[Title 46 CFR ]
[Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) - October 1, 2002 Edition]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]



[[Page i]]

          

          46
          Parts 156 to 165
          Revised as of October 1, 2001

          Shipping





          Containing a codification of documents 
          of general applicability and future effect

          As of October 1, 2001

          With Ancillaries

          Published by
          Office of the Federal Register
          National Archives and Records
          Administration

          A Special Edition of the Federal Register



[[Page ii]]

                                      




                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                            WASHINGTON : 2001



 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
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[[Page iii]]




                            Table of Contents



                                                                    Page
  Explanation.................................................       v

  Title 46:
          Chapter I--Coast Guard, Department of 
          Transportation--Continued:                                 3
  Finding Aids:
      Material Approved for Incorporation by Reference........     377
      Table of CFR Titles and Chapters........................     387
      Alphabetical List of Agencies Appearing in the CFR......     405
      List of CFR Sections Affected...........................     415



[[Page iv]]


      


                     ----------------------------

                     Cite this Code:  CFR
                     To cite the regulations in 
                       this volume use title, 
                       part and section number. 
                       Thus,  46 CFR 159.001-1 
                       refers to title 46, part 
                       159, section 001-1.

                     ----------------------------

[[Page v]]



                               EXPLANATION

    The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and 
permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive 
departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Code is divided 
into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to Federal 
regulation. Each title is divided into chapters which usually bear the 
name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into 
parts covering specific regulatory areas.
    Each volume of the Code is revised at least once each calendar year 
and issued on a quarterly basis approximately as follows:

Title 1 through Title 16.................................as of January 1
Title 17 through Title 27..................................as of April 1
Title 28 through Title 41...................................as of July 1
Title 42 through Title 50................................as of October 1

    The appropriate revision date is printed on the cover of each 
volume.

LEGAL STATUS

    The contents of the Federal Register are required to be judicially 
noticed (44 U.S.C. 1507). The Code of Federal Regulations is prima facie 
evidence of the text of the original documents (44 U.S.C. 1510).

HOW TO USE THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

    The Code of Federal Regulations is kept up to date by the individual 
issues of the Federal Register. These two publications must be used 
together to determine the latest version of any given rule.
    To determine whether a Code volume has been amended since its 
revision date (in this case, October 1, 2001), consult the ``List of CFR 
Sections Affected (LSA),'' which is issued monthly, and the ``Cumulative 
List of Parts Affected,'' which appears in the Reader Aids section of 
the daily Federal Register. These two lists will identify the Federal 
Register page number of the latest amendment of any given rule.

EFFECTIVE AND EXPIRATION DATES

    Each volume of the Code contains amendments published in the Federal 
Register since the last revision of that volume of the Code. Source 
citations for the regulations are referred to by volume number and page 
number of the Federal Register and date of publication. Publication 
dates and effective dates are usually not the same and care must be 
exercised by the user in determining the actual effective date. In 
instances where the effective date is beyond the cut-off date for the 
Code a note has been inserted to reflect the future effective date. In 
those instances where a regulation published in the Federal Register 
states a date certain for expiration, an appropriate note will be 
inserted following the text.

OMB CONTROL NUMBERS

    The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-511) requires 
Federal agencies to display an OMB control number with their information 
collection request.

[[Page vi]]

Many agencies have begun publishing numerous OMB control numbers as 
amendments to existing regulations in the CFR. These OMB numbers are 
placed as close as possible to the applicable recordkeeping or reporting 
requirements.

OBSOLETE PROVISIONS

    Provisions that become obsolete before the revision date stated on 
the cover of each volume are not carried. Code users may find the text 
of provisions in effect on a given date in the past by using the 
appropriate numerical list of sections affected. For the period before 
January 1, 1986, consult either the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1949-
1963, 1964-1972, or 1973-1985, published in seven separate volumes. For 
the period beginning January 1, 1986, a ``List of CFR Sections 
Affected'' is published at the end of each CFR volume.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

    What is incorporation by reference? Incorporation by reference was 
established by statute and allows Federal agencies to meet the 
requirement to publish regulations in the Federal Register by referring 
to materials already published elsewhere. For an incorporation to be 
valid, the Director of the Federal Register must approve it. The legal 
effect of incorporation by reference is that the material is treated as 
if it were published in full in the Federal Register (5 U.S.C. 552(a)). 
This material, like any other properly issued regulation, has the force 
of law.
    What is a proper incorporation by reference? The Director of the 
Federal Register will approve an incorporation by reference only when 
the requirements of 1 CFR part 51 are met. Some of the elements on which 
approval is based are:
    (a) The incorporation will substantially reduce the volume of 
material published in the Federal Register.
    (b) The matter incorporated is in fact available to the extent 
necessary to afford fairness and uniformity in the administrative 
process.
    (c) The incorporating document is drafted and submitted for 
publication in accordance with 1 CFR part 51.
    Properly approved incorporations by reference in this volume are 
listed in the Finding Aids at the end of this volume.
    What if the material incorporated by reference cannot be found? If 
you have any problem locating or obtaining a copy of material listed in 
the Finding Aids of this volume as an approved incorporation by 
reference, please contact the agency that issued the regulation 
containing that incorporation. If, after contacting the agency, you find 
the material is not available, please notify the Director of the Federal 
Register, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC 
20408, or call (202) 523-4534.

CFR INDEXES AND TABULAR GUIDES

    A subject index to the Code of Federal Regulations is contained in a 
separate volume, revised annually as of January 1, entitled CFR Index 
and Finding Aids. This volume contains the Parallel Table of Statutory 
Authorities and Agency Rules (Table I). A list of CFR titles, chapters, 
and parts and an alphabetical list of agencies publishing in the CFR are 
also included in this volume.
    An index to the text of ``Title 3--The President'' is carried within 
that volume.
    The Federal Register Index is issued monthly in cumulative form. 
This index is based on a consolidation of the ``Contents'' entries in 
the daily Federal Register.
    A List of CFR Sections Affected (LSA) is published monthly, keyed to 
the revision dates of the 50 CFR titles.

[[Page vii]]


REPUBLICATION OF MATERIAL

    There are no restrictions on the republication of material appearing 
in the Code of Federal Regulations.

INQUIRIES

    For a legal interpretation or explanation of any regulation in this 
volume, contact the issuing agency. The issuing agency's name appears at 
the top of odd-numbered pages.
    For inquiries concerning CFR reference assistance, call 202-523-5227 
or write to the Director, Office of the Federal Register, National 
Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408 or e-mail 
info@fedreg.nara.gov.

SALES

    The Government Printing Office (GPO) processes all sales and 
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Customer Service call 202-512-1803.

ELECTRONIC SERVICES

    The full text of the Code of Federal Regulations, The United States 
Government Manual, the Federal Register, Public Laws, Public Papers, 
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents and the Privacy Act 
Compilation are available in electronic format at www.access.gpo.gov/
nara (``GPO Access''). For more information, contact Electronic 
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Phone 202-512-1530, or 888-293-6498 (toll-free). E-mail, 
gpoaccess@gpo.gov.
    The Office of the Federal Register also offers a free service on the 
National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) World Wide Web 
site for public law numbers, Federal Register finding aids, and related 
information. Connect to NARA's web site at www.nara.gov/fedreg. The NARA 
site also contains links to GPO Access.

                              Raymond A. Mosley,
                                    Director,
                          Office of the Federal Register.

October 1, 2001.



[[Page ix]]



                               THIS TITLE

    Title 46--Shipping is composed of nine volumes. The parts in these 
volumes are arranged in the following order: Parts 1-40, 41-69, 70-89, 
90-139, 140-155, 156-165, 166-199, 200-499 and 500 to End. The first 
seven volumes containing parts 1-199 comprise chapter I--Coast Guard, 
DOT. The eighth volume, containing parts 200 to 499, includes chapter 
II--Maritime Administration, DOT and chapter III--Coast Guard (Great 
Lakes Pilotage), DOT. The ninth volume, containing part 500 to End, 
includes chapter IV--Federal Maritime Commission. The contents of these 
volumes represent all current regulations codified under this title of 
the CFR as of October 1, 2001.

    Subject indexes appear for subchapter A-I, I-A, J, K, L, and Q-W 
following the subchapters.

[[Page x]]





[[Page 1]]



                           TITLE 46--SHIPPING




                  (This book contains parts 156 to 165)

  --------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Part

chapter i--Coast Guard, Department of Transportation--
  Continued:................................................         159

[[Page 3]]



     Chapter I--Coast Guard, Department of Transportation--Continued




  --------------------------------------------------------------------

               SUBCHAPTER P--MANNING OF VESSELS [RESERVED]
SUBCHAPTER Q--EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND 
                                APPROVAL
Part                                                                Page
159             Approval of equipment and materials.........           5
160             Lifesaving equipment........................          14
161             Electrical equipment........................         270
162             Engineering equipment.......................         284
163             Construction................................         319
164             Materials...................................         330
165             [Reserved]
                Index.......................................         367

[[Page 5]]





              SUBCHAPTER P--MANNING OF VESSELS  [RESERVED]


SUBCHAPTER Q--EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND 
                                APPROVAL


PART 159--APPROVAL OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS--Table of Contents




                        Subpart 159.001--General

Sec.
159.001-1  Purpose.
159.001-2  Right of appeal.
159.001-3  Definitions.
159.001-4  Incorporation by reference.
159.001-5  Correspondence and applications.
159.001-7  Substituted procedures.
159.001-9  OMB Control Numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork 
          Reduction Act.

                  Subpart 159.005--Approval Procedures

159.005-1  Purpose.
159.005-3  Application for preapproval review.
159.005-5  Preapproval review: Contents of application.
159.005-7  Preapproval review: Coast Guard action.
159.005-9  Approval inspections and tests.
159.005-11  Approval inspection or test report: Contents.
159.005-12  Plans.
159.005-13  Equipment or material: Approval.
159.005-15  Approval of equipment or material: Suspensions, withdrawals, 
          and terminations.

 Subpart 159.007--Production Inspection and Tests of Approved Equipment 
                              and Materials

159.007-1  Purpose.
159.007-3  Production inspections and tests: Independent laboratory's 
          procedures.
159.007-5  Production inspections and tests: Application for acceptance.
159.007-7  Application for acceptance for production inspections and 
          tests: Coast Guard action.
159.007-9  Production inspections and tests.
159.007-11  Production inspections and tests: Yearly report.
159.007-13  Production inspections and tests: Records.

 Subpart 159.010--Independent Laboratory: Acceptance, Recognition, and 
                               Termination

159.010-1  Purpose.
159.010-3  Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance.
159.010-5  Independent laboratory: Application for acceptance.
159.010-7  Recognized independent laboratory: Memorandum of 
          Understanding.
159.010-11  Changes in the laboratory's qualifications.
159.010-15  Contracting inspections and tests or transferals to another 
          laboratory or person.
159.010-17  Termination of acceptance or recognition of an independent 
          laboratory.
159.010-19  Termination of acceptance or recognition: Procedure.

    Authority: 46 U.S.C. 3306, 3703; 49 CFR 1.45, 1.46; Section 159.001-
9 also issued under the authority of 44 U.S.C. 3507.

    Source: 44 FR 73043, Dec. 17, 1979, unless otherwise noted.



                        Subpart 159.001--General



Sec. 159.001-1  Purpose.

    (a) This part contains the procedures for the approval of equipment 
and materials when that equipment or material is inspected or tested by 
an independent laboratory or by the manufacturer of the equipment or 
material.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 159.001-2  Right of appeal.

    Any person directly affected by a decision or action taken under 
this subchapter, by or on behalf of the Coast Guard, may appeal to the 
Chief, Marine Safety and Environmental Protection (Commandant (G-M)) as 
provided in Sec. 1.03-15 of this chapter.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13927, Mar. 28, 1996, as amended by CGD 96-041, 61 FR 
50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 159.001-3  Definitions.

    As used in this part:
    Classification society means an organization involved in the 
inspection of ships and ship equipment, and which, as determined by the 
Commandant, meets the standards in IMO Resolution A.739(18).
    Independent laboratory means an organization which meets the 
standards for acceptance in Sec. 159.010-3 of this part, and which is 
accepted by the Coast

[[Page 6]]

Guard for performing certain tests and inspections. In addition to 
commercial testing laboratories, the Commandant may also accept 
classification societies and agencies of governments that are involved 
in the inspection and testing of marine safety equipment that meet the 
requirements of Sec. 159.010-3.
    Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is an agreement between the Coast 
Guard and a laboratory that specifies the approval functions a 
recognized independent laboratory performs for the Coast Guard and the 
recognized independent laboratory's working arrangements with the Coast 
Guard.
    Recognized independent laboratory means an independent laboratory 
which meets the standards of Sec. 159.010-3, and is accepted by the 
Coast Guard to perform certain equipment approval functions on behalf of 
the Coast Guard, as described in a Memorandum of Understanding signed by 
the laboratory and the Coast Guard in accordance with Sec. 159.010-7(b).

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13927, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 159.001-4  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Certain materials is incorporated by reference into this part 
with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 
552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that 
specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the Coast Guard must publish 
notice of change in the Federal Register; and the material must be 
available to the public. All approved material is available for 
inspection at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol 
Street NW, suite 700, Washington, DC, and at the U.S. Coast Guard, 
Lifesaving and Fire Safety Standards Division (G-MSE-4), 2100 Second 
Street SW, Washington, DC 20593-0001, and is available from the sources 
indicated in paragraph (b) of this section.
    (b) The material approved for incorporation by reference in this 
part (subchapter) and the sections affected are as follows:

International Maritime Organization (IMO)
Publications Section, 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, United 
Kingdom
Resolution A.739(18), Guidelines for the Authorization of Organizations 
Acting on Behalf of the Administration, November 22, 1993: 159.001-3

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13928, Mar. 28, 1996, as amended by CGD 96-041, 61 FR 
50733, Sept. 27, 1996; CGD 97-057, 62 FR 51048, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 159.001-5  Correspondence and applications.

    Unless otherwise specified, all correspondence and applications in 
connection with approval and testing of equipment and materials must be 
addressed to: Commandant (G-MSE-4), U.S. Coast Guard, 2100 Second Street 
SW, Washington, DC 20593-0001, Telephone: (202) 267-1444, Facsimile: 
(202) 267-1069, Electronic mail: MVI-3/G-M@cgsmtp.uscg.mil.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13928, Mar. 28, 1996, as amended by CGD 96-041, 61 FR 
50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 159.001-7  Substituted procedures.

    (a) The Commandant may substitute the procedures in this part for 
the procedures in any other part of this subchapter. Each person known 
to be affected by the substitution shall be informed that the procedures 
in this part apply.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 159.001-9  OMB Control Numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    (a) Purpose. This section collects and displays the control numbers 
assigned to information collection and recordkeeping requirements in 
this subchapter by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) pursuant to 
the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). The Coast 
Guard intends that this section comply with the requirements of 44 
U.S.C. 3507(f) which requires that agencies display a current control 
number assigned by the Director of the OMB for each approved agency 
information collection requirement.
    (b) Display.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Current
                                                                  OMB
    46 CFR part or section where identified or described        control
                                                                  No.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sec.  159.007-11.13.........................................   2115-0090
Sec.  160.002-5.............................................   2115-0090
Sec.  160.047-5.............................................   2115-0090
Sec. 160.048-5..............................................   2115-0090
Sec.  160.050-5.............................................   2115-0090
Sec.  160.052-7.............................................   2115-0090

[[Page 7]]

 
Sec.  160.053-4.............................................   2115-0090
Sec.  160.055-4.............................................   2115-0090
Sec.  160.064-6.............................................   2115-0090
Secs.  161.001 through 161.010..............................   2115-0121
Sec.  161.171-15............................................   2115-0141
Sec.  161.171-23............................................   2115-0141
Secs.  162.001 through 161.018..............................   2115-0525
Sec.  162.041...............................................   2115-0525
Sec.  162.043...............................................   2115-0525
Sec.  164.012-13............................................   2115-0121
Sec.  164.019-5.............................................   2115-0141
Sec.  164.019-7.............................................   2115-0141
Sec.  164.019-9.............................................   2115-0141
Sec.  164.019-13............................................   2115-0141
Sec.  164.019-15............................................   2115-0141
Sec.  164.023-15............................................   2115-0141
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[49 FR 38121, Sept. 27, 1984, as amended by CGD 86-057, 51 FR 35220, 
Oct. 2, 1986; CGD 84-068, 58 FR 29492, May 20, 1993]



                  Subpart 159.005--Approval Procedures



Sec. 159.005-1  Purpose.

    (a) This subpart contains the procedures by which the Coast Guard 
approves equipment and materials under other subparts of this subchapter 
that require--
    (1) Preapproval inspections and tests by an independent laboratory;
    (2) Preapproval inspections and tests by the manufacturer; or
    (3) No preapproval inspections or tests.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 159.005-3  Application for preapproval review.

    (a) Each manufacturer of equipment or material who seeks Coast Guard 
approval under an applicable subpart must submit an application that 
meets Sec. 159.005-5 to the Commandant unless--
    (1) The subpart contains a list of independent laboratories;
    (2) The subpart does not require Coast Guard review prior to 
testing; and
    (3) The manufacturer meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this 
section.
    (b) If the applicable subpart contains a list of independent 
laboratories and does not specifically require preapproval review by the 
Coast Guard, the manufacturer may have the tests performed by a listed 
laboratory and submit the report required by Sec. 159.005-11 to the 
Commandant.



Sec. 159.005-5  Preapproval review: Contents of application.

    (a) Each application must contain the following:
    (1) The name and address of the manufacturer and the factory where 
the finished equipment or material is produced.
    (2) One or more of the following as required by the applicable 
subpart:
    (i) Two sets of general plans of the equipment or material.
    (ii) Two sets of specifications of the equipment or material.
    (iii) A sample of the equipment or material accompanied by a written 
description of its components.
    (3) A statement signed by the manufacturer or the manufacturer's 
representative, that an official representative of the Coast Guard is 
allowed access to the place of manufacture and to the place of test to 
verify the information submitted in the application or to witness tests.
    (4) If the material submitted under paragraph (a)(2) of this section 
contains confidential commercial information that could cause 
substantial competitive harm if released to the public, a statement to 
the effect that the material is considered privileged and confidential 
under exemption (b)(4) of the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), 
and that it should not be released to anyone other than the original 
submitter.
    (b) If the equipment or material is required by the subpart to be 
inspected and tested by an independent laboratory, the application must 
contain the following additional information:
    (1) The name and address of a laboratory that meets Sec. 159.010-
3(a) and that is selected by the manufacturer to perform or supervise 
the inspections and tests.
    (2) If the laboratory has not been accepted previously for 
inspecting and testing the manufacturer's equipment or material under 
the applicable subpart, the completed application under Sec. 159.010-
5(a).

[44 FR 73043, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25545, May 
9, 1997]

[[Page 8]]



Sec. 159.005-7  Preapproval review: Coast Guard action.

    (a) If approval inspections and tests are required under the 
applicable subpart, the Commandant takes the following action:
    (1) If the Commandant determines from the application that the 
equipment or material appears to meet the design requirements of an 
applicable subpart or appears to have equivalent performance 
characteristics, and that the laboratory meets Sec. 159.010-3(a), the 
Commandant informs the manufacturer that the required approval 
inspections and tests may be conducted.
    (2) If the Commandant determines from the application for approval 
that the equipment or material does not appear to meet the design 
requirements of an applicable subpart or does not appear to have 
equivalent performance characteristics, or that the laboratory does not 
meet Sec. 159.010-3(a), the Commandant informs the manufacturer of the 
reason why the equipment or material is not acceptable for approval 
inspections and tests or why the laboratory is not accepted.
    (b) If no approval inspections or tests are required under the 
applicable subpart, the Commandant--
    (1) Takes action in accordance with Sec. 159.005-13; or
    (2) Informs the manufacturer of additional information required 
before action under Sec. 159.005-13 can be taken.
    (c) An item of equipment or material that does not meet all of the 
requirements of this subchapter for design or performance may be 
approved by the Commandant if it has equivalent performance 
characteristics. The item has equivalent performance characteristics if 
the application and any approval tests prescribed by the Commandant, in 
place of or in addition to the approval tests required by this 
subchapter, demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Commandant that the 
item is at least as effective as one that meets the requirements of this 
subchapter.

[44 FR 73043, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25545, May 
9, 1997]



Sec. 159.005-9  Approval inspections and tests.

    (a) Each manufacturer of equipment or material that is required to 
be subjected to approval inspections and tests must--
    (1) If the applicable subpart requires the equipment or material to 
be inspected or tested, have the approval inspections or tests 
performed;
    (2) If the applicable subpart requires the equipment or material to 
be inspected or tested by an independent laboratory, insure that a 
laboratory accepted by the Commandant performs or supervises the 
approval inspections or tests;
    (3) Bear all costs of the approval inspections and tests;
    (4) If requested, advise the Commandant of the time, date, and place 
of each approval inspection or test, or both, before the inspection or 
test is performed; and
    (5) After completion of the approval inspections and tests, submit 
to the Commandant--
    (i) A test report that meets Sec. 159.005-11;
    (ii) At least two sets of specifications of the materisl as 
inspected or tested or at least two sets of plans of the equipment as 
inspected or tested that meet Sec. 159.005-12; and
    (iii) A description of the quality control procedures that will be 
in effect during the production of the equipment or material.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 159.005-11  Approval inspection or test report: Contents.

    (a) Each approval inspection or test report must contain the 
following:
    (1) The name of the manufacturer.
    (2) If the inspections or tests are performed or supervised by an 
independent laboratory, the name and address of the laboratory.
    (3) The trade name, product designation (such as model numbers), and 
a brief description of the equipment or material inspected or tested.
    (4) The time, date, and place of each approval inspection and test.
    (5) The name and title of each person performing, supervising, and 
witnessing the approval inspections or tests.

[[Page 9]]

    (6) The performance data for each test required in the applicable 
subpart, including a description of each failure.
    (7) A description or photographs of the procedures and apparatus 
used in the inspections or tests, or a reference to another document 
that contains an appropriate description or photographs.
    (8) At least one photograph that shows an overall view of the 
equipment or material submitted for approval and other photographs that 
show--
    (i) Design details; and
    (ii) Each occurrence of damage or deformation to the equipment or 
material that occurred during the approval tests.
    (b) Each inspection or test report must bear an attestation that the 
inspections or tests were conducted as required by the applicable 
subpart and that the report contains no known errors, omissions, or 
false statements. The attestation must be signed by:
    (1) The manufacturer or manufacturer's representative, if the 
inspection or tests are conducted by the manufacturer; or
    (2) The chief officer of the laboratory, or the chief officer's 
representative, if the inspection or tests were conducted by an 
independent laboratory.

    Note: A false representation on a report is a ground for suspension 
or withdrawal of approval of the equipment or material. A false 
representation is also punishable as a crime under 18 U.S.C. 1001.



Sec. 159.005-12  Plans.

    (a) Each set of plans under Sec. 159.005-9(a)(5)(ii) for equipment 
must include the following:
    (1) An assembly drawing or general arrangement drawing.
    (2) A description of each component of the equipment that includes 
the name, the manufacturer, and the part identification of each 
component in--
    (i) A detail drawing;
    (ii) A bill of material or parts list; or
    (iii) A specification for that component.
    (3) A list of the drawings and specifications in the set of plans, 
including each revision, and the date of that list.
    (4) If a manufacturer's instructions or manual is required in the 
applicable subpart, a copy of the instructions or manual.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 159.005-13  Equipment or material: Approval.

    (a) If from analysis of the material and data required to be 
submitted under this subpart, the Commandant determines that the 
equipment or material meets the applicable subpart or has equivalent 
performance characteristics in accordance with Sec. 159.005-7(c), the 
Commandant--
    (1) Approves the equipment or material;
    (2) Issues a certificate of approval to the manufacturer under 
Sec. 2.75-5 of this chapter;
    (3) Retains one set of approved plans and returns all others to the 
manufacturer; and
    (4) Publishes a record of the approval in ``Equipment Lists.'' The 
most recent edition of ``Equipment Lists'' U.S. Coast Guard Publication 
M16714.3 (series) is available from the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-
7954.
    (b) If from analysis of the material and data submitted the 
Commandant determines that the equipment or material does not meet the 
applicable subpart, the Commandant informs the manufacturer of the 
reason why that equipment or material does not meet the subpart.
    (c) If an independent laboratory performs the approval inspections 
or tests, the Commandant will notify the laboratory of the actions taken 
under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, unless the manufacturer 
specifically requests that the laboratory not be notified.

[44 FR 73043, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13928, Mar. 
28, 1996; CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25545, May 9, 1997]



Sec. 159.005-15  Approval of equipment or material: Suspensions, withdrawals, and terminations.

    (a) The Commandant suspends an approval issued under this subchapter 
in accordance with Sec. 2.75-40 of this chapter, withdraws an approval 
issued under this subchapter in accordance with Sec. 2.75-50(a) of this 
chapter, and

[[Page 10]]

terminates an approval issued under this subchapter in accordance with 
Sec. 2.75-50(b) of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



 Subpart 159.007--Production Inspection and Tests of Approved Equipment 
                              and Materials



Sec. 159.007-1  Purpose.

