of the right to object to the 
proposed suspension. The issuing officer may amend any notice of 
suspension at any time.
    (2) Upon receipt of a notice of proposed suspension the permittee 
may file a written objection to the proposed action. Such objection must 
be in writing, must be filed within 45 calendar days of the date of the 
notice of proposal, must state the reasons why the permittee objects to 
the proposed suspension, and may include supporting documentation.
    (3) A decision on the suspension shall be made within 45 days after 
the end of the objection period. The issuing officer shall notify the 
permittee in writing of the Service's decision and the reasons 
therefore. The issuing officer shall also provide the applicant with the 
information concerning the right to request reconsideration of the 
decision under Sec. 13.29 of this part and the procedures for requesting 
reconsideration.

[54 FR 38149, Sept. 14, 1989]



Sec. 13.28  Permit revocation.

    (a) Criteria for revocation. A permit may be revoked for any of the 
following reasons:
    (1) The permittee willfully violates any Federal or State statute or 
regulation, or any Indian tribal law or regulation, or any law or 
regulation of any foreign country, which involves a violation of the 
conditions of the permit or of the laws or regulations governing the 
permitted activity; or
    (2) The permittee fails within 60 days to correct deficiencies that 
were the cause of a permit suspension; or
    (3) The permittee becomes disqualified under Sec. 13.21(c) of this 
part; or
    (4) A change occurs in the statute or regulation authorizing the 
permit that prohibits the continuation of a permit issued by the 
Service; or
    (5) Except for permits issued under Sec. 17.22(b) through (d) or 
Sec. 17.32(b) through (d) of this subchapter, the population(s) of the 
wildlife or plant that is the subject of the permit declines to the 
extent that continuation of the permitted activity would be detrimental 
to maintenance or recovery of the affected population.
    (b) Procedure for revocation. (1) When the issuing officer believes 
there are valid grounds for revoking a permit, the permittee shall be 
notified in writing of the proposed revocation by certified or 
registered mail. This notice shall identify the permit to be revoked, 
the reason(s) for such revocation, the proposed disposition of the 
wildlife, if any, and inform the permittee of the right to object to the 
proposed revocation. The issuing officer may amend any notice of 
revocation at any time.
    (2) Upon receipt of a notice of proposed revocation the permittee 
may file a written objection to the proposed action. Such objection must 
be in writing, must be filed within 45 calendar days of the date of the 
notice of proposal, must state the reasons why the permittee objects to 
the proposed revocation, and may include supporting documentation.
    (3) A decision on the revocation shall be made within 45 days after 
the end of the objection period. The issuing officer shall notify the 
permittee in writing of the Service's decision and the reasons 
therefore, together with the information concerning the right to request 
and the procedures for requesting reconsideration.
    (4) Unless a permittee files a timely request for reconsideration, 
any wildlife held under authority of a permit that is revoked must be 
disposed of in accordance with instructions of the

[[Page 48]]

issuing officer. If a permittee files a timely request for 
reconsideration of a proposed revocation, such permittee may retain 
possession of any wildlife held under authority of the permit until 
final disposition of the appeal process.

[54 FR 38149, Sept. 14, 1989, as amended at 64 FR 32711, June 17, 1999]



Sec. 13.29  Review procedures.

    (a) Request for reconsideration. Any person may request 
reconsideration of an action under this part if that person is one of 
the following:
    (1) An applicant for a permit who has received written notice of 
denial;
    (2) An applicant for renewal who has received written notice that a 
renewal is denied;
    (3) A permittee who has a permit amended, suspended, or revoked, 
except for those actions which are required by changes in statutes or 
regulations, or are emergency changes of limited applicability for which 
an expiration date is set within 90 days of the permit change; or
    (4) A permittee who has a permit issued or renewed but has not been 
granted authority by the permit to perform all activities requested in 
the application, except when the activity requested is one for which 
there is no lawful authority to issue a permit.
    (b) Method of requesting reconsideration. Any person requesting 
reconsideration of an action under this part must comply with the 
following criteria:
    (1) Any request for reconsideration must be in writing, signed by 
the person requesting reconsideration or by the legal representative of 
that person, and must be submitted to the issuing officer.
    (2) The request for reconsideration must be received by the issuing 
officer within 45 calendar days of the date of notification of the 
decision for which reconsideration is being requested.
    (3) The request for reconsideration shall state the decision for 
which reconsideration is being requested and shall state the reason(s) 
for the reconsideration, including presenting any new information or 
facts pertinent to the issue(s) raised by the request for 
reconsideration.
    (4) The request for reconsideration shall contain a certification in 
substantially the same form as that provided by Sec. 13.12(a)(5). If a 
request for reconsideration does not contain such certification, but is 
otherwise timely and appropriate, it shall be held and the person 
submitting the request shall be given written notice of the need to 
submit the certification within 15 calendar days. Failure to submit 
certification shall result in the request being rejected as insufficient 
in form and content.
    (c) Inquiry by the Service. The Service may institute a separate 
inquiry into the matter under consideration.
    (d) Determination of grant or denial of a request for 
reconsideration. The issuing officer shall notify the permittee of the 
Service's decision within 45 days of the receipt of the request for 
reconsideration. This notification shall be in writing, shall state the 
reasons for the decision, and shall contain a description of the 
evidence which was relied upon by the issuing officer. The notification 
shall also provide information concerning the right to appeal, the 
official to whom an appeal may be addressed, and the procedures for 
making an appeal.
    (e) Appeal. A person who has received an adverse decision following 
submission of a request for reconsideration may submit a written appeal 
to the Regional Director for the region in which the issuing office is 
located, or to the Director for offices which report directly to the 
Director. An appeal must be submitted within 45 days of the date of the 
notification of the decision on the request for reconsideration. The 
appeal shall state the reason(s) and issue(s) upon which the appeal is 
based and may contain any additional evidence or arguments to support 
the appeal.
    (f) Decision on appeal. (1) Before a decision is made concerning the 
appeal the appellant may present oral arguments before the Regional 
Director or the Director, as appropriate, if such official judges oral 
arguments are necessary to clarify issues raised in the written record.
    (2) The Service shall notify the appellant in writing of its 
decision within 45 calendar days of receipt of the appeal,

[[Page 49]]

unless extended for good cause and the appellant notified of the 
extension.
    (3) The decision of the Regional Director or the Director shall 
constitute the final administrative decision of the Department of the 
Interior.

[54 FR 38149, Sept. 14, 1989]



                          Subpart D--Conditions



Sec. 13.41  Humane conditions.

    Any live wildlife possessed under a permit must be maintained under 
humane and healthful conditions.

[54 FR 38150, Sept. 14, 1989]



Sec. 13.42  Permits are specific.

    The authorizations on the face of a permit which set forth specific 
times, dates, places, methods of taking, numbers and kinds of wildlife 
or plants, location of activity, authorize certain circumscribed 
transactions, or otherwise permit a specifically limited matter, are to 
be strictly construed and shall not be interpreted to permit similar or 
related matters outside the scope of strict construction.

[39 FR 1161, Jan. 4, 1974, as amended at 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977]



Sec. 13.43  Alteration of permits.

    Permits shall not be altered, erased, or mutilated, and any permit 
which has been altered, erased, or mutilated shall immediately become 
invalid. Unless specifically permitted on the face thereof, no permit 
shall be copied, nor shall any copy of a permit issued pursuant to this 
subchapter B be displayed, offered for inspection, or otherwise used for 
any official purpose for which the permit was issued.



Sec. 13.44  Display of permit.

    Any permit issued under this part shall be displayed for inspection 
upon request to the Director or his agent, or to any other person 
relying upon its existence.



Sec. 13.45  Filing of reports.

    Permittees may be required to file reports of the activities 
conducted under the permit. Any such reports shall be filed not later 
than March 31 for the preceding calendar year ending December 31, or any 
portion thereof, during which a permit was in force, unless the 
regulations of this subchapter B or the provisions of the permit set 
forth other reporting requirements.



Sec. 13.46  Maintenance of records.

    From the date of issuance of the permit, the permittee shall 
maintain complete and accurate records of any taking, possession, 
transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, or importation of 
plants obtained from the wild (excluding seeds) or wildlife pursuant to 
such permit. Such records shall be kept current and shall include names 
and addresses of persons with whom any plant obtained from the wild 
(excluding seeds) or wildlife has been purchased, sold, bartered, or 
otherwise transferred, and the date of such transaction, and such other 
information as may be required or appropriate. Such records shall be 
legibly written or reproducible in English and shall be maintained for 
five years from the date of expiration of the permit.

[39 FR 1161, Jan. 4, 1974, as amended at 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977; 54 
FR 38150, Sept. 14, 1989]



Sec. 13.47  Inspection requirement.

    Any person holding a permit under this subchapter B shall allow the 
Director's agent to enter his premises at any reasonable hour to inspect 
any wildlife or plant held or to inspect, audit, or copy any permits, 
books, or records required to be kept by regulations of this subchapter 
B.

[39 FR 1161, Jan. 4, 1974, as amended at 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977]



Sec. 13.48  Compliance with conditions of permit.

    Any person holding a permit under subchapter B and any person acting 
under authority of such permit must comply with all conditions of the 
permit and with all appllicable laws and regulations governing the 
permitted activity.

[54 FR 38150, Sept. 14, 1989]

[[Page 50]]



Sec. 13.49  Surrender of permit.

    Any person holding a permit under subchapter B shall surrender such 
permit to the issuing officer upon notification that the permit has been 
suspended or revoked by the Service, and all appeal procedures have been 
exhausted.

[54 FR 38150, Sept. 14, 1989]



Sec. 13.50  Acceptance of liability.

    Except as otherwise limited in the case of permits described in 
Sec. 13.25(d), any person holding a permit under this subchapter B 
assumes all liability and responsibility for the conduct of any activity 
conducted under the authority of such permit.

[64 FR 32711, June 17, 1999]



PART 14--IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE--Table of Contents




                         Subpart A--Introduction

Sec.
14.1  Purpose of regulations.
14.2  Scope of regulations.
14.3  Information collection requirements.
14.4  What terms do I have to understand?

       Subpart B--Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports

14.11  General restrictions.
14.12  Designated ports.
14.13  Emergency diversion.
14.14  In-transit shipments.
14.15  Personal baggage and household effects.
14.16  Border ports.
14.17  Personally owned pet birds.
14.18  Marine mammals.
14.19  Special ports.
14.20  Exceptions by permit.
14.21  Shellfish and fishery products.
14.22  Certain antique articles.
14.23  Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.
14.24  Scientific specimens.

              Subpart C--Designated Port Exception Permits

14.31  Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port for 
          scientific purposes.
14.32  Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to 
          minimize deterioration or loss.
14.33  Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to 
          alleviate undue economic hardship.

Subpart D  [Reserved]

             Subpart E--Inspection and Clearance of Wildlife

14.51  Inspection of wildlife.
14.52  Clearance of imported wildlife.
14.53  Detention and refusal of clearance.
14.54  Unavailability of Service officers.
14.55  Exceptions to clearance requirements.

                    Subpart F--Wildlife Declarations

14.61  Import declaration requirements.
14.62  Exceptions to import declaration requirements.
14.63  Export declaration requirements.
14.64  Exceptions to export declaration requirements.

Subpart G  [Reserved]

              Subpart H--Marking of Containers or Packages

14.81  Marking requirement.
14.82  Alternatives and exceptions to the marking requirement.

                    Subpart I--Import/Export Licenses

14.91  License requirement.
14.92  Exceptions to license requirement.
14.93  License application procedure, conditions, and duration.
14.94  What fees apply to me?

  Subpart J--Standards for the Humane and Healthful Transport of Wild 
                 Mammals and Birds to the United States

14.101  Purposes.
14.102  Definitions.
14.103  Prohibitions.
14.104  Translations.
14.105  Consignment to carrier.
14.106  Primary enclosures.
14.107  Conveyance.
14.108  Food and water.
14.109  Care in transit.
14.110  Terminal facilities.
14.111  Handling.
14.112  Other applicable provisions.

                  Specifications for Nonhuman Primates

14.121  Primary enclosures.
14.122  Food and water.
14.123  Care in transit.

  Specifications for Marine Mammals (Cetaceans, Sirenians, Sea Otters, 
                       Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears)

14.131  Primary enclosures.

[[Page 51]]

14.132  Food and water.
14.133  Care in transit.

               Specifications for Elephants and Ungulates

14.141  Consignment to carrier.
14.142  Primary enclosures.

   Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)

14.151  Primary enclosures.

              Specifications for Other Terrestrial Mammals

14.161  Primary enclosures.

                        Specifications for Birds

14.171  Consignment to carrier.
14.172  Primary enclosures.

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 668, 704, 712, 1382, 1538(d)-(f), 1540(f), 
3371-3378, 4223-4244, and 4901-4916; 18 U.S.C. 42; 31 U.S.C. 9701.

    Source: 45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980, unless otherwise noted.



                         Subpart A--Introduction



Sec. 14.1  Purpose of regulations.

    The regulations contained in this part provide uniform rules and 
procedures for the importation, exportation, and transportation of 
wildlife.



Sec. 14.2  Scope of regulations.

    The provisions in this part are in addition to, and do not supersede 
other regulations of this subchapter B which may require a permit or 
prescribe additional restrictions or conditions for the importation, 
exportation, and transportation of wildlife.



Sec. 14.3  Information collection requirements.

    The Office of Management and Budget approved the information 
collection requirements contained in this part 14 under 44 U.S.C. 3507 
and assigned OMB Control Number 1018-0092. The Service may not conduct 
or sponsor, and you are not required to respond, to a collection of 
information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. We 
are collecting this information to provide information about wildlife 
imports or exports, including product and parts, and to facilitate 
enforcement of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as amended (16 U.S.C. 
1531 et seq.) and to carry out the provisions of the convention on 
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. We 
estimate the public reporting burden for these reporting requirements to 
vary from 10 to 15 minutes per response. Direct comments regarding the 
burden estimate or any other aspect of these reporting requirements to 
the Service Information Collection Control Officer, MS-222 ARLSQ, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 20240, or the Office of 
Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (1018-0092), 
Washington, DC 20603.

[63 FR 52634, Oct. 1, 1998]



Sec. 14.4  What terms do I have to understand?

    In addition to definitions contained in part 10 of this subchapter, 
in this part:
    Accompanying personal baggage means all hand-carried items and all 
checked baggage of a person entering into or departing from the United 
States.
    Accredited scientist means any individual associated with, employed 
by, or under contract to and accredited by an accredited scientific 
institution for the purpose of conducting biological or medical 
research, and whose research activities are approved and sponsored by 
the scientific institution granting accreditation.
    Accredited scientific institutions means any public museum, public 
zoological park, accredited institution of higher education, accredited 
member of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, accredited member 
of the American Association of Systematic Collections, or any State or 
Federal government agency that conducts biological or medical research.
    Commercial means related to the offering for sale or resale, 
purchase, trade, barter, or the actual or intended transfer in the 
pursuit of gain or profit, of any item of wildlife and includes the use 
of any wildlife article as an exhibit for the purpose of soliciting 
sales, without regard to quantity or weight. There is a presumption that 
eight or more similar unused items are for commercial use. The Service 
or the importer/exporter/owner may rebut this presumption based upon the 
particular facts and circumstances of each case.


[[Page 52]]


    Domesticated animals includes, but is not limited to, the following 
domesticated animals that are exempted from the requirements of this 
subchapter B (except for species obtained from wild populations).
    Mammals: Alpaca--Lama alpaca; Camel--Camelus dromedarius; Camel 
(Boghdi)--Camelus bactrianus; Cat (domestic)--Felis domesticus; Cattle--
Bos taurus; Dog (domestic)--Canis familiaris; European rabbit--
Ortyctolagus cuniculus; Ferret (domestic)--Mustela putorius; Goat--Capra 
hircus; Horse--Equus caballus; Llama--Lama glama; Pig--Sus scrofa; 
Sheep--Ovis aries; Water buffalo--Bubalus bubalus; White lab mice--Mus 
musculus; White lab rate--Rattus norvegicus.
    Fish (For export purposes only): Carp (koi)--Cyprinus carpio; 
Goldfish--Carassius auratus.
    Birds: Chicken--Gallus domesticus; Ducks & geese--domesticated 
varieties; Guinea fowl--Numida meleagris; Peafowl--Pavo cristatus; 
Pigeons (domesticated)--Columba livia domestrica; Turkey--Meleagris 
gallopavo; Domesticated or Barnyard Mallards include: Pekin; Aylesbury; 
Bouen; Cayuga; Gray Call; White Call; East Indian; Crested; Swedish; 
Buff Orpington; Indian Runner; Campbell; Duclair; Merchtem; Termonde; 
Magpie; Chinese; Khaki Campbell.
    Insects: Crickets, mealworms, honeybees (not to include Africanized 
varieties), and similar insects that are routinely farm raised.
    Other Invertebrates: Earthworms and similar invertebrates that are 
routinely farm raised.

    Export means to depart from, to send from, to ship from, or to carry 
out of, or attempt to depart from, to send from, to ship from, or to 
carry out of, or to consign to a carrier in any place subject to the 
jurisdiction of the United States with an intended destination of any 
place not subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, whether or 
not such departure, sending, or carrying, or shipping constitutes an 
exportation within the meaning of the Custom laws of the United States. 
When a passenger leaving the jurisdiction of the United States enters 
the designated international area of embarkation of an airport, all 
accompanying personal hand-carried items and checked baggage will be 
regarded as exports.
    Import means to land on, bring into, or introduce into, or attempt 
to land on, bring into, or introduce into any place subject to the 
jurisdiction of the United States, whether or not such landing, 
bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning 
of the tariff laws of the United States.
    We means Fish and Wildlife Service or Service.
    You means licensee, or importer/exporter of record.

[61 FR 31868, June 21, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 23025, Apr. 29, 1999]



       Subpart B--Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports



Sec. 14.11  General restrictions.

    Except as otherwise provided in this part, no person may import or 
export any wildlife at any place other than a Customs port of entry 
designated in Sec. 14.12.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 45 FR 64953, Oct. 1, 1980]



Sec. 14.12  Designated ports.

    The following Customs ports of entry are designated for the 
importation or exportation of wildlife and are referred to hereafter as 
``designated ports:''
    (a) Los Angeles, California;
    (b) San Francisco, California;
    (c) Miami, Florida;
    (d) Honolulu, Hawaii;
    (e) Chicago, Illinois;
    (f) New Orleans, Louisiana;
    (g) New York, New York;
    (h) Seattle, Washington;
    (i) Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas;
    (j) Portland, Oregon;
    (k) Baltimore, Maryland;
    (l) Boston, Massachusetts; and
    (m) Atlanta, Georgia.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980, as amended at 46 FR 43835, Sept. 1, 1981; 
55 FR 9731, Mar. 15, 1990; 57 FR 21355, May 20, 1992; 59 FR 33212, June 
28, 1994; 61 FR 3851, Feb. 2, 1996]



Sec. 14.13  Emergency diversion.

    Wildlife which has been imported into the United States at any port 
or

[[Page 53]]

place other than a designated port solely as a result of a diversion due 
to an aircraft or vessel emergency must proceed as an in-transit 
shipment under Customs bond to a designated port, or to any port where a 
permit or other provision of this part provides for lawful importation.



Sec. 14.14  In-transit shipments.

    (a) Wildlife destined for a point within the United States may be 
imported into the United States at any port if such wildlife proceeds as 
an in-transit shipment under Customs bond to a designated port, or to 
any port where a permit or other provision of this part provides for 
lawful importation.
    (b) Wildlife moving in-transit through the United States from one 
foreign country to another foreign country is exempt from the designated 
port requirements of this part, if such wildlife is not unloaded within 
the United States.



Sec. 14.15  Personal baggage and household effects.

    (a) Any person may import into or export from the United States at 
any Customs port wildlife products or manufactured articles that are not 
intended for commercial use and are used as clothing or contained in 
accompanying personal baggage. However, this exception to the designated 
port requirement does not apply to any raw or dressed fur; raw, salted, 
or crusted hide or skin; game trophy; or to wildlife requiring a permit 
pursuant to part 16, 17, 18, 21, or 23 of this subchapter B.
    (b) Wildlife products or manufactured articles, including mounted 
game trophies or tanned hides, which are not intended for sale and are 
part of a shipment of the household effects of persons moving their 
residence to or from the United States may be imported or exported at 
any Customs port of entry. However, this exception to the designated 
port requirement does not apply to any raw fur; raw, salted, or crusted 
hide or skin; or to wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, 21, or 23 of this subchapter B.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980, as amended at 61 FR 31868, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.16  Border ports.

    (a) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, 21, or 23 of this subchapter B, wildlife whose country of origin is 
Canada or the United States may be imported or exported at any of the 
following Customs ports of entry:
    (1) Alaska--Alcan;
    (2) Idaho--Eastport;
    (3) Maine--Calais, Houlton, Jackman;
    (4) Massachusetts--Boston;
    (5) Michigan--Detroit, Port Huron, Sault Sainte Marie;
    (6) Minnesota--Grand Portage, International Falls, Minneapolis-St. 
Paul;
    (7) Montana--Raymond, Sweetgrass;
    (8) New York--Buffalo-Niagara Falls, Champlain;
    (9) North Dakota--Dunseith, Pembina, Portal;
    (10) Ohio--Cleveland;
    (11) Vermont--Derby Line, Highgate Springs; and
    (12) Washington--Blaine, Sumas.
    (b) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, 21, or 23 of this subchapter B, wildlife whose country of origin is 
Mexico or the United States may be imported or exported at any of the 
following Customs ports of entry:
    (1) Arizona--Lukeville, Nogales;
    (2) California--Calexico, San Diego-San Ysidro; and
    (3) Texas--Brownsville, El Paso, Laredo.
    (c) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, or 21 of this subchapter B, wildlife lawfully taken by U.S. 
residents in the United States, Canada, or Mexico and imported or 
exported for noncommercial purposes, may be imported or exported at any 
Customs port of entry.



Sec. 14.17  Personally owned pet birds.

    Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port 
designated under, and in accordance with, 9 CFR part 92.



Sec. 14.18  Marine mammals.

    Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has 
lawfully taken a marine mammal on the

[[Page 54]]

high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in 
accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and 
implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216) may import such 
marine mammal at any port or place.



Sec. 14.19  Special ports.

    (a) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, 21, or 23 of this subchapter B, wildlife which is imported for final 
destination in Alaska, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands, may be 
imported through those Customs ports of entry named hereafter for the 
respective State or Territory of final destination:
    (1) Alaska--Alcan, Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau;
    (2) Puerto Rico--San Juan; and
    (3) Virgin Islands--San Juan, Puerto Rico.
    (b) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, 21, or 23 of this subchapter B, wildlife which originates in Alaska, 
Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands, may be exported through the 
following Customs ports for the respective State or Territory:
    (1) Alaska--Alcan, Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau;
    (2) Puerto Rico--San Juan; and
    (3) Virgin Islands--San Juan, Puerto Rico.
    (c) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, 21, or 23 of this subchapter B, wildlife which has a final 
destination of Guam or which originates in Guam may be imported or 
exported, as appropriate, through the port of Agana, Guam.



Sec. 14.20  Exceptions by permit.

    Wildlife may be imported into or exported from the United States at 
any Customs port of entry designated in the terms of a valid permit 
issued pursuant to subpart C of this part.



Sec. 14.21  Shellfish and fishery products.

    (a)(1) General. Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to 
part 17 or 23 of this subchapter, shellfish and fishery products 
imported or exported for purposes of human or animal consumption or 
taken in waters under the jurisdiction of the United States or on the 
high seas for recreational purposes may enter or exit at any Customs 
port.
    (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or 
part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class 
Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and 
the eggs, larvae, or juvenile forms thereof may be exported for purposes 
of propagation, or research related to propagation, at any Customs port.
    (b) Pearls. Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 
17 or 23 of this subchapter, pearls imported or exported for commercial 
purposes may enter or exit the United States at any Customs port of 
entry. For the purposes of this part, all references to the term 
shellfish and fishery products will include pearls.

[61 FR 31868, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.22  Certain antique articles.

    Any person may import at any Customs Service port designated for 
such purpose, any article (other than scrimshaw, defined in 16 U.S.C 
1539(f)(1)(B) and 50 CFR 217.12 as any art form that involves the 
etching or engraving of designs upon, or the carving of figures, 
patterns, or designs from, any bone or tooth of any marine mammal of the 
order Cetacea) that is at least 100 years old, is composed in whole or 
in part of any endangered or threatened species listed under Sec. 17.11 
or Sec. 17.12 of this subchapter, and has not been repaired or modified 
with any part of any endangered or threatened species on or after 
December 28, 1973.

[61 FR 31868, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.23  Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition 
of ``bred in captivity'' as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except for wildlife 
requiring a permit pursuant to parts 17 or 23 of this subchapter, live 
farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs may be exported from any U.S. 
Customs port.

[59 FR 41714, Aug. 15, 1994]



Sec. 14.24  Scientific specimens.

    Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to parts 16, 17, 18, 
21, 22 or 23

[[Page 55]]

of this subchapter, dead, preserved, dried, or embedded scientific 
specimens or parts thereof, imported or exported by accredited 
scientists or accredited scientific institutions for taxonomic or 
systematic research purposes may enter or exit through any U.S. Customs 
port, or may be shipped through the international mail system. Provided, 
that this exception will not apply to any specimens or parts thereof 
taken as a result of sport hunting.

[61 FR 31869, June 21, 1996]



              Subpart C--Designated Port Exception Permits



Sec. 14.31  Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port for scientific purposes.

    (a) General. The Director may, upon receipt of an application 
submitted in accordance with the provisions of this section and 
Secs. 13.11 and 13.12 of this subchapter, and in accordance with the 
issuance criteria of this section, issue a permit authorizing 
importation or exportation of wildlife for scientific purposes at one or 
more named Customs port(s) of entry not otherwise authorized by subpart 
B. Such permits may authorize a single importation or exportation, a 
series of importations or exportations, or importation or exportation 
during a specified period of time.
    (b) Application procedure. Applications for permits to import or 
export wildlife at a nondesignated port for scientific purposes must be 
submitted to the Director. Each application must contain the general 
information and certification required by Sec. 13.12(a) of this 
subchapter, plus the following additional information:
    (1) The scientific purpose or uses of the wildlife to be imported or 
exported;
    (2) The number and kinds of wildlife described by scientific and 
common names to be imported or exported where such number and kinds can 
be determined;
    (3) The country or place in which the wildlife was removed from the 
wild (if known), or where born in captivity;
    (4) The port(s) of entry where importation or exportation is 
requested, and the reasons why importation or exportation should be 
allowed at the requested port(s) of entry rather than at a designated 
port; and
    (5) A statement as to whether the exception is being requested for a 
single shipment, a series of shipments, or shipments over a specified 
period of time and the date(s) involved.
    (c) Additional permit conditions. In addition to the general 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter B, permits to import 
or export wildlife at a nondesignated port issued under this section are 
subject to the following condition: Permittee shall file such reports as 
specified on the permit, if any.
    (d) Issuance criteria. The Director shall consider the following in 
determining whether to issue a permit under this section:
    (1) Benefit to a bona fide scientific research project, other 
scientific purpose, or facilitation of the exchange of preserved museum 
specimens;
    (2) The kind of wildlife involved and its place of origin;
    (3) The reasons why the exception is requested; and
    (4) Availability of a Service officer.
    (e) Duration of permits. Any permit issued under this section 
expires on the date designated on the face of the permit. In no case 
will the permit be valid for more than 2 years from the date of 
issuance.



Sec. 14.32  Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or loss.

    (a) General. The Director may, upon receipt of an application 
submitted in accordance with the provisions of this section and 
Secs. 13.11 and 13.12 of this subchapter, and in accordance with the 
issuance criteria of this section, issue a permit authorizing 
importation or exportation of wildlife, in order to minimize 
deterioration or loss, at one or more named Customs port(s) of entry not 
otherwise authorized by subpart B. Such permits may authorize a single 
importation or exportation, a series of importations or exportations, or 
importation or exportation during a specified period of time.
    (b) Application procedure. Applications for permits to import or 
export wildlife at a nondesignated port to minimize deterioration or 
loss must be

[[Page 56]]

submitted to the Director. Each application must contain the general 
information and certification required in Sec. 13.12(a) of this 
subchapter, plus the following additional information:
    (1) The number and kinds of wildlife described by scientific and 
common names to be imported or exported where such number and kinds can 
be determined;
    (2) The country or place in which the wildlife was removed from the 
wild (if known), or where born in captivity;
    (3) The port(s) of entry where importation or exportation is 
requested, and the reasons why importation or exportation should be 
allowed at the requested port(s) of entry rather than at a designated 
port (information must be included to show that an importation or 
exportation at a designated port would result in a substantial 
deterioration or loss of the wildlife); and
    (4) A statement as to whether the exception is being requested for a 
single shipment, a series of shipments, or shipments over a specified 
period of time and the date(s) involved.
    (c) Additional permit conditions. In addition to the general 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter B, permits to import 
or export wildlife at a nondesignated port issued under this section are 
to be subject to the following conditions:
    (1) Permittee shall file such reports as may be specified on the 
permit, if any; and
    (2) Permittee must pay fees in accordance with Sec. 14.94.
    (d) Issuance criteria. The Director shall consider the following in 
determining whether to issue a permit under this section:
    (1) Likelihood of a substantial deterioration or loss of the 
wildlife involved;
    (2) The kind of wildlife involved and its place of origin; and
    (3) Availability of a Service officer.
    (e) Duration of permits. Any permit issued under this section 
expires on the date designated on the face of the permit. In no case 
will the permit be valid more than 2 years from the date of issuance.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 45 FR 64953, Oct. 1, 1980, as amended at 61 
FR 31869, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.33  Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    (a) General. The Director may, upon receipt of an application 
submitted in accordance with the provisions of this section and 
Secs. 13.11 and 13.12 of this subchapter, and in accordance with the 
issuance criteria of this section, issue a permit authorizing 
importation or exportation of wildlife in order to alleviate undue 
economic hardship at one or more named Customs port(s) of entry not 
otherwise authorized by subpart B. Such permits may authorize a single 
importation or exportation, a series of importations or exportations, or 
importation or exportation during a specified period of time.
    (b) Application procedure. Applications for permits to import or 
export wildlife at a nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic 
hardship must be submitted to the Director. Each application must 
contain the general information and certification required in 
Sec. 13.12(a) of this subchapter, plus the following additional 
information:
    (1) The number and kinds of wildlife described by scientific and 
common names to be imported or exported, where such number and kinds can 
be determined, and a description of the form in which it is to be 
imported, such as ``live,'' ``frozen,'' ``raw hides,'' or a full 
description of any manufactured product;
    (2) The country or place in which the wildlife was removed from the 
wild (if known), or where born in captivity;
    (3) The name and address of the supplier or consignee;
    (4) The port(s) of entry where importation or exportation is 
requested, and the reasons why importation or exportation should be 
allowed at the requested port(s) of entry rather than at a designated 
port (information must be included to show the monetary difference 
between the cost of importation or exportation at the port requested and 
the lowest cost of importation or exportation at the port through which 
importation or exportation is authorized by subpart B without a permit); 
and
    (5) A statement as to whether the exception is being requested for a 
single shipment, a series of shipments, or

[[Page 57]]

shipments over a specified period of time and the date(s) involved.
    (c) Additional permit conditions. In addition to the general 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter B, permits to import 
or export wildlife at a nondesignated port issued under this section are 
subject to the following conditions:
    (1) Permittee shall file such reports as specified on the permit, if 
any; and
    (2) Permittee must pay fees in accordance with Sec. 14.94.
    (d) Issuance criteria. The Director shall consider the following in 
determining whether to issue a permit under this section:
    (1) The difference between the cost of importing or exporting the 
wildlife at the port requested and the lowest cost of importing or 
exporting such wildlife at a port authorized by these regulations 
without a permit;
    (2) The severity of the economic hardship that likely would result 
should the permit not be issued;
    (3) The kind of wildlife involved, including its form and place of 
origin; and
    (4) Availability of a Service officer.
    (e) Duration of permits. Any permit issued under this section 
expires on the date designated on the face of the permit. In no case 
will the permit be valid for more than 2 years from the date of 
issuance.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 45 FR 64953, Oct. 1, 1980, as amended at 61 
FR 31869, June 21, 1996]

Subpart D  [Reserved]



             Subpart E--Inspection and Clearance of Wildlife



Sec. 14.51  Inspection of wildlife.

    Subject to applicable limitations of law, Service officers and 
Customs officers may detain for inspection and inspect any package, 
crate, or other container, including its contents, and all accompanying 
documents, upon importation or exportation. The Director may charge 
reasonable fees, including salary, overtime, transportation and per diem 
of Service officers, for wildlife import or export inspections specially 
requested by the importer or exporter at times other than regular work 
hours or locations other than usual for such inspections at the port.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 45 FR 64953, Oct. 1, 1980, as amended at 50 
FR 52889, Dec. 26, 1985]



Sec. 14.52  Clearance of imported wildlife.

    (a) Except as otherwise provided by this subpart, a Service officer 
must clear all wildlife imported into the United States prior to release 
from detention by Customs officers. A Service officer must clear all 
wildlife to be exported from the United States prior to the physical 
loading of the merchandise on a vehicle or aircraft, or the 
containerization or palletizing of such merchandise for export, unless a 
Service officer expressly authorizes otherwise. Such clearance does not 
constitute a certification of the legality of an importation or 
exportation under the laws or regulations of the United States.
    (b) An importer/exporter or his/her agent may obtain clearance by a 
Service officer only at designated ports (Sec. 14.12), at border ports 
(Sec. 14.16), at special ports (Sec. 14.19), or at a port where 
importation or exportation is authorized by a permit issued under 
subpart C of this part. An importer/exporter must return forthwith any 
wildlife released without a Service officer's clearance or clearance by 
Customs for the Service under authority of Sec. 14.54 to a port where 
clearance may be obtained pursuant to this subpart.
    (c) To obtain clearance, the importer, exporter, or the importer's 
or exporter's agent will make available to a Service officer or a 
Customs officer acting under Sec. 14.54:
    (1) All shipping documents (including bills of lading, waybills and 
packing lists or invoices);
    (2) All permits, licenses or other documents required by the laws or 
regulations of the United States;
    (3) All permits or other documents required by the laws or 
regulations of any foreign country;
    (4) The wildlife being imported or exported; and

[[Page 58]]

    (5) Any documents and permits required by the country of export or 
re-export for the wildlife.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 45 FR 64953, Oct. 1, 1980, as amended at 50 
FR 52889, Dec. 26, 1985; 61 FR 31869, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.53  Detention and refusal of clearance.

    (a) Detention. Any Service officer, or Customs officer acting under 
Sec. 14.54, may detain imported or exported wildlife and any associated 
property. As soon as practicable following the importation or 
exportation and decision to detain, the Service will mail a notice of 
detention by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, to 
the importer or consignee, or exporter, if known or easily 
ascertainable. Such notice must describe the detained wildlife or other 
property, indicate the reason for the detention, describe the general 
nature of the tests or inquiries to be conducted, and indicate that if 
the releasability of the wildlife has not been determined within 30 days 
after the date of the notice, or a longer period if specifically stated, 
that the Service will deem the wildlife to be seized and will issue no 
further notification of seizure.
    (b) Refusal of clearance. Any Service officer may refuse clearance 
of imported or exported wildlife and any Customs officer acting under 
Sec. 14.54 may refuse clearance of imported wildlife when there are 
responsible grounds to believe that:
    (1) A Federal law or regulation has been violated;
    (2) The correct identity and country of origin of the wildlife has 
not been established (in such cases, the burden is upon the owner, 
importer, exporter, consignor, or consignee to establish such identity 
by scientific name to the species level or, if any subspecies is 
protected by the laws of this country or the country of origin to the 
subspecies level);
    (3) Any permit, license, or other documentation required for 
clearance of such wildlife is not available, is not currently valid, has 
been suspended or revoked, or is not authentic;
    (4) The importer, exporter, or the importer's or exporter's agent 
has filed an incorrect or incomplete declaration for importation or 
exportation as provided in Sec. 14.61 or Sec. 14.63; or
    (5) The importer, exporter, or the importer's or exporter's agent 
has not paid any fee or portion of balance due for inspection fees 
required by Sec. 14.93 or Sec. 14.94, or penalties assessed against the 
importer or exporter under 50 CFR part 11. This paragraph does not apply 
to penalty assessments on appeal in accordance with the provisions of 
part 11.

[61 FR 31869, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.54  Unavailability of Service officers.

    (a) Designated ports. All wildlife arriving at a designated port 
must be cleared by a Service officer prior to Customs clearance and 
release. When importers or their agents expect live or perishable 
shipments of wildlife or wildlife products or request inspection at the 
time of arrival, they must notify the Service at least 48 hours prior to 
the estimated time of arrival. However, where a Service officer is not 
available within a reasonable time, Customs Officers may clear live or 
perishable wildlife subject to post-clearance inspection and 
investigation by the Service.
    (b) Border and special ports. Wildlife lawfully imported at Canadian 
or Mexican border ports under Sec. 14.16, or into Alaska, Puerto Rico, 
or the Virgin Islands, under Sec. 14.19, may, if a Service officer is 
not available within a reasonable time, be cleared by Customs officers, 
subject to post-clearance inspection and investigation by the Service.
    (c) Permit imports. Wildlife imported at a nondesignated port in 
accordance with the terms of a valid permit issued under subpart C of 
this part, may, if a Service officer is not available within a 
reasonable time, be cleared by Customs officers, subject to post-
clearance inspection and investigation by the Service.
    (d) Personal baggage and household effects. Wildlife lawfully 
imported at any port of entry under Sec. 14.15, may, if a Service 
officer is not available within a reasonable time, be cleared by Customs 
officers, subject to post-clearance inspection and investigation by the 
Service.
    (e) Personally owned pet birds. Personally owned pet birds lawfully 
imported at a port of entry under Sec. 14.17, may, if

[[Page 59]]

a Service officer is not available within a reasonable time, be cleared 
by Customs officers, subject to post-clearance inspection and 
investigation by the Service.
    (f) Exports. Exporters or their agents must notify the Service and 
make the shipment available for inspection at least 48 hours prior to 
the estimated time of exportation of any wildlife.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980, as amended at 61 FR 31869, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.55  Exceptions to clearance requirements.

    Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or 23 of 
this subchapter B, clearance is not required for the importation of the 
following wildlife:
    (a) Shellfish and fishery products imported for purposes of human or 
animal consumption or taken in waters under the jurisdiction of the 
United States or on the high seas for recreational purposes;
    (b) Marine mammals lawfully taken on the high seas by United States 
residents and imported directly into the United States; and
    (c) Certain antique articles as specified in Sec. 14.22 which have 
been released from custody by Customs officers under 19 U.S.C. 1499.
    (d) Dead, preserved, dried, or embedded scientific specimens or 
parts thereof, imported or exported by accredited scientists or 
accredited scientific institutions for taxonomic or systematic research 
purposes. Except: That this exception will not apply to any specimens or 
parts thereof taken as a result of sport hunting.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980, as amended at 61 FR 31869, June 21, 1996]



                    Subpart F--Wildlife Declarations



Sec. 14.61  Import declaration requirements.

    Except as otherwise provided by the regulations of this subpart, 
importers or their agents must file with the Service a completed 
Declaration for Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife (Form 3-
177), signed by the importer or the importer's agent, upon the 
importation of any wildlife at the place where Service clearance under 
Sec. 14.52 is requested. However, wildlife may be transshipped under 
bond to a different port for release from custody by Customs Service 
officers under 19 U.S.C. 1499. For certain antique articles as specified 
in Sec. 14.22, importers or their agents must file a Form 3-177 with the 
District Director of Customs at the port of entry prior to release from 
Customs custody. Importers or their agents must furnish all applicable 
information requested on the Form 3-177 and the importer, or the 
importer's agent, must certify that the information furnished is true 
and complete to the best of his/her knowledge and belief.

[61 FR 49980, Sept. 24, 1996]



Sec. 14.62  Exceptions to import declaration requirements.

    (a) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or 23 
of this subchapter B, an importer or his/her agent does not have to file 
a Declaration for Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife (Form 
3-177) for importation of shellfish and fishery products imported for 
purposes of human or animal consumption, or taken in waters under the 
jurisdiction of the United States or on the high seas for recreational 
purposes;
    (b) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, 21, or 23 of this subchapter B, a Declaration for Importation or 
Exportation of Fish or Wildlife (Form 3-177) does not have to be filed 
for importation of the following:
    (1) Fish taken for recreational purposes in Canada or Mexico;
    (2) Wildlife products or manufactured articles that are not intended 
for commercial use and are used as clothing or contained in accompanying 
personal baggage, except that an importer or his/her agent must file a 
Form 3-177 for raw or dressed furs; for raw, salted, or crusted hides or 
skins; and for game or game trophies; and
    (3) Wildlife products or manufactured articles that are not intended 
for commercial use and are a part of a shipment of the household effects 
of persons moving their residence to the United States, except that an 
importer or his/her agent must file a declaration

[[Page 60]]

for raw or dressed furs and for raw, salted, or crusted hides or skins.
    (c) General declarations for certain specimens. Notwithstanding the 
provisions of 14.61 and except for wildlife included in paragraph (d) of 
this section, an importer or his/her agent may describe in general terms 
on a Declaration for the Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife 
(Form 3-177) scientific specimens imported for scientific institutions 
for taxonomic, systematic research, or faunal survey purposes. An 
importer or his/her agent must file an amended Form 3-177 within 180 
days after filing of the general declaration with the Service. The 
declaration must identify specimens to the most accurate taxonomic 
classification reasonably practicable using the best available taxonomic 
information. The Director may grant extensions of the 180-day period.
    (d) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, 21, 22 or 23 of this subchapter, an importer or his/her agent does 
not have to file a Declaration for the Importation or Exportation of 
Fish or Wildlife (Form 3-177) at the time of importation for shipments 
of dead, preserved, dried, or embedded scientific specimens or parts 
thereof, imported by accredited scientists or accredited scientific 
institutions for taxonomic or systematic research purposes. An importer 
or his/her agent must file a Form 3-177 within 180 days of importation 
with the appropriate Assistant Regional Director--Law Enforcement in the 
Region where the importation occurs. The declaration must identify the 
specimens to the most accurate taxonomic classification reasonably 
practicable using the best available taxonomic information, and must 
declare the country of origin. Except: That this exception will not 
apply to any specimens or parts thereof taken as a result of sport 
hunting.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 45 FR 64953, Oct. 1, 1980, as amended at 61 
FR 31870, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.63  Export declaration requirements.

    Except as otherwise provided by the regulations of this subpart, a 
completed Declaration for Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife 
(Form 3-177) signed by the exporter, or the exporter's agent, shall be 
filed with the Service prior to the export of any wildlife at the port 
of exportation as authorized in subpart B of this part. All applicable 
information requested on the Form 3-177 shall be furnished, and the 
exporter or the exporter's agent shall certify that the information 
furnished is true and complete to the best of his/her knowledge and 
belief.



Sec. 14.64  Exceptions to export declaration requirements.

    (a) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or 23 
of this subchapter B, an exporter or his/her agent does not have to file 
a Declaration for Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife (Form 
3-177) for the exportation of shellfish and fishery products exported 
for purposes of human or animal consumption or taken in waters under the 
jurisdiction of the United States or on the high seas for recreational 
purposes, and does not have to file for the exportation of live aquatic 
invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, 
claims, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or juvenile forms 
thereof exported for purposes of propagation, or research related to 
propagation.
    (b) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17, 
18, 21, or 23 of this subchapter B, a Declaration for the Importation or 
Exportation of Fish or Wildlife (Form 3-177) does not have to be filed 
for the exportation of the following:
    (1) Wildlife that is not intended for commercial use where the value 
of such wildlife is under $250;
    (2) Wildlife products or manufactured articles, including game 
trophies, that are not intended for commercial use and are used as 
clothing or contained in accompanying personal baggage or are part of a 
shipment of the household effects of persons moving their residence from 
the United States; and
    (3) Shipments of dead, preserved, dried, or embedded scientific 
specimens or parts thereof, exported by accredited scientists or 
accredited scientific institutions for taxonomic or systematic research 
purposes. An exporter or his/her agent must file a Form 3-177 within 180

[[Page 61]]

days of exportation with the appropriate Assistant Regional Director--
Law Enforcement in the Region where the exportation occurs. The 
declaration must identify the specimens to the most accurate taxonomic 
classification reasonably practicable using the best available taxonomic 
information, and must declare the country of origin. Except: That this 
exception will not apply to any specimens or parts thereof taken as a 
result of sport hunting.
    (c) Except for wildlife requiring a period pursuant to parts 17 or 
23 of this subchapter, a Declaration for the Importation or Exportation 
of Fish or Wildlife (Form 3-177) does not have to be filed for the 
exportation of live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs as 
defined in Sec. 14.23.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980, as amended at 59 FR 41714, Aug. 15, 1994; 
61 FR 31870, June 21, 1996]

Subpart G  [Reserved]



              Subpart H--Marking of Containers or Packages

    Source: 52 FR 45341, Nov. 27, 1987, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 14.81  Marking requirement.

    Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, no person may import, 
export, or transport in interstate commerce any container or package 
containing any fish or wildlife (including shellfish and fishery 
products) unless he/she marks each container or package conspicuously on 
the outside with both the name and address of the shipper and consignee. 
An accurate and legible list of its contents by species scientific name 
and the number of each species and whether or not the listed species are 
venomous must accompany the entire shipment.

[61 FR 31870, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.82  Alternatives and exceptions to the marking requirement.

    (a) The requirements of Sec. 14.81 may be met by complying with one 
of the following alternatives to the marking requirement:
    (1)(i) Conspicuously marking the outside of each container or 
package containing fish or wildlife with the word ``fish'' or 
``wildlife'' as appropriate for its contents, or with the common name of 
its contents by species, and
    (ii) Including an invoice, packing list, bill of lading, or similar 
document to accompany the shipment which accurately states the name and 
address of the shipper and consignee, states the total number of 
packages or containers in the shipment, and for each species in the 
shipment specifies:
    (A) The common name that identifies the species (examples include: 
Chinook (or king) salmon; bluefin tuna; and whitetail deer) and whether 
or not the listed species is venomous; and
    (B) The number of that species (or other appropriate measure of 
quantity such as gross or net weight).

The invoice, packing list, bill of lading, or equivalent document must 
be securely attached to the outside of one container or package in the 
shipment or otherwise physically accompany the shipment in a manner 
which makes it readily accessible for inspection; or
    (2) Affixing the shipper's wildlife import/export license number 
preceded by the three letters ``FWS'' on the outside of each container 
or package containing fish or wildlife, if the shipper has valid 
wildlife import/export license issued under authority of 50 CFR part 14. 
For each shipment marked in accordance with this paragraph, the records 
maintained under Sec. 14.93(c) must include a copy of the invoice, 
packing list, bill of lading, or other similar document that accurately 
states the information required by paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section.
    (3) In the case of subcontainers or packages within a larger packing 
container, only the outermost container must be marked in accordance 
with this section. Except, that for live fish or wildlife that are 
packed in subcontainers within a larger packing container, if the 
subcontainers are numbered or labeled, the packing list, invoice, bill 
or lading, or other similar document, must reflect that number or label. 
However, each subcontainer containing a venomous species must be clearly 
marked as venomous.
    (4) A conveyance (truck, plane, boat, etc.) is not considered a 
container for

[[Page 62]]

purposes of requiring specific marking of the conveyance itself, 
provided that:
    (i) The fish or wildlife within the conveyance is carried loosely or 
is readily identifiable, and is accompanied by the document required by 
paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, or
    (ii) The fish or wildlife is otherwise packaged and marked in 
accordance with this subpart.
    (b) The requirements of Sec. 14.81 do not apply to containers or 
packages containing--
    (1) Fox, nutria, rabbit, mink, chinchilla, marten, fisher, muskrat, 
and karakul that have been bred and born in captivity, or their 
products, if a signed statement certifying that the animals were bred 
and born in captivity accompanies the shipping documents;
    (2) Fish or shellfish contained in retail consumer packages labeled 
pursuant to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.; or
    (3) Fish or shellfish that are landed by, and offloaded from, a 
fishing vessel (whether or not the catch has been carried by the fishing 
vessel interstate), as long as the fish or shellfish remain at the place 
where first offloaded.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 
1018-0022)

[52 FR 45341, Nov. 27, 1987, as amended at 61 FR 31871, June 21, 1996]



                    Subpart I--Import/Export Licenses



Sec. 14.91  License requirement.

    (a) Prohibition. Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, it is 
unlawful for any person to engage in business as an importer or exporter 
of wildlife without first having obtained a valid import/export license 
from the Director.
    (b) Definition. As used in this subpart, the phrase engage in 
business as an importer or exporter of wildlife means for a person to 
devote time, attention, labor, or effort to any activity for gain or 
profit that involves the importation or exportation of wildlife whether 
or not such person is an importer or exporter within the meaning of the 
customs laws of the United States.
    (c) Certain persons required to be licensed. The definition in 
paragraph (b) of this section includes, but is not limited to, persons 
who import or export wildlife for commercial purposes:
    (1) For trade, sale, or resale, such as animal dealers, animal 
brokers, pet dealers, pet suppliers, and laboratory research suppliers;
    (2) In the form of fur for tanning, manufacture, or sale, such as 
fur trappers, dealers, brokers, and manufacturers;
    (3) In the form of hides and skins for tanning, manufacture, or 
sale, such as hide, skin, and leather dealers, brokers, manufacturers, 
and processors;
    (4) In the form of products (such as garments, bags, shoes, boots, 
jewelry, rugs, or curios) for sale, such as wholesalers, retailers, 
distributors, and brokers;
    (5) As taxidermists in connection with the mounting processing, or 
storage of trophies or specimens;
    (6) As freight forwarders; and
    (7) In the form of food products taken from populations of non-
domesticated animals.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980, as amended at 61 FR 31871, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.92  Exceptions to license requirement.

    (a) Certain wildlife. Any person may engage in business as an 
importer or exporter of the following wildlife without procuring an 
import/export license:
    (1) Shellfish and fishery products that do not require a permit 
under part 17 or 23 of this subchapter B and that are imported or 
exported for purposes of human or animal consumption;
    (2) Shellfish and fishery products that do not require a permit 
under part 17 or 23 of this subchapter B and that are taken in waters 
under the jurisdiction of the United States or on the high seas for 
recreational purposes;
    (3) Fox, nutria, rabbit, mink, chinchilla, marten, fisher, muskrat, 
and karakul and their products if the animals have been bred and born in 
captivity;
    (4) Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised eggs of species not 
requiring a permit under part 17 or 23 of this subchapter B that are 
being exported;
    (5) Live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly 
known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops)

[[Page 63]]

and the eggs, larvae, or juvenile forms thereof exported for purposes of 
propagation or research related to propagation; and
    (6) Pearls imported or exported for commercial purposes.
    (b) Certain persons. The following persons may engage in business as 
importers or exporters of wildlife without procuring an import/export 
license: Provided, That such persons keep such records as will fully and 
correctly disclose each importation or exportation of wildlife made by 
them and the subsequent disposition made by them with respect to the 
wildlife, and that subject to applicable limitations of law, duly 
authorized Service officers at all reasonable times shall, upon notice, 
be afforded access to such persons' places of business, an opportunity 
to examine their inventory of imported wildlife and the records required 
above, and an opportunity to copy such records:
    (1) Common carriers when engaged as transporters and not as 
importers or exporters of record;
    (2) Custom house brokers when engaged as agents and not as importers 
or exporters of record;
    (3) Public museums, or other public, scientific or educational 
institutions, importing or exporting wildlife for research or 
educational purposes and not for resale;
    (4) Federal, State, or municipal agencies; and
    (5) Circuses importing or exporting wildlife for exhibition purposes 
only and not for purchase, sale, barter, or transfer of such wildlife.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980, as amended at 45 FR 86497, Dec. 31, 1980; 
50 FR 52890, Dec. 26, 1985; 61 FR 31871, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.93  License application procedure, conditions, and duration.

    (a) General. The Director may, upon receipt of an application 
submitted in accordance with the provisions of this section and 
Secs. 13.11 and 13.12 of this subchapter, issue a license authorizing 
the applicant to engage in business as an importer or exporter of 
wildlife.
    (b) Application procedure. Applications for import/export licenses 
must be submitted to the appropriate Special Agent in Charge (see 
Sec. 10.22 of this subchapter). Each application must contain the 
general information and certification required by Sec. 13.12(a) of this 
subchapter, plus the following additional information:
    (1) A brief description of the nature of the applicant's business as 
it relates to the importation or exportation of wildlife, e.g., ``live 
animal dealer,'' ``fur broker,'' ``taxidermist,'' ``retail department 
store,'' and ``pet shop;''
    (2) If the application is in the name of a business, a statement 
disclosing the names and addresses of all partners and principal 
officers;
    (3) A statement of where books or records concerning wildlife 
imports or exports will be kept;
    (4) A statement of where inventories of wildlife will be stored; and
    (5) Name, address, and telephone number of the officer, manager, or 
other person authorized to make records or wildlife inventories 
available for examination by Service officials.
    (c) Additional license conditions. In addition to the general 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter B, import/export 
licenses are subject to the following special conditions:
    (1) The licensee shall, from the effective date of the license, keep 
such records as will fully and correctly disclose each importation or 
exportation of wildlife made by the licensee and the subsequent 
disposition made by the licensee with respect to such wildlife. The 
records must include a general description of the form of the wildlife, 
such as ``live,'' ``raw hides,'' or ``fur garments;'' the quantity of 
wildlife, in numbers, weight, or other appropriate measure; the common 
and scientific names; the country or place of origin of the wildlife, if 
known; the date and place of import or export; the date of the 
subsequent disposition of the wildlife; the manner of disposition, 
whether by sale, barter, consignment, loan, delivery, destruction, or 
other means; and the name and address of the person who received the 
wildlife pursuant to such disposition, if applicable;
    (2) Licensees shall include and retain in their records copies of 
all permits required by the laws and regulations of the United States 
and any country of export or origin;

[[Page 64]]

    (3) Licensees shall maintain such books and records for a period of 
five years;
    (4) Subject to applicable limitations of law, licensees must provide 
duly authorized Service officers at all reasonable times, upon notice, 
access to the licensee's places of business and give an opportunity to 
examine the licensee's inventory of imported wildlife and the records 
required to be kept under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, and give an 
opportunity to copy such records;
    (5) Licensees must, upon written request by the Director, submit 
within 30 days of such request a report containing the information 
required to be maintained by paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
    (6) An import/export license is only permission to engage in 
business as an importer or exporter of wildlife. Such a license is in 
addition to, and does not supersede, any other requirement established 
by law for the importation or exportation of wildlife.
    (7) Licensees agree to pay, as a condition of the license, 
reasonable user fees for inspections of commercial wildlife shipments 
imported or exported under the authorization of the license.
    (d) Duration of license. Any license issued under this section 
expires on the date designated on the face of the license. In no case 
will the license be valid for more than 1 year from the date of 
issuance.
    (e) Issuance, denial, suspension, revocation, or renewal of license. 
Payment of all license and inspection fees shall be a condition of the 
license. It shall be grounds for suspension or revocation of any 
license, or for denial or renewal of a license, or of grant of a new 
import/export license to any person named as the holder, or a principal 
officer or agent of a holder, of a previous license issued pursuant to 
this subpart, that any license fees or any fees owing for inspections of 
wildlife shipments remain unpaid at the time of application for renewal 
or of new application. Additional provisions governing the issuance, 
denial, suspension, revocation, and renewal of an import/export license 
are found in part 13 of this subchapter B.

[45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 52890, Dec. 26, 1985; 
61 FR 31871, June 21, 1996]



Sec. 14.94  What fees apply to me?

    (a) License and inspection fees. We will impose a yearly fee for a 
license pursuant to Sec. 14.93. In addition, you must pay an inspection 
fee for each wildlife shipment imported into or exported from the United 
States at a designated port. If you import into or export from the 
United States wildlife shipments meeting the criteria outlined in 
paragraph (e) of this section, you are exempt from the designated port 
inspection fee, or nondesignated port administrative fee and hourly 
minimums, whichever apply. However, you must pay applicable overtime 
fees and permit fees.
    (b) Designated port overtime fees. The Service may charge importers 
or exporters of wildlife, regardless of being licensed as a commercial 
importer or exporter, a fee for overtime for inspections that begin 
before normal working hours, that extend beyond normal working hours, or 
are on a holiday, Saturday, or Sunday if the importer/exporter requested 
that the inspection be performed outside normal work hours. Overtime 
fees consist of an increased hourly rate equal to 1\1/2\ times the 
average hourly rate of a journeyman level wildlife inspector. Overtime 
fees will be in addition to inspection fees imposed for license holders 
at designated ports. If an importer/exporter presents a shipment for 
inspection during normal work hours but the Service cannot perform the 
inspection during normal work hours on that day, the service will give 
the importer/exporter the option of performing the inspection later 
during normal work hours or charging for overtime. The Service's ability 
to perform inspections during overtime hours will depend on the 
availability of Service personnel. The Service will use the following 
parameters when calculating the overtime fee:
    (1) Inspection overtime commences when a Service officer departs 
that officer's residence or official duty station enroute to the 
inspection site or at the end of normal work hours. Inspection

[[Page 65]]

overtime terminates when the officer returns to the point of departure 
or official duty station or when the inspection is completed, whichever 
occurs later.
    (2) For an inspection at a designated port beginning less than 1 
hour before normal work hours, the Service will charge 1 hour of time, 
at an hourly rate of 1\1/2\ times the average hourly rate of a 
journeyman level Wildlife Inspector. For all other overtime inspections 
at a designated port the Service will charge a minimum of 2 hours of 
time, at an hourly rate of 1\1/2\ times the average hourly rate of a 
journeyman level Wildlife Inspector, except that for all inspections 
performed on a federal holiday the Service will charge a minimum of 2 
hours at twice the average hourly rate of a journeyman level Wildlife 
Inspector.
    (3) The Service will charge any inspection time in excess of the 2-
hour minimum in quarter hour increments at the same hourly rate as the 
first 2 hours. The Service will round up inspection time of 10 minutes 
or more to the next quarter hour and will disregard any time less than 
10 minutes.
    (4) The fee schedule will apply to all inspections regardless of 
importer/exporter of record, except, that the Service will charge 
multiple shipments consigned to the same importer/exporter and inspected 
at one location one 2-hour minimum or actual time, whichever is greater.
    (c) Nondesignated port fees. The Service will charge permittees 
issued permits under subpart C of this part, and licensed commercial 
importers and exporters a fee for inspections at nondesignated ports. 
The fees consist of a flat administrative fee plus a minimum of two 
hours of time at staffed nondesignated ports. The Service will use the 
following parameters when calculating fees:
    (1) During normal working hours the Service will charge permittees 
issued permits under subpart C of this part, regardless of being 
licensed as a commercial importer or exporter, an administrative fee 
plus a minimum of 2 hours of time at the average hourly rate of a 
journeyman level wildlife inspector. The Service will charge permittees 
requesting clearance outside normal working hours, including Saturday 
and Sunday, an administrative fee plus a minimum of 2 hours of time at 
1\1/2\ times the average hourly rate of a journeyman level wildlife 
inspector, except that for all inspections performed on a federal 
holiday the Service will charge a minimum of 2 hours at twice the 
average hourly rate of a journeyman level wildlife inspector.
    (2) The Service will charge any inspection time in excess of the 2-
hour minimum in quarter hour increments at the same hourly rate as the 
first 2 hours. The Service will round up inspection time of 10 minutes 
or more to the next quarter hour and will disregard any time less than 
10 minutes.
    (3) The Service will not charge importers or exporters who are not 
required to have a permit under subpart C of this part, except that the 
Service will charge licensed importers or exporters an administrative 
fee only during normal working hours, and overtime hourly rates and 
minimums will apply outside normal working hours.
    (4) For inspections performed under a permit issued under subpart C 
of this part at nondesignated ports with no permanent Service law 
enforcement staff, the Service will charge all costs associated with 
inspection and clearance, including, salary, travel and transportation 
costs, and per diem.
    (d) Schedule.

                              General Fees
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Import/Export license fee.......  $50 per year.
Inspection fee...................  $55 per shipment.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                         Inspection Fee Schedule
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
Designated ports: Licensees:
    Inspections during normal      $55 Inspection fee.
     work hours.
Inspections beginning less than 1  $55 Inspection fee plus $30.
 hour before normal work hours.

[[Page 66]]

 
Inspections beginning more than 1  $55 Inspection fee plus 2 hour
 hour before normal work hours.     minimum at $30/hr.
Inspections after normal work      $55 Inspection fee plus 2 hour
 hours (including Saturdays and     minimum at $30/hr.
 Sundays).
Inspections on federal holidays..  $55 Inspection fee plus 2 hour
                                    minimum at $40/hr.
Designated ports: Nonlicensees:
    Inspection during normal work  No charge.
     hours.
    Inspections beginning outside  2 hour minimum at $30/hr.
     normal work hours.
Staffed nondesignated ports:
 Subpart C permit holders,
 regardless of license status:
    Inspections during normal      $55 Administrative fee plus 2 hour
     work hours.                    minimum at $20/hr.
    Inspections beginning outside  $55 Administrative fee plus 2 hour
     normal work hours (including   minimum at $30/hr.
     Saturdays and Sundays).
    Inspections on federal         $55 Administrative fee plus 2 hour
     holidays.                      minimum at $40/hr.
    Nonstaffed nondesignated       $55 Administrative fee plus all costs
     ports:.                        associated with inspection and
                                    clearance.
Staffed nondesignated ports: No
 subpart C permit required
 (Border/Special Ports):
    Import/export license holders  $55 Administrative fee.
    All others...................  No charge.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (1) The Service will not refund any fee or any portion of any 
license or inspection fee or excuse payment of any fee because 
importation or clearance of wildlife shipment is refused for any reason.
    (2) [Reserved]
    (e) Your wildlife shipments meeting all of the following criteria 
are exempt from the designated port inspection fee or nondesignated port 
administrative fee and hourly minimums:
    (1) The wildlife you are shipping does not require permits under 
parts 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, or 23 of this subchapter;
    (2) You are importing or exporting wildlife between the United 
States and Canada or Mexico;
    (3) The wildlife you are shipping consists of raw fur, raw, salted, 
or crusted hides or skins, or separate parts thereof, lawfully taken 
from the wild in the United States, Canada, or Mexico;
    (4) You, as the importer or exporter of record, or a member of your 
immediate family (your spouse, parents, siblings, and children), took 
the wildlife from the wild;
    (5) You are licensed in accordance with Sec. 14.91;
    (6) You have not previously bought or sold the wildlife or any part 
thereof being shipped;
    (7) Your shipment does not exceed 100 raw furs, raw, salted, or 
crusted hides or skins, or separate parts thereof;
    (8) Your shipment does not contain any manufactured products or live 
animals.
    (9) You certify that your shipment meets the criteria in this 
paragraph.

[61 FR 31871, June 21, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 23025, Apr. 29, 1999]



  Subpart J--Standards for the Humane and Healthful Transport of Wild 
                 Mammals and Birds to the United States

    Source: 57 FR 27108, June 17, 1992, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 14.101  Purposes.

    The purpose of this subpart is to prescribe requirements necessary 
to ensure that live wild mammals and birds shipped to the United States 
arrive alive, healthy, and uninjured, and that transportation of such 
animals occurs under humane and healthful conditions. These regulations 
implement section 9(d) of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981.

