[Title 29 CFR 1910.180]
[Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) - July 1, 2002 Edition]
[Title 29 - LABOR]
[Subtitle B - Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)]
[Chapter Xvii - OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT]
[Part 1910 - OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS]
[Subpart N - Materials Handling and Storage]
[Sec. 1910.180 - Crawler locomotive and truck cranes.]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
29LABOR52002-07-012002-07-01falseCrawler locomotive and truck cranes.1910.180Sec. 1910.180LABORRegulations Relating to Labor (Continued)OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENTOCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDSMaterials Handling and Storage
Sec. 1910.180 Crawler locomotive and truck cranes.
(a) Definitions applicable to this section. (1) A crawler crane
consists of a rotating superstructure with power plant, operating
machinery, and boom, mounted on a base, equipped with crawler treads for
travel. Its function is to hoist and swing loads at various radii.
(2) A locomotive crane consists of a rotating superstructure with
power-plant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on a base or car
equipped for travel on railroad track. It may be self-propelled or
propelled by an outside source. Its function is to hoist and swing loads
at various radii.
(3) A truck crane consists of a rotating superstructure with
powerplant, operating machinery and boom, mounted on an automotive truck
equipped with a powerplant for travel. Its function is to hoist and
swing loads at various radii.
(4) A wheel mounted crane (wagon crane) consists of a rotating
superstructure with powerplant, operating
machinery and boom, mounted on a base or platform equipped with axles
and rubber-tired wheels for travel. The base is usually propelled by the
engine in the superstructure, but it may be equipped with a separate
engine controlled from the superstructure. Its function is to hoist and
swing loads at various radii.
(5) An accessory is a secondary part or assembly of parts which
contributes to the overall function and usefulness of a machine.
(6) Appointed means assigned specific responsibilities by the
employer or the employer's representative.
(7) ANSI means the American National Standards Institute.
(8) An angle indicator (boom) is an accessory which measures the
angle of the boom to the horizontal.
(9) The axis of rotation is the vertical axis around which the crane
(10) Axle means the shaft or spindle with which or about which a
wheel rotates. On truck- and wheel-mounted cranes it refers to an
automotive type of axle assembly including housings, gearing,
differential, bearings, and mounting appurtenances.
(11) Axle (bogie) means two or more automotive-type axles mounted in
tandem in a frame so as to divide the load between the axles and permit
vertical oscillation of the wheels.
(12) The base (mounting) is the traveling base or carrier on which
the rotating superstructure is mounted such as a car, truck, crawlers,
or wheel platform.
(13) The boom (crane) is a member hinged to the front of the
rotating superstructure with the outer end supported by ropes leading to
a gantry or A-frame and used for supporting the hoisting tackle.
(14) The boom angle is the angle between the longitudinal centerline
of the boom and the horizontal. The boom longitudinal centerline is a
straight line between the boom foot pin (heel pin) centerline and boom
point sheave pin centerline.
(15) The boom hoist is a hoist drum and rope reeving system used to
raise and lower the boom. The rope system may be all live reeving or a
combination of live reeving and pendants.
(16) The boom stop is a device used to limit the angle of the boom
at the highest position.
(17) A brake is a device used for retarding or stopping motion by
friction or power means.
(18) A cab is a housing which covers the rotating superstructure
machinery and/or operator's station. On truck-crane trucks a separate
cab covers the driver's station.
(19) The clutch is a friction, electromagnetic, hydraulic,
pneumatic, or positive mechanical device for engagement or disengagement
(20) The counterweight is a weight used to supplement the weight of
the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads.
(21) Designated means selected or assigned by the employer or the
employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
(22) The drum is the cylindrical members around which ropes are
wound for raising and lowering the load or boom.
(23) Dynamic (loading) means loads introduced into the machine or
its components by forces in motion.
(24) The gantry (A-frame) is a structural frame, extending above the
superstructure, to which the boom support ropes are reeved.
(25) A jib is an extension attached to the boom point to provide
added boom length for lifting specified loads. The jib may be in line
with the boom or offset to various angles.
(26) Load (working) means the external load, in pounds, applied to
the crane, including the weight of load-attaching equipment such as load
blocks, shackles, and slings.