    (a) This subpart contains the procedures under which production 
inspections and tests of approved equipment or materials are to be 
performed under this subchapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 159.007-3  Production inspections and tests: Independent laboratory's procedures.

    (a) The manufacturer may follow an independent laboratory's 
procedures for production inspections and tests if those procedures--
    (1) Meet or exceed the production inspection and test requirements 
of the applicable subpart or are equivalent to those inspections and 
tests;
    (2) Include labeling or marking the equipment or material when the 
equipment or material meets the inspection and test procedures of the 
laboratory; and
    (3) Are accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.007-7(b).
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 159.007-5  Production inspections and tests: Application for acceptance.

    (a) If the applicable subpart requires production inspections and 
tests by an independent laboratory, the manufacturer must select a 
laboratory and submit an application for acceptance that meets 
Sec. 159.010-5(a) unless the laboratory--
    (1) Is listed in the subpart; or
    (2) Is accepted by the Commandant for approval inspections and tests 
of the equipment or material under Sec. 159.005-7(a)(1).
    (b) If the manufacturer wants to follow the laboratory's procedures 
for production inspections and tests instead of meeting the Coast Guard 
procedures under this subchapter, the application must contain a 
description of those procedures.



Sec. 159.007-7  Application for acceptance for production inspections and tests: Coast Guard action.

    (a) From the information submitted with the application, the 
Commandant determines whether or not the laboratory is accepted for 
production inspections and tests. The Commandant informs the 
manufacturer of the results of this determination, if the Commandant 
does not accept a laboratory, the reason for the disapproval will be 
given.
    (b) From the description of the laboratory's procedures for 
production inspections and tests, the Commandant determines whether or 
not those procedures are accepted. The Commandant informs the 
manufacturer of the results of this determination. If the Commandant 
does not accept the laboratory's procedures, the reasons why they are 
not accepted will be given.



Sec. 159.007-9  Production inspections and tests.

    (a) If the applicable subpart requires the production inspections 
and tests to be performed or supervised by an independent laboratory, 
the manufacturer shall insure that all required production inspections 
and tests are performed or supervised by an independent laboratory 
accepted by the Commandant.
    (b) If the applicable subpart does not require an independent 
laboratory to perform the production inspections and tests, the 
manufacturer shall have those inspections and tests performed.
    (c) Unless alternative procedures have been accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.007-3 each production inspection and test must 
be performed or supervised in accordance with the applicable subpart.
    (d) The manufacturer shall admit a Coast Guard inspector to any 
place where approved equipment is manufactured, for the purpose of 
verifying that the equipment is being manufactured in accordance with 
the approved plans and the requirements of this subchapter.

[44 FR 73043, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25545, May 
9, 1997]

[[Page 11]]



Sec. 159.007-11  Production inspections and tests: Yearly report.

    (a) When the manufacturer uses the production inspection and test 
procedures in an applicable subpart he must submit a yearly report. The 
report is not required when inspection and test procedures approved 
under Sec. 159.007-3 are used.
    (b) The report must include the following:
    (1) A list of all inspections and tests performed;
    (2) A summary of the results of each group of inspections or tests;
    (3) A detailed description of any test failures; and
    (4) A statement whether or not all required tests were performed.



Sec. 159.007-13  Production inspections and tests: Records.

    (a) The manufacturer must have a completed record with the following 
information for each production inspection and test:
    (1) The time, date and place of each inspection and test.
    (2) The name and title of each person performing, supervising and 
witnessing the inspections or tests.
    (3) The performance data for each test required in the applicable 
subpart, including a description of each failure.
    (4) A description or photographs of the procedures and apparatus 
used in the inspections or tests.
    (b) The manufacturer must retain each record under this section for 
at least 60 months after the month in which the inspection or test was 
conducted.
    (c) The records must be made available for examination by the 
Commandant upon request.



 Subpart 159.010--Independent Laboratory: Acceptance, Recognition, and 
                               Termination



Sec. 159.010-1  Purpose.

    This subpart contains the following:
    (a) The standards and procedures under which the Coast Guard accepts 
an independent laboratory that a manufacturer proposes to use.
    (b) The standards and procedures under which a laboratory is 
accepted as a recognized laboratory under applicable subparts.
    (c) The circumstances under which the acceptance or recognition of a 
laboratory is terminated.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13928, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 159.010-3  Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance.

    (a) To be accepted by the Coast Guard as an independent laboratory, 
a laboratory must--
    (1) Be engaged, as a regular part of its business, in performing 
inspections and tests that are the same as or similar to the inspections 
and tests required in the applicable subpart;
    (2) Have or have access to the apparatus, facilities, personnel, and 
calibrated instruments that are necessary to inspect and test the 
equipment or material under the applicable subpart;
    (3) Not be owned or controlled by--
    (i) The manufacturer of the equipment or material to be inspected or 
tested under this subchapter or any manufacturer of similar equipment or 
material;
    (ii) A vendor of the equipment or material to be inspected or tested 
under this subchapter or a vendor of similar equipment or material; or
    (iii) A supplier of materials to the manufacturer;
    (4) Not be dependent on Coast Guard acceptance under this subchapter 
to remain in business; and
    (5) Not advertise or promote the manufacturer's equipment or 
material that the laboratory inspects and tests under this subchapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 159.010-5  Independent laboratory: Application for acceptance.

    (a) Each application for acceptance of an organization as an 
independent laboratory must contain the following:
    (1) The name and address of the organization.
    (2) A list of the equipment or material that the organization would 
inspect, or test, or both, under this subchapter.
    (3) A description of the organization's experience and its 
qualifications for conducting the inspections and tests required in the 
applicable subpart.

[[Page 12]]

    (4) A description of the apparatus and facilities available to the 
organization for conducting those inspections and tests.
    (5) If instruments are used in the required tests and inspections, a 
description of the instrument calibration program applying to those 
instruments.
    (6) The position titles of personnel who are to perform, supervise, 
or witness those inspections or tests, along with the training and 
experience required for personnel in those positions.
    (7) A statement signed by the chief officer of the organization or 
the chief officer's representative, that an official representative of 
the Coast Guard is allowed access upon request to the place where tests 
and inspections take place, to verify the information submitted in the 
application, or to witness tests and inspections.
    (b) Each application for acceptance as an independent laboratory 
that is not submitted by an agency of a state or another national 
government, or by a classification society, must also contain the 
following:
    (1) The name and address of each subsidiary and division of the 
organization, or a statement that none are involved in the testing or 
manufacturing of equipment approved under this subchapter.
    (2) The name, title, address, and principal business activity of 
each of the organization's officers and directors, and the name, 
address, and principal business activity of each person, company, or 
corporation that owns at least three-percent interest in the 
organization or in a company or corporation that controls the 
organization.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13928, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 159.010-7  Recognized independent laboratory: Memorandum of Understanding.

    (a) Only laboratories that have entered into an MOU with the Coast 
Guard may perform the functions of a recognized laboratory under this 
chapter.
    (b) An independent laboratory seeking to become a recognized 
independent laboratory must submit a signed MOU to the Commandant that 
includes--
    (1) A statement of purpose;
    (2) An identification and description of the parties involved;
    (3) A description of the problem resolution and appeals processes;
    (4) A description of the process for measuring effectiveness and 
efficiency of the program under the MOU;
    (5) The effective date of the MOU and terms for its termination;
    (6) A statement to the effect that the MOU is not an exclusive 
agreement between the recognized independent laboratory and the Coast 
Guard;
    (7) An agreement to conduct comparison testing with other recognized 
laboratories as directed by the Coast Guard, no more often than twice 
each year, with the laboratory bearing the cost of sample acquisition 
and testing;
    (8) A statement as to how the costs of implementing the MOU will be 
borne; and
    (9) A description of each party's responsibilities for--
    (i) Equipment review and approval;
    (ii) Coast Guard oversight of the recognized independent 
laboratory's procedures and processes;
    (iii) Coordination between the parties;
    (iv) Developing and maintaining regulations and standards;
    (v) Handling review and approval of new and novel items not 
anticipated by existing regulations and standards;
    (vi) Testing and inspection facilities and procedures;
    (vii) Production quality control; and
    (viii) Maintenance of records.
    (c) The signature on the MOU required by paragraph (b) of this 
section must be that of the chief officer of the independent laboratory 
or the chief officer's representative. The Commandant or an authorized 
representative of the Commandant will review the MOU to ensure that it 
contains the information required by paragraph (b) of this section, and 
that the substantive provisions submitted in compliance with that 
paragraph are equivalent to those contained in other MOUs signed by the 
Commandant. If the Commandant determines that the MOU is acceptable and 
the independent laboratory is capable of carrying out the equipment 
approval functions identified in the MOU in accordance with all

[[Page 13]]

appropriate requirements, the Commandant or authorized representative 
may at his discretion sign the MOU. Where qualitative tests or 
determinations are required for approval or follow-up, provision must be 
made for conducting comparison tests with other recognized laboratories.
    (d) Copies of MOUs signed by the Commandant in accordance with this 
part and of lists of independent laboratories which have been accepted 
as recognized laboratories but which have not yet been added to the 
lists included in this subchapter may be obtained at the address listed 
in Sec. 159.001-5.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13928, Mar. 28, 1996; 61 FR 15868, Apr. 9, 1996]



Sec. 159.010-11  Changes in the laboratory's qualifications.

    (a) If any of the information submitted under Sec. 159.010-5(a) 
changes, the laboratory shall notify the Commandant in writing of each 
change within 30 days after the change has occurred.
    (b) If any change in the independent laboratory occurs which affects 
its performance under the MOU required under Sec. 159.010-7, the 
laboratory shall notify the Commandant in writing within 30 days after 
the change occurs. The Commandant may terminate the MOU, or may require 
amendments or revisions.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13929, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 159.010-15  Contracting inspections and tests or transferrals to another laboratory or person.

    (a) No independent laboratory may contract or transfer to another 
person or laboratory the performance or supervision of inspections or 
tests, or both, required under an applicable subpart for which it is 
accepted or listed unless--
    (1) A request in writing regarding the contract or transfer is 
submitted to the Commandant before the contract is executed or the 
transfer is completed; and
    (2) The Commandant notifies the laboratory in writing that the 
contract or the transfer is allowed.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 159.010-17  Termination of acceptance or recognition of an independent laboratory.

    The acceptance or recognition of a laboratory terminates if the 
laboratory--
    (a) Requests termination;
    (b) Is no longer in business;
    (c) Knowingly fails to perform or supervise an inspection or test, 
or both, as required in an applicable subpart;
    (d) Knowingly attests to the lack of errors, omissions, or false 
statement of an approval test report that contains errors omissions, or 
false statements;
    (e) Does not meet the requirements of Sec. 159.010-3(a);
    (f) Does not comply with Sec. 159.010-11;
    (g) Contracts or transfers the performance or supervision of 
required inspections or tests to another laboratory or person without 
the approval of the Commandant; or
    (h) Fails to, or in the opinion of the Commandant is unable to, 
carry out its responsibilities under an MOU required by Sec. 159.010-7.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13929, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 159.010-19  Termination of acceptance or recognition: Procedure.

    (a) If the Coast Guard receives evidence of grounds for termination 
of acceptance or recognition of an independent laboratory under 
Sec. 159.010-17, the Commandant will notify the laboratory that 
termination is under consideration. The laboratory may submit written 
comments to the Commandant within 21 days of receipt of the 
notification. The Commandant will take all timely written comments into 
account before taking final action in the matter, and in no case will 
the Commandant take final action until at least 30 days after the 
laboratory has received the notification. Any final action taken by the 
Commandant is final agency action on the matter.
    (b) If a deficiency could materially affect the validity of an 
approval issued under an applicable subpart, the Commandant may 
temporarily suspend the acceptance of the laboratory and may direct the 
holder of the certificate of approval to cease claiming that the

[[Page 14]]

items tested or inspected by the laboratory are Coast Guard approved, 
pending a final decision in the matter.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13929, Mar. 28, 1996]



PART 160--LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT--Table of Contents




                Subpart 160.001--Life Preservers, General

Sec.
160.001-1  Scope.
160.001-2  General characteristics of life preservers.
160.001-3  Procedure for approval.
160.001-5  Production oversight.

Subpart 160.002--Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), 
                             Models 3 and 5

160.002-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.002-2  Size and models.
160.002-3  Materials.
160.002-4  Construction.
160.002-5  Sampling, tests, and inspections.
160.002-6  Marking.
160.002-7  Procedure for approval.

Subpart 160.005--Life Preservers, Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child (Jacket 
                         Type), Models 52 and 56

160.005-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.005-2  Size and model.
160.005-3  Materials.
160.005-4  Construction.
160.005-5  Sampling, tests, and inspections.
160.005-6  Marking.
160.005-7  Procedure for approval.

               Subpart 160.006--Life Preservers: Repairing

160.006-2  Repairing.

         Subpart 160.010--Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels

160.010-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.010-2  Definitions.
160.010-3  Inflatable buoyant apparatus.
160.010-4  General requirements for buoyant apparatus.
160.010-5  Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.
160.010-6  Capacity of buoyant apparatus.
160.010-7  Methods of sampling, inspections and tests.
160.010-8  Nameplate and marking.
160.010-9  Procedure for approval.
160.010-10  Independent laboratory.

Subparts 160.011-160.012  [Reserved]

 Subpart 160.013--Hatchets (Lifeboat and Liferaft) for Merchant Vessels

160.013-1  Applicable specification and plan.
160.013-2  Type and size.
160.013-3  Materials, workmanship, and construction details.
160.013-5  Marking.

         Subpart 160.015--Lifeboat Winches for Merchant Vessels

160.015-1  Applicable regulations.
160.015-2  General requirements for lifeboat winches.
160.015-3  Construction of lifeboat winches.
160.015-4  Capacity of lifeboat winches.
160.015-5  Inspection and testing of lifeboat winches.
160.015-6  Procedure for approval of lifeboat winches.

       Subpart 160.016--Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels

160.016-1  Applicable specification.
160.016-2  Requirements.
160.016-4  Marking.
160.016-5  Procedure for approval.

                      Subpart 160.017--Chain Ladder

160.017-1  Scope.
160.017-7  Independent laboratory.
160.017-9  Approval procedure.
160.017-11  Materials.
160.017-13  Construction.
160.017-15  Performance.
160.017-17  Strength.
160.017-21  Approval tests.
160.017-25  Marking.
160.017-27  Production tests and examination.

            Subpart 160.021--Hand Red Flare Distress Signals

160.021-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.021-2  Type.
160.021-3  Materials, workmanship, construction and performance 
          requirements.
160.021-4  Approval and production tests.
160.021-5  Labeling and marking.
160.021-6  Container.
160.021-7  Procedure for approval.

   Subpart 160.022--Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes)

160.022-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.022-2  Type.
160.022-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance 
          requirements.
160.022-4  Approval and production tests.
160.022-5  Marking.
160.022-7  Procedure for approval.

[[Page 15]]

   Subpart 160.023--Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals

160.023-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.023-2  Type.
160.023-3  Materials, workmanship, construction and performance 
          requirements.
160.023-4  Approval and production tests.
160.023-5  Labeling and marking.
160.023-6  Container.
160.023-7  Procedure for approval.

 Subpart 160.024--Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals

160.024-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.024-2  Type.
160.024-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance 
          requirements.
160.024-4  Approval and production tests.
160.024-5  Marking.
160.024-7  Procedure for approval.

   Subpart 160.026--Water, Emergency Drinking (In Hermetically Sealed 
                    Containers), for Merchant Vessels

160.026-1  Applicable specifications and standard.
160.026-2  Type.
160.026-3  Container.
160.026-4  Water.
160.026-5  Marking.
160.026-6  Sampling, inspection, and tests of production lots.
160.026-7  Procedure for approval.

            Subpart 160.027--Life Floats for Merchant Vessels

160.027-2  Type.
160.027-3  Additional requirements for life floats.
160.027-7  Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs.

     Subpart 160.028--Signal Pistols for Red Flare Distress Signals

160.028-2  Type.
160.028-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance 
          requirements.
160.028-4  Approval and production tests.
160.028-5  Marking.
160.028-6  Container.
160.028-7  Procedure for approval.

    Subpart 160.031--Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and 
                               Equipment)

160.031-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.031-2  Type and size.
160.031-3  Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance 
          requirements.
160.031-4  Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.
160.031-5  Approval and production tests.
160.031-6  Marking.
160.031-7  Procedure for approval.

               Subpart 160.032--Davits for Merchant Vessel

160.032-1  Applicable specifications.
160.032-2  General requirements for davits.
160.032-3  Construction of davits.
160.032-4  Capacity of davits.
160.032-5  Inspection and testing of davits.
160.032-6  Procedure for approval of davits.

    Subpart 160.033--Mechanical Disengaging Apparatus, Lifeboat, for 
                            Merchant Vessels

160.033-1  Applicable specifications.
160.033-2  General requirements for mechanical disengaging apparatus.
160.033-3  Construction of mechanical disengaging apparatus.
160.033-4  Inspection and testing of mechanical disengaging apparatus.
160.033-5  Procedure for approval of mechanical disengaging apparatus.

             Subpart 160.035--Lifeboats for Merchant Vessels

160.035-1  Applicable specifications.
160.035-2  General requirements for lifeboats.
160.035-3  Construction of steel oar-propelled lifeboats.
160.035-5  Construction of steel motor-propelled lifeboats with and 
          without radio cabin.
160.035-6  Construction of aluminum oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled 
          lifeboats.
160.035-8  Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P.) 
          oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled lifeboats.
160.035-9  Cubic capacity of lifeboats.
160.035-10  Number of persons allowed in lifeboats.
160.035-11  Inspection and testing of lifeboats.
160.035-12  Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P. lifeboats.
160.035-13  Testing and inspection after approval.
160.035-14  Procedure for approval of lifeboats.

Subpart 160.036--Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress 
                                 Signals

160.036-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.036-2  Type.
160.036-3  Materials, workmanship, construction and performance 
          requirements.
160.036-4  Approval and production tests.
160.036-5  Marking.
160.036-6  Container.
160.036-7  Procedure for approval.

[[Page 16]]

           Subpart 160.037--Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals

160.037-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.037-2  Type.
160.037-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance 
          requirements.
160.037-4  Approval and production tests.
160.037-5  Labeling and marking.
160.037-6  Container.
160.037-7  Procedure for approval.

    Subpart 160.038--Magazine Chests, Portable, for Merchant Vessels

160.038-1  Applicable specifications.
160.038-2  Type.
160.038-3  Materials, workmanship, and construction.
160.038-4  Inspections and tests.
160.038-5  Marking.
160.038-6  Procedure for approval.

Subpart 160.039  [Reserved]

Subpart 160.040--Line-Throwing Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type 
                             (and Equipment)

160.040-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.040-2  Type and size.
160.040-3  Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance 
          requirements.
160.040-4  Equipment for impulse projected rocket type line-throwing 
          appliance.
160.040-5  Approval and production tests.
160.040-6  Marking and labeling.
160.040-7  Procedure for approval.

         Subpart 160.041--Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels

160.041-1  Applicable specification and publication.
160.041-2  Type and size.
160.041-3  Construction and workmanship.
160.041-4  Contents.
160.041-5  Inspections and tests.
160.041-6  Marking.

         Subpart 160.042--Skids, Liferaft, for Merchant Vessels

160.042-1  Applicable specification.
160.042-2  General requirements.
160.042-3  Construction.
160.042-4  Inspection.
160.042-5  Procedure for approval.

    Subpart 160.043--Jackknife (With Can Opener) for Merchant Vessels

160.043-1  Applicable specification and plan.
160.043-2  Type.
160.043-3  Materials.
160.043-4  Construction and workmanship.
160.043-5  Inspections and tests.
160.043-6  Marking and packing.

      Subpart 160.044--Pumps, Bilge, Lifeboat, for Merchant Vessels

160.044-1  Applicable specifications.
160.044-2  Types and sizes.
160.044-3  General requirements.
160.044-4  Inspection and tests.
160.044-5  Marking.

  Subpart 160.047--Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Kapok, or Fibrous 
                         Glass, Adult and Child

160.047-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.047-2  Model.
160.047-3  Materials.
160.047-3a  Materials--Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other 
          instruments of closure for buoyant vests.
160.047-4  Construction.
160.047-5  Inspections and tests.
160.047-6  Marking.
160.047-7  Recognized laboratory.

   Subpart 160.048--Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass

160.048-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.048-2  Types and sizes.
160.048-3  Materials.
160.048-4  Construction and workmanship.
160.048-5  Inspections and tests.
160.048-6  Marking.
160.048-7  Procedure for approval.
160.048-8  Recognized laboratory.

    Subpart 160.049--Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam

160.049-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.049-2  Types and sizes.
160.049-3  Materials.
160.049-4  Construction and workmanship.
160.049-5  Inspections and tests.
160.049-6  Marking.
160.049-7  Procedure for approval.
160.049-8  Recognized laboratory.

   Subpart 160.050--Specification for a Buoy, Life Ring, Unicellular 
                                 Plastic

160.050-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.050-2  Types and sizes.
160.050-3  Materials.
160.050-4  Construction and workmanship.
160.050-5  Sampling, tests, and inspection.
160.050-6  Marking.
160.050-7  Procedure for approval.

       Subpart 160.051--Inflatable Liferafts for Domestic Service

160.051-1  Scope.
160.051-3  Definitions.
160.051-5  Design and performance of Coastal Service inflatable 
          liferafts.

[[Page 17]]

160.051-7  Design and performance of A and B inflatable liferafts.
160.051-9  Equipment required for Coastal Service inflatable liferafts.

 Subpart 160.052--Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic 
                          Foam, Adult and Child

160.052-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.052-2  Size and model.
160.052-3  Materials--standard vests.
160.052-3a  Materials--Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other 
          instruments of closure for buoyant vests.
160.052-4  Materials--nonstandard vests.
160.052-5  Construction--standard vests.
160.052-6  Construction--nonstandard vests.
160.052-7  Inspection and tests--standard and nonstandard vests.
160.052-8  Marking.
160.052-9  Recognized laboratory.

          Subpart 160.053--Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam

160.053-1  Applicable specifications.
160.053-2  Type.
160.053-3  Materials, construction and workmanship.
160.053-4  Inspections and tests.
160.053-5  Marking.
160.053-6  Procedure for approval.

       Subpart 160.054--Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts

160.054-1  Applicable specification.
160.054-2  Type and size.
160.054-3  Construction.
160.054-4  Contents.
160.054-5  Inspections and tests.
160.054-6  Marking.
160.054-7  Procedure for approval.

 Subpart 160.055--Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam, Adult and 
                       Child, for Merchant Vessels

160.055-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.055-2  Type and model.
160.055-3  Materials--standard life preservers.
160.055-4  Materials--nonstandard life preservers.
160.055-5  Construction--standard life preservers.
160.055-6  Construction--nonstandard, life preservers.
160.055-7  Sampling, tests, and inspections.
160.055-8  Marking.
160.055-9  Procedure for approval--standard and nonstandard life 
          preservers.

                      Subpart 160.056--Rescue Boat

160.056-1  General requirements.
160.056-2  Construction.
160.056-3  Fittings and equipment.
160.056-4  Approval tests of prototype rescue boat.
160.056-6  Name plate.
160.056-7  Procedure for approval.

  Subpart 160.057--Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes)

160.057-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.057-2  Type.
160.057-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance 
          requirements.
160.057-4  Approval and production tests.
160.057-5  Marking.
160.057-7  Procedure for approval.

     Subpart 160.058--Desalter Kits, Sea Water, for Merchant Vessels

160.058-1  Applicable specification.
160.058-2  Type.
160.058-3  Materials, workmanship, construction and performance 
          requirements.
160.058-4  Inspections.
160.058-5  Labeling and marking.

     Subpart 160.060--Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular 
                   Polyethylene Foam, Adult and Child

160.060-1  Incorporation by reference.
160.060-2  Type and model.
160.060-3  Materials--standard vests.
160.060-3a  Materials--Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other 
          instruments of closure for buoyant vests.
160.060-4  Materials--nonstandard vests.
160.060-5  Construction--standard vests.
160.060-6  Construction--nonstandard vests.
160.060-7  Inspections and tests--standard and nonstandard vests.
160.060-8  Marking.
160.060-9  Recognized laboratory.

  Subpart 160.061--Fishing Tackle Kits, Emergency, for Merchant Vessels

160.061-1  Applicable specifications.
160.061-2  Requirements.
160.061-3  Design and construction.
160.061-4  Kit assembly.
160.061-5  Marking.

  Subpart 160.062--Releases, Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual

160.062-1  Applicable specifications, and referenced material.
160.062-2  Types.
160.062-3  Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance 
          requirements.
160.062-4  Inspections and tests.
160.062-5  Markings.
160.062-6  Procedure for approval.
160.062-7  Procedures for acceptance of repair facility.

[[Page 18]]

160.062-8  Procedures for acceptance of testing facility.