[[Page 67]]



Sec. 14.102  Definitions.

    In addition to the definitions contained in part 10 of subchapter B 
of this chapter, in this subpart--
    Ambient air temperature means the temperature of the air surrounding 
a primary enclosure containing a wild mammal or bird.
    Auxiliary ventilation means cooling or air circulation provided by 
such means as vents, fans, blowers, or air conditioning.
    Carrier means any person operating an airline, railroad, motor 
carrier, shipping line, or other enterprise engaged in the business of 
transporting any wild mammal or bird for any purpose including 
exhibition and for any person, including itself.
    Communicable disease means any contagious, infectious, or 
transmissible disease of wild mammals or birds.
    Conveyance means any vehicle, vessel, or aircraft employed to 
transport an animal between its origin and destination.
    Do not tip means do not excessively rock or otherwise move from a 
vertical to a slanting position, knock over, or upset.
    Handle means feed, manipulate, crate, shift, transfer, immobilize, 
restrain, treat, or otherwise control the movement or activities of any 
wild mammal or bird.
    Holding area means a designated area at or within a terminal 
facility that has been specially prepared to provide shelter and other 
requirements of wild mammals or birds being transported to the United 
States and in which such mammals or birds are maintained prior to, 
during, or following such shipment.
    Kept clean means maintained free from dirt, trash, refuse, excreta, 
remains from other cargo, and impurities of any type.
    Marine mammal means an individual of a species of the orders 
Cetacea, Pinnipedia, or Sirenia, or a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) or 
sea otter (Enhydra lutris).
    Noncompatible means not capable of existing together in harmony.
    Nonhuman primate means any nonhuman member of the order Primates.
    Normal rigors of transportation means the stress that a wild animal 
can be expected to experience as a result of exposure to unaccustomed 
surroundings, unfamiliar confinement, caging, unfamiliar sounds, motion, 
and other conditions commonly encountered during transport.
    Primary enclosure means any structure used to restrict a mammal or 
bird to a limited amount of space, such as a cage, room, pen, run, 
stall, pool, or hutch.
    Professionally accepted standards means a level of practice 
established as acceptable by a body of qualified persons of the 
veterinary medical profession.
    Psychological trauma means an episode of exposure to stressful 
conditions resulting in significant behavioral abnormality including, 
but not limited to, manifestations of unaccustomed aggressiveness, self-
mutilation, or refusal of food or water.
    Raptor means a live migratory bird of the order Falconiformes or the 
order Strigiformes.
    Sanitize means to make physically clean and, as far as possible, 
free of toxic or infectious agents injurious to the health of wild 
mammals or birds.
    Scheduled departure time means the time listed on a timetable of 
departures and arrivals or, in the absence of a timetable, the time of 
departure agreed to by a carrier and shipper.
    Shipper means any person, other than a carrier, involved in the 
transport of wild animals to the United States regardless of the purpose 
of such transport; e.g., exporter, importer, or agent.
    Terrestrial mammals means mammals other than marine mammals.
    Transport means to move, convey, carry, or ship by any means, or to 
deliver or receive for the purpose of movement, carriage, or shipment, 
by air, land, or sea.
    Transporting device means any vehicle or device used to transport an 
animal between a conveyance and a terminal facility, in and around a 
terminal facility of a carrier, or within a conveyance.
    Unweaned means a bird or mammal incapable of feeding itself 
independently.
    Wild means the same as fish or wildlife, as defined in Sec. 10.12 of 
this chapter.

[[Page 68]]



Sec. 14.103  Prohibitions.

    Unless the requirements of this subpart are fully satisfied and all 
other legal requirements are met, it is unlawful for any person to 
transport to the United States, cause to be transported to the United 
States, or allow to be transported to the United States any live wild 
mammal or bird. It shall be unlawful for any person to import, to 
transport, or to cause or permit to be transported to the United States 
any wild mammal or bird under inhumane or unhealthful conditions or in 
violation of this subpart J.



Sec. 14.104  Translations.

    Any certificate or document required by this subpart to accompany a 
mammal or bird transported to the United States and written in a foreign 
language must be accompanied by an accurate English translation.



Sec. 14.105  Consignment to carrier.

    (a) No carrier shall accept any live wild mammal or bird for 
transport to the United States that has not been examined within 10 days 
prior to commencement of transport to the United States by a 
veterinarian certified as qualified by the national government of the 
initial country from which the mammal or bird is being exported. If the 
national government of such country does not certify veterinarians, then 
the veterinarian must be certified or licensed by a local government 
authority designated by the national government as authorized to certify 
veterinarians.
    (b)(1) A certificate of veterinary medical inspection, signed by the 
examining veterinarian, stating that the animal has been examined, is 
healthy, appears to be free of any communicable disease, and is able to 
withstand the normal rigors of transport must accompany the mammal or 
bird; the certificate should include the veterinarian's license number, 
certification number, or equivalent. A mammal in the last third of its 
pregnancy, if this is detectable using professionally accepted 
standards, shall not be accepted for transport to the United States 
except for medical treatment and unless the examining veterinarian 
certifies in writing that the animal has been examined, the state of 
pregnancy has been evaluated, and that, despite the medical condition 
requiring treatment, the animal is physically able to withstand the 
normal rigors of transportation to the United States.
    (2) A nursing mother with young, an unweaned mammal unaccompanied by 
its mother, or an unweaned bird shall be transported only if the primary 
purpose is for needed medical treatment and upon certification in 
writing by the examining veterinarian that the treatment is necessary 
and the animal is able to withstand the normal rigors of transport. Such 
an unweaned mammal or bird shall not be transported to the United States 
for medical treatment unless it is accompanied at all times by and 
completely accessible to a veterinary attendant.
    (c) A sick or injured wild mammal or bird shall be permitted 
transport to the United States only if the primary purpose of such 
transport is for needed medical treatment and upon certification in 
writing by the examining veterinarian that the treatment is necessary 
and the animal is able to withstand the normal rigors of travel in its 
present condition. A sick or injured animal shall be accompanied at all 
times throughout the transport process by a veterinary attendant 
qualified to care for and treat it, with continuous access to the 
animal. This individual shall be in possession of or have ready access 
to all medications to be administered during the transport.
    (d) No carrier shall accept any wild mammal or bird for transport to 
the United States presented by the shipper less than 2 hours or more 
than 6 hours prior to the scheduled departure of the conveyance on which 
it is to be transported. The carrier shall notify the crew of the 
presence of live animal shipments.



Sec. 14.106  Primary enclosures.

    No carrier shall accept for transport to the United States any live 
wild mammal or bird in a primary enclosure that does not conform to the 
following requirements:
    (a) The Container Requirements of the Live Animal Regulations (LAR), 
20th edition, October 1, 1993, published

[[Page 69]]

by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) shall be complied 
with by all parties transporting wild mammals or birds to the United 
States. The incorporation by reference of the LAR was approved by the 
Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 
1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from IATA, 2000 Peel St., 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2R4. Copies may be inspected at the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Dr., Arlington, VA 22203 or 
at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., 
suite 700, Washington, DC.
    (b) A primary enclosure shall be constructed so that--
    (1) The strength of the enclosure is sufficient to contain the 
mammal or bird and to withstand the normal effects of transport;
    (2) The interior of the enclosure is free from any protrusion that 
could be injurious to the mammal or bird within;
    (3) No part of the animal can extend or protrude outside of the 
primary enclosure which may result in injury to the contained animal, to 
nearby persons or animals, or to handlers of the primary enclosure;
    (4) Access to the primary enclosure is closed and secured with an 
animal-proof device designed to prevent accidental opening and release 
of the mammal or bird;
    (5) The opening of the enclosure is easily accessible for either 
emergency removal or inspection of the mammal or bird by authorized 
personnel without the risk of escape of the mammal or bird;
    (6) The enclosure has sufficient openings to ensure adequate 
circulation of air at all times.
    (7) The material of which the primary enclosure is constructed is 
not treated with any paint, preservative, or other chemical that is 
injurious or otherwise harmful to the health or well-being of mammals 
and birds.
    (c) Unless the enclosure is permanently affixed in the conveyance or 
has an open top for certain large mammals, spacer bars allowing 
circulation of air around the enclosure shall be fitted to the exterior 
of its top, sides, and base. Spacer bars on an enclosure need extend no 
more than 6 inches (15 centimeters) from the surface of the enclosure. 
Within this 6 inch limit, the spacers on an enclosure containing one 
animal shall extend a distance equal to at least 10 percent of the 
longer dimension of the surface to which they are attached, and the 
spacers on an enclosure containing more than one animal shall extend a 
distance equal to at least 20 percent of the longer dimension of the 
surface to which they are attached. Hand-holds may serve as spacer bars 
for the sides of the enclosure to which they are attached. A primary 
enclosure constructed with one or more slanted or curved walls 
containing ventilation openings need not be fitted with spacer bars on 
such walls.
    (d) An enclosure that is not permanently affixed within the 
conveyance shall have adequate hand-holds or other devices for lifting 
by hand or to facilitate lifting and carrying by machine. Such hand-
holds or other devices shall be made an integral part of the enclosure, 
shall enable it to be lifted without excessive tipping, and shall be 
designed so that the person handling the enclosure will not come in 
contact with the animals contained therein.
    (e) An enclosure shall have a solid, leak-proof bottom or removable, 
leak-proof collection tray under a slatted or wire mesh floor. The 
slatted or wire mesh floor shall be designed and constructed so that the 
spaces between the slats or the holes in the mesh cannot trap the limbs 
of animals contained within the enclosure. An enclosure for mammals 
shall contain unused absorbent litter on the solid bottom or in the 
leak-proof tray in sufficient quantity to absorb and cover excreta. This 
litter shall be safe and nontoxic and shall not resemble food normally 
consumed by the mammals. An enclosure used to transport marine mammals 
in water, in a waterproof enclosure, a sling, or on foam is exempt from 
the requirement to contain litter. An enclosure used to transport birds 
shall not contain litter, unless it is specified in writing by the 
examining veterinarian as medically necessary.
    (f) If an enclosure has been previously used to transport or store 
wild mammals or birds, it shall have been

[[Page 70]]

cleaned and sanitized in a manner that will destroy pathogenic agents 
and pests injurious to the health of mammals and birds before the 
enclosure can be re-used.
    (g) An enclosure that is not permanently affixed in the conveyance 
shall be clearly marked in English on the outside of the top and one or 
more sides of the enclosure, in letters not less than 2.5 centimeters (1 
inch) in height, ``Live Animals'' or ``Wild Animals'', ``Do Not Tip,'' 
``Only Authorized Personnel May Open Container,'' and other appropriate 
or required instructions. All enclosure sides shall also be 
conspicuously marked on the outside with arrows to indicate the correct 
upright position of the enclosure. These arrows should extend up the 
sides of the enclosure so that the point of the arrow is visible and 
clearly indicates the top of the enclosure.
    (h) Food and water instructions as specified in Sec. 14.108, 
information regarding what constitutes obvious signs of stress in the 
species being transported, and information about any drugs or medication 
to be administered by the accompanying veterinary attendant shall be 
securely attached to each enclosure. Copies of shipping documents 
accompanying the shipment shall also be securely attached to the primary 
enclosure. Original documents shall be carried in the carrier's pouch or 
manifest container or by the shipper's attendant accompanying the wild 
mammal or bird.
    (i) Any food and water troughs shall be securely attached to the 
interior of the enclosure in such a manner that the troughs can be 
filled from outside the enclosure. Any opening providing access to a 
trough shall be capable of being securely closed with an animal-proof 
device. A water trough in an enclosure containing birds shall contain a 
foam or sponge insert, a perforated wooden block, or other suitable 
device to prevent spillage or drowning.
    (j) When a primary enclosure is permanently affixed within a 
conveyance so that its front opening is the only source of ventilation, 
the opening shall face the outside of the conveyance or an unobstructed 
aisle or passageway within the conveyance. Such an aisle or passageway 
shall be at least 12 inches (30 centimeters) wide. The opening in the 
primary enclosure shall occupy at least 90 percent of the total surface 
area of the front wall of the enclosure and be covered with bars or wire 
mesh.

[57 FR 27108, June 17, 1992, as amended at 59 FR 36719, July 19, 1994]



Sec. 14.107  Conveyance.

    (a) The animal cargo space of a conveyance used to transport wild 
mammals or birds to the United States shall be designed, constructed, 
and maintained so as to ensure the humane and healthful transport of the 
animals.
    (b) The cargo space shall be constructed and maintained so as to 
prevent the harmful ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases produced 
by the conveyance.
    (c) No wild mammal or bird shall be placed in a cargo space of a 
conveyance that does not provide sufficient air for it to breathe 
normally. Primary enclosures shall be positioned in a cargo space in 
such a manner that each animal has access to sufficient air for normal 
breathing.
    (d) The interior of an animal cargo space shall be kept clean of 
disease-causing agents.
    (e) A wild mammal or bird shall not be transported in a cargo space 
that contains any material, substance, or device that may reasonably be 
expected to result in inhumane conditions or be injurious to the 
animal's health unless all reasonable precautions are taken to prevent 
such conditions or injury.



Sec. 14.108  Food and water.

    (a) No carrier shall accept any wild mammal or bird for transport to 
the United States unless written instructions from the shipper 
concerning the animal's food and water requirements are securely affixed 
to the outside of its primary enclosure. Such instructions shall be 
consistent with professionally accepted standards of care and include 
specifically the quantity of water required, the amount and type of food 
required, and the frequency of feeding and watering necessary to ensure 
that the animal is transported humanely and healthfully.

[[Page 71]]

    (b) A mammal or bird requiring drinking water shall have 
uncontaminated water suitable for drinking made available to it at all 
times prior to commencement of transport to the United States, during 
intermediate stopovers, and upon arrival in the United States, or as 
directed by the shipper's written instructions.
    (c) A mammal or bird that obtains moisture from fruits or other food 
shall be provided such food prior to commencement of transport to the 
United States, during stopovers, and upon arrival in the United States, 
or as directed by the shipper's written instructions.
    (d) During a stopover or while still in the custody of the carrier 
after arrival in the United States, a mammal or bird in transit shall be 
observed no less frequently than once every four hours and given food 
and water according to the instructions required by Sec. 14.108(a).
    (e) Suitable and sufficient food shall be made available during 
transport.
    (f) Additional requirements for feeding and watering particular 
kinds of animals are found below in the specifications for the various 
groups.



Sec. 14.109  Care in transit.

    (a) During transportation to the United States, including any 
stopovers during transport, the carrier shall visually inspect each 
primary enclosure not less than once every 4 hours, or in the case of 
air transport, every 4 hours whenever the cargo hold is accessible. 
During such inspections, the carrier shall verify that the ambient air 
temperature is within allowable limits (see Sec. 14.109(b)), that 
enclosures have not been damaged, that adequate ventilation is being 
provided, and when transport is by air, that air pressure suitable to 
support live animals is maintained within the cargo area (pressure 
equivalent to a maximum altitude of 8000 feet). During these 
observations the carrier shall also determine whether any animals are in 
obvious distress as described in documents attached to the enclosure. 
The absence of such a document or the absence of information as to signs 
of distress shall not remove this responsibility. The carrier shall 
attempt to correct any condition causing distress and shall consult the 
shipper concerning any possible need for veterinary care if no 
veterinary attendant is traveling with the shipment; if the shipper 
cannot be reached in the case of an emergency, qualified veterinary care 
should be provided. A veterinarian or qualified attendant traveling with 
the shipment shall be provided access to the animal.
    (b) Unless otherwise specified in writing by the examining 
veterinarian the ambient air temperature in a holding area, transporting 
device, conveyance or terminal facility containing mammals or birds 
shall not be allowed to fall below 12.8 degrees C (55 degrees F) nor to 
exceed 26.7 degrees C (80 degrees F). Auxiliary ventilation shall be 
provided when the ambient air temperature is 23.9 degrees C (75 degrees 
F) or higher. In the case of penguins and auks, the ambient air 
temperature shall not be allowed to exceed 18.3 degrees C (65 degrees F) 
at any time, and auxiliary ventilation shall be provided when the 
ambient air temperature exceeds 15.6 degrees C (60 degrees F). In the 
case of polar bears and sea otters, ambient air temperature shall not be 
allowed to exceed 10 degrees C (50 degrees F).



Sec. 14.110  Terminal facilities.

    (a) Any terminal facility used for wild mammal or bird transport in 
the country of export, stopover countries, or the United States shall 
contain an animal holding area or areas. No carrier or shipper shall co-
mingle live animal shipments with inanimate cargo in an animal holding 
area.
    (b) A carrier or shipper holding any wild mammal or bird in a 
terminal facility shall provide the following:
    (1) A holding area cleaned and sanitized so as to destroy pathogenic 
agents, maintained so that there is no accumulation of debris or 
excreta, and in which vermin infestation is minimized;
    (2) An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, 
and pests of mammals or birds;
    (3) Sufficient fresh air to allow the animals to breathe normally 
with ventilation maintained so as to minimize drafts, odors, and 
moisture condensation;

[[Page 72]]

    (4) Ambient air temperatures maintained within prescribed limits as 
specified in Sec. 14.109(b).



Sec. 14.111  Handling.

    (a) Care shall be exercised to avoid handling the primary enclosure 
in a manner likely to cause physical or psychological trauma to the 
mammal or bird.
    (b) A primary enclosure used to move any mammal or bird shall not be 
dropped, tipped excessively, or otherwise mishandled, and shall not be 
stacked or placed in a manner that may reasonably be expected to result 
in its falling or being tipped.
    (c) Animals incompatible with one another shall not be crated 
together or held in close proximity.
    (d) Transport of mammals or birds to the United States shall be 
accomplished by the carrier in the most expeditious manner, with the 
fewest stopovers possible, and without unnecessary delays.
    (e) Consistent with other procedures and requirements of the 
carrier, live wild mammals or birds shall be last loaded and first 
unloaded from a conveyance.
    (f) A carrier shall not allow mammals or birds to remain for 
extended periods of time outside a holding area and shall move them 
between a holding area and a conveyance as expeditiously as possible. A 
carrier or shipper maintaining mammals or birds in a holding area, or 
transporting them to or from a holding area or between a holding area 
and a conveyance, shall provide the following:
    (1) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause 
overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to protect 
animals from the direct rays of the sun.
    (2) Shelter from precipitation. Animals shall be provided protection 
so that they remain dry during rain, snow, or other forms of 
precipitation.
    (3) Shelter from cold. Animals shall be provided protection from 
cold. Protection shall include, but not be limited to, that provided by 
covering and/or heating of transporting devices, holding areas, 
conveyances or terminal facilities.
    (4) Protection from harassment. Animals shall be protected from 
disturbances, including, but not limited to, harassment by humans, other 
animals, or machinery that makes noise, emits fumes, heat, or light, or 
causes vibration.



Sec. 14.112  Other applicable provisions.

    In addition to the provisions of Secs. 14.101-14.111, the 
requirements of Secs. 14.121-14.172 applicable for particular groups of 
animals shall be met for all shipments of wild mammals and birds covered 
by this part.

                  Specifications for Nonhuman Primates



Sec. 14.121  Primary enclosures.

    (a) No more than one primate shall be transported in a primary 
enclosure. However, a mother and her nursing young being transported to 
the United States for medical treatment, an established male-female 
pair, a family group, a pair of juvenile animals that have not reached 
puberty, or other pairs of animals that have been habitually housed 
together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. Primates of 
different species shall not be shipped together in the same enclosure.
    (b) A primary enclosure used to transport a primate shall be large 
enough to ensure that the animal has sufficient space to turn around 
freely in a normal manner, lie down, stand up (as appropriate for the 
species), and sit in a normal upright position without its head touching 
the top of the enclosure. However, a primate may be restricted in its 
movements according to professionally accepted standards of care when 
greater freedom of movement would constitute a danger to the primate or 
to its handler or other persons.
    (c) Except as provided in Sec. 14.106(j), ventilation openings must 
be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the 
required ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the 
primary enclosure, these ventilation openings shall comprise at least 30 
percent of the total surface

[[Page 73]]

area of the ventilated wall and be situated above the midline of the 
enclosure. If ventilation openings are located on all four walls of the 
enclosure, the openings on each wall shall comprise at least 20 percent 
of the total surface area of the wall and be situated above the midline 
of the primary enclosure.



Sec. 14.122  Food and water.

    (a) A nonhuman primate shall be provided water suitable for drinking 
within 4 hours prior to commencement of transport to the United States 
unless the shipper's written instructions direct otherwise. A carrier 
shall provide suitable drinking water to any primate at least every 12 
hours after acceptance for transport to the United States, unless 
instructed in writing to do so more frequently by the shipper.
    (b) After acceptance for transport, and unless otherwise instructed 
in writing by the shipper, a carrier shall provide suitable food to any 
nonhuman primate at least once every 12 hours.



Sec. 14.123  Care in transit.

    (a) A primate shall be observed for signs of distress and given food 
and water according to the shipper's instructions during any 
intermediate stop that lasts more than 4 hours.
    (b) Care shall be taken to keep enclosures containing primates 
sufficiently separated in the conveyance or holding area to minimize the 
risk of spread of disease from one species or shipment to another.

  Specifications for Marine Mammals (Cetaceans, Sirenians, Sea Otters, 
                       Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears)



Sec. 14.131  Primary enclosures.

    (a) A primary enclosure that is not open on top shall have air 
inlets situated at heights that provide cross ventilation at all levels 
and that are located on all four sides of the enclosure. Such 
ventilation openings shall comprise not less than 20 percent of the 
total surface area of each side of the enclosure.
    (b) Straps, slings, harnesses, or other such devices used for body 
support or restraint when transporting marine mammals such as cetaceans 
or sirenians shall meet the following requirements:
    (1) The devices shall not prevent attendants from having access to 
the mammal to administer care during transportation;
    (2) The devices shall be equipped with sufficient padding to prevent 
trauma or injury at points of contact with the mammal's body;
    (3) Slings or harnesses shall allow free movement of flippers 
outside of the harness or sling;
    (4) The devices shall be capable of preventing the mammal from 
thrashing about and causing injury to itself, handlers, or other 
persons, but shall be designed so as not to cause injury to the mammal.
    (c) A primary enclosure used to transport marine mammals shall be 
large enough to assure the following:
    (1) A sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about 
freely with all four feet on the floor and to sit in an upright 
position, stand, or lie in a natural position;
    (2) A pinniped has sufficient space to lie in a natural position;
    (3) If a sling, harness, or other supporting device is used, there 
are at least 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) of clearance between any body 
part and the primary enclosure;
    (d) A marine mammal may be restricted in its movements according to 
professionally accepted standards of care when freedom of movement would 
constitute a danger to the animal or to handlers or other persons.
    (e) All marine mammals contained in a given primary enclosure shall 
be of the same species and be maintained in compatible groups. A marine 
mammal that has not reached puberty shall not be transported in the same 
primary enclosure with an adult marine mammal other than its mother. 
Socially dependent animals (e.g., siblings, mother, and offspring) 
transported in the same conveyance shall be allowed visual and, when 
appropriate for the species, olfactory contact. A female marine mammal 
shall not be transported in the same primary enclosure with any mature 
male marine mammal.

[[Page 74]]



Sec. 14.132  Food and water.

    A marine mammal shall not be transported for more than a period of 
36 hours without being offered suitable food unless the shipper's 
written instructions or the shipper's attendant travelling with the 
mammal direct otherwise. After feeding, a marine mammal shall be rested 
for 6 hours prior to resuming transport.



Sec. 14.133  Care in transit.

    (a) Any marine mammal shall be accompanied, in the same conveyance, 
by the shipper or an authorized representative of the shipper 
knowledgeable in marine mammal care to provide for the animal's health 
and well-being. The shipper or representative shall observe such marine 
mammals to determine whether or not they need veterinary care and shall 
provide or obtain any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. Care 
during transport shall include the following (on a species-specific 
basis):
    (1) Keeping the skin moist or preventing the drying of the skin by 
such methods as covering with wet cloths, spraying it with water or 
applying a nontoxic emollient;
    (2) Assuring that the pectoral flippers (when applicable) are 
allowed freedom of movement at all times;
    (3) Making adjustments in the position of the mammal when necessary 
to prevent necrosis of the skin at weight pressure points; and
    (4) Calming the mammal to prevent struggling, thrashing, and other 
activity that may cause overheating or physical trauma.
    (b) Unless otherwise directed by a shipper or authorized 
representative, at least one-half of the floor area in a primary 
enclosure used to transport sea otters to the United States shall 
contain sufficient crushed ice or ice water to provide each otter with 
moisture necessary to maintain its hair coat by preventing it from 
drying and to minimize soiling of the hair coat with urine and fecal 
material.
    (c) A marine mammal exhibiting excited or otherwise dangerous 
behavior shall not be taken from its primary enclosure except under 
extreme emergency conditions and then only by the shipper or other 
authorized individual who is capable of handling the animal safely.

               Specifications for Elephants and Ungulates



Sec. 14.141  Consignment to carrier.

    Species that grow antlers shall not be accepted for transport unless 
the antlers have been shed or surgically removed.



Sec. 14.142  Primary enclosures.

    (a) Except as provided in Sec. 14.106(j), ventilation openings must 
be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the 
required ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the 
primary enclosure, these ventilation openings shall comprise at least 16 
percent of the total surface area of each ventilated wall. When 
ventilation openings are located on all four walls of the primary 
enclosure, the openings shall comprise at least 8 percent of the total 
surface area of each wall. At least one-third of the minimum area 
required for ventilation shall be located on the lower one-half of the 
primary enclosure and at least one-third of the total minimum area 
required for ventilation shall be located on the upper one-half of the 
primary enclosure.
    (b) No more than one elephant or ungulate shall be transported in a 
primary enclosure, except that: a mother and nursing young may be 
shipped in the same primary enclosure if the shipment complies with the 
provisions of Sec. 14.105(b); in the case of land or sea transport, a 
pair of juvenile elephants or ungulates or other pairs that have been 
habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure.
    (c) A primary enclosure used to transport an elephant or ungulate 
shall be large enough to allow the animal to lie or stand in a natural 
upright position with the head extended, but not large enough for the 
animal to roll over.
    (d) A primary enclosure used to transport an elephant or ungulate 
with horns or tusks shall be designed and constructed to prevent the 
horns or

[[Page 75]]

tusks from becoming trapped or injuring the animal itself, other animals 
nearby, attendants, or cargo handlers.
    (e) A primary enclosure for an elephant or ungulate shall be 
equipped with a removable water trough that can be securely hung within 
the enclosure above the floor and can be filled from outside the 
enclosure.

   Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)



Sec. 14.151  Primary enclosures.

    (a) Except as provided in Sec. 14.106(j), ventilation openings must 
be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the 
required ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the 
primary enclosure, these ventilation openings shall comprise at least 16 
percent of the total surface area of the ventilated wall. When 
ventilation openings are located on all four walls, the openings shall 
comprise at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each wall. At 
least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation of 
the primary enclosure shall be located on the upper one-half of the 
primary enclosure.
    (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur (Cynocephalidae) 
shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother and her 
nursing young being transported for medical reasons, an established 
male-female pair, a family group, a pair of juvenile animals that have 
not reached puberty, or other small groups of animals that have been 
habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure.
    (c) A primary enclosure used to transport sloths, bats, or flying 
lemurs shall be large enough to ensure that each animal has sufficient 
space to move freely and in a normal manner and shall have a wide perch, 
bar, or mesh of suitable strength fitted under the top of the enclosure 
and spaced from it in such a way that the animals may hang from it 
freely in a natural position.

              Specifications for Other Terrestrial Mammals



Sec. 14.161  Primary enclosures.

    (a) Except as provided in Sec. 14.106(j), ventilation openings must 
be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the 
required ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the 
primary enclosure, these ventilation openings shall comprise at least 16 
percent of the total surface area of each ventilated wall. When openings 
are located on all four walls of the enclosure, the openings shall 
comprise at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each wall. At 
least one-third of the minimum area required for ventilation shall be 
located on the lower one-half of the enclosure, and at least one-third 
of the total minimum area required for ventilation shall be located on 
the upper one-half of the enclosure.
    (b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall 
be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother and her nursing 
young may be shipped in the same primary enclosure if the shipment 
complies with the provisions of Sec. 14.105(b).
    (c) More than one rodent may be transported in the same primary 
enclosure if they are members of the same species and are maintained in 
compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in 
individual primary enclosures that are stored and transported so they 
are visually separated. A female with young being transported for 
medical reasons shall not be placed in a primary enclosure with other 
animals. The following chart specifies maximum densities minimum space 
for transporting rodents that fall within the specified weight 
limitations. Max. No. refers to maximum number per primary enclosure; 
Space/animal refers to minimum area of floor space per animals. Rodents 
weighing more than 5,000 grams shall be transported in individual 
enclosures.

[[Page 76]]



                     Density Guidelines for Rodents
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 Space/Animal    Ht. of
                                          Max. ----------------    Box
                                          No.                  ---------
                                                cm /2/  in /2/   cm   in
------------------------------------------------------------------------
wt. in grams of rodent:
220 or less............................     20     194      30   15    6
220-450................................     12     388      60   20    8
450-1000...............................      6     770     120   25   10
1,000-5,000............................      2   2,310     360   30   12
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (d) A primary enclosure used to transport terrestrial mammals shall 
be large enough to ensure that each animal has sufficient space to turn 
around freely in a normal manner. The height of the primary enclosure 
shall provide adequate space for the animal to stand upright in a normal 
posture with space above its head. The length of the primary enclosure 
shall be great enough to enable the animal to lie in a full prone 
position.

                        Specifications for Birds



Sec. 14.171  Consignment to carrier.

    (a) A personally owned pet bird originally transported from the 
United States and being returned to this country with its original 
United States certificate of veterinary inspection within 60 days of 
departure may be accepted by a carrier without a new veterinary 
examination.
    (b) No carrier shall accept for transport to the United States any 
bird that was captured in the wild unless a qualified veterinarian, 
authorized by the national government of the country from which the bird 
is being exported, certifies that the bird has been held in captivity 
for at least 14 days.



Sec. 14.172  Primary enclosures.

    (a) A primary enclosure for birds shall have ventilation openings on 
two vertical sides that comprise at least 16 percent of the surface area 
of each side and are positioned so as to decrease the likelihood of 
creating a draft.
    (b) Perches shall be provided for birds that rest by perching. The 
diameter of the perch shall be sufficient to permit the birds to 
maintain a firm, comfortable grip. Perches shall be placed so that 
droppings do not fall into food or water troughs or onto other perched 
birds. There shall be enough head room to allow the birds to move onto 
and off the perches without touching the top of the enclosure.
    (c) An enclosure used to transport one or more birds that rest by 
perching shall be large enough to ensure that sufficient perch space is 
available for all birds to perch comfortably at the same time. No more 
than 50 birds that rest by perching shall be transported in one primary 
enclosure, with the exception of large birds (longer than 23 cm, or 9 
inches), which are limited to a maximum of 25 per primary enclosure.
    (d) A primary enclosure used to transport a raptorial bird shall be 
large enough to transport the bird comfortably and to permit it to turn 
around without stretching its wings to the fullest extent. Only one 
raptorial bird shall be contained in a primary enclosure.
    (e) A primary enclosure containing nonraptorial birds that do not 
rest by perching shall be large enough for the birds to turn around, to 
lie down, to stand erect, and to change posture in a normal manner.
    (f) Nectar-feeding birds shall either be transported in a primary 
enclosure equipped with feeding bottles accessible from outside the 
enclosure for replenishment or hand-carried and fed in accordance with 
the written instructions of the shipper.
    (g) Birds transported in the same primary enclosure shall be of the 
same species and be compatible with one another. Birds that are 
incompatible shall be placed in individual primary enclosures and these 
enclosures shall not be stored or transported in visual proximity to one 
another.



PART 15--WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT--Table of Contents




             Subpart A--Introduction and General Provisions

Sec.
15.1  Purpose of regulations.
15.2  Scope of regulations.
15.3  Definitions.
15.4  Information collection requirements.

                Subpart B--Prohibitions and Requirements

15.11  Prohibitions.
15.12  Requirements.

[[Page 77]]

    Subpart C--Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs

15.21  General application procedures.
15.22  Permits for scientific research.
15.23  Permits for zoological breeding or display programs.
15.24  Permits for cooperative breeding.
15.25  Permits for personal pets.
15.26  Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

  Subpart D--Approved List of Species Listed in the Appendices to the 
                               Convention

15.31  Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-
          bred species.
15.32  Criteria for including species in the approved list for non-
          captive-bred species.
15.33  Species included in the approved list.

   Subpart E--Qualifying Facilities Breeding Exotic Birds in Captivity

15.41  Criteria for including facilities as qualifying for imports. 
          [Reserved]
15.42  List of foreign qualifying breeding facilities. [Reserved]

 Subpart F--List of Prohibited Species Not Listed in the Appendices to 
                             the Convention

15.51  Criteria for including species and countries in the prohibited 
          list. [Reserved]
15.52  Species included in the prohibited list. [Reserved]
15.53  Countries of export included in the prohibited list. [Reserved]

    Authority: 61 U.S.C. 4901-4916.

    Source: At 58 FR 60536, Nov. 16, 1993, unless otherwise noted.



             Subpart A--Introduction and General Provisions



Sec. 15.1  Purpose of regulations.

    The regulations in this part implement the Wild Bird Conservation 
Act of 1992, Pub. L. 102-440, 16 U.S.C. 4901-4916.



Sec. 15.2  Scope of regulations.

    (a) The regulations in this part apply to all species of exotic 
birds, as defined in section 15.3.
    (b) The provisions in this part are in addition to, and are not in 
lieu of, other regulations of this subchapter B that may require a 
permit or prescribe additional restrictions or conditions for the 
import, export, reexport, and transportation of wildlife.



Sec. 15.3  Definitions.

    In addition to the definitions contained in parts 10 and 23 of this 
subchapter B, and unless the context requires otherwise, in this part:
    Documentation means a description of how scientific information was 
collected, including the methodologies used; names and institutions of 
individuals conducting the work; dates and locations of any study; and 
any published results or reports from the work.
    Exotic bird means any live or dead member of the Class Aves that is 
not indigenous to the 50 States or the District of Columbia, including 
any egg or offspring thereof, but does not include domestic poultry, 
dead sport-hunted birds, dead museum specimens, dead scientific 
specimens, products manufactured from such birds, or birds in any of the 
following families: Phasianidae. Numididae, Cracidae, Meleagrididae, 
Megapodiidae, Anatidae, Struthionidae Rheidae, Dromaiinae, and Gruidae.
    Indigenous means a species that is naturally occurring, not 
introduced as a result of human activity, and that currently regularly 
inhabits or breeds in the 50 States or the District of Columbia.
    Life cycle means the annual processes involved with breeding, 
migration, and all other non-breeding activities.
    Person means an individual, corporation, partnership, trust, 
association, or any other private entity; or any officer, employee, 
agent, department, or instrumentality of the Federal Government, of any 
State, municipality, or political subdivision of a State, or of any 
foreign government; any State, municipality, or political subdivision of 
a State; or any other entity subject to the jurisdiction of the United 
States.
    Species means any species, any subspecies, or any district 
population segment of a species or subspecies, and includes hybrids of 
any species or subspecies. Hybrids will be treated according to the more 
restrictive appendix or category in which either parental species is 
listed.

[[Page 78]]

    Status means a qualitative measure of the vulnerability to 
extinction or extirpation of a population at a given time (e.g., 
endangered, threatened, vulnerable, non-threatened, or insufficiently 
known).
    Sustainable use means the use of a species in a manner and at a 
level such that populations of the species are maintained at 
biologically viable levels for the long term and involves a 
determination of the productive capacity of the species and its 
ecosystem, in order to ensure that utilization does not exceed those 
capacities or the ability of the population to reproduce, maintain 
itself and perform its role or function in its ecosystem.
    Trend means a long-term assessment of any change in the absolute or 
relative size of a species' population or habitat over time (e.g., 
increasing, decreasing, at equilibrium, insufficiently known).
    United States means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, 
the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust 
Territory of the Pacific Islands.

[58 FR 60536, Nov. 16, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 2091, Jan. 24, 1996]



Sec. 15.4  Information collection requirements.

    (a) The Office of Management and Budget approved the information 
collection requirements contained in this part 15 under 44 U.S.C. 3507 
and assigned OMB Control Number 1018-0093. The Service may not conduct 
or sponsor, and you are not required to respond, to a collection of 
information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. We 
are collecting this information to provide information necessary to 
evaluate permit applications. We will use this information to review 
permit applications and make decisions, according to criteria 
established in various Federal wildlife conservation statutes and 
regulations, on the issuance, suspension, revocation, or denial of 
permits. You must respond to obtain or retain a permit.
    (b) We estimate the public reporting burden for these reporting 
requirements to vary from 1 to 4 hours per response, with an average of 
2 hours per response, including time for reviewing instructions, 
gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the forms. 
Direct comments regarding the burden estimate or any other aspect of 
these reporting requirements to the Service Information Collection 
Control Officer, MS-222 ARLSQ, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Washington, DC 20240, or the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork 
Reduction Project (1018-0093), Washington, DC 20603.

[63 FR 52634, Oct. 1, 1998]



                Subpart B--Prohibitions and Requirements



Sec. 15.11  Prohibitions.

    (a) Except as provided under a permit issued pursuant to subpart C 
of this part, it is unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction 
of the United States to commit, attempt to commit, to solicit another to 
commit, or to cause to be committed, any of the acts described in 
paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section in regard to any exotic bird.
    (b) It is unlawful to import into the United States any exotic bird 
species listed in the Appendices to the Convention that is not included 
in the approved list of species, pursuant to subpart D of this part, 
except that this paragraph (b) does not apply to any exotic bird that 
was bred in a foreign breeding facility listed as qualifying pursuant to 
subpart E of this part.
    (c) It is unlawful to import into the United States any exotic bird 
species not listed in the Appendices to the Convention that is listed in 
the prohibited species list, pursuant to subpart F of this part.
    (d) It is unlawful to import into the United States any exotic bird 
species from any country included in the prohibited country list, 
pursuant to subpart F of this part.
    (e) It is unlawful to import into the United States any exotic bird 
species from a qualifying facility breeding exotic birds in captivity, 
listed pursuant to subpart E of this part, if the exotic bird was not 
captive-bred at the listed facility.

[[Page 79]]

    (f) It is unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction of the 
United States to engage in any activity with an exotic bird imported 
under a permit issued pursuant to this part that violates a condition of 
said permit.

[58 FR 60536, Nov. 16, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 62255, Dec. 2, 1994]



Sec. 15.12  Requirements.

    (a) No person shall import into the United States any exotic bird 
except as may be permitted under the terms of a valid permit issued 
pursuant to the provisions of subpart C of this part and 50 CFR part 13, 
or in accordance with the provisions of subparts D-F of this part 15, or 
in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section.
    (b) Any exotic bird can be imported to the United States if it was 
legally exported from the United States with a permit issued by the 
Service's Office of Management Authority, provided that the import is by 
the same person who exported the bird, the import is accompanied by a 
copy of the cleared CITES export permit or certificate issued by the 
Service that was used to export the exotic bird, and the Service is 
satisfied that the same bird is being imported as is indicted on the 
aforementioned permit or certificate.



    Subpart C--Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs



Sec. 15.21  General application procedures.

    (a) The Director may issue a permit authorizing the importation of 
exotic birds otherwise prohibited by Sec. 15.11, in accordance with the 
issuance criteria of this subpart, for the following purposes only: 
Scientific research; zoological breeding or display programs; 
cooperative breeding programs designed to promote the conservation and 
maintenance of the species in the wild; or personally owned pets 
accompanying persons returning to the United States after being out of 
the country for more than 1 year.
    (b) Additional requirements as indicated in parts 13, 14, 17, 21, 
and 23 of this subchapter must also be met.
    (c) A person wishing to obtain a permit under this subpart or 
approval of cooperative breeding programs under this subpart submits an 
application to the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Attention: 
Office of Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 700, 
Arlington, VA 22203. Each application must contain the general 
information and certification required in Sec. 13.12(a) of this 
subchapter, and all of the information specified in the applicable 
section Secs. 15.22 through 15.26.

[58 FR 60536, Nov. 16, 1993, as amended at 63 FR 52634, Oct. 1, 1998]



Sec. 15.22  Permits for scientific research.

    (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific research. 
Each application shall provide the following information and such other 
information that the Director may require:
    (1) A description of the exotic bird(s) to be imported, including:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the species, number, age or 
age class, and, when known, sex; and
    (ii) A statement as to whether, at the time of the application, the 
exotic bird is still in the wild, has already been removed from the 
wild, or was bred in captivity;
    (2) If the exotic bird is in the wild or was taken from the wild, 
include:
    (i) The country and region where the removal will occur or occurred;
    (ii) A description of the status of the species in the region of 
removal; and
    (iii) A copy of any foreign collecting permit or authorizing letter, 
if applicable;
    (3) If the exotic bird was bred in captivity, include:
    (i) Documents or other evidence that the bird was bred in captivity, 
including the name and address of the breeder, and when known, hatch 
date and identity of the parental birds; and
    (ii) If the applicant is not the breeder, documentation showing the 
bird was acquired from a breeder and a history of multiple transactions, 
if applicable:
    (4) A statement of the reasons the applicant is justified in 
obtaining a permit, and a complete description of the scientific 
research to be conducted on the exotic bird requested, including:

[[Page 80]]

    (i) Formal research protocol with timetable;
    (ii) The relationship of such research to the conservation of the 
species in the wild;
    (iii) A discussion of possible alternatives and efforts to obtain 
birds from other sources; and
    (iv) Plans for disposition of the exotic birds and any progeny upon 
completion of the research project;
    (5) Qualifications of the scientific personnel conducting the 
proposed research, including applicable experience and a description of 
relevant past research conducted;
    (6) A description of the care and maintenance of the exotic bird, 
and how the facility meets professionally recognized standards, 
including;
    (i) The name and address of the facility where the exotic bird will 
be maintained;
    (ii) Dimensions of existing enclosures for the birds to be imported 
and number of birds to be housed in each; and
    (iii) Husbandry practices.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making this decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in part 13 
of this subchapter, the following factors;
    (1) Whether the purpose of the scientific research is adequate to 
justify removing the exotic bird from the wild or otherwise changing its 
status;
    (2) Whether the proposed import would be detrimental to the survival 
of the exotic bird species in the wild, including whether the exotic 
bird was bred in captivity or was (or will be) taken from the wild, 
taking into consideration the conservation status of the species in the 
wild;
    (3) Whether the permit, if issued, would conflict with any known 
program intended to enhance the survival of the population from which 
the exotic bird was or would be removed;
    (4) Whether the research for which the permit is required has 
scientific merit;
    (5) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate for proper care and maintenance of the 
exotic bird and to successfully accomplish the research objectives 
stated in the application.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to special conditions as the Director may deem 
appropriate.
    (d) Duration of permits. The duration of the import permits issued 
under this section shall be designated on the face of the permit, but in 
no case will these permits be valid for longer than one year.



Sec. 15.23  Permits for zoological breeding or display programs.

    (a) Application requirements for permits for zoological breeding or 
display programs. Each application shall provide the following 
information and such other information that the Director may require:
    (1) A description of the exotic bird(s) to be imported, including:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the species, number, age or 
age class, and, when known, sex; and
    (ii) A statement as to whether, at the time of the application, the 
exotic bird is still in the wild, has already been removed from the 
wild, or was bred in captivity;
    (2) If the exotic bird is in the wild or was taken from the wild 
include:
    (i) The country and region where the removal will occur or occurred;
    (ii) A description of the status of the species in the region of 
removal; and
    (iii) A copy of any foreign collecting permit or authorizing letter, 
if applicable;
    (3) If the exotic bird was bred in captivity, include:
    (i) Documents or other evidence that the bird was bred in captivity, 
including the name and address of the breeder, and when known, identity 
of the parental birds, and hatch date; and
    (ii) If the applicant is not the breeder, documentation showing the 
bird was acquired from a breeder and a history of multiple transactions, 
if applicable;
    (4) A statement of the reasons the applicant is justified in 
obtaining a permit, and a complete description of the

[[Page 81]]

breeding or display program to be conducted with the exotic bird 
requested, including:
    (i) A breeding or education protocol that provides information on 
educational materials on the ecology and/or conservation status of the 
species provided to the general public;
    (ii) Plans, if any, for developing or maintaining a self-sustaining 
population of the exotic bird species in captivity;
    (iii) A statement on efforts to obtain birds from alternative 
sources or sources within the United States;
    (iv) The relationship of such a breeding or display program to the 
conservation of the species in the wild; and
    (v) Plans for disposition of the exotic birds and any progeny.
    (5) A description of the care and maintenance of the exotic bird, 
and how the facility meets professionally recognized standards of the 
public display community, including:
    (i) The name and address of the facility where the exotic bird will 
be maintained;
    (ii) Dimensions of existing enclosures for the birds to be imported 
and number of birds to be housed in each;
    (iii) Husbandry practices;
    (6) A history of the zoological facility's breeding programs with 
the same or similar species, including:
    (i) Participation in any cooperative breeding programs;
    (ii) Breeding and inventory records for the last two years, 
including hatching, survival, and mortality records; and
    (iii) Causes of any mortalities and efforts made to correct any 
problems.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making this decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in part 13 
of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the zoological breeding or display program is adequate 
to justify removing the exotic bird from the wild or otherwise changing 
its status;
    (2) Whether the proposed import would be detrimental to the survival 
of the exotic bird species in the wild, including whether the exotic 
bird was bred in captivity or was (or will be) taken from the wild, 
taking into consideration the conservation status of the species in the 
wild;
    (3) Whether the permit, if issued, would conflict with any known 
program intended to enhance the survival of the population from which 
the exotic bird was or would be removed;
    (4) Whether the breeding or display program for which the permit is 
required has conservation merit; and
    (5) Whether the expertise, facilities or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate for proper care and maintenance of the 
exotic bird and to successfully accomplish the zoological breeding or 
display objectives stated in the application.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to special conditions as the Director may deem 
appropriate.
    (d) Duration of permits. The duration of the import permits issued 
under this section shall be designated on the face of the permit, but in 
no case will these permits be valid for longer than one year.



Sec. 15.24  Permits for cooperative breeding.

    (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding. 
Each application shall provide the following information and such other 
information that the Director may require:
    (1) A description of the exotic bird(s) to be imported, including:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the species, number, age or 
age class, and, when known, sex; and
    (ii) A statement as to whether, at the time of the application, the 
exotic bird is still in the wild, has already been removed from the 
wild, or was bred in captivity;
    (2) If the exotic bird is still in the wild or was taken from the 
wild include;
    (i) The country and region where the removal will occur or occurred;
    (ii) A description of the status of the species in the region of 
removal; and

[[Page 82]]

    (iii) A copy of any foreign collecting permit or authorizing letter, 
if applicable;
    (3) If the exotic bird was bred in captivity, include;
    (i) Documents or other evidence that the bird was bred in captivity, 
including the name and address of the breeder, when known, the identity 
of the parental birds and hatch date; and
    (ii) If the applicant is not the breeder, documentation showing the 
bird was acquired from the breeder and a history of multiple 
transactions, if applicable;
    (4) A statement of the reasons the applicant is justified in 
obtaining a permit, and a statement detailing the applicant's 
participation in a cooperative breeding program approved under section 
15.26 of this chapter, including;
    (i) Copies of any signed agreements or protocols with the monitoring 
avicultural, conservation, or zoological organization overseeing the 
program; and
    (ii) Applicable records of the cooperative breeding program of any 
other birds imported, their progeny, and their disposition;
    (5) A complete description of the relationship of the exotic bird to 
the approved cooperative breeding program, including;
    (i) A statement of the role of the exotic bird in a breeding 
protocol;
    (ii) A plan for maintaining a self-sustaining captive population of 
the exotic bird species;
    (iii) Details on recordkeeping; and
    (iv) Plans for disposition of the exotic birds and any progeny 
produced during the course of this program.
    (6) A statement outlining the applicant's attempts to obtain the 
exotic bird in a manner that would not cause its removal from the wild, 
and attempts to obtain the specimens of the exotic bird species from 
stock available in the United States;
    (7) A description of the care and maintenance of the exotic bird, 
and how the facility meets professionally recognized standards, 
including;
    (i) The name and address of the facility where the exotic bird will 
be maintained;
    (ii) Dimensions of existing enclosures for birds to be imported and 
number of birds to be housed in each; and
    (iii) Husbandry practices;
    (8) A history of the applicant's past participation in cooperative 
breeding programs with the same or similar species, including;
    (i) Breeding and inventory records for at least the last two years;
    (ii) Hatching, survival, and mortality records;
    (iii) Causes of any mortalities and efforts made to correct any 
problems.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making this decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in part 13 
of this subchapter, the following factors;
    (1) Whether the cooperative breeding program is adequate to justify 
removing the exotic bird from the wild or otherwise changing its status;
    (2) Whether the proposed import would be detrimental to the survival 
of the exotic bird species in the wild, including whether the exotic 
bird was bred in captivity or was (or will be) taken from the wild, 
taking into consideration the conservation status of the species in the 
wild;
    (3) Whether the cooperative breeding program for which the permit is 
required would be likely to enhance or promote the conservation of the 
exotic bird species in the wild or result in a self-sustaining 
population of the exotic bird species in captivity; and
    (4) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate for proper care and maintenance of the 
exotic birds and to successfully accomplish the cooperative breeding 
objectives stated in the application.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to special conditions as the Director may deem 
appropriate.
    (d) Duration of permits. The duration of the import permits issued 
under this section shall be designated on the face of the permit, but in 
no case will these

[[Page 83]]

permits be valid for longer than one year.



Sec. 15.25  Permits for personal pets.

    (a) Application requirements for personal pets not intended for 
sale. No individual may import more than two exotic birds as pets in any 
year. Each application shall provide the following information and such 
other information that the Director may require:
    (1) A description of the exotic bird to be imported, including;
    (i) The common and scientific names, number, age, and, when known, 
sex;
    (ii) A band number, house name, or any other unique identifying 
feature; and
    (iii) A statement as to whether the exotic bird was bred in 
captivity or taken from the wild;
    (2) A statement of the reasons the applicant is justified in 
obtaining a permit;
    (3) Documentation showing that the applicant has continually resided 
outside of the United States for a minimum of one year;
    (4) A statement of the number of exotic birds imported during the 
previous 12 months as personal pets by the applicant;
    (5) Information on the origin of the exotic bird, including;
    (i) Country of origin; and
    (ii) A description and documentation of how the exotic bird was 
acquired, including a copy of any Convention permit under which the bird 
was re-exported or exported. If there is no such permit, a sales receipt 
or signed statement from seller with name and address of seller, date of 
sale, species, and other identifying information on the bird or signed 
breeder's certificate or statement with name and address of breeder, 
date of sale or transfer, species and hatch date.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making this decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in part 13 
of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the proposed import would be detrimental to the survival 
of the exotic bird species in the wild;
    (2) Whether the exotic bird to be imported is a personal pet owned 
by the applicant, who has continuously resided outside the United States 
for a minimum of one year, and who has no intention to sell the bird; 
and
    (3) Whether the number of exotic birds imported in the previous 12 
months by the applicant does not exceed two.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to special conditions that no individual may 
import more than two exotic birds as personal pets in any year, the 
exotic birds cannot be sold after importation into the United States, 
and any other conditions as the Director may deem appropriate.
    (d) Duration of permits. The duration of the import permits issued 
under this section shall be designated on the face of the permit.



Sec. 15.26  Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director may approve 
cooperative breeding programs. Such approval will allow individuals to 
import exotic birds otherwise prohibited by section 15.11, with permits 
under section 15.24. Such approval for cooperative breeding programs 
shall be granted in accordance with the issuance criteria of this 
section.
    (a) Application requirements for approval of cooperative breeding 
programs. Each application shall provide the following information and 
such other information that the Director may require:
    (1) A description of the exotic bird(s) to be imported or to be 
covered under the program, including the common and scientific names of 
the species, number, sex ratio (if applicable), and age class;
    (2) A statement of the reasons the applicant is justified in 
obtaining this approval, and a description of the cooperative breeding 
program requested for the exotic bird species, including:

[[Page 84]]

    (i) A breeding protocol, including a genetic management plan and 
breeding methods;
    (ii) A statement on the plans for developing and maintaining a self-
sustaining population in captivity of the exotic bird species;
    (iii) Details on the system of recordkeeping and tracking of birds 
and their progeny, including how individual specimens will be marked or 
otherwise identified;
    (iv) A statement on the relationship of such a breeding program to 
the conservation of the exotic bird species in the world;
    (v) Details on the funding of this program; and
    (vi) Plans for disposition of the exotic birds and any progeny;
    (3) A qualification statement for each individual who will be 
overseeing the cooperative breeding program. This statement should 
include information on the individual's prior experience with the same 
or similar bird species. Individuals overseeing the program will be 
required to demonstrate an affiliation with an avicultural, 
conservation, or zoological organization;
    (4) A statement of the oversight of the program by the avicultural, 
zoological, or conservation organization, including their monitoring of 
participation in the program, criteria for acceptance of individuals 
into the program, and the relationship of the cooperative breeding 
program to enhancing the propagation and survival of the species; and
    (5) A history of the cooperative breeding program, including an 
annual report for the last 3 years (if applicable), mortality records, 
breeding records, and a studbook if one has been developed for the 
species.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a cooperative breeding program should be approved. In 
making this decision, the Director shall consider, in addition to the 
general criteria in part 13 of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the cooperative breeding program for which the approval 
is requested is adequate to justify removing the exotic bird from the 
wild or otherwise changing its status;
    (2) Whether the granting of this approval would be detrimental to 
the survival of the exotic bird species in the wild, including whether 
the exotic birds were bred in captivity or will be taken from the wild, 
taking into consideration the conservation status of the species in the 
wild;
    (3) Whether the granting of this approval would conflict with any 
known program intended to enhance the survival of the population from 
which the exotic bird species was or would be removed;
    (4) Whether the cooperative breeding program for which the permit is 
requested would be likely to enhance or promote the conservation of the 
exotic bird species in the wild or result in a self-sustaining 
population of the exotic bird species in captivity; and
    (5) Whether the expertise or other resources available to the 
program appear adequate to successfully accomplish the objectives stated 
in the application.
    (c) Publication in the Federal Register. The Director shall publish 
notice in the Federal Register of each application submitted under 
Sec. 15.26(a). Each notice shall invite the submission from interested 
parties of written data, views, or arguments with respect to the 
application. The Director shall publish periodically a notice as 
appropriate in the Federal Register of the list of approved cooperative 
breeding programs.
    (d) Approval conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every approval issued under this 
paragraph shall be subject to the special condition that the cooperative 
breeding program shall maintain records of all birds imported under 
permits issued under this subpart and their progeny, including their 
sale or transfer, death, or escape, and breeding success. These records 
shall be made available to the Service on request and when renewing an 
approval.
    (e) Duration of approval. Cooperative breeding programs shall be 
approved for two years, at which time applicants may apply to the 
Service for renewal of a program's approval. Applications for

[[Page 85]]

renewal of approval shall comply with the general conditions set forth 
in part 13 of this subchapter.



  Subpart D--Approved List of Species Listed in the Appendices to the 
                               Convention.

    Source: 59 FR 62262, Dec. 2, 1994, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 15.31  Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred 
exotic bird species in paragraph 15.33(a), for which importation into 
the United States is approved. Any exotic bird species listed in 
paragraph 15.33(a) pursuant to this section must meet all of the 
following criteria:
    (a) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or 
illegal) are captive-bred;
    (b) No specimens of the species are known to be removed from the 
wild for commercial purposes;
    (c) Any importation of specimens of the species would not be 
detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild; and
    (d) Adequate enforcement controls are in place to ensure compliance 
with paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section.



Sec. 15.32  Criteria for including species in the approved list for non-captive-bred species.

    Upon receipt of a completed sustainable use management plan for a 
country of export, the Director may approve a species listed in 
Appendices II or III of the Convention for importation from that 
country. Such approval shall be granted in accordance with the issuance 
criteria of this section. All approved species and countries of export 
will be listed in section 15.33.
    (a) Requirements for scientifically-based sustainable use management 
plans. Sustainable use management plans developed by the country of 
export should be submitted for species which breed in the country of 
export. If the species does not breed in the country of export, the 
Service will consider sustainable use management plans only when the 
plan is scientifically valid and nesting (breeding) information can be 
provided from countries in which the species breeds. Sustainable use 
management plans shall include the following information, and any other 
information that may be appropriate:
    (1) Background information, including the following:
    (i) The scientific and common name of the species;
    (ii) Letters from the country of export's Management and Scientific 
Authorities transmitting the management plan of this species;
    (iii) A summary of the country of export's legislation related to 
this species and legislation implementing the Convention, and, where 
appropriate, a summary of implementing regulations;
    (iv) A summary, from the country of export's Management Authority, 
of the country's infrastructure and law enforcement and monitoring 
mechanisms designed to ensure both enforcement of and compliance with 
the requirements of the management plan, and that the number of birds 
removed from the wild or exported will be consistent with the management 
plan;
    (v) Recent information on the distribution of the species within the 
country of export, including scientific references and maps, and 
historical information on distributions, if relevant; and
    (vi) The species' status and its current population trend in the 
country of export, including scientific references and copies of the 
most recent non-detriment findings made by the exporting country's 
Scientific Authority.
    (2) Habitat information, including:
    (i) A general description of habitats used by the species for each 
portion of the life cycle completed within the country of export;
    (ii) Recent information on the size and distribution of these 
habitats throughout the country of export and in each area or region of 
take, including scientific references and maps. The approximate location 
of any reserves that provide protection for this species should be 
indicated on the accompanying map(s), along with a brief description of 
how reserves are protected and how that protection is enforced;

[[Page 86]]

    (iii) Status and trends of the important habitats used by the 
species in the country of export as a whole whenever available and 
within each area or region of take, including scientific references;
    (iv) Factors, including management activities, favoring or 
threatening the species' habitat in the foreseeable future within each 
area or region of take, and throughout the country of export whenever 
available, including scientific references; and
    (v) A list of management plans that have been or are being planned, 
developed, or implemented for the species' important habitats, if any.
    (3) Information on the role of the species in its ecosystem, 
including:
    (i) A description of the part(s) of the species' life cycle 
completed within the country of export;
    (ii) A description of nest sites and/or plant communities that are 
most frequently used for placement of nests and, if applicable, nesting 
habits;
    (iii) A general description of the species' diet and where the 
species forages (aerial feeder, tree canopy, tree trunk, midstory, 
understory, open water or other), and seasonal changes in foraging 
habits, including, when available, scientific references; and
    (iv) Information on any species or plant community which is 
dependent on the occurrence of the exotic bird species.
    (4) Population dynamics of the species, including:
    (i) Recent population data for the population of the species in the 
country of export, as derived from indices of relative abundance or 
population estimates, along with documentation for each estimate;
    (ii) Within each area or region of take, documentation for recent 
population data or estimates, conducted for at least 3 separate years or 
1 year with a description of survey plans for future years. These 
population assessments should have been conducted during the same season 
(breeding or non-breeding) of each year for which documentation is 
submitted (i.e., be methodologically comparable--both temporally and 
spatially);
    (iii) Within each area or region of take, a scientific assessment 
(with documentation) of recent reproductive (nesting) success. This 
assessment should include information on the number of young produced 
per egg-laying female per year or per nesting pair, or if scientifically 
appropriate for the species to be exported, estimates on the number of 
young produced per year from pre-breeding and post-breeding surveys 
conducted within the same annual cycle;
    (iv) Within each area or region of take, estimation (with 
documentation) of annual mortality or loss including natural mortality 
and take for subsistence use, export trade, and domestic trade in each 
area of take; or
    (v) When appropriate, information (with documentation) on the number 
of young which can be taken from the area, as a result of a conservation 
enhancement program.
    (5) Determination of biologically sustainable use:
    (i) Estimation of the number exported from the country during the 
past 2 years, and the number of birds removed from the wild for export, 
domestic trade, illegal trade, subsistence use, and other purposes 
(specify) for the country of export during the past 2 years;
    (ii) The estimated number of birds that will be removed from the 
wild from each area of take each year for all purposes (export trade, 
domestic trade, illegal trade, and subsistence use), including a 
description of age-classes (nestlings, fledglings, sub-adults, adults, 
all classes), when applicable;
    (iii) For the projected take addressed in the management plan, a 
description of the removal process, including, but not limited to, 
locations, time of year, capture methods, means of transport, and pre-
export conditioning;
    (iv) Documentation of how each projected level of take was 
determined;
    (v) Explanation of infrastructure and law enforcement and monitoring 
mechanisms that ensure compliance with the methodology in the management 
plan and that the species will be removed at a level that ensures 
sustainable use; and
    (vi) Description of how species in each area or region of take will 
be monitored in order to determine

[[Page 87]]

whether the number and age classes of birds taken is sustainable.
    (6)(i) For species that are considered ``pests'' in the country of 
origin: documentation that such a species is a pest, including a 
description of the type of pest,--e.g., agricultural, disease carrier; a 
description of the damage the pest species causes to its ecosystem; and 
a description of how the sustainable use management plan controls 
population levels of the pest species.
    (ii) For non-pest species: A description of how the sustainable use 
management plan promotes the value of the species and its habitats. 
Incentives for conservation may be generated by environmental education, 
cooperative efforts or projects, development of cooperative management 
units, and/or activities involving local communities.
    (7) Additional factors:
    (i) Description of any existing enhancement activities developed for 
the species, including, but not limited to, annual banding programs, 
nest watching/guarding, and nest improvement; and
    (ii) Description, including photographs or diagrams, of the shipping 
methods and enclosures proposed to be used to transport the exotic 
birds, including but not limited to feeding and care during transport, 
densities of birds in shipping enclosures, and estimated consignment 
sizes.
    (b) Approval criteria. Upon receiving a sustainable use management 
plan in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not an exotic bird species should be listed as an 
approved species for importation from the country of export, under 
section 15.33. In making this decision, the Director shall consider in 
addition to the general criteria in part 13 of this subchapter, all of 
the following factors for the species:
    (1) Whether the country of export is effectively implementing the 
Convention, particularly with respect to:
    (i) Establishment of a functioning Scientific Authority;
    (ii) The requirements of Article IV of the Convention;
    (iii) Remedial measures recommended by the Parties to the Convention 
with respect to this and similar species, including recommendations of 
permanent committees of the Convention; and
    (iv) Article VIII of the Convention, including but not limited to 
establishment of legislation and infrastructure necessary to enforce the 
Convention, and submission of annual reports to the Convention's 
Secretariat;
    (2) Whether the country of export has developed a scientifically-
based management plan for the species that:
    (i) Provides for the conservation of the species and its habitat(s);
    (ii) Includes incentives for conservation unless the species is a 
documented pest species;
    (iii) Is adequately implemented and enforced;
    (iv) Ensures that the use of the species is:
    (A) Sustainable;
    (B) Maintained throughout its range at a level that is consistent 
with the species' role in its ecosystem; and
    (C) Is well above the level at which the species might become 
threatened;
    (v) Addresses illegal trade, domestic trade, subsistence use, 
disease, and habitat loss; and
    (vi) Ensures that the methods of capture, transport, and maintenance 
of the species minimize the risk of injury, damage to health, and 
inhumane treatment; and
    (3) If the species has a multi-national distribution:
    (i) Whether populations of the species in other countries in which 
it occurs will not be detrimentally affected by exports of the species 
from the country requesting approval;
    (ii) Whether factors affecting conservation of the species, 
including export from other countries, illegal trade, domestic use, or 
subsistence use are regulated throughout the range of the species so 
that recruitment and/or breeding stocks of the species will not be 
detrimentally affected by the proposed export;
    (iii) Whether the projected take and export will not detrimentally 
affect breeding populations; and
    (iv) Whether the projected take and export will not detrimentally 
affect existing enhancement activities, conservation programs, or 
enforcement efforts throughout the species' range.