(27) Load block (upper) means the assembly of hook or shackle,
swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended from the boom point.
(28) Load block (lower) means the assembly of hook or shackle,
swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting ropes.
(29) A load hoist is a hoist drum and rope reeving system used for
hoisting and lowering loads.
(30) Load ratings are crane ratings in pounds established by the
manufacturer in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
(31) Outriggers are extendable or fixed metal arms, attached to the
mounting base, which rest on supports at the outer ends.
(32) Rail clamp means a tong-like metal device, mounted on a
locomotive crane car, which can be connected to the track.
(33) Reeving means a rope system in which the rope travels around
drums and sheaves.
(34) Rope refers to a wire rope unless otherwise specified.
(35) Side loading means a load applied at an angle to the vertical
plane of the boom.
(36) A standby crane is a crane which is not in regular service but
which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
(37) A standing (guy) rope is a supporting rope which maintains a
constant distance between the points of attachment to the two components
connected by the rope.
(38) Structural competence means the ability of the machine and its
components to withstand the stresses imposed by applied loads.
(39) Superstructure means the rotating upper frame structure of the
machine and the operating machinery mounted thereon.
(40) Swing means the rotation of the superstructure for movement of
loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of rotation.
(41) Swing mechanism means the machinery involved in providing
rotation of the superstructure.
(42) Tackle is an assembly of ropes and sheaves arranged for
hoisting and pulling.
(43) Transit means the moving or transporting of a crane from one
jobsite to another.
(44) Travel means the function of the machine moving from one
location to another, on a jobsite.
(45) The travel mechanism is the machinery involved in providing
(46) Wheelbase means the distance between centers of front and rear
axles. For a multiple axle assembly the axle center for wheelbase
measurement is taken as the midpoint of the assembly.
(47) The whipline (auxiliary hoist) is a separate hoist rope system
of lighter load capacity and higher speed than provided by the main
(48) A winch head is a power driven spool for handling of loads by
means of friction between fiber or wire rope and spool.
(b) General requirements--(1) Application. This section applies to
crawler cranes, locomotive cranes, wheel mounted cranes of both truck
and self-propelled wheel type, and any variations thereof which retain
the same fundamental characteristics. This section includes only cranes
of the above types, which are basically powered by internal combustion
engines or electric motors and which utilize drums and ropes. Cranes
designed for railway and automobile wreck clearances are excepted. The
requirements of this section are applicable only to machines when used
as lifting cranes.
(2) New and existing equipment. All new crawler, locomotive, and
truck cranes constructed and utilized on or after August 31, 1971, shall
meet the design specifications of the American National Standard Safety
Code for Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes, ANSI B30.5-1968, which
is incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6. Crawler,
locomotive, and truck cranes constructed prior to August 31, 1971,
should be modified to conform to those design specifications by February
15, 1972, unless it can be shown that the crane cannot feasibly or
economically be altered and that the crane substantially complies with
the requirements of this section.
(3) Designated personnel. Only designated personnel shall be
permitted to operate a crane covered by this section.
(c) Load ratings--(1) Load ratings--where stability governs lifting
performance. (i) The margin of stability for determination of load
ratings, with booms of stipulated lengths at stipulated working radii
for the various types of crane mountings, is established by taking a
percentage of the loads which will produce a condition of tipping or
balance with the boom in the least stable direction, relative to the
mounting. The load ratings shall not exceed the following percentages
for cranes, with the indicated types of mounting under conditions
in paragraphs (c)(1) (ii) and (iii) of this section.
Type of crane mounting (percent
Locomotive, without outriggers:
Booms 60 feet or less..................................... \1\ 85
Booms over 60 feet........................................ \1\ 85
Locomotive, using outriggers fully extended................. 80
Crawler, without outriggers................................. 75
Crawler, using outriggers fully extended.................... 85
Truck and wheel mounted without outriggers or using 85
outriggers fully extended..................................
\1\ Unless this results in less than 30,000 pound-feet net stabilizing
moment about the rail, which shall be minimum with such booms.
(ii) The following stipulations shall govern the application of the
values in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section for locomotive cranes:
(a) Tipping with or without the use of outriggers occurs when half
of the wheels farthest from the load leave the rail.