                 Subpart 160.064--Marine Buoyant Devices

160.064-1  Applicable specifications.
160.064-2  Types and models.
160.064-3  Requirements.
160.064-4  Marking.
160.064-6  Examinations, tests and inspections.
160.064-7  Recognized laboratory.

Subpart 160.066--Distress Signal for Boats, Red Aerial Pyrotechnic Flare

160.066-1  Type.
160.066-5  Design, construction, and manufacturing requirements.
160.066-7  Performance requirements.
160.066-9  Labeling.
160.066-10  Expiration date.
160.066-11  Approval procedures.
160.066-12  Operational tests.
160.066-13  Technical tests.
160.066-15  Production testing.

Subpart 160.071  [Reserved]

        Subpart 160.072--Distress Signals for Boats, Orange Flag

160.072-1  Applicability.
160.072-3  General performance requirements.
160.072-5  Accelerated weathering test.
160.072-7  Manufacturer certification and labeling.
160.072-09  Manufacturer notification.

  Subpart 160.073--Float-Free Link or Life Floats and Buoyant Apparatus

160.073-1  Scope.
160.073-5  Certification.
160.073-10  Construction and performance.
160.073-15  Tests.
160.073-20  Marking.

   Subpart 160.076--Inflatable Recreational Personal Flotation Devices

160.076-1  Scope.
160.076-3  Applicability.
160.076-5  Definitions.
160.076-7  PFD Approval Type.
160.076-9  Conditional approval.
160.076-11  Incorporation by reference.
160.076-13  Approval procedures for inflatable PFDs.
160.076-15  Suspension or termination of approval.
160.076-17  Approval of design or material changes.
160.076-19  Recognized laboratories.
160.076-21  Component materials.
160.076-23  Construction and performance requirements.
160.076-25  Approval testing.
160.076-27  [Reserved]
160.076-29  Production oversight.
160.076-31  Production tests and examinations.
160.076-33  Manufacturer records.
160.076-35  Information pamphlet.
160.076-37  Owner's manual.
160.076-39  Marking.

      Subpart 160.077--Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices

160.077-1  Scope.
160.077-2  Definitions.
160.077-3  Required to be worn.
160.077-4  Type.
160.077-5  Incorporation by reference.
160.077-6  Approval procedures.
160.077-7  Procedure for approval of design or material revision.
160.077-9  Recognized laboratory.
160.077-11  Materials--Recreational Hybrid PFD's.
160.077-13  Materials--Type I and Commercial Hybrid PFD.
160.077-15  Construction and Performance--Recreational Hybrid PFD.
160.077-17  Construction and Performance--Type I and Commercial Hybrid 
          PFD.
160.077-19  Approval Testing--Recreational Hybrid PFD's.
160.077-21  Approval Testing--Type I and Commercial Hybrid PFD.
160.077-23  Production tests and inspections.
160.077-25  Manufacturer records.
160.077-27  Pamphlet.
160.077-29  PFD Manuals.
160.077-30  Spare operating components and temporary marking.
160.077-31  PFD marking.

              Subpart 160.151--Inflatable Liferafts (SOLAS)

160.151-1  Scope.
160.151-3  Definitions.
160.151-5  Incorporation by reference.
160.151-7  Construction of inflatable liferafts.
160.151-9  Independent laboratory.
160.151-11  Approval procedure.
160.151-13  Fabrication of prototype inflatable liferafts for approval.
160.151-15  Design and performance of inflatable liferafts.
160.151-17  Additional requirements for design and performance of SOLAS 
          A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts.
160.151-21  Equipment required for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable 
          liferafts.
160.151-25  Additional equipment for inflatable liferafts.
160.151-27  Approval inspections and tests for inflatable liferafts.
160.151-29  Additional approval tests for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable 
          liferafts.

[[Page 19]]

160.151-31  Production inspections and tests of inflatable liferafts.
160.151-33  Marking and labeling.
160.151-35  Servicing.
160.151-37  Servicing manual.
160.151-39  Training of servicing technicians.
160.151-41  Approval of servicing facilities.
160.151-43  Conditions at servicing facilities.
160.151-45  Equipment required for servicing facilities.
160.151-47  Requirements for owners or operators of servicing 
          facilities.
160.151-49  Approval of servicing facilities at remote sites.
160.151-51  Notice of approval.
160.151-53  Notice to OCMI of servicing.
160.151-55  Withdrawal of approval.
160.151-57  Servicing procedure.
160.151-59  Operating instructions and information for the ship's 
          training manual.
160.151-61  Maintenance instructions.

                    Subpart 160.171--Immersion Suits

160.171-1  Scope.
160.171-3  Incorporation by reference.
160.171-5  Independent laboratory.
160.171-7  Approval procedures.
160.171-9  Construction.
160.171-11  Performance.
160.171-13  Storage case.
160.171-15  Instructions.
160.171-17  Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.
160.171-19  Approval testing for child size immersion suit.
160.171-23  Marking.
160.171-25  Production testing.

                Subpart 160.174--Thermal Protective Aids

160.174-1     Scope.
160.174-3   Incorporation by reference.
160.174-5     Independent laboratory.
160.174-7     Approval procedures.
160.174-9     Construction.
160.174-11  Performance.
160.174-13  Storage case.
160.174-15  Instructions.
160.174-17  Approval testing.
160.174-23  Marking.
160.174-25  Production testing.

                 Subpart 160.176--Inflatable Lifejackets

160.176-1  Scope.
160.176-2  Application.
160.176-3  Definitions.
160.176-4  Incorporation by reference.
160.176-5  Approval procedures.
160.176-6  Procedure for approval of design or material revision.
160.176-7  Independent laboratories.
160.176-8  Materials.
160.176-9  Construction.
160.176-11  Performance.
160.176-13  Approval Tests.
160.176-15  Production tests and inspections.
160.176-17  Manufacturer records.
160.176-19  Servicing.
160.176-21  User manuals.
160.176-23  Marking.

    Authority: 46 U.S.C. 2103, 3306, 3703 and 4302; E.O. 12234, 45 FR 
58801, 3 CFR, 1980 Comp., p. 277; 49 CFR 1.46.



                Subpart 160.001--Life Preservers, General



Sec. 160.001-1  Scope.

    (a) This subpart contains the general:
    (1) Characteristics of life preservers (Type I personal flotation 
devices (PFDs));
    (2) Approval procedures for life preservers; and
    (3) Production oversight requirements for life preservers.
    (b) Other subparts in this part specify the detailed requirements 
for standard type life preservers and may supplement the requirements in 
this subpart.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51209, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.001-2  General characteristics of life preservers.

    (a) A life preserver must be of such construction, material and 
workmanship that it can perform its intended function in all weathers 
and at all temperatures which may be expected in the normal usage of the 
life preserver. All components used in the construction of a life 
preserver must meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of 
the chapter.
    (b) A life preserver must be capable of supporting a minimum of 22 
pounds in fresh water for 48 hours.
    (c) Life preservers which depend upon loose or granulated material 
for buoyancy are prohibited.
    (d) A life preserver must be:
    (1) Simple in design;
    (2) Capable of being:
    (i) Worn inside-out,
    (ii) worn clearly in only one way, or
    (iii) Donned correctly without demonstration, instructions, or 
assistance by at least 75 percent of persons unfamiliar with the design; 
and
    (3) Capable of being quickly adjusted for a secure fit to the body 
of wearers for which it is intended.
    (e) A life preserver shall support the wearer in the water in an 
upright or slightly backward position, and shall

[[Page 20]]

provide support to the head so that the face of an unconscious or 
exhausted person is held above the water.
    (f) A life preserver shall be capable of turning the wearer, upon 
entering the water, to a safe flotation position as described in 
paragraph (e) of this section.
    (g) A life preserver shall not be appreciably deteriorated or 
rendered unable to perform its intended function by common oils or oil 
products.
    (h) A life preserver shall be of a highly visible color, such as 
Indian Orange, International Orange, or Scarlet Munsell Red.
    (i) A life preserver shall be of such construction, materials, and 
workmanship as to be at least equivalent to a standard type life 
preserver described in detail by other subparts in this part.
    (j) Each thread in a life preserver regulated under subparts 
160.002, 160.005 and 160.055 of this part must meet the requirements of 
a Federal or military specification in table 164.023-5(a) of this 
chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each seam.

[CGFR 66-33, 31 FR 15297, Dec. 6, 1966, as amended by CGD 78-012, 43 FR 
27152, June 22, 1978; CGD 78-174b, 54 FR 50320, Dec. 5, 1989; CGD 84-
068, 58 FR 29493, May 20, 1993; CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51209, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.001-3  Procedure for approval.

    (a) General. Designs of life preservers are approved only by the 
Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Manufacturers seeking approval of a life 
preserver design shall follow the procedures of this section and subpart 
159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) Each application for approval of a life preserver must contain 
the information specified in Sec. 159.005-5 of this chapter. The 
application and, except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d)(2) of this 
section, a prototype life preserver must be submitted to the Commandant 
for preapproval review. If a similar design has already been approved, 
the Commandant may waive the preapproval review under Secs. 159.005-5 
and 159.005-7 of this chapter.
    (c) If the life preserver is of a standard design, as described by 
subpart 160.002, 160.005, or 160.055, the application:
    (1) Must include the following: A statement of any exceptions to the 
standard plans and specifications, including drawings, product 
description, construction specifications, and/or bill of materials.
    (2) Need not include: The information specified in Sec. 159.005-
5(a)(2).
    (d) If the life preserver is of a non-standard design, the 
application must include the following:
    (1) Plans and specifications containing the information required by 
Sec. 159.005-12 of this chapter, including drawings, product 
description, construction specifications, and bill of materials.
    (2) The information specified in Sec. 159.005-5(a)(2) (i) through 
(iii) of this chapter, except that, if preapproval review has been 
waived, the manufacturer is not required to send a prototype PFD sample 
to the Commandant.
    (3) Performance testing results of the design performed by an 
independent laboratory, that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the 
Coast Guard under Sec. 159.010-7 of this subchapter covering the in-
water testing of personal flotation devices, showing equivalence to the 
standard design's performance in all material respects.
    (4) The Approval Type sought (Type I or Type V).
    (5) Any special purpose(s) for which the life preserver is designed 
and the vessel(s) or vessel type(s) on which its use is intended.
    (6) Buoyancy and other relevant tolerances to be complied with 
during production.
    (7) The text of any optional marking to be included on the life 
preserver in addition to the markings required by the applicable 
approval subpart.
    (8) For any conditionally approved life preserver, the intended 
approval condition(s).
    (e) The description of quality control procedures required by 
Sec. 159.005-9 of this chapter may be omitted if the manufacturer's 
planned quality control procedures meet the requirements of those 
accepted by the Commandant for the independent laboratory performing 
production inspections and tests.
    (f) Waiver of tests. A manufacturer may request that the Commandant 
waive any test prescribed for approval under the applicable subpart. To 
request a waiver, the manufacturer must

[[Page 21]]

submit to the Commandant and the laboratory described in Sec. 159.010, 
one of the following:
    (1) Satisfactory test results on a PFD of sufficiently similar 
design as determined by the Commandant.
    (2) Engineering analysis demonstrating that the test for which a 
waiver is requested is not appropriate for the particular design 
submitted for approval or that, because of its design or construction, 
it is not possible for the PFD to fail that test.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51209, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.001-5  Production oversight.

    (a) General. Production tests and inspections must be conducted in 
accordance with this section, subpart 159.007 of this chapter, and if 
conducted by an independent laboratory, the independent laboratory's 
procedures for production inspections and tests as accepted by the 
Commandant. The Commandant may prescribe additional production tests and 
inspections necessary to maintain quality control and to monitor 
compliance with the requirements of this subchapter.
    (b) Oversight. In addition to responsibilities set out in part 159 
of this chapter and the accepted laboratory procedures for production 
inspections and tests, each manufacturer of a life preserver and each 
laboratory inspector shall comply with the following, as applicable:
    (1) Manufacturer. Each manufacturer must--
    (i) Perform all tests and examinations necessary to show compliance 
with this subpart and subpart under which the life preserver is approved 
on each lot before any inspector's tests and inspection of the lot;
    (ii) Follow established procedures for maintaining quality control 
of the materials used, manufacturing operations, and the finished 
product; and
    (iii) Allow an inspector to take samples of completed units or of 
component materials for tests required by this subpart and for tests 
relating to the safety of the design.
    (2) Laboratory. An inspector from the accepted laboratory shall 
oversee production in accordance with the laboratory's procedures for 
production inspections and tests accepted by the Commandant. During 
production oversight, the inspector shall not perform or supervise any 
production test or inspection unless--
    (i) The manufacturer has a valid approval certificate; and
    (ii) The inspector has first observed the manufacturer's production 
methods and any revisions to those methods.
    (3) At least quarterly, the inspector shall check the manufacturer's 
compliance with the company's quality control procedures, examine the 
manufacturer's required records, and observe the manufacturer perform 
each of the required production tests.
    (c) Test facilities. The manufacturer shall provide a suitable place 
and apparatus for conducting the tests and inspections necessary to 
determine compliance of life preservers with this subpart. The 
manufacturer shall provide means to secure any test that is not 
continuously observed, such as the 48 hour buoyancy test. The 
manufacturer must have the calibration of all test equipment checked in 
accordance with the test equipment manufacturer's recommendation and 
interval but not less than at least once every year.
    (d) Lots. A lot may not consist of more than 1000 life preservers. A 
lot number must be assigned to each group of life preservers produced. 
Lots must be numbered serially. A new lot must be started whenever any 
change in materials or a revision to a production method is made, and 
whenever any substantial discontinuity in the production process occurs. 
The lot number assigned, along with the approval number, must enable the 
PFD manufacturer to determine the supplier's identifying information for 
the component lot.
    (e) Samples. (1) From each lot of life preservers, manufacturers 
shall randomly select a number of samples from completed units at least 
equal to the applicable number required by table 160.001-5(e) for 
buoyancy testing. Additional samples must be selected for any tests, 
examinations, and inspections required by the laboratory's production 
inspections and tests procedures.

[[Page 22]]



             Table 160.001-5(e)--Sampling for Buoyancy Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Number of
                                                                 life
                          Lot size                            preservers
                                                              in sample
------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 and under..............................................            1
101 to 200.................................................            2
201 to 300.................................................            3
301 to 500.................................................            4
501 to 750.................................................            6
751 to 1000................................................            8
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) For a lot next succeeding one from which any sample life 
preserver failed the buoyancy test, the sample shall consist of not less 
than ten specimen life preservers to be tested for buoyancy in 
accordance with paragraph (f) of this section.
    (f) Buoyancy test. The buoyancy of the life preservers must be 
determined by measuring the upward force exerted by the individual 
submerged unit. The buoyancy measurement must be made at the end of the 
24 or 48 hours of submersion, as specified in the applicable approval 
subpart, during which period the pad inserts must not be disturbed.
    (g) Buoyancy required. The buoyancy must meet the requirements of 
the applicable approval subpart.
    (h) Lot inspection. On each lot, the laboratory inspector shall 
perform a final lot inspection to be satisfied that the life preservers 
meet this subpart. Each lot must demonstrate--
    (1) First quality workmanship;
    (2) That the general arrangement and attachment of all components, 
such as body straps, closures, tie tapes, and drawstrings, are as 
specified in the approved plans and specifications;
    (3) Compliance with the marking requirements in the applicable 
approval subpart; and
    (4) The information pamphlet specified in 33 CFR part 181 subpart G, 
if required, is securely attached to the device, with the PFD selection 
information visible and accessible prior to purchase.
    (i) Lot acceptance. When the independent laboratory has determined 
that the life preservers in the lot are of a type officially approved in 
the name of the company, and that such life preservers meet the 
requirements of this subpart, they shall be plainly marked in waterproof 
ink with the independent laboratory's name or identifying mark.
    (j) Lot rejection. Each nonconforming unit must be rejected. If 
three or more nonconforming units are rejected for the same kind of 
defect, lot inspection must be discontinued and the lot rejected. The 
inspector must discontinue lot inspection and reject the lot if 
examination of individual units or the records for the lot shows 
noncompliance with either this subchapter or the laboratory's or the 
manufacturer's quality control procedures. A rejected unit or lot may be 
resubmitted for testing and inspection if the manufacturer first removes 
and destroys each defective unit or, if authorized by the laboratory, 
reworks the unit or lot to correct the defect. A rejected lot or 
rejected unit may not be sold or offered for sale under the 
representation that it meets this subpart or that it is Coast Guard-
approved.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51210, Sept. 30, 1997]



Subpart 160.002--Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), 
                             Models 3 and 5



Sec. 160.002-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Specifications and standards. This subpart makes reference to 
the following documents:
    (1) Military Specifications:

MIL-W-530--Webbing, Textile, Cotton. General Purpose, Natural or in 
Colors.

    (2) Federal Specification:

L-P-375--Plastic Film, Flexible, Vinyl Chloride.

    (3) Federal Standards:

No. 191--Textile Test Methods.
No. 751A--Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings.

    (4) Coast Guard specifications:

164.003--Kapok, Processed.

    (b) Plans. The following plans, of the issue in effect on the date 
life preservers are manufactured, form a part of this specification:

Dwg. No. F-49-6-1:
    (Sheet 1) Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement (adult).
    (Sheet 1A) Alternate stitching of tapes and webbing (adult and 
child).
    (Sheet 2) Pad Detail (adult).
Dwg. No. F-49-6-5:

[[Page 23]]

    (Sheet 1) Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement (child).
    (Sheet 2) Pad Detail (child).

    (c) Copies on file. Copies of the specifications and plans referred 
to in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together 
with the certificate of approval. They shall be kept for a period 
consisting of the duration of approval and 6 months after termination of 
approval. The Coast Guard specifications and plans may be obtained upon 
request from the Commandant (G-MSE), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC, 
20593-0001. The Federal specifications and standards may be purchased 
from the Business Service Center, General Services Administration, 
Washington, DC, 20407. The Military specifications may be obtained from 
the Commanding Officer, Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, 
Philadelphia, Pa., 19120.
    (d) [Reserved]

[CGFR 53-25, 18 FR 7855, Dec. 5, 1953, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10897, Aug. 21, 1965; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 
88-070, 53 FR 34535, Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 
1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.002-2  Size and models.

    Each life preserver specified in this subpart is to be a:
    (a) Model 3, adult, 24 ounces kapok; or
    (b) Model 5, child, 16 ounces kapok.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8118, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.002-3  Materials.

    All components used in the construction of the life preserver must 
meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of this chapter and 
the following requirements apply to individual components;
    (a) Kapok. The kapok shall be all new material complying with 
subpart 164.003 of this subchapter and shall be properly processed.
    (b) Envelope. The life preserver envelope, or cover, shall be made 
of cotton drill. The color shall be Indian Orange, Cable No. 70072, 
Standard Color Card of America, issued by the Textile Color Association 
of the United States, Inc., 200 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y., or 
Scarlet Munsell 7.5 Red 6/10. The drill shall be evenly dyed, and the 
fastness of the color to laundering, water, crocking, and light shall be 
rated ``good'' when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method 
Standard No. 191, Methods 5610, 5630, 5650, and 5660. After dyeing, the 
drill shall be treated with a mildew-inhibitor of the type specified in 
paragraph (j) of this section. The finished goods shall contain not more 
than 2 percent residual sizing or other non-fibrous material, shall 
weigh not less than 6.5 ounces per square yard, shall have a thread 
count of not less than 72 in the warp and 54 in the filling, and shall 
have a breaking strength (grab method) of not less than 105 pounds in 
the warp and 70 pounds in the filling. If it is proposed to treat the 
fabric with a fire-retardant substance, full details shall be submitted 
to the Commandant for determination as to what samples will be needed 
for testing.
    (c) Tunnel strip. The tunnel strip shall be made of cotton drill 
conforming to the requirements for the envelope cover.
    (d) Pad covering. The covering for the kapok pad inserts shall be 
flexible vinyl film not less than 0.006 inch in thickness meeting the 
requirements of specification L-P-375 for Type I film Type II, Class 1 
film not less than 0.008 inch in thickness will also be acceptable.
    (e) Tie tapes and drawstrings. The tie tapes at the neck and the 
lower drawstrings shall be made of 1\1/4\-inch cotton tape weighing not 
less than 0.3 ounce per linear yard, and having a minimum breaking 
strength of 200 pounds. The tie tapes and drawstrings shall be treated 
with a mildew-inhibitor of the type specified in paragraph (j) of this 
section.
    (f) Body strap. The body strap shall be made of one-inch cotton 
webbing having a minimum breaking strength of 400 pounds. One-inch 
cotton webbing meeting the requirements of specification MIL-W-530 for 
Type IIb webbing is acceptable. The complete body strap assembly shall 
have a minimum breaking strength of 360 pounds. The body strap shall be 
treated with a mildew-inhibitor of the type specified in paragraph (j) 
of this section.
    (g) Dee rings and snap hook. The dee rings and snap hook shall be of 
brass,

[[Page 24]]

bronze, or stainless steel, and of the approximate size indicated by 
Dwg. F-49-6-1, Sheet 1. The snap hook spring shall be phosphor bronze or 
other suitable corrosion-resistant material. Dee ring ends shall be 
welded to form a continuous ring. The webbing opening of the snap hook 
shall be a continuous ring.
    (h) Reinforcing tape. The reinforcing tape shall be made of \3/4\-
inch cotton tape weighing not less than 0.18 ounce per linear yard and 
having a minimum breaking strength of 120 pounds, and shall be treated 
with a mildew-inhibitor of the type specified in paragraph (j) of this 
section.
    (i) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam.
    (j) Mildew-inhibitor. The mildew-inhibitor shall be 
dihydroxydichloro- diphenylmethane, known commercially as Compound G-4, 
applied by the aqueous method. The amount of inhibitor deposited shall 
be not more than 1.50 percent and not less than 1.00 percent of the dry 
weight of the finished goods.

[CGFR 58-23, 23 FR 4627, June 25, 1958, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10897, Aug. 21, 1965; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27153, 27154; June 22, 1978; CGD 
84-068, 58 FR 29493, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.002-4  Construction.

    (a) General. This specification covers life preservers which 
essentially consist of a vest-cut envelope containing pockets in which 
are enclosed pads of buoyant material, the life preserver being fitted 
with tapes and webbing to provide complete reversibility, proper 
adjustment for close fit to the bodies of various size wearers, and 
proper flotation characteristics to hold the wearer in an upright 
backward position with head and face out of water.
    (b) Envelope. The envelope shall be of not more than two pieces, one 
piece for either side, cut to the pattern shown on Dwg. No. F-49-6-1, 
Sheet 1, for adult size, and Dwg. F-49-6-5, Sheet 1, for child size, 
joined by seams and stitching as shown on the drawing. A drawstring 
tunnel shall be formed by stitching a strip of the tunnel strip material 
as shown on the drawing. The ends of the tunnel strip shall be tucked 
under the reinforcing tape stitched around the end openings so there is 
no direct access to the pads from the outside. Three pockets shall be 
formed for insertion of the kapok pads. The two front pads shall be 
removable from the envelope when portions of the lower longitudinal seam 
are opened, and the back pad shall be removable when a portion of one 
armhole seam is opened.
    (c) Pad inserts--(1) Forming, sealing, and distribution of kapok. 
The buoyant pad inserts shall be formed from two pieces of film cut to 
the patterns shown by Dwg. No. F-49-6-1, Sheet 2, for adult size, and 
Dwg. No. F-49-6-5, Sheet 2, for child size, which shall be heat-sealed 
tight. The heat-sealed pad seams shall show an adhesion of not less than 
8 pounds when one inch strips cut across and perpendicular to the seams 
are pulled apart at a rate of separation of the clamping jaws of the 
test machine of 12 inches per minute. The pad inserts shall be filled 
with kapok distributed as follows:

      Table 160.002-4 (c)(1)--Distribution of Kapok in Pad Inserts
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Model 3 (minimum)   Model 5 (minimum)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Front pad (2):
  Lower section.................  5.25 oz. each.....  3.50 oz. each.
  Upper section.................  3.75 oz. each.....  2.50 oz. each.
Back Pad........................  6.00 oz...........  4.00 oz.
      Total.....................  24.00 oz..........  16.00 oz.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Displacement of pad inserts. The volume of the finished 
individual heat-sealed buoyant pad inserts shall be such as to provide 
buoyancy as set forth in the following table when tested in accordance 
with the method set forth in Sec. 160.002-5(d), except that the period 
of submergence shall be only long enough to determine the displacement 
of the pads:

        Table 160.002-4(c)(2)--Volume Displacement of Sealed Pads
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Model 3             Model 5
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Front pads......................  12\1/2\ lbs.        6\1/2\ lbs.
                                   eachplus-minus\3/   eachplus-minus\1/
                                   4\ lb.              2\ lb.
Back pads.......................  8 lbs. eachplus-    4\1/2\ lbs.
                                   minus\1/2\ lb.      eachplus-minus\1/
                                                       2\ lb.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (d) Tie tapes. The tie tapes at the neck shall extend not less than 
14 inches from the edge of the adult life preserver and not less than 12 
inches from the edge of the child life preserver. They shall be stitched 
through

[[Page 25]]

both thicknesses of the envelope as shown by Dwg. No. F-49-6-1, Sheet 1, 
for adult size, and Dwg. No. F-49-6-5, Sheet 1, for child size, or by 
the alternate stitching shown on Sheet 1A. The free ends shall be 
doubled over and stitched in accordance with section G-G of Sheet 1.
    (e) Drawstrings. The drawstrings at the waist shall extend not less 
than 8 inches from the edge of the life preserver and shall be secured 
in the drawstring tunnel as shown by Dwg. No. F-49-6-1, Sheet 1, for 
adult size, and Dwg. No. F-49-6-5, Sheet 1, for child size, or by the 
alternate stitching shown on Sheet 1A. The free ends shall be doubled 
over and stitched in accordance with section G-G of Sheet 1.
    (f) Body strap. The body strap shall be fitted with a single Dee 
ring on one end with the arrangement of a snap hook and pre-threaded 
double Dee rings as shown on Dwg. No. F-49-6-1, Sheet 1, on the other. 
The body strap shall be stitched as shown on the drawings, and the edge 
of the single Dee ring shall be 20 inches from the center line for adult 
size and 15 inches for child size.
    (g) Reinforcing tape. Binding tape shall be stitched approximately 
15 inches for adult jackets and 12 inches for child jackets around the 
back of the neck, and also around the openings of the drawstring tunnel 
and around the bottom of the armholes, as indicated by the drawings.
    (h) Stitching. All stitching shall be a short lock stitch conforming 
to Stitch Type 301 of Federal standard No. 751 and there shall be not 
less than 7, nor more than 9 stitches to the inch.
    (i) Workmanship. Life preservers shall be of first-class workmanship 
and shall be free from any defects materially affecting their appearance 
or serviceability.