[[Page 88]]

    (4) For purposes of applying the criterion in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) 
of this section, the Director may give positive consideration to plans 
wherein very conservative capture and export quotas are implemented 
prior to being able to obtain all of the biological information 
necessary for a more large-scale management plan, if the country can 
demonstrate that such conservative capture and export quotas are non-
detrimental to the species survival in the wild under the criterion in 
paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section.
    (c) Publication in the Federal Register. The Director shall publish 
notice in the Federal Register of the availability of each complete 
sustainable use management plan received under paragraph (a) of this 
section. Each notice shall invite the submission from interested parties 
of written data, views, or arguments with respect to the proposed 
approval.
    (d) Duration of approval. A species and country of export listed in 
section 15.33 as approved shall be approved for 3 years, at which time 
renewal of approval shall be considered by the Service.

[61 FR 2091, Jan. 24, 1996]



Sec. 15.33  Species included in the approved list.

    (a) Captive-bred species. The list in this paragraph includes 
species of captive-bred exotic birds for which importation into the 
United States is not prohibited by section 15.11. The species are 
grouped taxonomically by order.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                Species                            Common name
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Order Falconiiformes:
    Buteo buteo........................  Common European buzzard.
Order Columbiformes:
    Columba livia......................  Rock dove.
Order Psittaciformes:
    Agapornis personata................  Masked lovebird.
    Agapornis roseicollis..............  Peach-faced lovebird.
    Aratinga jandaya...................  Jendaya conure.
    Barnardius barnardi................  Mallee ringneck parrot.
    Bolborhynchus lineola (blue form)..  Lineolated parakeet (blue
                                          form).
    Bolborhynchus lineola (yellow form)  Lineolated parakeet (yellow
                                          form).
    Bolborhynchus lineola (white form).  Lineolated parakeet (white
                                          form).
    Cyanoramphus auriceps..............  Yellow-fronted Parakeet.
    Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae........  Red-fronted parakeet.
    Forpus coelestis (lutino form).....  Pacific parrotlet (lutino
                                          form).
    Forpus coelestis (yellow form).....  Pacific parrotlet (yellow
                                          form).
    Forpus coelestis (blue form).......  Pacific parrotlet (blue form).
    Forpus coelestis (cinnamon form)...  Pacific parrotlet (cinnamon
                                          form).
    Melopsittacus undulatus............  Budgerigar.
    Neophema bourkii...................  Bourke's parrot.
    Neophema chrysostoma...............  Blue-winged Parrot.
    Neophema elegans...................  Elegant Parrot.
    Neophema pulchella \1\.............  Turquoise parrot.
    Neophema splendida \1\.............  Scarlet-chested parrot.
    Nymphicus hollandicus..............  Cockatiel.
    Platycercus adelaide...............  Adelaide rosella.
    Platycercus adscitus...............  Pale-headed rosella.
    Platycercus elegans................  Crimson rosella.
    Platycercus eximius................  Eastern rosella
    Platycercus icterotis..............  Western (stanley) rosella.
    Platycercus venustus...............  Northern rosella.
    Polytelis alexandrae...............  Princess parrot.
    Polytelis anthopeplus..............  Regent parrot.
    Polytelis swainsonii...............  Superb parrot.
    Psephotus chrysopterygius \1\......  Golden-shouldered parakeet.
    Psephotus haematonotus.............  Red-rumped parakeet.
    Psephotus varius...................  Mulga parakeet.
    Psittacula eupatria (blue form)....  Alexandrine parakeet (blue
                                          form).
    Psittacula eupatria (lutino form)..  Alexandrine parakeet (lutino
                                          form).
    Psittacula krameri manillensis.....  Indian ringneck parakeet.
    Purpureicephalus spurius...........  Red-capped parrot.
    Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus......  Scaly-breasted lorikeet.
Order Passeriformes:
    Aegintha temporalis................  Red-browed Finch.
    Aidemosyne modesta.................  Cherry Finch.
    Chloebia gouldiae..................  Gouldian finch.
    Emblema guttata....................  Diamond Sparrow.

[[Page 89]]

 
    Emblema picta......................  Painted finch.
    Lonchura castaneothorax............  Chestnut-breasted finch.
    Lonchura domestica.................  Society (=Bengalese) finch.
    Lonchura pectoralis................  Pictorella finch.
    Neochmia ruficauda.................  Star finch.
    Poephila acuticauda................  Long-tailed grassfinch.
    Poephila bichenovii................  Double-barred finch.
    Poephila cincta....................  Parson finch.
    Poephila guttata...................  Zebra finch.
    Poephila personata.................  Masked finch.
    Serinus canaria....................  Common Canary.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Note: Permits are still required for these species under part 17
  (species listed as endangered or threatened under the Endangered
  Species Act (ESA)) of this chapter.

    (b) Non-captive-bred species. The list in this paragraph includes 
species of non-captive-bred exotic birds and countries for which 
importation into the United States is not prohibited by section 15.11. 
The species are grouped taxonomically by order, and may only be imported 
from the approved country, except as provided under a permit issued 
pursuant to subpart C of this part.

[59 FR 62262, Dec. 2, 1994, as amended at 61 FR 2093, Jan. 24, 1996]



   Subpart E--Qualifying Facilities Breeding Exotic Birds in Captivity



Sec. 15.41  Criteria for including facilities as qualifying for imports. [Reserved]



Sec. 15.42  List of foreign qualifying breeding facilities. [Reserved]



 Subpart F--List of Prohibited Species Not Listed in the Appendices to 
                             the Convention



Sec. 15.51  Criteria for including species and countries in the prohibited list. [Reserved]



Sec. 15.52  Species included in the prohibited list. [Reserved]



Sec. 15.53  Countries of export included in the prohibited list. [Reserved]



PART 16--INJURIOUS WILDLIFE--Table of Contents




                         Subpart A--Introduction

Sec.
16.1  Purpose of regulations.
16.2  Scope of regulations.
16.3  General restrictions.

        Subpart B--Importation or Shipment of Injurious Wildlife

16.11  Importation of live wild mammals.
16.12  Importation of live wild birds or their eggs.
16.13  Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or 
          their eggs.
16.14  Importation of live amphibians or their eggs.
16.15  Importation of live reptiles or their eggs.

                           Subpart C--Permits

16.22  Injurious wildlife permits.

                    Subpart D--Additional Exemptions

16.32  Importation by Federal agencies.
16.33  Importation of natural-history specimens.

    Authority: 18 U.S.C. 42.

    Source: 39 FR 1169, Jan. 4, 1974, unless otherwise noted.



                         Subpart A--Introduction



Sec. 16.1  Purpose of regulations.

    The regulations contained in this part implement the Lacey Act (18 
U.S.C. 42).



Sec. 16.2  Scope of regulations.

    The provisions of this part are in addition to, and are not in lieu 
of, other regulations of this subchapter B which may require a permit or 
prescribe additional restrictions or conditions for the importation, 
exportation, and interstate transportation of wildlife (see also part 
13).



Sec. 16.3  General restrictions.

    Any importation or transportation of live wildlife or eggs thereof, 
or dead fish or eggs or salmonids of the fish

[[Page 90]]

family Salmonidae into the United States or its territories or 
possessions is deemed to be injurious or potentially injurious to the 
health and welfare of human beings, to the interest of forestry, 
agriculture, and horticulture, and to the welfare and survival of the 
wildlife or wildlife resources of the United States; and any such 
importation into or the transportation of live wildlife or eggs thereof 
between the continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, 
the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the 
United States by any means whatsoever, is prohibited except for certain 
purposes and under certain conditions as hereinafter provided in this 
part: Provided, That the provisions of this section shall not apply to 
psittacine birds (see also Secs. 16.32 and 16.33 for other exemptions).



        Subpart B--Importation or Shipment of Injurious Wildlife



Sec. 16.11  Importation of live wild mammals.

    (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of 
live specimens of: (1) Any species of so-called ``flying fox'' or fruit 
bat of the genus Pteropus; (2) any species of mongoose or meerkat of the 
genera Atilax, Cynictis, Helogale, Herpestes, Ichneumia, Mungos, and 
Suricata; (3) any species of European rabbit of the genus Oryctolagus; 
(4) any species of Indian wild dog, red dog, or dhole of the genus Cuon; 
(5) any species of multimammate rat or mouse of the genus Mastomys; and 
(6) any raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides: Provided, that the 
Director shall issue permits authorizing the importation, 
transportation, and possession of such mammals under the terms and 
conditions set forth in Sec. 16.22.
    (b) Upon the filing of a written declaration with the District 
Director of Customs at the port of entry as required under Sec. 14.61, 
all other species of live wild mammals may be imported, transported, and 
possessed in captivity, without a permit, for scientific, medical, 
educational, exhibition, or propagating purposes, but no such live wild 
mammals or any progeny thereof may be released into the wild except by 
the State wildlife conservation agency having jurisdiction over the area 
of release or by persons having prior written permission for release 
from such agency: Provided, That the provisions of this paragraph shall 
not apply to live game mammals from Mexico, the importation of which is 
governed by regulations under part 14 of this chapter.

[39 FR 1169, Jan. 4, 1974, as amended at 47 FR 56362, Dec. 16, 1982]



Sec. 16.12  Importation of live wild birds or their eggs.

    (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of 
any live specimen or egg of (1) the species of so-called ``pink 
starling'' or ``rosy pastor'' Sturnus roseus; (2) the species of dioch 
(including the subspecies black-fronted, red-billed, or Sudan dioch) 
Quelea quelea; (3) any species of Java sparrow, Padda oryzivora; (4) the 
species of red-whiskered bul-bul, Pycnonotus jocosus: Provided, That the 
Director shall issue permits authorizing the importation, 
transportation, and possession of such live birds under the terms and 
conditions set forth in Sec. 16.22.
    (b) Upon the filing of a written declaration with the District 
Director of Customs at the port of entry as required under Sec. 14.61, 
all species of live wild game, birds may be imported, transported, and 
possessed in captivity, without a permit, for scientific, medical, 
educational, exhibition, or propagating purposes, and the eggs of such 
birds may be imported, transported, and possessed, without a permit, for 
propagating or scientific collection purposes, but no such live wild 
game birds or any progeny thereof may be released into the wild except 
by the State wildlife conservation agency having jurisdiction over the 
area of release or by persons having prior written permission for 
release from such agency.
    (c) Upon the filing of a written declaration with the District 
Director of Customs at the port of entry as required under Sec. 14.61, 
all species of live, wild nongame birds (other than those listed in 
paragraph (a) of this section) may be imported, transported, and 
possessed in captivity, without a permit,

[[Page 91]]

for scientific, medical, educational, exhibition, or propagating 
purposes, but no such live, wild nongame birds or any progeny thereof 
may be released into the wild except by or under the direction of State 
wildlife conservation agencies when such agencies have received prior 
written permission from the Director for such release: Provided, That 
the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to live bald and golden 
eagles or to live migratory birds, the importation of which is governed 
by regulations under parts 22 and 21 of this chapter, respectively, or 
to birds of the Family Psittacidae (parrots, macaws, cockatoos, 
parakeets, lories, lovebirds, etc.), the importation and transportation 
of which is governed by U.S. Public Health Service regulations under 42 
CFR parts 71 and 72.
    (d) The importation of the eggs of wild nongame birds is prohibited 
except as permitted under Sec. 16.33.



Sec. 16.13  Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their eggs.

    (a) Upon an exporter filing a written declaration with the District 
Director of Customs at the port of entry as required under Sec. 14.61 of 
this chapter, live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or parts 
thereof, or their gametes or fertilized eggs, may be imported, 
transported, and possessed in captivity without a permit except as 
follows:
    (1) No such live fish, mollusks, crustacean, or any progency or eggs 
thereof may be released into the wild except by the State wildlife 
conservation agency having jurisdiction over the area of release or by 
persons having prior written permission from such agency.
    (2) The importation, transportation, or acquisition of any live fish 
or viable eggs of the walking catfish, family Clariidae, and live mitten 
crabs, genus Eriocheir, or their viable eggs, is prohibited except as 
provided under the terms and conditions set forth in Sec. 16.22.
    (3) Notwithstanding Sec. 16.32, all Federal agencies shall be 
subject to the requirements stated within this section. Live or dead 
uneviscerated salmonid fish (family Salmonidae), live fertilized eggs, 
or gametes of salmonid fish are prohibited entry into the United States 
for any purpose except by direct shipment accompanied by a certification 
that: as defined in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the fish lots, 
from which the shipments originated, have been sampled; virus assays 
have been conducted on the samples according to methods described in 
paragraphs (e)(2) through (4); of this section; and Oncorhynchus masou 
virus and the viruses causing viral hemorrhagic septicemia, infectious 
hematopoietic necrosis, and infectious pancreatic necrosis have not been 
detected in the fish stocks from which the samples were taken. In 
addition, live salmonid fish can be imported into the United States only 
upon written approval from the Director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service.
    (4) All live fish eggs of salmonid fish must be disinfected within 
24 hours prior to shipment to the United States. Disinfection shall be 
accomplished by immersion for 15 minutes in a 75 part per million 
(titratable active iodine) non-detergent solution of 
polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (iodophor) buffered to a pH of 6.0 to 7.0. 
Following disinfection, the eggs shall be rinsed and maintained in water 
free of fish pathogens until packed and shipped. Any ice or water used 
for shipping shall be from pathogen-free water.
    (b)(1) The certification to accompany importations as required by 
this section shall consist of a statement in the English language, 
printed or typewritten, stating that this shipment of dead uneviscerated 
salmonid fish, live salmonid fish, or live, disinfected fertilized eggs 
or gametes of salmonid fish has been tested, by the methods outlined in 
this section, and none of the listed viruses were detected. The 
certification shall be signed in the country of origin by a qualified 
fish pathologist designated as a certifying official by the Director.
    (2) The certification must contain:
    (i) The date and port of export in the country of origin and the 
anticipated date of arrival in the United States and port of entry;
    (ii) Surface vessel name or number or air carrier and flight number;
    (iii) Bill of lading number or airway bill number;

[[Page 92]]

    (iv) The date and location where fish, tissue, or fluid samples were 
collected;
    (v) The date and location where virus assays were completed; and
    (vi) The original handwritten signature, in ink, of the certifying 
official and his or her address and telephone number.
    (3) Certification may be substantially in the following form:

    I, ________, designated by the Director of the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service on ________ (date), as a certifying official for 
________ (country), as required by Title 50, CFR 16.13, do hereby 
certify that the fish lot(s) of origin for this shipment of ________ 
(weight in kilograms) dead uneviscerated salmonid fish, live salmonid 
fish, live salmonid fish eggs disinfected as described in Sec. 16.13, or 
live salmonid gametes to be shipped under ________ (bill of lading 
number or airway bill number), were sampled at ________ (location of 
fish facility) on ________ (sampling date) and the required viral assays 
were completed on ________ (date assays were completed) at ________ 
(location where assays were conducted) using the methodology described 
in Sec. 16.13. I further certify that Oncorhynchus masou virus and the 
viruses causing viral hemorrhagic septicemia, infectious hematopoietic 
necrosis, and infectious pancreatic necrosis have not been detected in 
viral assays of the fish lot(s) of origin.
    The shipment is scheduled to depart ________ (city and country) on 
________ (date), via ________ (name of carrier) with anticipated arrival 
at the port of ________ (city), U.S.A., on ________ (date).

_______________________________________________________________________
(Signature in ink of certifying official)

_______________________________________________________________________
(Printed name of certifying official)
Date:___________________________________________________________________
Organization employing certifying official:_____________________________
Mailing address:________________________________________________________
City:___________________________________________________________________
State/Province:_________________________________________________________
Zip Code/Mail Code:_____________________________________________________
Country:________________________________________________________________
Office telephone number: International code_____________________________
Telephone number________________________________________________________
Fax number______________________________________________________________

    (c) Nothing in this part shall restrict the importation and 
transportation of dead salmonid fish when such fish have been 
eviscerated (all internal organs removed, gills may remain) or filleted 
or when such fish or eggs have been processed by canning, pickling, 
smoking, or otherwise prepared in a manner whereby the Oncorhynchus 
masou virus and the viruses causing viral hemorrhagic septicemia, 
infectious hematopoietic necrosis, and infectious pancreatic necrosis 
have been killed.
    (d) Any fish caught in the wild in North America under a valid sport 
or commercial fishing license shall be exempt from sampling and 
certification requirements and from filing the Declaration for 
Importation of Wildlife. The Director may enter into formal agreements 
allowing the importation of gametes, fertilized eggs, live fish, or 
dead, uneviscerated fish without inspection and certification of 
pathogen status, if the exporting Nation has an acceptable program of 
inspection and pathogen control in operation, can document the 
occurrence and distribution of fish pathogens within its boundaries, and 
can demonstrate that importation of salmonid fishes into the United 
States from that National will not pose a substantial risk to the public 
and private fish stocks of the United States.
    (e) Fish sampling requirements, sample processing, and methods for 
virus assays--(1) Fish sampling requirements. (i) Sampling for virus 
assays required by this section must be conducted within the six (6) 
months prior to the date of shipment of dead uneviscerated salmonid 
fish, live salmonid fish, live salmonid eggs, or salmonid gametes to the 
United States. Sampling shall be on a lot-by-lot basis with the samples 
from each lot distinctively marked, maintained, and processed for virus 
assay separately. A fish lot is defined as a group of fish of the same 
species and age that originated from the same discrete spawning 
population and that always have shared a common water supply. In the 
case of adult broodstock, various age groups of the same fish species 
may be sampled as a single lot, provided they meet the other conditions 
previously stated and have shared the same container(s) for at least 1 
year prior to the sampling date.
    (ii) In a sample, or sub-sample of a given lot, collection of 10 or 
more moribund fish shall be given first preference. The remainder of 
fish required for collection shall be randomly selected live fish from 
all containers occupied by the lot being sampled. Moribund fish shall be 
collected and processed separately from randomly selected fish. In the 
event the sample is

[[Page 93]]

taken from adult broodstock of different ages that share the same 
container, first preference shall be given to collecting samples from 
the older fish.
    (iii) The minimum sample numbers collected from each lot must be in 
accordance with a plan that provides 95 percent confidence that at least 
one fish, with a detectable level of infection, will be collected and 
will be present in the sample if the assumed minimum prevalence of 
infection equals or exceeds 2 percent. A total of 150 fish collected 
proportionately from among all containers shared by the lot usually 
meets this requirement. A sampling strategy based on a presumed pathogen 
prevalence of 5 percent (60 fish) may be used to meet sampling 
requirements for shipments of gametes, fertilized eggs, or uneviscerated 
dead fish; provided that in the previous 2 years no disease outbreaks 
caused by a pathogen of concern have occurred at the facility from which 
the shipment originated and all stocks held at the facility have been 
inspected at least four times during that period (at intervals of 
approximately 6 months) and no pathogens of concern detected.
    (iv) Fish must be alive when collected and processed within 48 hours 
after collection. Tissue and fluid samples shall be stored in sealed, 
aseptic containers and kept at 4 deg. Celsius (C.) or on ice but not 
frozen.
    (v) Tissue collection shall be as follows:
    (A) Sac Fry and fry to 4 centimeter (cm): Assay entire fish. If 
present, remove the yolk sac.
    (B) Fish 4-6 cm: Assay entire visceral mass including kidney.
    (C) Fish longer than 6 cm: Assay kidney and spleen in approximately 
equal weight proportions.
    (D) Spawning adult broodstock: Assay kidney and spleen tissues from 
males and/or females and ovarian fluid from females. Ovarian fluid may 
comprise up to 50 percent of the samples collected.
    (2) General sample processing requirements. (i) Ovarian fluid 
samples shall be collected from each spawning female separately. All 
samples from individual fish shall be measured to ensure that similar 
quantities from each fish are combined if samples are pooled. Ovarian 
fluid samples from no more than five fish may be combined to form a 
pool.
    (ii) Whole fry (less yolk sacs), viscera, and kidney and spleen 
tissues from no more than five fish may be similarly pooled.
    (iii) Antibiotics and antifungal agents may be added to ovarian 
fluid or tissue samples to control microbial contaminant growth at the 
time of sample collection. Final concentrations shall not exceed 200-500 
micrograms/milliliter ( g/ml) of Gentamycin, 800 international 
units/milliliter (IU/ml) of penicillin, or 800  g/ml of 
streptomycin. Antifungal agent concentrations should not exceed 200 IU/
ml of mycostatin (Nystatin) of 20  g/ml of amphotericin B 
(Fungizone).
    (iv) Sample temperature must be maintained between 4 at 15  deg.C. 
during processing. Use separate sets of sterile homogenization and 
processing equipment to process fluids or tissues from each fish lot 
sampled. Processing equipment need not be sterilized between samples 
within a single lot.
    (v) Homogenized tissue samples may be diluted 1:10 with buffered 
cell culture medium (pH 7.4-7.8) containing antibiotics and antifungal 
agents not exceeding the concentrations described in paragraph 
(e)(2)(iii) of this section. Centrifuge tissue suspensions and ovarian 
fluid samples 4  deg.C. at 2,500  x  gravity (g) (relative centrifugal 
force) for 15 minutes. Resulting supernatant solutions can be stored 
overnight at 4  deg.C.
    (vi) At the time of inoculation onto cell cultures, total dilution 
of processed tissue samples must not exceed 1:100 ((volume to volume) 
(v/v)); total dilution of ovarian fluid samples must not exceed 1:20 (v/
v). In samples inoculated onto cell cultures, the final antibiotic 
concentration shall not exceed 100  g/ml of Gentamicin, 100 IU/
ml of penicillin, or 100  g/ml of streptomycin and antifungal 
agent concentrations should not exceed 25 IU/ml of mycostatin (Nystatin) 
or 2.5  g/ml of amphotericin B (Fungizone).
    (3) Cell culture procedures. (i) Both epithelioma papulosum cyprini 
(EPC) and chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell lines must be maintained 
and used in all virus assays. Susceptible,

[[Page 94]]

normal appearing, and rapidly dividing cell cultures shall be selected. 
Penicillin (100 IU/ml), streptomycin (100  g/ml), and 
antifungal agents, such as mycostatin/Nystatin (25 IU/ml) or 
amphotericin B/Fungizone (2.5  g/ml), are permitted in media 
used for cell culture and virus assay work.
    (ii) Cell cultures shall be seeded and grown, at optimum 
temperatures, to 80-90 percent confluence in 24-well plates for virus 
assay work.
    (iii) Decant the medium from the required number of 24-well plates 
of each cell line, and inoculate four replicate wells per cell line with 
.10 ml per well of each processed sample. When all wells have been 
inoculated, tilt plates to spread the inocula evenly. Incubate 
inoculated plates for 1 hour at 15 deg. C. for sample contact. After the 
1 hour contact add cell culture medium. Medium shall be buffered or 
cells incubated so that a pH between 7.4 and 7.8 is maintained. All cell 
culture assays shall be incubated, without overlays, at 15 deg.C. for 21 
days.
    (4) Virus identification by serological methods. All cell cultures 
showing cytopathic effects (CPE) must be sub-cultured onto fresh cell 
cultures. If CPE is observed, determine the presence and identity the 
virus by serum neutralization, dot blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent 
assay, or other equivalent serological technique.
    (f) Information concerning the importation requirements of this 
section and application requirements for designation as a certifying 
official for purposes of this section may be obtained by contacting: 
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Division of Fish Hatcheries (820 Arlington Square), 1849 C Street, NW., 
Washington, DC 20240. Telephone 703-358-1878.
    (g) The information collection requirements contained in this part 
have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 
U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and assigned clearance number 1018-0078. The 
information is being collected to inform U.S. Customs and USFWS 
inspectors of the contents, origin, routing, and destination of fish and 
eggs shipments and to certify that the fish lots were inspected for 
listed pathogens. The information will be used to protect the health of 
the fishery resource. Response is required to obtain a benefit.

[58 FR 58979, Nov. 5, 1993]



Sec. 16.14  Importation of live amphibians or their eggs.

    Upon the filing of a written declaration with the District Director 
of Customs at the port of entry as required under Sec. 14.61, all 
species of live amphibians or their eggs may be imported, transported, 
and possessed in captivity, without a permit, for scientific, medical, 
education, exhibition, or propagating purposes, but no such live 
amphibians or any progeny or eggs thereof may be released into the wild 
except by the State wildlife conservation agency having jurisdiction 
over the area of release or by persons having prior written permission 
for release from such agency.



Sec. 16.15  Importation of live reptiles or their eggs.

    (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of 
any live specimen or egg of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis): 
Provided, that the Director shall issue permits authorizing the 
importation, transportation, and possession of such live snakes or 
viable eggs under the terms and conditions set forth in Sec. 16.22.
    (b) Upon the filing of a written declaration with the District 
Director of Customs at the port of entry as required under Sec. 14.61, 
all other species of live reptiles or their eggs may be imported, 
transported, and possessed in captivity, without a permit, for 
scientific, medical, educational, exhibitional or propagating purposes, 
but no such live reptiles or any progency or eggs thereof may be 
released into the wild except by the State wildlife conservation agency 
having jurisdiction over the area of release or by persons having prior 
written permission for release from such agency.

[55 FR 17441, Apr. 25, 1990]

[[Page 95]]



                           Subpart C--Permits



Sec. 16.22  Injurious wildlife permits.

    The Director may, upon receipt of an application and in accordance 
with the issuance criteria of this section, issue a permit authorizing 
the importation into or shipment between the continental United States, 
the District of Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or 
any possession of the United States of injurious wildlife (See subpart B 
of this part) for zoological, educational, medical, or scientific 
purposes.
    (a) Application requirements. Submit applications for permits to 
import, transport or acquire injurious wildlife for such purposes to the 
Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, (Attention: Office of 
Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 700, Arlington, VA 
22203. Submit applications in writing on a Federal Fish and Wildlife 
License/Permit application (Form 3-200) and attach all of the following 
information:
    (1) The number of specimens and the common and scientific names 
(genus and species) of each species of live wildlife proposed to be 
imported or otherwise acquired, transported and possessed;
    (2) The purpose of such importation or other acquisition, 
transportation and possession;
    (3) The address of the premises where such live wildlife will be 
kept in captivity;
    (4) A statement of the applicant's qualifications and previous 
experience in caring for and handling captive wildlife.
    (b) Additional permit conditions. In addition to the general 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter B, permits to import 
or ship injurious wildlife for zoological, educational, medical, or 
scientific purposes shall be subject to the following conditions:
    (1) All live wildlife acquired under permit and all progeny thereof, 
must be confined in the approved facilities on the premises authorized 
in the permit.
    (2) No live wildlife, acquired under permit, or any eggs or progeny 
thereof, may be sold, donated, traded, loaned, or transferred to any 
other person unless such person has a permit issued by the Director 
under Sec. 16.22 authorizing him to acquire and possess such wildlife or 
the eggs or progeny thereof.
    (3) Permittees shall notify the nearest Special Agent-in-Charge (see 
Sec. 10.22 of this chapter) by telephone or other expedient means within 
24 hours following the escape of any wildlife imported or transported 
under authority of a permit issued under this section, or the escape of 
any progeny of such wildlife, unless otherwise specifically exempted by 
terms of the permit.
    (c) Issuance criteria. The Director shall consider the following in 
determining whether to issue a permit to import or ship injurious 
wildlife for zoological, educational, medical, or scientific purposes:
    (1) Whether the wildlife is being imported or otherwise acquired for 
a bona fide scientific, medical, educational, or zoological exhibition 
purpose;
    (2) Whether the facilities for holding the wildlife in captivity 
have been inspected and approved, and consist of a basic cage or 
structure of a design and material adequate to prevent escape which is 
maintained inside a building or other facility of such structure that 
the wildlife could not escape from the building or other facility after 
escaping from the cage or structure maintained therein;
    (3) Whether the applicant is a responsible person who is aware of 
the potential dangers to public interests posed by such wildlife, and 
who by reason of his knowledge, experience, and facilities reasonably 
can be expected to provide adequate protection for such public 
interests; and
    (4) If such wildlife is to be imported or otherwise acquired for 
zoological or aquarium exhibition purposes, whether such exhibition or 
display will be open to the public during regular appropriate hours.
    (d) The Office of Management and Budget approved the information 
collection requirements contained in this part 16 under 44 U.S.C. 3507 
and assigned OMB Control Number 1018-0093. The Service may not conduct 
or sponsor, and you are not required to respond to, a collection of 
information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. We 
are collecting

[[Page 96]]

this information to provide information necessary to evaluate permit 
applications. We will use this information to review permit applications 
and make decisions, according to criteria established in various Federal 
wildlife conservation statutes and regulations, on the issuance, 
suspension, revocation, or denial of permits. You must respond to obtain 
or retain a permit. We estimate the public reporting burden for these 
reporting requirements to average 2 hours per response, including time 
for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and 
completing and reviewing the forms. Direct comments regarding the burden 
estimate or any other aspect of these reporting requirements to the 
Service Information Collection Control Officer, MS-222 ARLSQ, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 20240, or the Office of Management 
and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (1018-0093), Washington, DC 
20603.

[39 FR 1169, Jan. 4, 1974, as amended at 47 FR 30786, July 15, 1982; 63 
FR 52634, Oct. 1, 1998]



                    Subpart D--Additional Exemptions



Sec. 16.32  Importation by Federal agencies.

    Nothing in this part shall restrict the importation and 
transportation, without a permit, of any live wildlife by Federal 
agencies solely for their own use, upon the filing of a written 
declaration with the District Director of Customs at the port of entry 
as required under Sec. 14.61: Provided, That the provisions of this 
section shall not apply to bald and golden eagles or their eggs, or to 
migratory birds or their eggs, the importations of which are governed by 
regulations under parts 22 and 21 of this chapter, respectively.



Sec. 16.33  Importation of natural-history specimens.

    Nothing in this part shall restrict the importation and 
transportation, without a permit, of dead natural-history specimens of 
wildlife or their eggs for museum or scientific collection purposes: 
Provided, That the provisions of this section shall not apply to dead 
migratory birds, the importation of which is governed by regulations 
under parts 20 and 21 of this chapter; to dead game mammals from Mexico, 
the importation of which is governed by regulations under part 14 of 
this chapter; or to dead bald and golden eagles or their eggs, the 
importation of which is governed by regulations under part 22 of this 
chapter.



PART 17--ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS--Table of Contents




             Subpart A--Introduction and General Provisions

Sec.
17.1  Purpose of regulations.
17.2  Scope of regulations.
17.3  Definitions.
17.4  Pre-Act wildlife.
17.5  Alaska natives.
17.6  State cooperative agreements. [Reserved]
17.7  Raptor exemption.
17.8  Permit applications and information collection requirements.

                            Subpart B--Lists

17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.
17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

                     Subpart C--Endangered Wildlife

17.21  Prohibitions.
17.22  Permits for scientific purposes, enhancement of propagation or 
          survival, or for incidental taking.
17.23  Economic hardship permits.

                     Subpart D--Threatened Wildlife

17.31  Prohibitions.
17.32  Permits--general.
17.40  Special rules--mammals.
17.41  Special rules--birds.
17.42  Special rules--reptiles.
17.43  Special rules--amphibians.
17.44  Special rules--fishes.
17.45  Special rules--snails and clams. [Reserved]
17.46  Special rules--crustaceans.
17.47  [Reserved]
17.48  Special rules--common sponges and other forms. [Reserved]

                   Subpart E--Similarity of Appearance

17.50  General.
17.51  Treatment as endangered or threatened.
17.52  Permits--similarity of appearance.

                      Subpart F--Endangered Plants

17.61  Prohibitions.

[[Page 97]]

17.62  Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of 
          propagation or survival.
17.63  Economic hardship permits.

                      Subpart G--Threatened Plants

17.71  Prohibitions.
17.72  Permits--general.
17.73--17.78  [Reserved]

                   Subpart H--Experimental Populations

17.80  Definitions.
17.81  Listing.
17.82  Prohibitions.
17.83  Interagency cooperation.
17.84  Special rules--vertebrates.
17.85  Special rules--invertebrates. [Reserved]
17.86  Special rules--plants. [Reserved]

                   Subpart I--Interagency Cooperation

17.94  Critical habitats.
17.95  Critical habitat--fish and wildlife.
17.96  Critical habitat--plants.

                   Subpart J--Manatee Protection Areas

17.100  Purpose.
17.101  Scope.
17.102  Definitions.
17.103  Establishment of protection areas.
17.104  Prohibitions.
17.105  Permits and exceptions.
17.106  Emergency establishment of protection areas.
17.107  Facilitating enforcement.
17.108  List of designated manatee protection areas.

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1544; 16 U.S.C. 4201-
4245; Pub. L. 99-625, 100 Stat. 3500; unless otherwise noted.

    Source: 40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, unless otherwise noted.



             Subpart A--Introduction and General Provisions



Sec. 17.1  Purpose of regulations.

    (a) The regulations in this part implement the Endangered Species 
Act of 1973, 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543, except for those 
provisions in the Act concerning the Convention on International Trade 
in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, for which regulations are 
provided in part 23 of this subchapter.
    (b) The regulations identify those species of wildlife and plants 
determined by the Director to be endangered or threatened with 
extinction under section 4(a) of the Act and also carry over the species 
and subspecies of wildlife designated as endangered under the Endangered 
Species Conservation Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 275, 16 U.S.C. 668cc-1 to 6) 
which are deemed endangered species under section 4(c)(3) of the Act.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 10465, Feb. 22, 1977]



Sec. 17.2  Scope of regulations.

    (a) The regulations of this part apply only to endangered and 
threatened wildlife and plants.
    (b) By agreement between the Service and the National Marine 
Fisheries Service, the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce has 
been specifically defined to include certain species, while jurisdiction 
is shared in regard to certain other species. Such species are footnoted 
in subpart B of this part, and reference is given to special rules of 
the National Marine Fisheries Service for those species.
    (c) The provisions in this part are in addition to, and are not in 
lieu of, other regulations of this subchapter B which may require a 
permit or prescribe additional restrictions or conditions for the 
importation, exportation, and interstate transportation of wildlife.
    (d) The examples used in this part are provided solely for the 
convenience of the public, and to explain the intent and meaning of the 
regulation to which they refer. They have no legal significance.
    (e) Certain of the wildlife and plants listed in Secs. 17.11 and 
17.12 as endangered or threatened are included in Appendix I, II or III 
to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Fauna and Flora. The importation, exportation and reexportation of such 
species are subject to additional regulations provided in part 23 of 
this subchapter.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 10465, Feb. 22, 1977]



Sec. 17.3  Definitions.

    In addition to the definitions contained in part 10 of this 
subchapter, and unless the context otherwise requires, in this part 17:

[[Page 98]]

    Act means the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543; 
87 Stat. 884);
    Adequately covered means, with respect to species listed pursuant to 
section 4 of the ESA, that a proposed conservation plan has satisfied 
the permit issuance criteria under section 10(a)(2)(B) of the ESA for 
the species covered by the plan, and, with respect to unlisted species, 
that a proposed conservation plan has satisfied the permit issuance 
criteria under section 10(a)(2)(B) of the ESA that would otherwise apply 
if the unlisted species covered by the plan were actually listed. For 
the Services to cover a species under a conservation plan, it must be 
listed on the section 10(a)(1)(B) permit.
    Alaskan Native means a person defined in the Alaska Native Claims 
Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1603(b) (85 Stat. 588)) as a citizen of the 
United States who is of one-fourth degree or more Alaska Indian 
(including Tsimshian Indians enrolled or not enrolled in the Metlaktla 
Indian Community), Eskimo, or Aleut blood, or combination thereof. The 
term includes any Native, as so defined, either or both of whose 
adoptive parents are not Natives. It also includes, in the absence of 
proof of a minimum blood quantum, any citizen of the United States who 
is regarded as an Alaska Native by the Native village or town of which 
he claims to be a member and whose father or mother is (or, if deceased, 
was) regarded as Native by any Native village or Native town. Any 
citizen enrolled by the Secretary pursuant to section 5 of the Alaska 
Native Claims Settlement Act shall be conclusively presumed to be an 
Alaskan Native for purposes of this part;
    Authentic native articles of handicrafts and clothing means items 
made by an Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo which (a) were commonly produced on 
or before December 28, 1973, and (b) are composed wholly or in some 
significant respect of natural materials, and (c) are significantly 
altered from their natural form and which are produced, decorated, or 
fashioned in the exercise of traditional native handicrafts without the 
use of pantographs, multiple carvers, or similar mass copying devices. 
Improved methods of production utilizing modern implements such as 
sewing machines or modern techniques at a tannery registered pursuant to 
Sec. 18.23(c) of this subchapter (in the case of marine mammals) may be 
used so long as no large scale mass production industry results. 
Traditional native handicrafts include, but are not limited to, weaving, 
carving, stitching, sewing, lacing, beading, drawing, and painting. The 
formation of traditional native groups such as cooperatives, is 
permitted so long as no large scale mass production results;
    Bred in captivity or captive-bred refers to wildlife, including 
eggs, born or otherwise produced in captivity from parents that mated or 
otherwise transferred gametes in captivity, if reproduction is sexual, 
or from parents that were in captivity when development of the progeny 
began, if development is asexual.
    Captivity means that living wildlife is held in a controlled 
environment that is intensively manipulated by man for the purpose of 
producing wildlife of the selected species, and that has boundaries 
designed to prevent animal, eggs or gametes of the selected species from 
entering or leaving the controlled environment. General characteristics 
of captivity may include but are not limited to artificial housing, 
waste removal, health care, protection from predators, and artificially 
supplied food.
    Changed circumstances means changes in circumstances affecting a 
species or geographic area covered by a conservation plan that can 
reasonably be anticipated by plan developers and the Service and that 
can be planned for (e.g., the listing of new species, or a fire or other 
natural catastrophic event in areas prone to such events).
    Conservation plan means the plan required by section 10(a)(2)(A) of 
the ESA that an applicant must submit when applying for an incidental 
take permit. Conservation plans also are known as ``habitat conservation 
plans'' or ``HCPs.''
    Conserved habitat areas means areas explicitly designated for 
habitat restoration, acquisition, protection, or other conservation 
purposes under a conservation plan.

[[Page 99]]

    Convention means the Convention on International Trade in Endangered 
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, TIAS 8249.
    Enhance the propagation or survival, when used in reference to 
wildlife in captivity, includes but is not limited to the following 
activities when it can be shown that such activities would not be 
detrimental to the survival of wild or captive populations of the 
affected species:
    (a) Provision of health care, management of populations by culling, 
contraception, euthanasia, grouping or handling of wildlife to control 
survivorship and reproduction, and similar normal practices of animal 
husbandry needed to maintain captive populations that are self-
sustaining and that possess as much genetic vitality as possible;
    (b) Accumulation and holding of living wildlife that is not 
immediately needed or suitable for propagative or scientific purposes, 
and the transfer of such wildlife between persons in order to relieve 
crowding or other problems hindering the propagation or survival of the 
captive population at the location from which the wildlife would be 
removed; and
    (c) Exhibition of living wildlife in a manner designed to educate 
the public about the ecological role and conservation needs of the 
affected species.
    Endangered means a species of wildlife listed in Sec. 17.11 or a 
species of plant listed in Sec. 17.12 and designated as endangered.
    Harass in the definition of ``take'' in the Act means an intentional 
or negligent act or omission which creates the likelihood of injury to 
wildlife by annoying it to such an extent as to significantly disrupt 
normal behavioral patterns which include, but are not limited to, 
breeding, feeding, or sheltering. This definition, when applied to 
captive wildlife, does not include generally accepted:
    (1) Animal husbandry practices that meet or exceed the minimum 
standards for facilities and care under the Animal Welfare Act,
    (2) Breeding procedures, or
    (3) Provisions of veterinary care for confining, tranquilizing, or 
anesthetizing, when such practices, procedures, or provisions are not 
likely to to result in injury to the wildlife.
    Harm in the definition of ``take'' in the Act means an act which 
actually kills or injures wildlife. Such act may include significant 
habitat modification or degradation where it actually kills or injures 
wildlife by significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, 
including breeding, feeding or sheltering.
    Incidental taking means any taking otherwise prohibited, if such 
taking is incidental to, and not the purpose of, the carrying out of an 
otherwise lawful activity.
    Industry or trade in the definition of ``commercial activity'' in 
the Act means the actual or intended transfer of wildlife or plants from 
one person to another person in the pursuit of gain or profit;
    Native village or town means any community, association, tribe, clan 
or group;
    Operating conservation program means those conservation management 
activities which are expressly agreed upon and described in a 
conservation plan or its Implementing Agreement, if any, and which are 
to be undertaken for the affected species when implementing an approved 
conservation plan, including measures to respond to changed 
circumstances.
    Population means a group of fish or wildlife in the same taxon below 
the subspecific level, in common spatial arrangement that interbreed 
when mature;
    Properly implemented conservation plan means any conservation plan, 
Implementing Agreement and permit whose commitments and provisions have 
been or are being fully implemented by the permittee.
    Specimen means any animal or plant, or any part, product, egg, seed 
or root of any animal or plant;
    Subsistence means the use of endangered or threatened wildlife for 
food, clothing, shelter, heating, transportation and other uses 
necessary to maintain the life of the taker of the wildlife, or those 
who depend upon the taker to provide them with such subsistence, and 
includes selling any edible portions of such wildlife in native villages 
and towns in Alaska for native

[[Page 100]]

consumption within native villages and towns;
    Threatened means a species of wildlife listed in Sec. 17.11 or plant 
listed in Sec. 17.12 and designated as threatened.
    Unforeseen circumstances means changes in circumstances affecting a 
species or geographic area covered by a conservation plan that could not 
reasonably have been anticipated by plan developers and the Service at 
the time of the conservation plan's negotiation and development, and 
that result in a substantial and adverse change in the status of the 
covered species.
    Wasteful manner means any taking or method of taking which is likely 
to result in the killing or injury of endangered or threatened wildlife 
beyond those needed for subsistence purposes, or which results in the 
waste of a substantial portion of the wildlife, and includes without 
limitation the employment of a method of taking which is not likely to 
assure the capture or killing of the wildlife, or which is not 
immediately followed by a reasonable effort to retrieve the wildlife.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 28056, June 1, 1977; 
44 FR 54006, Sept. 17, 1979; 46 FR 54750, Nov. 4, 1981; 47 FR 31387, 
July 20, 1982; 50 FR 39687, Sept. 30, 1985; 63 FR 8870, Feb. 23, 1998; 
63 FR 48639, Sept. 11, 1998]



Sec. 17.4  Pre-Act wildlife.

    (a) The prohibitions defined in subparts C and D of this part 17 
shall not apply to any activity involving endangered or threatened 
wildlife which was held in captivity or in a controlled environment on 
December 28, 1973: Provided,
    (1) That the purposes of such holding were not contrary to the 
purposes of the Act; and
    (2) That the wildlife was not held in the course of a commercial 
activity.

    Example 1. On January 25, 1974, a tourist buys a stuffed hawksbill 
turtle (an endangered species listed since June, 1970), in a foreign 
country. On December 28, 1973, the stuffed turtle had been on display 
for sale. The tourist imports the stuffed turtle into the United States 
on January 26, 1974. This is a violation of the Act since the stuffed 
turtle was held for commercial purposes on December 28, 1973.
    Example 2. On December 27, 1973 (or earlier), a tourist buys a 
leopard skin coat (the leopard has been listed as endangered since March 
1972) for his wife in a foreign country. On January 5, he imports it 
into the United States. He has not committed a violation since on 
December 28, 1973, he was the owner of the coat, for personal purposes, 
and the chain of commerce had ended with the sale on the 27th. Even if 
he did not finish paying for the coat for another year, as long as he 
had possession of it, and he was not going to resell it, but was using 
it for personal purposes, the Act does not apply to that coat.
    Example 3. On or before December 28, 1973, a hunter kills a leopard 
legally in Africa. He has the leopard mounted and imports it into the 
United States in March 1974. The importation is not subject to the Act. 
The hunter has not engaged in a commercial activity, even though he 
bought the services of a guide, outfitters, and a taxidermist to help 
him take, preserve, and import the leopard. This applies even if the 
trophy was in the possession of the taxidermist on December 28, 1973.
    Example 4. On January 15, 1974, a hunter kills a leopard legally in 
Africa. He has the leopard mounted and imports it into the United States 
in June 1974. This importation is a violation of the Act since the 
leopard was not in captivity or a controlled environment on December 28, 
1973.

    (b) Service officers or Customs officers may refuse to clear 
endangered or threatened wildlife for importation into or exportation 
from the United States, pursuant to Sec. 14.53 of this subchapter, until 
the importer or exporter can demonstrate that the exemption referred to 
in this section applies. Exempt status may be established by any 
sufficient evidence, including an affidavit containing the following:
    (1) The affiant's name and address;
    (2) Identification of the affiant;
    (3) Identification of the endangered or threatened wildlife which is 
the subject of the affidavit;
    (4) A statement by the affiant that to the best of his knowledge and 
belief, the endangered or threatened wildlife which is the subject of 
the affidavit was in captivity or in a controlled environment on 
December 28, 1973, and was not being held for purposes contrary to the 
Act or in the course of a commercial activity;
    (5) A statement by the affiant in the following language:

    The foregoing is principally based on the attached exhibits which, 
to the best of my knowledge and belief, are complete, true and correct. 
I understand that this affidavit is being submitted for the purpose of 
inducing

[[Page 101]]

the Federal Government to recognize an exempt status regarding (insert 
description of wildlife), under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 
U.S.C. 1531-1543), and regulations promulgated thereunder, and that any 
false statements may subject me to the criminal penalties of 18 U.S.C. 
1001.

    (6) As an attachment, records or other available evidence to show:
    (i) That the wildlife in question was being held in captivity or in 
a controlled environment on December 28, 1973;
    (ii) The purpose for which the wildlife was being held; and
    (iii) The nature of such holding (to establish that no commercial 
activity was involved).
    (c) This section applies only to wildlife born on or prior to 
December 28, 1973. It does not apply to the progeny of any such wildlife 
born after December 28, 1973.



Sec. 17.5  Alaska natives.

    (a) The provisions of subpart C of this part relating to the 
importation or the taking of endangered wildlife, and any provision of 
subpart D of this part relating to the importation or the taking of 
threatened wildlife, shall not apply to:
    (1) Any Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo who is an Alaskan native and who 
resides in Alaska; or
    (2) Any non-native permanent resident of an Alaskan native village 
who is primarily dependent upon the taking of wildlife for consumption 
or for the creation and sale of authentic native articles of handicrafts 
and clothing:

If the taking is primarily for subsistence purposes, and is not 
accomplished in a wasteful manner.
    (b) Edible portions of endangered or threatened wildlife taken or 
imported pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may be sold in native 
villages or towns in Alaska for native consumption within native 
villages and towns in Alaska.
    (c) Non-edible by-products of endangered or threatened wildlife 
taken or imported pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may be sold 
in interstate commerce when made into authentic native articles of 
handicrafts and clothing.



Sec. 17.6  State cooperative agreements. [Reserved]



Sec. 17.7  Raptor exemption.

    (a) The prohibitions found in Secs. 17.21 and 17.31 do not apply to 
any raptor [a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or the 
Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) 
or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)] legally held in captivity or in a 
controlled environment on November 10, 1978, or to any of its progeny, 
which is:
    (1) Possessed and banded in compliance with the terms of a valid 
permit issued under part 21 of this chapter; and
    (2) Identified in the earliest applicable annual report required to 
be filed by a permittee under part 21 of this chapter as in a 
permittee's possession on November 10, 1978, or as the progeny of such a 
raptor.
    (b) This section does not apply to any raptor intentionally returned 
to the wild.

[48 FR 31607, July 8, 1983]



Sec. 17.8  Permit applications and information collection requirements.

    (a) Address permit applications for activities affecting species 
listed under the Endangered Species Act, as amended, as follows:
    (1) Address activities affecting endangered and threatened species 
that are native to the United States to the Regional Director for the 
Region in which the activity is to take place. You can find addresses 
for the Regional Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. Send applications for 
interstate commerce in native endangered and threatened species to the 
Regional Director with lead responsibility for the species. To determine 
the appropriate region, call the nearest Regional Office:

Region 1 (Portland, OR): 503-231-6241
Region 2 (Albuquerque, NM): 505-248-6920
Region 3 (Twin Cities, MN): 612-713-5343
Region 4 (Atlanta, GA): 404-679-7313
Region 5 (Hadley, MA): 413-253-8628
Region 6 (Denver, CO): 303-236-8155, ext 263
Region 7 (Anchorage, AK): 907-786-3620
Headquarters (Washington, DC): 703-358-2106

    (2) Submit permit applications for activities affecting native 
endangered and threatened species in international

[[Page 102]]

movement or commerce, and all activities affecting nonnative endangered 
and threatened species to the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
(Attention Office of Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 
700, Arlington, VA 22203.
    (b) The Office of Management and Budget approved the information 
collection requirements contained in this part 17 under 44 U.S.C. 3507 
and assigned OMB Control Numbers 1018-0093 and 1018-0094. The Service 
may not conduct or sponsor, and you are not required to respond to, a 
collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB 
control number. We are collecting this information to provide 
information necessary to evaluate permit applications. We will use this 
information to review permit applications and make decisions, according 
to criteria established in various Federal wildlife conservation 
statutes and regulations, on the issuance, suspension, revocation, or 
denial of permits. You must respond to obtain or retain a permit. We 
estimate the public reporting burden for these reporting requirements to 
vary from 2 to 2\1/2\ hours per response, including time for reviewing 
instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and 
reviewing the forms. Direct comments regarding the burden estimate or 
any other aspect of these reporting requirements to the Service 
Information Collection Control Officer, MS-222 ARLSQ, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 20240, or the Office of Management and 
Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (1018-0093/0094), Washington, DC 
20603.

[63 FR 52635, Oct. 1, 1998]



                            Subpart B--Lists



Sec. 17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

    (a) The list in this section contains the names of all species of 
wildlife which have been determined by the Services to be Endangered or 
Threatened. It also contains the names of species of wildlife treated as 
Endangered or Threatened because they are sufficiently similar in 
appearance to Endangered or Threatened species (see Sec. 17.50 et seq.).
    (b) The columns entitled ``Common Name,'' ``Scientific Name,'' and 
``Vertebrate Population Where Endangered or Threatened'' define the 
species of wildlife within the meaning of the Act. Thus, differently 
classified geographic populations of the same vertebrate subspecies or 
species shall be identified by their differing geographic boundaries, 
even though the other two columns are identical. The term ``Entire'' 
means that all populations throughout the present range of a vertebrate 
species are listed. Although common names are included, they cannot be 
relied upon for identification of any specimen, since they may vary 
greatly in local usage. The Services shall use the most recently 
accepted scientific name. In cases in which confusion might arise, a 
synonym(s) will be provided in parentheses. The Services shall rely to 
the extent practicable on the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature.
    (c) In the ``Status'' column the following symbols are used: ``E'' 
for Endangered, ``T'' for Threatened, and ``E [or T] (S/A)'' for 
similarity of appearance species.
    (d) The other data in the list are nonregulatory in nature and are 
provided for the information of the reader. In the annual revision and 
compilation of this title, the following information may be amended 
without public notice: the spelling of species' names, historical range, 
footnotes, references to certain other applicable portions of this 
title, synonyms, and more current names. In any of these revised 
entries, neither the species, as defined in paragraph (b) of this 
section, nor its status may be changed without following the procedures 
of part 424 of this title.
    (e) The ``historic range'' indicates the known general distribution 
of the species or subspecies as reported in the current scientific 
literature. The present distribution may be greatly reduced from this 
historic range. This column does not imply any limitation on the 
application of the prohibitions in the Act or implementing rules. Such 
prohibitions apply to all individuals of the species, wherever found.
    (f)(1) A footnote to the Federal Register publication(s) listing or 
reclassifying a species is indicated under the

[[Page 103]]

column ``When listed.'' Footnote numbers to Secs. 17.11 and 17.12 are in 
the same numerical sequence, since plants and animals may be listed in 
the same Federal Register document. That document, at least since 1973, 
includes a statement indicating the basis for the listing, as well as 
the effective date(s) of said listing.
    (2) The ``Special rules'' and ``Critical habitat'' columns provide a 
cross reference to other sections in parts 17, 222, 226, or 227. The 
``Special rules'' column will also be used to cite the special rules 
that describe experimental populations and determine if they are 
essential or nonessential. Separate listing will be made for 
experimental populations, and the status column will include the 
following symbols: ``XE'' for an essential experimental population and 
``XN'' for a nonessential experimental population. The term ``NA'' (not 
applicable) appearing in either of these two columns indicates that 
there are no special rules and/or critical habitat for that particular 
species. However, all other appropriate rules in parts 17, 217 through 
227, and 402 still apply to that species. In addition, there may be 
other rules in this title that relate to such wildlife, e.g., port-of-
entry requirements. It is not intended that the references in the 
``Special rules'' column list all the regulations of the two Services 
which might apply to the species or to the regulations of other Federal 
agencies or State or local governments.
    (g) The listing of a particular taxon includes all lower taxonomic 
units. For example, the genus Hylobates (gibbons) is listed as 
Endangered throughout its entire range (China, India, and SE Asia); 
consequently, all species, subspecies, and populations of that genus are 
considered listed as Endangered for the purposes of the Act. In 1978 (43 
FR 6230-6233) the species Haliaeetus leucocephalus (bald eagle) was 
listed as Threatened in ``USA (WA, OR, MN, WI, MI)'' rather than its 
entire population; thus, all individuals of the bald eagle found in 
those five States are considered listed as Threatened for the purposes 
of the Act.
    (h) The ``List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife'' is provided 
below:

[[Page 104]]



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           Species                                                       Vertebrate population
--------------------------------------------------------------      Historic range        where endangered or     Status    When     Critical   Special
             Common name                  Scientific name                                      threatened                  listed    habitat     rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Mammals
Anoa, lowland.......................  Bubalus depressicornis   IndonesiaENT  E......................        3        NA         NA
                                       (=B. anoa                Entire.
                                       depressicornis).
Anoa, mountain......................  Bubalus quarlesi (=B.    ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       anoa quarlesi).
Antelope, giant sable...............  Hippotragus niger        Angola.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       variani.
Argali..............................  Ovis ammon.............  Afganistan, China,       Entire except                  E   15, 475         NA         NA
                                                                India, Kazakhstan,       Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia,
                                                                Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia,    and Tajikistan.
                                                                Nepal, Pakistan,
                                                                Russia, Tajikistan,
                                                                Uzbekistan.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia,          T   15, 475         NA   17.40(j)
                                                                                         and Tajikistan.
Armadillo, giant....................  Priodontes maximus       Venezuela and Guyana to  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=giganteus).            Argentina.
Armadillo, pink fairy...............  Chlamyphorus truncatus.  Argentina..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Ass, African wild...................  Equus asinus             Somalia, Sudan,          Somalia, Sudan,                E     3, 22         NA         NA
                                       (=africanus).            Ethiopia.                Ethiopia.
Ass, Asian wild (=kulan, onager)....  Equus hemionus.........  Southwestern and         Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Central Asia.
Avahi...............................  Avahi (=Lichanotus)      Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       laniger (=entire         (=Madagascar).
                                       genus).
Aye-aye.............................  Daubentonia              ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       madagascariensis.
Babirusa............................  Babyrousa babyrussa....  Indonesia..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Baboon, gelada......................  Theropithecus gelada...  Ethiopia...............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Bandicoot, barred...................  Perameles bougainville.  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Bandicoot, desert...................  Perameles eremiana.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Bandicoot, lesser rabbit............  Macrotis leucura.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Bandicoot, pig-footed...............  Chaeropus ecaudatus....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Bandicoot, rabbit...................  Macrotis lagotis.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Banteng.............................  Bos javanicus            Southeast Asia.........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=banteng).
Bat, Bulmer's fruit (flying fox)....  Aproteles bulmerae.....  Papua New Guinea.......  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
Bat, bumblebee......................  Craseonycteris           Thailand...............  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                       thonglongyai.
Bat, gray...........................  Myotis grisescens......  Central and              ......do...............        E        13         NA         NA
                                                                southeastern U.S.A..
Bat, Hawaiian hoary.................  Lasiurus cinereus        U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       semotus.
Bat, Indiana........................  Myotis sodalis.........  Eastern and Midwestern   ......do...............        E         1   17.95(a)         NA
                                                                U.S.A.
Bat, lesser (=Sanborn's) long-nosed.  Leptonycteris curasoae   U.S.A. (AZ, NM),         ......do...............        E       336         NA         NA
                                       (=sanborni)              Mexico, Central
                                       yerbabuenae.             America.
Bat, little Mariana fruit...........  Pteropus tokudae.......  Western Pacific Ocean--  ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                                                U.S.A. (Guam).
Bat, Mariana fruit..................  Pteropus mariannus       Western Pacific Ocean--  Guam...................        E       156         NA         NA
                                       mariannus.               U.S.A. (Guam, Rota,
                                                                Tinian, Saipan,
                                                                Agiguan).
Bat, Mexican long-nosed.............  Leptonycteris nivalis..  U.S.A. (NM, TX),         Entire.................        E       336         NA         NA
                                                                Mexico, Central
                                                                America.
Bat, Ozark big-eared................  Corynorhinus             U.S.A. (MO, OK, AR)....  ......do...............        E        85         NA         NA
                                       (=Plecotus) townsendii
                                       ingens.
Bat, Rodrigues fruit (flying fox)...  Pteropus rodricensis...  Indian Ocean--Rodrigues  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                                                Island.

[[Page 105]]

 
Bat, Singapore roundleaf horseshoe..  Hipposideros ridleyi...  Malaysia...............  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
Bat, Virginia big-eared.............  Corynorhinus             U.S.A. (KY, NC, WV, VA)  ......do...............        E        85   17.95(a)         NA
                                       (=Plecotus) townsendii
                                       virginianus.
Bear, American black................  Ursus americanus.......  North America..........  U.S.A. (LA, all           T(S/A)       456         NA   17.40(i)
                                                                                         counties; MS, TX, only
                                                                                         within the historic
                                                                                         county range of the
                                                                                         Louisiana black bear).
Bear, Baluchistan...................  Ursus thibetanus         Iran, Pakistan.........  Entire.................        E       233         NA         NA
                                       gedrosianus.
Bear, brown.........................  Ursus arctos arctos....  Palearctic.............  Italy..................        E   15, 15A         NA         NA
    Do..............................  Ursus arctos pruinosus.  China (Tibet)..........  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
Bear, grizzly (=brown)..............  Ursus arctos...........  Holarctic..............  U.S.A., conterminous           T  1, 2D, 9         NA   17.40(b)
                                                                                         (lower 48) States.
Bear, Louisiana black...............  Ursus americanus         U.S.A. (LA--all          Entire.................        T       456         NA   17.40(i)
                                       luteolus.                counties; MS--all
                                                                counties south of or
                                                                touching a line from
                                                                Greenville, Washington
                                                                County, to Meridian,
                                                                Lauderdale County; TX--
                                                                all counties east of
                                                                or touching a line
                                                                from Linden, Cass
                                                                County, SW to Bryan,
                                                                Brazos County, thence
                                                                SSW to Rockport,
                                                                Aransas County).
Bear, Mexican grizzly...............  Ursus arctos (=U. a.     Holarctic..............  Mexico.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       nelsoni).
Beaver..............................  Castor fiber birulai...  Mongolia...............  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
Bison, wood.........................  Bison bison athabascae.  Canada, northwestern     Canada.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                U.S.A.
Bobcat, Mexican.....................  Lynx (=Felis) rufus      Central Mexico.........  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       escuinapae.
Bontebok (antelope).................  Damaliscus pygarus       South Africa...........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=dorcas) dorcas.
Camel, Bactrian.....................  Camelus bactrianus       Mongolia, China........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=ferus).
Caribou, woodland...................  Rangifer tarandus        U.S.A. (AK, ID, ME, MI,  U.S.A. (ID, WA), Canada        E     128E,         NA         NA
                                       caribou.                 MN, MT, NH, VT, WA,      (that part of S.E.                  136E,
                                                                WI), Canada.             British Columbia                      143
                                                                                         bounded by the U.S.-
                                                                                         Can. border, Columbia
                                                                                         R., Kootenay R.,
                                                                                         Kootenay L., and
                                                                                         Kootenai R.).
Cat, Andean.........................  Felis jacobita.........  Chile, Peru, Bolivia,    Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Argentina.
Cat, Asian golden (=Temminck's).....  Catopuma (=Felis)        Nepal, China, Southeast  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       temminckii.              Asia, Indonesia
                                                                (Sumatra).
Cat, black-footed...................  Felis nigripes.........  Southern Africa........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Cat, flat-headed....................  Prionailurus (=Felis)    Malaysia, Indonesia....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       planiceps.
Cat, Iriomote.......................  Prionailurus (=Felis)    Japan (Iriomote Island,  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       bengalensis              Ryukyu Islands).
                                       iriomotensis.
Cat, leopard........................  Prionailurus (=Felis)    India, Southeast Asia..  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       bengalensis
                                       bengalensis.
Cat, marbled........................  Pardofelis (=Felis)      Nepal, Southeast Asia,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       marmorata.               Indonesia.
Cat, Pakistan sand..................  Felis margarita          Pakistan...............  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                       scheffeli.
Cat, tiger..........................  Leopardus (=Felis)       Costa Rica to northern   ......do...............        E         5         NA         NA
                                       tigrinus.                Argentina.
Chamois, Apennine...................  Rupicapra rupicapra      Italy..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       ornata.
Cheetah.............................  Acinonyx jubatus.......  Africa to India........  ......do...............        E      3, 5         NA         NA
Chimpanzee..........................  Pan troglodytes........  Africa-see 17.40(c)(3).  Wherever found in the          E   16, 376         NA         NA
                                                                                         wild.