(b) The crane shall be standing on track which is level within 1
(c) Radius of the load is the horizontal distance from a projection
of the axis of rotation to the rail support surface, before loading, to
the center of vertical hoist line or tackle with load applied.
(d) Tipping loads from which ratings are determined shall be applied
under static conditions only, i.e., without dynamic effect of hoisting,
lowering, or swinging.
(e) The weight of all auxiliary handling devices such as hoist
blocks, hooks, and slings shall be considered a part of the load rating.
(iii) Stipulations governing the application of the values in
paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section for crawler, truck, and wheel-
mounted cranes shall be in accordance with Crane Load-Stability Test
Code, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J765, which is incorporated
by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6.
(iv) The effectiveness of these preceding stability factors will be
influenced by such additional factors as freely suspended loads, track,
wind, or ground conditions, condition and inflation of rubber tires,
boom lengths, proper operating speeds for existing conditions, and, in
general, careful and competent operation. All of these shall be taken
into account by the user.
(2) Load rating chart. A substantial and durable rating chart with
clearly legible letters and figures shall be provided with each crane
and securely fixed to the crane cab in a location easily visible to the
operator while seated at his control station.
(d) Inspection classification--(1) Initial inspection. Prior to
initial use all new and altered cranes shall be inspected to insure
compliance with provisions of this section.
(2) Regular inspection. Inspection procedure for cranes in regular
service is divided into two general classifications based upon the
intervals at which inspection should be performed. The intervals in turn
are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the crane
and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction.
The two general classifications are herein designated as ``frequent''
and ``periodic'', with respective intervals between inspections as
(i) Frequent inspection: Daily to monthly intervals.
(ii) Periodic inspection: 1- to 12-month intervals, or as
specifically recommended by the manufacturer.
(3) Frequent inspection. Items such as the following shall be
inspected for defects at intervals as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of
this section or as specifically indicated including observation during
operation for any defects which might appear between regular
inspections. Any deficiencies such as listed shall be carefully examined
and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
(i) All control mechanisms for maladjustment interfering with proper
(ii) All control mechanisms for excessive wear of components and
contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter.
(iii) All safety devices for malfunction.
(iv) Deterioration or leakage in air or hydraulic systems: Daily.
(v) Crane hooks with deformations or cracks. For hooks with cracks
or having more than 15 percent in excess of normal throat opening or
more than 10 deg.
twist from the plane of the unbent hook.
(vi) Rope reeving for noncompliance with manufacturer's
(vii) Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive
deterioration, dirt, and moisture accumulation.
(4) Periodic inspection. Complete inspections of the crane shall be
performed at intervals as generally defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of
this section depending upon its activity, severity of service, and
environment, or as specifically indicated below. These inspections shall
include the requirements of paragraph (d)(3) of this section and in
addition, items such as the following. Any deficiencies such as listed
shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they
constitute a safety hazard:
(i) Deformed, cracked, or corroded members in the crane structure
(ii) Loose bolts or rivets.
(iii) Cracked or worn sheaves and drums.
(iv) Worn, cracked, or distorted parts such as pins, bearings,
shafts, gears, rollers and locking devices.
(v) Excessive wear on brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls,
(vi) Load, boom angle, and other indicators over their full range,
for any significant inaccuracies.
(vii) Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other power plants for improper
performance or noncompliance with safety requirements.
(viii) Excessive wear of chain-drive sprockets and excessive chain
(ix) Travel steering, braking, and locking devices, for malfunction.
(x) Excessively worn or damaged tires.
(5) Cranes not in regular use. (i) A crane which has been idle for a
period of one month or more, but less than 6 months, shall be given an
inspection conforming with requirements of paragraph (d)(3) of this
section and paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section before placing in
(ii) A crane which has been idle for a period of six months shall be
given a complete inspection conforming with requirements of paragraphs
(d) (3) and (4) of this section and paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section
before placing in service.
(iii) Standby cranes shall be inspected at least semiannually in
accordance with requirements of paragraph (d)(3) of this section and
paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section. Such cranes which are exposed to
adverse environment should be inspected more frequently.