[CGFR 53-25, 18 FR 7856, Dec. 5, 1953, as amended by CGFR 58-23, 23 FR 
4627, June 25, 1958; CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 10897, Aug. 21, 1965]



Sec. 160.002-5  Sampling, tests, and inspections.

    (a) Production tests and inspections must be conducted by the 
manufacturer of a life preserver and the accepted laboratory inspector 
in accordance with this section and Sec. 160.001-5.
    (b) Buoyancy test. The buoyancy of the pad inserts from the life 
preserver shall be determined according to Sec. 160.001-5(f) of this 
part with each compartment of the buoyant pad insert covers slit so as 
not to entrap air. The period of submersion must be at least 48 hours.
    (c) Buoyancy required. The buoyant pad inserts from Model 3 adult 
life preservers shall provide not less than 25 pounds buoyancy in fresh 
water, and the pads from Model 5 child life preservers shall provide not 
less than 16.5 pounds buoyancy.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51211, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.002-6  Marking.

    Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in 
waterproof ink on a front section:
    (a) In letters three-quarters of an inch or more in height:
    (1) Adult (for persons weighing over 90 pounds); or
    (2) Child (for persons weighing less than 90 pounds).
    (b) In letters that can be read at a distance of 2 feet:

Type I Personal Flotation Device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
Kapok buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant force of (25 lb. or 
16\1/2\ lb.).
Do not snag or puncture inner plastic cover.
Approved for use on all vessels by persons weighing (90 lb. or more, or 
less than 90 lb.).
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.002/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.).
(Lot No.).

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8118, Mar. 28, 1973, as amended by CGD 75-008, 43 FR 
9770, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.002-7  Procedure for approval.

    General. Manufacturers seeking approval of a life preserver design 
shall follow the procedures of subpart 159.005 of this chapter, as 
explained in Sec. 160.001-3 of this part.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51211, Sept. 30, 1997]

[[Page 26]]



Subpart 160.005--Life Preservers, Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child (Jacket 
                         Type), Models 52 and 56



Sec. 160.005-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Specifications and Standards. This subpart makes reference to 
the following documents:
    (1) Federal Specification:

L-P-375C--Plastic Film, Flexible, Vinyl Chloride.

    (2) Federal Standards:

No. 191--Textile Test Methods.
No. 751A--Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings.

    (3) Military Specification:

MIL-W-530F--Webbing, Textiles, Cotton, General Purpose, Natural and in 
colors.
MIL-R-2766B--Batt, Fibrous Glass, Lifesaving Equipment.

    (b) Plans. The following plans, of the issue in effect on the date 
life preservers are manufactured, form a part of this subpart:

Dwg. No. 160.005-1:
    (Sheet 1) Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement (Adult).
    (Sheet 2) Alternate Stitching of Tapes and Webbing (Adult and 
Child).
    (Sheet 3) Pad Detail (Adult).
    (Sheet 4) Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement (Child).
    (Sheet 5) Pad Detail (Child).

    (c) Copies on file. Copies of the specifications and plans referred 
to in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together 
with the certificate of approval. They shall be kept for a period 
consisting of the duration of approval and 6 months after termination of 
approval. The Coast Guard plans may be obtained upon request from the 
Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. The Federal specifications and standards 
may be purchased from the Business Service Center, General Services 
Administration, Washington, DC 20407. The Military specifications may be 
obtained from the Commanding Officer, Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor 
Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 19120.

[CGFR 53-25, 18 FR 7862, Dec. 5, 1953, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10897, Aug. 21, 1965; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 
88-070, 53 FR 34535, Sept. 7, 1988]



Sec. 160.005-2  Size and model.

    Each life preserver specified in this subpart is a:
    (a) Model 52, adult, 46 ounces fibrous glass; or
    (b) Model 56, child, 30 ounces fibrous glass.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8118, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.005-3  Materials.

    All components used in the construction of a life preserver must 
meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of this chapter and 
the following requirements apply to individual components:
    (a) Fibrous glass. The fibrous glass shall be all new material 
complying with the requirements of Specification MIL-B-2766.
    (b) Envelope. The life preserver envelope, or cover, shall be made 
of cotton drill. The color shall be Indian Orange, Cable No. 70072, 
Standard Color Card of America, issued by the Textile Color Association 
of the United States, Inc., 200 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y., or 
Scarlet Munsell 7.5 Red 6/10. The drill shall be evenly dyed, and the 
fastness of the color to laundering, water, crocking, and light shall be 
rated ``good'' when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method 
Standard No. 191, Methods 5610, 5630, 5650, and 5660. After dyeing, the 
drill shall be treated with a mildew-inhibitor of the type specified in 
paragraph (j) of this section. The finished goods shall contain not more 
than 2 percent residual sizing or other nonfibrous material, shall weigh 
not less than 6.5 ounces per square yard, shall have a thread count of 
not less than 72 in the warp and 54 in the filling, and shall have a 
breaking strength (grab method) of not less than 105 pounds in the warp 
and 70 pounds in the filling. If it is proposed to treat the fabric with 
a fire-retardant substance, full details shall be submitted to the 
Commandant for determination as to what samples will be needed for 
testing.
    (c) Tunnel strip. The tunnel strip shall be made of cotton drill 
conforming to the requirements for the envelope cover.

[[Page 27]]

    (d) Pad covering. The covering for the fibrous glass pad inserts 
shall be flexible vinyl film not less than 0.006 inch in thickness 
meeting the requirements of specification L-P-375 for Type I film. Type 
II, Class 1 film not less than 0.008 inch in thickness will also be 
acceptable.
    (e) Tie tapes and drawstrings. The tie tapes at the neck and the 
lower drawstrings shall be made of 1 \1/4\-inch cotton tape weighing not 
less than 0.3 ounce per linear yard, and having a minimum breaking 
strength of 200 pounds. The tie tapes and drawstrings shall be treated 
with a mildew-inhibitor of the type specified in paragraph (j) of this 
section.
    (f) Body strap. The body strap shall be made of one-inch cotton 
webbing having a minimum breaking strength of 400 pounds. One-inch 
cotton webbing meeting the requirements of specification MIL-W-530 for 
Type IIb webbing is acceptable. The complete body strap assembly shall 
have a minimum breaking strength of 360 pounds. The body strap shall be 
treated with a mildew-inhibitor of the type specified in paragraph (j) 
of this section.
    (g) Dee rings and snap hook. The dee rings and snap hook shall be 
brass, bronze, or stainless steel, and of the approximate size indicated 
by Dwg. No. 160.005-1, Sheet 1. The snap hook spring shall be phosphor 
bronze or other suitable corrosion-resistant material. Dee ring ends 
shall be welded to form a continuous ring. The webbing opening of the 
snap hook shall be a continuous ring.
    (h) Reinforcing tape. The reinforcing tape shall be made of \3/4\-
inch cotton tape weighing not less than 0.18 ounce per linear yard and 
having a minimum breaking strength of 120 pounds, and shall be treated 
with a mildew-inhibitor of the type specified in paragraph (j) of this 
section.
    (i) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam.
    (j) Mildew-inhibitor. The mildew-inhibitor shall be 
dihydroxydichloro- diphenylmethane, known commercially as Compound G-4, 
applied by the aqueous method. The amount of inhibitor deposited shall 
be not more than 1.50 percent and not less than 1.00 percent of the dry 
weight of the finished goods.

[CGFR 58-23, 23 FR 4628, June 25, 1958, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10898, Aug. 21, 1965; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 
84-068, 58 FR 29493, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.005-4  Construction.

    (a) General. This specification covers life preservers which 
essentially consist of a vest-cut envelope containing pockets in which 
are enclosed pads of buoyant material, the life preserver being fitted 
with tapes and webbing to provide complete reversibility, proper 
adjustment for close fit to the bodies of various size wearers, and 
proper flotation characteristics to hold the wearer in an upright 
backward position with head and face out of water.
    (b) Envelope. The envelope shall be of not more than two pieces, one 
piece for either side, cut to the pattern shown on Dwg. No. 160.005-1, 
Sheet 1, for adult size, and Sheet 4, for child size, joined by seams 
and stitching as shown on the drawing. A drawstring tunnel shall be 
formed by stitching a strip of the tunnel strip material as shown by the 
drawing. The ends of the tunnel strip shall be tucked under the 
reinforcing tape stitched around the end openings so there is no direct 
access to the pads from the outside. Three pockets shall be formed for 
insertion of the pads. The two front pads shall be removable from the 
envelope when portions of the lower longitudinal seam are opened, and 
the back pad shall be removable when a portion of one armhole seam is 
opened.
    (c) Pad inserts--(1) Forming, sealing, and distribution of fibrous 
glass. The buoyant pad inserts shall be formed from two pieces of film 
cut to the patterns shown by Dwg. No. 160.005-1, Sheet 3, for adult 
size, and Sheet 5, for child size, which shall be heat-sealed tight. The 
heat-sealed pad seams shall show an adhesion of not less than 8 pounds 
when 1-inch strips cut across and perpendicular to the seams are pulled 
apart at a rate of separation of the clamping jaws of the test machine 
of 12 inches per minute. The pad inserts shall be filled with fibrous 
glass distributed as follows:

[[Page 28]]



   Table 160.005-4(c)(1)--Distribution of Fibrous Glass in Pad Inserts
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Model 52 (minimum)  Model 56 (minimum)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Front pad (2):
  Lower section.................  10.00 oz. each....  6.50 oz. each.
  Upper section.................  7.25 oz. each.....  4.75 oz. each.
Back pad........................  11.50 oz..........  7.50 oz.
    Total.......................  46.00 oz..........  30.00 oz.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Displacement of pad inserts. The volume of the finished 
individual heat-sealed buoyant pad inserts shall be such as to provide 
buoyancy as set forth in the following table when tested in accordance 
with the method set forth in Sec. 160.005-5(d), except that the period 
of submergence shall be only long enough to determine the displacement 
of the pads:

        Table 160.005-4(c)(2)--Volume Displacement of Sealed Pads
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Model 52            Model 56
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Front pads......................  12\1/2\ lbs. each   6\1/2\ lbs. each
                                   plus-minus\3/4\     plus-minus\1/2\
                                   lb..                lbs.
Back pads.......................  8 lbs. each plus-   4\1/2\ lbs. each
                                   minus\1/2\ lb..     plus-minus\1/2\
                                                       lb.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (d) Tie tapes. The tie tapes at the neck shall extend not less than 
14 inches from the edge of the adult life preserver and not less than 12 
inches from the edge of the child life preserver. They shall be stitched 
through both thicknesses of the envelope as shown by Dwg. No. 160.005-1, 
Sheet 1, for adult size, and Sheet 4, for child size, or by the 
alternate stitching shown on Sheet 2. The free ends shall be doubled 
over and stitched in accordance with section E-E of Sheet 1.
    (e) Drawstrings. The drawstrings at the waist shall extend not less 
than 8 inches from the edge of the life preserver and shall be secured 
in the drawstring tunnel as shown by Dwg. No. 160.005-1, Sheet 1, for 
adult size, and Sheet 4, for child size, or by the alternate stitching 
shown on Sheet 2. The free ends shall be doubled over and stitched in 
accordance with section E-E of Sheet 1.
    (f) Body strap. The body strap shall be fitted with a single dee 
ring on one end and with the arrangement of a snap hook and prethreaded 
double dee rings as shown on Dwg. No. 160.005-1, Sheet 1, on the other. 
The body strap shall be stitched as shown on the drawings, and the edge 
of the single dee ring shall be 20 inches from the center line for adult 
size and 15 inches for child size.
    (g) Reinforcing tape. Binding tape shall be stitched approximately 
15 inches for adult life preservers and 12 inches for child life 
preservers around the back of the neck, and also around the openings of 
the drawstring tunnel and around the bottom of the arm holes as 
indicated by the drawings.
    (h) Stitching. All stitching shall be a short lock stitch conforming 
to Stitch Type 301 of Federal Standard No. 751, and there shall be not 
less than 7, nor more than 9 stitches to the inch.
    (i) Workmanship. Life preservers shall be of first-class workmanship 
and shall be free from any defects materially affecting their appearance 
or serviceability.

[CGFR 53-25, 18 FR 7863, Dec. 5, 1953, as amended by CGFR 58-23, 23 FR 
4628, June 25, 1958; CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 10898, Aug. 21, 1965]



Sec. 160.005-5  Sampling, tests, and inspections.

    (a) Production tests and inspections must be conducted by the 
manufacturer of a life preserver and the accepted laboratory inspector 
in accordance with this section and Sec. 160.001-5.
    (b) Buoyancy test. The buoyancy of the pad inserts from the life 
preserver shall be determined according to Sec. 160.001-5(f) of this 
part with each compartment of the buoyant pad insert covers slit so as 
not to entrap air. The period of submersion must be at least 48 hours.
    (c) Buoyancy required. The buoyant pad inserts from Model 3 adult 
life preservers shall provide not less than 25 pounds buoyancy in fresh 
water, and the pads from Model 5 child life preservers shall provide not 
less than 16.5 pounds buoyancy.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51211, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.005-6  Marking.

    Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in 
waterproof lettering on a front section:
    (a) In letters three-fourths inch or more in height:
    (1) Adult (for persons weighing over 90 pounds); or
    (2) Child (for persons weighing less than 90 pounds).

[[Page 29]]

    (b) In letters capable of being read at a distance of 2 feet:

Type I--Personal Flotation Device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
Fibrous glass buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant force of (25 
lb. or 16\1/2\ lb.).
Approved for use on all vessels by persons weighing (90 lb. or more, or 
less than 90 lb).
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.005/ (assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.). (Model No.);
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.).
(Lot No.).

[CGD 163R, 38 FR 8118, Mar. 28, 1973, as amended by CGD 75-008, 43 FR 
9770, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.005-7  Procedure for approval.

    General. Manufacturers seeking approval of a life preserver design 
shall follow the procedures of subpart 159.005 of this chapter, as 
explained in Sec. 160.001-3 of this part.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51211, Sept. 30, 1997]



               Subpart 160.006--Life Preservers: Repairing

    Source: 11 FR 187, Jan. 3, 1946; 11 FR 561, Jan. 12, 1946, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.006-2  Repairing.

    (a) General. No repairs, except in emergency, shall be made to an 
approved life preserver without advance notice to the Officer in Charge, 
Marine Inspection, of the district in which such repairs are to be made. 
Emergency repairs shall be reported as soon as practicable to the 
Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection.
    (b) Kind of repairs. Except in emergency, tapes or straps may not be 
repaired, but may be renewed, and small holes, tears, or rips in the 
envelope cover fabric may be repaired, at the discretion of the Officer 
in Charge, Marine Inspection.



         Subpart 160.010--Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGD 79-167, 47 FR 41372, Sept. 20, 1982, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.010-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Certain materials are incorporated by reference into this 
subpart with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register. The 
Office of the Federal Register publishes a table, ``Material Approved 
for Incorporation by Reference,'' which appears in the Finding Aids 
section of this volume. In that table is found the date of the edition 
approved, citations to the particular sections of this part where the 
material is incorporated, addresses where the material is available, and 
the date of the approval by the Director of the Federal Register. To 
enforce any edition other than the one listed in the table, notice of 
change must be published in the Federal Register and the material made 
available. All approved material is on file at the Office of the Federal 
Register, Washington, DC 20408, and at the U.S. Coast Guard, Lifesaving 
and Fire Safety Division (G-MSE-4), Washington, DC 20593.
    (b) The materials approved for incorporation by reference in this 
subpart are:

National Bureau of Standards (NBS)
``The Universal Color Language'' and ``The Color Names Dictionary'' in 
Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Names, National Bureau of 
Standards Special Publication 440.

Military Specifications
MIL-P-19644 C--Plastic Molding Material (Polystyrene Foam, Expanded 
Bead).
MIL-R-21607 C--Resins, Polyester, Low Pressure Laminating, Fire 
Retardant.
MIL-P-21929 B--Plastic Material, Cellular Polyurethane, Foam-In-Place, 
Rigid (2 and 4 Pounds per Cubic Foot).
MIL-P-40619 A--Plastic Material, Cellular, Polystyrene (For Buoyancy 
Applications).

[CGD 79-167, 47 FR 41372, Sept. 20, 1982, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 
FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.010-2  Definitions.

    Buoyant apparatus. Buoyant apparatus is flotation equipment (other 
than lifeboats, liferafts, and personal flotation devices) designed to 
support a specified number of persons in the water, and of such 
construction that it retains its shape and properties and requires no 
adjustment or preparation for use. The types of buoyant apparatus 
generally in use are the box-float

[[Page 30]]

type and the peripheral-body type defined in paragraphs (b) and (c) of 
this section.
    Box-float. Box-float is buoyant apparatus of a box-like shape.
    Commandant (G-MSE-4). Commandant (G-MSE-4) is the Chief of the 
Lifesaving and Fire Safety Standards Division, Marine Safety and 
Environmental Protection.
    Peripheral-body. Peripheral body is buoyant apparatus with a 
continuous body in the shape of either an ellipse or rectangle with a 
circular, elliptical, or rectangular body cross-section.
    Inflatable buoyant apparatus. An inflatable buoyant apparatus is 
flotation equipment that depends on inflated compartments for buoyancy 
and is designed to support a specified number of persons completely out 
of the water.

[CGD 79-167, 47 FR 41372, Sept. 20, 1982, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 
FR 50466, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996; CGD 
85-205, 62 FR 25545, May 9, 1997]



Sec. 160.010-3  Inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    (a) Design and performance. To obtain Coast Guard approval, an 
inflatable buoyant apparatus must comply with subpart 160.151, with the 
following exceptions:
    (1) Canopy requirements (SOLAS Chapter III, regulation 38, paragraph 
1.5 (III/38.1.5)). It does not need a canopy.
    (2) Capacity (Regulation III/38.2.1). The carrying capacity must be 
not less than four persons.
    (3) Floor insulation (Regulation III/39.2.2). The floor may be 
uninsulated.
    (4) Stability (Regulation III/39.5.1). It does not need stability 
pockets.
    (5) Righting (Regulation III/39.5.2). A reversible one does not need 
arrangements for righting.
    (6) One with a capacity of 13 or more persons must be reversible, 
with the floor arranged between the buoyancy chambers so that the 
apparatus can, floating either side up, accommodate the number of 
persons for which it is approved. One with a capacity of 12 or fewer 
persons must either be reversible in the same manner, or be designed so 
that it can be readily righted by one person.
    (7) One with a capacity of 25 or more persons must be provided with 
self-bailing floor drains. If the floor of a reversible one includes one 
or more drains, each drain must be arranged to completely drain the 
floor of water when the device is fully loaded, and must prevent water 
from flowing back onto the floor.
    (8) If the buoyancy tubes are not vivid reddish orange, vivid 
yellow, or a fluorescent color of a similar hue, panels of such hue must 
be secured to the buoyancy chambers so that a minimum of 1 m\2\ (11 
ft\2\) is visible from above the apparatus when it is floating either 
side up.
    (9) Boarding ramp (Regulation III/39.4.1). Boarding ramps are not 
required if the combined cross-section diameter of the buoyancy chambers 
is 500 millimeters (mm) (19.5 in.) or less. An apparatus with a combined 
cross-section diameter greater than 500 mm (19.5 in.) requires boarding 
ramps as follows:
    (i) For an apparatus with a capacity of less than 25 persons, at 
least one ramp must be provided;
    (ii) For an apparatus with a capacity of 25 or more persons, at 
least two ramps must be provided; and
    (iii) The boarding ramps required by this paragraph must allow 
persons to board with either side of a reversible apparatus floating up, 
or the full number of ramps required must be installed on each side.
    (10) Boarding ladder (Regulation III/39.4.2). Boarding ladders must 
be provided on each inflatable buoyant apparatus as follows:
    (i) One ladder must be provided on each apparatus with a capacity of 
less than 25 persons, except that, for an apparatus with a capacity of 
13 or more persons that is not equipped with a boarding ramp, two 
ladders must be provided.
    (ii) Two ladders must be provided on each apparatus with a capacity 
of 25 or more persons.
    (iii) The ladders required by this paragraph must allow persons to 
board with either side of a reversible apparatus floating up, or the 
full number of ladders required must be installed on each side.
    (11) One or more exterior canopy lamps meeting the requirements of 
Sec. 160.151-15(n) of this subchapter must be provided such that--

[[Page 31]]

    (i) On a non-reversible inflatable buoyant apparatus, one lamp is 
mounted so that it is on the uppermost surface of the floating 
apparatus; and
    (ii) On a reversible apparatus, two lamps are mounted so that one 
lamp is on the uppermost surface of the apparatus, whichever side is 
floating up.
    (12) Equipment (Regulation III/38.5.1). All equipment required by 
this paragraph must be either packed in a container accessible to the 
occupants, or otherwise secured to the apparatus. Duplicate equipment 
must be provided, for each side of a reversible inflatable buoyant 
apparatus, if the equipment is not accessible from both sides. In lieu 
of the equipment specified in Sec. 160.151-7(b) and Regulation III/
38.5.1, each apparatus must be provided with--
    (i) Rescue quoit and heaving line. One rescue quoit and a heaving 
line as described in Sec. 160.151-21(a) on each apparatus with a 
capacity of less than 25 persons; or two on each apparatus for a 
capacity of 25 or more persons. The heaving line(s) must be mounted 
adjacent to a boarding ramp (or boarding ladder, if no ramps are 
installed), and ready for immediate use;
    (ii) Knives. Two buoyant safety knives ready for use near the 
painter attachment;
    (iii) Bailer. One bailer as described in Sec. 160.151-21(c) on each 
apparatus with a capacity of less than 25 persons; or two bailers on 
each apparatus with a capacity of 25 or more persons, except that no 
bailers are necessary if both sides of the floor of a reversible 
apparatus are equipped with drains;
    (iv) Sponge. One sponge as described in Sec. 160.151-21(d) on each 
apparatus with a capacity of less than 25 persons, or two sponges on 
each apparatus with a capacity of 25 or more persons;
    (v) Paddles. Two paddles as described in Sec. 160.151-21(f) on each 
apparatus with a capacity of less than 25 persons, or four paddles on 
each apparatus with a capacity of 25 or more persons;
    (vi) Flashlight. One flashlight with spare batteries as described in 
Sec. 160.151-21(m);
    (vii) Signaling mirror. One signaling mirror as described in 
Sec. 160.151-21(o);
    (viii) Repair outfit. One set of sealing clamps or plugs as 
described in Sec. 160.151-21(y)(1);
    (ix) Pump or bellows. One pump or bellows as described in 
Sec. 160.151-21(z); and
    (x) Sea anchor. One sea anchor as described in Sec. 160.151-21(e), 
attached so as to be readily deployable when the apparatus inflates.
    (13) Marking and labeling (Regulations III/39.7.3.4, III/39.7.3.5, 
and III/39.8.6). Marking and labeling of inflatable buoyant apparatus 
must be in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 160.151-33, except 
that the device must be identified as an ``INFLATABLE BUOYANT 
APPARATUS'', and no ``SOLAS'' markings shall be placed on the container 
of the apparatus. The capacity marking specified in regulation III/
39.8.6 must be applied to the top of each buoyancy tube.
    (14) Drop test. The drop test required under paragraph 1/5.1 of IMO 
Resolution A.689(17) and Sec. 160.151-27(a) may be from a lesser height, 
if that height is the maximum height of stowage marked on the container.
    (15) Loading and seating test. For the loading and seating test 
required under paragraph 1/5.7 of IMO Resolution A.689(17) and 
Sec. 160.151-27(a), the loaded freeboard of the apparatus must be not 
less than 200 mm (8 in.).
    (16) Cold-inflation test. The cold-inflation test required under 
paragraph 1/5.17.3.3.2 of IMO Resolution A.689(17) and Sec. 160.151-
27(a) must be conducted at a test temperature of -18  deg.C (0  deg.F).
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests for inflatable buoyant apparatus must be performed in accordance 
with the applicable requirements of Sec. 160.151-31.
    (c) Servicing. Inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced 
periodically at approved servicing facilities in accordance with the 
applicable requirements of Secs. 160.151-35 through 160.151-57.
    (d) Instruction placard. An instruction placard meeting the 
requirements of Sec. 160.151-59(c), giving simple procedures and 
illustrations for inflating, launching, and boarding the inflatable 
buoyant apparatus, must be made available to the operator or master of 
each vessel on which the apparatus is to be carried.
    (e) Requirements for ``open reversible liferafts'' under the IMO 
International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft (HSC Code). To be 
approved as meeting the

[[Page 32]]

requirements for open reversible liferafts in Annex 10 to the HSC Code, 
an inflatable buoyant apparatus must meet all of the requirements in 
paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, with the following 
exceptions:
    (1) The apparatus must be reversible regardless of size.
    (2) The surface of the buoyancy tubes must be of a non-slip 
material. At least 25 percent of the surface of the buoyancy tubes must 
meet the color requirements of Sec. 160.151-15(e).
    (3) The length of the painter should be such that the apparatus 
inflates automatically upon reaching the water.
    (4) An additional bowsing-in line must be fitted to an apparatus 
with a capacity of more than 30 persons.
    (5) The apparatus must be fitted with boarding ramps regardless of 
size.
    (6) An apparatus with a capacity of 30 or fewer persons must be 
fitted with at least one floor drain.
    (7) In addition to the equipment specified in Sec. 160.010-3(a)(12), 
the apparatus must be provided with--
    (i) Sponge. One additional sponge as described in Sec. 160.151-21(d) 
on each apparatus with a capacity of less than 25 persons;
    (ii) First-aid kit. A first-aid kit approved by the Commandant under 
approval series 160.054;
    (iii) Whistle. A ball-type or multi-tone whistle of corrosion-
resistant construction;
    (iv) Hand flares. Two hand flares approved by the Commandant under 
approval series 160.121.
    (8) Marking and labeling of the apparatus must be in accordance with 
Sec. 160.151-33, except that the device must be identified as a ``NON-
SOLAS REVERSIBLE'', and the equipment pack must be identified as an 
``HSC Pack''.

[CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25545, May 9, 1997]



Sec. 160.010-4  General requirements for buoyant apparatus.

    (a) Each buoyant apparatus must be capable of passing the tests in 
Sec. 160.010-7.
    (b) Materials not covered in this subpart must be of good quality 
and suitable for the purpose intended.
    (c) Buoyant apparatus must be effective and stable, floating either 
side up.
    (d) Each buoyant apparatus must be of such size and strength that it 
can be handled without the use of mechanical appliances, and its weight 
must not exceed 185 kg (400 lb.).
    (e) The buoyant material must be as near as possible to the sides of 
the apparatus.
    (f) Each buoyant apparatus must have a life line securely attached 
around the outside, festooned in bights no longer than 1 m (3 ft.), with 
a seine float in each bight, unless the line is of an inherently buoyant 
material and absorbs little or no water. The life line must be at least 
10 mm (\3/8\ in.) diameter and have a breaking strength of at least 5400 
N (1215 lb.).
    (g) Pendants must be fitted approximately 450 mm (18 in.) apart 
around the outside of each buoyant apparatus. Each pendant must be at 
least 6 mm (\1/4\ in.) diameter, at least 3.5 m (12 ft.) long, secured 
in the middle, and have a breaking strength of at least 2400 N (540 
lb.). Each pendant must be made up in a hank, and the hank secured by 
not more than two turns of light twine.
    (h) Each peripheral body type buoyant apparatus without a net or 
platform on the inside must also have a life line and pendants around 
the inside.
    (i) Synthetic line or webbing must not be used unless it is of a 
type represented by its manufacturer as ultraviolet light resistant, or 
it is pigmented in a dark color. A typical method of securing lifelines 
and pendants to straps of webbing is shown in Figure 160.010-3(i). If 
webbing is used to secure life lines and pendants, it must be at least 
50 mm (2 in.) wide and must have a breaking strength of at least 3.4 kN 
(750 lb.) for apparatus of under 25 persons capacity, and 6.7 kN (1,500 
lb.) for apparatus of 25 persons capacity and higher.

[[Page 33]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.000

    (j) Buoyant apparatus must have a fitting with an inside diameter of 
at least 50 mm (2 in.) for the attachment of a painter.
    (k) Each edge and exposed corner must be well rounded. Buoyant 
apparatus with a rectangular cross-section must have corners rounded to 
a radius of at least 75 mm (3 in.).

[[Page 34]]

    (l) Buoyant apparatus must not have any evident defects in 
workmanship.
    (m) Each metal part of a buoyant apparatus must be--
    (1) 410 stainless steel or have salt water and salt air corrosion 
characteristics equal or superior to 410 stainless steel; and
    (2) Galvanically compatible with each other metal part in contact 
with it.
    (n) The color of the buoyant apparatus must be primarily vivid 
reddish orange as defined by sections 13 and 14 of the ``Color Names 
Dictionary.''
    (o) When fibrous-glass-reinforced plastic is used in the 
construction of a buoyant apparatus, each cut edge of laminate must be 
protected from entry of moisture by resin putty or an equivalent method.
    (p) Each buoyant apparatus must have Type II retroreflective 
material meeting subpart 164.018 of this chapter on each side and end. 
The material must be in strips at least 50 mm (2 in.) wide extending 
from top to bottom over the side or end and continuing over the top and 
bottom surfaces of the apparatus. For peripheral body apparatus, each 
strip must extend completely over the top and bottom surface of the 
body. For box type apparatus, the strip must extend at least 300 mm (12 
in.) inboard from the edge over the top and bottom surface. Each strip 
must be positioned near the center of the side or end, but so that it is 
not obscured by any strap. A typical arrangement is shown in Figure 
160.010-3(p).
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.001


[CGD 79-167, 47 FR 41372, Sept. 20, 1982. Redesignated by CGD 85-205, 62 
FR 25545, May 9, 1997]



Sec. 160.010-5  Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.

    (a) Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy must have a plastic 
foam body with an external protective covering. The body may be 
reinforced as necessary to meet the tests in Sec. 160.010-7.
    (b) Plastic foam used in the construction of buoyant apparatus must 
be a unicellular type accepted by the Commandant (G-MSE) as meeting one 
of the following:
    (1) Subpart 164.015 of this chapter.
    (2) MIL-P-19644.
    (3) MIL-P-21929.
    (4) MIL-P-40619.
    (c) The external protective covering must be--
    (1) Fibrous-glass-reinforced plastic, constructed of a polyester 
resin listed on the current Qualified Products List for MIL-P-21607, or 
accepted by the Commandant (G-MSE) as meeting MIL-P-21607;
    (2) Elastomeric vinyl accepted by the Commandant (G-MSE) as meeting 
Sec. 160.055-3(j) of this chapter; or
    (3) Any other material accepted by the Commandant (G-MSE) as 
providing equivalent protection for the body of the apparatus.

[CGD 79-167, 47 FR 41372, Sept. 20, 1982, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 
FR 50466, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996. 
Redesignated by CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25545, May 9, 1997]



Sec. 160.010-6  Capacity of buoyant apparatus.

    (a) The number of persons for which a buoyant apparatus is approved 
must be the lowest number determined by the following methods:
    (1) Final buoyancy of the buoyant apparatus in Newtons after the 
watertight integrity test as described in Sec. 160.010-7 (e) and (f), 
divided by 145 (divided by 32 if buoyancy is measured in pounds). The 
divisor must be changed to 180 (40 if buoyancy is measured in pounds) if 
the apparatus is designed so that persons supported are only partially 
immersed or where facilities are provided for climbing on top of the 
apparatus.
    (2) Number of 300 mm (1 ft.) increments in the outside perimeter of 
the buoyant apparatus. The inside edge of

[[Page 35]]

peripheral-body type buoyant apparatus is not considered in determining 
the capacity.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.010-7  Methods of sampling, inspections and tests.

    (a) General. Production tests must be conducted under the procedures 
in subpart 159.007 of this chapter. An inspector from the independent 
laboratory must inspect the place of manufacture, observe the various 
operations involved in the construction process and determine that 
buoyant apparatus are made in accordance with this subpart and of 
materials and parts conforming strictly with the plans and 
specifications submitted by the manufacturer and approved by the 
Commandant (G-MSE).
    (b) Sampling of production lots. A production lot must consist of 
not more than 300 buoyant apparatus of the same design and capacity 
manufactured by one factory. Samples for production tests must be 
selected at random from each lot. The required sample size for various 
lot sizes is given in Table 160.010-7(b).

          Table 160.010-7(b)--Sample Size for Various Lot Sizes
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Sample
                           Lot size                               size
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 to 30.......................................................         1
31 to 60......................................................         2
61 to 90......................................................         3
91 to 300.....................................................         4
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (c) Testing of sample buoyant apparatus from production lots. Each 
sample buoyant apparatus selected for test from a production lot must be 
subjected to the tests described in paragraphs (d) through (g) of this 
section. The stability test in paragraph (h) must be performed whenever 
a question of stability arises.
    (d) Strength tests. The buoyant apparatus tested for approval must 
be subjected to the drop test. Buoyant apparatus tested for production 
lot inspections must also be subjected to the drop test except that in 
the case of peripheral body type apparatus, the beam loading test may be 
substituted.
    (1) Drop test. Drop the complete sample buoyant apparatus into still 
water from a height of 18 m (60 ft.) twice, once flat and once endwise. 
There must be no damage that would render the apparatus unserviceable.
    (2) Beam loading test. The buoyant apparatus must be stood on edge 
on one of its longer sides. A wood block 600 mm (24 in.) long and wide 
enough to cover the body of the apparatus must be centered on the top 
edge of the apparatus. A loading beam must be set at right angles to the 
float at a height so that the beam is in a horizontal position with its 
center on the center of the wood block. The loading beam must be hinged 
at one end and a load applied at the other end at a uniform rate of 225 
kg (500 lb.) per minute until the load at the end of the beam as shown 
on Table 160.010-7(d)(2) is reached. The beam is then held stationary 
for 10 minutes. The device used to apply the load must be a chain fall, 
hydraulic cylinder or other device that allows the device to unload as 
the strain on the buoyant apparatus relieves. At the end of the 10 
minute period, the drop in the load on the device must not exceed the 
maximum permissible drop shown in Table 160.010-7(d)(2). If the buoyant 
apparatus is not one of the sizes listed in the table, the loads must be 
determined by linear interpolation.

    Note: Because of the lever ratio of the beam loading apparatus 
described here, the actual loads applied to the apparatus are twice the 
loads shown in the Table.


                Table 160.010-7(d)(2)--Beam Loading Test
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Maximum
                                                 Test load   permissible
     Size of buoyant apparatus (persons)        (kg (lb.))     drop (kg
                                                                (lb.))
------------------------------------------------------------------------
60...........................................         2,400   120 (264)
                                                    (5,280)
40...........................................         1,800    90 (198)
                                                    (3,960)
25...........................................         1,500    75 (165)
                                                    (3,300)
15...........................................         1,200    60 (132)
                                                    (2,640)
10...........................................   900 (1,980)    45 (100)
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (e) Buoyancy test. Known weights are loaded on the sample buoyant 
apparatus until it is awash. The buoyancy is the downward force exerted 
by the weights loaded on the apparatus. A raised platform of known 
weight having two runners on edge spaced so as to bear on the apparatus 
may be used to support the weights out of water to

[[Page 36]]

avoid the necessity for making allowances for the displacement of 
submerged weights. This test is not a required production test if the 
manufacturer--
    (1) Uses the same plastic buoyancy foam used in previous production 
lots,
    (2) Determines that the density of each batch of foam used is within 
a range specified on the approved plans, and
    (3) Closely controls the amount of foam used in each apparatus.
    (f) Watertight integrity test. The buoyant apparatus is submerged 
for 24 hours at a depth of 3 m (10 ft.) or equivalent water pressure. 
The final buoyancy of the buoyant apparatus is determined in accordance 
with paragraph (e) of this section. The final buoyancy must be at least 
145 N (32 lb.) per person capacity of the buouyant apparatus or 180 N 
(40 lb.) per person capacity if the apparatus is designed so that 
persons supported are only partially immersed or if facilities are 
provided for climbing on top of the apparatus. The loss of buoyancy must 
not exceed 5 percent of the initial buoyancy. This test is not a 
required production test if the manufacturer uses the plastic buoyancy 
foam controls permitted as an alternative to the buoyancy test in 
paragraph (e) of this section.
    (g) Painter attachment strength test. The apparatus must be 
positioned with its painter attachment fitting at the lowest point of 
the apparatus, directly below the center of buoyancy. The apparatus must 
be suspended in this position from the highest side. A load equal to 
twice the buoyancy of the apparatus must be suspended from the painter 
attachment fitting for 10 minutes. The fitting must remain firmly 
attached to the buoyant apparatus and the apparatus must not sustain any 
visible damage.
    (h) Stability test. With the sample buoyant apparatus floating in 
water, a weight of 22.5 kg of iron per meter of length (15 lb. per foot) 
must be suspended in the water from the life lines along one of the 
longer edges. The same test must be performed along one of the shorter 
edges. The minimum weight along any one edge must be 27 kg (60 lb.). The 
buoyant apparatus must neither capsize nor become partially awash under 
either of these tests.
    (i) Weight test. One buoyant apparatus of the lot submitted for 
approval must be weighed. The weight of the complete buoyant apparatus 
must be within the limit required in Sec. 160.010-3(d).
    (j) Lot acceptance or rejection. Inability of a sample buoyant 
apparatus to pass any one or more of the tests required in this section 
causes rejection of the lot. Each buoyant apparatus in a rejected lot 
must be reworked by the manufacturer to correct the defects found before 
the lot is resubmitted for inspection and testing.

[CGD 79-167, 47 FR 41372, Sept. 20, 1982, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 
FR 50466, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.010-8  Nameplate and marking.

    (a) A substantial nameplate must be permanently attached to each 
buoyant apparatus. The nameplate must contain the name of the 
manufacturer, lot designation or serial number, approval number, 
dimensions, and number of persons capacity. Space must be provided for 
the date, and the identification of the independent laboratory.
    (b) The nameplates of buoyant apparatus accepted must be marked with 
the identification of the independent laboratory and the date.



Sec. 160.010-9  Procedure for approval.

    (a) A buoyant apparatus is approved by the Coast Guard under the 
procedures in subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) The test required for approval are those in Sec. 160.010-7, and 
must be performed on the first production lot of buoyant apparatus 
produced by the manufacturer.



Sec. 160.010-10  Independent laboratory.

    (a) The approval and production tests in this subpart must be 
conducted by an independent laboratory accepted by the Coast Guard under 
subpart 159.010 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]

Subparts 160.011-160.012  [Reserved]

[[Page 37]]



 Subpart 160.013--Hatchets (Lifeboat and Liferaft) for Merchant Vessels



Sec. 160.013-1  Applicable specification and plan.

    (a) Specification. The following specification, of the issue in 
effect on the date hatchets are manufactured, forms a part of this 
subpart:
    (1) Federal Specification:

GGG-A-926--Axes.

    (b) Plan. The following plan, of the issue in effect on the date 
hatchets are manufactured, forms a part of this subpart:
    (1) Dwg. No. 160.013-1 (b)--Hatchet (Lifeboat and Life Raft).
    (c) Copy on file. A copy of the specification and plan referred to 
in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together with 
the approved plans and certificate of approval. They shall be kept for a 
period consisting of the duration of approval and 6 months after 
termination of approval. The Federal specification may be purchased from 
the Business Service Center, General Services Administration, 
Washington, DC, 20407. The Coast Guard plan may be obtained upon request 
from the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard.

[CGFR 49-43, 15 FR 116, Jan. 11, 1950, as amended by CGFR 61-23, 26 FR 
5758, June 28, 1961; CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 10898, Aug. 21, 1965; CGD 88-070, 
53 FR 34535, Sept. 7, 1988]



Sec. 160.013-2  Type and size.

    (a) Type. Hatchets specified by this subpart shall be Type I, Class 
I, Design D or E, as described in Federal Specification GGG-A-926, but 
other hatchets equal in strength and construction will be given special 
consideration.
    (b) Size. Hatchets specified by this subpart shall be of one size, 
and the dimensions shall be approximately in conformance with Drawing 
No. 160.013-1(b).

[CGFR 49-43, 15 FR 116, Jan. 11, 1950, as amended by CGFR 61-23, 26 FR 
5759, June 28, 1961]



Sec. 160.013-3  Materials, workmanship, and construction details.

    (a) General. All materials, workmanship, and construction details 
shall be in substantial compliance with the provisions of Federal 
Specification GGG-A-926, except as provided for in this subpart.
    (b) Handle. A \1/2\-inch diameter hole shall be bored in the hatchet 
handle in the approximate location shown on DWG No. 160.013-1(b), and 
the edges of the hole on both sides of the handle shall be rounded off 
to remove rough edges.
    (c) Lanyard. Hatchets specified by this subpart shall be provided 
with a lanyard of \1/4\-inch diameter, 3-strand rope-laid line not less 
than 6 feet in length. Lanyards shall be cotton, jute, or other suitable 
material. The lanyard shall be attached to the hatchet by threading one 
end through the hole in the hatchet handle and securing the rope end by 
splicing or by a bowline or other suitable knot.
    (d) Sheath. No sheaths are to be provided for hatchets specified by 
this subpart.

[CGFR 49-43, 15 FR 116, Jan. 11, 1950, as amended by CGFR 61-23, 26 FR 
5759, June 28, 1961]



Sec. 160.013-5  Marking.

    (a) General. Hatchets specified by this subpart shall be stamped or 
otherwise permanently marked in a legible manner on the side of the head 
with the manufacturer's name or with a trade mark of such known 
character that the source of manufacture may be readily determined, and 
with the manufacturer's type or size designation.
    (b) [Reserved]

[CGFR 49-43, 15 FR 116, Jan. 11, 1950]



         Subpart 160.015--Lifeboat Winches for Merchant Vessels



Sec. 160.015-1  Applicable regulations.

    (a) Regulations. The following regulations of the issue in effect on 
the date lifeboat winches are manufactured, form a part of this subpart.
    (1) Coast Guard regulations; Electrical Engineering Regulations, CG-
259 (46 CFR (subchapter J) parts 110 to 113, inclusive of this chapter).
    (2) Coast Guard regulations; Marine Engineering Regulations (46 CFR 
subchapter F, parts 50 to 63, inclusive in this chapter).

[[Page 38]]

    (b) Copies on file. A copy of the regulations referred to in this 
section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together with the 
approved plans, material affidavits, and the certificate of approval.

[CGFR 58-31, 23 FR 6883, Sept. 6, 1958, as amended by CGD 72-133R, 37 FR 
17038, Aug. 24, 1972]



Sec. 160.015-2  General requirements for lifeboat winches.

    (a) The requirements of this subpart apply to all new construction 
of lifeboat winches. Lifeboat winches approved and in use prior to the 
regulations in this subpart may be continued in service if in 
satisfactory condition.
    (b) Lifeboat winches for use with gravity davits shall have grooved 
drums of such size that there will be only one wrap of wire on the drum. 
Lifeboat winches for use with mechanical davits need not be grooved and 
may be designed to take more than one wrap.
    (c) Lifeboat winches shall be designed to lower under the force of 
gravity alone. There shall be no provisions for power lowering. A 
suitable hand wheel shall be attached to the winch to overhaul the falls 
in addition to any hand cranks provided.
    (d) If the lifeboat winch is to be used in conjunction with nested 
lifeboats where the same falls are used for both boats, suitable means 
shall be provided for rapidly retrieving the falls by hand power.
    (e) The installation of lifeboat winches shall be such that the 
fleet angle for grooved drums does not exceed 8 degrees, and for 
nongrooved drums does not exceed 4 degrees.
    (f) Suitable hand cranks shall be provided for hoisting in addition 
to any other means for hoisting.
    (g) Suitable fabric covers shall be provided, so fitted over exposed 
mechanisms that ice formations may be readily broken adrift when 
necessary to operate the winch.
    (h) Falls shall not lead past any position that may be needed for 
the operation of the winch, such as hand cranks, pay-out wheels, brake 
levers, etc.
    (i) Where falls lead along a deck they shall be suitably covered and 
so arranged that the top of the cover does not exceed 12 inches above 
the deck.
    (j) Lifeboat winches shall be so designed that when located aboard 
merchant vessels the operator can observe the movement of the lifeboat 
during the lowering operation.
    (k) For the purpose of calculations and conducting tests, the 
working load is the maximum load in pounds applied to the winch for 
which approval is desired.
    (k-1) The exterior of a winch shall be designed to minimize such 
crevices, pockets, and inaccessible areas that when corroded would 
require disassembly of the winch for their scaling and painting.
    (k-2) [Reserved]
    (l) The requirements of this subpart shall be complied with unless 
other arrangements in matters of construction details, design, strength, 
equivalent in safety and efficiency are approved by the Commandant.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5111, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 58-31, 23 FR 
6883, Sept. 6, 1958; CGD 72-133R, 37 FR 17038, Aug. 24, 1972]



Sec. 160.015-3  Construction of lifeboat winches.

    (a) Lifeboat winches shall be of such strength that the lifeboat may 
be lowered safely with its full complement of persons and equipment. 
Additionally, a lifeboat winch used in hoisting an emergency lifeboat of 
a passenger vessel shall be capable of meeting the test specified in 
Sec. 160.015-5(b)(9). A minimum factor of safety of six on the ultimate 
strength of the material shall be maintained at all times based on the 
approved working load.
    (b) Worm gears, spur gears, or a combination of both, may be used in 
the construction of lifeboat winches. All gears shall be machine cut and 
made of steel, bronze, or other suitable material properly keyed to 
shafts. The use of cast iron is not permitted for these parts.
    (c) Screws, nuts, bolts, pins, keys, etc., securing moving parts 
shall be fitted with suitable lock washers, cotter pins, or locks to 
prevent them from coming adrift.
    (d) Drums shall be so arranged as to keep the falls separate, and to 
pay out

[[Page 39]]

the falls at the same rate. Clutches between the drums shall not be 
permitted unless bolted locking devices are used.
    (e) The diameter of the drums shall be at least 16 times the 
diameter of the falls.
    (f) A weighted lever hand brake shall be used to control the 
lowering by the lifeboat winch. It shall be of a type which is normally 
in the ``on'' position unless manually held in the ``off'' position, and 
shall return to the ``on'' position as soon as the brake lever is 
released.
    (g) In addition to the hand brake, a governor type brake shall be 
fitted so as to control the speed of lowering of the lifeboat in 
accordance with Sec. 160.015-5(b) (4) and (5).
    (h) Positive means of lubrication shall be provided for all 
bearings. When worm gears are used the worm wheel shall operate in an 
oil bath. Means shall be provided so that the oil level in the gear case 
may be easily checked. The manufacturer shall furnish a lubrication 
chart for each winch together with a plate attached to the winch 
indicating the lubricant recommended for extremes in temperature.
    (i) When lifeboat winches are fitted with power for hoisting, a 
suitable clutch shall be fitted to disengage the power installation 
during the lowering operation. In addition, the air or electric power 
outlet for a portable power unit shall be located adjacent to the winch 
where the unit is to be coupled. This power outlet shall be 
interconnected with and protected by the same system of safety devices 
as required for winches with built-in-motors.
    (j) Where power-driven lifeboat winches are used, including those 
driven by portable power units, such as air or electric drills, positive 
means shall be provided for controlling the power to the lifeboat winch. 
This shall be so arranged that the operator must hold the master switch 
or controller in the ``on'' or ``hoist'' position for hoisting, and when 
released will immediately shut off the power.
    (k) Limit switch and emergency disconnect switch requirements:
    (1) A main line emergency disconnect switch shall be provided, the 
opening of which will disconnect all electrical potential to the 
lifeboat winch. This switch shall be located in a position accessible to 
the person in charge of the boat stowage, and for gravity davit 
installations, shall be in a position from which the movement of both 
davit arms can be observed as they approach the final stowed position.
    (2) Where power driven winches are used with gravity davits, two 
limit switches, one for each davit arm, shall be provided to limit the 
travel of the davit arms as they approach the final stowed position. 
These switches shall be connected in series, they may be connected in 
either the control or the power circuit, and they shall be so arranged 
that the opening of either switch will disconnect all electrical 
potential of the circuit in which the switches are connected. These 
switches shall be arranged to stop the travel of the davit arms not less 
than 12 inches from their final stowed position and they shall remain 
open until the davit arms move outboard beyond the tripping position of 
the switches.
    (3) Other arrangements equivalent in design and safety will be given 
special consideration.
    (l) Where power driven winches are used, satisfactory means shall be 
provided to disconnect power to the winch before a hand crank can be 
engaged with the winch operating shaft, and this interruption of power 
shall be maintained while the hand crank is so engaged. Mechanical means 
for accomplishing the above, such as throw-out couplings on the sockets 
of the hand cranks, will be given special consideration.
    (m) Motors, switches, controls, cables, etc., shall be of the 
waterproof type if installed on an open deck. Controls may be of the 
dripproof type if installed in a deck house or under deck. Installations 
shall be in accordance with subchapter J (Electrical Engineering) of 
this chapter (Electrical Engineering Regulations, CG-259).
    (n) All moving parts shall have suitable guards.
    (o) Welding, when employed, shall be performed by welders certified 
by the U. S. Coast Guard, American Bureau of Shipping, or U.S. Navy 
Department, and the electrodes used shall be of an approved type.