[[Page 106]]

 
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Wherever found in              T   16, 376         NA   17.40(c)
                                                                                         captivity.
Chimpanzee, pygmy...................  Pan paniscus...........  Zaire..................  Entire.................        E   16, 376         NA         NA
Chinchilla..........................  Chinchilla brevicaudata  Bolivia................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       boliviana.
Civet, Malabar large-spotted........  Viverra civettina        India..................  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       (=megaspila c.).
Cochito (=Gulf of California harbor   Phocoena sinus.........  Mexico (Gulf of          ......do...............        E       169         NA         NA
 porpoise).                                                     California).
Deer, Bactrian......................  Cervus elaphus           Tajikistan, Uzbekistan,  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       bactrianus.              Afghanistan.
Deer, Barbary.......................  Cervus elaphus barbarus  Morocco, Tunisia,        ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Algeria.
Deer, Calamianes (=Philippine)......  Axis (=Cervus) porcinus  Philippines (Calamian    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       calamianensis.           Islands).
Deer, Cedros Island mule............  Odocoileus hemionus      Mexico (Cedros Island).  ......do...............        E        10         NA         NA
                                       cedrosensis.
Deer, Columbian white-tailed........  Odocoileus virginianus   U.S.A. (WA, OR)........  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       leucurus.
Deer, Corsican red..................  Cervus elaphus           Corsica, Sardinia......  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       corsicanus.
Deer, Eld's brow-antlered...........  Cervus eldi............  India to Southeast Asia  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Deer, Formosan sika.................  Cervus nippon taiouanus  Taiwan.................  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Deer, Indochina hog.................  Axis (=Cervus) porcinus  Thailand, Indochina....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       annamiticus.
Deer, key...........................  Odocoileus virginianus   U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       clavium.
Deer, Kuhl's (=Bawean)..............  Axis (=Cervus) porcinus  Indonesia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       kuhli.
Deer, marsh.........................  Blastocerus dichotomus.  Argentina, Uruguay,      ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Paraguay, Bolivia,
                                                                Brazil.
Deer, McNeill's.....................  Cervus elaphus           China (Sinkiang, Tibet)  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       macneilii.
Deer, musk..........................  Moschus spp. (all        Central and eastern      Afghanistan, Bhutan,           E        15         NA         NA
                                       species).                Asia.                    Burma, China (Tibet,
                                                                                         Yunnan), India, Nepal,
                                                                                         Pakistan, Sikkim.
Deer, North China sika..............  Cervus nippon            China (Shantung and      Entire.................        E        50         NA         NA
                                       mandarinus.              Chihli Provinces).
Deer, pampas........................  Ozotoceros bezoarticus.  Brazil, Argentina,       ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Uruguay, Bolivia,
                                                                Paraguay.
Deer, Persian fallow................  Dama mesopotamica        Iraq, Iran.............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=dama m.).
Deer, Ryukyu sika...................  Cervus nippon keramae..  Japan (Ryukyu Islands).  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Deer, Shansi sika...................  Cervus nippon            China (Shansi Province)  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       grassianus.
Deer, South China sika..............  Cervus nippon kopschi..  Southern China.........  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Deer, swamp (=barasingha)...........  Cervus duvauceli.......  India, Nepal...........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Deer, Visayan.......................  Cervus alfredi.........  Philippines............  ......do...............        E       320         NA         NA
Deer, Yarkand.......................  Cervus elaphus           China (Sinkiang).......  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       yarkandensis.
Dhole (=Asiatic wild dog)...........  Cuon alpinus...........  C.I.S., Korea, China,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                India, Southeast Asia.
Dibbler.............................  Antechinus apicalis....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Dog, African wild...................  Lycaon pictus..........  Sub-Saharan Africa.....  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
Dolphin, Chinese river (=white flag)  Lipotes vexillifer.....  China..................  ......do...............        E       350         NA         NA
Dolphin, Indus River................  Platanista minor.......  Pakistan (Indus R. and   ......do...............        E       417         NA         NA
                                                                tributaries).
Drill...............................  Mandrillus (=Papio)      Equatorial West Africa.  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       leucophaeus.

[[Page 107]]

 
Dugong..............................  Dugong dugon...........  East Africa to southern  Entire, except Palau...        E         4         NA         NA
                                                                Japan, including
                                                                U.S.A. (Trust
                                                                Territories).
Duiker, Jentink's...................  Cephalophus jentinki...  Sierra Leone, Liberia,   Entire.................        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Ivory Coast.
Eland, western giant................  Taurotragus derbianus    Senegal to Ivory Coast.  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       derbianus.
Elephant, African...................  Loxodonta africana.....  Africa.................  ......do...............        T        40         NA   17.40(e)
Elephant, Asian.....................  Elephas maximus........  South-central and        ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                southeastern Asia.
Ferret, black-footed................  Mustela nigripes.......  Western U.S.A., western  Entire, except where           E     1, 3,         NA         NA
                                                                Canada.                  listed as an                         433,
                                                                                         experimental                         545,
                                                                                         population.                          546,
                                                                                                                          582, 646
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (specific              XN      433,         NA   17.84(g)
                                                                                         portions of AZ, CO,                  545,
                                                                                         MT, SD, UT, and WY,                  546,
                                                                                         see 17.84(g)).                   582, 646
Fox, northern swift.................  Vulpes velox hebes.....  U.S.A. (northern         Canada.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                plains), Canada.
Fox, San Joaquin kit................  Vulpes macrotis mutica.  U.S.A. (CA)............  Entire.................        E         1         NA         NA
Fox, Simien.........................  Canis (Simenia)          Ethiopia...............  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       simensis.
Gazelle, Arabian....................  Gazella gazella........  Arabian Peninsula,       ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Palestine, Sinai.
Gazelle, Clark's (=Dibatag).........  Ammodorcas clarkei.....  Somalia, Ethiopia......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gazelle, Mhorr......................  Gazella dama mhorr.....  Morocco................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gazelle, Moroccan (=Dorcas).........  Gazella dorcas           Morocco, Algeria,        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       massaesyla.              Tunisia.
Gazelle, mountain (=Cuvier's).......  Gazella cuvieri........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gazelle, Pelzeln's..................  Gazella dorcas pelzelni  Somalia................  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Gazelle, Rio de Oro Dama............  Gazella dama lozanoi...  Western Sahara.........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gazelle, sand.......................  Gazella subgutturosa     Jordan, Arabian          ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       marica.                  Peninsula.
Gazelle, Saudi Arabian..............  Gazella dorcas saudiya.  Israel, Iraq, Jordan,    ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Syria, Arabian
                                                                Peninsula.
Gazelle, slender-horned (=Rhim).....  Gazella leptoceros.....  Sudan, Egypt, Algeria,   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Libya.
Gibbons.............................  Hylobates spp.           China, India, Southeast  ......do...............        E     3, 15         NA         NA
                                       (including Nomascus).    Asia.
Goral...............................  Nemorhaedus goral......  East Asia..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Gorilla.............................  Gorilla gorilla........  Central and western      ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Africa.
Hare, hispid........................  Caprolagus hispidus....  India, Nepal, Bhutan...  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Hartebeest, Swayne's................  Alcelaphus buselaphus    Ethiopia, Somalia......  ......do...............        E     3, 50         NA         NA
                                       swaynei.
Hartebeest, Tora....................  Alcelaphus buselaphus    Ethiopia, Sudan, Egypt.  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       tora.
Hog, pygmy..........................  Sus salvanius..........  India, Nepal, Bhutan,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Sikkim.
Horse, Przewalski's.................  Equus przewalskii......  Mongolia, China........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Huemul, north Andean................  Hippocamelus antisensis  Ecuador, Peru, Chile,    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Bolivia, Argentina.
Huemul, south Andean................  Hippocamelus bisulcus..  Chile, Argentina.......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Hutia, Cabrera's....................  Capromys angelcabrerai.  Cuba...................  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
Hutia, dwarf........................  Capromys nana..........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
Hutia, large-eared..................  Capromys auritus.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
Hutia, little earth.................  Capromys sanfelipensis.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
Hyena, Barbary......................  Hyaena hyaena barbara..  Morocco, Algeria,        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Tunisia.

[[Page 108]]

 
Hyena, brown........................  Parahyaena (=Hyaena)     Southern Africa........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       brunnea.
Ibex, Pyrenean......................  Capra pyrenaica          Spain..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pyrenaica.
Ibex, Walia.........................  Capra walie............  Ethiopia...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Impala, black-faced.................  Aepyceros melampus       Namibia, Angola........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       petersi.
Indri...............................  Indri indri (=entire     Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       genus).                  (=Madagascar).
Jaguar..............................  Panthera onca..........  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, LA, NM,  ......do...............        E    5, 622         NA         NA
                                                                TX), Mexico, Central
                                                                and South America.
Jaguarundi, Gulf Coast..............  Herpailurus (=Felis)     U.S.A. (TX), Mexico....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       yagouaroundi cacomitli.
Jaguarundi, Guatemalan..............  Herpailurus (=Felis)     Mexico, Nicaragua......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       yagouaroundi fossata.
Jaguarundi, Panamanian..............  Herpailurus (=Felis)     Nicaragua, Costa Rica,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       yagouaroundi             Panama.
                                       panamensis.
Jaguarundi, Sinaloan................  Herpailurus (=Felis)     U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       yagouaroundi tolteca.
Kangaroo rat, Fresno................  Dipodomys nitratoides    U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       170   17.95(a)         NA
                                       exilis.
Kangaroo rat, giant.................  Dipodomys ingens.......  .....do................  ......do...............        E       251         NA         NA
Kangaroo rat, Morro Bay.............  Dipodomys heermanni      ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2   17.95(a)         NA
                                       morroensis.
Kangaroo rat, Stephens'.............  Dipodomys stephensi      ......do...............  ......do...............        E       338         NA         NA
                                       (incl. D. cascus).
Kangaroo rat, Tipton................  Dipodomys nitratoides    ......do...............  ......do...............        E       312         NA         NA
                                       nitratoides.
Kangaroo rat, San Bernardino          Dipodomys merriami       ......do...............  ......do...............        E     632E,         NA         NA
 Merriam's.                            parvus.                                                                                 645
Kangaroo, Tasmanian forester........  Macropus giganteus       Australia (Tasmania)...  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
                                       tasmaniensis.
Kouprey.............................  Bos sauveli............  Vietnam, Laos,           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Cambodia, Thailand.
Langur, capped......................  Trachypithecus           India, Burma,            ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Presbytis) pileatus.   Bangladesh.
Langur, Douc........................  Pygathrix nemaeus......  Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Langur, Francois'...................  Trachypithecus           China (Kwangsi),         ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       (=Presbytis) francoisi.  Indochina.
Langur, golden......................  Trachypithecus           India (Assam), Bhutan..  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Presbytis) geei.
Langur, gray (=entellus)............  Semnopithecus            China (Tibet), India,    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Presbytis) entellus.   Pakistan, Kashmir, Sri
                                                                Lanka, Sikkim,
                                                                Bangladesh.
Langur, long-tailed.................  Presbytis potenziani...  Indonesia..............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Langur, Pagi Island.................  Nasalis (Simias)         ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       concolor.
Langur, purple-faced................  Presbytis senex........  Sri Lanka..............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Lechwe, red.........................  Kobus leche............  Southern Africa........  ......do...............        T    3, 15,         NA         NA
                                                                                                                               106

[[Page 109]]

 
Lemurs..............................  Lemuridae (incl. genera  Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E    3, 15,         NA         NA
                                       Lemur, Phaner,           (=Madagascar).                                                 15A
                                       Hapalemur, Lepilemur,
                                       Microcebus, Allocebus,
                                       Cheirogaleus, Varecia).
Leopard.............................  Panthera pardus........  Africa, Asia...........  Wherever found, except         E     3, 5,         NA         NA
                                                                                         where it is listed as                 114
                                                                                         Threatened as set
                                                                                         forth below.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  In Africa, in the wild,        T     3, 5,         NA   17.40(f)
                                                                                         south of, and                         114
                                                                                         including, the
                                                                                         following countries:
                                                                                         Gabon, Congo, Zaire,
                                                                                         Uganda, Kenya.
Leopard, clouded....................  Neofelis nebulosa......  Southeastern and south-  Entire.................        E     3, 15         NA         NA
                                                                central Asia, Taiwan.
Leopard, snow.......................  Uncia (=Panthera) uncia  Central Asia...........  ......do...............        E         5         NA         NA
Linsang, spotted....................  Prionodon pardicolor...  Nepal, Assam, Vietnam,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Cambodia, Laos, Burma.
Lion, Asiatic.......................  Panthera leo persica...  Turkey to India........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Loris, lesser slow..................  Nycticebus pygmaeus....  Indochina..............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Lynx, Spanish.......................  Felis (=Lynx) pardina..  Spain, Portugal........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Macaque, Formosan rock..............  Macaca cyclopis........  Taiwan.................  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Macaque, Japanese...................  Macaca fuscata.........  Japan (Shikoku, Kyushu   ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
                                                                and Honshu Islands).
Macaque, lion-tailed................  Macaca silenus.........  India..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Macaque, stump-tailed...............  Macaca arctoides.......  India (Assam) to         ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
                                                                southern China.
Macaque, Toque......................  Macaca sinica..........  Sri Lanka..............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Manatee, Amazonian..................  Trichechus inunguis....  South America (Amazon    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                R. basin).
Manatee, West African...............  Trichechus senegalensis  West Coast of Africa     ......do...............        T        52         NA         NA
                                                                from Senegal R. to
                                                                Cuanza R.
Manatee, West Indian................  Trichechus manatus.....  U.S.A. (southeastern),   ......do...............        E      1, 3   17.95(a)     17.108
                                                                Caribbean Sea, South                                                                 (a)
                                                                America.
Mandrill............................  Mandrillus (=Papio)      Equatorial West Africa.  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       sphinx.
Mangabey, Tana River................  Cercocebus galeritus     Kenya..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       galeritus.
Mangabey, white-collared............  Cercocebus torquatus...  Senegal to Ghana;        ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                                                Nigeria to Gabon.
Margay..............................  Leopardus (=Felis)       U.S.A. (TX), Central     Mexico southward.......        E         5         NA         NA
                                       wiedii.                  and South America.
Markhor, chiltan (=wild goat).......  Capra falconeri          Chiltan Range of west-   Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=aegagrus)              central Pakistan.
                                       chiltanensis.
Markhor, Kabul......................  Capra falconeri          Afghanistan, Pakistan..  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       megaceros.
Markhor, straight-horned............  Capra falconeri jerdoni  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Marmoset, buff-headed...............  Callithrix flaviceps...  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
Marmoset, cotton-top................  Saguinus oedipus.......  Costa Rica to Colombia.  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
Marmoset, Goeldi's..................  Callimico goeldii......  Brazil, Colombia,        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia.
Marmoset, white-eared (=buffy tufted- Callithrix aurita        Brazil.................  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
 ear).                                 (=jacchus a.).
Marmot, Vancouver Island............  Marmota vancouverensis.  Canada (Vancouver        ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                                                Island).
Marsupial, eastern jerboa...........  Antechinomys laniger...  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Marsupial-mouse, large desert.......  Sminthopsis psammophila  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA

[[Page 110]]

 
Marsupial-mouse, long-tailed........  Sminthopsis              ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       longicaudata.
Marten, Formosan yellow-throated....  Martes flavigula         Taiwan.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       chrysospila.
Monkey, black colobus...............  Colobus satanas........  Equatorial Guinea,       ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                                                People's Republic of
                                                                Congo, Cameroon, Gabon.
Monkey, black howler................  Alouatta pigra.........  Mexico, Guatemala,       ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
                                                                Belize.
Monkey, Diana.......................  Cercopithecus diana....  Coastal West Africa....  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
Monkey (=langur), Guizhou snub-nosed  Rhinopithecus            China..................  ......do...............        E       400         NA         NA
                                       (=Pygathrix) brelichi.
Monkey, L'hoest's...................  Cercopithecus lhoesti..  Upper eastern Congo R.   ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                                                Basin, Cameroon.
Monkey, mantled howler..............  Alouatta palliata        Mexico to South America  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=villosa).
Monkey, Preuss' red colobus.........  Procolobus (=Colobus)    Cameroon...............  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                       preussi (=badius p.).
Monkey, proboscis...................  Nasalis larvatus.......  Borneo.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Monkey, red-backed squirrel.........  Saimiri oerstedii......  Costa Rica, Panama.....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Monkey, red-bellied.................  Cercopithecus            Western Nigeria........  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       erythrogaster.
Monkey, red-eared nose-spotted......  Cercopithecus            Nigeria, Cameroon,       ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       erythrotis.              Fernando Po.
Monkey (=langur), Sichuan snub-nosed  Rhinopithecus            China..................  ......do...............        E       400         NA         NA
                                       (=Pygathrix) roxellana.
Monkey, spider......................  Ateles geoffroyi         Costa Rica, Nicaragua..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       frontatus.
    Do..............................  Ateles geoffroyl         Costa Rica, Panama.....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       panamensis.
Monkey, Tana River red colobus......  Procolobus (=Colobus)    Kenya..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       rufomitratus (=badius
                                       r.).
Monkey (=langur), Tonkin snub-nosed.  Rhinopithecus            Vietnam................  ......do...............        E   16, 400         NA         NA
                                       (=Pygathrix) avunculus.
Monkey, woolly spider...............  Brachyteles arachnoides  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Monkey, yellow-tailed woolly........  Lagothrix flavicauda...  Andes of northern Peru.  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
Monkey (=langur), Yunnan snub-nosed.  Rhinopithecus            China..................  ......do...............        E       400         NA         NA
                                       (=Pygathrix) bieti.
Monkey, Zanzibar red colobus........  Procolobus (=Colobus)    Tanzania...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pennantii (=kirki)
                                       kirki.
Mountain beaver, Point Arena........  Aplodontia rufa nigra..  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       454         NA         NA
Mouse, Alabama beach................  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       183   17.95(a)         NA
                                       ammobates.
Mouse, Anastasia Island beach.......  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       349         NA         NA
                                       phasma.
Mouse, Australian native............  Notomys aquilo.........  Australia..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
    Do..............................  Zyzomys (=Notomys)       ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       pedunculatus.
Mouse, Choctawhatchee beach.........  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       183   17.95(a)         NA
                                       allophrys.
Mouse, Field's......................  Pseudomys fieldi.......  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Mouse, Gould's......................  Pseudomys gouldii......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Mouse, Key Largo cotton.............  Peromyscus gossypinus    U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E     131E,         NA         NA
                                       allapaticola.                                                                           160
Mouse, New Holland..................  Pseudomys                Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       novaehollandiae.

[[Page 111]]

 
Mouse, Pacific pocket...............  Perognathus              U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E     526E,         NA         NA
                                       longimembris pacificus.                                                                 554
Mouse, Perdido Key beach............  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (AL, FL)........  ......do...............        E       183   17.95(a)         NA
                                       trissyllepsis.
Mouse, Preble's meadow jumping......  Zapus hudsonius preblei  U.S.A. (CO, WY)........  ......do...............        T       636         NA         NA
Mouse, salt marsh harvest...........  Reithrodontomys          U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       raviventris.
Mouse, Shark Bay....................  Pseudomys praeconis....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Mouse, Shortridge's.................  Pseudomys shortridgei..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Mouse, smoky........................  Pseudomys fumeus.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Mouse, southeastern beach...........  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T       349         NA         NA
                                       niveiventris.
Mouse, St. Andrew beach.............  Peromyscus polionotus    ......do...............  ......do...............        E       655         NA         NA
                                       peninsularis.
Mouse, western......................  Pseudomys occidentalis.  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Muntjac, Fea's......................  Muntiacus feae.........  Northern Thailand,       ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Burma.
Native-cat, eastern.................  Dasyurus viverrinus....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Numbat..............................  Myrmecobius fasciatus..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E      4, 6         NA         NA
Ocelot..............................  Leopardus (=Felis)       U.S.A. (AZ, TX) to       ......do...............        E    5, 119         NA         NA
                                       pardalis.                Central and South
                                                                America.
Orangutan...........................  Pongo pygmaeus.........  Borneo, Sumatra........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Oryx, Arabian.......................  Oryx leucoryx..........  Arabian Peninsula......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Otter, Cameroon clawless............  Aonyx congicus           Cameroon, Nigeria......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=congica) microdon.
Otter, giant........................  Pteronura brasiliensis.  South America..........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Otter, long-tailed..................  Lontra (=Lutra)          ......do...............  ......do...............        E     3, 15         NA         NA
                                       longicaudis (incl.
                                       platensis).
Otter, marine.......................  Lontra (=Lutra) felina.  Peru south to Straits    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                of Magellan.
Otter, southern river...............  Lontra (=Lutra)          Chile, Argentina.......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       provocax.
Otter, southern sea.................  Enhydra lutris nereis..  West Coast, U.S.A. (CA,  Entire, except where           T   21, 284         NA         NA
                                                                OR, WA) south to         listed below.
                                                                Mexico (Baja
                                                                California).
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  All areas subject to          XN   21, 284         NA   17.84(d)
                                                                                         U.S. jurisdiction
                                                                                         south of Pt.
                                                                                         Conception, CA (34
                                                                                         deg.26.9' N. Lat.)
                                                                                         [Note--status governed
                                                                                         by Pub. L. 99-625, 100
                                                                                         Stat. 3500.].
Panda, giant........................  Ailuropoda melanoleuca.  China..................  Entire.................        E       139         NA         NA
Pangolin (=scaly anteater),           Manis temmincki........  Africa.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
 Temnick's ground.
Panther, Florida....................  Puma (=Felis) concolor   U.S.A. (LA and AR east   ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       coryi.                   to SC and FL).
Planigale, little...................  Planigale ingrami        Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       subtilissima.
Planigale, southern.................  Planigale tenuirostris.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Porcupine, thin-spined..............  Chaetomys subspinosus..  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Possum, Leadbeater's................  Gymnobelideus            ......do...............  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
                                       leadbeateri.
Possum, mountain pygmy..............  Burramys parvus........  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Possum, scaly-tailed................  Wyulda squamicaudata...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Prairie dog, Mexican................  Cynomys mexicanus......  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Prairie dog, Utah...................  Cynomys parvidens......  U.S.A. (UT)............  ......do...............        T    6, 149         NA   17.40(g)

[[Page 112]]

 
Pronghorn, peninsular...............  Antilocapra americana    Mexico (Baja             ......do...............        E        10         NA
                                       peninsularis.            California).
Pronghorn, Sonoran..................  Antilocapra americana    U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico....  ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                       sonoriensis.
Pudu................................  Pudu pudu..............  Southern South America.  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Puma (=mountain lion)...............  Puma (=Felis) concolor   Canada to South America  U.S.A. (FL)............    T(SA)       432         NA   17.40(h)
                                       (all subsp.
                                       exceptcoryi).
Puma, Costa Rican...................  Puma (=Felis) concolor   Nicaragua, Panama,       Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       costaricensis.           Costa Rica.
Puma, eastern (=eastern cougar).....  Puma (=Felis) concolor   Eastern North America..  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
                                       couguar.
Quokka..............................  Setonix brachyurus.....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Rabbit, Lower Keys..................  Sylvilagus palustris     U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       390         NA         NA
                                       hefneri.
Rabbit, Ryukyu......................  Pentalagus furnessi....  Japan (Ryukyu Islands).  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Rabbit, volcano.....................  Romerolagus diazi......  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Rat, false water....................  Xeromys myoides........  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rat, stick-nest.....................  Leporillus conditor....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Rat-kangaroo, brush-tailed..........  Bettongia penicillata..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rat-kangaroo, Gaimard's.............  Bettongia gaimardi.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Rat-kangaroo, Lesuer's..............  Bettongia lesueur......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rat-kangaroo, desert (=plain).......  Caloprymnus campestris.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rat-kangaroo, Queensland............  Bettongia tropica......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rhinoceros, black...................  Diceros bicornis.......  Sub-Saharan Africa.....  ......do...............        E        97         NA         NA
Rhinoceros, great Indian............  Rhinoceros unicornis...  India, Nepal...........  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rhinoceros, Javan...................  Rhinoceros sondaicus...  Indonesia, Indochina,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Burma, Thailand,
                                                                Sikkim, Bangladesh,
                                                                Malaysia.
Rhinoceros, northern white..........  Ceratotherium simum      Zaire, Sudan, Uganda,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       cottoni.                 Central African
                                                                Republic.
Rhinoceros, Sumatran................  Dicerorhinus             Bangladesh to Vietnam    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=Didermoceros)          to Indonesia (Borneo).
                                       sumatrensis.
Rice rat (=silver rice rat).........  Oryzomys palustris       U.S.A. (FL)............  Lower FL Keys (west of         E       421   17.95(a)         NA
                                       natator (=O.                                      Seven Mile Bridge).
                                       argentatus).
Saiga, Mongolian (antelope).........  Saiga tatarica           Mongolia...............  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       mongolica.
Saki, southern bearded..............  Chiropotes satanas       Brazil.................  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
                                       satanas.
Saki, white-nosed...................  Chiropotes albinasus...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Sea-lion, Steller (=northern).......  Eumetopias jubatus.....  U.S.A. (AK, CA, OR,      Entire, except the             T     384E,     226.12     227.12
                                                                WA), Canada, Russia;     population segment               408, 614
                                                                North Pacific Ocean.     west of 144 deg. W.
                                                                                         Long.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Population segment west        E     384E,     226.12         NA
                                                                                         of 144 deg. W. Long.             408, 614
Seal, Caribbean monk................  Monachus tropicalis....  Caribbean Sea, Gulf of   Entire.................        E    1, 2D,         NA         NA
                                                                Mexico.                                                         45
Seal, Guadalupe fur.................  Arctocephalus townsendi  U.S.A. (Farallon         ......do...............        T    1, 2D,         NA     227.11
                                                                Islands of CA) south                                           212
                                                                to Mexico (Islas
                                                                Revillagigedo).
Seal, Hawaiian monk.................  Monachus schauinslandi.  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E        18     226.11         NA

[[Page 113]]

 
Seal, Mediterranean monk............  Monachus monachus......  Mediterranean,           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Northwest African
                                                                Coast and Black Sea.
Seal, Saimaa........................  Phoca hispida saimensis  Finland (Lake Saimaa)..  ......do...............        E       508         NA         NA
Seledang (=Gaur)....................  Bos gaurus.............  Bangladesh, Southeast    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Asia, India.
Serow...............................  Naemorhedus              East Asia, Sumatra.....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Capricornis)
                                       sumatraensis.
Serval, Barbary.....................  Leptailurus (=Felis)     Algeria................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       serval constantina.
Shapo...............................  Ovis vignei vignei.....  Kashmir................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Sheep, bighorn......................  Ovis canadensis........  U.S.A. (Western          U.S.A. (CA) Peninsular         E       634         NA         NA
                                                                conterminous states),    Ranges.
                                                                Canada (southwestern),
                                                                Mexico (northern).
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (CA) Sierra             E       660         NA         NA
                                                                                         Nevada.
Shou................................  Cervus elaphus wallichi  Tibet, Bhutan..........  Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
Shrew, Dismal Swamp southeastern....  Sorex longirostris       U.S.A. (NC, VA)........  ......do...............        T       246         NA         NA
                                       fisheri.
Siamang.............................  Symphalangus             Malaysia, Indonesia....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       syndactylus.
Sifakas.............................  Propithecus spp........  Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                                                (=Madagascar).
Sloth, Brazilian three-toed.........  Bradypus torquatus.....  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Solenodon, Cuban....................  Solenodon (Atopogale)    Cuba...................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       cubanus.
Solenodon, Haitian..................  Solenodon paradoxus....  Dominican Republic,      ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Haiti.
Squirrel, Carolina northern flying..  Glaucomys sabrinus       U.S.A. (NC, TN)........  ......do...............        E       189         NA         NA
                                       coloratus.
Squirrel, Delmarva Peninsula fox....  Sciurus niger cinereus.  U.S.A. (Delmarva         Entire, except where           E   1, 161,         NA         NA
                                                                Peninsula to             listed as an                          168
                                                                southeastern PA).        experimental
                                                                                         population.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (DE--Sussex Co.)       XN       161         NA   17.84(a)
Squirrel, Mount Graham red..........  Tamiasciurus hudsonicus  U.S.A. (AZ)............  Entire.................        E       268   17.95(a)         NA
                                       grahamensis.
Squirrel, Virginia northern flying..  Glaucomys sabrinus       U.S.A. (VA, WV)........  ......do...............        E       189         NA         NA
                                       fuscus.
Stag, Barbary.......................  Cervus elaphus barbarus  Tunisia, Algeria.......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Stag, Kashmir.......................  Cervus elaphus hanglu..  Kashmir................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Suni, Zanzibar......................  Neotragus (Nesotragus)   Zanzibar (and nearby     ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       moschatus moschatus.     islands).
Tahr, Arabian.......................  Hemitragus jayakari....  Oman...................  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Tamaraw.............................  Bubalus mindorensis....  Philippines............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Tamarin (=marmoset), golden-rumped    Leontopithecus           Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
 (=golden-headed).                     (=Leontideus) spp..
Tamarin, pied.......................  Saguinus bicolor.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
Tamarin, white-footed...............  Saguinus leucopus......  Colombia...............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Tapir, Asian........................  Tapirus indicus........  Burma, Laos, Cambodia,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Vietnam, Malaysia,
                                                                Indonesia, Thailand.
Tapir, Central American.............  Tapirus bairdii........  Southern Mexico to       ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Colombia and Ecuador.
Tapir, mountain.....................  Tapirus pinchaque......  Colombia, Ecuador and    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                possibly Peru and
                                                                Venezuela.
Tapir, South American (=Brazilian)..  Tapirus terrestris.....  Colombia and Venezuela   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                south to Paraguay and
                                                                Argentina.
Tarsier, Philippine.................  Tarsius syrichta.......  Philippines............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)

[[Page 114]]

 
Tiger...............................  Panthera tigris........  Temperate and tropical   ......do...............        E      3, 5         NA         NA
                                                                Asia.
Tiger, Tasmanian (=Thylacine).......  Thylacinus cynocephalus  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Uakari (all species)................  Cacajao spp............  Peru, Brazil, Ecuador,   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Colombia, Venezuela.
Urial...............................  Ovis musimon             Cyprus.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=orientalis) ophion.
Vicuna..............................  Vicugna vicugna........  South America (Andes)..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Vole, Amargosa......................  Microtus californicus    U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       166   17.95(a)         NA
                                       scirpensis.
Vole, Florida salt marsh............  Microtus pennsylvanicus  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       415         NA         NA
                                       dukecampbelli.
Vole, Hualapai Mexican..............  Microtus mexicanus       U.S.A. (AZ)............  ......do...............        E       292         NA         NA
                                       hualpaiensis.
Wallaby, banded hare................  Lagostrophus fasciatus.  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Wallaby, brindled nail-tailed.......  Onychogalea fraenata...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Wallaby, crescent nail-tailed.......  Onychogalea lunata.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Wallaby, Parma......................  Macropus parma.........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Wallaby, western hare...............  Lagorchestes hirsutus..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Wallaby, yellow-footed rock.........  Petrogale xanthopus....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Whale, blue.........................  Balaenoptera musculus..  Oceanic................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Whale, bowhead......................  Balaena mysticetus.....  Oceanic (north           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                latitudes only).
Whale, finback......................  Balaenoptera physalus..  Oceanic................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Whale, gray.........................  Eschrichtius robustus..  North Pacific Ocean--    Entire, except eastern         E    3, 540         NA         NA
                                                                coastal and Bering       North Pacific Ocean--
                                                                Sea, formerly North      coastal and Bering,
                                                                Atlantic Ocean.          Beaufort, and Chukchi
                                                                                         Seas.
Whale, humpback.....................  Megaptera novaeangliae.  Oceanic................  Entire.................        E         3         NA     222.31
Whale, right........................  Balaena glacialis        ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3     226.13         NA
                                       (incl. australis).
Whale, Sei..........................  Balaenoptera borealis..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Whale, sperm........................  Physeter catodon         ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=macrocephalus).
Wolf, gray..........................  Canis lupus............  Holarctic..............  U.S.A., conterminous           E     1, 6,   17.95(a)         NA
                                                                                         (lower48) States,                 13, 15,
                                                                                         except MN and where              35, 561,
                                                                                         listed as an                     562, 631
                                                                                         experimental
                                                                                         population; Mexico.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (MN)............        T        35   17.95(a)   17.40(d)
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (WY and portions       XN  561, 562         NA   17.84(i)
                                                                                         of ID and MT--see
                                                                                         17.84(i)).
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (portions of AZ,       XN       631         NA   17.84(k)
                                                                                         NM and TX--see
                                                                                         17.84(k)).
Wolf, maned.........................  Chrysocyon brachyurus..  Argentina, Bolivia,      Entire.................        E         4         NA         NA
                                                                Brazil, Paraguay,
                                                                Uruguay.
Wolf, red...........................  Canis rufus............  U.S.A. (SE U.S.A., west  Entire, except where           E   1, 248,         NA         NA
                                                                to central TX).          listed as an                     449, 579
                                                                                         experimental
                                                                                         population.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (portions of NC        XN      248,         NA   17.84(c)
                                                                                         and TN--                         449, 579
                                                                                         see17.84(c)(9)).
Wombat, Queensland hairy-nosed        Lasiorhinus krefftii     Australia..............  Entire.................        E      4, 6         NA         NA
 (incl. Barnard's).                    (formerly L. barnardi
                                       and L. gillespiei).

[[Page 115]]

 
Woodrat, Key Largo..................  Neotoma floridana        U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E     131E,         NA         NA
                                       smalli.                                                                                 160
Yak, wild...........................  Bos mutus (=grunniens    China (Tibet), India...  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       m.).
Zebra, Grevy's......................  Equus grevyi...........  Kenya, Ethiopia,         ......do...............        T        54         NA         NA
                                                                Somalia.
Zebra, Hartmann's mountain..........  Equus zebra hartmannae.  Namibia, Angola........  ......do...............        T   54, 111         NA         NA
Zebra, mountain.....................  Equus zebra zebra......  South Africa...........  ......do...............        E   15, 111         NA         NA
 
                Birds
`Akepa, Hawaii (honeycreeper).......  Loxops coccineus         U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       coccineus.
`Akepa, Maui (honeycreeper).........  Loxops coccineus         ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       ochraceus.
`Akialoa, Kauai (honeycreeper)......  Hemignathus procerus...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
`Akiapola`au (honeycreeper).........  Hemignathus munroi       ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       (=wilsoni).
Albatross, Amsterdam................  Diomedea amsterdamensis  Indian Ocean--Amsterdam  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Island.
Albatross, short-tailed.............  Phoebastria albatrus...  North Pacific Ocean and  Entire, except U.S.A...        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Bering Sea--Japan,
                                                                China, Russia, U.S.A.
                                                                (AK, CA, HI, OR, WA).
Alethe, Thyolo......................  Alethe choloensis......  Malawi, Mozambique.....  Entire.................        E       571         NA         NA
Blackbird, yellow-shouldered........  Agelaius xanthomus.....  U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E        17   17.95(b)         NA
Bobwhite, masked (quail)............  Colinus virginianus      U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico      ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                       ridgwayi.                (Sonora).
Booby, Abbott's.....................  Papasula (=Sula)         Indian Ocean--Christmas  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       abbotti.                 Island.
Bristlebird, western................  Dasyornis longirostris   Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=brachypterus l.).
Bristlebird, western rufous.........  Dasyornis broadbenti     ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       littoralis.
Broadbill, Guam.....................  Myiagra freycineti.....  Western Pacific Ocean--  ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                                                U.S.A. (Guam).
Bulbul, Mauritius olivaceous........  Hypsipetes borbonicus    Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       olivaceus.
Bullfinch, Sao Miguel (finch).......  Pyrrhula pyrrhula        Eastern Atlantic Ocean-- ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       murina.                  Azores.
Bush-shrike, Ulugura................  Malaconotus alius......  Tanzania...............  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
Bushwren, New Zealand...............  Xenicus longipes.......  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Bustard, great Indian...............  Ardeotis (=Choriotis)    India, Pakistan........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       nigriceps.
Cahow (=Bermuda petrel).............  Pterodroma cahow.......  North Atlantic Ocean--   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Bermuda.
Caracara, Audubon's crested.........  Polyborus plancus        U.S.A. (AZ, FL, LA, NM,  U.S.A. (FL)............        T       280         NA         NA
                                       audubonii.               TX) south to Panama;
                                                                Cuba.
Condor, Andean......................  Vultur gryphus.........  Colombia to Chile and    Entire.................        E         4         NA         NA
                                                                Argentina.
Condor, California..................  Gymnogyps californianus  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, OR),     U.S.A. only, except            E    1, 597   17.95(b)         NA
                                                                Mexico (Baja             where listed as an
                                                                California).             experimental
                                                                                         population below.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (specific              XN       597         NA   17.84(j)
                                                                                         portions of Arizona,
                                                                                         Nevada, and Utah).
Coot, Hawaiian (=`alae-ke`oke`o)....  Fulica americana alai..  U.S.A. (HI)............  Entire.................        E         2         NA         NA
Cotinga, banded.....................  Cotinga maculata.......  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Cotinga, white-winged...............  Xipholena atropurpurea.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Crane, black-necked.................  Grus nigricollis.......  China (Tibet)..........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Crane, Cuba sandhill................  Grus canadensis          West Indies--Cuba......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       nesiotes.
Crane, hooded.......................  Grus monacha...........  Japan, Russia..........  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Crane, Japanese.....................  Grus japonensis........  China, Japan, Korea,     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Russia.
Crane, Mississippi sandhill.........  Grus canadensis pulla..  U.S.A. (MS)............  ......do...............        E         6   17.95(b)         NA
Crane, Siberian white...............  Grus leucogeranus......  C.I.S. (Siberia) to      ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                                                India, including Iran
                                                                and China.
Crane, white-naped..................  Grus vipio.............  Mongolia...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA

[[Page 116]]

 
Crane, whooping.....................  Grus americana.........  Canada, U.S.A. (Rocky    Entire, except where           E     1, 3,   17.95(b)         NA
                                                                Mountains east to        listed as an                          487
                                                                Carolinas), Mexico.      experimental
                                                                                         population.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (CO, ID, FL, NM,       XN  487, 621         NA  17.84.(h)
                                                                                         UT, WY).
Creeper, Hawaii.....................  Oreomystis (=Loxops)     U.S.A. (HI)............  Entire.................        E        10         NA         NA
                                       mana.
Creeper, Molokai (=kakawahie).......  Paroreomyza              ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       (=Oreomystis, =Loxops)
                                       flammea.
Creeper, Oahu (=alauwahio)..........  Paroreomyza              ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       (=Oreomystis, =Loxops)
                                       maculata.
Crow, Hawaiian (=`alala)............  Corvus hawaiiensis       ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       (=tropicus).
Crow, Mariana.......................  Corvus kubaryi.........  Western Pacific Ocean--  ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                                                U.S.A. (Guam, Rota).
Crow, white-necked..................  Corvus leucognaphalus..  U.S.A. (PR), Dominican   ......do...............        E       419         NA         NA
                                                                Republic, Haiti.
Cuckoo-shrike, Mauritius............  Coquus (=Coracina)       Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       typicus.
Cuckoo-shrike, Reunion..............  Coquus (=Coracina)       Indian Ocean--Reunion..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       newtoni.
Curassow, razor-billed..............  Mitu (=Crax) mitu mitu.  Brazil (Eastern).......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Curassow, red-billed................  Crax blumenbachii......  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Curassow, Trinidad white-headed.....  Pipile pipile pipile...  West Indies--Trinidad..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Curlew, Eskimo......................  Numenius borealis......  Alaska and northern      ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                                                Canada to Argentina.
Dove, cloven-feathered..............  Drepanoptila             Southwest Pacific        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       holosericea.             Ocean--New Caledonia.
Dove, Grenada gray-fronted..........  Leptotila rufaxilla      West Indies--Grenada...  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       wellsi.
Duck, Hawaiian (=koloa).............  Anas wyvilliana........  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Duck, Laysan........................  Anas laysanensis.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Duck, pink-headed...................  Rhodonessa               India..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       caryophyllacea.
Duck, white-winged wood.............  Cairina scutulata......  India, Malaysia,         ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Indonesia, Thailand.
Eagle, bald.........................  Haliaeetus               North America south to   U.S.A., conterminous           T    1, 34,         NA   17.41(a)
                                       leucocephalus.           northern Mexico.         (lower 48) States..                   580
Eagle, Greenland white-tailed.......  Haliaeetus albicilla     Greenland and adjacent   Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       groenlandicus.           Atlantic islands.
Eagle, harpy........................  Harpia harpyja.........  Mexico south to          ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Argentina.
Eagle, Madagascar serpent...........  Eutriorchis astur......  Madagascar.............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Eagle, Madagascar sea...............  Haliaeetus vociferoides  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Eagle, Philippine (=monkey-eating)..  Pithecophaga jefferyi..  Philippines............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Eagle, Spanish imperial.............  Aquila heliaca           Spain, Morocco, Algeria  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       adalberti.
Egret, Chinese......................  Egretta eulophotes.....  China, Korea...........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Eider, spectacled...................  Somateria                U.S.A. (AK), Russia....  ......do...............        T       503         NA         NA
                                       (=Arctonetta,=Lamprone
                                       tta) fischeri.
Eider, Steller's....................  Polysticta stelleri....  U.S.A. (AK), Russia,     U.S.A. (AK breeding            T       616         NA         NA
                                                                winters to Scandanavia.  population only).

[[Page 117]]

 
Falcon, Eurasian peregrine..........  Falco peregrinus         Europe, Eurasia south    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       peregrinus.              to Africa and Mideast.
Falcon, northern aplomado...........  Falco femoralis          U.S.A. (AZ, NM, TX),     ......do...............        E       216         NA         NA
                                       septentrionalis.         Mexico, Guatemala.
Finch, Laysan (honeycreeper)........  Telespyza                U.S.A. (HI)............  Entire.................        E         1         NA         NA
                                       (=Psittirostra)
                                       cantans.
Finch, Nihoa (honeycreeper).........  Telespyza                ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       (=Psittirostra) ultima.
Flycatcher, Euler's.................  Empidonax euleri         West Indies--Grenada...  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       johnstonei.
Flycatcher, Seychelles paradise.....  Terpsiphone corvina....  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles.
Flycatcher, southwestern willow.....  Empidonax traillii       U.S.A. (AZ, CA, CO, NM,  ......do...............        E       577   17.95(b)         NA
                                       extimus.                 TX, UT), Mexico.
Flycatcher, Tahiti..................  Pomarea nigra..........  South Pacific Ocean--    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Tahiti.
Fody, Mauritius.....................  Foudia rubra...........  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Fody, Rodrigues.....................  Foudia flavicans.......  Indian Ocean--Rodrigues  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Island (Mauritius).
Fody, Seychelles (weaver-finch).....  Foudia sechellarum.....  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles.
Francolin, Djibouti.................  Francolinus ochropectus  Djibouti...............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Frigatebird, Andrew's...............  Fregata andrewsi.......  East Indian Ocean......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Gnatcatcher, coastal California.....  Polioptila californica   U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        T       496         NA   17.41(b)
                                       californica.
Goose, Aleutian Canada..............  Branta canadensis        U.S.A. (AK, CA, OR,      ......do...............        T     1, 3,         NA         NA
                                       leucopareia.             WA), Japan.                                                    410
Goose, Hawaiian (=nene).............  Branta (=Nesochen)       U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       sandvicensis.
Goshawk, Christmas Island...........  Accipiter fasciatus      Indian Ocean--Christmas  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       natalis.                 Island.
Grackle, slender-billed.............  Quisicalus (=Cassidix)   Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       palustris.
Grasswren, Eyrean (flycatcher)......  Amytornis goyderi......  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Grebe, Alaotra......................  Tachybaptus              Madagascar.............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                       rufoflavatus.
Grebe, Atitlan......................  Podilymbus gigas.......  Guatemala..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Greenshank, Nordmann's..............  Tringa guttifer........  Russia, Japan, south to  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Malaya, Borneo.
Guan, horned........................  Oreophasis derbianus...  Guatemala, Mexico......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Guan, white-winged..................  Penelope albipennis....  Peru...................  ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
Guineafowl, white-breasted..........  Agelastes meleagrides..  West Africa............  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
Gull, Audouin's.....................  Larus audouinii........  Mediterranean Sea......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gull, relict........................  Larus relictus.........  India, China...........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Hawk, Galapagos.....................  Buteo galapagoensis....  Ecuador (Galapagos       ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Islands).
Hawk, Hawaiian (=io)................  Buteo solitarius.......  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Hawk, Puerto Rican broad-winged.....  Buteo platypterus        U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E       550         NA         NA
                                       brunnescens.
Hawk, Puerto Rican sharp-shinned....  Accipiter striatus       ......do...............  ......do...............        E       550         NA         NA
                                       venator.
Hermit (hummingbird), hook-billed...  Ramphodon (=Glaucis)     Brazil.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       dohrnii.
Honeycreeper, crested (=`akohekohe).  Palmeria dolei.........  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Honeyeater, helmeted................  Lichenostomus melanops   Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       cassidix (=Meliphaga
                                       c.).
Hornbill, helmeted..................  Buceros (=Rhinoplax)     Thailand, Malaysia.....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       vigil.
Ibis, Japanese crested..............  Nipponia nippon........  China, Japan, Russia,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Korea.
Ibis, northern bald.................  Geronticus eremita.....  Southern Europe,         ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
                                                                southwestern Asia,
                                                                northern Africa.
Scrub-jay, Florida..................  Aphelocoma coerulescens  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T       267         NA         NA
Kagu................................  Rhynochetos jubatus....  South Pacific Ocean--    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                New Caledonia.
Kakapo (=owl-parrot)................  Strigops habroptilus...  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA

[[Page 118]]

 
Kestrel, Mauritius..................  Falco punctatus........  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Kestrel, Seychelles.................  Falco araea............  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles Islands.
Kingfisher, Guam Micronesian........  Halcyon cinnamomina      West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                       cinnamomina.             U.S.A. (Guam).
Kite, Cuba hook-billed..............  Chondrohierax uncinatus  West Indies--Cuba......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       wilsonii.
Kite, Everglade snail...............  Rostrhamus sociabilis    U.S.A. (FL), Cuba......  U.S.A. (FL)............        E         1   17.95(b)         NA
                                       plumbeus.
Kite, Grenada hook-billed...........  Chondrohierax uncinatus  West Indies--Grenada...  Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       mirus.
Kokako (wattlebird).................  Callaeas cinerea.......  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Lark, Raso..........................  Alauda razae...........  Atlantic Ocean--Raso     ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Island (Cape Verde).
Macaw, glaucous.....................  Anodorhynchus glaucus..  Paraguay, Uruguay,       ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Brazil.
Macaw, indigo.......................  Anodorhynchus leari....  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Macaw, little blue..................  Cyanopsitta spixii.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Magpie-robin, Seychelles (thrush)...  Copsychus sechellarum..  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles Islands.
Malimbe, Ibadan.....................  Malimbus ibadanensis...  Nigeria................  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Malkoha, red-faced (cuckoo).........  Phaenicophaeus           Sri Lanka (=Ceylon)....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pyrrhocephalus.
Mallard, Mariana....................  Anas oustaleti.........  West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E        23         NA         NA
                                                                U.S.A. (Guam, Mariana
                                                                Islands).
Megapode, Maleo.....................  Macrocephalon maleo....  Indonesia (Celebes)....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Megapode, Micronesian (=La            Megapodius laperouse...  West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
 Perouse's).                                                    Palau Islands, U.S.A.
                                                                (Mariana Islands).
Millerbird, Nihoa (old world          Acrocephalus familiaris  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
 warbler).                             kingi.
Monarch, Tinian (old world            Monarcha takatsukasae..  West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        T    3, 261         NA         NA
 flycatcher).                                                   U.S.A. (Mariana
                                                                Islands).
Moorhen (=gallinule), Hawaiian        Gallinula chloropus      U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
 common.                               sandvicensis.
Moorhen (=gallinule), Mariana common  Gallinula chloropus      West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                       guami.                   U.S.A. (Guam, Tinian,
                                                                Saipan, Pagan).
Murrelet, marbled...................  Brachyramphus            U.S.A. (AK, CA, OR,      U.S.A. (CA, OR, WA)....        T       479   17.95(b)         NA
                                       marmoratus marmoratus.   WA), Canada (B.C.).
Nightjar (=whip-poor-will), Puerto    Caprimulgus noctitherus  U.S.A. (PR)............  Entire.................        E         6         NA         NA
 Rican.
Nukupu`u (honeycreeper).............  Hemignathus lucidus....  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E      1, 2         NA         NA
Nuthatch, Algerian..................  Sitta ledanti..........  Algeria................  ......doNTE.      571        NA         NA
`O`o, Kauai (=`o`o `a`a)              Moho braccatus.........  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
 (honeyeater).
`O`u (honeycreeper).................  Psittirostra psittacea.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Ostrich, Arabian....................  Struthio camelus         Jordan, Saudi Arabia...  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       syriacus.
Ostrich, West African...............  Struthio camelus spatzi  Spanish Sahara.........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Owl, Anjouan scops..................  Otus rutilus capnodes..  Indian Ocean--Comoro     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Island.
Owl, giant scops....................  Mimizuku (=Otus)         Philippines--Marinduque  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       gurneyi.                 and Mindanao Island.
Owl, Madagascar red.................  Tyto soumagnei.........  Madagascar.............  ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA

[[Page 119]]

 
Owl, Mexican spotted................  Strix occidentalis       U.S.A. (AZ, CO, NM, TX,  ......do...............        T       494         NA         NA
                                       lucida.                  UT), Mexico.
Owl, northern spotted...............  Strix occidentalis       U.S.A. (CA, OR, WA),     ......do...............        T       393   17.95(b)         NA
                                       caurina.                 Canada (B.C.).
Owl, Seychelles scops...............  Otus magicus             Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=insularis) insularis.  Seychelles Islands.
Owlet, Morden's (=sokoke)...........  Otus ireneae...........  Kenya..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Oystercatcher, Canarian black.......  Haematopus meadewaldoi.  Atlantic Ocean--Canary   ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Islands.
Palila (honeycreeper)...............  Loxioides                U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1   17.95(b)         NA
                                       (=Psittirostra)
                                       bailleui.
Parakeet, blue-throated (=ochre-      Pyrrhura cruentata.....  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
 marked).
Parakeet, Forbes'...................  Cyanoramphus auriceps    New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       forbesi.
Parakeet, golden....................  Aratinga guarouba......  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Parakeet, golden-shouldered           Psephotus                Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
 (=hooded).                            chrysopterygius.
Parakeet, Mauritius.................  Psittacula echo........  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parakeet, Norfolk Island............  Cyanoramphus cookii      Australia (Norfolk       ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
                                       (=novaezelandiae c.).    Island).
Parakeet, orange-bellied............  Neophema chrysogaster..  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Parakeet, paradise (=beautiful).....  Psephotus pulcherrimus.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Parakeet, scarlet-chested             Neophema splendida.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
 (=splendid).
Parakeet, turquoise.................  Neophema pulchella.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parrot, Bahaman or Cuban............  Amazona leucocephala...  West Indies--Cuba,       ......do...............        E     3, 15         NA         NA
                                                                Bahamas, Caymans.
Parrot, ground......................  Pezoporus wallicus.....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Parrot, imperial....................  Amazona imperialis.....  West Indies--Dominica..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parrot, night (=Australian).........  Geopsittacus             Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       occidentalis.
Parrot, Puerto Rican................  Amazona vittata........  U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Parrot, red-browed..................  Amazona rhodocorytha...  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parrot, red-capped..................  Pionopsitta pileata....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Parrot, red-necked..................  Amazona arausiaca......  West Indies--Dominica..  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Parrot, red-spectacled..............  Amazona pretrei pretrei  Brazil, Argentina......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Parrot, red-tailed..................  Amazona brasiliensis...  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
Parrot, Seychelles lesser vasa......  Coracopsis nigra         Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                       barklyi.                 Seychelles (Praslin
                                                                Island).
Parrot, St. Lucia...................  Amazona versicolor.....  West Indies--St. Lucia.  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parrot, St. Vincent.................  Amazona guildingii.....  West Indies--St.         ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Vincent.
Parrot, thick-billed................  Rhynchopsitta            Mexico, U.S.A. (AZ, NM)  Mexico.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pachyrhyncha.
Parrot, vinaceous-breasted..........  Amazona vinacea........  Brazil.................  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
Parrotbill, Maui (honeycreeper).....  Pseudonestor             U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       xanthophrys.
Pelican, brown......................  Pelecanus occidentalis.  U.S.A (Carolinas to      Entire, except U.S.            E     2, 3,         NA         NA
                                                                TX,CjA, OR, WA), West    Atlantic coast, FL, AL.               171
                                                                Indies, coastal
                                                                Central and South
                                                                America.
Penguin, Galapagos..................  Spheniscus mendiculus..  Ecuador (Galapagos       Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Islands).
Petrel, Hawaiian dark-rumped........  Pterodroma phaeopygia    U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       sandwichensis.
Petrel, Madeira (=freira)...........  Pterodroma madeira.....  Atlantic Ocean--Madeira  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Island.
Petrel, Mascarene black.............  Pterodroma aterrima....  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                (Reunion Island).

[[Page 120]]

 
Pheasant, bar-tailed................  Syrmaticus humaie......  Burma, China...........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Blyth's tragopan..........  Tragopan blythii.......  Burma, China, India....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, brown eared...............  Crossoptilon             China..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       mantchuricum.
Pheasant, Cabot's tragopan..........  Tragopan caboti........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, cheer.....................  Catreus wallichii......  India, Nepal, Pakistan.  ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
Pheasant, Chinese monal.............  Lophophorus lhuysii....  China..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Edward's..................  Lophura edwardsi.......  Vietnam................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Elliot's..................  Syrmaticus ellioti.....  China..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Pheasant, imperial..................  Lophura imperialis.....  Vietnam................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Mikado....................  Syrmaticus mikado......  Taiwan.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Palawan peacock...........  Polyplectron emphanum..  Philippines............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Sclater's monal...........  Lophophorus sclateri...  Burma, China, India....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Swinhoe's.................  Lophura swinhoii.......  Taiwan.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, western tragopan..........  Tragopan melanocephalus  India, Pakistan........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, white eared...............  Crossoptilon             China (Tibet), India...  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       crossoptilon.
Pigeon, Azores wood.................  Columba palumbus         East Atlantic Ocean--    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       azorica.                 Azores.
Pigeon, Chatham Island..............  Hemiphaga                New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       novaeseelandiae
                                       chathamensis.
Pigeon, Mindoro imperial (=zone-      Ducula mindorensis.....  Philippines............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
 tailed).
Pigeon, pink........................  Columba (=Nesoenas)      Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                       mayeri.
Pigeon, Puerto Rican plain..........  Columba inornata         U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       wetmorei.
Pigeon, white-tailed laurel.........  Columba junoniae.......  Atlantic Ocean--Canary   ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
                                                                Islands.
Piping-guan, black-fronted..........  Pipile jacutinga.......  Argentina..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Pitta, Koch's.......................  Pitta kochi............  Philippines............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Plover, New Zealand shore...........  Thinornis                New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       novaeseelandiae.
Plover, piping......................  Charadrius melodus.....  U.S.A. (Great Lakes,     Great Lakes watershed          E       211         NA         NA
                                                                northern Great Plains,   in States of IL, IN,
                                                                Atlantic and Gulf        MI, MN, NY, OH, PA,
                                                                coasts, PR, VI),         and WI and Canada
                                                                Canada, Mexico,          (Ont.).
                                                                Bahamas, West Indies.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Entire, except those           T       211         NA         NA
                                                                                         areas where listed as
                                                                                         endangered above.
Plover, western snowy...............  Charadrius alexandrinus  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, CO, KS,  U.S.A. (CA, OR, WA),           T       493         NA         NA
                                       nivosus.                 NM, NV, OK, OR, TX,      Mexico (within 50
                                                                UT, WA), Mexico.         miles of Pacific
                                                                                         coast).
Po`ouli (honeycreeper)..............  Melamprosops phaeosoma.  U.S.A. (HI)............  Entire.................        E        10         NA         NA
Pochard, Madagascar.................  Aythya innotata........  Madagascar.............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Prairie-chicken, Attwater's greater.  Tympanuchus cupido       U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       attwateri.
Pygmy-owl, cactus ferruginous.......  Glaucidium brasilianum   U.S.A. (AZ, TX), Mexico  AZ.....................        E       600  Sec.  17.         NA
                                       cactorum.                                                                                        95(b)
Quail, Merriam's Montezuma..........  Cyrtonyx montezumae      Mexico (Vera Cruz).....  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       merriami.
Quetzel, resplendent................  Pharomachrus mocinno...  Mexico to Panama.......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Rail, Aukland Island................  Rallus pectoralis        New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       muelleri.
Rail, California clapper............  Rallus longirostris      U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       obsoletus.
Rail, Guam..........................  Rallus owstoni.........  Western Pacific Ocean--  Entire, except Rota....        E     146E,         NA         NA
                                                                U.S.A. (Guam).                                                 156
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Rota...................       XN       371         NA   17.84(f)

[[Page 121]]

 
Rail, light-footed clapper..........  Rallus longirostris      U.S.A. (CA), Mexico      U.S.A. only............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       levipes.                 (Baja California).
Rail, Lord Howe wood................  Gallirallus              Australia (Lord Howe     Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Tricholimnas)          Island).
                                       sylvestris.
Rail, Yuma clapper..................  Rallus longirostris      Mexico, U.S.A. (AZ, CA)  U.S.A. only............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       yumanensis.
Rhea, lesser (incl. Darwin's).......  Rhea (=Pterocnemia)      Argentina, Bolivia,      Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pennata.                 Peru, Uruguay.
Robin, Chatham Island...............  Petroica traversi......  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Robin, dappled mountain.............  Arcanator (=Modulatrix)  Mozambique, Tanzania...  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
                                       orostruthus.
Robin, scarlet-breasted (flycatcher)  Petroica multicolor      Australia (Norfolk       ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       multicolor.              Island).
Rockfowl, grey-necked...............  Picathartes oreas......  Cameroon, Gabon........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Rockfowl, white-necked..............  Picathartes              Africa--Togo to Sierra   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       gymnocephalus.           Leone.
Roller, long-tailed ground..........  Uratelornis chimaera...  Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                (=Madagascar).
Scrub-bird, noisy...................  Atrichornis clamosus...  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Shama, Cebu black (thrush)..........  Copsychus niger          Philippines............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       cebuensis.
Shearwater, Newell's Townsend's       Puffinus auricularis     U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        T        10         NA         NA
 (formerly Manx) (=`a`o).              (=puffinus) newelli.
Shrike, San Clemente loggerhead.....  Lanius ludovicianus      U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E        26         NA         NA
                                       mearnsi.
Siskin, red.........................  Carduelis (=Spinus)      South America..........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       cucullata.
Sparrow, Cape Sable seaside.........  Ammodramus (=Ammospiza)  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E         1   17.95(b)         NA
                                       maritimus mirabilis.
Sparrow, Florida grasshopper........  Ammodramus savannarum    ......do...............  ......do...............        E       239         NA         NA
                                       floridanus.
Sparrow, San Clemente sage..........  Amphispiza belli         U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T        26         NA         NA
                                       clementeae.
Sparrowhawk, Anjouan Island.........  Accipiter francesii      Indian Ocean--Comoro     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pusillus.                Islands.
Starling, Ponape mountain...........  Aplonis pelzelni.......  West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Federated States of
                                                                Micronesia.
Starling, Rothschild's (myna).......  Leucopsar rothschildi..  Indonesia (Bali).......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Stilt, Hawaiian (=ae`o).............  Himantopus mexicanus     U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       (=himantopus) knudseni.
Stork, oriental white...............  Ciconia boyciana         China, Japan, Korea,     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=ciconia b.).           Russia.
Stork, wood.........................  Mycteria americana.....  U.S.A., (CA, AZ, TX, to  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA, SC)        E       142         NA         NA
                                                                Carolinas), Mexico, C.
                                                                and S. America.
Sunbird, Marungu....................  Nectarinia prigoginei..  Zaire..................  Entire.................        E       571         NA         NA
Swiftlet, Mariana gray (=vanikoro)..  Aerodramus vanikorensis  Western Pacific Ocean--  ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                       bartschi.                U.S.A. (Guam, Rota,
                                                                Tinian, Saipan,
                                                                Agiguan).
Teal, Campbell Island flightless....  Anas aucklandica         New Zealand (Campbell    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       nesiotis.                Island).
Tern, California least..............  Sterna antillarum        Mexico, U.S.A. (CA)....  ......do...............        E      2, 3         NA         NA
                                       (=albifrons) browni.
Tern, least.........................  Sterna antillarum......  U.S.A. (Atlantic and     U.S.A. (AR, CO, IA, IL,        E       182         NA         NA
                                                                Gulf coasts, Miss. R.    IN, KS, KY, LA--Miss.
                                                                Basin, CA), Greater      R. and tribs. N of
                                                                and Lesser Antilles,     Baton Rouge, MS--Miss.
                                                                Bahamas, Mexico;         R., MO, MT, ND, NE,
                                                                winters Central          NM, OK, SD, TN, TX--
                                                                America, northern        except within 50 miles
                                                                South America.           of coast).

[[Page 122]]

 
Tern, roseate.......................  Sterna dougallii         Tropical and temperate   U.S.A. (Atlantic Coast         E       296         NA         NA
                                       dougallii.               coasts of Atlantic       south to NC), Canada
                                                                Basin and East Africa.   (Newf., N.S, Que.),
                                                                                         Bermuda.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Western Hemisphere and         T       296         NA         NA
                                                                                         adjacent oceans, incl.
                                                                                         U.S.A. (FL, PR, VI),
                                                                                         where not listed as
                                                                                         endangered.
Thrasher, white-breasted............  Ramphocinclus            West Indies--St. Lucia,  Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       brachyurus.              Martinique.
Thrush, large Kauai.................  Myadestes (=Phaeornis)   U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       myadestinus.
Thrush, Molokai (=oloma`o)..........  Myadestes (=Phaeornis)   ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       lanaiensis (=obscurus)
                                       rutha.
Thrush, New Zealand (wattlebird)....  Turnagra capensis......  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Thrush, small Kauai (=puaiohi)......  Myadestes (=Phaeornis)   U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       palmeri.
Thrush, Taita.......................  Turdus olivaceous        Kenya..................  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                       helleri.
Tinamou, solitary...................  Tinamus solitarius.....  Brazil, Paraguay,        ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Argentina.
Towhee, Inyo California (=brown)....  Pipilo crissalis         U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       282   17.95(b)         NA
                                       (=fuscus) eremophilus.
Trembler, Martinique (thrasher).....  Cinclocerthia ruficauda  West Indies--Martinique  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       gutturalis.
Turaco, Bannerman's.................  Tauraco bannermani.....  Cameroon...............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Turtle-dove, Seychelles.............  Streptopelia picturata   Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                       rostrata.                Seychelles.
Vanga, Pollen's.....................  Xenopirostris polleni..  Madagascar.............  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
Vanga, Van Dam's....................  Xenopirostris damii....  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
Vireo, black-capped.................  Vireo atricapillus.....  U.S.A. (KS, LA, NE, OK,  ......do...............        E       294         NA         NA
                                                                TX), Mexico..
Vireo, least Bell's.................  Vireo bellii pusillus..  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        E       228   17.95(b)         NA
Wanderer, plain (collared-hemipode).  Pedionomous torquatus..  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Warbler (Old World), Aldabra........  Nesillas aldabranus....  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles (Aldabra
                                                                Island).
Warbler (wood), Bachman's...........  Vermivora bachmanii....  U.S.A. (Southeastern),   ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                                                Cuba.
Warbler (wood), Barbados yellow.....  Dendroica petechia       West Indies--Barbados..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       petechia.
Warbler (wood), golden-cheeked......  Dendroica chrysoparia..  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico,     ......do...............        E     387E,         NA         NA
                                                                Guatemala, Honduras,                                           411
                                                                Nicaragua, Belize.
Warbler (wood), Kirtland's..........  Dendroica kirtlandii...  U.S.A. (principally      ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                                                MI), Canada, West
                                                                Indies--Bahama Islands.
Warbler (Old World), nightingale      Acrocephalus luscinia..  West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E      3, 4         NA         NA
 reed.                                                          U.S.A. (Guam,
                                                                Alamagan, Saipan).
Warbler (Old World), Rodrigues......  Bebrornis rodericanus..  Mauritius (Rodrigues     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Islands).
Warbler (wood), Semper's............  Leucopeza semperi......  West Indies--St. Lucia.  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Warbler (Old World), Seychelles.....  Bebrornis sechellensis.  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles Island.
Wattle-eye, banded..................  Platysteira laticincta.  Cameroon...............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Weaver, Clarke's....................  Ploceus golandi........  Kenya..................  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Whipbird, western...................  Psophodes nigrogularis.  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA

[[Page 123]]

 
White-eye, bridled..................  Zosterops                Western Pacific Ocean--  ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                       conspicillatus           U.S.A. (Guam).
                                       conspicillatus.
White-eye, Norfolk Island...........  Zosterops albogularis..  Indian Ocean--Norfolk    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Islands.
White-eye, Ponape greater...........  Rukia longirostra        West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=sanfordi).             Federated States of
                                                                Micronesia.
White-eye, Seychelles...............  Zosterops modesta......  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles.
Woodpecker, imperial................  Campephilus imperialis.  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Woodpecker, ivory-billed............  Campephilus principalis  U.S.A. (southcentral     ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                                                and southeastern),
                                                                Cuba.
Woodpecker, red-cockaded............  Picoides (=Dendrocopos)  U.S.A. (southcentral     ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       borealis.                and southeastern).
Woodpecker, Tristam's...............  Dryocopus javensis       Korea..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       richardsi.
Wren, Guadeloupe house..............  Troglodytes aedon        West Indies--Guadeloupe  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       guadeloupensis.
Wren, St. Lucia house...............  Troglodytes aedon        West Indies--St. Lucia.  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       mesoleucus.
 