(6) Inspection records. Certification records which include the date
of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection
and the serial number, or other identifier, of the crane which was
inspected shall be made monthly on critical items in use such as brakes,
crane hooks, and ropes. This certification record shall be kept readily
(e) Testing--(1) Operational tests. (i) In addition to prototype
tests and quality-control measures, each new production crane shall be
tested by the manufacturer to the extent necessary to insure compliance
with the operational requirements of this paragraph including functions
such as the following:
(a) Load hoisting and lowering mechanisms.
(b) Boom hoisting and lower mechanisms.
(c) Swinging mechanism.
(d) Travel mechanism.
(e) Safety devices.
(ii) Where the complete production crane is not supplied by one
manufacturer such tests shall be conducted at final assembly.
(iii) Certified production-crane test results shall be made
(2) Rated load test. (i) Written reports shall be available showing
test procedures and confirming the adequacy of repairs or alterations.
(ii) Test loads shall not exceed 110 percent of the rated load at
any selected working radius.
(iii) Where rerating is necessary:
(a) Crawler, truck, and wheel-mounted cranes shall be tested in
accordance with SAE Recommended Practice, Crane Load Stability Test Code
J765 (April 1961).
(b) Locomotive cranes shall be tested in accordance with paragraph
(c)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section.
(c) Rerating test report shall be readily available.
(iv) No cranes shall be rerated in excess of the original load
ratings unless such rating changes are approved by the crane
manufacturer or final assembler.
(f) Maintenance procedure--General. After adjustments and repairs
have been made the crane shall not be operated until all guards have
been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated, and maintenance equipment
(g) Rope inspection--(1) Running ropes. A thorough inspection of all
ropes in use shall be made at least once a month and a certification
record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the
person who performed the inspection and an identifier for the ropes
shall be prepared and kept on file where readily available. All
inspections shall be performed by an appointed or authorized person. Any
deterioration, resulting in appreciable loss of original strength shall
be carefully observed and detemination made as to whether further use of
the rope would constitute a safety hazard. Some of the conditions that
could result in an appreciable loss of strength are the following:
(i) Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter due to loss of
core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires.
(ii) A number of broken outside wires and the degree of distribution
of concentration of such broken wires.
(iii) Worn outside wires.
(iv) Corroded or broken wires at end connections.
(v) Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or improperly applied end
(vi) Severe kinking, crushing, cutting, or unstranding.
(2) Other ropes. (i) Heavy wear and/or broken wires may occur in
sections in contact with equalizer sheaves or other sheaves where rope
travel is limited, or with saddles. Particular care shall be taken to
inspect ropes at these locations.
(ii) All rope which has been idle for a period of a month or more
due to shutdown or storage of a crane on which it is installed shall be
given a thorough inspection before it is used. This inspection shall be
for all types of deterioration and shall be performed by an appointed or
authorized person whose approval shall be required for further use of
the rope. A certification record which includes the date of inspection,
the signature of the person who performed the inspection, and an
identifier for the rope which was inspected shall be prepared and kept
(iii) Particular care shall be taken in the inspection of
(h) Handling the load--(1) Size of load. (i) No crane shall be
loaded beyond the rated load, except for test purposes as provided in
paragraph (e) of this section.
(ii) When loads which are limited by structural competence rather
than by stability are to be handled, it shall be ascertained that the
weight of the load has been determined within plus or minus 10 percent
before it is lifted.
(2) Attaching the load. (i) The hoist rope shall not be wrapped
around the load.
(ii) The load shall be attached to the hook by means of slings or
other approved devices.
(3) Moving the load. (i) The employer shall assure that:
(a) The crane is level and where necessary blocked properly.
(b) The load is well secured and properly balanced in the sling or
lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches.
(ii) Before starting to hoist, the following conditions shall be
(a) Hoist rope shall not be kinked.
(b) Multiple part lines shall not be twisted around each other.
(c) The hook shall be brought over the load in such a manner as to
(iii) During hoisting care shall be taken that:
(a) There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving
(b) The load does not contact any obstructions.
(iv) Side loading of booms shall be limited to freely suspended
loads. Cranes shall not be used for dragging loads sideways.
(v) No hoisting, lowering, swinging, or traveling shall be done
while anyone is on the load or hook.
(vi) The operator should avoid carrying loads over people.
(vii) On truck-mounted cranes, no loads shall be lifted over the
front area except as approved by the crane manufacturer.