[[Page 40]]

    (p) Inspection openings shall be provided in the winch housing or 
the housing itself shall be so arranged as to permit examination of the 
internal working parts.
    (q) Motor clutches, when used, shall be of either frictional or 
positive engaging type. When one motor is used for two winches, the 
clutch shall be so arranged that only one winch shall be engaged at any 
one time. The clutch operating lever shall be capable of remaining in 
any position when subject to vibration and shall be so arranged that 
when in neutral position, both lifeboats may be lowered simultaneously.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5111, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 51-20, 16 FR 
5443, June 8, 1951; CGFR 58-31, 23 FR 6883, Sept. 6, 1958; CGFR 65-9, 30 
FR 11465, Sept. 8, 1965; CGD 72-133R, 37 FR 17039, Aug. 24, 1972; CGD 
73-103R, 39 FR 11273, Mar. 27, 1974]



Sec. 160.015-4  Capacity of lifeboat winches.

    (a) A lifeboat winch shall be approved for a working load after it 
has been demonstrated by detailed calculations that this working load 
can be carried with a minimum factor of safety of six based on the 
ultimate strengths of the materials. It will also be necessary to 
conduct the tests specified in Sec. 160.015-5.
    (b) [Reserved]

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5111, Aug. 17, 1949]



Sec. 160.015-5  Inspection and testing of lifeboat winches.

    (a) Material testing. (1) The manufacturer shall furnish affidavits 
relative to the physical and chemical properties of the materials. Such 
affidavits shall be furnished by the foundry or mill supplying the 
material.
    (b) Factory test for initial approval. (1) Lifeboat winches shall be 
tested for strength and operation at a place chosen by the manufacturer 
of the winch in the presence of an inspector. The lifeboat winch under 
test shall be set up similar to the intended shipboard installation. In 
the case of a lifeboat winch with nongrooved drums, the drums shall be 
built up or sufficiently filled with wire to simulate the maximum number 
of wraps for which the winch is to be approved. The tests to be 
conducted are as noted in paragraphs (b)(2) to (8) of this section. The 
limiting values of velocities and the 2 foot braking distance set forth 
in the following paragraphs of this section are the values to be 
actually achieved with the specific arrangement of falls contemplated 
for the shipboard installation. If a different arrangement of falls is 
used to facilitate testing, due consideration shall be given to the use 
of limiting velocities, braking distances, and test weights which will 
be equivalent to the test performed with an arrangement of falls 
identical to that used for the shipboard installation.
    (2) A pull of 2.2 times the working load, equally divided between 
drums, shall be applied in a direction similar to a shipboard 
installation. The test weight producing this load shall be dropped 
through a distance of not less than 15 feet, at which time this weight 
shall be stopped within a distance of 2 feet by action of the 
counterweight alone on the hand brake.
    (3) A test identical to that noted in paragraph (b)(2) of this 
section shall be conducted after the braking surfaces have been 
thoroughly wetted. The test weight shall be stopped by the action of the 
counterweight alone within a distance of 6 feet. The test need only be 
applied to lifeboat winches having external brakes.
    (4) With a pull equal to the working load, it shall be determined 
that the governor brake will limit the speed of lowering of the test 
weight to a maximum of 120 feet per minute, except that, in the case of 
winches designed for use with emergency lifeboats aboard passenger 
vessels, the speed of lowering shall not exceed 160 feet per minute.
    (5) With a pull equal to 0.3 times the working load, it shall be 
determined that the winch will lower the test weight at not less than 40 
feet per minute, except that, in the case of winches designed for use 
with emergency lifeboats aboard passenger vessels, the speed of lowering 
shall not be less than 60 feet per minute.
    (6) With a pull equal to the working load, the test weight shall be 
lowered and raised a sufficient number of times so that the combined 
lowering distance is not less than 500 feet. This test is to

[[Page 41]]

determine the efficiency of the lifeboat winch for prolonged service.
    (7) With a pull equal to 0.5 times the working load, it shall be 
demonstrated that the lifeboat winch can be hand operated by hoisting 
the test weight without undue effort. For gravity davits, it shall be 
demonstrated that this test weight can be carried easily from a point at 
which the traveling blocks of the falls are 1 foot below their outboard, 
two-blocked position, and then up and around the bend of the trackways 
to the stowed position of the lifeboat.
    (8) Where a quick return mechanism is installed it shall be 
demonstrated that a weight equal to 2.2 times the weight of the empty 
blocks can be handily retrieved through the regular reeving of the falls 
at a rate of not less than 40 feet per minute at the drum by one man.
    (9) The following test applies to a lifeboat winch used for hoisting 
an emergency lifeboat of a passenger vessel. With a weight equal to the 
weight of the emergency lifeboat and its full complement of persons and 
equipment, it shall be demonstrated that the weight can be hoisted 
through the regular reeving of the falls at a rate of not less than 20 
feet per minute, to the embarkation position.
    (10) After the tests noted in paragraphs (b)(2) to (9) of this 
section have been conducted, the winch shall be completely disassembled 
and the marine inspector shall ascertain that no undue stress or wear 
has been incurred.
    (c) Factory testing after approval. (1) After a design of a lifeboat 
winch has been approved, subsequent winches of the same design shall be 
individually tested as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
    (2) Each lifeboat winch shall be set up in a manner similar to that 
described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. With a pull equal to 1.1 
times the working load, the test weight shall be dropped through a 
distance of not less than 15 feet, at which time the load shall be 
stopped by the action of the counterweight alone. This test is to 
demonstrate the operation of the winch, and if satisfactory, no further 
test need be required. However, if the inspector is not satisfied with 
the operation of the winch, a complete test as noted in paragraph (b) of 
this section may be required.
    (d) Name plate. (1) A corrosion resistant name plate shall be 
affixed to each lifeboat winch on which shall be stamped the name of the 
manufacturer, approval number, maximum working load in pounds pull at 
the drums, maximum working load in pounds pull per fall type and serial 
number, together with the Marine Inspection Office identification 
letters, the date, and the letters U.S.C.G.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5112, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 58-31, 23 FR 
6883, Sept. 6, 1958; CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11465, Sept. 8, 1965; CGD 72-133R, 
37 FR 17039, Aug. 24, 1972; CGD 75-186, 41 FR 10437, Mar. 11, 1976]



Sec. 160.015-6  Procedure for approval of lifeboat winches.

    (a) Before action is taken on any design of lifeboat winch, detail 
plans covering fully the arrangement and construction of the lifeboat 
winch, a complete bill of material setting forth the physical properties 
of the materials used, and strength calculations, shall be submitted to 
the Commandant through the Commander of the Coast Guard District having 
jurisdiction over the construction of the lifeboat winch.
    (b) If the drawings required in paragraph (a) of this section are 
satisfactory, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which the 
lifeboat winch is to be built, shall be notified in writing when 
fabrication is to commence. An inspector will be assigned to supervise 
the construction in accordance with the plans and upon completion, 
conduct the tests required by Sec. 160.015-5.
    (c) At the time that the tests are successfully completed, the 
manufacturer shall present to the inspector four corrected copies of the 
plans noted in paragraph (a) of this section, including any corrections, 
changes, or additions which may have been found necessary during 
construction or testing. If the manufacturer desires more than one set 
of approved plans, additional copies shall be submitted at that time.
    (d) Upon receipt of corrected drawings, material affidavits, and 
satisfactory test report, the Commandant will issue a certificate of 
approval. No

[[Page 42]]

change shall be made in the design or construction without first 
receiving permission of the Commandant via the Commander of the Coast 
Guard District in which the lifeboat winch is built.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5112, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 58-31, 23 FR 
6884, Sept. 6, 1958]



       Subpart 160.016--Lamps, Safety, Flame, for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGFR 50-12, 15 FR 3093, May 20, 1950, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.016-1  Applicable specification.

    (a) The following specification of the issue in effect on the date 
flame safety lamps are manufactured forms a part of this subpart:
    (1) Military specification:

MIL-L-1204, Lamps, Safety, Flame.

    (b) A copy of the above specification shall be kept on file by the 
manufacturer together with the approved plan and certificate of approval 
issued by the Coast Guard.



Sec. 160.016-2  Requirements.

    (a) Flame safety lamps for use on merchant vessels shall comply with 
the construction requirements of Military Specification MIL-L-1204.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.016-4  Marking.

    (a) Flame safety lamps shall be permanently and legibly marked with 
the name and address of the manufacturer and the type or model 
designation for the lamp.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.016-5  Procedure for approval.

    (a) General. Flame safety lamps are approved for use on merchant 
vessels only by the Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Washington, 
DC 20226. Correspondence relating to the subject matter of this 
specification shall be addressed to the Commander of the Coast Guard 
District in which such devices are manufactured.
    (b) Pre-approval sample and plan. In order to apply for approval of 
a flame safety lamp for use on merchant vessels, submit one complete 
sample, together with four copies of an arrangement plan (parts drawings 
are not required), together with a statement that the lamp meets the 
construction requirements of Military Specification MIL-L-1204, as 
amended, to the Commander of the Coast Guard District who will forward 
same to the Commandant for determination as to its suitability for use 
on merchant vessels.



                      Subpart 160.017--Chain Ladder

    Source: CGD 74-140, 46 FR 63286, Dec. 31, 1981, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.017-1  Scope.

    (a) This subpart contains standards and approval and production 
tests for chain ladders used on a merchant vessel to get on and off the 
vessel in an emergency.
    (b) The requirements in this subpart apply to a chain ladder 
designed for use along a vertical portion of a vessel's hull.



Sec. 160.017-7  Independent laboratory.

    The approval and production tests in this subpart must be conducted 
by or under the supervision of an independent laboratory accepted by the 
Coast Guard under subpart 159.010 of this chapter.



Sec. 160.017-9  Approval procedure.

    (a) General. A chain ladder is approved by the Coast Guard under the 
procedures in subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) Approval testing. Each approval test must be conducted in 
accordance with Sec. 160.017-21.
    (c) Approval of alternatives. A chain ladder that does not meet the 
materials, construction, or performance requirements of this subpart may 
be approved if the application and any approval tests prescribed by the 
Commandant in place of or in addition to the approval tests required by 
this subpart, show that the alternative materials, construction, or 
performance is at least as effective as that specified by the 
requirements of this subpart. The

[[Page 43]]

Commandant may also prescribe different production tests if the tests 
required by this subpart are not appropriate for the alternative ladder 
configuration.



Sec. 160.017-11  Materials.

    (a) Suspension members. Each suspension member of a chain ladder 
must be a continuous length of non-kinking chain, such as single loop 
lock link coil chain, with a minimum breaking strength of at least 16 kN 
(3,560 lbs.).
    (b) Metal parts. Each metal part of a ladder must be made of 
corrosion-resistant metal or of steel galvanized by the hot dip process 
after the part is formed. If the ends of galvanized fasteners are peened 
over to lock them in place, a corrosion resisting surface treatment must 
be applied to each peened surface.
    (c) Wooden parts. Each wooden part of a ladder must be made of 
hardwood that is free of defects affecting its strength or durability.
    (d) Wood preservative. After each wooden part is formed and 
finished, it must be treated with water-repellant wood preservative that 
is properly applied.
    (e) Lashing rings. The inside diameter of each lashing ring must be 
at least 75 mm (3 in.). Each lashing ring must have a minimum breaking 
strength of at least 16 kN (3,560 lbs.).



Sec. 160.017-13  Construction.

    (a) General. Each chain ladder must have two suspension members. 
Each step in the ladder must be supported at each end by a suspension 
member.
    (b) Suspension member. The distance between the two suspension 
members must be at least 400 mm (16 in.), but not more than 480 mm (19 
in.). The chain between each top lashing ring and the first step must be 
long enough so that the distance between the center of the lashing ring 
and the top of the first step is approximately 600 mm (24 in.).
    (c) Lashing rings. A lashing ring must be securely attached to the 
top and bottom of each suspension member. The means of attachment must 
be at least as strong as the chain and the lashing ring.
    (d) Thimble or wear plate. A thimble or wear plate must be attached 
to the chain where it can slide on its connections to the lashing rings.
    (e) Steps. Each step of a ladder must have two rungs arranged to 
provide a suitable handhold and stepping surface. The distance between 
steps must be uniform. This distance must be between 300 mm (12 in.) and 
380 mm (15 in.).
    (f) Rungs. Step rungs must meet the following requirements:
    (1) Each rung must be wooden, or a material of equivalent strength, 
durability, handhold, and step surface characteristics.
    (2) In order to provide a suitable handhold and step surface, the 
width of each rung must be at least 40 mm (1\1/2\ in.) and the thickness 
must be at least 25 mm (1 in.), but not more than 40 mm (1\1/2\ in.).
    (3) The distance between the rungs in each step must be uniform. 
This distance must be between 40 mm (1\1/2\ in.) and 65 mm (2\1/2\ in.).
    (4) Each rung must be attached to a spacer ear by a method that 
prevents the rung from rotating and that supports it in a horizontal 
position when the ladder is hung vertically.
    (g) Spacer ears. Spacer ears must meet the following requirements:
    (1) All spacer ears on a ladder must be the same size and shape.
    (2) The top and bottom of each spacer ear must be attached to a 
suspension member.
    (3) The top point of attachment must be at least 100 mm (4 in.) 
above the top surfaces of the rungs attached to the spacer ear.
    (4) Each spacer ear made of sheet metal must have features such as 
formed ribs, rolled flange edges, and stress relief holes at the ends of 
cuts, to prevent the ear from bending or tearing.
    (h) Fasteners. Each fastening device must have a means to prevent 
the device from loosening.
    (i) Workmanship. A ladder must not have splinters, burrs, sharp 
edges, corners, projections, or other defects that could injure a person 
using the ladder.

[[Page 44]]



Sec. 160.017-15  Performance.

    (a) Each chain ladder must be capable of being rolled up for 
storage.
    (b) Each ladder when rolled up must be able to unroll freely and 
hang vertically.



Sec. 160.017-17  Strength.

    (a) Each chain ladder must be designed to pass the approval tests in 
Sec. 160.17-21.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.017-21  Approval tests.

    (a) General. Each approval test must be conducted on a ladder of the 
longest length for which approval has been requested. If a ladder fails 
one of the tests in this section, the cause of the failure must be 
identified and any needed changes made. After a test failure and any 
design change, the failed test, and any other previously completed tests 
affected by the design change, must be rerun.
    (b) Visual examination. Before starting the tests described in this 
section, an assembled chain ladder is examined for evidence of 
noncompliance with the requirements in Secs. 160.017.11, 160.017-13, and 
160.017-15.
    (c) The following approval tests must be conducted:
    (1) Strength test 1. An assembled ladder is supported so that a 
static load, if placed on any of its steps, would exert a force both on 
the step and each suspension member. A static load of 315 kg (700 lb.) 
is then placed on one step for at least one minute. The load must be 
uniformly distributed over a contact surface that is approximately 100 
mm (4 in.) wide. The center of the contact surface must be at the center 
of the step. This test is performed on six different steps. No step may 
break, crack, or incur any deformation that remains after the static 
load is removed. No attachment between any step and a suspension member 
may loosen or break during this test.
    (2) Strength test 2. A ladder is suspended vertically to its full 
length from its top lashing rings. A static load of 900 kg (2000 lbs.) 
is then applied to the bottom lashing rings so that it is distributed 
equally between the suspension members. The suspension members, lashing 
rings, and spacer ears must not break, incur any elongation or 
deformation that remains after the test load is removed, or be damaged 
in any other way during this test.
    (3) Strength test 3. A rolled-up ladder is attached by its top 
lashing rings to anchoring fixtures in a location away from any wall or 
structure that would prevent it from falling freely, and where it can 
hang to its full length vertically. The ladder when dropped must unroll 
freely. When unrolling the ladder, its steps and attachments must not 
become cracked, broken, or loosened. Other similar damage making the 
ladder unsafe to use must likewise not occur.



Sec. 160.017-25  Marking.

    (a) Each chain ladder step manufactured under Coast Guard approval 
must be branded or otherwise permanently and legibly marked on the 
bottom with--
    (1) The name of the manufacturer;
    (2) The manufacturer's brand or model designation;
    (3) The lot number and date of manufacture; and
    (4) The Coast Guard approval number.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.017-27  Production tests and examination.

    (a) General. Each ladder manufactured under Coast Guard approval 
must be tested in accordance with this section and subpart 159.007 of 
this chapter. Steps that fail testing may not be marked with the Coast 
Guard approval number and each assembled ladder that fails testing may 
not be sold as Coast Guard approved.
    (b) Test 1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps 
or less. One step from each lot must be selected at random and tested as 
described in Sec. 106.017-21(c)(1), except that the step may be 
supported at the points where it would be attached to suspension members 
in an assembled ladder. If the step fails the test, ten more steps must 
be selected at random from the lot and tested. If one or more of the ten 
steps fails the test, each step in the lot must be tested.

[[Page 45]]

    (c) Test 2: Ladders. Assembled ladders must be separated into lots 
of 20 ladders or less One ladder must be selected at random from the 
ladders in the lot. The ladder selected must be at least 3 m (10 ft.) 
long or, if each ladder in the lot is less than 3 m long, a ladder of 
the longest length in the lot must be selected. The ladder must be 
tested as prescribed in Sec. 160.017-21(c)(2), except that only a 3 m 
section of the ladder need be subjected to the static load. If the 
ladder fails the test each other ladder in the lot must be tested.
    (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted 
or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is 
performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory participation 
is required only 4 times per year. If the laboratory does not 
participate in all tests, the times of laboratory participation must be 
as selected by the laboratory. The times selected must provide for 
effective monitoring throughout the production schedule.
    (e) Visual examination. The visual examination described in 
Sec. 160.017-21(b) must be conducted as a part of each production test.



            Subpart 160.021--Hand Red Flare Distress Signals

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73060, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.021-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The following is incorporated by reference into this subpart:
    (1) ``The Universal Color Language'' and ``The Color Names 
Dictionary'' in Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Names, 
National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 440, December 1976.
    (b) NBS Special Publication 440 may be obtained by ordering from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, DC 20402 (Order by SD Catalog No. C13.10:440).
    (c) Approval to incorporate by reference the publication listed in 
this section was obtained from the Director of the Federal Register on 
November 1, 1979. The publication is on file at the Federal Register 
Library.



Sec. 160.021-2  Type.

    (a) Hand red flare distress signals specified by this subpart shall 
be of one type which shall consist essentially of a wooden handle to 
which is attached a tubular casing having a sealing plug at the handle 
end, the casing being filled with a flare composition and having a 
button of ignition material at the top, with a removable cap having a 
friction striking material on its top which may be exposed for use by 
pulling a tear strip. The flare is ignited by scraping the friction 
striker on top of the cap against the igniter button on top of the 
flare. The general arrangement of the flare is shown by Figure No. 
160.021-2(a). Alternate arrangements which conform to all the 
performance requirements of this specification (and other arrangements 
which conform with all performance requirements except candlepower and 
burning time, but provide not less than 3,000 candela-minutes with a 
minimum of \1/3\ minute burning time) will be given special 
consideration.

[[Page 46]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.002


[[Page 47]]


    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.021-3  Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    (a) Materials. The materials shall conform strictly to the 
specifications and drawings submitted by the manufacturer and approved 
by the Commandant. The color of the tube shall be red. Flare 
compositions containing sulphur shall not contain more than 2.6 percent 
of potassium chlorate or an equivalent amount of any other chlorate. 
Flare compositions containing chlorates in any quantity shall not 
contain any ammonium salts.
    (b) Workmanship. Hand red flare distress signals shall be of first 
class workmanship and shall be free from imperfections of manufacture 
affecting their appearance or that may affect their serviceability. 
Moistureproof coatings shall be applied uniformly and shall be free from 
pinholes or other visible defects which would impair their usefulness.
    (c) Construction. The casing shall be fitted and secured to the 
handle with not less than a 25 mm (1 in.) overlap and shall be attached 
to the handle in such a manner that failure of the joint will not occur 
during tests, ignition, or operation. The plug shall be securely affixed 
in the casing to separate the flare composition from the wooden handle. 
The flare composition shall be thoroughly mixed and be uniformly 
compressed throughout to preclude variations of density which may 
adversely affect uniformity of its burning characteristics. The cap 
shall have a lap fit of not less than 25 mm (1 in.) over the end of the 
casing and flare composition to entirely and securely protect the 
exposed surface of the igniter button and end of flare composition and 
casing, and shall have an inner shoulder so constructed that it is 
mechanically impossible for the inner surface of the cap to come in 
contact with the igniter button. The cap shall be securely attached to 
the casing in such manner as to preclude its accidental detachment. The 
cap shall be provided on its top with a friction striking material which 
shall, by a pull of the tear strip, be entirely exposed for striking the 
friction igniter button. The igniter button shall be non-water soluble 
or be protected from moisture by a coating of some waterproof substance, 
and shall be raised or exposed in such manner as to provide positive 
ignition by the friction striker. The igniter button shall be firmly 
secured in or on the top of the flare composition; the arrangement shall 
be such that the ignition will be transmitted to the flare composition. 
The assembled flare, consisting of tear strip, cap, casing, and handle, 
shall be sealed and treated to protect the flare from deterioration by 
moisture. The protective waterproof coating shall be applied so none 
adheres to the friction striking surface. Special consideration will be 
given to alternate waterproofing of the signal by means of a water-
resistant coating on the signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic 
waterproof bag satisfactory to the Commandant.
    (d) Performance. Signals shall meet all the inspection and test 
requirements contained in Sec. 160.021-4.



Sec. 160.021-4  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a lot of at least 
100 signals form which samples must be taken for testing for approval 
under Sec. 160.021-7. The approval tests are the operational tests and 
technical tests in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. The approval 
tests must be conducted by an independent laboratory accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of this Chapter.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests of each lot of signals produced must be conducted under the 
procedures in Sec. 159.007 of this chapter. Signals from a rejected lot 
must not be represented as meeting this subpart or as being approved by 
the Coast Guard. If the manufacturer identifies the cause of the 
rejection of a lot of signals, the signals in the lot may be reworked by 
the manufacturer to correct the problem. Samples from the rejected lot 
must be retested in order to be accepted. Records shall be kept of the 
reasons for rejection, the reworking performed on the rejected lot, and 
the results of the second test.