              Reptiles
Alligator, American.................  Alligator                Southeastern U.S.A.....  ......do...............   T(S/A)    1, 11,         NA   17.42(a)
                                       mississippiensis.                                                                   20, 47,
                                                                                                                           51, 60,
                                                                                                                              113,
                                                                                                                              134,
                                                                                                                          186, 269
Alligator, Chinese..................  Alligator sinensis.....  China..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Anole, Culebra Island giant.........  Anolis roosevelti......  U.S.A. (PR--Culebra      ......do...............        E        25   17.95(c)         NA
                                                                Island).
Boa, Jamaican.......................  Epicrates subflavus....  Jamaica................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Boa, Mona...........................  Epicrates monensis       U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        T        33   17.95(c)         NA
                                       monensis.
Boa, Puerto Rican...................  Epicrates inornatus....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
Boa, Round Island [unnamed].........  Bolyeria multocarinata.  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
    Do..............................  Casarea dussumieri.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
Boa, Virgin Islands tree............  Epicrates monensis       U.S.A. (PR), British     ......do...............        E     2, 86         NA         NA
                                       granti.                  Virgin Islands.
Caiman, Apaporis River..............  Caiman crocodilus        Colombia...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       apaporiensis.
Caiman, black.......................  Melanosuchus niger.....  Amazon basin...........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Caiman, broad-snouted...............  Caiman latirostris.....  Brazil, Argentina,       ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Paraguay, Uruguay.
Caiman, Yacare......................  Caiman crocodilus        Bolivia, Argentina,      ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       yacare.                  Peru, Brazil.
Chuckwalla, San Esteban Island......  Sauromalus varius......  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
Crocodile, African dwarf............  Osteolaemus tetraspis    West Africa............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       tetraspis.
Crocodile, African slender-snouted..  Crocodylus cataphractus  Western and central      ......do...............        E         5         NA         NA
                                                                Africa.
Crocodile, American.................  Crocodylus acutus......  U.S.A. (FL), Mexico,     ......do...............        E    10, 87   17.95(c)         NA
                                                                Caribbean, Central and
                                                                South America.
Crocodile, Ceylon mugger............  Crocodylus palustris     Sri Lanka..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       kimbula.
Crocodile, Congo dwarf..............  Osteolaemus tetraspis    Congo R. drainage......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       osborni.
Crocodile, Cuban....................  Crocodylus rhombifer...  Cuba...................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Crocodile, Morelet's................  Crocodylus moreletii...  Mexico, Belize,          ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Guatemala.
Crocodile, mugger...................  Crocodylus palustris     India, Pakistan, Iran,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       palustris.               Bangladesh.
Crocodile, Nile.....................  Crocodylus niloticus...  Africa, Middle East....  ......do...............        T   3, 279,         NA   17.42(c)
                                                                                                                              334,
                                                                                                                          514, 585
Crocodile, Orinoco..................  Crocodylus intermedius.  South America--Orinoco   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                R. basin.

[[Page 124]]

 
Crocodile, Philippine...............  Crocodylus novaeguineae  Philippine Islands.....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       mindorensis.
Crocodile, saltwater (=estuarine)...  Crocodylus porosus.....  Southeast Asia,          Entire, except Papua           E   87, 585         NA         NA
                                                                Australia, Papua New     New Guinea and
                                                                Guinea, Islands of the   Australia.
                                                                West Pacific Ocean.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Australia..............        T   87, 585         NA   17.42(c)
Crocodile, Siamese..................  Crocodylus siamensis...  Southeast Asia, Malay    Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Peninsula.
Gavial (=gharial)...................  Gavialis gangeticus....  Pakistan, Burma,         ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Bangladesh, India,
                                                                Nepal.
Gecko, day..........................  Phelsuma edwardnewtoni.  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gecko, Monito.......................  Sphaerodactylus          U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E       125   17.95(c)         NA
                                       micropithecus.
Gecko, Round Island day.............  Phelsuma guentheri.....  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gecko, Serpent Island...............  Cyrtodactylus            ......do...............  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       serpensinsula.
Iguana, Acklins ground..............  Cyclura rileyi nuchalis  West Indies--Bahamas...  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
Iguana, Allen's Cay.................  Cyclura cychlura         ......do...............  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       inornata.
Iguana, Andros Island ground........  Cyclura cychlura         ......do...............  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       cychlura.
Iguana, Anegada ground..............  Cyclura pinguis........  West Indies--British     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Virgin Islands
                                                                (Anegada Island).
Iguana, Barrington land.............  Conolophus pallidus....  Ecuador (Galapagos       ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Islands).
Iguana, Cayman Brac ground..........  Cyclura nubila           West Indies--Cayman      ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       caymanensis.             Islands.
Iguana, Cuban ground................  Cyclura nubila nubila..  Cuba...................  Entire (excluding              T       129         NA         NA
                                                                                         population introduced
                                                                                         in Puerto Rico).
Iguana, Exuma Island................  Cyclura cychlura         West Indies--Bahamas...  Entire.................        T       129         NA         NA
                                       figginsi.
Iguana, Fiji banded.................  Brachylophus fasciatus.  Pacific--Fiji, Tonga...  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
Iguana, Fiji crested................  Brachylophus vitiensis.  Pacific--Fiji..........  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
Iguana, Grand Cayman ground.........  Cyclura nubila lewisi..  West Indies--Cayman      ......do...............        E       129         NA         NA
                                                                Islands.
Iguana, Jamaican....................  Cyclura collei.........  West Indies--Jamaica...  ......do...............        E       129         NA         NA
Iguana, Mayaguana...................  Cyclura carinata         West Indies--Bahamas...  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       bartschi.
Iguana, Mona ground.................  Cyclura stejnegeri.....  U.S.A. (PR--Mona         ......do...............        T        33   17.95(c)         NA
                                                                Island).
Iguana, Turks and Caicos............  Cyclura carinata         West Indies--Turks and   ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       carinata.                Caicos Islands.
Iguana, Watling Island ground.......  Cyclura rileyi rileyi..  West Indies--Bahamas...  ......do...............        E       129         NA         NA
Iguana, White Cay ground............  Cyclura rileyi cristata  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
Lizard, blunt-nosed leopard.........  Gambelia (=Crotaphytus)  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       silus.
Lizard, Coachella Valley fringe-toed  Uma inornata...........  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       105   17.95(c)         NA
Lizard, Hierro giant................  Gallotia simonyi         Spain (Canary Islands).  ......do...............        E       144         NA         NA
                                       simonyi.
Lizard, Ibiza wall..................  Podarcis pityusensis...  Spain (Balearic          ......do...............        T       144         NA         NA
                                                                Islands).
Lizard, Island night................  Xantusia (=Klauberina)   U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T        26         NA         NA
                                       riversiana.
Lizard, Maria Island ground.........  Cnemidophorus vanzoi...  West Indies--St. Lucia   ......do...............        E       443         NA         NA
                                                                (Maria Islands).
Lizard, St. Croix ground............  Ameiva polops..........  U.S.A. (VI)............  ......do...............        E        24   17.95(c)         NA
Monitor, desert.....................  Varanus griseus........  North Africa to Aral     ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Sea, through Central
                                                                Asia to Pakistan,
                                                                Northwest India.

[[Page 125]]

 
Monitor, Indian (=Bengal)...........  Varanus bengalensis....  Iran, Iraq, India, Sri   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Lanka, Malaysia,
                                                                Afghanistan, Burma,
                                                                Vietnam, Thailand.
Monitor, Komodo Island..............  Varanus komodoensis....  Indonesia (Komodo,       ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Rintja, Padar, and
                                                                western Flores Island).
Monitor, yellow.....................  Varanus flavescens.....  West Pakistan through    ......do...............        E        15  NAT
Sec. 17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

    (a) The list in this section contains the names of all species of 
plants which have been determined by the Services to be Endangered or 
Threatened. It also contains the names of species of plants treated as 
Endangered or Threatened because they are sufficiently similar in 
appearance to Endangered or Threatened species (see Sec. 17.50 et seq.).

    (b) The columns entitled ``Scientific name'' and ``Common name'' 
define the species of plant within the meaning of the Act. Although 
common names are included, they cannot be relied upon for identification 
of any specimen, since they may vary greatly in local usage. The 
Services shall use the most recently accepted scientific name. In cases 
in which confusion might arise, a synonym(s) will be provided in 
parentheses. The Services shall rely to the extent practicable on the 
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
    (c) In the ``Status'' column the following symbols are used: ``E'' 
for Endangered, ``T'' for Threatened, and ``E

[[Page 144]]

[or T] (S/A)'' for similarity of appearance species.
    (d) The other data in the list are nonregulatory in nature and are 
provided for the information of the reader. In the annual revision and 
compilation of

this title, the following information may be amended without public 
notice: the spelling of species' names, historical range, footnotes, 
references to certain other applicable portions of this title, synonyms, 
and more current names. In any of these revised entries, neither the 
species, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, nor its status may 
    be changed without following the procedures of part 424 of this title.
(e) The ``Historic range'' indicates the known general distribution of 
the species or subspecies as reported in the current scientific 
literature. The present distribution may be greatly reduced from this 
historic range. This column does not imply any limitation on the 
application of the prohibitions in the Act or implementing rules. Such 
prohibitions apply to all individuals of the plant species, wherever 
found.
    (f)(1) A footnote to the Federal Register publication(s) listing or 
reclassifying a species is indicated under the column ``When listed.'' 
Footnote numbers to Secs. 17.11 and 17.12 are in the same numerical 
sequence, since plants and animals may be listed in the same Federal 
Register document. That document, at least since 1973, includes a 
statement indicating the basis for the listing, as well as the effective 
date(s) of said listing.
    (2) The ``Special rules'' and ``Critical habitat'' columns provide a 
cross reference to other sections in parts 17, 222, 226, or 227. The 
``Special rules'' column will also be used to cite the special rules 
which describe experimental populations and determine if they are 
essential or nonessential. Separate listings will be made for 
experimental populations, and the status column will include the 
following symbols: ``XE'' for an essential experimental population and 
``XN'' for a nonessential experimental population. The term ``NA'' (not 
applicable) appearing in either of these two columns indicates that 
there are no special rules and/or critical habitat for that particular 
species. However, all other appropriate rules in parts 17, 217 through 
227, and 402 still apply to that species. In addition, there may be 
other rules in this title that relate to such plants, e.g., port-of-
entry requirements. It is not intended that the references in the 
``Special rules'' column list all the regulations of the two Services 
which might apply to the species or to the regulations of other Federal 
agencies or State or local governments.
    (g) The listing of a particular taxon includes all lower taxonomic 
units (see Sec. 17.11(g) for examples).
    (h) The ``List of Endangered and Threatened Plants'' is provided 
below:

[[Page 145]]



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Species
---------------------------------------------------------------      Historic range               Family           Status    When    Critical   Special
           Scientific name                   Common name                                                                    listed    habitat    rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Flowering Plants
Abronia macrocarpa...................  Large-fruited sand-      U.S.A. (TX)............  Nyctaginaceae..........        E       331        NA         NA
                                        verbena.
Abutilon eremitopetalum..............  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Malvaceae..............        E       435        NA         NA
Abutilon menziesii...................  Ko`oloa`ula............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       243        NA         NA
Abutilon sandwicense.................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Acaena exigua........................  Liliwai................  ......do...............  Rosaceae...............        E       467        NA         NA
Acanthomintha obovata ssp. duttonii..  San Mateo thornmint....  U.S.A. (CA)............  Lamiaceae..............        E       204        NA         NA
Acanthomintha ilicifolia.............  San Diego thornmint....  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        T       649        NA         NA
Achyranthes mutica...................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Amaranthaceae..........        E       592        NA         NA
Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata.  Round-leaved chaff-      ......do...............  ......do...............        E       220        NA         NA
                                        flower.
Aconitum noveboracense...............  Northern wild monkshood  U.S.A. (IA, NY, OH, WI)  Ranunculaceae..........        T        39        NA         NA
Aeschynomene virginica...............  Sensitive joint-vetch..  U.S.A. (DE, MD, NC, NJ,  Fabaceae...............        T       470        NA         NA
                                                                 PA, VA).
Agalinis acuta.......................  Sandplain gerardia.....  U.S.A. (CT, MA, MD, NY,  Scrophulariaceae.......        E       325        NA         NA
                                                                 RI).
Agave arizonica......................  Arizona agave..........  U.S.A. (AZ)............  Agavaceae..............        E       147        NA         NA
Alectryon macrococcus................  Mahoe..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Sapindaceae............        E       467        NA         NA
Allium munzii........................  Munz's onion...........  U.S.A. (CA)............  Liliaceae..............        E       650        NA         NA
Alopecurus aequalis var. sonomensis..  Sonoma alopecurus......  ......do...............  Poaceae................        E       625        NA         NA
Alsinidendron obovatum...............  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Caryophyllaceae........        E       448        NA         NA
Alsinidendron trinerve...............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Alsinidendron lychnoides.............  Kuawawaenohu...........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Alsinidendron viscosum...............  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Amaranthus brownii...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Amaranthaceae..........        E       587        NA         NA
Amaranthus pumilus...................  Seabeach amaranth......  U.S.A. (DE, MA, MD, NC,  ......do...............        T       498        NA         NA
                                                                 NJ, NY, RI, SC, VA).
Ambrosia cheiranthifolia.............  South Texas ambrosia...  U.S.A. (TX)............  Asteraceae.............        E       547        NA         NA
Amorpha crenulata....................  Crenulate lead-plant...  U.S.A. (FL)............  Fabaceae...............        E       192        NA         NA
Amphianthus pusillus.................  Little amphianthus.....  U.S.A. (AL, GA, SC)....  Scrophulariaceae.......        T       302        NA         NA
Amsinckia grandiflora................  Large-flowered           U.S.A. (CA)............  Boraginaceae...........        E       179  17.96(a)         NA
                                        fiddleneck.
Amsonia kearneyana...................  Kearney's blue-star....  U.S.A. (AZ)............  Apocynaceae............        E       343        NA         NA
Ancistrocactus (=Echinocactus          Tobusch fishhook cactus  U.S.A. (TX)............  Cactaceae..............        E        80        NA         NA
 =Mammillaria) tobuschii.
Apios priceana.......................  Price's potato-bean....  U.S.A. (AL, IL, KY, MS,  Fabaceae...............        T       373        NA         NA
                                                                 TN).
Arabis hoffmannii....................  Hoffmann's rock-cress..  U.S.A. (CA)............  Brassicaceae...........        E       623        NA         NA
Arabis mcdonaldiana..................  McDonald's rock-cress..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        44        NA         NA
Arabis perstellata...................  Braun's rock-cress.....  U.S.A. (KY,TN).........  ......do...............        E       570        NA         NA
Arabis serotina......................  Shale barren rock-cress  U.S.A. (VA, WV)........  ......do...............        E       352        NA         NA
Arctomecon humilis...................  Dwarf bear-poppy.......  U.S.A. (UT)............  Papaveraceae...........        E        78        NA         NA
Arctostaphylos morroensis............  Morro manzanita........  U.S.A. (CA)............  Ericaceae..............        T       567        NA         NA
Arctostaphylos hookeri (=pungens)      Presidio (=Raven's)      ......do...............  ......do...............        E        65        NA         NA
 var. ravenii.                          manzanita.
Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp.         Del Mar manzanita......  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        E       589        NA         NA
 crassifolia.
Arctostaphylos confertiflora.........  Santa Rosa Island        U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       623        NA         NA
                                        manzanita.

[[Page 146]]

 
Arctostaphylos myrtifolia............  Ione manzanita.........  ......do...............  Ericaceae--Heath.......        T       661        NA         NA
Arctostaphylos pallida...............  Pallid manzanita.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       635        NA         NA
Arenaria cumberlandensis.............  Cumberland sandwort....  U.S.A. (KY, TN)........  Caryophyllaceae........        E       311        NA         NA
Arenaria paludicola..................  Marsh sandwort.........  U.S.A. (CA,OR,WA)......  ......do...............        E       511        NA         NA
Arenaria ursina......................  Bear Valley sandwort...  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       644        NA         NA
Argemone pleiacantha ssp.              Sacramento prickly-      U.S.A. (NM)............  Papaveraceae...........        E       360        NA         NA
 pinnatisecta.                          poppy.
Argyroxiphium kauense................  Mauna Loa (=Ka`u)        U.S.A. (HI)............  Asteraceae.............        E       497        NA         NA
                                        silversword.
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp.         `Ahinahina (=Haleakala   ......do...............  ......do...............        T       467        NA         NA
 macrocephalum.                         silversword).
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp.         `Ahinahina (=Mauna Kea   ......do...............  ......do...............        E       219        NA         NA
 sandwicense.                           silversword).
Aristida chaseae.....................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Poaceae................        E       501        NA         NA
Aristida portoricensis...............  Pelos del diablo.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       398        NA         NA
Asclepias meadii.....................  Mead's milkweed........  U.S.A. (IA, IL, IN, KS,  Asclepiadaceae.........        T       321        NA         NA
                                                                 MO, WI).
Asclepias welshii....................  Welsh's milkweed.......  U.S.A. (AZ, UT)........  ......do...............        T       295  17.96(a)         NA
Asimina tetramera....................  Four-petal pawpaw......  U.S.A. (FL)............  Annonaceae.............        E       244        NA         NA
Astragalus albens....................  Cushenbury milk-vetch..  U.S.A. (CA)............  Fabaceae...............        E       548        NA         NA
Astragalus applegatei................  Applegate's milk-vetch.  U.S.A. (OR)............  ......do...............        E       510        NA         NA
Astragalus bibullatus................  Pyne's (=Guthrie's)      U.S.A. (TN)............  ......do...............        E       437        NA         NA
                                        ground-plum.
Astragalus brauntonii................  Braunton's milk-vetch..  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       606        NA         NA
Astragalus clarianus.................  Clara Hunt's milk-vetch  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       625        NA         NA
Astragalus cremnophylax var.           Sentry milk-vetch......  U.S.A. (AZ)............  ......do...............        E       409        NA         NA
 cremnophylax.
Astragalus humillimus................  Mancos milk-vetch......  U.S.A. (CO, NM)........  ......do...............        E       187        NA         NA
Astragalus jaegerianus...............  Lane Mountain milk-      U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       647        NA         NA
                                        vetch.
Astragalus lentiginosus var.           Coachella Valley milk-   ......do...............  ......do...............        E       647        NA         NA
 coachellae.                            vetch.
Astragalus lentiginosus var.           Fish Slough milk-vetch.  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       647        NA         NA
 piscinensis.
Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii.  Peirson's milk-vetch...  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       647        NA         NA
Astragalus montii (=A. limnocharis     Heliotrope milk-vetch..  U.S.A. (UT)............  ......do...............        T       298  17.96(a)         NA
 var. m.).
Astragalus osterhoutii...............  Osterhout milk-vetch...  U.S.A. (CO)............  ......do...............        E       353        NA         NA
Astragalus phoenix...................  Ash Meadows milk-vetch.  U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        T       181  17.96(a)         NA
Astragalus robbinsii var. jesupi.....  Jesup's milk-vetch.....  U.S.A. (NH, VT)........  ......do...............        E       271        NA         NA
Astragalus tener var. titi...........  Coastal dunes milk-      U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       640        NA         NA
                                        vetch.
Astragalus tricarinatus..............  Triple-ribbed milk-      ......do...............  ......do...............        E       647        NA         NA
                                        vetch.
Astrophytum (=Echinocactus) asterias.  Star cactus............  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico....  Cactaceae..............        E       521        NA         NA
Atriplex coronata var. notatior......  San Jacinto Valley       U.S.A. (CA)............  Chenopodiaceae.........        E       650        NA         NA
                                        crownscale.
Auerodendron pauciflorum.............  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Rhamnaceae.............        E       531        NA         NA
Ayenia limitaris.....................  Texas ayenia...........  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico....  Sterculiaceae..........        E       547        NA         NA
Baccharis vanessae...................  Encinitis baccharis      U.S.A. (CA)............  Asteraceae.............        T       589        NA         NA
                                        (=Coyote bush).

[[Page 147]]

 
Banara vanderbiltii..................  Palo de Ramon..........  U.S.A. (PR)............  Flacourtiaceae.........        E       255        NA         NA
Baptisia arachnifera.................  Hairy rattleweed.......  U.S.A. (GA)............  Fabaceae...............        E        39        NA         NA
Berberis nevinii.....................  Nevin's barberry.......  U.S.A. (CA)............  Berberidaceae..........        E       648        NA         NA
Berberis pinnata ssp. insularis......  Island barberry........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       623        NA         NA
Berberis sonnei (=Mahonia s.)........  Truckee barberry.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        76        NA         NA
Betula uber..........................  Virginia round-leaf      U.S.A. (VA)............  Betulaceae.............        T   39, 560        NA         NA
                                        birch.
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha......  Ko`oko`olau............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Asteraceae.............        E       467        NA         NA
Bidens wiebkei.......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Blennosperma bakeri..................  Sonoma sunshine          U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       453        NA         NA
                                        (=Baker's stickyseed).
Boltonia decurrens...................  Decurrent false aster..  U.S.A. (IL, MO)........  ......do...............        T       341        NA         NA
Bonamia grandiflora..................  Florida bonamia........  U.S.A. (FL)............  Convolvulaceae.........        T       297        NA         NA
Bonamia menziesii....................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       559        NA         NA
Brighamia insignis...................  `Olulu.................  ......do...............  Campanulaceae..........        E       530        NA         NA
Brighamia rockii.....................  Pua `ala...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Brodiaea filifolia...................  Thread-leaved brodiaea.  U.S.A. (CA)............  Liliaceae..............        T       650        NA         NA
Brodiaea pallida.....................  Chinese Camp brodiaea..  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       643        NA         NA
Buxus vahlii.........................  Vahl's boxwood.........  U.S.A. (PR, VI)........  Buxaceae...............        E       197        NA         NA
Caesalpinia (=Mezoneuron) kavaiense..  Uhiuhi.................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Fabaceae...............        E       238        NA         NA
Callicarpa ampla.....................  Capa rosa (=pendula      U.S.A. (PR)............  Verbenaceae............        E       461        NA         NA
                                        cimarrona).
Callirhoe scabriuscula...............  Texas poppy-mallow.....  U.S.A. (TX)............  Malvaceae..............        E  109, 112        NA         NA
Calochortus tiburonensis.............  Tiburon mariposa lily..  U.S.A. (CA)............  Liliaceae..............        T       575        NA         NA
Calyptranthes thomasiana.............  None...................  U.S.A. (PR, VI) British  Myrtaceae..............        E       529        NA         NA
                                                                 VI.
Calyptridium pulchellum..............  Mariposa pussypaws.....  U.S.A. (CA)............  Portulacaceae..........        T       643        NA         NA
Calyptronoma rivalis.................  Palma de manaca or       U.S.A. (PR)............  Arecaceae..............        T       375        NA         NA
                                        manac palm.
Calystegia stebbinsii................  Stebbins' morning-glory  U.S.A. (CA)............  Convolvulaceae.........        E       596        NA         NA
Camissonia benitensis................  San Benito evening-      ......do...............  Onagraceae.............        T       172        NA         NA
                                        primrose.
Campanula robinsiae..................  Brooksville (=Robins')   U.S.A. (FL)............  Campanulaceae..........        E       356        NA         NA
                                        bellflower.
Canavalia molokaiensis...............  `Awikiwiki.............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Fabaceae...............        E       480        NA         NA
Cardamine micranthera................  Small-anthered           U.S.A. (NC, VA)........  Brassicaceae...........        E       363        NA         NA
                                        bittercress.
Carex albida.........................  White sedge............  U.S.A. (CA)............  Cyperaceae.............        E       625        NA         NA
Carex specuicola.....................  Navajo sedge...........  U.S.A. (AZ, UT)........  ......do...............        T       178  17.96(a)         NA
Castilleja affinis ssp. neglecta.....  Tiburon paintbrush.....  U.S.A. (CA)............  Scrophulariaceae.......        E       575        NA         NA
Castilleja campestris ssp. succulenta  Fleshy owl's-clover....  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       611        NA         NA
Castilleja cinerea...................  Ash-gray Indian          ......do...............  ......do...............        T       644        NA         NA
                                        paintbrush.
Castilleja grisea....................  San Clemente Island      ......do...............  ......do...............        E        26        NA         NA
                                        Indian paintbrush.
Castilleja levisecta.................  Golden paintbrush......  U.S.A. (OR, WA), Canada  ......do...............        T       615        NA         NA
                                                                 (B.C.).
Castilleja mollis....................  Soft-leaved paintbrush.  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       623        NA         NA
Catesbaea melanocarpa................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR, VI),         Rubiaceae..............        E       657        NA         NA
                                                                 Antigua, Barbuda,
                                                                 Guadalupe.
Caulanthus californicus..............  California jewelflower.  U.S.A. (CA)............  Brassicaceae...........        E       395        NA         NA
Ceanothus ferrisae...................  Coyote ceanothus         ......do...............  Rhamnaceae.............        E       575        NA         NA
                                        (=Coyote Valley
                                        California-lilac).
Ceanothus ophiochilus................  Vail Lake ceanothus....  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       648        NA         NA
Ceanothus roderickii.................  Pine Hill ceanothus....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       596        NA         NA
Cenchrus agrimonioides...............  Kamanomano (=Sandbur,    U.S.A. (HI)............  Poaceae................        E       592        NA         NA
                                        agrimony).

[[Page 148]]

 
Centaurium namophilum................  Spring-loving centaury.  U.S.A. (CA, NV)........  Gentianaceae...........        T       181  17.96(a)         NA
Centaurium sebaeoides................  `Awiwi.................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Cercocarpus traskiae.................  Catalina Island          U.S.A. (CA)............  Rosaceae...............        E       624        NA         NA
                                        mountain-mahogany.
Cereus eriophorus var. fragrans......  Fragrant prickly-apple.  U.S.A. (FL)............  Cactaceae..............        E       208        NA         NA
Chamaecrista glandulosa var.           None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Fabaceae...............        E       379        NA         NA
 mirabilis (=Cassia m.).
Chamaesyce celastroides var. kaenana.  `Akoko.................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Euphorbiaceae..........        E       448        NA         NA
Chamaesyce (=Euphorbia) deltoidea      Deltoid spurge.........  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       192        NA         NA
 ssp. deltoidea.
Chamaesyce (=Euphorbia) deppeana.....  `Akoko.................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       536        NA         NA
Chamaesyce (=Euphorbia) garberi......  Garber's spurge........  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T       192        NA         NA
Chamaesyce halemanui.................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       464        NA         NA
Chamaesyce herbstii..................  `Akoko.................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Chamaesyce hooveri...................  Hoover's spurge........  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       611        NA         NA
Chamaesyce kuwaleana.................  `Akoko.................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Chamaesyce rockii....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Chamaesyce (=Euphorbia) skottsbergii   `Ewa Plains `akoko.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       120        NA         NA
 var. kalaeloana.
Chionanthus pygmaeus.................  Pygmy fringe-tree......  U.S.A. (FL)............  Oleaceae...............        E       256        NA         NA
Chorizanthe howellii.................  Howell's spineflower...  U.S.A. (CA)............  Polygonaceae...........        E       472        NA         NA
Chorizanthe orcuttiana...............  Orcutt's spineflower...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       589        NA         NA
Chorizanthe pungens var. hartwegiana.  Ben Lomond spineflower.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       528        NA         NA
Chorizanthe pungens var. pungensterey  ......do...............  ......do...............  T......................      528        NA        NA
 spineflower.
Chorizanthe robusta (incl. vars.       Robust (incl. Scotts     ......do...............  ......do...............        E       528        NA         NA
 robusta & hartwegii).                  Valley) spineflower.
Chorizanthe valida...................  Sonoma spineflower.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       472        NA         NA
Chrysopsis (=Heterotheca) floridana..  Florida golden aster...  U.S.A. (FL)............  Asteraceae.............        E       232        NA         NA
Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense....  Chorro Creek bog         U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       567        NA         NA
                                        thistle.
Cirsium fontinale var. fontinale.....  Fountain thistle.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       575        NA         NA
Cirsium hydrophilum var. hydrophilum.  Suisun thistle.........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       627        NA         NA
Cirsium pitcheri.....................  Pitcher's thistle......  U.S.A. (IL, IN, MI,      ......do...............        T       315        NA         NA
                                                                 WI), Canada (Ont.).
Cirsium vinaceum.....................  Sacramento Mountains     U.S.A. (NM)............  ......do...............        T       276        NA         NA
                                        thistle.
Clarkia franciscana..................  Presidio clarkia.......  U.S.A. (CA)............  Onagraceae.............        E       575        NA         NA
Clarkia imbricata....................  Vine Hill clarkia......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       625        NA         NA
Clarkia speciosa ssp. immaculata.....  Pismo clarkia..........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       567        NA         NA
Clarkia springvillensis..............  Springville clarkia....  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       643        NA         NA
Clematis morefieldii.................  Morefield's leather-     U.S.A. (AL)............  Ranunculaceae..........        E       468        NA         NA
                                        flower.
Clematis socialis....................  Alabama leather-flower.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       245        NA         NA

[[Page 149]]

 
Clermontia drepanomorpha.............  `Oha wai...............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Campanulaceae..........        E       595        NA         NA
Clermontia lindseyana................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp.           ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
 mauiensis.
Clermontia peleana...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Clermontia pyrularia.................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Clermontia samuelii..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       666        NA         NA
Clitoria fragrans....................  Pigeon wings...........  U.S.A. (FL)............  Fabaceae...............        T       500        NA         NA
Colubrina oppositifolia..............  Kauila.................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Rhamnaceae.............        E       532        NA         NA
Conradina brevifolia.................  Short-leaved rosemary..  U.S.A. (FL)............  Lamiaceae..............        E       507        NA         NA
Conradina etonia.....................  Etonia rosemary........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       507        NA         NA
Conradina glabra.....................  Apalachicola rosemary..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       507        NA         NA
Conradina verticillata...............  Cumberland rosemary....  U.S.A. (KY, TN)........  ......do...............        T       452        NA         NA
Cordia bellonis......................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Boraginaceae...........        E       601        NA         NA
Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. maritimus  Salt marsh bird's-beak.  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico      Scrophulariaceae.......        E        44        NA         NA
                                                                 (Baja California).
Cordylanthus palmatus................  Palmate-bracted bird's-  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       235        NA         NA
                                        beak.
Cordylanthus tenuis ssp. capillaris..  Pennell's bird's-beak..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       575        NA         NA
Cordylanthus mollis ssp. mollis......  Soft bird's-beak.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       627        NA         NA
Cornutia obovata.....................  Palo de nigua (=capa     U.S.A. (PR)............  Verbenaceae............        E       307        NA         NA
                                        juguerilla).
Coryphantha (=Escobaria =Mammillaria)  Nellie cory cactus.....  U.S.A. (TX)............  Cactaceae..............        E        81        NA         NA
 minima (=nellieae).
Coryphantha ramillosa................  Bunched cory cactus....  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico      ......do...............        T        77        NA         NA
                                                                 (Coahuila).
Coryphantha (=Cochiseia =Escobaria)    Cochise pincushion       U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico      ......do...............        T       214        NA         NA
 robbinsorum.                           cactus.                  (Sonora).
Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina  Pima pineapple cactus..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       515        NA         NA
Coryphantha (=Escobaria =Mammillaria)  Lee pincushion cactus..  U.S.A. (NM)............  ......do...............        T        61        NA         NA
 sneedii var. leei.
Coryphantha (=Escobaria =Mammillaria)  Sneed pincushion cactus  U.S.A. (NM, TX)........  ......do...............        E        82        NA         NA
 sneedii var. sneedii.
Cranichis ricartii...................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Orchidaceae............        E       451        NA         NA
Crescentia portoricensis.............  guero de Sierra........  ......do...............  Bignoniaceae...........        E       301        NA         NA
Crotalaria avonensis.................  Avon Park harebells....  U.S.A. (FL)............  Fabaceae...............        E       500        NA         NA
Cryptantha crassipes.................  Terlingua Creek cats-    U.S.A. (TX)............  Boraginaceae...........        E       439        NA         NA
                                        eye.
Cucurbita okeechobeensis ssp.          Okeechobee gourd.......  U.S.A. (FL)............  Cucurbitaceae..........        E       507        NA         NA
 okeechobeensis.
Cyanea acuminata.....................  Haha...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Campanulaceae..........        E       591        NA         NA
Cyanea asarifolia....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii....  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       666        NA         NA
Cyanea (=Rollandia) crispa...........  ......do...............  ......do...............  E......................      536        NA        NA
Cyanea dunbarii......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       594        NA         NA
Cyanea glabra........................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Campanulceae...........        E       666        NA         NA
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae........  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       541        NA         NA

[[Page 150]]

 
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana....  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       592        NA         NA
Cyanea hamatiflora ssp. carlsonii....  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Cyanea hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora..  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       666        NA         NA
Cyanea (=Rollandia) humboldtiana.....  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Cyanea koolauensis...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Cyanea lobata........................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Cyanea longiflora....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii.....  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       435        NA         NA
Cyanea mannii........................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Cyanea mceldowneyi...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Cyanea pinnatifida...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Cyanea platyphylla...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       595        NA         NA
Cyanea procera.......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Cyanea recta.........................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       590        NA         NA
Cyanea remyi.........................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Cyanea shipmannii....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Cyanea (=Rollandia) st-johnii........  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Cyanea stictophylla..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Cyanea superba.......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Cyanea truncata......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       536        NA         NA
Cyanea undulata......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       436        NA         NA
Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii......  Jones cycladenia.......  U.S.A. (AZ, UT)........  Apocynaceae............        T       229        NA         NA
Cyperus trachysanthos................  Pu`uka`a...............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Cyperaceae.............        E       592        NA         NA
Cyrtandra crenata....................  Ha`iwale...............  ......do...............  Gesneriaceae...........        E       536        NA         NA
Cyrtandra cyaneoides.................  Mapele.................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Cyrtandra dentata....................  Ha`iwale...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Cyrtandra giffardii..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Cyrtandra limahuliensis..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       530        NA         NA
Cyrtandra munroi.....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Cyrtandra polyantha..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       536        NA         NA
Cyrtandra subumbellata...............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Cyrtandra tintinnabula...............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Cyrtandra viridiflora................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Dalea foliosa (=Petalostemum f.).....  Leafy prairie-clover...  U.S.A. (AL, IL, TN)....  Fabaceae...............        E       422        NA         NA
Daphnopsis hellerana.................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Thymelaeaceae..........        E       309        NA         NA
Deeringothamnus pulchellus...........  Beautiful pawpaw.......  U.S.A. (FL)............  Annonaceae.............        E       244        NA         NA
Deeringothamnus rugelii..............  Rugel's pawpaw.........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       244        NA         NA
Delissea rhytidosperma...............  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Campanulaceae..........        E       530        NA         NA
Delissea rivularis...................  `Oha...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Delissea subcordata..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Delissea undulata....................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       593        NA         NA
Delphinium variegatum ssp. kinkiense   San Clemente Island      U.S.A. (CA)............  Ranunculaceae..........        E        26        NA         NA
 (=D. k.).                              larkspur.
Dicerandra christmanii...............  Garrett's mint.........  U.S.A. (FL)............  Lamiaceae..............        E  207, 362        NA         NA

[[Page 151]]

 
Dicerandra cornutissima..............  Longspurred mint.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       207        NA         NA
Dicerandra frutescens................  Scrub mint.............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E  207, 362        NA         NA
Dicerandra immaculata................  Lakela's mint..........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       180        NA         NA
Dodecahema (=Centrostegia) leptoceras  Slender-horned           U.S.A. (CA)............  Polygonaceae...........        E       291        NA         NA
                                        spineflower.
Dubautia herbstobatae................  Na`ena`e...............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Asteraceae.............        E       448        NA         NA
Dubautia latifolia...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       464        NA         NA
Dubautia pauciflorula................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       436        NA         NA
Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis....  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       666        NA         NA
Dudleya abramsii ssp. parva..........  Conejo dudleya.........  U.S.A. (CA)............  Crassulaceae...........        T       606        NA         NA
Dudleya cymosa ssp. marcescens.......  Marcescent dudleya.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       606        NA         NA
Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifolia.......  Santa Monica Mountains   ......do...............  ......do...............        T       606        NA         NA
                                        dudleya.
Dudleya nesiotica....................  Santa Cruz Island        ......do...............  ......do...............        T       623        NA         NA
                                        dudleya.
Dudleya setchellii...................  Santa Clara Valley       ......do...............  ......do...............        E       575        NA         NA
                                        dudleya.
Dudleya stolonifera..................  Laguna Beach             ......do...............  ......do...............        T       649        NA         NA
                                        liveforever.
Dudleya traskiae.....................  Santa Barbara Island     ......do...............  ......do...............        E        39        NA         NA
                                        liveforever.
Dudleya verityi......................  Verity's dudleya.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       606        NA         NA
Echinacea laevigata..................  Smooth coneflower......  U.S.A. (GA, MD, NC, PA,  Asteraceae.............        E       481        NA         NA
                                                                 SC, VA).
Echinacea tennesseensis..............  Tennessee purple         U.S.A. (TN)............  ......do...............        E        49        NA         NA
                                        coneflower.
Echinocactus horizonthalonius var.     Nichol's Turk's head     U.S.A. (AZ)............  Cactaceae..............        E        71        NA         NA
 nicholii.                              cactus.
Echinocereus chisoensis                Chisos Mountain          U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        T       335        NA         NA
 (=reichenbachii) var. chisoensis.      hedgehog cactus.
Echinocereus fendleri (=hempelii of    Kuenzler hedgehog        U.S.A. (NM)............  ......do...............        E        70        NA         NA
 authors, not Fobe) var.kuenzleri.      cactus.
Echinocereus reichenbachii var.        Black lace cactus......  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E        68        NA         NA
 albertii (=E. melanocentrus).
Echinocereus triglochidiatus var.      Arizona hedgehog cactus  U.S.A. (AZ)............  ......do...............        E        62        NA         NA
 arizonicus (=E. arizonicus).
Echinocereus viridiflorus var.         Davis' green pitaya....  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E        81        NA         NA
 davisii (=E. davisii).
Echinomastus (=Echinocactus,           Lloyd's Mariposa cactus  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico      ......do...............        T        77        NA         NA
 =Sclerocactus, =Neolloydia)                                     (Coahuila).
 mariposensis.
Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata  Ash Meadows sunray.....  U.S.A. (NV)............  Asteraceae.............        T       181  17.96(a)         NA
Eragrostis fosbergii.................  Fosberg's love grass...  U.S.A. (HI)............  Poaceae................        E       591        NA         NA
Eremalche kernensis (=E. parryi ssp.   Kern mallow............  U.S.A. (CA)............  Malvaceae..............        E       395        NA         NA
 k.).
Eriastrum densifolium ssp. sanctorum.  Santa Ana River woolly-  ......do...............  Polemoniaceae..........        E       291        NA         NA
                                        star.
Eriastrum hooveri....................  Hoover's woolly-star...  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       395        NA         NA
Erigeron maguirei....................  Maguire daisy..........  U.S.A. (UT)............  Asteraceae.............        T  202, 584        NA         NA
Erigeron parishii....................  Parish's daisy.........  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       548        NA         NA
Erigeron rhizomatus..................  Zuni (=Rhizome)          U.S.A. (NM)............  ......do...............        T       177        NA         NA
                                        fleabane.
Eriodictyon altissimum...............  Indian Knob mountain     U.S.A. (CA)............  Hydrophyllaceae........        E       567        NA         NA
                                        balm.
Eriogonum apricum (inclusive of vars.  Ione (incl. Irish Hill)  ......do...............  Polygonaceae--Buckwheat        E       661        NA         NA
 apricum and phostratum..               buckwheat.

[[Page 152]]

 
Eriogonum gypsophilum................  Gypsum wild-buckwheat..  U.S.A. (NM)............  ......do...............        T  110, 112  17.96(a)         NA
Eriogonum kennedyi var.                Southern mountain wild-  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       644        NA         NA
 austromontanum.                        buckwheat.
Eriogonum longifolium var.             Scrub buckwheat........  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T       500        NA         NA
 gnaphalifolium.
Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum....  Cushenbury buckwheat...  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       548        NA         NA
Eriogonum ovalifolium var.             Steamboat buckwheat....  U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        E       237        NA         NA
 williamsiae.
Eriogonum pelinophilum...............  Clay-loving wild-        U.S.A. (CO)............  ......do...............        E       151  17.96(a)         NA
                                        buckwheat.
Eriophyllum latilobum................  San Mateo woolly         U.S.A. (CA)............  Asteraceae.............        E       575        NA         NA
                                        sunflower.
Eryngium aristulatum var. parishii...  San Diego button-celery  ......do...............  Apiaceae...............        E       512        NA         NA
Eryngium constancei..................  Loch Lomond coyote-      ......do...............  ......do...............        E     194E,        NA         NA
                                        thistle.                                                                                249
Eryngium cuneifolium.................  Snakeroot..............  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       256        NA         NA
Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum...  Contra Costa wallflower  U.S.A. (CA)............  Brassicaceae...........        E        39  17.96(a)         NA
Erysimum menziesii...................  Menzies' wallflower....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       472        NA         NA
Erysimum teretifolium................  Ben Lomond wallflower..  ......do...............  Brassicacae............        E       528        NA         NA
Erythronium propullans...............  Minnesota dwarf trout    U.S.A. (MN)............  Liliaceae..............        E       221        NA         NA
                                        lily.
Eugenia haematocarpa.................  Uvillo.................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Myrtaceae..............        E       564        NA         NA
Eugenia koolauensis..................  Nioi...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       536        NA         NA
Eugenia woodburyana..................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E       551        NA         NA
Euphorbia haeleeleana................  `Akoko.................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Euphorbiaceae..........        E       592        NA         NA
Euphorbia telephioides...............  Telephus spurge........  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T       463        NA         NA
Eutrema penlandii....................  Penland alpine fen       U.S.A. (CO)............  Brassicaceae...........        T       509        NA         NA
                                        mustard.
Exocarpos luteolus...................  Heau...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Santalaceae............        E       530        NA         NA
Flueggea neowawraea..................  Mehamehame.............  ......do...............  Euphorbiaceae..........        E       559        NA         NA
Frankenia johnstonii.................  Johnston's frankenia...  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico      Frankeniaceae..........        E       155        NA         NA
                                                                 (Nuevo Leon).
Fremontodendron californicum ssp.      Pine Hill flannelbush..  U.S.A. (CA)............  Sterculiaceae..........        E       596        NA         NA
 decumbens.
Fremontodendron mexicanum............  Mexican flannelbush....  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        E       648        NA         NA
Gahnia lanaiensis....................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Cyperaceae.............        E       435        NA         NA
Galactia smallii.....................  Small's milkpea........  U.S.A. (FL)............  Fabaceae...............        E       192        NA         NA
Galium buxifolium....................  Island bedstraw........  U.S.A. (CA)............  Rubiaceae..............        E       623        NA         NA
Galium californicum ssp. sierrae.....  El Dorado bedstraw.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       596        NA         NA
Gardenia brighamii...................  Na`u or Hawaiian         U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       198        NA         NA
                                        gardenia.
Gardenia mannii......................  Nanu...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Geocarpon minimum....................  None...................  U.S.A. (AR, LA, MO)....  Caryophyllaceae........        T       275        NA         NA
Geranium arboreum....................  Hawaiian red-flowered    U.S.A. (HI)............  Geraniaceae............        E       465        NA         NA
                                        geranium.
Geranium multiflorum.................  Nohoanu................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Gesneria pauciflora..................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Gesneriaceae...........        T       578        NA         NA
Geum radiatum........................  Spreading avens........  U.S.A. (NC, TN)........  Rosaceae...............        E       381        NA         NA
Gilia tenuiflora ssp. arenaria.......  Monterey gilia.........  U.S.A. (CA)............  Polemoniaceae..........        E       472        NA         NA
Gilia tenuiflora ssp. hoffmannii.....  Hoffmann's slender-      ......do...............  ......do...............        E       623        NA         NA
                                        flowered gilia.
Goetzea elegans......................  Beautiful goetzea or     U.S.A. (PR)............  Solanaceae.............        E       176        NA         NA
                                        matabuey.

[[Page 153]]

 
Gouania hillebrandii.................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Rhamnaceae.............        E       165  17.96(a)         NA
Gouania meyenii......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Gouania vitifolia....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       541        NA         NA
Grindelia fraxino-pratensis..........  Ash Meadows gumplant...  U.S.A. (CA, NV)........  Asteraceae.............        T       181  17.96(a)         NA
Halophila johnsonii..................  Johnson's seagrass.....  U.S.A. (FL)............  Hydrocharitaceae.......        T       663        NA         NA
Haplostachys haplostachya............  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Lamiaceae..............        E        73        NA         NA
Harperocallis flava..................  Harper's beauty........  U.S.A. (FL)............  Liliaceae..............        E        57        NA         NA
Harrisia (=Cereus) portoricensis.....  Higo chumbo............  U.S.A. (PR)............  Cactaceae..............        T       397        NA         NA
Hedeoma todsenii.....................  Todsen's pennyroyal....  U.S.A. (NM)............  Lamiaceae..............        E  110, 112  17.96(a)         NA
Hedyotis cookiana....................  `Awiwi.................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Rubiaceae..............        E       530        NA         NA
Hedyotis coriacea....................  Kio`ele................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Hedyotis degeneri....................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Hedyotis mannii......................  Pilo...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Hedyotis parvula.....................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Hedyotis purpurea var. montana.......  Roan Mountain bluet....  U.S.A. (NC, TN)........  ......do...............        E       381        NA         NA
Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var.       Kopa...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       666        NA         NA
 remyi.
Hedyotis st.-johnii..................  Na Pali beach hedyotis.  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       441        NA         NA
Helenium virginicum..................  Virginia sneezeweed....  U.S.A. (VA)............  Asteraceae.............        T       652        NA         NA
Helianthemum greenei.................  Island rush-rose.......  U.S.A. (CA)............  Cistaceae..............        T       623        NA         NA
Helianthus eggertii..................  Eggert's sunflower.....  U.S.A. (AL, KY, TN)....  Asteraceae.............        T       613        NA         NA
Helianthus schweinitzii..............  Schweinitz's sunflower.  U.S.A. (NC, SC)........  ......do...............        E       424        NA         NA
Helonias bullata.....................  Swamp pink.............  U.S.A. (DE, GA, MD, NC,  Liliaceae..............        T       326        NA         NA
                                                                 NJ, NY, SC, VA).
Hemizonia conjugens..................  Otay tarplant..........  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  Asteraceae.............        T       649        NA         NA
Hesperolinon congestum...............  Marin dwarf-flax.......  ......do...............  Linaceae...............        T       575        NA         NA
Hesperomannia arborescens............  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Asteraceae.............        E       536        NA         NA
Hesperomannia arbuscula..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Hesperomannia lydgatei...............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       436        NA         NA
Hexastylis naniflora.................  Dwarf-flowered           U.S.A. (NC, SC)........  Aristolochiaceae.......        T       347        NA         NA
                                        heartleaf.
Hibiscadelphus distans...............  Kauai hau kuahiwi......  U.S.A. (HI)............  Malvaceae..............        E       225        NA         NA
Hibiscadelphus giffardianus..........  Hau kuahiwi............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       595        NA         NA
Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis.........  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       595        NA         NA
Hibiscadelphus woodii................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus  Koki`o ke`oke`o........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Hibiscus brackenridgei...............  Ma`o hau hele..........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       559        NA         NA
Hibiscus clayi.......................  Clay's hibiscus........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Hibiscus waimeae ssp. hannerae.......  Koki`o ke`oke`o........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Hoffmannseggia tenella...............  Slender rush-pea.......  U.S.A. (TX)............  Fabaceae...............        E       209        NA         NA
Howellia aquatilis...................  Water howellia.........  U.S.A. (CA, ID, MT, OR,  Campanulaceae..........        T       542        NA         NA
                                                                 WA).
Hudsonia montana.....................  Mountain golden heather  U.S.A. (NC)............  Cistaceae..............        T       107  17.96(a)         NA
Hymenoxys herbacea (=acaulis var.      Lakeside daisy.........  U.S.A. (IL, MI, OH),     Asteraceae.............        T       310        NA         NA
 glabra).                                                        Canada (Ont.).
Hymenoxys texana.....................  Texas prairie dawn-      U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E       218        NA         NA
                                        flower (=Texas
                                        bitterweed).
Hypericum cumulicola.................  Highlands scrub          U.S.A. (FL)............  Hypericaceae...........        E       256        NA         NA
                                        hypericum.
Ilex cookii..........................  Cook's holly...........  U.S.A. (PR)............  Aquifoliaceae..........        E       277        NA         NA
Ilex sintenisii......................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       461        NA         NA
Iliamna corei........................  Peter's Mountain mallow  U.S.A. (VA)............  Malvaceae..............        E       230        NA         NA

[[Page 154]]

 
Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus............  Holy Ghost ipomopsis...  U.S.A. (NM)............  Polemoniaceae..........        E       535        NA         NA
Iris lacustris.......................  Dwarf lake iris........  U.S.A. (MI, WI), Canada  Iridaceae..............        T       330        NA         NA
                                                                 (Ont.).
Ischaemum byrone.....................  Hilo ischaemum.........  U.S.A. (HI)............  Poaceae................        E       532        NA         NA
Isodendrion hosakae..................  Aupaka.................  ......do...............  Violaceae..............        E       414        NA         NA
Isodendrion laurifolium..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       592        NA         NA
Isodendrion longifolium..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       592        NA         NA
Isodendrion pyrifolium...............  Wahine noho kula.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Isotria medeoloides..................  Small whorled pogonia..  U.S.A. (CT, DC, DE, GA,  Orchidaceae............        T  122, 556        NA         NA
                                                                 IL, MA, MD, ME, MI,
                                                                 MO, NC, NH, NJ, NY,
                                                                 PA, RI, SC, TN, VA,
                                                                 VT,WV), Canada (Ont.).
Ivesia kingii var. eremica...........  Ash Meadows ivesia.....  U.S.A. (NV)............  Rosaceae...............        T       181  17.96(a)         NA
Jacquemontia reclinata...............  Beach jacquemontia.....  U.S.A. (FL)............  Convolvulaceae.........        E       523        NA         NA
Jatropha costaricensis...............  Costa Rican jatropha...  Costa Rica.............  Euphorbiaceae..........        E       154        NA         NA
Juglans jamaicensis..................  Nogal or West Indian     U.S.A. (PR), Cuba,       Juglandaceae...........        E       603        NA         NA
                                        walnut.                  Hispaniola.
Justicia cooleyi.....................  Cooley's water-willow..  U.S.A. (FL)............  Acanthaceae............        E       356        NA         NA
Kanaloa kahoolawensis................  Kohe malama malama o     U.S.A. (HI)............  Fabaceae...............        E       666        NA         NA
                                        kanaloa.
Kokia cookei.........................  Cooke's koki`o.........  U.S.A. (HI)............  Malvaceae..............        E        74        NA         NA
Kokia drynarioides...................  Koki`o (=hau-hele`ula    ......do...............  ......do...............        E       167  17.96(a)         NA
                                        or Hawaii tree cotton).
Kokia kauaiensis.....................  Koki`o.................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Labordia cyrtandrae..................  Kamakahala.............  ......do...............  Loganiaceae............        E       591        NA         NA
Labordia lydgatei....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       436        NA         NA
Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis...  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       666        NA         NA
Labordia tinifolia var. wahiawaensis.  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Labordia triflora....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       666        NA         NA
Lasthenia burkei.....................  Burke's goldfields.....  U.S.A. (CA)............  Asteraceae.............        E       453        NA         NA
Lasthenia conjugens..................  Contra Costa goldfields  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       619        NA         NA
Layia carnosa........................  Beach layia............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       472        NA         NA
Lembertia congdonii..................  San Joaquin wooly-       ......do...............  ......do...............        E       395        NA         NA
                                        threads.
Lepanthes eltoroensis................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Orchidaceae............        E       451        NA         NA
Lepidium arbuscula...................  `Anaunau...............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Brassicaceae...........        E       591        NA         NA
Lepidium barnebyanum.................  Barneby ridge-cress      U.S.A. (UT)............  ......do...............        E       402        NA         NA
                                        (=peppercress).
Leptocereus grantianus...............  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Cactaceae..............        E       491        NA         NA
Lespedeza leptostachya...............  Prairie bush-clover....  U.S.A. (IA, IL, MN, WI)  Fabaceae...............        T       254        NA         NA
Lesquerella congesta.................  Dudley Bluffs            U.S.A. (CO)............  Brassicaceae...........        T       374        NA         NA
                                        bladderpod.
Lesquerella filiformis...............  Missouri bladderpod....  U.S.A. (AR, MO)........  ......do...............        E       253        NA         NA
Lesquerella kingii ssp. bernardina...  San Bernardino           U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       548        NA         NA
                                        Mountains bladderpod.
Lesquerella lyrata...................  Lyrate bladderpod......  U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        T       403        NA         NA
Lesquerella pallida..................  White bladderpod.......  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E       260        NA         NA
Lesquerella perforata................  Spring Creek bladderpod  U.S.A. (TN)............  ......do...............        E       599        NA         NA
Lesquerella tumulosa.................  Kodachrome bladderpod..  U.S.A. (UT)............  ......do...............        E       519        NA         NA

[[Page 155]]

 
Lessingia germanorum (=L. g. var.      San Francisco lessingia  U.S.A. (CA)............  Asteraceae.............        E       620        NA         NA
 germanorum).
Liatris helleri......................  Heller's blazingstar...  U.S.A. (NC)............  ......do...............        T       300        NA         NA
Liatris ohlingerae...................  Scrub blazingstar......  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       356        NA         NA
Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva  Huachuca water-umbel...  U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico....  Apiaceae...............        E       600  17.96(a)         NA
Lilium occidentale...................  Western lily...........  U.S.A. (OR, CA)........  Liliaceae..............        E       544        NA         NA
Lilium pardalinum ssp. pitkinense....  Pitkin Marsh lily......  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       625        NA         NA
Limnanthes floccosa ssp. californica.  Butte County meadowfoam  ......do...............  Limnanthaceae..........        E       471        NA         NA
Limnanthes vinculans.................  Sebastopol meadowfoam..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       453        NA         NA
Lindera melissifolia.................  Pondberry..............  U.S.A. (AL, AR, FL, GA,  Lauraceae..............        E       240        NA         NA
                                                                 LA, MO, MS, NC, SC).
Lipochaeta fauriei...................  Nehe...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Asteraceae.............        E       530        NA         NA
Lipochaeta kamolensis................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla...  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Lipochaeta micrantha.................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Lipochaeta tenuifolia................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Lipochaeta venosa....................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        73        NA         NA
Lipochaeta waimeaensis...............  Nehe...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Lithophragma maximum.................  San Clemente Island      U.S.A. (CA)............  Saxifragaceae..........        E       624        NA         NA
                                        woodland-star.
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp. koolauensis  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Campanulaceae..........        E       591        NA         NA
Lobelia monostachya..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Lobelia niihauensis..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Lobelia oahuensis....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       536        NA         NA
Lomatium bradshawii..................  Bradshaw's desert-       U.S.A. (OR,WA).........  Apiaceae...............        E       333        NA         NA
                                        parsley (=lomatium).
Lotus dendroideus (=scoparius) ssp.    San Clemente Island      U.S.A. (CA)............  Fabaceae...............        E        26        NA         NA
 traskiae.                              broom.
Lupinus aridorum.....................  Scrub lupine...........  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       264        NA         NA
Lupinus tidestromii..................  Clover lupine..........  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       472        NA         NA
Lyonia truncata var. proctorii.......  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Ericaceae..............        E       501        NA         NA
Lysimachia asperulaefolia............  Rough-leaved             U.S.A. (NC, SC)........  Primulaceae............        E       274        NA         NA
                                        loosestrife.
Lysimachia filifolia.................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Lysimachia lydgatei..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Lysimachia maxima (=ternifolia)......  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       594        NA         NA
Macbridea alba.......................  White birds-in-a-nest..  U.S.A. (FL)............  Lamiaceae..............        T       463        NA         NA
Malacothamnus clementinus............  San Clemente Island      U.S.A. (CA)............  Malvaceae..............        E        26        NA         NA
                                        bush-mallow.
Malacothamnus fasciculatus var.        Santa Cruz Island        ......do...............  ......do...............        E       623        NA         NA
 nesioticus.                            bushmallow.
Malacothrix indecora.................  Santa Cruz Island        ......do...............  Asteraceae.............        E       623        NA         NA
                                        malocothrix.
Malacothrix squalida.................  Island malacothrix.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       623        NA         NA
Manihot walkerae.....................  Walker's manioc........  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico....  Euphorbiaceae..........        E       445        NA         NA
Mariscus fauriei.....................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Cyperaceae.............        E       532        NA         NA
Mariscus pennatiformis...............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       559        NA         NA
Marshallia mohrii....................  Mohr's Barbara's         U.S.A. (AL, GA)........  Asteraceae.............        T       324        NA         NA
                                        buttons.
Melicope adscendens..................  Alani..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Rutaceae...............        E       565        NA         NA
Melicope balloui.....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       565        NA         NA

[[Page 156]]

 
Melicope haupuensis..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Melicope knudsenii...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Melicope (=Pelea) lydgatei...........  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       536        NA         NA
Melicope (=Pelea) mucronulata........  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Melicope munroi......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       666        NA         NA
Melicope ovalis......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       565        NA         NA
Melicope pallida.....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Melicope quadrangularis..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Melicope reflexa.....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Melicope saint-johnii................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Melicope zahlbruckneri...............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       595        NA         NA
Mentzelia leucophylla................  Ash Meadows blazing-     U.S.A. (NV)............  Loasaceae..............        T       181  17.96(a)         NA
                                        star.
Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis.  Michigan monkey-flower.  U.S.A. (MI)............  Scrophulariaceae.......        E       392        NA         NA
Mirabilis macfarlanei................  MacFarlane's four-       U.S.A. (ID, OR)........  Nyctaginaceae..........        T   66, 581        NA         NA
                                        o'clock.
Mitracarpus maxwelliae...............  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Rubiaceae..............        E       551        NA         NA
Mitracarpus polycladus...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (PR), Saba......  ......do...............        E       551        NA         NA
Monardella linoides ssp. viminea.....  Willowy monardella.....  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  Lamiaceae..............        E       649        NA         NA
Munroidendron racemosum..............  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Araliaceae.............        E       530        NA         NA
Myrcia paganii.......................  ......do...............  U.S.A. (PR)............  Myrtaceae..............        E       529        NA         NA
Myrsine juddii.......................  Kolea..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Myrsinaceae............        E       591        NA         NA
Myrsine linearifolia.................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       590        NA         NA
Navarretia fossalis..................  Spreading navarretia...  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico      Polemoniaceae..........        T       650        NA         NA
                                                                 (Baja California).
Navarretia leucocephala ssp.           Few-flowered navarretia  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       619        NA         NA
 pauciflora (=N. pauciflora).
Navarretia leucocephala ssp.           Many-flowered            ......do...............  ......do...............        E       619        NA         NA
 plieantha.                             navarretia.
Neostapfia colusana..................  Colusa grass...........  ......do...............  Poaceae................        T       611        NA         NA
Neraudia angulata....................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Urticaceae.............        E       448        NA         NA
Neraudia ovata.......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       595        NA         NA
Neraudia sericea.....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       559        NA         NA
Nitrophila mohavensis................  Amargosa niterwort.....  U.S.A. (CA, NV)........  Chenopodiaceae.........        E       181  17.96(a)         NA
Nolina brittoniana...................  Britton's beargrass....  U.S.A. (FL)............  Agavaceae..............        E       500        NA         NA
Nothocestrum breviflorum.............  `Aiea..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Solanaceae.............        E       532        NA         NA
Nothocestrum peltatum................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Nototrichium humile..................  Kulu`i.................  ......do...............  Amaranthaceae..........        E       448        NA         NA
Ochrosia kilaueaensis................  Holei..................  ......do...............  Apocynaceae............        E       532        NA         NA
Oenothera avita ssp. eurekensis......  Eureka Valley evening-   U.S.A. (CA)............  Onagraceae.............        E        39        NA         NA
                                        primrose.
Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii....  Antioch Dunes evening-   ......do...............  ......do...............        E        39  17.96(a)         NA
                                        primrose.
Opuntia treleasei....................  Bakersfield cactus.....  ......do...............  Cactaceae..............        E       395        NA         NA
Orcuttia californica.................  California Orcutt grass  ......do...............  Poaceae................        E       512        NA         NA
Orcuttia inaequalis..................  San Joaquin Valley       ......do...............  ......do...............        T       611        NA         NA
                                        Orcutt grass.
Orcuttia pilosa......................  Hairy Orcutt grass.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       611        NA         NA
Orcuttia tenuis......................  Slender Orcutt grass...  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       611        NA         NA
Orcuttia viscida.....................  Sacramento Orcutt grass  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       611        NA         NA

[[Page 157]]

 
Ottoschulzia rhodoxylon..............  Palo de rosa...........  U.S.A. (PR), Dominican   Icacinaceae............        E       385        NA         NA
                                                                 Republic.
Oxypolis canbyi......................  Canby's dropwort.......  U.S.A. (DE, GA, MD, NC,  Apiaceae...............        E       217        NA         NA
                                                                 SC).
Oxytheca parishii var. goodmaniana...  Cushenbury oxytheca....  U.S.A. (CA)............  Polygonaceae...........        E       548        NA         NA
Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea..  Fassett's locoweed.....  U.S.A. (WI)............  Fabaceae...............        T       329        NA         NA
Panicum fauriei var. carteri.........  Carter's panicgrass....  U.S.A. (HI)............  Poaceae................        E       133  17.96(a)         NA
Panicum niihauense...................  Lau `ehu...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       592        NA         NA
Paronychia chartacea (=Nyachia         Papery whitlow-wort....  U.S.A. (FL)............  Caryophyllaceae........        T       256        NA         NA
 pulvinata).
Parvisedum leiocarpum................  Lake County stonecrop..  U.S.A. (CA)............  Crassulaceae...........        E       619        NA         NA
Pedicularis furbishiae...............  Furbish lousewort......  U.S.A. (ME), Canada      Scrophulariaceae.......        E        39        NA         NA
                                                                 (N.B.).
Pediocactus (=Toumeya) bradyi........  Brady pincushion cactus  U.S.A. (AZ)............  Cactaceae..............        E        63        NA         NA
Pediocactus despainii................  San Rafael cactus......  U.S.A. (UT)............  ......do...............        E       286        NA         NA
Pediocactus (=Toumeya) knowltonii      Knowlton cactus........  U.S.A. (CO, NM)........  ......do...............        E        72        NA         NA
 (=P. bradyi var. k.).
Pediocactus (=Echinocactus, =Navajoa,  Peebles Navajo cactus..  U.S.A. (AZ)............  ......do...............        E        69        NA         NA
 =Toumeya, =Utahia) peeblesianus var.
 peeblesianus.
Pediocactus (=Echinocactus, =Utahia)   Siler pincushion cactus  U.S.A. (AZ, UT)........  ......do...............        T   64, 524        NA         NA
 sileri.
Pediocactus winkleri.................  Winkler cactus.........  U.S.A. (UT)............  ......do...............        T       641        NA         NA
Penstemon haydenii...................  Blowout penstemon......  U.S.A. (NE)............  Scrophulariaceae.......        E       285        NA         NA
Penstemon penlandii..................  Penland beardtongue....  U.S.A. (CO)............  ......do...............        E       353        NA         NA
Pentachaeta bellidiflora.............  White-rayed pentachaeta  U.S.A. (CA)............  Asteraceae.............        E       575        NA         NA
Pentachaeta lyonii...................  Lyon's pentachaeta.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       606        NA         NA
Peperomia wheeleri...................  Wheeler's peperomia....  U.S.A. (PR)............  Piperaceae.............        E       255        NA         NA
Peucedanum sandwicense...............  Makou..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Apiaceae...............        T       530        NA         NA
Phacelia argillacea..................  Clay phacelia..........  U.S.A. (UT)............  Hydrophyllaceae........        E        44        NA         NA
Phacelia formosula...................  North Park phacelia....  U.S.A. (CO)............  ......do...............        E       121        NA         NA
Phacelia insularis ssp. insularis....  Island phacelia........  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       623        NA         NA
Phlox nivalis ssp. texensis..........  Texas trailing phlox...  U.S.A. (TX)............  Polemoniaceae..........        E       440        NA         NA
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis..  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Lamiaceae..............        E       435        NA         NA
Phyllostegia mannii..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Phyllostegia mollis..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Phyllostegia waimeae.................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Phyllostegia racemosa................  Kiponapona.............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       595        NA         NA
Phyllostegia velutina................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       595        NA         NA
Phyllostegia warshaueri..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       595        NA         NA
Phyllostegia hirsuta.................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Phyllostegia knudsenii...............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Phyllostegia parviflora..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       592        NA         NA
Phyllostegia wawrana.................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Phyllostegia kaalaensis..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Physaria obcordata...................  Dudley Bluffs twinpod..  U.S.A. (CO)............  Brassicaceae...........        T       374        NA         NA
Pilosocereus (=Cereus) robinii.......  Key tree-cactus........  U.S.A. (FL), Cuba......  Cactaceae..............        E       153        NA         NA
Pinguicula ionantha..................  Godfrey's butterwort...  U.S.A. (FL)............  Lentibulariaceae.......        T       507        NA         NA
Piperia yadonii......................  Yadon's piperia........  U.S.A. (CA)............  Orchidaceae............        E       640        NA         NA
Pityopsis (=Heterotheca, =Chrysopsis)  Ruth's golden aster....  U.S.A. (TN)............  Asteraceae.............        E       191        NA         NA
 ruthii.