(viii) The operator shall test the brakes each time a load
approaching the rated load is handled by raising it a few inches and
applying the brakes.
(ix) Outriggers shall be used when the load to be handled at that
particular radius exceeds the rated load without outriggers as given by
the manufacturer for that crane. Where floats are used they shall be
securely attached to the outriggers. Wood blocks used to support
(a) Be strong enough to prevent crushing.
(b) Be free from defects.
(c) Be of sufficient width and length to prevent shifting or
toppling under load.
(x) Neither the load nor the boom shall be lowered below the point
where less than two full wraps of rope remain on their respective drums.
(xi) Before lifting loads with locomotive cranes without using
outriggers, means shall be applied to prevent the load from being
carried by the truck springs.
(xii) When two or more cranes are used to lift one load, one
designated person shall be responsible for the operation. He shall be
required to analyze the operation and instruct all personnel involved in
the proper positioning, rigging of the load, and the movements to be
(xiii) In transit the following additional precautions shall be
(a) The boom shall be carried in line with the direction of motion.
(b) The superstructure shall be secured against rotation, except
when negotiating turns when there is an operator in the cab or the boom
is supported on a dolly.
(c) The empty hook shall be lashed or otherwise restrained so that
it cannot swing freely.
(xiv) Before traveling a crane with load, a designated person shall
be responsible for determining and controlling safety. Decisions such as
position of load, boom location, ground support, travel route, and speed
of movement shall be in accord with his determinations.
(xv) A crane with or without load shall not be traveled with the
boom so high that it may bounce back over the cab.
(xvi) When rotating the crane, sudden starts and stops shall be
avoided. Rotational speed shall be such that the load does not swing out
beyond the radii at which it can be controlled. A tag or restraint line
shall be used when rotation of the load is hazardous.
(xvii) When a crane is to be operated at a fixed radius, the boom-
hoist pawl or other positive locking device shall be engaged.
(xviii) Ropes shall not be handled on a winch head without the
knowledge of the operator.
(xix) While a winch head is being used, the operator shall be within
convenient reach of the power unit control lever.
(4) Holding the load. (i) The operator shall not be permitted to
leave his position at the controls while the load is suspended.
(ii) No person should be permitted to stand or pass under a load on
(iii) If the load must remain suspended for any considerable length
of time, the operator shall hold the drum from rotating in the lowering
direction by activating the positive controllable means of the
(i) Other requirements--(1) Rail clamps. Rail clamps shall not be
used as a means of restraining tipping of a locomotive crane.
(2) Ballast or counterweight. Cranes shall not be operated without
the full amount of any ballast or counterweight in place as specified by
the maker, but truck cranes that have dropped the ballast or
counterweight may be operated temporarily with special care and only for
light loads without full ballast or counterweight in place. The ballast
or counterweight in place specified by the manufacturer shall not be
(3) Cabs. (i) Necessary clothing and personal belongings shall be
stored in such a manner as to not interfere with access or operation.
(ii) Tools, oil cans, waste, extra fuses, and other necessary
articles shall be stored in the tool box, and shall not be
permitted to lie loose in or about the cab.
(4) Refueling. (i) Refueling with small portable containers shall be
done with an approved safety type can equipped with an automatic closing
cap and flame arrester. Refer to Sec. 1910.155(c)(3) for definition of
(ii) Machines shall not be refueled with the engine running.
(5) Fire extinguishers. (i) A carbon dioxide, dry chemical, or
equivalent fire extinguisher shall be kept in the cab or vicinity of the
(ii) Operating and maintenance personnel shall be made familiar with
the use and care of the fire extinguishers provided.
(6) Swinging locomotive cranes. A locomotive crane shall not be
swung into a position where railway cars on an adjacent track might
strike it, until it has been ascertained that cars are not being moved
on the adjacent track and proper flag protection has been established.
(j) Operations near overhead lines. For operations near overhead
electric lines, see Sec. 1910.333(c)(3).
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 49 FR 5323, Feb. 10, 1984; 51
FR 34561, Sept. 29, 1986; 53 FR 12122, Apr. 12, 1988; 55 FR 32015, Aug
6, 1990; 61 FR 9239, Mar. 7, 1996]