[[Page 48]]

    (1) Lot size. For the purposes of sampling the production of 
signals, a lot must consist of not more than 30,000 signals. Lots must 
be numbered serially by the manufacturer. A new lot must be started 
with: (i) Any change in construction details, (ii) any change in sources 
of raw materials, or (iii) the start of production on a new production 
line or on a previously discountinued production line.
    (2) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include inspection of materials entering 
into construction of the signals and inspection of the finished signals, 
to determine that signals are being produced in accordance with the 
approved plans. Samples from each lot must be tested in accordance with 
the operational tests in paragraph (c) of this section.
    (3) Inspections and tests by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of 
this Chapter must perform or supervise the inspections and tests under 
paragraph (b)(2) of this section at least 4 times a year, unless the 
number of lots produced in year is less than four. The inspections and 
tests must occur at least once during each quarterly period, unless no 
lots are produced during that period. If less than four lots are 
produced, the laboratory must perform or supervise the inspection and 
testing of each lot. In addition, the laboratory must perform or 
supervise the technical tests in paragraph (d) of this section at least 
once for every ten lots of signals produced, except that the number of 
technical tests must be at least one but not more than four per year. If 
a lot of signals tested by the independent laboratory is rejected, the 
laboratory must perform or supervise the inspections and tests of the 
reworked lot and the next lot of signals produced. The tests of each 
reworked lot and the next lot produced must not be counted for the 
purpose of meeting the requirement for the annual number of inspections 
and tests performed or supervised by the independent laboratory.
    (c) Operational tests. Each lot of signals must be sampled and 
tested as follows:
    (1) Sampling procedure and accept/reject criteria. A sample of 
signals must be selected at random from the lot. The size of the sample 
must be the individual sample size in Table 160.021-4(c)(1) 
corresponding to the lot size. Each signal in the sample is tested as 
prescribed in the test procedure in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. 
Each signal that has a defect listed in the table of defects (Table 
160.021-4(c)(2)) is assigned a score (failure percent) in accordance 
with that table. In the case of multiple defects, only the score having 
the highest numerical value is assigned to that signal. If the sum of 
all the failure percents (cumulative failure percent) for the number of 
units in the sample is less than or equal to the accept criterion, the 
lot is accepted. If the cumulative failure percent falls between the 
accept and reject criteria, another sample is selected from the 
production lot and the operational tests are repeated. The cumulative 
failure percent of each sample tested is added to that of the previous 
samples to obtain the cumulative failure percent for all the signals 
tested (cumulative sample size). Additional samples are tested and the 
tests repeated until either the accept or reject criterion for the 
cumulative sample size is met. If any signal in the sample explodes when 
fired or ignited in a way that could burn or otherwise injure the person 
firing it, the lot is rejected without further testing. (This procedure 
is diagrammed in figure 160.021-4(c)).
    (2) Test procedure. Each sample signal (specimen) must be tested as 
follows:
    (i) Conditioning of test specimens--water resistance. Immerse 
specimen horizontally with uppermost portion of the signal approximately 
25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 24 hours. 
If the signal is protected by alternate waterproofing consisting of a 
water-resistant coating on the signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic 
waterproof bag, the 24-hour water immersion conditioning will be 
conducted while the signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and 
will be followed by an additional immersion of the bare signal (i.e., 
after removal from the bag) 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water 
for a period of 10 minutes.

[[Page 49]]

    (ii) Waterproofing of igniter button. Remove the cap from the test 
specimen. Place head of specimen without cap about 25 mm (1 in .) under 
the surface of water for approximately 5 minutes. Remove specimen from 
the water and wipe dry.
    (iii) Ignition and burning characteristics. Test specimens shall 
ignite and burn satisfactorily with uniform intensity when the 
directions on the signal are followed. Test specimens shall not ignite 
explosively in a manner that might be dangerous to the user or persons 
close by. The plug separating the flare composition from the handle 
shall in no case allow flame or hot gases to pass through it or between 
it and the casing in such manner as might burn the hand while holding 
the signal by the handle.
    (iv) Burning time. The burning time of a specimen shall be obtained 
by stop watch measurements from the time a distinct sustained flame is 
emitted until it ceases. Test specimens shall burn in air not less than 
2 minutes.

                  Table 160.021-4(c)(1)--Accept and reject criteria for operational test lots.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Individual                         Cumulative
                 Lot size                    sample            Sample           sample    Accept \1\  Reject \1\
                                              size                               size
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
280 or                                              8  First................         8       (\2\)         400
  less.                                                Second...............        16         100         500
                                                       Third................        24         200         600
                                                       Fourth...............        32         300         700
                                                       Fifth................        40         500         800
                                                       Sixth................        48         700         900
                                                       Seventh..............        56         950         951
281 to                                             13  First................        13           0         400
  500.                                                 Second...............        26         100         600
                                                       Third................        39         300         800
                                                       Fourth...............        52         500       1,000
                                                       Fifth................        65         700       1,100
                                                       Sixth................        78       1,000       1,200
                                                       Seventh..............        91       1,350       1,351
501 to                                             20  First................        20           0         500
  1,200.                                               Second...............        40         300         800
                                                       Third................        60         600       1,000
                                                       Fourth...............        80         800       1,300
                                                       Fifth................       100       1,100       1,500
                                                       Sixth................       120       1,400       1,700
                                                       Seventh..............       140       1,850       1,851
1,201 to                                           32  First................        32         100         700
  3,200.                                               Second...............        64         400       1,000
                                                       Third................        96         800       1,300
                                                       Fourth...............       128       1,200       1,700
                                                       Fifth................       160       1,700       2,000
                                                       Sixth................       192       2,100       2,300
                                                       Seventh..............       224       2,550       2,551
More                                               50  First................        50         200         900
  than                                                 Second...............       100         700       1,400
  3,201.                                               Third................       150       1,300       1,900
                                                       Fourth...............       200       1,900       2,500
                                                       Fifth................       250       2,500       2,900
                                                       Sixth................       300       3,100       3,300
                                                       Seventh..............       350       3,750       3,751
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Cumulative failure percent.
\2\ Lot may not be accepted. Next sample must be tested.


                          Table 160.021-4(c)(2)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Percentage
                       Kind of defects                        of failure
------------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Failure to ignite........................................        100
b. Ignites or burns dangerously.............................         50
c. Nonuniform burning intensity.............................         50
d. Chimneys so as to materially obscure the flame...........         25
e. Fire flashes down between casing and handle so as to              50
 endanger burning the hand..................................
f. Burning time less than 70 pct of specified time..........        100
g. Burning time at least 70 pct but less than 80 pct of              75
 specified time.............................................
h. Burning time at least 80 pct but less than 90 pct of              50
 specified time.............................................
i. Burning time at least 90 pct but less than 100 pct of             25
 specified time.............................................
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (d) Technical tests. Three signals must be subjected to each of the 
following tests. Two of the three signals must pass each test in order 
for the lot of signals to be accepted.
    (1) Underwater burning. Condition each sample in accordance with 
paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. Ignite specimen and let it burn 
about 5 seconds in air. Submerge the burning signal in water in a 
vertical position with head down. Obtain under water burning time by 
stop watch measurement from time of submersion until distinct, sustained 
flame emission ceases. The test specimen shall burn under water not less 
than 5 seconds when subjected to this test.

[[Page 50]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.003

    (2) Bending strength. Place the specimen on supports 15 cm (6 in.) 
apart. Attach a weight of 35 kg (77 lb.) to a length of wire. Hang the 
weight from the supported signal by looping the wire around the signal 
approximately

[[Page 51]]

equidistant from the two points of support. Let the weight hang 
approximately 5 minutes. The test specimen shall not deflect more than 7 
mm (1/4 in.), nor shall the joint between the casing and the handle 
fail, when subjected to this test.
    (3) Tensile strength. Place the specimen in a chuck firmly holding 
it about 13 mm (1/2 in.) below the cap. Attach a weight of 35 kg (77 
lb.) to a length of wire. Hang the weight from the supported signal by 
looping the wire through a hole bored perpendicular to and through the 
axis of the handle. Let the weight hang approximately 5 minutes. The 
test specimen shall not show noticeable distortion, nor shall the joint 
between the casing and handle fail, when subjected to this test.
    (4) Luminous intensity. The luminous intensity of each specimen 
tested shall be measured by a visual photometer or equivalent 
photometric device, while the specimen is supported in a horizontal 
position and the photometer is at right angles to the axis of the 
specimen. Visual luminous intensity readings shall be observed and 
recorded at approximately 20 second intervals during the burning of the 
specimen. The minimum photometric distance shall be 3 m (10 ft.). 
Recording photometers shall have a chart speed of at least 25 mm (1 in.) 
per minute. The luminous intensity of specimen shall be computed as the 
arithmetical average of the readings recorded. The average luminous 
intensity of a test specimen shall be not less than 500 candela. The 
burning time of a specimen shall be obtained by stop watch measurements 
from the time distinct, sustained flame is emitted until it ceases. Test 
specimens shall burn in air not less than 2 minutes.
    (5) Elevated temperature, humidity and storage. Place specimen in a 
thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. 
with not less than 90 percent relative humidity for 72 hours. Remove 
specimen and store at room temperature (20 deg. to 25  deg.C.) with 
approximately 65 percent relative humidity for 10 days. If for any 
reason it is not possible to operate the oven continuously for the 72-
hour period, it may be operated at the required temperature and humidity 
for 8 hours out of each 24 during the 72-hour conditioning period. 
(Total of 24 hours on and 48 hours off.) The signal shall not ignite or 
decompose during this conditioning. The signal shall ignite and operate 
satisfactorily following this conditioning.
    (6) Spontaneous ignition. Place the specimen in a thermostatically 
controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. with not more than 
10% relative humidity for 48 consecutive hours. The signals shall not 
ignite or undergo marked decomposition.
    (7) Chromaticity. The color of the burning signal must be vivid red 
as defined by sections 13 and 14 of the ``Color Names Dictionary.'' Two 
identical test plates of white cardboard about 30 cm  x  60 cm 
(12" x 24") are used. Except for a negligible amount of stray daylight, 
the first test plate is illuminated by light from the specimen placed at 
a distance of about 1.5 m (5 ft.). The second test plate is illuminated 
only by light from an incandescent lamp operated at a color temperature 
close to 2,848  deg.K at a distance of about 30 cm (1 ft.). The first 
plate is viewed directly, the second through combinations of Lovibond 
red, yellow, and blue glasses selected so as to approximate a 
chromaticity match. By separating the test plates by a wide 
unilluminated area (subtending at the observer about 45 deg.), it is 
possible to make accurate determinations of chromaticity in terms of the 
1931 CIE Standard Observer and Coordinate System, in spite of 
fluctuations in luminous intensity of the specimen by factors as high as 
2 or 3. The CIE coordinates are converted to the Munsell notation which 
is cross-referenced to the color name in Section 13 of the ``Color Names 
Dictionary'' (see the discussion in section 10 of ``The Universal Color 
Language'').
    (8) Heptane ignition. (i) A metal pan must be used to hold a layer 
of water at least 12mm (\1/2\ in.) deep with a layer of technical grade 
heptane on top of the water. The pan must be at least 1 m (39 in.) 
square with sides extending between 175 mm (7 in.) and 200 mm (8 in.) 
above the surface of the water. The amount of heptane used to form the 
layer must be 2.0 liters per square

[[Page 52]]

meter of pan area (6.25 fluid ounces per square foot).
    (ii) The test must be conducted in a draft-free location. The 
ambient temperature, the temperature of the water, and the temperature 
of the heptane must all be between 20  deg.C (68  deg.F) and 25  deg.C 
(77  deg.F) at the time of the test.
    (iii) The signal under test must be held with the flame end pointing 
upward at an angle of approximately 45 deg., 1.2 m (4 ft.) directly 
above the center of the pan. The signal must be ignited as soon as the 
heptane is observed to spread out over the water in continuous layer. 
The signal must be allowed to burn completely, and must remain in 
position until is has cooled.
    (iv) The heptane must not be ignited by the flare or by material 
from the flare.

    Caution: Heptane ignites rapidly and burns vigorously. The flare 
should be remotely ignited and all personnel should stay clear of the 
test pan while the flare is burning and while any part of it remains 
hot.

[CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73060, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 
80-021, 45 FR 45280, July 3, 1980]



Sec. 160.021-5  Labeling and marking.

    (a) Labeling. Each hand red flare distress signal shall bear a label 
securely affixed thereto, showing in clear, indelible black lettering on 
a red background, the following wording and information:

                  (Company brand or style designation)

                     Hand Red Flare Distress Signal

                   500 Candela--2 Minutes Burning Time

               Use Only When Aircraft or Vessel Is Sighted

    Directions: Pull tape over top of cap. Remove cap and ignite flare 
by rubbing scratch surface on top of cap sharply across igniter button 
on head of signal.
    Caution: Stand with back to wind and point away from body when 
igniting or flare is burning.
    Service Life Expiration Date (Month and year to be inserted by 
manufacturer) (Month and year manufactured) (Lot No.____). Manufactured 
by (Name and address of manufacturer). U.S. Coast Guard Approval No.____

    (b) Marking of expiration date. The expiration date must be not more 
than 42 months from the date of manufacture.
    (c) Other marking. (1) There shall be die-stamped, in the side of 
the wooden handle in figures not less than 3 mm (C\1/8\ in.) high, 
numbers indicating the month and year of manufacture, thus: ``6-54'' 
indicating June, 1954.
    (2) In addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing 
carton or box containing hand red flare distress signals, such cartons 
or boxes shall be plainly and permanently marked to show the service 
life expiration date, date of manufacture, and lot number.
    (3) The largest carton or box in which the manufacturer ships 
signals must be marked with the following or equivalent words: ``Keep 
under cover in a dry place.''

    Note: Compliance with the labeling requirements of this section does 
not relieve the manufacturer of the responsibility of complying with the 
label requirements of 15 U.S.C. 1263, the Federal Hazardous Substances 
Act.



Sec. 160.021-6  Container.

    (a) General. Containers for stowage of hand red flare distress 
signals in lifeboats and life rafts on merchant vessels are not required 
to have specific approval or to be of special design, but they shall 
meet the following test for watertightness when closed, and shall be 
capable of being opened and reclosed hand-tight to meet the same 
watertightness test. The materials shall be copper, brass, bronze, or 
equally corrosion-resistant to salt water and spray. The type container 
illustrated by Figure Number 160.021-6(a) is recommended for most 
purposes.
    (b) Watertightness test for containers. Whenever a question arises 
as to the watertightness of a container, the following test may be made 
to determine whether it is satisfactory in this respect. Open the 
container, remove the contents, insert colored blotting paper as a 
lining, re-close container as tightly as possible by hand (no wrenches 
or special tools permitted), submerge container with top about 30 cm (1 
ft.) below the surface of the water for two hours, remove container from 
water, wipe off excess moisture on outside,

[[Page 53]]

then open the container and examine the blotting paper and entire 
interior for evidence of moisture penetration. If any moisture or water 
is evidenced, the container is not satisfactory.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.004


[[Page 54]]


    (c) Marking of container. Containers shall be embossed or bear a 
brass or equivalent corrosion-resistant nameplate, or otherwise be 
suitably and permanently marked, to plainly show in letters not less 
than 13 mm (\1/2\ in.) high the following wording: ``HAND RED FLARE 
DISTRESS SIGNALS''. No additional marking which might cause confusion as 
to the contents shall be permitted. The vessel's name ordinarily is 
painted or branded on equipment such as this container, and nothing in 
this subpart shall be construed as prohibiting same.



Sec. 160.021-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Signals are approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in 
subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



   Subpart 160.022--Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes)

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73067, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.022-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The following are incorporated by reference into this subpart:
    (1) ``The Color Names Dictionary'' in Color: Universal Language and 
Dictionary of Names, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 
440, December 1976.
    (2) ``Development of a Laboratory Test for Evaluation of the 
Effectiveness of Smoke Signals,'' National Bureau of Standards Report 
4792, July 1956.
    (b) NBS Special Publication 440 may be obtained by ordering from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, DC 20402 (Order by SD Catalog No. C13.10:440).
    (c) NBS Report 4792 may be obtained from the Commandant (G-MSE), 
U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20593-0001.
    (d) Approval to incorporate by reference the materials listed in 
this section was obtained from the Director of the Federal Register on 
November 1 and 29, 1979. The materials are on file in the Federal 
Register Library.

[CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73067, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 
82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34535, Sept. 7, 
1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, 
Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.022-2  Type.

    (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this 
subpart shall be of one type which shall consist essentially of an outer 
container, ballast, an air chamber, an inner container, the smoke 
producing composition, and an igniter mechanism. Alternate arrangements 
which conform to the performance requirements of this specification will 
be given special consideration.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.022-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    (a) Materials. The materials shall conform strictly to the 
specifications and drawings submitted by the manufacturer and approved 
by the Commandant. Metal for containers shall be not less than 0.5 mm 
(0.020 in.) in thickness. Other dimensions or materials may be 
considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. 
Igniter systems shall be corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible 
material shall be of such nature that it will not deteriorate during 
long storage, nor when subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or 
both.
    (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress signals shall be of 
first class workmanship and shall be free from imperfections of 
manufacture affecting their appearance or that may affect their 
serviceability.
    (c) Construction. The outer container shall be of a size suitable 
for its intended use. All sheet metal seams should be hook-jointed and 
soldered. The whole container shall be covered with two coats of 
waterproof paint or equivalent protection system. The igniter mechanism 
shall be simple to operate and provide ignition in most unfavorable 
weather. The mechanism shall be protected with a watertight cover having 
a finish which is corrosion-resistant to salt water and spray. The cover 
shall be easily and quickly

[[Page 55]]

removable by hand without the use of tools. If attachment of the cover 
is by formed screw threads, it shall be of such construction or material 
to prevent rusting or corrosion and will not back off and loosen under 
shipboard vibration.
    (d) Performance. Signals shall meet all the inspection and test 
requirements contained in Sec. 160.022-4.



Sec. 160.022-4  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a lot of at least 
100 signals from which samples must be taken for testing for approval 
under Sec. 160.022-7. The approval tests are the operational tests and 
technical tests in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. The approval 
tests must be conducted by an independent laboratory accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of this chapter.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests of each lot of signals produced must be conducted under the 
procedures in Sec. 159.007 of this chapter. Signals from a rejected lot 
must not be represented as meeting this subpart or as being approved by 
the Coast Guard. If the manufacturer identifies the cause of the 
rejection of a lot of signals, the signals in the lot may be reworked by 
the manufacturer to correct the problem. Samples from the rejected lot 
must be retested in order to be accepted. Records shall be kept of the 
reasons for rejection, the reworking performed on the rejected lot, and 
the results of the second test.
    (1) Lot size. For the purposes of sampling the production of 
signals, a lot must consist of not more than 30,000 signals. Lots must 
be numbered serially by the manufacturer. A new lot must be started 
with:
    (i) Any change in construction details,
    (ii) Any change in sources of raw materials, or
    (iii) The start of production on a new production line or on a 
previously discontinued production line.
    (2) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include inspection of materials entering 
into construction of the signals and inspection of the finished signals, 
to determine that signals are being produced in accordance with the 
approved plans. Samples from each lot must be tested in accordance with 
the operational tests in paragraph (c) of this section.
    (3) Inspections and tests by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of 
this chapter must perform or supervise the inspections and tests under 
paragraph (b)(2) of this section at least 4 times a year, unless the 
number of lots produced in a year is less than four. The inspections and 
tests must occur at least once during each quarterly period, unless no 
lots are produced during that period. If less than four lots are 
produced, the laboratory must perform or supervise the inspection and 
testing of each lot. In addition, the laboratory must perform or 
supervise the technical tests in paragraph (d) of this section at least 
once for every ten lots of signals produced, except that the number of 
technical tests must be at least one but not more than four per year. If 
a lot of signals tested by the independent laboratory is rejected, the 
laboratory must perform or supervise the inspections and tests of the 
reworked lot and the next lot of signals produced. The tests of each 
reworked lot and the next lot of signals must not be counted for the 
purpose of meeting the requirement for the annual number of inspections 
and tests performed or supervised by the independent laboratory.
    (c) Operational tests. Each lot of signals must be sampled and 
tested as follows:
    (1) Sampling procedure and accept/reject criteria. A sample of 
signals must be selected at random from the lot. The size of the sample 
must be the individual sample size in Table 160.022-4(c)(1) 
corresponding to the lot size. Each signal in the sample is tested as 
prescribed in the test procedure in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. 
Each signal that has a defect listed in the table of defects (Table 
160.022-4(c)(2)) is assigned a score (failure percent) in accordance 
with that table. In the case of multiple defects, only the score having 
the highest numerical value is assigned

[[Page 56]]

to that signal. If the sum of all the failure percents (cumulative 
failure percent) for the number of units in the sample is less than or 
equal to the accept criterion, the lot is accepted. If this sum is equal 
to or more than the reject criterion the lot is rejected. If the 
cumulative failure percent falls between the accept and reject criteria, 
another sample is selected from the production lot and the operational 
tests are repeated. The cumulative failure percent of each sample tested 
is added to that of the previous samples to obtain the cumulative 
failure percent for all the signals tested (cumulative sample size). 
Additional samples are tested and the tests repeated until either the 
accept or reject criterion for the cumulative sample size is met. If any 
signal in the sample explodes when fired or ignited in a way that could 
burn or otherwise injure the person firing it, the lot is rejected 
without further testing. (This procedure is diagrammed in figure 
160.022-4(c).)
    (2) Test Procedure. Each sample signal (specimen) must be tested as 
follows:
    (i) Conditioning of test specimens--water-resistance. Immerse 
specimens horizontally with uppermost portion of the signal 
approximately 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period 
of 24 hours.
    (ii) Smoke emitting time. Ignite specimen according to the 
directions printed on the signal and place signal in tub or barrel of 
water. The smoke emitting time of a specimen shall be obtained by stop 
watch measurements from the time of distinct, sustained smoke emission 
until it ceases. The watch shall be stopped during periods of flame 
emission. The smoke emitting time for a specimen shall be not less than 
4 minutes.
    (iii) Ignition and smoke emitting characteristics. Test specimens 
shall ignite and emit smoke properly when the directions on the signal 
are followed. Test specimens shall not ignite explosively in a manner 
that might be dangerous to the user or persons close by. Test specimens 
shall emit smoke at a uniform rate while floating in calm to rough 
water. Signals should be so constructed that water submerging the signal 
in moderately heavy seas will not cause it to become inoperative.

                  Table 160.022-4(c)(1)--Accept and reject criteria for operational test lots.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Individual                         Cumulative
                 Lot size                    sample            Sample           sample    Accept \1\  Reject \1\
                                              size                               size
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
280 or                                              8  First................         8       (\2\)         400
  less.                                                Second...............        16         100         500
                                                       Third................        24         200         600
                                                       Fourth...............        32         300         700
                                                       Fifth................        40         500         800
                                                       Sixth................        48         700         900
                                                       Seventh..............        56         950         951
281 to                                             13  First................        13           0         400
  500.                                                 Second...............        26         100         600
                                                       Third................        39         300         800
                                                       Fourth...............        52         500       1,000
                                                       Fifth................        65         700       1,100
                                                       Sixth................        78       1,000       1,200
                                                       Seventh..............        91       1,350       1,351
501 to                                             20  First................        20           0         500
  1,200.                                               Second...............        40         300         800
                                                       Third................        60         600       1,000
                                                       Fourth...............        80         800       1,300
                                                       Fifth................       100       1,100       1,500
                                                       Sixth................       120       1,400       1,700
                                                       Seventh..............       140       1,850       1,851
1,201 to                                           32  First................        32         100         700
  3,200.                                               Second...............        64         400       1,000
                                                       Third................        96         800       1,300
                                                       Fourth...............       128       1,200       1,700
                                                       Fifth................       160       1,700       2,000
                                                       Sixth................       192       2,100       2,300
                                                       Seventh..............       224       2,550       2,551
More                                               50  First................        50         200         900
  than                                                 Second...............       100         700       1,400
  3,201.                                               Third................       150       1,300       1,900
                                                       Fourth...............       200       1,900       2,500
                                                       Fifth................       250       2,500       2,900
                                                       Sixth................       300       3,100       3,300
                                                       Seventh..............       350       3,750       3,751
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Cumulative failure percent.
\2\ Lot may not be accepted. Next sample must be tested.


                          Table 160.022-4(c)(2)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Percentage
                       Kind of defects                        of failure
------------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Failure to ignite........................................        100
b. Ignites or burns dangerously.............................         50
c. Nonuniform smoke emitting rate...........................         50
d. Smoke-emitting time less than 70 pct of specified time...        100
e. Smoke-emitting time at least 70 pct but less than 30 pct          75
 of specified time..........................................
f. Smoke-emitting time at least 80 pct but less than 90 pct          50
 of specified time..........................................
g. Smoke-emitting time at least 90 pct but less than 100 pct         25
 of specified time..........................................
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 57]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.005

    (d) Technical tests. Three signals must be subjected to each of the 
following tests. Two of the three signals must pass the test in order 
for the lot of signals to be accepted.

[[Page 58]]

    (1) Smoke emission in waves. The signal shall be ignited and thrown 
overboard under conditions where the waves are at least 30 cm (1 ft.) 
high. The smoke emitting time must be at least 4 minutes and the signal 
shall float in such a manner that the signal shall function properly 
during this test. Failure to pass this test shall be cause for the lot 
to be rejected.
    (2) Underwater smoke emission. Condition each sample in accordance 
with paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. Ignite specimen and let it 
burn about 15 seconds in air. Submerge the burning signal in water in a 
vertical position with head down. Obtain underwater smoke emission time 
by stop watch measurements from time of submersion until distinct, 
sustained smoke emission ceases. The test specimen shall emit smoke 
underwater not less than 15 seconds when subjected to this test.
    (3) Elevated temperature, humidity, and storage. Place specimen in a 
thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. 
with not less than 90 percent relative humidity for 72 hours. Remove 
specimen and store at room temperature (20 deg. to 25  deg.C.) with 
approximately 65 percent relative humidity for ten days. If for any 
reason it is not possible to operate the oven continuously for the 72-
hour period, it may be operated at the required temperature and humidity 
for 8 hours out of each 24 during 72-hour conditioning period. (Total of 
24 hours on and 48 hours off). The signal shall not ignite or decompose 
during this conditioning. The signal shall ignite and operate 
satisfactorily following this conditioning.
    (4) Spontaneous ignition. Place the specimen in a thermostatically 
controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. with not more than 
10% relative humidity for 48 consecutive hours. The signal shall not 
ignite or undergo marked decomposition.
    (5) Susceptibility to explosion. Remove smoke composition from 
signal and punch a small hole in the composition. Insert a No. 6 
commercial blasting cap. Ignite the cap. The test specimen shall not 
explode or ignite.
    (6) Corrosion resistance. Expose the complete specimen with cover 
secured hand-tight to a finely divided spray of 20 percent by weight 
sodium chloride solution at a temperature between 32  deg.C and 38 
deg.C (90  deg.F and 100  deg.F) for 100 hours. The container and cap 
must not be corroded in any fashion that would impair their proper 
functioning.
    (7) Color of smoke. Ignite specimen in the open air in daytime 
according to the directions printed on the signal, and determine the 
smoke color by direct visual comparison of the unshadowed portions of 
the smoke with a color chart held so as to receive the same daylight 
illumination as the unshadowed portions of the smoke. The color of the 
smoke must be orange as defined by Sections 13 and 14 of the ``Color 
Names Dictionary'' (colors 34-39 and 48-54).
    (8) Volume and density of smoke. The test specimen shall show less 
than 20 percent transmission for not less than 3 minutes when measured 
with apparatus having a light path of 19 cm (7\1/2\ in.), an optical 
system aperture of +3.7 degrees, and an entrance air flow of 18.4m3 
per minute (650 cu. ft. per minute), such apparatus to be as described 
in National Bureau of Standards Report No. 4792.