[[Page 158]]

 
Plagiobothrys strictus...............  Calistoga allocarya....  U.S.A. (CA)............  Boraginaceae...........        E       625        NA         NA
Plantago hawaiensis..................  Laukahi kuahiwi........  U.S.A. (HI)............  Plantaginaceae.........        E       532        NA         NA
Plantago princeps....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       559        NA         NA
Platanthera holochila................  None...................  ......do...............  Orchidaceae............        E       592        NA         NA
Platanthera leucophaea...............  Eastern prairie fringed  U.S.A. (AR, IA, IL, IN,  ......do...............        T       368        NA         NA
                                        orchid.                  ME, MI, MO, NE, NJ,
                                                                 NY, OH, OK, PA, VA,
                                                                 WI), Canada (Ont.,
                                                                 N.B.).
Platanthera praeclara................  Western prairie fringed  U.S.A. (IA, KS, MN, MO,  ......do...............        T       368        NA         NA
                                        orchid.                  ND, NE, OK, SD),
                                                                 Canada (Man.).
Pleodendron macranthum...............  Chupacallos              U.S.A. (PR)............  Canellaceae............        E       564        NA         NA
                                        (=chupagallo).
Pleomele hawaiiensis.................  Hala pepe..............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Liliaceae..............        E       595        NA         NA
Poa atropurpurea.....................  San Bernardino           U.S.A. (CA)............  Poaceae................        E       644        NA         NA
                                        bluegrass.
Poa mannii...........................  Mann's bluegrass.......  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       558        NA         NA
Poa napensis.........................  Napa bluegrass.........  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       625        NA         NA
Poa sandvicensis.....................  Hawaiian bluegrass.....  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       464        NA         NA
Poa siphonoglossa....................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       464        NA         NA
Pogogyne abramsii....................  San Diego mesa mint....  U.S.A. (CA)............  Lamiaceae..............        E        44        NA         NA
Pogogyne nudiuscula..................  Otay mesa mint.........  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico      ......do...............        E       512        NA         NA
                                                                 (Baja California).
Polygala lewtonii....................  Lewton's polygala......  U.S.A. (FL)............  Polygalaceae...........        E       500        NA         NA
Polygala smallii.....................  Tiny polygala..........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       192        NA         NA
Polygonella basiramia (=ciliata var.   Wireweed...............  ......do...............  Polygonaceae...........        E       256        NA         NA
 b.).
Polygonella myriophylla..............  Sandlace...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       500        NA         NA
Portulaca sclerocarpa................  Po`e...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Portulacaceae..........        E       532        NA         NA
Potamogeton clystocarpus.............  Little Aguja pondweed..  U.S.A. (TX)............  Potamogetonaceae.......        E       450        NA         NA
Potentilla hickmanii.................  Hickman's potentilla...  U.S.A. (CA)............  Rosaceae...............        E       640        NA         NA
Potentilla robbinsiana...............  Robbins' cinquefoil....  U.S.A. (NH, VT)........  ......do...............        E       104  17.96(a)         NA
Primula maguirei.....................  Maguire primrose.......  U.S.A. (UT)............  Primulaceae............        T       199        NA         NA
Pritchardia affinis..................  Loulu..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Arecaceae..............        E       532        NA         NA
Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii........  Wahane (=Hawane or       ......do...............  ......do...............        E       586        NA         NA
                                        lo`ulu).
Pritchardia kaalae...................  Loulu..................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Pritchardia munroi...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Pritchardia napaliensis..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Pritchardia remota...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       587        NA         NA
Pritchardia schattaueri..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       595        NA         NA
Pritchardia viscosa..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Prunus geniculata....................  Scrub plum.............  U.S.A. (FL)............  Rosaceae...............        E       256        NA         NA
Pseudobahia bahiifolia...............  Hartweg's golden         U.S.A. (CA)............  Asteraceae.............        E       609        NA         NA
                                        sunburst.
Pseudobahia peirsonii................  San Joaquin adobe        ......do...............  ......do...............        T       609        NA         NA
                                        sunburst.
Pteralyxia kauaiensis................  Kaulu..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Apocynaceae............        E       530        NA         NA
Ptilimnium nodosum (=fluviatile).....  Harperella.............  U.S.A. (AL, AR, GA, MD,  Apiaceae...............        E       332        NA         NA
                                                                 NC, SC, WV).
Purshia (=Cowania) subintegra........  Arizona cliffrose......  U.S.A. (AZ)............  Rosaceae...............        E       148        NA         NA
Quercus hinckleyi....................  Hinckley's oak.........  U.S.A. (TX)............  Fagaceae...............        T       318        NA         NA

[[Page 159]]

 
Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis  Autumn buttercup.......  U.S.A. (UT)............  Ranunculaceae..........        E       355        NA         NA
 (=acris var. a.).
Remya kauaiensis.....................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Asteraceae.............        E       413        NA         NA
Remya mauiensis......................  Maui remya.............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       413        NA         NA
Remya montgomeryi....................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       413        NA         NA
Rhododendron chapmanii...............  Chapman rhododendron...  U.S.A. (FL)............  Ericaceae..............        E        47        NA         NA
Rhus michauxii.......................  Michaux's sumac........  U.S.A. (GA, NC, SC, VA)  Anacardiaceae..........        E       367        NA         NA
Rhynchospora knieskernii.............  Knieskern's beaked-rush  U.S.A. (DE, NJ)........  Cyperaceae.............        T       429        NA         NA
Ribes echinellum.....................  Miccosukee gooseberry..  U.S.A. (FL, SC)........  Saxifragaceae..........        T       190        NA         NA
Rorippa gambellii....................  Gambel's watercress....  U.S.A. (CA)............  Brassicaceae...........        E       511        NA         NA
Sagittaria fasciculata...............  Bunched arrowhead......  U.S.A. (NC, SC)........  Alismataceae...........        E        53        NA         NA
Sagittaria secundifolia..............  Kral's water-plantain..  U.S.A. (AL, GA)........  ......do...............        T       386        NA         NA
Sanicula mariversa...................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Apiaceae...............        E       448        NA         NA
Sanicula purpurea....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       592        NA         NA
Santalum freycinetianum var.           Lanai sandalwood         ......do...............  Santalaceae............        E       215        NA         NA
 lanaiense.                             or`iliahi.
Sarracenia oreophila.................  Green pitcher-plant....  U.S.A. (AL, GA, NC, TN)  Sarraceniaceae.........        E    56, 89        NA         NA
Sarracenia rubra ssp. alabamensis      Alabama canebrake        U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       346        NA         NA
 (=alabamensis ssp.a.).                 pitcher-plant.
Sarracenia rubra ssp. jonesii (=S.     Mountain sweet pitcher-  U.S.A. (NC, SC)........  ......do...............        E       339        NA         NA
 jonesii).                              plant.
Scaevola coriacea....................  Dwarf naupaka..........  U.S.A. (HI)............  Goodeniaceae...........        E       231        NA         NA
Schiedea adamantis...................  Diamond Head schiedea..  ......do...............  Caryophyllaceae........        E       141        NA         NA
Schiedea apokremnos..................  Ma`oli`oli.............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       441        NA         NA
Schiedea haleakalensis...............  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       467        NA         NA
Schiedea helleri.....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Schiedea hookeri.....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       592        NA         NA
Schiedea kaalae......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Schiedea kauaiensis..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       592        NA         NA
Schiedea kealiae.....................  Ma`oli`oli.............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Schiedea lydgatei....................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Schiedea membranacea.................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Schiedea nuttallii...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       592        NA         NA
Schiedea sarmentosa..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       594        NA         NA
Schiedea spergulina var. leiopoda....  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Schiedea spergulina var. spergulina..  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       530        NA         NA
Schiedea stellarioides...............  Laulihilihi              ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
                                        (=Ma`oli`oli).
Schiedea verticillata................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       587        NA         NA
Schoenocrambe argillacea.............  Clay reed-mustard......  U.S.A. (UT)............  Brassicaceae...........        T       457        NA         NA
Schoenocrambe barnebyi...............  Barneby reed-mustard...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       457        NA         NA
Schoenocrambe (=Glaucocarpum)          Shrubby reed-mustard     ......do...............  ......do...............        E       293        NA         NA
 suffrutescens.                         (=toad-flax cress).
Schoepfia arenaria...................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Olacaceae..............        T       420        NA         NA
Schwalbea americana..................  American chaffseed.....  U.S.A. (AL, CT, DE, FL,  Scrophulariaceae.......        E       478        NA         NA
                                                                 GA, LA, MA, MD, MI,
                                                                 MS, NC, NJ, NY, SC,
                                                                 TN, VA).
Scirpus ancistrochaetus..............  Northeastern (=Barbed    U.S.A. (MA, MD, NH, NY,  Cyperaceae.............        E       425        NA         NA
                                        bristle) bulrush.        PA, VA, VT, WV).

[[Page 160]]

 
Sclerocactus (=Echinocactus,           Uinta Basin hookless     U.S.A. (CO, UT)........  Cactaceae..............        T        59        NA         NA
 =Pediocactus) glaucus (=whipplei       cactus.
 var.g., =subglaucus, =franklinii ).
Sclerocactus (=Coloradoa,              Mesa Verde cactus......  U.S.A. (CO, NM)........  ......do...............        T        75        NA         NA
 =Echinocactus, =Pediocactus) mesae-
 verdae.
Sclerocactus (=Pediocactus) wrightiae  Wright fishhook cactus.  U.S.A. (UT)............  ......do...............        E        58        NA         NA
Scutellaria floridana................  Florida skullcap.......  U.S.A. (FL)............  Lamiaceae..............        T       463        NA         NA
Scutellaria montana..................  Large-flowered skullcap  U.S.A. (GA, TN)........  ......do...............        E       234        NA         NA
Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi......  Leedy's roseroot.......  U.S.A. (MN, NY)........  Crassulaceae...........        T       460        NA         NA
Senecio franciscanus.................  San Francisco Peaks      U.S.A. (AZ)............  Asteraceae.............        T       137  17.96(a)         NA
                                        groundsel.
Senecio layneae......................  Layne's butterweed.....  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       596        NA         NA
Serianthes nelsonii..................  Hayun lagu (Guam),       Western Pacific Ocean--  Fabaceae...............        E  257, 259        NA         NA
                                        Tronkon guafi (Rota).    U.S.A. (GU, MP--Rota).
Sesbania tomentosa...................  `Ohai..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       559        NA         NA
Sibara filifolia.....................  Santa Cruz Island        U.S.A. (CA)............  Brassicaceae...........        E       624        NA         NA
                                        rockcress.
Sicyos alba..........................  `Anunu.................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Cucurbitaceae..........        E       595        NA         NA
Sidalcea nelsoniana..................  Nelson's checker-mallow  U.S.A. (OR, WA)........  Malvaceae..............        T       490        NA         NA
Sidalcea oregana ssp. valida.........  Kenwood Marsh checker-   U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       625        NA         NA
                                        mallow.
Sidalcea pedata......................  Pedate checker-mallow..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       158        NA         NA
Silene alexandri.....................  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Caryophyllaceae........        E       480        NA         NA
Silene hawaiiensis...................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       532        NA         NA
Silene lanceolata....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Silene perlmanii.....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Silene polypetala....................  Fringed campion........  U.S.A. (FL, GA)........  ......do...............        E       418        NA         NA
Sisyrinchium dichotomum..............  White irisette.........  U.S.A. (NC)............  Iridaceae..............        E       438        NA         NA
Solanum drymophilum..................  Erubia.................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Solanaceae.............        E       319        NA         NA
Solanum incompletum..................  Popolo ku mai..........  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       559        NA         NA
Solanum sandwicense..................  `Aiakeakua, popolo.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Solidago albopilosa..................  White-haired goldenrod.  U.S.A. (KY)............  Asteraceae.............        T       308        NA         NA
Solidago houghtonii..................  Houghton's goldenrod...  U.S.A. (MI), Canada      ......do...............        T       314        NA         NA
                                                                 (Ont.).
Solidago shortii.....................  Short's goldenrod......  U.S.A. (KY)............  ......do...............        E       201        NA         NA
Solidago spithamaea..................  Blue Ridge goldenrod...  U.S.A. (NC, TN)........  ......do...............        T       175        NA         NA
Spermolepis hawaiiensis..............  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Apiaceae...............        E       559        NA         NA
Spigelia gentianoides................  Gentian pinkroot.......  U.S.A. (AL, FL)........  Loganiaceae............        E       406        NA         NA
Spiraea virginiana...................  Virginia spiraea.......  U.S.A. (GA, KY, NC, OH,  Rosaceae...............        T       389        NA         NA
                                                                 PA, TN, VA, WV).
Spiranthes delitescens...............  Canelo Hills ladies'-    U.S.A. (AZ)............  Orchidaceae............        E       600        NA         NA
                                        tresses.
Spiranthes diluvialis................  Ute ladies'-tresses....  U.S.A. (CO, ID, MT, NE,  ......do...............        T       458        NA         NA
                                                                 NV, UT, WA, WY).
Spiranthes parksii...................  Navasota ladies'-        U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E       116        NA         NA
                                        tresses.
Stahlia monosperma...................  Cobana negra...........  U.S.A. (PR), Dominican   Fabaceae...............        T       380        NA         NA
                                                                 Republic.
Stenogyne angustifolia var.            None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Lamiaceae..............        E        73        NA         NA
 angustifolia.

[[Page 161]]

 
Stenogyne bifida.....................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       480        NA         NA
Stenogyne campanulata................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       464        NA         NA
Stenogyne kanehoana..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       466        NA         NA
Stephanomeria malheurensis...........  Malheur wire-lettuce...  U.S.A. (OR)............  Asteraceae.............        E       126  17.96(a)         NA
Streptanthus albidus ssp. albidus....  Metcalf Canyon           U.S.A. (CA)............  Brassicaceae...........        E       575        NA         NA
                                        jewelflower.
Streptanthus niger...................  Tiburon jewelflower....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       575        NA         NA
Styrax portoricensis.................  Palo de jazmin.........  U.S.A. (PR)............  Styracaceae............        E       461        NA         NA
Styrax texanus.......................  Texas snowbells........  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E       162        NA         NA
Suaeda californica...................  Seablite, California...  U.S.A. (CA)............  Chenopodiaceae.........        E       567        NA         NA
Swallenia alexandrae.................  Eureka Dune grass......  ......do...............  Poaceae................        E        39        NA         NA
Taraxacum californicum...............  California taraxacum...  ......do...............  Asteraceae.............        E       644        NA         NA
Ternstroemia luquillensis............  Palo colorado..........  U.S.A. (PR)............  Theaceae...............        E       461        NA         NA
Ternstroemia subsessilis.............  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       461        NA         NA
Tetramolopium arenarium..............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Asteraceae.............        E       532        NA         NA
Tetramolopium capillare..............  Pamakani...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       555        NA         NA
Tetramolopium filiforme..............  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp.           ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
 lepidotum.
Tetramolopium remyi..................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       435        NA         NA
Tetramolopium rockii.................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       480        NA         NA
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa............  `Ohe`ohe...............  ......do...............  Araliaceae.............        E       536        NA         NA
Thalictrum cooleyi...................  Cooley's meadowrue.....  U.S.A. (FL, NC)........  Ranunculaceae..........        E       344        NA         NA
Thelypodium howellii ssp. spectabilis  Howell's spectacular     U.S.A. (OR)............  Brassicaceae mustard...        T       662        NA         NA
                                        thelypody.
Thelypodium stenopetalum.............  Slender-petaled mustard  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       158        NA         NA
Thymophylla (=Dyssodia) tephroleuca..  Ashy dogweed...........  U.S.A. (TX)............  Asteraceae.............        E       152        NA         NA
Thysanocarpus conchuliferus..........  Santa Cruz Island        U.S.A. (CA)............  Brassicaceae...........        E       623        NA         NA
                                        fringepod (=lacepod).
Townsendia aprica....................  Last Chance townsendia.  U.S.A. (UT)............  Asteraceae.............        T       200        NA         NA
Trematolobelia singularis............  None...................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Campanulaceae..........        E       591        NA         NA
Trichilia triacantha.................  Bariaco (=guayabacon)..  U.S.A. (PR)............  Meliaceae..............        E       303        NA         NA
Trichostema austromontanum ssp.        Hidden Lake bluecurls..  U.S.A. (CA)............  Lamiaceae..............        T       644        NA         NA
 compactum.
Trifolium amoenum....................  Showy Indian clover....  ......do...............  Fabaceae...............        E       625        NA         NA
Trifolium stoloniferum...............  Running buffalo clover.  U.S.A. (AR, IL, IN, KS,  ......do...............        E       270        NA         NA
                                                                 KY, MO, OH, WV).
Trifolium trichocalyx................  Monterey clover........  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       640        NA         NA
Trillium persistens..................  Persistent trillium....  U.S.A. (GA, SC)........  Liliaceae..............        E        39        NA         NA
Trillium reliquum....................  Relict trillium........  U.S.A. (AL, GA, SC)....  ......do...............        E       306        NA         NA
Tuctoria greenei.....................  Greene's tuctoria......  U.S.A. (CA.............  Poaceae................        E       611        NA         NA
Tuctoria (=Orcuttia) mucronata.......  Solano grass...........  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E        44        NA         NA
Urera kaalae.........................  Opuhe..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Urticaceae.............        E       448        NA         NA
Verbena californica..................  Red Hills vervain......  U.S.A. (CA)............  Verbenaceae............        T       643        NA         NA
Verbesina dissita....................  Big-leaved crownbeard..  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  Asteraceae.............        T       589        NA         NA
Vernonia proctorii...................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E       501        NA         NA
Vicia menziesii......................  Hawaiian vetch.........  U.S.A. (HI)............  Fabaceae...............        E        39        NA         NA
Vigna o-wahuensis....................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       559        NA         NA
Viola chamissoniana ssp.               Pamakani...............  ......do...............  Violaceae..............        E       448        NA         NA
 chamissoniana.

[[Page 162]]

 
Viola helenae........................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       436        NA         NA
Viola kauaiensis var. wahiawaensis...  Nani wai`ale`ale.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       590        NA         NA
Viola lanaiensis.....................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       435        NA         NA
Viola oahuensis......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       591        NA         NA
Warea amplexifolia...................  Wide-leaf warea........  U.S.A. (FL)............  Brassicaceae...........        E       266        NA         NA
Warea carteri........................  Carter's mustard.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       256        NA         NA
Wilkesia hobdyi......................  Dwarf iliau............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Asteraceae.............        E       473        NA         NA
Xylosma crenatum.....................  None...................  ......do...............  Flacourtiaceae.........        E       464        NA         NA
Xyris tennesseensis..................  Tennessee yellow-eyed    U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  Xyridaceae.............        E       430        NA         NA
                                        grass.
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum  A`e....................  U.S.A. (HI)............  Rutaceae...............        E       595        NA         NA
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense...............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       532        NA         NA
Zanthoxylum thomasianum..............  St. Thomas prickly-ash.  U.S.A. (PR, VI)........  ......do...............        E       213        NA         NA
Zizania texana.......................  Texas wild-rice........  U.S.A. (TX)............  Poaceae................        E        39  17.96(a)         NA
Ziziphus celata......................  Florida ziziphus.......  U.S.A. (FL)............  Rhamnaceae.............        E       356        NA         NA
 
               Conifers
Abies guatemalensis..................  Pinabete or Guatemalan   Mexico, Guatemala,       Pinaceae...............        T        84        NA         NA
                                        fir.                     Honduras, El Salvador.
Cupressus abramsiana.................  Santa Cruz cypress.....  U.S.A. (CA)............  Cupressaceae...........        E       252        NA         NA
Cupressus goveniana ssp. goveniana...  Gowen cypress..........  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       640        NA         NA
Fitzroya cupressoides................  Alerce or Chilean false  Chile, Argentina.......  ......do...............        T        79        NA         NA
                                        larch.
Torreya taxifolia....................  Florida torreya........  U.S.A. (FL, GA)........  Taxaceae...............        E       140        NA         NA
 
           Ferns And Allies
Adenophorus periens..................  Pendant kihi fern......  U.S.A. (HI)............  Grammitidaceae.........        E       559        NA         NA
Adiantum vivesii.....................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  Adiantaceae............        E       504        NA         NA
Asplenium fragile var. insulare......  ......do...............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Aspleniaceae...........        E       553        NA         NA
Asplenium (=Phyllitis) scolopendrium   American hart's-tongue   U.S.A. (AL, MI, NY,      ......do...............        T       354        NA         NA
 (=japonica) var.americanum.            fern.                    TN), Canada (Ont.).
Ctenitis squamigera..................  Pauoa..................  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E       553        NA         NA
Cyathea dryopteroides................  Elfin tree fern........  U.S.A. (PR)............  Cyatheaceae............        E       277        NA         NA
Diellia erecta.......................  Asplenium-leaved         U.S.A. (HI)............  Aspleniaceae...........        E       559        NA         NA
                                        diellia.
Diellia falcata......................  None...................  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       448        NA         NA
Diellia pallida......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       530        NA         NA
Diellia unisora......................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       541        NA         NA
Diplazium molokaiense................  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       553        NA         NA
Elaphoglossum serpens................  ......do...............  U.S.A. (PR)............  Lomariopsidaceae.......        E       504        NA         NA
Isoetes louisianensis................  Louisiana quillwort....  U.S.A. (LA, MS)........  Isoetaceae.............        E       482        NA         NA
Isoetes melanospora..................  Black-spored quillwort.  U.S.A. (GA, SC)........  ......do...............        E       302        NA         NA
Isoetes tegetiformans................  Mat-forming quillwort..  U.S.A. (GA)............  ......do...............        E       302        NA         NA
Marsilea villosa.....................  `Ihi`ihi...............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Marsileaceae...........        E       474        NA         NA
Phlegmariurus (=Lycopodium,            Wawae`iole.............  ......do...............  Lycopodiaceae..........        E       467        NA         NA
 =Huperzia) mannii.

[[Page 163]]

 
Phlegmariurus (=Lycopodium) nutans...  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       536        NA         NA
Polystichum aleuticum................  Aleutian shield-fern     U.S.A. (AK)............  Dryopteridaceae........        E       305        NA         NA
                                        (=Aleutian holly-fern).
Polystichum calderonense.............  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E       504        NA         NA
Pteris lidgatei......................  ......do...............  U.S.A. (HI)............  Adiantaceae............        E       553        NA         NA
Tectaria estremerana.................  ......do...............  U.S.A. (PR)............  Dryopteridaceae........        E       504        NA         NA
Thelypteris inabonensis..............  ......do...............  ......do...............  Thelypteridaceae.......        E       506        NA         NA
Thelypteris (=Leptogramma) pilosa      Alabama streak-sorus     U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        T       476        NA         NA
 var. alabamensis.                      fern.
Thelypteris verecunda................  None...................  U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E       506        NA         NA
Thelypteris yaucoensis...............  ......do...............  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       506        NA         NA
 
               Lichens
Cladonia perforata...................  Florida perforate        U.S.A. (FL)............  Cladoniaceae...........        E       500        NA         NA
                                        cladonia.
Gymnoderma lineare...................  Rock gnome lichen......  U.S.A. (NC,TN).........  ......do...............        E       572        NA         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Symbols used in the ``when listed'' column:
  D--Indicates FR where species was Delisted; relisting of the species is indicated by subsequent number(s).
  E--Indicates Emergency rule publication (see FR document for effective dates); subsequent number(s) indicate FR final rule, if applicable, under
  ``When listed''.


[[Page 164]]

26--42 FR 40685; August 11, 1977.
26--42 FR 40685; August 11, 1977.
39--43 FR 17916; April 26, 1978.
44--43 FR 44812; September 28, 1978.
47--44 FR 24250; April 24, 1979.
49--44 FR 32605; June 6, 1979.
53--44 FR 43701; July 25, 1979.
56--44 FR 54923; September 21, 1979.
57--44 FR 58863; October 2, 1979.
58--44 FR 58868; October 11, 1979.
59--44 FR 58870; October 11, 1979.
61--44 FR 61556; October 25, 1979.
62--44 FR 61558; October 25, 1979.
63--44 FR 61786; October 26, 1979.
64--44 FR 61788; October 26, 1979.
65--44 FR 61911; October 26, 1979.
66--44 FR 61913; October 26, 1979.
68--44 FR 61920; October 26, 1979.
69--44 FR 61924; October 26, 1979.
70--44 FR 61927; October 26, 1979.
71--44 FR 61929; October 26, 1979.
72--44 FR 62246; October 29, 1979.
73--44 FR 62469; October 30, 1979.
74--44 FR 62471; October 30, 1979.
75--44 FR 62474; October 30, 1979.
76--44 FR 64247; November 6, 1979.
77--44 FR 64250; November 6, 1979.
78--44 FR 64252; November 6, 1979.
79--44 FR 64733; November 7, 1979.
80--44 FR 64738; November 7, 1979.
81--44 FR 64740; November 7, 1979.
82--44 FR 64743; November 7, 1979.
83--44 FR 64746; November 7, 1979.
84--44 FR 65005; November 8, 1979.
89--45 FR 18929; March 24, 1980.
104--45 FR 61944; September 17, 1980.
107--45 FR 69360; October 20, 1980.
109--46 FR 3186; January 13, 1981.
110--46 FR 5730; January 19, 1981.
112--46 FR 40025; August 6, 1981.
116--47 FR 19539; May 6, 1982.
118--47 FR 30440; July 13, 1982.
120--47 FR 36846; August 24, 1982.
121--47 FR 38540; September 1, 1982.
122--47 FR 38927; September 10, 1982.
126--47 FR 50885; November 10, 1982.
133--48 FR 46331; October 12, 1983.
137--48 FR 52747; November 22, 1983.
140--49 FR 2786; January 23, 1984.
141--49 FR 6102; February 17, 1984.
147--49 FR 21058; May 18, 1984.
148--49 FR 22329; May 29, 1984.
151--49 FR 28565; July 13, 1984.
152--49 FR 29234; July 19, 1984.
153--49 FR 29237; July 19, 1984.
154--49 FR 30201; July 27, 1984.
155--49 FR 31421; August 7, 1984.
158--49 FR 34500; August 31, 1984.
162--49 FR 40038; October 12, 1984.
165--49 FR 44756; November 9, 1984.
167--49 FR 47400; December 4, 1984.
168--49 FR 49639; December 21, 1984.
172--50 FR 5758; February 12, 1985.
175--50 FR 12309; March 28, 1985.
176--50 FR 15567; April 19, 1985.
177--50 FR 16682; April 26, 1985.
178--50 FR 19373; May 8, 1985.
179--50 FR 19377; May 8, 1985.
180--50 FR 20214; May 15, 1985.
181--50 FR 20786; May 20, 1985.
187--50 FR 26572; June 27, 1985.
190--50 FR 29341; July 18, 1985.
191--50 FR 29344; July 18, 1985.
192--50 FR 29349; July 18, 1985.
194--50 FR 31190; August 1, 1985.
197--50 FR 32575; August 13, 1985.
198--50 FR 33731; August 21, 1985.
199--50 FR 33734; August 21, 1985.
200--50 FR 33737; August 21, 1985.
201--50 FR 36089; September 5, 1985.
202--50 FR 36091; September 5, 1985.
204--50 FR 37863; September 18, 1985.
207--50 FR 45618; November 1, l985.
208--50 FR 45621; November 1, 1985.
209--50 FR 45624; November 1, 1985.
213--50 FR 51870; December 21, 1985.
214--51 FR 956; January 9, 1986.
215--51 FR 3185; January 24, 1986.
217--51 FR 6693; February 25, 1986.
218--51 FR 8683; March 13, 1986.
219--51 FR 9820; March 21, 1986.
220--51 FR 10521; March 26, 1986.
221--51 FR 10523; March 26, 1986.
225--51 FR 15906; April 29, 1986.
226--51 FR 15911; April 29, 1986.
230--51 FR 17346; May 12, 1986.
231--51 FR 17974; May 16, 1986.
232--51 FR 17977; May l6, 1986.
234--51 FR 22524; June 20, 1986.
235--51 FR 23769; July 1, 1986.
237--51 FR 24672; July 8, 1986.
238--51 FR 24675; July 8, 1986.
240--51 FR 27500; July 31, 1986.
243--51 FR 34415; September 26, 1986.
244--51 FR 34419; September 26, 1986.
245--51 FR 34422; September 26, 1986.
249--51 FR 45907; December 23, 1986.
252--52 FR 679; January 8, 1987.
253--52 FR 682; January 8, 1987.
254--52 FR 784; January 9, 1987.
255--52 FR 1462; January 14, 1987.
256--52 FR 2234; January 21, 1987.
257--52 FR 4910; February 18, 1987.
259--52 FR 6651; March 4, 1987.
260--52 FR 7426; March 11, 1987.
264--52 FR 11175; April 7, 1987.
266--52 FR 15505; April 29, 1987.
270--52 FR 21480; June 5, 1987.
271--52 FR 21484; June 5, 1987.
274--52 FR 22589; June 12, 1987.
275--52 FR 22933; June 16, 1987.
276--52 FR 22936; June 16, 1987.
277--52 FR 22939; June 16, 1987.
285--52 FR 32929; September 1, 1987.
286--52 FR 34917; September 16, 1987.
291--52 FR 36270; September 28, 1987.
293--52 FR 37420; October 6, 1987.
295--52 FR 41440; October 28, 1987.
297--52 FR 42071; November 2, 1987.
298--52 FR 42657; November 6, 1987.
300--52 FR 44401; November 19, 1987.
301--52 FR 46087; December 4, 1987.
302--53 FR 3565; February 5, 1988.
303--53 FR 3567; February 5, 1988.

[[Page 165]]

305--53 FR 4629; February 17, 1988.
306--53 FR 10884; April 4, 1988.
307--53 FR 11612; April 7, 1988.
308--53 FR 11615; April 7, 1988.
309--53 FR 23742; June 23, 1988.
310--53 FR 23745; June 23, 1988.
311--53 FR 23748; June 23, 1988.
314--53 FR 27137; July 18, 1988.
315--53 FR 27141; July 18, 1988.
318--53 FR 32827; August 26, 1988.
319--53 FR 32830; August 26, 1988.
321--53 FR 33996; September 1, 1988.
324--53 FR 34701; September 7, 1988.
325--53 FR 34705; September 7, 1988.
326--53 FR 35080; September 9, 1988.
329--53 FR 37972; September 28, 1988.
330--53 FR 37975; September 28, 1988.
331--53 FR 37978; September 28, 1988.
332--53 FR 37982; September 28, 1988.
333--53 FR 38451; September 30, 1988.
335--53 FR 38456; September 30, 1988.
339--53 FR 38474; September 30, 1988.
341--53 FR 45861; November 14, 1988.
343--54 FR 2134; January 19, 1989.
344--54 FR 5938; February 7, 1989.
346--54 FR 10154; March 10, 1989.
347--54 FR 14967; April 14, 1989.
352--54 FR 29658; July 13, 1989.
353--54 FR 29663; July 13, 1989.
354--54 FR 29730; July 14, 1989.
355--54 FR 30554; July 21, 1989.
356--54 FR 31196; July 27, 1989.
360--54 FR 35305; August 24, 1989.
362--54 FR 38947; September 21, 1989.
363--54 FR 38950; September 21, 1989.
367--54 FR 39857; September 28, 1989.
368--54 FR 39863; September 28, 1989.
373--55 FR 433; January 5, 1990.
374--55 FR 4157; February 6, 1990.
375--55 FR 4159; February 6, 1990.
379--55 FR 12790; April 5, 1990.
380--55 FR 12793; April 5, 1990.
381--55 FR 12797; April 5, 1990.
385--55 FR 13491; April 10, 1990.
386--55 FR 13911; April 13, 1990.
389--55 FR 24246; June 15, 1990.
392--55 FR 25599; June 21, 1990.
395--55 FR 29370; July 19, 1990.
397--55 FR 32255; August 8, 1990.
398--55 FR 32257; August 8, 1990.
402--55 FR 39864; September 28, 1990.
403--55 FR 39867; September 28, 1990.
406--55 FR 49050; November 26, 1990.
409--55 FR 50187; December 5, 1990.
413--56 FR 1453; January, 14, 1991.
414--56 FR 1457; January, 14, 1991.
418--56 FR 1936; January, 18, 1991.
420--56 FR 16024; April 19, 1991.
422--56 FR 19959; May 1, 1991.
424--56 FR 21091; May 7, 1991.
425--56 FR 21096; May 7, 1991.
429--56 FR 32983; July 18, 1991.
430--56 FR 34154; July 26, 1991.
434--56 FR 46239; September 11, 1991.
435--56 FR 47694; September 20, 1991.
436--56 FR 47699; September 20, 1991.
437--56 FR 48751; September 20, 1991.
438--56 FR 48755; September 20, 1991.
439--56 FR 49636; September 30, 1991.
440--56 FR 49639; September 30, 1991.
441--56 FR 49643; September 30, 1991.
445--56 FR 49853; October 2, 1991.
448--56 FR 55785; October 29, 1991.
450--56 FR 57849; November 14, 1991.
451--56 FR 60937; November 29, 1991.
452--56 FR 60940; November 29, 1991.
453--56 FR 61182; December 2, 1991.
457--57 FR 1403; January 14, 1992.
458--57 FR 2053; January 17, 1992.
460--57 FR 14653; April 22, 1992.
461--57 FR 14785; April 22, 1992.
463--57 FR 19819; May 8, 1992.
464--57 FR 20588; May 13, 1992.
465--57 FR 20592; May 13, 1992.
466--57 FR 20595; May 13, 1992.
467--57 FR 20787; May 15, 1992.
468--57 FR 21564; May 20, 1992.
470--57 FR 21574; May 20, 1992.
471--57 FR 24199; June 8, 1992.
472--57 FR 27858; June 22, 1992.
473--57 FR 27863; June 22, 1992.
474--57 FR 27867; June 22, 1992.
476--57 FR 30168; July 8, 1992.
477--57 FR 44340; September 25, 1992.
478--57 FR 44708; September 29, 1992.
480--57 FR 46339; October 8, 1992.
481--57 FR 46344; October 8, 1992.
482--57 FR 46747; October 28, 1992.
490--58 FR 8242; February 12, 1993.
491--58 FR 11552; February 26, 1993.
497--58 FR 18035; April 7, 1993.
498--58 FR 18041; April 7, 1993.
500--58 FR 25754; April 27, 1993.
501--58 FR 25758; April 27, 1993.
504--58 FR 32311; June 9, 1993.
506--58 FR 35891; July 2, 1993.
507--58 FR 37443; July 12, 1993.
509--58 FR 40547; July 28, 1993.
510--58 FR 40551; July 28, 1993.
511--58 FR 41383; August 3, 1993.
512--58 FR 41391; August 3, 1993.
515--58 FR 49879; September 23, 1993.
519--58 FR 52030; October 6 1993.
521--58 FR 53807; October 10/18/93.
523--58 FR 62050; November 24, 1993.
524--58 FR 68480; December 27, 1993
528--59 FR 5510; February 4 1994.
529--59 FR 8141; February 18 1994.
530--59 FR 9327; February 25, 1994.
531--59 FR 10324; March 2, 1994.
532--59 FR 10324; March 4, 1994.
535--59 FR 13840; March 23, 1994.
536--59 FR 14493; March 28, 1994.
537--59 FR 15345; April 1, 1994.
541--59 FR 32937; June 27, 1994.
542--59 FR 35864; July 14, 1994.
544--59 FR 42176; August 17, 1994.
547--59 FR 43652; August 24, 1994.
548--59 FR 43652; August 24, 1994.
551--59 FR 46718; September 9, 1994.
553--59 FR 49031; September 26, 1994.
555--59 FR 49863; September 30, 1994.
556--59 FR 50857; October 6, 1994.
558--59 FR 56333; November 10, 1994.

[[Page 166]]

559--59 FR 56350; November 10, 1994.
560--59 FR 59177; November 16, 1994.
564--59 FR 60568; November 25, 1994.
565--59 FR 62352; December 5, 1994.
567--59 FR 64623; December 15, 1994.
570--60 FR 61; January 3, 1995.
572--60 FR 3562; January 18, 1995.
575--60 FR 6684; February 3, 1995.
578--60 FR 12846; March 7, 1995.
581--60 FR 10697; March 15, 1996.
584--61 FR 31058; June 19, 1996.
586--61 FR 41023; August 7, 1996.
587--61 FR 43184; August 21, 1996.
589--61 FR 52384; October 7, 1996.
590--61 FR 53088; October 10, 1996.
591--61 FR 53107; October 10, 1996.
592--61 FR 53123; October 10, 1996.
593--61 FR 53130; October 10, 1996.
594--61 FR 53137; October 10, 1996.
595--61 FR 53152; October 10, 1996.
596--61 FR 54358; October 18, 1996.
599--61 FR 67497; December 23, 1996.
600--62 FR 689; January 6, 1997.
601--62 FR 1647; January 10, 1997.
603--62 FR 1694; January 10, 1997.
606--62 FR 4182; January 29, 1997.
609--62 FR 5551; February 6, 1997.
611--62 FR 14351; March 26, 1997.
613--62 FR 27978; May 22, 1997.
615--62 FR 31748; June 11, 1997.
619--62 FR 33037; June 18, 1997.
620--62 FR 33373; June 19, 1997.
623--62 FR 40973; July 31, 1997.
624--62 FR 42702; August 8, 1997.
625--62 FR 54807; October 22, 1997.
627--62 FR 61925; November 20, 1997.
635--63 FR 19849; April 22, 1998.
640--63 FR 43115; August 12, 1998.
641--63 FR 44594; August 20, 1998.
643--63 FR 49034; September 14, 1998.
644--63 FR 49021; September 14, 1998.
647--63 FR 53615; October 6, 1998.
648--63 FR 54970; October 13, 1998.
649--63 FR 54956; October 13, 1998.
650--63 FR 54994; October 13, 1998.
652--63 FR 59244; November 3, 1998.
657--64 FR 13120; March 17, 1999.
661--64 FR 28412; May 26, 1999.
662--64 FR 28403; May 26, 1999.
663--64 FR 28392; May 26, 1999.
666--64 FR 48323; September 3, 1999.

    Editorial Note 1: For Federal Register citations affecting the table 
in Sec. 17.12(h), see the listing above.

    Editorial Note 2: For Federal Register citations affecting 
Sec. 17.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids 
section of this volume.



                     Subpart C--Endangered Wildlife



Sec. 17.21  Prohibitions.

    (a) Except as provided in subpart A of this part, or under permits 
issued pursuant to Sec. 17.22 or Sec. 17.23, it is unlawful for any 
person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to commit, to 
attempt to commit, to solicit another to commit or to cause to be 
committed, any of the acts described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of 
this section in regard to any endangered wildlife.
    (b) Import or export. It is unlawful to import or to export any 
endangered wildlife. Any shipment in transit through the United States 
is an importation and an exportation, whether or not it has entered the 
country for customs purposes.
    (c) Take. (1) It is unlawful to take endangered wildlife within the 
United States, within the territorial sea of the United States, or upon 
the high seas. The high seas shall be all waters seaward of the 
territorial sea of the United States, except waters officially 
recognized by the United States as the territorial sea of another 
country, under international law.
    (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any person may 
take endangered wildlife in defense of his own life or the lives of 
others.
    (3) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any employee 
or agent of the Service, any other Federal land management agency, the 
National Marine Fisheries Service, or a State conservation agency, who 
is designated by his agency for such purposes, may, when acting in the 
course of his official duties, take endangered wildlife without a permit 
if such action is necessary to:
    (i) Aid a sick, injured or orphaned specimen; or
    (ii) Dispose of a dead specimen; or
    (iii) Salvage a dead specimen which may be useful for scientific 
study; or
    (iv) Remove specimens which constitute a demonstrable but 
nonimmediate threat to human safety, provided that the taking is done in 
a humane manner; the taking may involve killing or injuring only if it 
has not been reasonably possible to eliminate such threat by live-
capturing and releasing the specimen unharmed, in a remote area.
    (4) Any taking pursuant to paragraphs (c) (2) and (3) of this 
section must be reported in writing to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Division of

[[Page 167]]

Law Enforcement, P.O. Box 19183, Washington, DC 20036, within 5 days. 
The specimen may only be retained, disposed of, or salvaged in 
accordance with directions from Service.
    (5) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any qualified 
employee or agent of a State Conservation Agency which is a party to a 
Cooperative Agreement with the Service in accordance with section 6(c) 
of the Act, who is designated by his agency for such purposes, may, when 
acting in the course of his official duties take those endangered 
species which are covered by an approved cooperative agreement for 
conservation programs in accordance with the Cooperative Agreement, 
provided that such taking is not reasonably anticipated to result in:
    (i) The death or permanent disabling of the specimen;
    (ii) The removal of the specimen from the State where the taking 
occurred;
    (iii) The introduction of the specimen so taken, or of any progeny 
derived from such a specimen, into an area beyond the historical range 
of the species; or
    (iv) The holding of the specimen in captivity for a period of more 
than 45 consecutive days.
    (d) Possession and other acts with unlawfully taken wildlife. (1) It 
is unlawful to possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, or ship, by any 
means whatsoever, any endangered wildlife which was taken in violation 
of paragraph (c) of this section.

    Example A person captures a whooping crane in Texas and gives it to 
a second person, who puts it in a closed van and drives thirty miles, to 
another location in Texas. The second person then gives the whooping 
crane to a third person, who is apprehended with the bird in his 
possession. All three have violated the law--the first by illegally 
taking the whooping crane; the second by transporting an illegally taken 
whooping crane; and the third by possessing an illegally taken whooping 
crane.

    (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(1) of this section, Federal and 
State law enforcement officers may possess, deliver, carry, transport or 
ship any endangered wildlife taken in violation of the Act as necessary 
in performing their official duties.
    (e) Interstate or foreign commerce. It is unlawful to deliver, 
receive, carry transport, or ship in interstate or foreign commerce, by 
any means whatsoever, and in the course of a commercial activity, any 
endangered wildlife.
    (f) Sale or offer for sale. (1) It is unlawful to sell or to offer 
for sale in interstate or foreign commerce any endangered wildlife.
    (2) An advertisement for the sale of endangered wildlife which 
carries a warning to the effect that no sale may be consummated until a 
permit has been obtained from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service shall 
not be considered an offer for sale within the meaning of this section.
    (g) Captive-bred wildlife. (1) Notwithstanding paragraphs (b), (c), 
(e) and (f) of this section, any person may take; export or re-import; 
deliver, receive, carry, transport or ship in interstate or foreign 
commerce, in the course of a commercial activity; or sell or offer for 
sale in interstate or foreign commerce any endangered wildlife that is 
bred in captivity in the United States provided either that the wildlife 
is of a taxon listed in paragraph (g)(6) of this section, or that the 
following conditions are met:
    (i) The wildlife is of a species having a natural geographic 
distribution not including any part of the United States, or the 
wildlife is of a species that the Director has determined to be eligible 
in accordance with paragraph (g)(5) of this section;
    (ii) The purpose of such activity is to enhance the propagation or 
survival of the affected species;
    (iii) Such activity does not involve interstate or foreign commerce, 
in the course of a commercial activity, with respect to non-living 
wildlife;
    (iv) Each specimen of wildlife to be re-imported is uniquely 
identified by a band, tattoo or other means that was reported in writing 
to an official of the Service at a port of export prior to export from 
the United States; and
    (v) Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who 
engages in any of the activities authorized by this paragraph does so in 
accordance with paragraphs (g) (2), (3) and (4) of this section, and 
with all

[[Page 168]]

other applicable regulations in this Subchapter B.
    (2) Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
seeking to engage in any of the activities authorized by this paragraph 
must first register with the Service (Office of Management Authority, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Arlington, 
Virginia 22203). Requests for registration must be submitted on an 
official application form (Form 3-200-41) provided by the Service, and 
must include the following information:
    (i) The types of wildlife sought to be covered by the registration, 
identified by common and scientific name to the taxonomic level of 
family, genus or species;
    (ii) A description of the applicant's experience in maintaining and 
propagating the types of wildlife sought to be covered by the 
registration, and when appropriate, in conducting research directly 
related to maintaining and propagating such wildlife;
    (iii) Photograph(s) or other evidence clearly depicting the 
facilities where such wildlife will be maintained; and
    (iv) a copy of the applicant's license or registration, if any, 
under the animal welfare regulations of the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture (9 CFR part 2).
    (3) Upon receiving a complete application, the Director will decide 
whether or not the registration will be approved. In making this 
decision, the Director will consider, in addition to the general 
criteria in Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, whether the expertise, 
facilities or other resources available to the applicant appear adequate 
to enhance the propagation or survival of the affected wildlife. Public 
education activities may not be the sole basis to justify issuance of a 
registration or to otherwise establish eligibility for the exception 
granted in paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Each person so registered 
must maintain accurate written records of activities conducted under the 
registration, and allow reasonable access to Service agents for 
inspection purposes as set forth in Secs. 13.46 and 13.47. Each person 
registered must submit to the Director an individual written annual 
report of activities, including all births, deaths and transfers of any 
type.
    (4) Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
seeking to export or conduct foreign commerce in captive-bred endangered 
wildlife that will not remain under the care of that person must first 
obtain approval by providing written evidence to satisfy the Director 
that the proposed recipient of the wildlife has expertise, facilities or 
other resources adequate to enhance the propagation or survival of such 
wildlife and that the proposed recipient will use such wildlife for 
purposes of enhancing the propagation or survival of the affected 
species.
    (5)(i) The Director will use the following criteria to determine if 
wildlife of any species having a natural geographic distribution that 
includes any part of the United States is eligible for the provisions of 
this paragraph:
    (A) Whether there is a low demand for taking of the species from 
wild populations, either because of the success of captive breeding or 
because of other reasons, and
    (B) Whether the wild populations of the species are effectively 
protected from unauthorized taking as a result of the inaccessibility of 
their habitat to humans or as a result of the effectiveness of law 
enforcement.
    (ii) The Director will follow the procedures set forth in the Act 
and in the regulations thereunder with respect to petitions and 
notification of the public and governors of affected States when 
determining the eligibility of species for purposes of this paragraph.
    (iii) In accordance with the criteria in paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this 
section, the Director has determined the following species to be 
eligible for the provisions of this paragraph:

Laysan duck (Anas laysanensis).

    (6) Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
seeking to engage in any of the activities authorized by paragraph 
(g)(1) of this section may do so without first registering with the 
Service with respect to the bar-tailed pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae), 
Elliot's pheasant (S. ellioti), Mikado pheasant (S. mikado), brown eared 
pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum), white eared pheasant (C. 
crossoptilon), cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichii), Edward's pheasant 
(Lophura edwardsi), Swinhoe's

[[Page 169]]

pheasant (L. swinhoii), Chinese monal (Lophophorus lhuysii), and Palawan 
peacock pheasant (Polyplectron emphanum); parakeets of the species 
Neophema pulchella and N. splendida; the Laysan duck (Anas laysanensis); 
the white-winged wood duck (Cairina scutulata); and the inter-
subspecific crossed or ``generic'' tiger (Panthera tigris) (i e., 
specimens not identified or identifiable as members of the Bengal, 
Sumatran, Siberian or Indochinese subspecies (Panthera tigris tigris, 
P.t. sumatrae, P.t. altaica and P.t. corbetti, respectively) provided:
    (i) The purpose of such activity is to enhance the propagation or 
survival of the affected exempted species;
    (ii) Such activity does not involve interstate or foreign commerce, 
in the course of a commercial activity, with respect to non-living 
wildlife;
    (iii) Each specimen to be re-imported is uniquely identified by a 
band, tattoo or other means that was reported in writing to an official 
of the Service at a port of export prior to export of the specimen from 
the United States;
    (iv) No specimens of the taxa in this paragraph (g)(6) of this 
section that were taken from the wild may be imported for breeding 
purposes absent a definitive showing that the need for new bloodlines 
can only be met by wild specimens, that suitable foreign-bred, captive 
individuals are unavailable, and that wild populations can sustain 
limited taking, and an import permit is issued under Sec. 17.22;
    (v) Any permanent exports of such specimens meet the requirements of 
paragraph (g)(4) of this section; and
    (vi) Each person claiming the benefit of the exception in paragraph 
(g)(1) of this section must maintain accurate written records of 
activities, including births, deaths and transfers of specimens, and 
make those records accessible to Service agents for inspection at 
reasonable hours as set forth in Secs. 13.46 and 13.47.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 40 FR 53400, Nov. 18, 1975; 
41 FR 19226, May 11, 1976; 44 FR 31580, May 31, 1979; 44 FR 54007, Sept. 
17, 1979; 58 FR 68325, Dec. 27, 1993; 63 FR 48640, Sept. 11, 1998]



Sec. 17.22  Permits for scientific purposes, enhancement of propagation or survival, or for incidental taking.

    Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited by Sec. 17.21, in 
accordance with the issuance criteria of this section, for scientific 
purposes, for enhancing the propagation or survival, or for the 
incidental taking of endangered wildlife. Such permits may authorize a 
single transaction, a series of transactions, or a number of activities 
over a specific period of time. (See Sec. 17.32 for permits for 
threatened species.) The Director shall publish notice in the Federal 
Register of each application for a permit that is made under this 
section. Each notice shall invite the submission from interested 
parties, within 30 days after the date of the notice, of written data, 
views, or arguments with respect to the application. The 30-day period 
may be waived by the Director in an emergency situation where the life 
or health of an endangered animal is threatened and no reasonable 
alternative is available to the applicant. Notice of any such waiver 
shall be published in the Federal Register within 10 days following 
issuance of the permit.
    (a)(1) Application requirements for permits for scientific purposes 
or for the enhancement of propagation or survival. A person wishing to 
get a permit for an activity prohibited by Sec. 17.21 submits an 
application for activities under this paragraph. The Service provides 
Form 3-200 for the application to which all of the following must be 
attained:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the species sought to the 
covered by the permit, as well as the number, age, and sex of such 
species, and the activity sought to be authorized (such as taking, 
exporting, selling in interstate commerce);
    (ii) A statement as to whether, at the time of application, the 
wildlife sought to be covered by the permit (A) is still in the wild, 
(B) has already been removed from the wild, or (C) was born in 
captivity;
    (iii) A resume of the applicant's attempts to obtain the wildlife 
sought to be covered by the permit in a manner

[[Page 170]]

which would not cause the death or removal from the wild of such 
wildlife;
    (iv) If the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit has already 
been removed from the wild, the country and place where such removal 
occurred; if the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit was born in 
captivity, the country and place where such wildlife was born;
    (v) A complete description and address of the institution or other 
facility where the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit will be 
used, displayed, or maintained;
    (vi) If the applicant seeks to have live wildlife covered by the 
permit, a complete description, including photographs or diagrams, of 
the facilities to house and/or care for the wildlife and a resume of the 
experience of those person who will be caring for the wildlife;
    (vii) A full statement of the reasons why the applicant is justified 
in obtaining a permit including the details of the activities sought to 
be authorized by the permit;
    (viii) If the application is for the purpose of enhancement of 
propagation, a statement of the applicant's willingness to participate 
in a cooperative breeding program and to maintain or contribute data to 
a studbook;
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not a permit should be issued. In making this 
decision, the Director shall consider, in addition to the general 
criteria in Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (i) Whether the purpose for which the permit is required is adequate 
to justify removing from the wild or otherwise changing the status of 
the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit;
    (ii) The probable direct and indirect effect which issuing the 
permit would have on the wild populations of the wildlife sought to be 
covered by the permit;
    (iii) Whether the permit, if issued, would in any way, directly or 
indirectly, conflict with any known program intended to enhance the 
survival probabilities of the population from which the wildlife sought 
to be covered by the permit was or would be removed;
    (iv) Whether the purpose for which the permit is required would be 
likely to reduce the threat of extinction facing the species of wildlife 
sought to be covered by the permit;
    (v) The opinions or views of scientists or other persons or 
organizations having expertise concerning the wildlife or other matters 
germane to the application; and
    (vi) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate to successfully accomplish the 
objectives stated in the application.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
paragraph shall be subject to the special condition that the escape of 
living wildlife covered by the permit shall be immediately reported to 
the Service office designated in the permit.
    (4) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph shall be designated on the face of the permit.
    (b)(1) Application requirements for permits for incidental taking. A 
person wishing to get a permit for an activity prohibited by 
Sec. 17.21(c) submits an application for activities under this 
paragraph. The Service provides Form 3-200 for the application to which 
all of the following must be attached:
    (i) A complete description of the activity sought to be authorized;
    (ii) The common and scientific names of the species sought to be 
covered by the permit, as well as the number, age, and sex of such 
species, if known;
    (iii) A conservation plan that specifies:
    (A) The impact that will likely result from such taking;
    (B) What steps the applicant will take to monitor, minimize, and 
mitigate such impacts, the funding that will be available to implement 
such steps, and the procedures to be used to deal with unforeseen 
circumstances;
    (C) What alternative actions to such taking the applicant considered 
and the reasons why such alternatives are not proposed to be utilized; 
and

[[Page 171]]

    (D) Such other measures that the Director may require as being 
necessary or appropriate for purposes of the plan;
    (2) Issuance criteria. (i) Upon receiving an application completed 
in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not a permit should be issued. The Director shall 
consider the general issuance criteria in Sec. 13.21(b) of this 
subchapter, except for Sec. 13.21(b)(4), and shall issue the permit if 
he or she finds that:
    (A) The taking will be incidental;
    (B) The applicant will, to the maximum extent practicable, minimize 
and mitigate the impacts of such takings;
    (C) The applicant will ensure that adequate funding for the 
conservation plan and procedures to deal with unforeseen circumstances 
will be provided;
    (D) The taking will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of the 
survival and recovery of the species in the wild;
    (E) The measures, if any, required under paragraph (b)(1)(iii)(D) of 
this section will be met; and
    (F) He or she has received such other assurances as he or she may 
require that the plan will be implemented.
    (ii) In making his or her decision, the Director shall also consider 
the anticipated duration and geographic scope of the applicant's planned 
activities, including the amount of listed species habitat that is 
involved and the degree to which listed species and their habitats are 
affected.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
paragraph shall contain such terms and conditions as the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
conservation plan including, but not limited to, monitoring and 
reporting requirements deemed necessary for determining whether such 
terms and conditions are being complied with. The Director shall rely 
upon existing reporting requirements to the maximum extent practicable.
    (4) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph shall be sufficient to provide adequate assurances to the 
permittee to commit funding necessary for the activities authorized by 
the permit, including conservation activities and land use restrictions. 
In determining the duration of a permit, the Director shall consider the 
duration of the planned activities, as well as the possible positive and 
negative effects associated with permits of the proposed duration on 
listed species, including the extent to which the conservation plan will 
enhance the habitat of listed species and increase the long-term 
survivability of such species.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee in case of changed or 
unforeseen circumstances. The assurances in this paragraph (b)(5) apply 
only to incidental take permits issued in accordance with paragraph 
(b)(2) of this section where the conservation plan is being properly 
implemented, and apply only with respect to species adequately covered 
by the conservation plan. These assurances cannot be provided to Federal 
agencies. This rule does not apply to incidental take permits issued 
prior to March 25, 1998. The assurances provided in incidental take 
permits issued prior to March 25, 1998 remain in effect, and those 
permits will not be revised as a result of this rulemaking.
    (i) Changed circumstances provided for in the plan. If additional 
conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to respond to 
changed circumstances and were provided for in the plan's operating 
conservation program, the permittee will implement the measures 
specified in the plan.
    (ii) Changed circumstances not provided for in the plan. If 
additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to 
respond to changed circumstances and such measures were not provided for 
in the plan's operating conservation program, the Director will not 
require any conservation and mitigation measures in addition to those 
provided for in the plan without the consent of the permittee, provided 
the plan is being properly implemented.
    (iii) Unforeseen circumstances. (A) In negotiating unforeseen 
circumstances, the Director will not require the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
beyond the

[[Page 172]]

level otherwise agreed upon for the species covered by the conservation 
plan without the consent of the permittee.
    (B) If additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed 
necessary to respond to unforeseen circumstances, the Director may 
require additional measures of the permittee where the conservation plan 
is being properly implemented, but only if such measures are limited to 
modifications within conserved habitat areas, if any, or to the 
conservation plan's operating conservation program for the affected 
species, and maintain the original terms of the conservation plan to the 
maximum extent possible. Additional conservation and mitigation measures 
will not involve the commitment of additional land, water or financial 
compensation or additional restrictions on the use of land, water, or 
other natural resources otherwise available for development or use under 
the original terms of the conservation plan without the consent of the 
permittee.
    (C) The Director will have the burden of demonstrating that 
unforeseen circumstances exist, using the best scientific and commercial 
data available. These findings must be clearly documented and based upon 
reliable technical information regarding the status and habitat 
requirements of the affected species. The Director will consider, but 
not be limited to, the following factors:
    (1) Size of the current range of the affected species;
    (2) Percentage of range adversely affected by the conservation plan;
    (3) Percentage of range conserved by the conservation plan;
    (4) Ecological significance of that portion of the range affected by 
the conservation plan;
    (5) Level of knowledge about the affected species and the degree of 
specificity of the species' conservation program under the conservation 
plan; and
    (6) Whether failure to adopt additional conservation measures would 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery of the 
affected species in the wild.
    (6) Nothing in this rule will be construed to limit or constrain the 
Director, any Federal, State, local, or Tribal government agency, or a 
private entity, from taking additional actions at its own expense to 
protect or conserve a species included in a conservation plan.
    (7) Discontinuance of permit activity. Notwithstanding the 
provisions of Sec. 13.26 of this subchapter, a permittee under this 
paragraph (b) remains responsible for any outstanding minimization and 
mitigation measures required under the terms of the permit for take that 
occurs prior to surrender of the permit and such minimization and 
mitigation measures as may be required pursuant to the termination 
provisions of an implementing agreement, habitat conservation plan, or 
permit even after surrendering the permit to the Service pursuant to 
Sec. 13.26 of this subchapter. The permit shall be deemed canceled only 
upon a determination by the Service that such minimization and 
mitigation measures have been implemented. Upon surrender of the permit, 
no further take shall be authorized under the terms of the surrendered 
permit.
    (8) Criteria for Revocation. A permit issued under this paragraph 
(b) may not be revoked for any reason except those set forth in 
Sec. 13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter or unless continuation 
of the permitted activity would be inconsistent with the criterion set 
forth in 16 U.S.C. 1539(a)(2)(B)(iv) and the inconsistency has not been 
remedied in a timely fashion.
    (c)(1) Application requirements for permits for the enhancement of 
survival through Safe Harbor Agreements. The applicant must submit an 
application for a permit under this paragraph (c) to the appropriate 
Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for the Region where 
the applicant resides or where the proposed activity is to occur (for 
appropriate addresses, see 50 CFR 10.22), if the applicant wishes to 
engage in any activity prohibited by Sec. 17.21. The applicant must 
submit an official Service application form (3-200.54) that includes the 
following information:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the listed species for which 
the applicant requests incidental take authorization;
    (ii) A description of the land use or water management activity for 
which

[[Page 173]]

the applicant requests incidental take authorization; and
    (iii) A Safe Harbor Agreement that complies with the requirements of 
the Safe Harbor policy available from the Service.
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not to issue a permit. The Director shall consider the 
general issuance criteria in Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, except 
for Sec. 13.21(b)(4), and may issue the permit if he or she finds:
    (i) The take will be incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and 
will be in accordance with the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement;
    (ii) The implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement 
will provide a net conservation benefit to the affected listed species 
by contributing to the recovery of listed species included in the permit 
and the Safe Harbor Agreement otherwise complies with the Safe Harbor 
policy available from the Service;
    (iii) The probable direct and indirect effects of any authorized 
take will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery 
in the wild of any listed species;
    (iv) Implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement is 
consistent with applicable Federal, State, and Tribal laws and 
regulations;
    (v) Implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement will 
not be in conflict with any ongoing conservation or recovery programs 
for listed species covered by the permit; and
    (vi) The applicant has shown capability for and commitment to 
implementing all of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to any applicable general permit 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued 
under this paragraph (c) is subject to the following special conditions:
    (i) A requirement for the participating property owner to notify the 
Service of any transfer of lands subject to a Safe Harbor Agreement;
    (ii) A requirement for the property owner to notify the Service at 
least 30 days in advance, but preferably as far in advance as possible, 
of when he or she expects to incidentally take any listed species 
covered under the permit. Such notification will provide the Service 
with an opportunity to translocate affected individuals of the species, 
if possible and appropriate; and
    (iii) Any additional requirements or conditions the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
Safe Harbor Agreement.
    (4) Permit effective date. Permits issued under this paragraph (c) 
become effective the day of issuance for species covered by the Safe 
Harbor Agreement.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee. (i) The assurances in 
paragraph (c)(5) (ii) of this section (c)(5) apply only to Safe Harbor 
permits issued in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section where 
the Safe Harbor Agreement is being properly implemented, and apply only 
with respect to species covered by the Agreement and permit. These 
assurances cannot be provided to Federal agencies. The assurances 
provided in this section apply only to Safe Harbor permits issued after 
July 19, 1999.
    (ii) If additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed 
necessary, the Director may require additional measures of the 
permittee, but only if such measures are limited to modifications within 
conserved habitat areas, if any, for the affected species and maintain 
the original terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement to the maximum extent 
possible. Additional conservation and mitigation measures will not 
involve the commitment of additional land, water or financial 
compensation or additional restrictions on the use of land, water, or 
other natural resources otherwise available for development or use under 
the original terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement without the consent of 
the permittee.
    (6) Additional actions. Nothing in this rule will be construed to 
limit or constrain the Director, any Federal, State, local or Tribal 
government agency, or a private entity, from taking additional actions 
at its own expense to protect or conserve a species included in a Safe 
Harbor Agreement.
    (7) Criteria for revocation. A permit issued under this paragraph 
(c) may not be revoked for any reason except

[[Page 174]]

those set forth in Sec. 13.28(a) (1) through (4) of this subchapter or 
unless continuation of the permitted activity would be inconsistent with 
the criterion set forth in Sec. 17.22(c)(2)(iii) and the inconsistency 
has not been remedied in a timely fashion.
    (8) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph (c) must be sufficient to provide a net conservation benefit 
to species covered in the enhancement of survival permit. In determining 
the duration of a permit, the Director will consider the duration of the 
planned activities, as well as the positive and negative effects 
associated with permits of the proposed duration on covered species, 
including the extent to which the conservation activities included in 
the Safe Harbor Agreement will enhance the survival and contribute to 
the recovery of listed species included in the permit.
    (d)(1) Application requirements for permits for the enhancement of 
survival through Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances. The 
applicant must submit an application for a permit under this paragraph 
(d) to the appropriate Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, for the Region where the applicant resides or where the 
proposed activity is to occur (for appropriate addresses, see 50 CFR 
10.22). When a species covered by a Candidate Conservation Agreement 
with Assurances is listed as endangered and the applicant wishes to 
engage in activities identified in the Agreement and otherwise 
prohibited by Sec. 17.31, the applicant must apply for an enhancement of 
survival permit for species covered by the Agreement. The permit will 
become valid if and when covered proposed, candidate or other unlisted 
species is listed as an endangered species. The applicant must submit an 
official Service application form (3-200.54) that includes the following 
information:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the species for which the 
applicant requests incidental take authorization;
    (ii) A description of the land use or water management activity for 
which the applicant requests incidental take authorization; and
    (iii) A Candidate Conservation Agreement that complies with the 
requirements of the Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances 
policy available from the Service.
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not to issue a permit. The Director shall consider the 
general issuance criteria in Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, except 
for Sec. 13.21(b)(4), and may issue the permit if he or she finds:
    (i) The take will be incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and 
will be in accordance with the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement;
    (ii) The Candidate Conservation Agreement complies with the 
requirements of the Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances 
policy available from the Service;
    (iii) The probable direct and indirect effects of any authorized 
take will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery 
in the wild of any species;
    (iv) Implementation of the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement is consistent with applicable Federal, State, and Tribal laws 
and regulations;
    (v) Implementation of the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement will not be in conflict with any ongoing conservation programs 
for species covered by the permit; and
    (vi) The applicant has shown capability for and commitment to 
implementing all of the terms of the Candidate Conservation Agreement.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to any applicable general permit 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued 
under this paragraph (d) is subject to the following special conditions:
    (i) A requirement for the property owner to notify the Service of 
any transfer of lands subject to a Candidate Conservation Agreement;
    (ii) A requirement for the property owner to notify the Service at 
least 30 days in advance, but preferably as far in advance as possible, 
of when he or she expects to incidentally take any species covered under 
the permit. Such notification will provide the Service with an 
opportunity to translocate affected individuals of the species, if 
possible and appropriate; and

[[Page 175]]

    (iii) Any additional requirements or conditions the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
Candidate Conservation Agreement.
    (4) Permit effective date. Permits issued under this paragraph (d) 
become effective for a species covered by a Candidate Conservation 
Agreement on the effective date of a final rule that lists a covered 
species as endangered.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee in case of changed or 
unforeseen circumstances. The assurances in this paragraph (d)(5) apply 
only to permits issued in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) where the 
Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement is being properly 
implemented, and apply only with respect to species adequately covered 
by the Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement. These 
assurances cannot be provided to Federal agencies.
    (i) Changed circumstances provided for in the Agreement. If 
additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to 
respond to changed circumstances and were provided for in the 
Agreement's operating conservation program, the permittee will implement 
the measures specified in the Agreement.
    (ii) Changed circumstances not provided for in the Agreement. If 
additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to 
respond to changed circumstances and such measures were not provided for 
in the Agreement's operating conservation program, the Director will not 
require any conservation and mitigation measures in addition to those 
provided for in the Agreement without the consent of the permittee, 
provided the Agreement is being properly implemented.
    (iii) Unforeseen circumstances. (A) In negotiating unforeseen 
circumstances, the Director will not require the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
beyond the level otherwise agreed upon for the species covered by the 
Agreement without the consent of the permittee.
    (B) If additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed 
necessary to respond to unforeseen circumstances, the Director may 
require additional measures of the permittee where the Agreement is 
being properly implemented, but only if such measures are limited to 
modifications within conserved habitat areas, if any, or to the 
Agreement's operating conservation program for the affected species, and 
maintain the original terms of the Agreement to the maximum extent 
possible. Additional conservation and mitigation measures will not 
involve the commitment of additional land, water or financial 
compensation or additional restrictions on the use of land, water, or 
other natural resources otherwise available for development or use under 
the original terms of the Agreement without the consent of the 
permittee.
    (C) The Director will have the burden of demonstrating that 
unforeseen circumstances exist, using the best scientific and commercial 
data available. These findings must be clearly documented and based upon 
reliable technical information regarding the status and habitat 
requirements of the affected species. The Director will consider, but 
not be limited to, the following factors:
    (1) Size of the current range of the affected species;
    (2) Percentage of range adversely affected by the Agreement;
    (3) Percentage of range conserved by the Agreement;
    (4) Ecological significance of that portion of the range affected by 
the Agreement;
    (5) Level of knowledge about the affected species and the degree of 
specificity of the species' conservation program under the Agreement; 
and
    (6) Whether failure to adopt additional conservation measures would 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery of the 
affected species in the wild.
    (6) Additional actions. Nothing in this rule will be construed to 
limit or constrain the Director, any Federal, State, local or Tribal 
government agency, or a private entity, from taking additional actions 
at its own expense to protect or conserve a species included in a 
Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement.

[[Page 176]]

    (7) Criteria for revocation. A permit issued under this paragraph 
(d) may not be revoked for any reason except those set forth in 
Sec. 13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter or unless continuation 
of the permitted activity would be inconsistent with the criterion set 
forth in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section and the inconsistency has 
not been remedied in a timely fashion.
    (8) Duration of the Candidate Conservation Agreement. The duration 
of a Candidate Conservation Agreement covered by a permit issued under 
this paragraph (d) must be sufficient to enable the Director to 
determine that the benefits of the conservation measures in the 
Agreement, when combined with those benefits that would be achieved if 
it is assumed that the conservation measures would also be implemented 
on other necessary properties, would preclude or remove any need to list 
the species covered by the Agreement.
    (e) Objection to permit issuance. (1) In regard to any notice of a 
permit application published in the Federal Register, any interested 
party that objects to the issuance of a permit, in whole or in part, 
may, during the comment period specified in the notice, request 
notification of the final action to be taken on the application. A 
separate written request shall be made for each permit application. Such 
a request shall specify the Service's permit application number and 
state the reasons why that party believes the applicant does not meet 
the issuance criteria contained in Secs. 13.21 and 17.22 of this 
subchapter or other reasons why the permit should not be issued.
    (2) If the Service decides to issue a permit contrary to objections 
received pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section, then the Service 
shall, at least ten days prior to issuance of the permit, make 
reasonable efforts to contact by telephone or other expedient means, any 
party who has made a request pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section and inform that party of the issuance of the permit. However, 
the Service may reduce the time period or dispense with such notice if 
it determines that time is of the essence and that delay in issuance of 
the permit would: (i) Harm the specimen or population involved; or (ii) 
unduly hinder the actions authorized under the permit.
    (3) The Service will notify any party filing an objection and 
request for notice under paragraph (c)(1) of this section of the final 
action taken on the application, in writing. If the Service has reduced 
or dispensed with the notice period referred to in paragraph (c)(2) of 
this section, it will include its reasons therefore in such written 
notice.

[50 FR 39687, Sept. 30, 1985, as amended at 63 FR 8871, Feb. 23, 1998; 
63 FR 52635, Oct. 1, 1998; 64 FR 32711, June 17, 1999; 64 FR 52676, 
Sept. 30, 1999]



Sec. 17.23  Economic hardship permits.

    Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited by Sec. 17.21, in 
accordance with the issuance criteria of this section in order to 
prevent undue economic hardship. The Director shall publish notice in 
the Federal Register of each application for a permit that is made under 
this section. Each notice shall invite the submission from interested 
parties, within 30 days after the date of the notice, of written data, 
views, or arguments with respect to the application. The 30-day period 
may be waived by the Director in an emergency situation where the life 
or health of an endangered animal is threatened and no reasonable 
alternative is available to the applicant. Notice of any such waiver 
shall be published in the Federal Register within 10 days following 
issuance of the permit.
    (a) Application requirements. Applications for permits under this 
section must be submitted to the Director by the person allegedly 
suffering undue economic hardship because his desired activity is 
prohibited by Sec. 17.21. Each application must be submitted on an 
official application form (Form 3-200) provided by the Service, and must 
include, as an attachment, all of the information required in Sec. 17.22 
plus the following additional information:
    (1) The possible legal, economic or subsistence alternatives to the 
activity sought to be authorized by the permit;
    (2) A full statement, accompanied by copies of all relevant 
contracts and

[[Page 177]]

correspondence, showing the appli- cant's involvement with the wildlife 
sought to be covered by the permit (as well as his involvement with 
similar wildlife), including, where applicable, that portion of 
applicant's income derived from the taking of such wildlife, or the 
subsistence use of such wildlife, during the calendar year immediately 
preceding either the notice in the Federal Register of review of the 
status of the species or of the proposal to list such wildlife as 
endangered, whichever is earliest;
    (3) Where applicable, proof of a contract or other binding legal 
obligation which:
    (i) Deals specifically with the wildlife sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) Became binding prior to the date when the notice of a review of 
the status of the species or the notice of proposed rulemaking proposing 
to list such wildlife as endangered was published in the Federal 
Register, whichever is earlier; and
    (iii) Will cause monetary loss of a given dollar amount if the 
permit sought under this section is not granted.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued under any of the three 
categories of economic hardship, as defined in section 10(b)(2) of the 
Act. In making his decisions, the Director shall consider, in addition 
to the general criteria in Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, the 
following factors:
    (1) Whether the purpose for which the permit is being requested is 
adequate to justify removing from the wild or otherwise changing the 
status of the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit;
    (2) The probable direct and indirect effect which issuing the permit 
would have on the wild populations of the wildlife sought to be covered 
by the permit;
    (3) The economic, legal, subsistence, or other alternatives or 
relief available to the applicant;
    (4) The amount of evidence that the applicant was in fact party to a 
contract or other binding legal obligation which;
    (i) Deals specifically with the wildlife sought to be covered by the 
permit; and
    (ii) Became binding prior to the date when the notice of a review of 
the status of the species or the notice of proposed rulemaking proposing 
to list such wildlife as endangered was published in the Federal 
Register, whichever is earlier.
    (5) The severity of economic hardship which the contract or other 
binding legal obligation referred to in paragraph (b)(4) of this section 
would cause if the permit were denied;
    (6) Where applicable, the portion of the applicant's income which 
would be lost if the permit were denied, and the relationship of that 
portion to the balance of his income;
    (7) Where applicable, the nature and extent of subsistence taking 
generally by the applicant; and
    (8) The likelihood that applicant can reasonably carry out his 
desired activity within one year from the date a notice is published in 
the Federal Register to review status of such wildlife, or to list such 
wildlife as endangered, whichever is earlier.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to the following special conditions:
    (1) In addition to any reporting requirements contained in the 
permit itself, the permittee shall also submit to the Director a written 
report of his activities pursuant to the permit. Such report must be 
postmarked or actually delivered no later than 10 days after completion 
of the activity.
    (2) The death or escape of all living wildlife covered by the permit 
shall be immediately reported to the Service's office designated in the 
permit.
    (d) Duration of permits issued under this section shall be 
designated on the face of the permit. No permit issued under this 
section, however, shall be valid for more than one year from the date a 
notice is published in the Federal Register to review status of such 
wildlife, or to list such wildlife as endangered, whichever is earlier.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 40 FR 53400, Nov. 18, 1975; 
40 FR 58307, Dec. 16, 1975; 50 FR 39688, Sept. 30, 1985]

[[Page 178]]



                     Subpart D--Threatened Wildlife



Sec. 17.31  Prohibitions.

    (a) Except as provided in subpart A of this part, or in a permit 
issued under this subpart, all of the provisions in Sec. 17.21 shall 
apply to threatened wildlife, except Sec. 17.21(c)(5).
    (b) In addition to any other provisions of this part 17, any 
employee or agent of the Service, of the National Marine Fisheries 
Service, or of a State conservation agency which is operating a 
conservation program pursuant to the terms of a Cooperative Agreement 
with the Service in accordance with section 6(c) of the Act, who is 
designated by his agency for such purposes, may, when acting in the 
course of his official duties, take those threatened species of wildlife 
which are covered by an approved cooperative agreement to carry out 
conservation programs.
    (c) Whenever a special rule in Secs. 17.40 to 17.48 applies to a 
threatened species, none of the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of 
this section will apply. The special rule will contain all the 
applicable prohibitions and exceptions.

[43 FR 18181, Apr. 28, 1978, as amended at 44 FR 31580, May 31, 1979]



Sec. 17.32  Permits--general.

    Upon receipt of a complete application the Director may issue a 
permit for any activity otherwise prohibited with regard to threatened 
wildlife. Such permit shall be governed by the provisions of this 
section unless a special rule applicable to the wildlife, appearing in 
Secs. 17.40 to 17.48, of this part provides otherwise. Permits issued 
under this section must be for one of the following purposes: Scientific 
purposes, or the enhancement of propagation or survival, or economic 
hardship, or zoological exhibition, or educational purposes, or 
incidental taking, or special purposes consistent with the purposes of 
the Act. Such permits may authorize a single transaction, a series of 
transactions, or a number of activities over a specific period of time.
    (a)(1) Application requirements for permits for scientific purposes, 
or the enhancement of propagation or survival, or economic hardship, or 
zoological exhibition, or educational purposes, or special purposes 
consistent with the purposes of the Act. A person wishing to get a 
permit for an activity prohibited by Sec. 17.31 submits an application 
for activities under this paragraph. The Service provides Form 3-200 for 
the application to which as much of the following information relating 
to the purpose of the permit must be attached:
    (i) The Common and scientific names of the species sought to be 
covered by the permit, as well as the number, age, and sex of such 
species, and the activity sought to be authorized (such as taking, 
exporting, selling in interstate commerce);
    (ii) A statement as to whether, at the time of application, the 
wildlife sought to be covered by the permit (A) is still in the wild, 
(B) has already been removed from the wild, or (C) was born in 
captivity;
    (iii) A resume of the applicant's attempts to obtain the wildlife 
sought to be covered by the permit in a manner which would not cause the 
death or removal from the wild of such wildlife;
    (iv) If the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit has already 
been removed from the wild, the country and place where such removal 
occurred; if the wildlife sought to be covered by permit was born in 
captivity, the country and place where such wildlife was born;
    (v) A complete description and address of the institution or other 
facility where the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit will be 
used, displayed, or maintained;
    (vi) If the applicant seeks to have live wildlife covered by the 
permit, a complete description, including photographs or diagrams, of 
the facilities to house and/or care for the wildlife and a resume of the 
experience of those persons who will be caring for the wildlife;
    (vii) A full statement of the reasons why the applicant is justified 
in obtaining a permit including the details of the activities sought to 
be authorized by the permit;
    (viii) If the application is for the purpose of enhancement of 
propagation, a statement of the applicant's willingness to participate 
in a cooperative breeding program and to maintain or contribute data to 
a studbook;

[[Page 179]]

    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not a permit should be issued. In making this 
decision, the Director shall consider, in addition to the general 
criteria in Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (i) Whether the purpose for which the permit is required is adequate 
to justify removing from the wild or otherwise changing the status of 
the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit;
    (ii) The probable direct and indirect effect which issuing the 
permit would have on the wild populations of the wildlife sought to be 
covered by the permit;
    (iii) Whether the permit, if issued, would in any way, directly or 
indirectly, conflict with any known program intended to enhance the 
survival probabilities of the population from which the wildlife sought 
to be covered by the permit was or would be removed;
    (iv) Whether the purpose for which the permit is required would be 
likely to reduce the threat of extinction facing the species of wildlife 
sought to be covered by the permit;
    (v) The opinions or views of scientists or other persons or 
organizations having expertise concerning the wildlife or other matters 
germane to the application; and
    (vi) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate to successfully accomplish the 
objectives stated in the application.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
paragraph shall be subject to the special condition that the escape of 
living wildlife covered by the permit shall be immediately reported to 
the Service office designated in the permit.
    (4) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph shall be designated on the face of the permit.
    (b)(1) Application requirements for permits for incidental taking. 
(i) A person wishing to get a permit for an activity prohibited by 
Sec. 17.31 submits an application for activities under this paragraph.
    (ii) The director shall publish notice in the Federal Register of 
each application for a permit that is made under this section. Each 
notice shall invite the submission from interested parties, within 30 
days after the date of the notice, of written data, views, or arguments 
with respect to the application.
    (iii) Each application must be submitted on an official application 
(Form 3-200) provided by the Service, and must include as an attachment, 
all of the following information:
    (A) A complete description of the activity sought to be authorized;
    (B) The common and scientific names of the species sought to be 
covered by the permit, as well as the number, age, and sex of such 
species, if known;
    (C) A conservation plan that specifies:
    (1) The impact that will likely result from such taking;
    (2) What steps the applicant will take to monitor, minimize, and 
mitigate such impacts, the funding that will be available to implement 
such steps, and the procedures to be used to deal with unforeseen 
circumstances;
    (3) What alternative actions to such taking the applicant considered 
and the reasons why such alternatives are not proposed to be utilized; 
and
    (4) Such other measures that the Director may require as being 
necessary or appropriate for purposes of the plan.
    (2) Issuance criteria. (i) Upon receiving an application completed 
in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not a permit should be issued. The Director shall 
consider the general issuance criteria in 13.21(b) of this subchapter, 
except for 13.21(b)(4), and shall issue the permit if he or she finds 
that:
    (A) The taking will be incidental;
    (B) The applicant will, to the maximum extent practicable, minimize 
and mitigate the impacts of such takings;
    (C) The applicant will ensure that adequate funding for the 
conservation plan and procedures to deal with unforeseen circumstances 
will be provided;
    (D) The taking will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of the 
survival and recovery of the species in the wild;

[[Page 180]]

    (E) The measures, if any, required under paragraph (b)(1)(iii)(D) of 
this section will be met; and
    (F) He or she has received such other assurances as he or she may 
require that the plan will be implemented.
    (ii) In making his or her decision, the Director shall also consider 
the anticipated duration and geographic scope of the applicant's planned 
activities, including the amount of listed species habitat that is 
involved and the degree to which listed species and their habitats are 
affected.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
paragraph shall contain such terms and conditions as the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
conservation plan including, but not limited to, monitoring and 
reporting requirements deemed necessary for determining whether such 
terms and conditions are being complied with. The Director shall rely 
upon existing reporting requirements to the maximum extent practicable.
    (4) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph shall be sufficient to provide adequate assurances to the 
permittee to commit funding necessary for the activities authorized by 
the permit, including conservation activities and land use restrictions. 
In determining the duration of a permit, the Director shall consider the 
duration of the planned activities, as well as the possible positive and 
negative effects associated with permits of the proposed duration on 
listed species, including the extent to which the conservation plan will 
enhance the habitat of listed species and increase the long-term 
survivability of such species.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee in case of changed or 
unforeseen circumstances. The assurances in this paragraph (b)(5) apply 
only to incidental take permits issued in accordance with paragraph 
(b)(2) of this section where the conservation plan is being properly 
implemented, and apply only with respect to species adequately covered 
by the conservation plan. These assurances cannot be provided to Federal 
agencies. This rule does not apply to incidental take permits issued 
prior to March 25, 1998. The assurances provided in incidental take 
permits issued prior to March 25, 1998 remain in effect, and those 
permits will not be revised as a result of this rulemaking.
    (i) Changed circumstances provided for in the plan. If additional 
conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to respond to 
changed circumstances and were provided for in the plan's operating 
conservation program, the permittee will implement the measures 
specified in the plan.
    (ii) Changed circumstances not provided for in the plan. If 
additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to 
respond to changed circumstances and such measures were not provided for 
in the plan's operating conservation program, the Director will not 
require any conservation and mitigation measures in addition to those 
provided for in the plan without the consent of the permittee, provided 
the plan is being properly implemented.
    (iii) Unforeseen circumstances. (A) In negotiating unforeseen 
circumstances, the Director will not require the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
beyond the level otherwise agreed upon for the species covered by the 
conservation plan without the consent of the permittee.
    (B) If additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed 
necessary to respond to unforeseen circumstances, the Director may 
require additional measures of the permittee where the conservation plan 
is being properly implemented, but only if such measures are limited to 
modifications within conserved habitat areas, if any, or to the 
conservation plan's operating conservation program for the affected 
species, and maintain the original terms of the conservation plan to the 
maximum extent possible. Additional conservation and mitigation measures 
will not involve the commitment of additional land, water or financial 
compensation or additional restrictions on the use of land, water, or 
other natural resources otherwise available for development or use under 
the original terms of the conservation plan without the consent of the 
permittee.

[[Page 181]]

    (C) The Director will have the burden of demonstrating that such 
unforeseen circumstances exist, using the best scientific and commercial 
data available. These findings must be clearly documented and based upon 
reliable technical information regarding the status and habitat 
requirements of the affected species. The Director will consider, but 
not be limited to, the following factors:
    (1) Size of the current range of the affected species;
    (2) Percentage of range adversely affected by the conservation plan;
    (3) Percentage of range conserved by the conservation plan;
    (4) Ecological significance of that portion of the range affected by 
the conservation plan;
    (5) Level of knowledge about the affected species and the degree of 
specificity of the species' conservation program under the conservation 
plan; and
    (6) Whether failure to adopt additional conservation measures would 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery of the 
affected species in the wild.
    (6) Nothing in this rule will be construed to limit or constrain the 
Director, any Federal, State, local, or Tribal government agency, or a 
private entity, from taking additional actions at its own expense to 
protect or conserve a species included in a conservation plan.
    (7) Discontinuance of permit activity. Notwithstanding the 
provisions of Sec. 13.26 of this subchapter, a permittee under this 
paragraph (b) remains responsible for any outstanding minimization and 
mitigation measures required under the terms of the permit for take that 
occurs prior to surrender of the permit and such minimization and 
mitigation measures as may be required pursuant to the termination 
provisions of an implementing agreement, habitat conservation plan, or 
permit even after surrendering the permit to the Service pursuant to 
Sec. 13.26 of this subchapter. The permit shall be deemed canceled only 
upon a determination by the Service that such minimization and 
mitigation measures have been implemented. Upon surrender of the permit, 
no further take shall be authorized under the terms of the surrendered 
permit.
    (8) Criteria for revocation. A permit issued under this paragraph 
(b) may not be revoked for any reason except those set forth in 
Sec. 13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter or unless continuation 
of the permitted activity would be inconsistent with the criterion set 
forth in 16 U.S.C. 1539(a)(2)(B)(iv) and the inconsistency has not been 
remedied in a timely fashion.
    (c)(1) Application requirements for permits for the enhancement of 
survival through Safe Harbor Agreements. The applicant must submit an 
application for a permit under this paragraph (c) to the appropriate 
Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for the Region where 
the applicant resides or where the proposed action is to occur (for 
appropriate addresses, see 50 CFR 10.22), if the applicant wishes to 
engage in any activity prohibited by Sec. 17.31. The applicant must 
submit an official Service application form (3-200.54) that includes the 
following information:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the listed species for which 
the applicant requests incidental take authorization;
    (ii) A description of the land use or water management activity for 
which the applicant requests incidental take authorization;
    (iii) A Safe Harbor Agreement that complies with the requirements of 
the Safe Harbor policy available from the Service; and
    (iv) The Director must publish notice in the Federal Register of 
each application for a permit that is made under this paragraph (c). 
Each notice must invite the submission from interested parties within 30 
days after the date of the notice of written data, views, or arguments 
with respect to the application. The procedures included in 
Sec. 17.22(e) for permit objection apply to any notice published by the 
Director under this paragraph (c).
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not to issue a permit. The Director shall consider the 
general issuance criteria in Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, except

[[Page 182]]

for Sec. 13.21(b)(4), and may issue the permit if he or she finds:
    (i) The take will be incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and 
will be in accordance with the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement;
    (ii) The implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement 
will provide a net conservation benefit to the affected listed species 
by contributing to the recovery of listed species included in the permit 
and the Safe Harbor Agreement otherwise complies with the Safe Harbor 
policy available from the Service;
    (iii) The probable direct and indirect effects of any authorized 
take will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery 
in the wild of any listed species;
    (iv) Implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement is 
consistent with applicable Federal, State, and Tribal laws and 
regulations;
    (v) Implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement will 
not be in conflict with any ongoing conservation or recovery programs 
for listed species covered by the permit; and
    (vi) The applicant has shown capability for and commitment to 
implementing all of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to any applicable general permit 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued 
under this paragraph (c) is subject to the following special conditions:
    (i) A requirement for the participating property owner to notify the 
Service of any transfer of lands subject to a Safe Harbor Agreement;
    (ii) A requirement for the property owner to notify the Service at 
least 30 days in advance, but preferably as far in advance as possible, 
of when he or she expects to incidentally take any listed species 
covered under the permit. Such notification will provide the Service 
with an opportunity to translocate affected individuals of the species, 
if possible and appropriate; and
    (iii) Any additional requirements or conditions the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
Safe Harbor Agreement.
    (4) Permit effective date. Permits issued under this paragraph (c) 
become effective the day of issuance for species covered by the Safe 
Harbor Agreement.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee. (i) The assurances in 
subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph (c)(5) apply only to Safe Harbor 
permits issued in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section where 
the Safe Harbor Agreement is being properly implemented, and apply only 
with respect to species covered by the Agreement and permit. These 
assurances cannot be provided to Federal agencies. The assurances 
provided in this section apply only to Safe Harbor permits issued after 
July 19, 1999.
    (ii) If additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed 
necessary, the Director may require additional measures of the 
permittee, but only if such measures are limited to modifications within 
conserved habitat areas, if any, for the affected species and maintain 
the original terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement to the maximum extent 
possible. Additional conservation and mitigation measures will not 
involve the commitment of additional land, water or financial 
compensation or additional restrictions on the use of land, water, or 
other natural resources otherwise available for development or use under 
the original terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement without the consent of 
the permittee.
    (6) Additional actions. Nothing in this rule will be construed to 
limit or constrain the Director, any Federal, State, local or Tribal 
government agency, or a private entity, from taking additional actions 
at its own expense to protect or conserve a species included in a Safe 
Harbor Agreement.
    (7) Criteria for revocation. A permit issued under this paragraph 
(c) may not be revoked for any reason except those set forth in 
Sec. 13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter or unless continuation 
of the permitted activity would be inconsistent with the criterion set 
forth in 17.22(c)(2)(iii) and the inconsistency has not been remedied in 
a timely fashion.
    (8) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph (c) must be sufficient to provide a net conservation benefit 
to species covered in the enhancement of survival permit.

[[Page 183]]

In determining the duration of a permit, the Director will consider the 
duration of the planned activities, as well as the positive and negative 
effects associated with permits of the proposed duration on covered 
species, including the extent to which the conservation activities 
included in the Safe Harbor Agreement will enhance the survival and 
contribute to the recovery of listed species included in the permit.
    (d)(1) Application requirements for permits for the enhancement of 
survival through Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances. The 
applicant must submit an application for a permit under this paragraph 
(d) to the appropriate Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, for the Region where the applicant resides or where the 
proposed activity is to occur (for appropriate addresses, see 50 CFR 
10.22). When a species covered by a Candidate Conservation Agreement 
with Assurances is listed as threatened and the applicant wishes to 
engage in activities identified in the Agreement and otherwise 
prohibited by Sec. 17.31, the applicant must apply for an enhancement of 
survival permit for species covered by the Agreement. The permit will 
become valid if and when covered proposed, candidate or other unlisted 
species is listed as a threatened species. The applicant must submit an 
official Service application form (3-200.54) that includes the following 
information:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the species for which the 
applicant requests incidental take authorization;
    (ii) A description of the land use or water management activity for 
which the applicant requests incidental take authorization; and
    (iii) A Candidate Conservation Agreement that complies with the 
requirements of the Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances 
policy available from the Service.
    (iv) The Director must publish notice in the Federal Register of 
each application for a permit that is made under this paragraph (d). 
Each notice must invite the submission from interested parties within 30 
days after the date of the notice of written data, views, or arguments 
with respect to the application. The procedures included in 
Sec. 17.22(e) for permit objection apply to any notice published by the 
Director under this paragraph (d).
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not to issue a permit. The Director shall consider the 
general issuance criteria in Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, except 
for Sec. 13.21(b)(4), and may issue the permit if he or she finds:
    (i) The take will be incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and 
will be in accordance with the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement;
    (ii) The Candidate Conservation Agreement complies with the 
requirements of the Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances 
policy available from the Service;
    (iii) The probable direct and indirect effects of any authorized 
take will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery 
in the wild of any species;
    (iv) Implementation of the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement is consistent with applicable Federal, State, and Tribal laws 
and regulations;
    (v) Implementation of the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement will not be in conflict with any ongoing conservation programs 
for species covered by the permit; and
    (vi) The applicant has shown capability for and commitment to 
implementing all of the terms of the Candidate Conservation Agreement.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to any applicable general permit 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued 
under this paragraph (d) is subject to the following special conditions:
    (i) A requirement for the property owner to notify the Service of 
any transfer of lands subject to a Candidate Conservation Agreement;
    (ii) A requirement for the property owner to notify the Service at 
least 30 days in advance, but preferably as far in advance as possible, 
of when he or she expects to incidentally take any species covered under 
the permit. Such notification will provide the Service with an 
opportunity to translocate affected individuals of the species, if 
possible and appropriate; and

[[Page 184]]

    (iii) Any additional requirements or conditions the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
Candidate Conservation Agreement.
    (4) Permit effective date. Permits issued under this paragraph (d) 
become effective for a species covered by a Candidate Conservation 
Agreement on the effective date of a final rule that lists a covered 
species as threatened.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee in case of changed or 
unforeseen circumstances. The assurances in this paragraph (d)(5) apply 
only to permits issued in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) where the 
Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement is being properly 
implemented, and apply only with respect to species adequately covered 
by the Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement. These 
assurances cannot be provided to Federal agencies.
    (i) Changed circumstances provided for in the Agreement. If 
additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to 
respond to changed circumstances and were provided for in the 
Agreement's operating conservation program, the permittee will implement 
the measures specified in the Agreement.
    (ii) Changed circumstances not provided for in the Agreement. If 
additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to 
respond to changed circumstances and such measures were not provided for 
in the Agreement's operating conservation program, the Director will not 
require any conservation and mitigation measures in addition to those 
provided for in the Agreement without the consent of the permittee, 
provided the Agreement is being properly implemented.
    (iii) Unforeseen circumstances. (A) In negotiating unforeseen 
circumstances, the Director will not require the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
beyond the level otherwise agreed upon for the species covered by the 
Agreement without the consent of the permittee.
    (B) If additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed 
necessary to respond to unforeseen circumstances, the Director may 
require additional measures of the permittee where the Agreement is 
being properly implemented, but only if such measures are limited to 
modifications within conserved habitat areas, if any, or to the 
Agreement's operating conservation program for the affected species, and 
maintain the original terms of the Agreement to the maximum extent 
possible. Additional conservation and mitigation measures will not 
involve the commitment of additional land, water or financial 
compensation or additional restrictions on the use of land, water, or 
other natural resources otherwise available for development or use under 
the original terms of the Agreement without the consent of the 
permittee.
    (C) The Director will have the burden of demonstrating that 
unforeseen circumstances exist, using the best scientific and commercial 
data available. These findings must be clearly documented and based upon 
reliable technical information regarding the status and habitat 
requirements of the affected species. The Director will consider, but 
not be limited to, the following factors:
    (1) Size of the current range of the affected species;
    (2) Percentage of range adversely affected by the Agreement;
    (3) Percentage of range conserved by the Agreement;
    (4) Ecological significance of that portion of the range affected by 
the Agreement;
    (5) Level of knowledge about the affected species and the degree of 
specificity of the species' conservation program under the Agreement; 
and
    (6) Whether failure to adopt additional conservation measures would 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery of the 
affected species in the wild.
    (6) Additional actions. Nothing in this rule will be construed to 
limit or constrain the Director, any Federal, State, local or Tribal 
government agency, or a private entity, from taking additional actions 
at its own expense to protect or conserve a species included in a 
Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement.

[[Page 185]]

    (7) Criteria for revocation. A permit issued under this paragraph 
(d) may not be revoked for any reason except those set forth in 
Sec. 13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter or unless continuation 
of the permitted activity would be inconsistent with the criterion set 
forth in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section and the inconsistency has 
not been remedied in a timely fashion.
    (8) Duration of the Candidate Conservation Agreement. The duration 
of a Candidate Conservation Agreement covered by a permit issued under 
this paragraph (d) must be sufficient to enable the Director to 
determine that the benefits of the conservation measures in the 
Agreement, when combined with those benefits that would be achieved if 
it is assumed that the conservation measures would also be implemented 
on other necessary properties, would preclude or remove any need to list 
the species covered by the Agreement.

[50 FR 39689, Sept. 30, 1985, as amended at 63 FR 8871, Feb. 23, 1998; 
63 FR 52635, Oct. 1, 1998; 64 FR 32714, June 17, 1999; 64 FR 52676, 
Sept. 30, 1999]



Sec. 17.40  Special rules--mammals.

    (a) [Reserved]
    (b) Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos)--(1) Prohibitions. The following 
prohibitions apply to the grizzly bear:
    (i) Taking. (A) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(i)(B) 
through (F) of this section, no person shall take any grizzly bear in 
the 48 conterminous states of the United States.
    (B) Grizzly bears may be taken in self-defense or in defense of 
others, but such taking shall be reported, within 5 days of occurrence, 
to the Assistant Regional Director, Division of Law Enforcement, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal Center, 
Denver, Colorado 80225 (303/236-7540 or FTS 776-7540), if occurring in 
Montana or Wyoming, or to the Assistant Regional Director, Division of 
Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lloyd 500 Building, 
Suite 1490, 500 Northeast Multnomah Street, Portland, Oregon 97232 (503/
231-6125 or FTS 429-6125), if occurring in Idaho or Washington, and to 
appropriate State and Indian Reservation Tribal authorities. Grizzly 
bears or their parts taken in self-defense or in defense of others shall 
not be possessed, delivered, carried, transported, shipped, exported, 
received, or sold, except by Federal, State, or Tribal authorities.
    (C) Removal of nuisance bears. A grizzly bear consituting a 
demonstrable but non immediate threat to human safety or committing 
significant depredations to lawfully present livestock, crops, or 
beehives may be taken, but only if:
    (1) It has not been reasonably possible to eliminate such threat or 
depredation by live-capturing and releasing unharmed in a remote area 
the grizzly bear involved; and
    (2) The taking is done in a humane manner by authorized Federal, 
State, or Tribal authorities, and in accordance with current interagency 
guidelines covering the taking of such nuisance bears; and
    (3) The taking is reported within 5 days of occurrence to the 
appropriate Assistant Regional Director, Division of Law Enforcement, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as indicated in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B) 
of this section, and to appropriate State and Tribal authorities.
    (D) Federal, State, or Tribal scientific or research activities. 
Federal, State, or Tribal authorities may take grizzly bears for 
scientific or research purposes, but only if such taking does not result 
in death or permanent injury to the bears involved. Such taking must be 
reported within 5 days of occurrence to the appropriate Assistant 
Regional Director, Division of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, as indicated in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B) of this section, and to 
appropriate State and Tribal authorities.
    (E) [Reserved]
    (F) National Parks. The regulations of the National Park Service 
shall govern all taking of grizzly bears in National Parks.
    (ii) Unlawfully taken grizzly bears. (A) Except as provided in 
paragraphs (b)(1)(ii)(B) and (iv) of this section, no person shall 
possess, deliver, carry, transport, ship, export, receive, or sell any 
unlawfully taken grizzly bear. Any unlawful taking of a grizzly bear 
shall be reported within 5 days of occurrence to the appropriate 
Assistant Regional

[[Page 186]]

Director, Division of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
as indicated in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B) of this section, and to 
appropriate State and Tribal authorities.
    (B) Authorized Federal, State, or Tribal employees, when acting in 
the course of their official duties, may, for scientific or research 
purposes, possess, deliver, carry, transport, ship, export, or receive 
unlawfully taken grizzly bears.
    (iii) Import or export. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) 
(A) and (B) and (iv) of this section, no person shall import any grizzly 
bear into the United States.
    (A) Federal, State, or Tribal scientific or research activities. 
Federal, State, or Tribal authorities may import grizzly bears into the 
United States for scientific or research purposes.
    (B) Public zoological institution. Public zoological institutions 
(see 50 CFR 10.12) may import grizzly bears into the United States.
    (iv) Commercial transactions. (A) Except as provided in paragraph 
(b)(1)(iv)(B) of this section, no person shall, in the course of 
commercial activity, deliver, receive, carry, transport, or ship in 
interstate or foreign commerce any grizzly bear.
    (B) A public zoological institution (see 50 CFR 10.12) dealing with 
other public zoological institutions may sell grizzly bears or offer 
them for sale in interstate or foreign commerce, and may, in the course 
of commercial activity, deliver, receive, carry, transport, or ship 
grizzly bears in interstate or foreign commerce.
    (v) Other violations. No person shall attempt to commit, cause to be 
committed, or solicit another to commit any act prohibited by paragraph 
(b)(1) of this section.
    (2) Definitions. As used in paragraph (b) of this section:

    Grizzly bear means any member of the species Ursus arctos of the 48 
conterminous States of the United States, including any part, offspring, 
dead body, part of a dead body, or product of such species.
    Grizzly bear accompanied by young means any grizzly bear having 
offspring, including one or more cubs, yearlings, or 2-year-olds, in its 
immediate vicinity.
    Identified means permanently marked or documented so as to be 
identifiable by law enforcement officials at a subsequent date.
    State, Federal or Tribal authority means an employee of State, 
Federal, or Indian Tribal government who, as part of his/her official 
duties, normally handles grizzly bears.
    Young grizzly bear means a cub, yearling, or 2-year-old grizzly 
bear.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01JN91.000

    (c) Primates. (1) Except as noted in paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) of 
this section, all provisions of Sec. 17.31 shall apply to the lesser 
slow loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus; Philippine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta; 
white-footed tamarin, Saguinus leucopus; black howler monkey, Alouatta 
pigra; stump-tailed macaque, Macaca arctoides; gelada baboon, 
Theropithecus gelada; Formosan rock macaque, Macaca cyclopis; Japanese 
macaque, Macaca fuscata; Toque macaque, Macaca sinica; long-tailed 
langur, Presbytis potenziani; purple-faced langur, Presbytis senex; 
Tonkin snub-nosed langur, Pygathrix (Rhinopithecus) avunculus; and, in 
captivity only, chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes.
    (2) The prohibitions referred to above do not apply to any live 
member of such species held in captivity in the

[[Page 187]]

United States on the effective date of the final rulemaking, or to the 
progeny of such animals, or to the progeny of animals legally imported 
into the United States after the effective date of the final rulemaking, 
Provided, That the person wishing to engage in any activity which would 
otherwise be prohibited must be able to show satisfactory documentary or 
other evidence as to the captive status of the particular member of the 
species on the effective date of this rulemaking or that the particular 
member of the species was born in captivity in the United States after 
the effective date of this rulemaking. Identification of the particular 
member to a record in the International Species Inventory System (ISIS), 
or to a Federal, State or local government permit, shall be deemed to be 
satisfactory evidence. Records in the form of studbooks or inventories, 
kept in the normal course of business, shall be acceptable as evidence, 
provided that a notarized statement is inserted in such record to the 
effect that:
    (i) The records were kept in the normal course of business prior to 
November 18, 1976, and accurately identify (by use of markers, tags, or 
other acceptable marking devices) individual animals; or
    (ii) That the individual animal identified by the records was born 
in captivity on ________(Date).

The notarized statement in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, shall be 
acceptable only if the notarization is dated on or before January 3, 
1977. The notarized statement in paragraph (c)(2)(ii), of this section, 
shall be acceptable only if the notarization is dated within 15 days of 
the date of birth of the animal.
    (3) The provisions of Secs. 17.21, 17.22, and 17.23 shall apply to 
any individual chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the historic range of 
the species, regardless of whether in the wild or captivity, and also 
shall apply to any individual chimpanzee not within this range, but 
which has originated within this range after the effective date of these 
regulations, and also shall apply to the progeny of any such chimpanzee, 
other than to the progeny of animals legally imported into the United 
States after the effective date of these regulations. For the purposes 
of this paragraph, the historic range of the chimpanzee shall consist of 
the following countries: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, 
Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, 
Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, 
Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zaire.
    (d) Gray wolf (Canis lupus) in Minnesota--(1) Zones. For purposes of 
these regulations, the State of Minnesota is divided into the following 
five zones.

                       Zone 1--4,488 Square Miles

    Beginning at the point of intersection of United States and Canadian 
boundaries in Section 22, Township 71 North, Range 22 West, in Rainy 
Lake, then proceeding along the west side of Sections 22, 27, and 34 in 
said Township and Sections 3, 10, 15, 22, 27 and 34 in Township 70 
North, Range 22 West and Sections 3 and 10 in Township 69 North, Range 
22 West; then east along the south boundaries of Sections 10, 11, and 12 
in said Township; then south along the Koochiching and St. Louis 
counties line to Highway 53; thence southeasterly along State Highway 53 
to the junction with County Route 765; thence easterly along County 
Route 765 to the junction with Kabetogama Lake in Ash River Bay; thence 
along the south boundary of Section 33 in Township 69 North, Range 19 
West, to the junction with the Moose River; thence southeasterly along 
the Moose River to Moose Lake; thence along the western shore of Moose 
Lake to the river between Moose Lake and Long Lake; thence along the 
said river to Long Lake; thence along the east shore of Long Lake to the 
drainage on the southeast side of Long Lake in NE\1/4\, Section 18, 
Township 67 North, Range 18 West; thence along the said drainage 
southeasterly and subsequently northeasterly to Marion Lake, the 
drainage being in Sections 17 and 18, Township 67 North, Range 18 West; 
thence along the west shoreline of Marion Lake proceeding southeasterly 
to the Moose Creek; thence along Moose Creek to Flap Creek; thence 
southeasterly along Flap Creek to the Vermilion River; thence southerly 
along the Vermilion River to Vermilion Lake; thence along the Superior 
National Forest boundary in a southeasterly direction through Vermilion 
Lake passing these points: Oak Narrows, Muskrat Channel, South of Pine 
Island, to Hoodo Point and the junction with County Route 697; thence 
southeasterly on County Route 697 to the junction with State Highway 
169; thence easterly along State Highway 169 to the junction with State 
Highway 1; thence easterly along State Highway 1 to the junction with 
the Erie Railroad tracks at Murphy City;

[[Page 188]]

thence easterly along the Erie Railroad tracks to the junction with Lake 
Superior at Taconite Harbor; thence northeasterly along the North Shore 
of Lake Superior to the Canadian Border; thence westerly along the 
Canadian Border to the point of beginning in Rainy Lake.

                       Zone 2--1,856 Square Miles

    Beginning at the intersection of the Erie Mining Co. Railroad and 
State Highway 1 (Murphy City); thence southeasterly on State Highway 1 
to the junction with County Road 4; thence southwesterly on County Road 
4 to the State Snowmobile Trail (formerly the Alger-Smith Railroad); 
thence southwesterly to the intersection of the Old Railroad Grade and 
Reserve Mining Co. Railroad in Section 33 of Township 56 North, Range 9 
West; thence northwesterly along the Railroad to Forest Road 107; thence 
westerly along Forest Road 107 to Forest Road 203; thence westerly along 
Forest Road 203 to the junction with County Route 2; thence in a 
northerly direction on County Route 2 to the junction with Forest Road 
122; thence in a westerly direction along Forest Road 122 to the 
junction with the Duluth, Missable and Iron Range Railroad; thence in a 
southwesterly direction along the said railroad tracks to the junction 
with County Route 14; thence in a northwesterly direction along County 
Route 14 to the junction with County Route 55; thence in a westerly 
direction along County Route 55 to the junction with County Route 44; 
thence in a southerly direction along County Route 44 to the junction 
with County Route 266; thence in a southeasterly direction along County 
Route 266 and subsequently in a westerly direction to the junction with 
County Road 44; thence in a northerly direction on County Road 44 to the 
junction with Township Road 2815; thence westerly along Township Road 
2815 to Alden Lake; thence northwesterly across Alden Lake to the inlet 
of the Cloquet River; thence northerly along the Cloquet River to the 
junction with Carrol Trail-State Forestry Road; thence west along the 
Carrol Trail to the junction with County Route 4 and County Route 49; 
thence west along County Route 49 to the junction with the Duluth, 
Winnipeg and Pacific Railroad; thence in a northerly direction along 
said Railroad to the junction with the Whiteface River; thence in a 
northeasterly direction along the Whiteface River to the Whiteface 
Reservoir; thence along the western shore of the Whiteface Reservoir to 
the junction with County Route 340; thence north along County Route 340 
to the junction with County Route 16; thence east along County Route 16 
to the junction with County Route 346; thence in a northerly direction 
along County Route 346 to the junction with County Route 569; thence 
along County Route 569 to the junction with County Route 565; thence in 
a westerly direction along County Route 565 to the junction with County 
Route 110; thence in a westerly direction along County Route 110 to the 
junction with County Route 100; thence in a north and subsequent west 
direction along County Route 100 to the junction with State Highway 135; 
thence in a northerly direction along State Highway 135 to the junction 
with State Highway 169 at Tower; thence in an easterly direction along 
the southern boundary of Zone 1 to the point of beginning of Zone 2 at 
the junction of the Erie Railroad Tracks and State Highway 1.

                       Zone 3--3,501 Square Miles

    Beginning at the junction of State Highway 11 and State Highway 65; 
thence southeasterly along State Highway 65 to the junction with State 
Highway 1; thence westerly along State Highway 1 to the junction with 
State Highway 72; thence north along State Highway 72 to the junction 
with an un-numbered township road beginning in the northeast corner of 
Section 25, Township 155 North, Range 31 West; thence westerly along the 
said road for approximately seven (7) miles to the junction with SFR 95: 
thence westerly along SFR 95 and continuing west through the southern 
boundary of Sections 36 through 31, Township 155 North, Range 33 West, 
through Sections 36 through 31, Township 155 North, Range 34 West, 
through Sections 36 through 31, Township 155 North, Range 35 West, 
through Sections 36 and 35, Township 155 North, Range 36 West to the 
junction with State Highway 89, thence northwesterly along State Highway 
89 to the junction with County Route 44; thence northerly along County 
Route 44 to the junction with County Route 704; thence northerly along 
County 704 to the junction with SFR 49; thence northerly along SFR 49 to 
the junction with SFR 57; thence easterly along SFR 57 to the junction 
with SFR 63: thence south along SFR 63 to the junction with SFR 70; 
thence easterly along SFR 70 to the junction with County Route 87; 
thence easterly along County Route 87 to the junction with County Route 
1; thence south along County Route 1 to the junction with County Route 
16; thence easterly along County Route 16 to the junction with State 
Highway 72; thence south on State Highway 72 to the junction with a 
gravel road (un-numbered County District Road) on the north side of 
Section 31, Township 158 North, Range 30 West; thence east on said 
District Road to the junction with SFR 62; thence easterly on SFR 62 to 
the junction with SFR 175; thence south on SFR 175 to the junction with 
County Route 101; thence easterly on County Route 101 to the junction 
with County Route 11; thence easterly on County Route 11 to the junction 
with State Highway 11; thence easterly on

[[Page 189]]

State Highway 11 to the junction with State Highway 65, the point of 
beginning.

                       Zone 4--20,883 Square Miles

    Excluding Zones 1, 2 and 3, all that part of Minnesota north and 
east of a line beginning on State Trunk Highway 48 at the eastern 
boundary of the state; thence westerly along Highway 48 to Interstate 
Highway 35; thence northerly on I-35 to State Highway 23, thence west 
one-half mile on Highway 23 to State Trunk Highway 18; thence westerly 
along Highway 18 to State Trunk Highway 65, thence northerly on Highway 
65 to State Trunk Highway 210; thence westerly along Highway 210 to 
State Trunk Highway 6; thence northerly on State Trunk Highway 6 to 
Emily; thence westerly along County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 1, Crow 
Wing County, to CSAH 2, Cass County; thence westerly along CSAH 2 to 
Pine River; thence northwesterly along State Trunk Highway 371 to 
Backus; thence westerly along State Trunk Highway 87 to U.S. Highway 71; 
thence northerly along U.S. 71 to State Trunk Highway 200; thence 
northwesterly along Highway 200, to County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 2, 
Clearwater County; thence northerly along CSAH 2 to Shevlin; thence 
along U.S. Highway 2 to Bagley; thence northerly along State Trunk 
Highway 92 to Gully; thence northerly along CSAH 2, Polk County, to CSAH 
27, Pennington County; thence along CSAH 27 to State Trunk Highway 1; 
thence easterly on Highway 1 to CSAH 28, Pennington County; thence 
northerly along CSAH 28 to CSAH 54, Marshall County, thence northerly 
along CSAH 54 to Grygla; thence west and northerly along Highway 89 to 
Roseau; thence northerly along State Truck Highway 310 to the Canadian 
border.

                       Zone 5--54,603 Square Miles

    All that part of Minnesota south and west of the line described as 
the south and west border of Zone 4.

[[Page 190]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01JN91.001

    (2) Prohibitions. The following prohibitions apply to the gray wolf 
in Minnesota.
    (i) Taking. Except as provided in this paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this 
section, no person may take a gray wolf in Minnesota.
    (A) Any person may take a gray wolf in Minnesota in defense of his 
own life or the lives of others.
    (B) Any employee or agent of the Service, any other Federal land 
management agency, or the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, who 
is designated by his/her agency for such purposes, may, when acting in 
the course of his/her official duties, take a gray wolf in Minnesota 
without a permit if such action is necessary to:
    (1) Aid a sick, injured or orphaned specimen; or
    (2) Dispose of a dead specimen; or
    (3) Salvage a dead specimen which may be useful for scientific 
study.

[[Page 191]]

    (4) Designated employees or agents of the Service or the Minnesota 
Department of Natural Resources may take a gray wolf without a permit in 
Minnesota, in zones 2, 3, 4, and 5, as delineated in paragraph (d)(1) of 
this section, in response to depredations by a gray wolf on lawfully 
present domestic animals: Provided, that such taking must occur within 
one-half mile of the place where such depredation occurred and must be 
performed in a humane manner: And provided further, that any young of 
the year taken on or before August 1 of that year must be released.
    (C) Any employee or agent of the Service or the Minnesota Department 
of Natural Resources, when operating under a Cooperative Agreement with 
the Service signed in accordance with section 6(c) of the Endangered 
Species Act of 1973, who is designated by the Service or the Minnesota 
Department of Natural Resources for such purposes, may, when acting in 
the course of his or her official duties, take a gray wolf in Minnesota 
to carry out scientific research or conservation programs.
    (ii) Export and commercial transactions. Except as may be authorized 
by a permit issued under Sec. 17.32, no person may sell or offer for 
sale in interstate commerce, import or export, or in the course of a 
commercial activity transport, ship, carry, deliver, or receive any 
Minnesota gray wolf.
    (iii) Unlawfully taken wolves. No person may possess, sell, deliver, 
carry, transport, or ship, by any means whatsoever, a gray wolf taken 
unlawfully in Minnesota, except that an employee or agent of the 
Service, or any other Federal land management agency, or the Minnesota 
Department of Natural Resources, who is designated by his/her agency for 
such purposes, may, when acting in the course of his official duties, 
possess, deliver, carry, transport, or ship a gray wolf taken unlawfully 
in Minnesota.
    (3) Permits. All permits available under Sec. 17.32 (General 
Permits--Threatened Wildlife) are available with regard to the gray wolf 
in Minnesota. All the terms and provisions of Sec. 17.32 apply to such 
permits issued under the authority of this paragraph (d)(3).
    (e) African elephant (Loxodonta africana)--(1) Definitions. For the 
purposes of this paragraph (e):
    (i) African elephant shall mean any member of the species Loxodonta 
africana, whether live or dead, and any part or product thereof.
    (ii) Raw ivory means any African elephant tusk, and any piece 
thereof, the surface of which, polished or unpolished, is unaltered or 
minimally carved.
    (iii) Worked ivory means any African elephant tusk, and any piece 
thereof, which is not raw ivory.
    (iv) Lip mark area means that area of a whole African elephant tusk 
where the tusk emerges from the skull and which is usually denoted by a 
prominent ring of staining on the tusk in its natural state.
    (2) Prohibitions. Except as provided in the exceptions in paragraph 
(e)(3) of this section, it shall be unlawful for any person to:
    (i) Import or export any African elephant,
    (ii) Possess, sell or offer for sale, receive, deliver, transport 
ship, or export any African elephant which was illegally imported into 
the United States,
    (iii) Sell or offer for sale any sport-hunted trophy imported into 
the United States in violation of permit conditions.
    (3) Exceptions. (i) African elephants, other than sport-hunted 
trophies and raw and worked ivory, may be imported or exported provided 
all permit requirements of 50 CFR parts 13 and 23 have been complied 
with.
    (ii) Ivory. (A) Raw or worked ivory (other than sport-hunted 
trophies) may be imported only if:
    (1) It is a bona fide antique of greater than 100 years of age on 
the day of import, or
    (2) It was exported from the United States after being registered 
with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
    (B) Worked ivory may be exported in accordance with the permit 
requirements of 50 CFR parts 13 and 23.
    (C) Raw ivory may not be exported from the United States for 
commercial purposes under any circumstances.
    (iii) Sport-hunted trophies may be imported into the United States 
provided:

[[Page 192]]

    (A) The trophy originates in a country for which the Service has 
received notice of that country's African elephant ivory quota for the 
year of export;
    (B) All of the permit requirements of 50 CFR parts 13 and 23 have 
been complied with;
    (C) A determination is made that the killing of the animal whose 
trophy is intended for import would enhance survival of the species; and
    (D) The trophy is legibly marked by means of punch-dies, under a 
marking and registration system established by the country of origin, 
that includes the following information: Country of origin represented 
by the two-letter code established by the International Organization for 
Standardization (see appendix A to chapter I) followed by the 
registration number assigned to the last two digits of the year of 
registration and the weight of raw ivory to the nearest kilogram. Any 
mark must be placed on the lip mark area and indicated by a flash of 
color which serves as a background for such mark.
    (f) Leopard. (1) Except as noted in paragraph (f)(2) of this 
section, all prohibitions of Sec. 17.31 of this part and exemptions of 
Sec. 17.32 of this part shall apply to the leopard populations occurring 
in southern Africa to the south of a line running along the borders of 
the following countries: Gabon/Rio Muni; Gabon/Cameroon; Congo/Cameroon; 
Congo/Central African Republic; Zaire/Central African Republic; Zaire/
Sudan; Uganda/Sudan; Kenya/Sudan; Kenya/Ethiopia; Kenya/Somalia.
    (2) A sport-hunted leopard trophy legally taken after the effective 
date of this rulemaking, from the area south of the line delineated 
above, may be imported into the United States without a Threatened 
Species permit pursuant to Sec. 17.32 of this part, provided that the 
applicable provisions of 50 CFR part 23 have been met.
    (g) Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens). (1) Except as noted in 
paragraph (g)(2) of this section, all prohibitions of 50 CFR 17.31 (a) 
and (b), and exemptions of 50 CFR 17.32 shall apply to the Utah prairie 
dog.
    (2) A Utah prairie dog may be taken on private land throughout its 
range under a permit issued by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, 
in accordance with the laws of the State of Utah, provided that such 
taking does not exceed 6,000 animals annually and that such taking is 
confined to the period from June 1 to December 31. Records on permitted 
take maintained by the State shall be made available to the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service on request.
    (3) If the Service receives substantive evidence that takings 
pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section are having an effect that 
is inconsistent with the conservation of the Utah prairie dog, the 
Service may immediately prohibit or restrict such taking as appropriate 
for the conservation of the species.
    (h) Mountain lion (Felis concolor). (1) Except as allowed in 
paragraphs (h)(2), (h)(3), and (h)(4) of this section, no person shall 
take any free-living mountain lion (Felis concolor) in Florida.
    (2) A mountain lion (Felis concolor) may be taken in this area under 
a valid threatened species permit issued pursuant to 50 CFR 17.52.
    (3) A mountain lion (Felis concolor) may be taken in Florida by an 
employee or designated agent of the Service or the Florida Game and 
Fresh Water Fish Commission for taxonomic identification or other 
reasons consistent with the conservation of the endangered Florida 
panther (Felis concolor coryi). When it has been established by the 
Service, in consultation with the State, that an animal in question is 
not a Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) or an eastern cougar (Felis 
concolor couguar), such animals may be removed from the wild. The 
disposition of animals so taken shall be at the discretion of the 
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, with the concurrence of 
the Fish and Wildlife Service.
    (4) Take for reasons of human safety is allowed as specified under 
50 CFR 17.21(c)(2) and 17.21(c)(3)(iv).
    (5) Any take pursuant to paragraph (h)(4) of this section must be 
reported in writing to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of 
Law Enforcement, P.O. Box 3247, Arlington, Virginia 22203, within 5 
days. The specimen may only be retained, disposed of, or salvaged in

[[Page 193]]

accordance with directions from the Service.
    (i) Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus). (1) Except as 
noted in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, all prohibitions of 
Sec. 17.31 and exemptions of Sec. 17.32 shall apply to any black bear 
within the historic range of the Louisiana black bear (Texas, Louisiana 
and Mississippi).
    (2) Subsection 17.40(i)(1) and Sec. 17.31 shall not prohibit effects 
incidental to normal forest management activities within the historic 
range of the Louisiana black bear except for activities causing damage 
to or loss of den trees, den tree sites or candidate den trees. For 
purposes of this exemption, normal forest management activities are 
defined as those activities that support a sustained yield of timber 
products and wildlife habitats, thereby maintaining forestland 
conditions in occupied habitat. For purposes of this special rule, 
candidate den trees are considered to be bald cypress and tupelo gum 
with visible cavities, having a minimum diameter at breast height (DBH) 
of 36 inches, and occurring in or along rivers, lakes, streams, bayous, 
sloughs, or other water bodies.
    (3) This express exemption for normal forest management activities 
provided by this special rule is subject to modification or withdrawal 
if the Service determines that this provision fails to further the 
conservation of the Louisiana black bear.
    (j) Argali (Ovis ammon) in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan--(1) 
Except as noted in paragraph (j)(2) of this section, all prohibitions of 
Sec. 17.31 of this part and exemptions of Sec. 17.32 of this part shall 
apply to this species in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan

(Note-- In all other parts of its range the argali is classified as 
endangered and covered by Sec. 17.21).

    (2) Upon receiving from the governments of Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and 
Tajikistan properly documented and verifiable certification that (i) 
argali populations in those countries are sufficiently large to sustain 
sport hunting, (ii) regulating authorities have the capacity to obtain 
sound data on these populations, (iii) regulating authorities recognize 
these populations as a valuable resource and have the legal and 
practical capacity to manage them as such, (iv) the habitat of these 
populations is secure, (v) regulating authorities can ensure that the 
involved trophies have in fact been legally taken from the specified 
populations, and (vi) funds derived from the involved sport hunting are 
applied primarily to argali conservation, the Director may, consistent 
with the purposes of the Act, authorize by publication of a notice in 
the Federal Register the importation of personal sport-hunted argali 
trophies, taken legally in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan after 
the date of such notice, without a Threatened Species permit pursuant to 
Sec. 17.32 of this part, provided that the applicable provisions of 50 
CFR part 23 have been met.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Sec. 17.40, 
see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of 
this volume.



Sec. 17.41  Special rules--birds.

    (a) Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wherever listed as 
threatened under Sec. 17.11(h).
    (1) Applicable provisions. All prohibitions and measures of 
Secs. 17.31 and 17.32 shall apply to any threatened bald eagle, except 
that any permit issued under Sec. 21.22 or part 22 of this chapter shall 
be deemed to satisfy all requirements of Secs. 17.31 and 17.32 for that 
authorized activity, and a second permit shall not be required under 
Sec. 17.32. A permit is required under Sec. 17.32 for any activity not 
covered by any permit issued under Sec. 21.22 or part 22 of this 
chapter.
    (2) [Reserved]
    (b) Coastal California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica 
californica). (1) Except as noted in paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this 
section, all prohibitions of Sec. 17.31(a) and (b) shall apply to the 
coastal California gnatcatcher.
    (2) Incidental take of the coastal California gnatcatcher will not 
be considered a violation of section 9 of the Endangered Species Act of 
1973, as amended (Act), if it results from activities conducted pursuant 
to the State of California's Natural Community Conservation Planning Act 
of 1991 (NCCP),

[[Page 194]]

and in accordance with a NCCP plan for the protection of coastal sage 
scrub habitat, prepared consistent with the State's NCCP Conservation 
and Process Guidelines, provided that:
    (i) The NCCP plan has been prepared, approved, and implemented 
pursuant to California Fish and Game Code sections 2800-2840; and
    (ii) The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has issued written 
concurrence that the NCCP plan meets the standards set forth in 50 CFR 
17.32(b)(2). The Service shall issue its concurrence pursuant to the 
provisions of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), dated December 4, 
1991, between the California Department of Fish and Game and the Service 
regarding coastal sage scrub natural community conservation planning in 
southern California. (Copies of the State's NCCP Conservation and 
Process Guidelines and the MOU are available from the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Carlsbad Field Office, 2730 Loker Avenue West, 
Carlsbad, CA 92008.) The Service shall monitor the implementation of the 
NCCP plan and may revoke its concurrence under this paragraph (b)(2)(ii) 
if the NCCP plan, as implemented, fails to adhere to the standards set 
forth in 50 CFR 17.32(b)(2).
    (3) During the period that a NCCP plan referred to in paragraph 
(b)(2) of this section is being prepared, incidental take of the coastal 
California gnatcatcher will not be a violation of section 9 of the Act 
if such take occurs within an area under the jurisdiction of a local 
government agency that is enrolled and actively engaged in the 
preparation of such a plan and such take results from activities 
conducted in accordance with the NCCP Conservation Guidelines and 
Process Guidelines.
    (4) The Service will monitor the implementation of the NCCP 
Conservation and Process Guidelines as a whole, and will conduct a 
review every 6 months to determine whether the guidelines, as 
implemented, are effective in progressing toward or meeting regional and 
subregional conservation objectives during the interim planning period. 
If the Service determines that the guidelines are not effecting adequate 
progress toward or meeting regional and subregional conservation 
objectives, the Service will consult with the California Department of 
Fish and Game pursuant to the MOU to seek appropriate modification of 
the guidelines or their application as defined therein. If appropriate 
modification of the guidelines or their application as defined therein 
does not occur, the Service may revoke the interim take provisions of 
this special rule on a subregional or subarea basis. The Service will 
publish the findings for revocation in the Federal Register and provide 
for a 30-day public comment period prior to the effective date for 
revoking the provisions of the special rule in a particular area. 
Revocation would result in the reinstatement of the take prohibitions 
set forth under 50 CFR 17.31(a) and (b) in the affected NCCP area.

[43 FR 6233, Feb. 14, 1978, as amended at 58 FR 65095, Dec. 10, 1993; 60 
FR 36010, July 12, 1995]



Sec. 17.42  Special rules--reptiles.

    (a) American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)--(1) 
Definitions. For purpose of this paragraph (a): ``American alligator'' 
shall mean any member of the species Alligator mississippiensis, whether 
alive or dead, and any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof found in 
captivity or the wild.
    (2) Taking. No person may take any American alligator, except:
    (i) Any employee or agent of the Service, any other Federal land 
management agency, or a State conservation agency, who is designated by 
the agency for such purposes, may, when acting in the course of official 
duties, take an American alligator.
    (ii) Any person may take an American alligator in the wild, or one 
which was born in captivity or lawfully placed in captivity, and may 
deliver, receive, carry, transport, ship, sell, offer to sell, purchase, 
or offer to purchase such alligator in interstate or foreign commerce, 
by any means whatsoever and in the course of a commercial activity in 
accordance with the laws and regulations of the State of taking subject 
to the following conditions:
    (A) Any hide of such alligator may be sold or otherwise transferred 
only in

[[Page 195]]

compliance with paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(C) of this section;
    (B) Any hide, meat or other part may be sold or otherwise 
transferred only in accordance with the laws and regulations of the 
State in which the taking occurs and the State in which the sale or 
transfer occurs;
    (C) The State of taking requires hides to be tagged by State 
officials, or under State supervision, with a Service approved tag, a 
sample of which must be on file in the Federal Wildlife Permit Office 
(FWPO), that:
    (1) Is made of permanent material,
    (2) Shows State of origin, year of take, species, and is serially 
unique, and
    (3) Cannot be opened and reused once attached to the hide.
    (iii) Import/Export. Any person may import or export hides, 
manufactured products, meat or other parts in accordance with part 23 of 
this chapter.
    (iv) Recordkeeping
    (A) Any person not holding an import/export license issued by the 
Service under Sec. 14.91 and who imports, exports, or obtains permits 
under part 23 for the import or export of American alligator shall keep 
such records as are otherwise required to be maintained by all import/
export licensees under Sec. 14.93(d). Such records shall be maintained 
as in the normal course of business, reproducible in the English 
language, and retained available for Service inspection for 5 years from 
the date of each transaction.
    (B) Subject to applicable limitations of law, duly authorized 
Service officers at all reasonable time shall, upon notice, be afforded 
access to examine such records required to be kept under paragraph 
(a)(2)(iv)(A)(1) of this section, and an opportunity to copy such 
records.
    (b) Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead sea turtle 
(Caretta caretta), olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) 
(these do not include the populations listed as endangered in 
Sec. 17.11).
    (1) Prohibitions. Subject to the permits allowable under the 
following paragraph (b)(2) of this section, all of the provisions set 
forth in Sec. 17.31 (which incorporate portions of Sec. 17.21) shall 
apply to this wildlife with the following exceptions:
    (i) Section 17.21(c)(2) (self-defense) is not applicable.
    (ii) In Sec. 17.21(c)(3)(i), the word ``orphaned'' is replaced by 
the word ``stranded.''
    (iii) Delete Sec. 17.21(c)(3)(iv) (Wildlife threatening human 
safety).
    (iv) [Reserved]
    (v) The prohibition against taking shall not apply to incidental 
catches, as specified in 50 CFR 227.72(e).
    (vi) The prohibition against taking within the United States or the 
territorial sea of the United States shall not apply to subsistence 
taking, as specified in 50 CFR 227.72(f).
    (2) Permits. (i) For those activities which come under the 
jurisdiction of the Service, only permits for scientific purposes, 
enhancement of propagation or survival, zoological exhibition or 
educational purposes, are available under Sec. 17.32. Procedures for 
issuance of permits are found in Sec. 17.32 and, for those activities 
which come under the jurisdiction of the National Marine Fisheries 
Service, subpart E of part 220. All the provisions of Sec. 17.32 apply 
to permits issued by the Service.
    (c) Threatened crocodilians. This paragraph applies to the following 
species: Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) originating in 
Australia (also referred to as Australian saltwater crocodile) and Nile 
crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) populations listed in Appendix II of 
the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Fauna and Flora (CITES or Convention).
    (1) Definitions of terms for purposes of this paragraph (c)--(i) 
Crocodilian skins means whole or partial skins, flanks, and bellies 
(whether salted, crusted, tanned, partially tanned, or otherwise 
processed).
    (ii) Crocodilian parts means meat and body parts with or without 
skin attached (including tails, throats, feet, and backstrips and other 
parts), except skulls.
    (iii) Country of re-export means those intermediary countries that 
import and re-export crocodilian skins, parts, and/or products, except 
that those countries through which crocodilian skins, parts, and/or 
products are transhipped while remaining under

[[Page 196]]

Customs control will not be considered to be a country of re-export.
    (iv) Tagging resolution shall mean the CITES resolution entitled 
``Universal Tagging System for the Identification of Crocodilian Skins'' 
and numbered Conf. 9.22 and any subsequent revisions.
    (2) Prohibitions. All provisions of Sec. 17.31 (a) and (b) and 
Sec. 17.32 apply to Nile crocodile populations listed in Appendix I of 
CITES. The following prohibitions apply to saltwater crocodiles 
(Crocodylus porosus) originating in Australia and to all Nile crocodile 
(Crocodylus niloticus) populations in Appendix II of CITES:
    (i) Import, export, and re-export. Except as provided in paragraph 
(c)(3) of this section, it is unlawful to import, export, re-export, or 
present for export or re-export any Nile crocodile (Crocodylus 
niloticus) or Australian saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) or 
their skins, other parts or products, without valid permits required 
under 50 CFR parts 17 and 23.
    (ii) Commercial activity. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3) of 
this section, it is unlawful, in the course of a commercial activity, to 
sell or offer for sale, deliver, receive, carry, transport, or ship in 
interstate or foreign commerce any Nile or saltwater crocodile, 
crocodilian skins, or other parts or products.
    (iii) It is unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction of 
the United States to commit, attempt to commit, solicit to commit, or 
cause to be committed any acts described in paragraphs (c)(2)(i)-(iii) 
of this section.
    (3) Exceptions. The import, export, or re-export of, or interstate 
or foreign commerce in live crocodiles, crocodilian skins, meat, skulls, 
and other parts or products may be allowed without a threatened species 
permit issued pursuant to 50 CFR 17.32 when the provisions in 50 CFR 
parts 13, 14, and 23, and the applicable paragraphs set out below have 
been met.
    (i) Import, export, or re-export of crocodilian skins and parts. The 
import, export, or re-export into/from the United States of crocodilian 
skins and parts of Nile crocodiles listed in Appendix II of the 
Convention, and of saltwater crocodiles originating in Australia must 
meet the following conditions:
    (A) All crocodilian parts must be in a transparent, sealed 
container, and each container imported into or presented for export or 
re-export from the United States after July 24, 1997,
    (1) Must have a parts tag attached in such a way that opening of the 
container will preclude reuse of an undamaged tag,
    (2) This parts tag must contain a description of the contents and 
total weight of the container, and
    (3) This parts tag must reference the number of the CITES permit 
issued to allow the export or re-export of the container;
    (B) Each crocodilian skin and each belly skin piece wider than 35 
cm. imported into or presented for export or re-export from the United 
States after July 24, 1996, must bear: either an intact, uncut tag from 
the country of origin meeting all the requirements of the CITES tagging 
resolution, or an intact, uncut tag from the country of re-export where 
the original tags have been lost or removed from raw, tanned, and/or 
finished skins. The replacement tags must meet all the requirements of 
the CITES tagging resolution, except showing the country of re-export in 
place of the country of origin, provided those re-exporting countries 
have implemented an administrative system for the effective matching of 
imports and re-exports consistent with the tagging resolution. Clearance 
of any shipment with more than 25 percent replacement tags requires 
prior consultation with the U.S. Office of Management Authority by the 
re-exporting country to determine whether the requirements of the 
tagging resolution have been observed;
    (C) The same information that is on the tags must be given on the 
export permit for all skins or re-export certificate for whole skins and 
belly skin pieces wider than 35 cm or on a separate sheet, which will be 
considered an integral part of the document, carry the same permit or 
certificate number, and be validated by the government authority 
designated by the CITES-document issuing authority;

[[Page 197]]

    (D) The Convention permit or certificate must contain the following 
information:
    (1) The country of origin, its export permit number, and date of 
issuance;
    (2) If re-export, the country of re-export, its certificate number, 
and date of issuance; and
    (3) If applicable, the country of last re-export, its certificate 
number, and date of issuance;
    (E) The country of origin and any intermediary country(s) must be 
effectively implementing the tagging resolution for this exception to 
apply. If the Service receives substantial evidence from the CITES 
Secretariat or other reliable sources that the tagging resolution is not 
being effectively implemented by a specific country, the Service will 
prohibit or restrict imports from such country(s) as appropriate for the 
conservation of the species.
    (F) At the time of import, for each shipment covered by this 
exception, the country of origin and each country of re-export involved 
in the trade of a particular shipment is not subject to a Schedule III 
Notice of Information pertaining to all wildlife or any members of the 
Order Crocodylia that may prohibit or restrict imports. A listing of all 
countries that are subject to such a Schedule III Notice of Information 
will be available by writing: The Office of Management Authority, ARLSQ 
Room 430, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Arlington, Virginia, 22203.
    (ii) Import, export or re-export of crocodilian products. Import, 
export, or re-export into or from the United States of crocodilian 
products of Nile crocodiles listed in Appendix II of the Convention, and 
saltwater crocodiles originating in Australia will be allowed without 
permits required by 50 CFR part 17 provided the following conditions are 
met:
    (A) The Convention permit or certificate must contain the following 
information:
    (1) The country of origin, its export permit number, and date of 
issuance;
    (2) If re-export, the country of re-export, its certificate number, 
and date of issuance; and
    (3) If applicable, the country of previous re-export, its 
certificate number, and date of issuance;
    (B) The country of origin and any intermediary country(s) must be 
effectively implementing the tagging resolution for this exception to 
apply. If the Service receives substantial evidence from the CITES 
Secretariat or other reliable sources that the tagging resolution is not 
being effectively implemented by a specific country, the Service will 
prohibit or restrict imports from such countries as appropriate for the 
conservation of the species.
    (C) At the time of import, for each shipment covered by this 
exception, the country of origin and each country of re-export involved 
in the trade of a particular shipment is not subject to a Schedule III 
Notice of Information pertaining to all wildlife or any member of the 
Order Crocodylia that may prohibit or restrict imports. A listing of all 
countries that are subject to such a Schedule III Notice of Information 
will be available by writing: The Office of Management Authority, ARLSQ 
Room 430, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Arlington, Virginia, 22203.
    (iii) Shipments of eggs, skulls, meat, scientific specimens and live 
specimens. The import/re-export into/from the United States of eggs, 
skulls, meat, scientific specimens and live specimens of Nile crocodile 
populations listed in Appendix II of CITES or Australian saltwater 
crocodile will be allowed without permits otherwise required by 50 CFR 
part 17, provided the requirements of part 23 are met.
    (iv) Noncommercial accompanying baggage. The conditions of 
paragraphs (c)(3)(i) and (ii) for skins tagged in accordance with the 
tagging resolution, skulls, meat, other parts, and products made of 
specimens of Nile crocodile populations on CITES Appendix II or of 
Australian saltwater crocodile do not apply to noncommercial 
accompanying personal baggage or household effects.
    (v) Personal sport-hunted trophies. The import of personal sport-
hunted trophies, including skulls, of Nile crocodile or saltwater 
crocodile from Appendix II populations will be allowed from country of 
origin and intermediary

[[Page 198]]

countries into the United States without permits required by 50 CFR part 
17, provided that unmounted skins bear an intact, uncut tag from the 
country of origin or such a tag accompanies mounted specimens in 
accordance with the tagging resolution.
    (4) Notice of Information. Except in rare cases involving 
extenuating circumstances that do not adversely affect the conservation 
of the species, the Service will issue a Schedule III Notice of 
Information banning or restricting trade in specimens of crocodilians 
addressed in this paragraph (c) if any of the following criteria are 
met:
    (i) The country is listed in a Notification to the Parties by the 
CITES Secretariat as lacking designated Management and Scientific 
Authorities that issue CITES documents or their equivalent.
    (ii) The country is identified in any action adopted by the Parties 
to the Convention, the Convention's Standing Committee, or in a 
Notification issued by the CITES Secretariat, whereby Parties are asked 
to not accept shipments of specimens of CITES-listed Species from the 
country in question.
    (iii) The Service determines, based on information from the CITES 
Secretariat or other reliable sources that the country is not 
effectively implementing the tagging resolution.
    (d) Blue-tailed mole skink (Eumeces egregius lividus) and sand skink 
(Neoseps reynoldsi). (1) No person shall take these species, except in 
accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws and 
regulations for educational purposes, scientific purposes, the 
enhancement or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to taking of these species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatever, any such species taken in 
violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws or 
regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraph (c) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (5) Taking of these species for purposes other than those described 
in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, including taking incidental to 
carrying out otherwise lawful activities, is prohibited except when 
permitted under Secs. 17.23 and 17.32.
    (e) Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)--(1) Definition. For the 
purposes of this paragraph (e) ``desert tortoise'' shall mean any member 
of the species Gopherus agassizii, whether alive or dead, and any part, 
product, egg, or offspring thereof, found outside of Arizona (south and 
east of the Colorado River) and Mexico, regardless of natal origin or 
place of removal from the wild.
    (2) Applicable provisions. The provisions of Sec. 17.31-17.32 shall 
apply to any desert tortoise subject to this paragraph (e).
    (f) Bog turtle (Clemmys muhlenbergii), southern population--(1) 
Definitions of terms. For the purposes of this paragraph (f): Bog turtle 
of the southern population means any member of the species Clemmys 
muhlenbergii, within Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee 
and Virginia, regardless of whether in the wild or captivity, and also 
applies to the progeny of any such turtle.
    (2) Prohibitions. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(3) of this 
section, the provisions of Sec. 17.31 (a) and (b) of this part applies 
to bog turtles of the southern population (see also 50 CFR part 23).
    (3) Take. Incidental take, that is, take that results from, but is 
not the purpose of, carrying out an otherwise lawful activity, does not 
apply to bog turtles of the southern population.

[42 FR 2076, Jan. 10, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 32809, July 28, 1978; 44 
FR 59084, Oct. 12, 1979; 45 FR 17589, Mar. 19, 1980; 45 FR 78154, Nov. 
25, 1980; 48 FR 46336, Oct. 12, 1983; 50 FR 25678, June 20, 1985; 50 FR 
45409, Oct. 31, 1985; 52 FR 21063, June 4, 1987; 52 FR 42662, Nov. 6, 
1987; 55 FR 12191, Apr. 2, 1990; 61 FR 32366, June 24, 1996; 62 FR 
59622, Nov. 4, 1997]

[[Page 199]]



Sec. 17.43  Special rules--amphibians.

    (a) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana). (1) All provisions of 
Sec. 17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be taken in 
accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (b) [Reserved]

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 45 FR 47363, July 14, 1980]



Sec. 17.44  Special rules--fishes.

    (a) Lahontan cutthroat trout, Paiute cutthroat trout, and Arizona 
trout (Salmo clarki henshawi, Salmo clarki seleniris, and Salmo apache). 
(1) All the provisions of Sec. 17.31 apply to these species, except that 
they may be taken in accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (b) Bayou darter (Etheostoma rubrum). (1) All the provisions of 
Sec. 17.31 apply to this species, except that they may be taken in 
accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (c) Slender chub (Hybopsis cahni), spotfin chub (Hybopsis monacha), 
slackwater darter (Etheostoma boschungi), and yellowfin madtom (Noturus 
flavipinnis).
    (1) All the provisions of Sec. 17.31 apply to these species, except 
that they may be taken in accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (d) Leopard darter (Percina pantherina). (1) All provisions of 
Sec. 17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be taken in 
accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (e) Little Kern golden trout (Salmo aguabonita whitei). (1) All 
provisions of Sec. 17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be 
taken in accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (f) Greenback cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki stomias). (1) All 
provisions of Sec. 17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be 
taken in accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (g) Chihuahua chub, Gila nigrescens. (1) All provisions of 
Sec. 17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be taken in 
accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the 
Endangered Species Act.
    (h) Yaqui catfish (Ictalurus pricei) and beautiful shiner (Notropis 
formosus). (1) All provisions of Sec. 17.31 apply to these species, 
except that they may be taken for educational, scientific, or 
conservation purposes in accordance with applicable Arizona State laws 
and regulations.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the 
Endangered Species Act.
    (i) Big Spring spinedace, Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis. (1) All 
the provisions of Sec. 17.31 apply to this species, except that it may 
be taken in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances: 
educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to this species will also be a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (j) Hutton tui chub (Gila bicolor subspecies) and Foskett speckled 
dace (Rhinichthys osculus subspecies). (1) No person shall take these 
species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances: for 
educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of these species will 
also be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any

[[Page 200]]

such species taken in violation of these regulations or in violation of 
applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (j) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (k) Niangua Darter, Etheostoma nianguae. (1) No person shall take 
the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following instances: 
educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (k) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (l) Warner sucker (Catostomus warnerensis). (1) No person shall take 
the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act;
    (ii) Incidental to State-permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that the individual fish taken is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (l) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (m) Desert Dace (Eremichthys acros). (1) No person shall take the 
species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances: For 
educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws or 
regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (m) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (n) Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae). (1) No person 
shall take the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following 
instances: for educational purposes, scientific purposes, the 
enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, zoological 
exhibition, and other conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these

[[Page 201]]

regulations or in violation of applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (n) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (o) Sonora chub, Gila ditaenia. (1) No person shall take the 
species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or,
    (ii) Incidental to State-permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that the individual fish taken is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (o) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (p) Spikedace, Meda fulgida. (1) No person shall take the species, 
except in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or,
    (ii) Incidental to State permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that the individual fish taken is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (p) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (q) Loach minnow, Rhinicthys (=Tiaroga) cobitis (1) No person shall 
take the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following instances: 
(i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act or, (ii) incidental to 
State permitted recreational fishing activities, provided that the 
individual fish taken is immediately returned to its habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (q) (1) through (3) of this paragraph.
    (r) Pecos bluntnose shiner, Notropis simus pecosensis (1) No person 
shall take the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following 
instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or,

[[Page 202]]

    (ii) Incidental to State permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that the individual fish taken is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to taking of this species will also be 
a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (r) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (s) Waccamaw Silverside (Menidia extensa). (1) No person shall take 
the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (s) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (t) Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata). (1) No person 
shall take this species, except in accordance with applicable State Fish 
and Wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following 
instances: for educational purposes, scientific purposes, the 
enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, zoological 
exhibition, and other conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (t) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (u) Pygmy sculpin (Cottus pygmaeus). The City of Anniston Water 
Works and Sewer Board will continue to use Coldwater Spring as a 
municipal water supply. Pumpage may remove all spring flow in excess of 
3 cubic feet per second (1,938,000 gallons per day).
    (v) Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi). (1) No person 
shall take this species, except in accordance with applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws and regulations for educational purposes, 
scientific purposes, the enhancement of propagation or survival of the 
species, zoological exhibition, or other conservation purposes 
consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatever, any of this species taken in 
violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws or 
regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (v)(1) through (3) of this section.
    (5) Taking of this species for purposes other than those described 
in paragraph (v)(1) of this section, including taking incidental to 
otherwise lawful activities, is prohibited except when permitted under 
50 CFR 17.32.
    (w) Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), Columbia River and Klamath 
River population segments. (1) Prohibitions. Except as noted in 
paragraph (v)(2) of this section, all prohibitions of 50 CFR 17.31 and 
exemptions of 50 CFR 17.32 shall apply to the bull trout Columbia River 
and Klamath River population

[[Page 203]]

segments within the contiguous United States.
    (2) Exceptions. No person shall take this species, except in 
accordance with applicable State and Native American Tribal fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations, as constituted in all 
respects relevant to protection of bull trout in effect on June 10, 
1998.
    (3) Any violation of applicable State and Native American Tribal 
fish and wildlife conservation laws or regulations with respect to the 
taking of this species is also a violation of the Endangered Species 
Act.
    (4) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of this section or in violation of applicable State and Native 
American Tribal fish and game laws and regulations.
    (5) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (v) (2) through (4) of this section.
    (x) Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), Jarbidge River population 
segment.
    (1) Prohibitions. Except as noted in paragraph (x)(2) of this 
section, all prohibitions of 50 CFR 17.31 and exemptions of 50 CFR 17.32 
apply to the bull trout in the Jarbidge River population segment within 
the United States.
    (2) Exceptions. No person may take this species, except in the 
following instances in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations relevant to protection of 
bull trout in effect on April 8, 1999.
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act;
    (ii) Incidental to State-permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that any bull trout caught are immediately returned to the 
stream.
    (iii) The exceptions in paragraphs (x)(2) (i) and (ii) of this 
section will be in effect until April 9, 2001. At that time, all take 
prohibitions of the Act will be reinstated for the Jarbidge River 
population segment unless exceptions to take prohibitions are otherwise 
provided through a subsequent special rule.
    (3) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (4) No person may possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of this section or in violation of applicable State fish and 
conservation laws and regulations.
    (5) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (x)(2) through (4) of this section.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations to Sec. 17.44, see 
the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this 
volume.



Sec. 17.45  Special rules--snails and clams. [Reserved]



Sec. 17.46  Special rules--crustaceans.

    (a) Madison Cave isopod (Antrolana lira). (1) All provisions of 
Sec. 17.31 (a) and (b) apply to this species except that it may be taken 
for scientific purposes without Federal permits issued pursuant to these 
regulations: Provided, that all other Federal, State, or local laws, 
regulations, ordinances or other restrictions or limitations have been 
complied with.
    (b) [Reserved]

[47 FR 43701, Oct. 4, 1982]



Sec. 17.47  [Reserved]



Sec. 17.48  Special rules--common sponges and other forms. [Reserved]



                   Subpart E--Similarity of Appearance

    Source: 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 17.50  General.

    (a) Whenever a species which is not Endangered or Threatened closely 
resembles an Endangered or Threatened species, such species may be 
treated as either Endangered or Threatened if the

[[Page 204]]

director makes such determination in accordance with section 4(e) of the 
Act and the criteria of paragraph (b) of this section. After the 
Director has made such determination in accordance with the notification 
procedures specified in the Act, such species shall appear in the list 
in Sec. 17.11 (Wildlife) or Sec. 17.12 (Plants) with the notation ``(S/
A)'' (similarity of appearance) in the ``Status'' column, following 
either a letter ``E'' or a letter ``T'' to indicate whether the species 
is being treated as Endangered or Threatened.
    (b) In determining whether to treat a species as Endangered or 
Threatened due to similarity of appearance, the Director shall consider 
the criteria in section 4(e) of the Act, as indicated below:
    (1) The degree of difficulty enforcement personnel would have in 
distinguishing the species, at the point in question, from an Endangered 
or Threatened species (including those cases where the criteria for 
recognition of a species are based on geographical boundaries);
    (2) The additional threat posed to the Endangered or Threatened 
species by the loss of control occasioned because of the similarity of 
appearance; and
    (3) The probability that so designating a similar species will 
substantially facilitate enforcement and further the purposes and policy 
of the Act.

    Example 1. The ABC sparrow is Endangered wildlife. The ABD sparrow 
is a subspecies that is so similar to the ABC sparrow that when found 
outside their normal habitat, the two cannot readily be distinguished by 
law enforcement personnel. The ABD sparrow is listed in Sec. 17.11, 
after following the proper procedures as follows:

                                                                    Species and Range
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                           Portion of range
            Common name                Scientific name           Population         Known distribution    where endangered or   Status    When   Special
                                                                                                              threatened                 listed   rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ABC sparrow.......................  ABCus................  NA...................  North America........  Entire..............        E        7       NA
ABD sparrow.......................  ABDus................  NA...................  ......do.............  NA..................   E(S/A)        7       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Example 2. Suppose the ABC sparrow is listed as Endangered in only a 
portion of its range. Within the meaning of the Act, the ABC sparrow as 
defined by geographic boundaries is a species. The ABC sparrow which 
occurs beyond those boundaries is a different species, even though it is 
identical, except in location, to the listed species. If the criteria of 
this section were met, the two species would be listed as follows:

                                                                    Species and Range
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                           Portion of range
            Common name                Scientific name           Population         Known distribution    where endangered or   Status    When   Special
                                                                                                              threatened                 listed   rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ABC sparrow.......................  ABCus................  Idaho................  Idaho................  Entire..............        E        7       NA
    Do............................  ......do.............  NA...................  United States........  NA..................   E(S/A)        7       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Example 3. The XY cactus has been determined to be an Endangered 
species. The XZ cactus so closely resembles the XY cactus that 
enforcement personnel cannot distinguish between the two. The Endangered 
XY cactus could be illegally sold as the non-endangered XZ species, thus 
posing an additional threat to the Endangered species. After following 
the proper procedures, the XZ cactus would be placed on the list and 
treated as though it was an Endangered species. This entry would appear 
as follows:

                                                                    Species and Range
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                           Portion of range
            Common name                Scientific name           Population         Known distribution    where endangered or   Status    When   Special
                                                                                                              threatened                 listed   rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
XYum..............................  XY cactus............  Arizona..............  Entire...............  ....................        E        7       NA
XZum..............................  ......do.............  Arizona and Mexico...  NA...................  ....................   E(S/A)        8       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 205]]



Sec. 17.51  Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    (a) Any species listed in Sec. 17.11 or Sec. 17.12, pursuant to 
Sec. 17.50, shall be treated as Endangered or Threatened, as indicated 
in the ``Status'' column.
    (b) All of the provisions of subparts C (Endangered Wildlife), D 
(Threatened Wildlife), F (Endangered Plants) or G (Threatened Plants), 
as appropriate, shall apply to any such species.



Sec. 17.52  Permits--similarity of appearance.

    Upon receipt of a complete application and unless otherwise 
indicated in a special rule, the Director may issue permits for any 
activity otherwise prohibited with a species designated as Endangered or 
Threatened due to its similarity of appearance. Such a permit may 
authorize a single transaction, a series of transactions, or a number of 
activities over a specified period of time.
    (a) Application requirements. An application for a permit under this 
section must be submitted to the Director by the person who wishes to 
engage in the prohibited activity. The permit for activities involving 
interstate commerce of plants must be obtained by the seller; in the 
case of wildlife, the permit must be obtained by the buyer. The 
application must be submitted on an official application form (Form 3-
200) provided by the Service, or must contain the general information 
and certification required by Sec. 13.12(a) of this subchapter. It must 
include, as an attachment, all of the following information: Documentary 
evidence, sworn affidavits, or other information to show species 
identification and the origin of the wildlife or plant in question. This 
information may be in the form of hunting licenses, hide seals, official 
stamps, export documents, bills of sales, certification, expert opinion, 
or other appropriate information.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making his decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria, in 
Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the information submitted by the applicant appears 
reliable;
    (2) Whether the information submitted by the applicant adequately 
identifies the wildlife or plant in question so as to distinguish it 
from any Endangered or Threatened wildlife or plant.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to the following special conditions:
    (1) If indicated in the permit, a special mark, to be specified in 
the permit, must be applied to the wildlife or plant, and remain for the 
time designated in the permit;
    (2) A copy of the permit or an identification label, which includes 
the scientific name and the permit number, must accompany the wildlife 
or plant or its container during the course of any activity subject to 
these regulations.
    (d) Duration of permits. The duration of a permit issued under this 
section shall be designated on the face of the permit.



                      Subpart F--Endangered Plants



Sec. 17.61  Prohibitions.

    (a) Except as provided in a permit issued pursuant to Sec. 17.62 or 
Sec. 17.63, it is unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction of 
the United States to commit, to attempt to commit, to solicit another to 
commit, or to cause to be committed, any of the acts described in 
paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section in regard to any Endangered 
plant.
    (b) Import or export. It is unlawful to import or to export any 
Endangered plant. Any shipment in transit through the United States is 
an importation and an exportation, whether or not it has entered the 
country for customs purposes.
    (c) Remove and reduce to possession. (1) It is unlawful to remove 
and reduce to possession any endangered plant from an area under Federal 
jurisdiction.
    (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any employee 
or agent of the Service, any other Federal land

[[Page 206]]

management agency, or a State conservation agency, who is designated by 
that agency for such purposes, may, when acting in the course of 
official duties, remove and reduce to possession endangered plants from 
areas under Federal jurisdiction without a permit if such action is 
necessary to:
    (i) Care for a damaged or diseased specimen;
    (ii) Dispose of a dead specimen; or
    (iii) Salvage a dead specimen which may be useful for scientific 
study.
    (3) Any removal and reduction to possession pursuant to paragraph 
(c)(2) of this section must be reported in writing to the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Division of Law Enforcement, P.O. Box 28006, 
Washington, DC 20005, within 5 days. The specimen may only be retained, 
disposed of, or salvaged in accordance with written directions from the 
Service.
    (4) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any qualified 
employee or agent of a State conservation agency which is a party to a 
Cooperative Agreement with the Service in accordance with section 6(c) 
of the Act, who is designated by that agency for such purposes, may, 
when acting in the course of official duties, remove and reduce to 
possession from areas under Federal jurisdiction those endangered plants 
which are covered by an approved cooperative agreement for conservation 
programs in accordance with the Cooperative Agreement, provided that 
such removal is not reasonably anticipated to result in:
    (i) The death or permanent damage of the specimens;
    (ii) The removal of the specimen from the State where the removal 
occurred; or
    (iii) The introduction of the specimen so removed, or of any 
propagules derived from such a specimen, into an area beyond the 
historical range of the species.
    (d) Interstate or foreign commerce. It is unlawful to deliver, 
receive, carry, transport, or ship in interstate or foreign commerce, by 
any means whatsoever, and in the course of a commercial activity, an 
endangered plant.
    (e) Sale or offer for sale. (1) It is unlawful to sell or to offer 
for sale in interstate or foreign commerce any endangered plant.
    (2) An advertisement for the sale of any endangered plant which 
carries a warning to the effect that no sale may be consummated until a 
permit has been obtained from the Service, shall not be considered an 
offer for sale within the meaning of this paragraph.

[44 FR 54060, Sept. 18, 1979, as amended at 50 FR 39690, Sept. 30, 1985]



Sec. 17.62  Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of propagation or survival.

    Upon receipt of a complete application the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited by Sec. 17.61, in 
accordance with the issuance criteria of this section, for scientific 
purposes or for enhancing the propagation or survival of endangered 
plants. (See Sec. 17.72 for permits for threatened plants.) Such a 
permit may authorize a single transaction, a series of transactions, or 
a number of activities over a specified period of time.
    (a) Application requirements. A person wishing to get a permit for 
an activity prohibited by Sec. 17.61 submits an application to conduct 
activities under this paragraph. For interstate commerce activities the 
seller gets the permit for plants coming from cultivated stock and the 
buyer gets the permit if the plants are taken from the wild. The Service 
provides application Form 3-200, or you may submit the general 
information and certification required by Sec. 13.12(a) of this 
subchapter. Application requirements differ for permits issued for 
plants taken from the wild (excluding seeds), seeds and cultivated 
plants, or herbarium specimens. You must attach the following 
information and any other information requested by the Director.
    (1) For activities involving plants obtained from the wild 
(excluding seeds), provide the following information:
    (i) The scientific names of the plants sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) The estimated number of specimens sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (iii) The year, country, and approximate place where taking occurred 
or will occur;

[[Page 207]]

    (iv) If the activities would involve removal and reduction to 
possession of a plant from an area under Federal jurisdiction, the year, 
State, county, or any other description such as place name, township, 
and range designation that will precisely place the location where the 
proposed removal and reduction to possession will occur, the name of the 
Federal entity having jurisdiction over the area, and the name, title, 
address, and phone number of the person in charge of the area.
    (v) The name and address of the institution or other facility where 
the plant sought to be covered by the permit will be used or maintained;
    (vi) A brief description of the applicant's expertise and facilities 
as related to the proposed activity;
    (vii) A statement of the applicant's willingness to participate in a 
cooperative propagation program, and to maintain or contribute data 
relating to such efforts; and
    (viii) A statement of the reasons why the applicant is justified in 
obtaining the permit, including:
    (A) The activities sought to be authorized by the permit and the 
relationship of such activities to scientific purposes or enhancing the 
propagation or survival of the species; and
    (B) The planned disposition of such plant upon termination of the 
activities sought to be authorized.
    (2) For activities involving seeds and cultivated plants, provide 
the following information:
    (i) The scientific names of the plants sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) A statement of the applicant's willingness to participate in a 
cooperative propagation program, and to maintain or contribute data 
relating to the success of such efforts;
    (iii) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes or enhancing the propagation or survival of the species; and
    (iv) If the activities would involve seeds obtained from the wild, 
additional information to evaluate the effects of such taking upon the 
reproductive potential of the species where the taking will occur.
    (v) If the activities would involve removal and reduction to 
possession of seeds from an area under Federal jurisdiction, the year, 
State, county or any other description such as place name, township, and 
range designation that will precisely place the location where the 
proposed removal and reduction to possession will occur, the name of the 
Federal entity having jurisdiction over the area and the name, title, 
address, and phone number of the person in charge of the area.
    (3) For importation or exportation involving the non-commercial 
loan, exchange, or donation of herbarium or other preserved, dried, or 
embedded museum specimens of any endangered species between scientists 
or scientific institutions, provide the following information:
    (i) The name and address of the institution or other facility where 
the plants sought to be covered by the permit will be used or 
maintained; and
    (ii) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes or enhancing the propagation or survival of the species.
    (4) When the activity applied for involves a species also regulated 
by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Fauna and Flora, additional requirements of Sec. 23.15(c) of this 
subchapter must be met. For your convenience, Sec. 23.15(c) is repeated 
here.

    Application requirements for permits or certificates to import, 
export or re-export wildlife or plants listed in appendix I, II or III 
that are not subject to the regulations in part 17 or part 18 of this 
subchapter. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
who wishes to get such a permit or certificate submits an application 
under this section to the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
(Attention: Office of Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 
700, Arlington, VA 22203. The Service provides Form 3-200 for the 
application to which as much of the following information relating to 
the purpose of the permit or certificate must be attached.
    (1) The scientific and common names of the species (or taxa to the 
rank listed in Appendix I, II, or III) sought to be covered by the 
permit. the number of wildlife or plants, and the activity sought to be 
authorized (such as importing, exporting, re-exporting, etc.);

[[Page 208]]

    (2) A statement as to whether the wildlife or plant, at the time of 
application, (i) is living in the wild, (ii) is living, but not in the 
wild, or (iii) is dead;
    (3) A description of the wildlife or plant, including (i) size, (ii) 
sex (if known), and (iii) type of goods, if it is a part or derivative;
    (4) In the case of living wildlife or plants, (i) a description of 
the type, size, and construction of any container the wildlife or plant 
will be placed in during transportation, and (ii) the arrangements for 
watering and otherwise caring for the wildlife or plant during 
transportation;
    (5) The name and address of the person in a foreign country to whom 
the wildlife or plant is to be exported from the United States, or from 
whom the wildlife or plant is to be imported into the United States;
    (6) The country and place where the wildlife or plant was or is to 
be taken from the wild;
    (7) In the case of wildlife or plants listed in Appendix I to be 
imported into the United States, (i) a statement of the purposes and 
details of the activities for which the wildlife or plant is to be 
imported; (ii) a brief resume of the technical expertise of the 
applicant or other persons who will care for the wildlife or plant; 
(iii) the name, address, and description, including diagrams or 
photographs, of the facility where the wildlife or plant will be 
maintained; and (iv) a description of all mortalities, in the two years 
preceding the date of this application, including any wildlife species 
covered in the application (or any species of the same genus or family) 
held by the applicant, including the causes and steps taken to avoid 
such mortalities; and
    (8) Copies of documents, sworn affidavits, or other evidence showing 
that either (i) the wildlife or plant was acquired prior to the date the 
Convention applied to it, or (ii) the wildlife or plant was bred in 
captivity, or artificially propagated, or was part of or derived 
therefrom, or (iii) the wildlife or plant is an herbarium specimen, or 
live plant material to be imported, exported, or re-exported as a 
noncommercial loan, donation, or exchange between scientists or 
scientific institutions.

    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making his decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in 
Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
enhance the survival of the species in the wild;
    (2) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
enhance the propagation of the species;
    (3) The opinions or views of scientists or other persons or 
organizations having expertise concerning the plant or other matters 
germane to the application; and
    (4) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate to successfully accomplish the 
objectives stated in the application.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to the following special conditions:
    (1) If requested, the permittee shall submit to the Director a 
written report of the activities authorized by the permit. Such report 
must be postmarked by the date specified in the permit or otherwise 
requested by the Director.
    (2) A copy of the permit or an identification label, which includes 
the scientific name, the permit number, and a statement that the plant 
is of ``wild origin'' or ``cultivated origin'' must accompany the plant 
or its container during the course of any activity subject to these 
regulations, unless the specimens meet the special conditions referred 
to in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
    (3) In the case of plants that are herbarium specimens, or other 
preserved, dried or embedded museum specimens to be imported or exported 
as a noncommercial loan, exchange or donation between scientists or 
scientific institutions, the names and addresses of the consignor and 
consignee must be on each package or container. A description such as 
``herbarium specimens'' and the code letters assigned by the Service to 
the scientists or scientific institution must be entered on the Customs 
declaration form affixed to each package or container. If the specimens 
are of taxa also regulated by the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the letters ``CITES'' 
(acronym for the Convention) also must be entered on the Customs 
declaration form, as indicated in Sec. 23.15(e)(3) of this subchapter.

[[Page 209]]

    (d) Duration of permit. The duration of a permit issued under this 
section shall be designated on the face of the permit.

[44 FR 54060, Sept. 18, 1979, as amended at 50 FR 39690, Sept. 30, 1985; 
63 FR 52635, Oct. 1, 1998]



Sec. 17.63  Economic hardship permits.

    Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited by Sec. 17.61, in 
accordance with Section 10(b) of the Act and the issuance criteria of 
this section, in order to prevent undue economic hardship. No such 
exemption may be granted for the importation or exportation of a species 
also listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in 
endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, if the specimen would be 
used in a commercial activity.
    (a) Application requirements. An application for a permit under this 
section must be submitted to the Director by the person allegedly 
suffering undue economic hardship because his desired activity is 
prohibited. The application must be submitted on an official application 
form (Form 3-200) provided by the Service, or must contain the general 
information and certification required by Sec. 13.12(a) of this 
subchapter. It must include, as an attachment, all of the information 
required in Sec. 17.62 plus the following additional information.
    (1) The possible legal or economic alternatives to the activity 
sought to be authorized by the permit.
    (2) A full statement, accompanied by copies of all relevant 
correspondence, showing the applicant's involvement with the plant 
sought to be covered by the permit (as well as his involvement with 
similar plants). The applicant should include information on that 
portion of his income derived from activities involving such plants in 
relation to the balance of his income during the calendar year 
immediately preceding either the Federal Register notice of review of 
the status of the species or proposed rulemaking to list the species as 
Endangered, whichever is earlier.
    (3) Where applicable, proof of a contract or other binding legal 
obligation which:
    (i) Deals specifically with the plant sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) Became binding prior to the date of the Federal Register notice 
of review of the status of the species or proposed rulemaking to list 
the species as endangered, whichever is earlier; and
    (iii) Will cause monetary loss of a given dollar amount if the 
permit sought under this section is not granted.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued for economic hardship, as 
defined in section 10(b) of the Act. In making his decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in 
Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
significantly affect the survival of the species in the wild;
    (2) The economic, legal, or other alternatives or relief available 
to the applicant;
    (3) The amount of evidence that the applicant was in fact party to a 
contract or other binding legal obligation which:
    (i) Deals specifically with the plant sought to be covered by the 
permit; and
    (ii) Became binding prior to the date of the Federal Register notice 
of review of the status of the species or proposed rulemaking to list 
the species as endangered, whichever is earlier;
    (4) The severity of economic hardship which the contract or other 
binding legal obligation referred to in paragraph (b)(3) of this section 
would cause if the permit were denied;
    (5) Where applicable, the portion of the applicant's income which 
would be lost if the permit were denied, and the relationship of that 
portion to the balance of his income.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section may be subject to any of the following special conditions:
    (1) If requested, the permittee shall submit to the Director a 
written report

[[Page 210]]

of the activities authorized by the permit. Such report must be 
postmarked by the date specified in the permit or otherwise requested by 
the Director.
    (2) If requested, the permittee shall report to the Service's office 
designated in the permit the death, destruction or loss of all living 
plants covered by the permit. Such report must be postmarked by the date 
specified in the permit or otherwise requested by the Director.
    (d) Duration of permit. The duration of a permit issued under this 
section shall be designated on the face of the permit. No permit issued 
under this section shall be valid for more than one year from the date 
of a Federal Register notice of review of the status of the species or 
proposed rulemaking to list the species as endangered, whichever is 
earlier.

[44 FR 54060, Sept. 18, 1979]



                      Subpart G--Threatened Plants



Sec. 17.71  Prohibitions.

    (a) Except as provided in subpart A of this part, or in a permit 
issued under this subpart, all of the provisions in Sec. 17.61 shall 
apply to threatened plants, with the following exception. Seeds of 
cultivated specimens of species treated as threatened shall be exempt 
from all the provisions of Sec. 17.61, provided that a statement that 
the seeds are of ``cultivated origin'' accompanies the seeds or their 
container during the course of any activity otherwise subject to these 
regulations.
    (b) In addition to any provisions of this part 17, any employee or 
agent of the Service or of a State Conservation Agency which is 
operating a conservation program pursuant to the terms of a Cooperative 
Agreement with the Service in accordance with section 6(c) of the Act, 
who is designated by that agency for such purposes, may, when acting in 
the course of official duties, remove and reduce to possession from 
areas under Federal jurisdiction those threatened species of plants 
which are covered by an approved Cooperative Agreement to carry out 
conservation programs.
    (c) Whenever a special rule in Secs. 17.73 to 17.78 applies to a 
threatened species, none of the provisions of paragraph (a) of this 
section will apply. The special rule will contain all the applicable 
prohibitions and exceptions. If indicated by special rule, the exception 
for seeds in paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to the 
threatened species.

[42 FR 32380, June 24, 1977, as amended at 50 FR 39691, Sept. 30, 1985]



Sec. 17.72  Permits--general.

    Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited with regard to 
threatened plants. The permit shall be governed by the provisions of 
this section unless a special rule applicable to the plant is provided 
in Secs. 17.73 to 17.78. A permit issued under this section must be for 
one of the following: scientific purposes, the enhancement of the 
propagation or survival of threatened species, economic hardship, 
botanical or horticultural exhibition, educational purposes, or other 
activities consistent with the purposes and policy of the Act. Such a 
permit may authorize a single transaction, a series of transactions, or 
a number of activities over a specified period of time.
    (a) Application requirements. A person wishing to get a permit for 
an activity prohibited by Sec. 17.71 submits an application to conduct 
activities under this paragraph. For interstate commerce activities the 
seller gets the permit for plants coming from cultivated stock and the 
buyer gets the permit if the plants are taken from the wild. The Service 
provides Form 3-200 for the application or you may submit the general 
information and certification required by Sec. 13.12(a) of this 
subchapter. Application requirements differ for permits issued for 
plants taken from the wild (excluding seeds), seeds and cultivated 
plants, or herbarium specimens. You must attach the following 
information and any other information requested by the Director.
    (1) For activities involving plants obtained from the wild 
(excluding seeds), provide the following information:
    (i) The scientific names of the plants sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) The estimated number of specimens sought to be covered by the 
permit;

[[Page 211]]

    (iii) The year, country, and approximate place where taking occurred 
or will occur;
    (iv) If the activities would involve removal and reduction to 
possession of a plant from an area under Federal jurisdiction, the year, 
State, county or any other description such as place name, township, and 
range designation that will precisely place the location where the 
proposed removal and reduction to possession will occur, the name of the 
Federal entity having jurisdiction over the area and the name, title, 
address, and phone number of the person in charge of the area.
    (v) A brief description of the applicant's expertise and facilities 
as related to the proposed activity;
    (vi) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes, enhancing the propagation or survival of the species, or other 
objectives consistent with the purposes and policy of the Act; and
    (vii) A statement of the applicant's willingness to participate in a 
cooperative propagation program, and to maintain or contribute data 
relating to such efforts.
    (2) For activities involving seeds obtained from the wild and 
cultivated plants, provide the following information:
    (i) The scientific names of the plants sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) A statement of the applicant's willingness to participate in a 
cooperative propagation program, and to maintain or contribute data 
relating to the success of such efforts; and
    (iii) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes, enhancing the propagation or survival of the species, or other 
objectives consistent with the purposes and policy of the Act.
    (iv) If the activities would involve removal and reduction to 
possession of seeds from an area under Federal jurisdiction, the year, 
State, county, or any other description such as place name, township, 
and range designation that will precisely place the location where the 
proposed removal and reduction to possession will occur, the name of the 
Federal entity having jurisdiction over the area and the name, title, 
address, and phone number of the person in charge of the area.
    (3) For importation or exportation involving the non-commercial 
loan, exchange or donation of herbarium or other preserved, dried or 
embedded museum specimens of all threatened species between scientists 
or scientific institutions, provide the following information:
    (i) The name and address of the institution or other facility where 
the plants sought to be covered by the permit will be used or 
maintained; and
    (ii) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes, enhancing the propagation or survival of the species, or other 
objectives consistent with the purposes and policy of the Act.
    (4) When the activity applied for involves a species also regulated 
by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Fauna and Flora, additional requirements of Sec. 23.15(c) of this 
subchapter must be met. For your convenience, Sec. 23.15(c) is repeated 
here.

    Application requirements for permits or certificates to import, 
export or re-export wildlife or plants listed in Appendix I, II or III 
that are not subject to the regulations in part 17 or part 18 of this 
subchapter. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
who wishes to get such a permit or certificate submits an application 
under this section to the Director, Fish and Wildlife Service 
(Attention: Office of Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 
700, Arlington, VA 22203. The Service provides Form 3-200 for the 
application to which as much of the following information relating to 
the purpose of the permit or certificate must be attached:
    (1) The scientific and common names of the species (or taxa to the 
rank listed in Appendix I, II, or III) sought to be covered by the 
permit, the number of wildlife or plants, and the activity sought to be 
authorized (such as importing, exporting, re-exporting, etc.);
    (2) A statement as to whether the wildlife or plant, at the time of 
application, (i) is living in the wild, (ii) is living, but not in the 
wild, or (iii) is dead;
    (3) A description of the wildlife or plant, including (i) size, (ii) 
sex (if known), and (iii) type of goods, if it is a part or derivative;

[[Page 212]]

    (4) In the case of living wildlife or plants, (i) a description of 
the type, size, and construction of any container the wildlife or plant 
will be placed in during transportation, and (ii) the arrangements for 
watering and otherwise caring for the wildlife or plant during 
transportation;
    (5) The name and address of the person in a foreign country to whom 
the wildlife or plant is to be exported from the United States, or from 
whom the wildlife or plant is to be imported into the United States;
    (6) The country and place where the wildlife or plant was or is to 
be taken from the wild;
    (7) In the case of wildlife or plants listed in Appendix I to be 
imported into the United States, (i) a statement of the purposes and 
details of the activities for which the wildlife or plant is to be 
imported; (ii) a brief resume of the technical expertise of the 
applicant or other persons who will care for the wildlife or plant; 
(iii) the name, address, and description, including diagrams or 
photographs, of the facility where the wildlife or plant will be 
maintained; and (iv) a description of all mortalities, in the two years 
preceding the date of this application, including any wildlife species 
covered in the application (or any species of the same genus or family) 
held by the applicant, including the causes and steps taken to avoid 
such mortalities; and
    (8) Copies of documents, sworn affidavits, or other evidence showing 
that either (i) the wildlife or plant was acquired prior to the date the 
Convention applied to it, or (ii) the wildlife or plant was bred in 
captivity, or artificially propagated, or was part of or derived 
therefrom, or (iii) the wildlife or plant is an herbarium specimen, or 
live plant material to be imported, exported, or re-exported as a 
noncommercial loan, donation, or exchange between scientists or 
scientific institutions.

    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making his decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in 
Sec. 13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
enhance the survival of the species in the wild;
    (2) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
enhance the propagation of the species;
    (3) The opinions or views of scientists or other persons or 
organizations having expertise concerning the plant or other matters 
germane to the application; and
    (4) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate to successfully accomplish the 
objectives stated in the application.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to the following special conditions:
    (1) If requested, the permittee shall submit to the Director a 
written report of the activities authorized by the permit. Such report 
must be postmarked by the date specified in the permit or otherwise 
requested by the Director.
    (2) A copy of the permit or an identification label, which includes 
the scientific name, the permit number, and a statement that the plant 
is of ``wild orgin'' or ``cultivated origin'' must accompany the plant 
or its container during the course of any activity subject to these 
regulations, unless the specimens meet the special conditions referred 
to in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
    (3) In the case of plants that are herbarium specimens, or other 
preserved, dried, or embedded museum specimens to be imported or 
exported as a noncommercial loan exchange or donation between scientists 
or scientific institutions, the names and addresses of the consignor and 
consignee must be on each package or container. A description such as 
``herbarium specimens'' and the code letters assigned by the Service to 
the scientist or scientific institution must be entered on the Customs 
declaration form affixed to each package or container. If the specimens 
are of taxa also regulated by the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the letters ``CITES'' 
(acronym for the convention) also must be entered on the Customs 
declaration form as indicated in Sec. 23.15(e)(3) of this subchapter.
    (d) Duration of permit. The duration of a permit issued under this 
section shall be designated on the face of the permit.

[42 FR 32380, June 24, 1977, as amended at 50 FR 39691, Sept. 30, 1985; 
63 FR 52636, Oct. 1, 1998]

[[Page 213]]



Secs. 17.73--17.78  [Reserved]



                   Subpart H--Experimental Populations

    Source: 49 FR 33893, Aug. 27, 1984, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 17.80  Definitions.

    (a) The term experimental population means an introduced and/or 
designated population (including any off-spring arising solely 
therefrom) that has been so designated in accordance with the procedures 
of this subpart but only when, and at such times as the population is 
wholly separate geographically from nonexperimental populations of the 
same species. Where part of an experimental population overlaps with 
natural populations of the same species on a particular occasion, but is 
wholly separate at other times, specimens of the experimental population 
will not be recognized as such while in the area of overlap. That is, 
experimental status will only be recognized outside the areas of 
overlap. Thus, such a population shall be treated as experimental only 
when the times of geographic separation are reasonably predictable; 
e.g., fixed migration patterns, natural or man-made barriers. A 
population is not treated as experimental if total separation will occur 
solely as a result of random and unpredictable events.
    (b) The term essential experimental population means an experimental 
population whose loss would be likely to appreciably reduce the 
likelihood of the survival of the species in the wild. All other 
experimental populations are to be classified as nonessential.



Sec. 17.81  Listing.

    (a) The Secretary may designate as an experimental population a 
population of endangered or threatened species that has been or will be 
released into suitable natural habitat outside the species' current 
natural range (but within its probable historic range, absent a finding 
by the Director in the extreme case that the primary habitat of the 
species has been unsuitably and irreversibly altered or destroyed), 
subject to the further conditions specified in this section; provided, 
that all designations of experimental populations must proceed by 
regulation adopted in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and the requirements 
of this subpart.
    (b) Before authorizing the release as an experimental population of 
any population (including eggs, propagules, or individuals) of an 
endangered or threatened species, and before authorizing any necessary 
transportation to conduct the release, the Secretary must find by 
regulation that such release will further the conservation of the 
species. In making such a finding the Secretary shall utilize the best 
scientific and commercial data available to consider:
    (1) Any possible adverse effects on extant populations of a species 
as a result of removal of individuals, eggs, or propagules for 
introduction elsewhere;
    (2) The likelihood that any such experimental population will become 
established and survive in the foreseeable future;
    (3) The relative effects that establishment of an experimental 
population will have on the recovery of the species; and
    (4) The extent to which the introduced population may be affected by 
existing or anticipated Federal or State actions or private activities 
within or adjacent to the experimental population area.

The Secretary may issue a permit under section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Act, 
if appropriate under the standards set out in subsections 10(d) and (j) 
of the Act, to allow acts necessary for the establishment and 
maintenance of an experimental population.
    (c) Any regulation promulgated under paragraph (a) of this section 
shall provide:
    (1) Appropriate means to identify the experimental population, 
including, but not limited to, its actual or proposed location, actual 
or anticipated migration, number of specimens released or to be 
released, and other criteria appropriate to identify the experimental 
population(s);
    (2) A finding, based solely on the best scientific and commercial 
data available, and the supporting factual basis,

[[Page 214]]

on whether the experimental population is, or is not, essential to the 
continued existence of the species in the wild;
    (3) Management restrictions, protective measures, or other special 
management concerns of that population, which may include but are not 
limited to, measures to isolate and/or contain the experimental 
population designated in the regulation from natural populations; and
    (4) A process for periodic review and evaluation of the success or 
failure of the release and the effect of the release on the conservation 
and recovery of the species.
    (d) The Fish and Wildlife Service shall consult with appropriate 
State fish and wildlife agencies, local governmental entities, affected 
Federal agencies, and affected private landowners in developing and 
implementing experimental population rules. When appropriate, a public 
meeting will be conducted with interested members of the public. Any 
regulation promulgated pursuant to this section shall, to the maximum 
extent practicable, represent an agreement between the Fish and Wildlife 
Service, the affected State and Federal agencies and persons holding any 
interest in land which may be affected by the establishment of an 
experimental population.
    (e) Any population of an endangered species or a threatened species 
determined by the Secretary to be an experimental population in 
accordance with this subpart shall be identified by special rule in 
Secs. 17.84--17.86 as appropriate and separately listed in Sec. 17.11(h) 
(wildlife) or Sec. 17.12(h) (plants) as appropriate.
    (f) The Secretary may designate critical habitat as defined in 
section (3)(5)(A) of the Act for an essential experimental population as 
determined pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Any designation 
of critical habitat for an essential experimental population will be 
made in accordance with section 4 of the Act. No designation of critical 
habitat will be made for nonessential populations. In those situations 
where a portion or all of an essential experimental population overlaps 
with a natural population of the species during certain periods of the 
year, no critical habitat shall be designated for the area of overlap 
unless implemented as a revision to critical habitat of the natural 
population for reasons unrelated to the overlap itself.



Sec. 17.82  Prohibitions.

    Any population determined by the Secretary to be an experimental 
population shall be treated as if it were listed as a threatened species 
for purposes of establishing protective regulations under section 4(d) 
of the Act with respect to such population. The Special rules 
(protective regulations) adopted for an experimental population under 
Sec. 17.81 will contain applicable prohibitions, as appropriate, and 
exceptions for that population.



Sec. 17.83  Interagency cooperation.

    (a) Any experimental population designated for a listed species (1) 
determined pursuant to Sec. 17.81(c)(2) of this subpart not to be 
essential to the survival of that species and (2) not occurring within 
the National Park System or the National Wildlife Refuge System, shall 
be treated for purposes of section 7 (other than subsection (a)(1) 
thereof) as a species proposed to be listed under the Act as a 
threatened species.
    (b) Any experimental population designated for a listed species that 
either (1) has been determined pursuant to Sec. 17.81(c)(2) of this 
subpart to be essential to the survival of that species, of (2) occurs 
within the National Park System or the National Wildlife Refuge System 
as now or hereafter constituted, shall be treated for purposes of 
section 7 of the Act as a threatened species. Notwithstanding the 
foregoing, any biological opinion prepared pursuant to section 7(b) of 
the Act and any agency determination made pursuant to section 7(a) of 
the Act shall consider any experimental and nonexperimental populations 
to constitute a single listed species for the purposes of conducting the 
analyses under such sections.



Sec. 17.84  Special rules--vertebrates.

    (a) Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus). (1) 
The Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel population identified in paragraph 
(a)(6) of

[[Page 215]]

this section is a nonessential experimental population.
    (2) No person shall take this species, except:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act and in accordance 
with applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws and 
regulations; or
    (ii) Incidental to recreational activities.
    (3) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species (other 
than incidental taking as described in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this 
section) will also be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (4) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife laws or regulations or the Endangered Species Act.
    (5) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraph (a)(2) or (4) of this section.
    (6) The site for reintroduction of Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel 
is totally isolated from existing populations of this species. The 
nearest extant population is in the Chincoteague National Wildlife 
Refuge approximately 50 miles from the reintroduction site. The 
reintroduction site is within the historic range of this species and is 
located at the Assawoman Wildlife Area, Sussex County, Delaware. 
Observation of previous releases have shown that fox squirrels have not 
traveled more than 2 or 3 miles from release sites, therefore, the 
possibility of this population contacting extant wild populations is 
unlikely.
    (7) The reintroduced population will be checked periodically to 
determine its condition and the success of the reintroduction. Of 
special concern will be the establishment of breeding pairs and the 
reproductive success of the population. The movement patterns of the 
released individuals and the overall health of the population will also 
be observed.
    (b) Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius) and woundfin 
(Plagopterus argentissimus). (1) The Colorado squawfish and woundfin 
populations identified in paragraph (b)(6) of this section, are 
experimental, nonessential populations.
    (2) No person shall take the species, except in accordance with 
applicable State or Tribal fish and wildlife conservation laws and 
regulations in the following instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or
    (ii) Incidental to otherwise lawful activities, provided that the 
individual fish taken, if still alive, is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (3) Any violation of applicable State or Tribal fish and wildlife 
conservation laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this 
species (other than incidental taking as described in paragraph 
(b)(2)(ii) of this section) will also be a violation of the Endangered 
Species Act.
    (4) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State or 
Tribal fish and wildlife laws or regulations.
    (5) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (b) (2) through (4) of this section.
    (6) All of the sites for reintroduction of Colorado squawfish and 
woundfin are totally isolated from existing populations of these 
species. The nearest population of Colorado squawfish is above Lake 
Powell in the Green and Colorado Rivers, an upstream distance of at 
least 800 miles including 6 mainstream dams, and 200 miles of dry 
riverbed. Woundfin are similarly isolated (450 miles distant, 200 miles 
of dry streambed and 5 mainstream dams). All reintroduction sites are 
within the probable historic range of these species and are as follows:


[[Page 216]]



                           Colorado Squawfish

    (i) Arizona: Gila County. Salt River from Roosevelt Dam upstream to 
U.S Highway 60 bridge.
    (ii) Arizona: Gila and Yavapai Counties. Verde River from Horseshoe 
Dam upstream to Perkinsville.
    The lower segments of large streams which flow into these two 
sections of river may, from time to time, be inhabited by Colorado 
squawfish. Downstream movement of squawfish in these areas will be 
restricted by dams and upstream movement is limited by lack of suitable 
habitat.

                                Woundfin

    (i) Arizona: Gila and Yavapai Counties. Verde River from backwaters 
of Horseshoe Reservoir upstream to Perkinsville.
    (ii) Arizona: Graham and Greenlee Counties. Gila River from 
backwaters of San Carlos Reservoir upstream to Arizona/New Mexico State 
line.
    (iii) Arizona: Greenlee County. San Francisco River from its 
junction with the Gila River upstream to the Arizona/New Mexico State 
line.
    (iv) Arizona: Gila County. Tonto Creek, from Punkin Center upstream 
to Gisela.
    (v) Arizona: Yavapai County. Hassayampa River, from Red Cliff 
upstream to Wagoner.
    The movement of woundfin beyond these areas will be limited to the 
lower portion of larger tributaries where suitable habitat exists. 
Downstream movement is limited by dams, reservoirs, and dry streambed. 
Upstream movement from these areas is restricted due to the absence of 
habitat. Upstream areas are too cold and the gradient is too steep to 
support populations of woundfin.

    (7) The reintroduced populations will be checked annually to 
determine their condition. A seining survey will be used to determine 
population expansion or contraction, reproduction success, and general 
health condition of the fish.
    (c) Red wolf (Canis rufus). (1) The red wolf populations identified 
in paragraphs (c)(9)(i) and (c)(9)(ii) of this section are nonessential 
experimental populations.
    (2) No person may take this species, except as provided in 
paragraphs (c)(3) through (5) and (10) of this section.
    (3) Any person with a valid permit issued by the Service under 
Sec. 17.32 may take red wolves for educational purposes, scientific 
purposes, the enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, 
zoological exhibition, and other conservation purposes consistent with 
the Act and in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations;
    (4)(i) Any person may take red wolves found on private land in the 
areas defined in paragraphs (c)(9) (i) and (ii) of this section, 
Provided that such taking is not intentional or willful, or is in 
defense of that person's own life or the lives of others; and that such 
taking is reported within 24 hours to the refuge manager (for the red 
wolf population defined in paragraph (c)(9)(i) of this section), the 
Park superintendent (for the red wolf population defined in paragraph 
(c)(9)(ii) of this section), or the State wildlife enforcement officer 
for investigation.
    (ii) Any person may take red wolves found on l