Sec. 160.022-5  Marking.

    (a) Directions for use. Each floating orange smoke distress signal 
shall be plainly and indelibly marked in black lettering not less than 3 
mm (\1/8\ in.) high ``Approved for daytime use only'', and in black 
lettering not less than 5 mm (\3/16\ in.) high with the word 
``Directions''. Immediately below shall be similarly marked in black 
lettering not less than 3 mm (\1/8\ in.) high: ``1. Use Only When 
Aircraft or Vessel Is Sighted''. Then in numbered paragraphs, in similar 
lettering, there shall follow in simply and easily understood wording, 
instructions to be followed to make the device operative. Pasted-on 
labels are not acceptable.
    (b) Other markings. (1) There shall be embossed or die-stamped, in 
the outer container in figures not less than 5 mm (\3/16\ in.) high, 
numbers, indicating the month and year of manufacture, thus: ``6-54'' 
indicating June 1954. The outer container shall also be plainly and 
indelibly marked with the commercial designation of the signal, the 
words

[[Page 59]]

``Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signal'', name and address of the 
manufacturer, the Coast Guard Approval No., the service life expiration 
date (month and year to be entered by the manufacturer), the month and 
year of manufacture and the lot number.
    (2) In addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing 
carton or box containing floating orange smoke distress signals, such 
cartons or boxes shall be plainly and indelibly marked to show the 
service life expiration date, the month and year of manufacture, and the 
lot number.
    (3) The largest carton or box in which the manufacturer ships 
signals must be marked with the following or equivalent words: ``Keep 
under cover in a dry place.''
    (c) Marking of expiration date. The expiration date must be not more 
than 42 months from the date of manufacture.

    Note: Compliance with the labeling requirements of this section does 
not relieve the manufacturer of the responsibility of complying with the 
label requirements of 15 U.S.C. 1263, the Federal Hazardous Substances 
Act.



Sec. 160.022-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Signals are approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in 
subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



   Subpart 160.023--Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73070, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.023-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The following are incorporated by reference into this subpart:
    (1) Military specifications MIL-S-18655 C, 3 May 1971--Signal, Smoke 
and Illumination, Marine, Mark 13, Mod 0.
    (b) The military specification may be obtained from Customer 
Service, Naval Publications and Forms Center, 5801 Tabor Avenue, 
Philadelphia, PA. 19120 (tel: (215)697-2000). This specification is also 
on file in the Federal Register library.
    (c) Approval to incorporate by reference the materials listed in 
this section was obtained from the Director of the Federal Register on 
November 1, 1979.



Sec. 160.023-2  Type.

    (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by 
this subpart shall be of the type described in specification MIL-S-
18655.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.023-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    (a) The materials, construction, workmanship, general and detail 
requirements shall conform to the requirements of specification MIL-S-
18655, except as otherwise specifically provided by this subpart.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.023-4  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval tests. The approval tests are those tests prescribed 
for the preproduction sample in MIL-S-18655. The approval tests must be 
conducted by an independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under 
Sec. 159.010 of this chapter.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests of each lot of signals produced must be conducted under the 
procedures in Sec. 159.007 of this chapter. Signals from a rejected lot 
must not be represented as meeting this subpart or as being approved by 
the Coast Guard. If the manufacturer identifies the cause of the 
rejection of a lot of signals, the signals in the lot may be reworked by 
the manufacturer to correct the problem. Samples from the rejected lot 
must be retested in order to be accepted. Records shall be kept of the 
reasons for rejection, the reworking performed on the rejected lot, and 
the results of the second test.
    (1) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include inspection of materials entering 
into construction of the signals and inspection of the finished signals, 
to determine that signals are being produced in accordance with the 
approved plans. The manufacturer must select samples

[[Page 60]]

from each lot and test them as specified in the production lot 
procedures in MIL-S-18655.
    (2) Inspections and tests by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of 
this chapter must perform or supervise the inspections and tests under 
paragraph (b)(1) of this section at least 4 times a year, unless the 
number of lots is less than four. The inspections and tests must occur 
at least once during each quarterly period, unless no lots are produced 
during this period. If less than four lots are produced, the laboratory 
must perform or supervise the inspection and testing of each lot. If a 
lot of signals tested by the independent laboratory is rejected, the 
laboratory must perform or supervise the inspections and tests of the 
reworked lot and the next lot of signals produced. The tests of each 
reworked lot and the next lot produced must not be counted for the 
purpose of meeting the requirement for the annual number of inspections 
and tests performed or supervised by the independent laboratory.



Sec. 160.023-5  Labeling and marking.

    (a) Labeling. A label showing firing instructions in accordance with 
specification MIL-S-18655, and to include the commercial designation of 
the signal, the lot number, Coast Guard approval number, the service 
life expiration date (month and year to be inserted by the 
manufacturer), and month and year of manufacture, shall be applied in a 
neat, workmanlike manner after the paint has become thoroughly dry. The 
label shall be attached to the signal and then protected by a 
transparent moisture impervious coating.
    (b) Marking of expiration date. The expiration date must be not more 
than 42 months from the date of manufacture.
    (c) Other marking. (1) In addition to any other marking placed on 
the smallest packing carton or box containing signals, such cartons or 
boxes shall be plainly and indelibly marked to show the service life 
expiration date, the date of manufacture, and the lot number.
    (2) The largest carton or box in which the manufacturer ships 
signals must be marked with the following or equivalent words: ``Keep 
under cover in a dry place.''

    Note: Compliance with the labeling requirements of this section does 
not relieve the manufacturer of the responsibility of complying with the 
label requirements of 15 U.S.C. 1263, the Federal Hazardous Substances 
Act.



Sec. 160.023-6  Container.

    (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and 
liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by 
the Coast Guard. The container must meet the requirements in Subpart 
160.021 (Sec. 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must 
be: ``HAND COMBINATION FLARE AND SMOKE DISTRESS SIGNALS.''
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.023-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Signals are approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in 
subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



 Subpart 160.024--Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73071, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.024-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The following is incorporated by reference into this subpart:
    (1) ``The Universal Color Language'' and ``The Color Names 
Dictionary'' in Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Names, 
National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 440, Dictionary 1976.
    (b) NBS Special Publication 440 may be obtained by ordering from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, DC 20402 (Order by SD Catalog No. C13.10:440).
    (c) Approval to incorporate by reference the publication listed in 
this section was obtained from the Director of the Federal Register on 
November 1, 1979. The publication is on file at the Federal Register 
Library.

[[Page 61]]



Sec. 160.024-2  Type.

    (a) Pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals specified 
by this subpart shall be of one type which shall consist essentially of 
a cartridge having centered primer, propelling charge, and projectile 
consisting of a case, delay element, expelling charge, and pyrotechnic 
candle attached to a parachute by shroud lines; the cartridge to be of 
such dimensions that it can be fitted into and fired from a signal 
pistol with chamber and bore dimensions within the limits provided by 
Figure 160.028-2(a) of subpart 160.028 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.024-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    (a) Materials. The materials used in pistol-projected parachute red 
flare distress signals shall conform strictly to the specifications and 
drawings submitted by the manufacturer and approved by the Commandant. 
In general, all metallic parts shall be corrosion-resistant or properly 
protected against corrosion.
    (b) Workmanship. Pistol-projected parachute red flare distress 
signals shall be of first class workmanship and shall be free from 
imperfections of manufacture affecting their appearance or that may 
affect their serviceability.
    (c) Construction. The exterior case of the cartridge shall be made 
of suitable metal and shall protect against the entrance of moisture. 
The projectile case and delay element shall be so constructed as to 
prevent any possibility of the propelling charge blowing by and causing 
premature ejection of the projectile contents. The shoulder of the base 
of the cartridge shall be between 2.29 mm (0.090 in.) and 2.67 mm (0.015 
in.) in thickness. The centered primer shall be set below the surface of 
the base between 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) and 0.50 mm (0.020 in.).
    (d) Performance. Signals shall meet all of the inspection and test 
requirements contained in Sec. 160.024-4.



Sec. 160.024-4  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a lot of at least 
100 signals from which samples must be taken for testing for approval 
under Sec. 160.024-7. The approval tests are the operational tests and 
technical tests in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. The approval 
tests must be conducted by an independent laboratory accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of this chapter.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests of each lot of signals produced must be conducted under the 
procedures in Sec. 159.007 of this chapter. Signals from a rejected lot 
must not be represented as meeting this subpart or as being approved by 
the Coast Guard. If the manufacturer identifies the cause of the 
rejection of a lot of signals, the signals in the lot may be reworked by 
the manufacturer to correct the problem. Samples from the rejected lot 
must be retested in order to be accepted. Records shall be kept of the 
reasons for rejection, the reworking performed on the rejected lot, and 
the results of the second test.
    (1) Lot size. For the purposes of sampling the production of 
signals, a lot must consist of not more than 30,000 signals. Lots must 
be numbered serially by the manufacturer. A new lot must be started 
with: (i) Any change in construction details, (ii) any change in sources 
of raw materials, or (iii) the start of production on a new production 
line or on a previously discontinued production line.
    (2) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include inspection of materials entering 
into construction of the signals and inspection of the finished signals, 
to determine that signals are being produced in accordance with the 
approved plans. Samples from each lot must be tested in accordance with 
the operational tests in paragraph (c) of this section.
    (3) Inspections and tests by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of 
this chapter must perform or supervise the inspections and

[[Page 62]]

tests under paragraph (b)(2) of this section at least 4 times a year, 
unless the number of lots produced in a year is less than four. The 
inspections and tests must occur at least once during each quarterly 
period, unless no lots are produced during this period. If less than 
four lots are produced, the laboratory must perform or supervise the 
inspection and testing of each lot. In addition, the laboratory must 
perform or supervise the technical tests in paragraph (d) of this 
section at least once for every ten lots of signals produced, except 
that the number of technical tests must be at least one but not more 
than four per year. If a lot of signals tested by the independent 
laboratory is rejected, the laboratory must perform or supervise the 
inspections and tests of the reworked lot and the next lot of signals 
produced. The tests of each reworked lot and the next lot produced must 
not be counted for the purpose of meeting the requirement for the annual 
number of inspections and tests performed or supervised by the 
independent laboratory.
    (c) Operational tests. Each lot of signals must be sampled and 
tested as follows:
    (1) Sampling procedure and accept/reject criteria. A sample of 
signals must be selected at random from the lot. The size of the sample 
must be the individual sample size in Table 160.024-4(c)(1) 
corresponding to the lot size. Each signal in the sample is tested as 
prescribed in the test procedure in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. 
Each signal that has a defect listed in the table of defects. (Table 
160.024-4(c)(2)) is assigned a score (failure percent) in accordance 
with the table. In the case of multiple defects, only the score having 
the highest numerical value is assigned to that signal. If the sum of 
all the failure percents (cumulative failure percent) for the number of 
units in the sample is less than or equal to the accept criterion, the 
lot is accepted. If this sum is equal to or more than the reject 
criterion the lot is rejected. If the cumulative failure percent falls 
between the accept and reject criteria, another sample is selected from 
the production lot and the operational tests are repeated. The 
cumulative failure percent of each sample tested is added to that of the 
previous samples to obtain the cumulative failure percent for all the 
signals tested (cumulative sample size). Additional samples are tested 
and the tests repeated until either the accept or reject criterion for 
the cumulative sample size is met. If any signal in the sample explodes 
when fired or ignites in a way that could burn or otherwise injure the 
person firing it, the lot is rejected without further testing. (This 
procedure is diagrammed in figure 160.024-4(c).)
    (2) Test procedure. Each sample signal (specimen) must be tested as 
follows:
    (i) Conditioning of test specimens--water resistance. Immerse 
specimen horizontally with uppermost portion of the signal approximately 
25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 24 hours.
    (ii) Firing and operating characteristics. Signals shall fire and 
operate satisfactorily when shot from a pistol of the type described in 
subpart 160.028. The parachute and pyrotechnic candle shall be ejected 
at approximately the maximum altitude reached by the projectile case. 
The parachute shall open and properly suspend the pyrotechnic candle 
without fouling. The pyrotechnic candle shall burn with uniform 
intensity and without damaging the parachute, shrouds, or leader line.
    (iii) Altitude. The altitude reached by a signal is considered to be 
the height at which the parachute and pyrotechnic candle are ejected 
from the projectile case, as determined by visual observation against an 
object of known height, such as a tower or ballon, or by triangulation 
from two or more points of observation, or by other method satisfactory 
to the Commandant. The altitude reached shall be not less than 45 m (150 
ft.).
    (iv) Rate of descent. The rate of descent of a signal is considered 
to be the calculated average rate obtained by dividing the altitude by 
the time of descent to the surface. The rate of descent shall not exceed 
1.8 m (6 ft.) per second.
    (v) Burning time. The burning time of the pyrotechnic candle shall 
be obtained by stop watch measurement from the time distinct, sustained 
flame is emitted until it ceases. The burning time shall be not less 
than 30 seconds.

[[Page 63]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.006


[[Page 64]]



                  Table 160.024-4(c)(1)--Accept and Reject Criteria for Operational Test Lots.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            Individual                          Cumulative
                 Lot size                     sample            Sample            sample    Accept\1\  Reject\1\
                                               size                                size
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
280 or                                               8  First.................         8       (\2\)        400
  less.                                                 Second................        16         100        500
                                                        Third.................        24         200        600
                                                        Fourth................        32         300        700
                                                        Fifth.................        40         500        800
                                                        Sixth.................        48         700        900
                                                        Seventh...............        56         950        951
281 to                                              13  First.................        13           0        400
  500.                                                  Second................        26         100        600
                                                        Third.................        39         300        800
                                                        Fourth................        52         500      1,000
                                                        Fifth.................        65         700      1,100
                                                        Sixth.................        78       1,000      1,200
                                                        Seventh...............        91       1,350      1,351
501 to                                              20  First.................        20           0        500
  1,200.                                                Second................        40         300        800
                                                        Third.................        60         600      1,000
                                                        Fourth................        80         800      1,300
                                                        Fifth.................       100       1,100      1,500
                                                        Sixth.................       120       1,400      1,700
                                                        Seventh...............       140       1,850      1,851
1,201 to                                            32  First.................        32         100        700
  3,200.                                                Second................        64         400      1,000
                                                        Third.................        96         800      1,300
                                                        Fourth................       128       1,200      1,700
                                                        Fifth.................       160       1,700      2,000
                                                        Sixth.................       192       2,100      2,300
                                                        Seventh...............       224       2,550      2,551
More                                                50  First.................        50         200        900
  than                                                  Second................       100         700      1,400
  3,201.                                                Third.................       150       1,300      1,900
                                                        Fourth................       200       1,900      2,500
                                                        Fifth.................       250       2,500      2,900
                                                        Sixth.................       300       3,100      3,300
                                                        Seventh...............       350       3,750      3,751
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Cumulative failure percent.
\2\ Lot may not be accepted. Next sample must be tested.


                          Table 160.024-4(c)(2)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Percentage
                       Kind of defect                         of failure
------------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Failure to fire (when attributable to the primer and not          100
 to the malfunction of the pistol).........................
b. Failure to eject projectile contents....................          100
c. Failure to ignite pyrotechnic candle....................           75
d. Failure of parachute to open completely.................           75
e. Complete carrying away or destruction of parachute......           75
f. Altitude less than 70 pct of that required..............          100
g. Altitude at least 70 pct but less than 80 pct of that              75
 required..................................................
h. Altitude at least 80 pct but less than 90 pct of that              50
 required..................................................
i. Altitude at least 90 pct but less than 100 pct of that             25
 required..................................................
j. Average rate of descent greater than 4 times maximum              100
 permitted.................................................
k. Average rate of descent less than 4 but greater than 3             75
 times maximum permitted...................................
l. Average rate of descent less than 3 but greater than 2             50
 times maximum permitted...................................
m. Average rate of descent less than twice but greater than           25
 maximum permitted.........................................
n. Burning time less than 70 pct of that required..........          100
o. Burning time at least 70 pct but less than 80 pct of               75
 that required.............................................
p. Burning time at least 80 pct but less than 90 pct of               50
 that required.............................................
q. Burning time at least 90 pct but less than 100 pct of              25
 that required.............................................
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (d) Technical tests. Three signals must be subjected to each of the 
following tests. Two of the three signals must pass each test in order 
for the lot of signals to be accepted.
    (1) Luminous intensity. The luminous intensity of each pyrotechnic 
candle tested shall be measured by a visual photometer or equivalent 
photometric device while the specimen is supported in a horizontal 
position and the photometer is at right angles to the axis of the 
specimen. Visual luminous intensity readings shall be observed and 
recorded at approximately 5-second intervals during the burning of the 
specimen. The minimum photometric distance shall be 3 m (10 ft.). 
Recording photometers shall have a chart speed of at least 10 cm (4 in.) 
per minute. The luminous intensity of the specimen shall be computed as 
the arithmetical average of the readings recorded. The average luminous 
intensity of a specimen shall be not less than 20,000 candela.
    (2) Elevated temperature, humidity, and storage. Place specimen in a 
thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. 
with not less than 90 percent relative humidity for 72 hours. Remove 
specimen and store at room temperature (20 deg. to 25  deg.C.) with 
approximately 65 percent relative humidity for 10 days. If for any 
reason it is not possible to operate the oven continuously for the 72-
hour period, it may be operated at the required temperature and humidity 
for 8 hours out of each 24 during the 72-hour conditioning period. 
(Total of 24 hours on and 48 hours off.) The signal shall not ignite or 
decompose during this conditioning. The signal shall fire and operate 
satisfactorily following this conditioning.
    (3) Spontaneous ignition. Place the specimen in a thermostatically 
controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. with not more than 
10% relative

[[Page 65]]

humidity for 48 consecutive hours. The signal shall not ignite or 
undergo marked decomposition.
    (4) Chromaticity. The color of the burning signal must be vivid red 
as defined by Sections 13 and 14 of the ``Color Names Dictionary.'' Two 
identical test plates of white cardboard about 30 cm  x  60 cm (12"  x  
24") are used. Except for a negligible amount of stray daylight, the 
first test plate is illuminated by light from the specimen placed at a 
distance of about 1.5 cm (5 ft.). The second test plate is illuminated 
only by light from an incandescent lamp operated at a color temperature 
close to 2,848 deg. K at a distance of about 30 cm (1 ft.). The first 
plate is viewed directly, the second through combinations of lovibond 
red, yellow, and blue glasses selected so as to approximate a 
chromaticity match. By separating the test plates by a wide 
unilluminated area (subtending at the observer about 45 deg.), it is 
possible to make accurate determinations of chromaticity in terms of the 
1931 CIE Standard Observer and Coordinate System, in spite of 
fluctuations in luminous intensity of the specimen by factors as high as 
2 or 3. The CIE coordinates are converted to the Munsell notation which 
is cross-referenced to the color name in Section 13 of the ``Color Names 
Dictionary'' (see the discussion in section 10 of ``the Universal Color 
Language'').



Sec. 160.024-5  Marking.

    (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress 
signal shall be legibly marked as follows:

          Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal

20,000 candela--30 seconds burning time

use only when aircraft or vessel is sighted directions-- Fire upward 
from signal pistol Service Life Expiration Date (date to be inserted by 
manufacturer) (Month and year manufactured) Lot No.______

Manufactured by (Name and address of manufacturer)

                  U.S. COAST GUARD APPROVAL NO.______.

    (b) Marking of expiration date. The expiration date must be not more 
than 42 months from the date of manufacture.
    (c) Other marking. (1) On each pistol-projected parachute red flare 
distress signal there shall be die-stamped, in figures not less than 3mm 
(\1/8\ in.) high, on the cartridge, numbers indicating the month and 
year of manufacture, thus: ``6-54'' indicating June 1954.
    (2) The pyrotechnic candle shall be legibly marked with the month 
and year of manufacture.
    (3) In addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing 
carton or box containing cartridges, each carton or box shall be plainly 
and permanently marked to show the service life expiration date, the 
date of manufacture, and the lot number.
    (4) The largest carton or box in which the manufacturer ships 
signals must be marked with the following or equivalent words: ``Keep 
under cover in a dry place.''

    Note: Compliance with the labeling requirements of this section does 
not relieve the manufacturer of the responsibility of complying with the 
label requirements of 15 U.S.C. 1263, the Federal Hazardous Substances 
Act.



Sec. 160.024-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Signals are approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in 
subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



   Subpart 160.026--Water, Emergency Drinking (In Hermetically Sealed 
                    Containers), for Merchant Vessels



Sec. 160.026-1  Applicable specifications and standard.

    (a) General. The following specifications and standard, of the issue 
in effect on the date emergency drinking water is packed, form a part of 
this subpart:
    (1) Military specifications:

MIL-L-7178--Lacquer; cellulose nitrate, gloss for aircraft use.
MIL-E-15090--Enamel, equipment, light-gray (Formula No. 111).
MIL-W-15117--Water, drinking, canned, emergency.

    (2) U.S. Public Health Service:

Drinking Water Standards (Publication No. 956).


[[Page 66]]


    (b) Copies on file. Copies of the specifications referred to in this 
section shall be kept on file by the packer, together with the approved 
plans and certificate of approval issued by the Coast Guard. The 
military specifications may be obtained from the Commanding Officer, 
Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa., 19120. The 
``Drinking Water Standards'' may be obtained from the U.S. Department of 
Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, 20201.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11466, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 84-064, 49 FR 
34004, Aug. 28, 1984]



Sec. 160.026-2  Type.

    (a) Emergency drinking water for lifeboats and life rafts and its 
hermetically sealed container shall be as specified herein, but 
alternate containers will be given special consideration.
    (b) [Reserved]

[CGFR 53-25, 18 FR 7865, Dec. 5, 1953]



Sec. 160.026-3  Container.

    (a) General. The emergency drinking water container shall be a 
sanitary type can, approximately 2\11/16\ in diameter by 4\7/8\" in 
height. The top and bottom of the can shall be double-seamed and 
compound-lined. The side seam shall be of a locked type, soldered on the 
outside. The can shall be made of 1.25-pound coating coke tin-plate 
throughout, with not less than 100-pound plate for the body and 85-pound 
plate for the ends.
    (b) Interior and exterior coatings. The interior of the container 
shall be uncoated, except for the tin-plating required by paragraph (a) 
of this section. In addition to the tin-plating, the exterior surfaces 
of the container, including the ends, but excluding the side seam, shall 
be lithographed a gray enamel conforming to Type I or II, Class 2 of 
Specification MIL-E-15090, with the marking as provided by Sec. 160.026-
5 lithographed in black print. After filling, sealing, autoclaving, and 
marking, the container shall be dip-coated with one coat of clear base 
lacquer conforming to Specification MIL-L-7178.
    (c) Plant sanitation, sterilizing and filling. The plant and 
equipment in which the water is canned shall be maintained in a clean 
and sanitary condition at all times, and standard aseptic procedures 
shall be followed throughout in filling the cans. The container shall be 
free from all foreign materials, and shall be filled with approximately 
10\2/3\ oz. of water meeting the requirements of Sec. 160.026-4. After 
filling, it shall be hermetically sealed under vacuum, and after 
sealing, it shall be autoclaved at a temperature of not less than 250 
deg.F. for not less than 15 minutes.

[CGFR 53-25, 18 FR 7865, Dec. 5, 1953]



Sec. 160.026-4  Water.

    (a) Only water meeting the U.S. Public Health Service ``Drinking 
Water Standards'' which has been suitably inhibited to protect the 
container against corrosion shall be used. After treatment and packing 
the water shall be free from organic matter, sediment and odor. It shall 
have a pH between 7.0 and 9.0 as determined by means of a standard pH 
meter using glass electrodes.
    (b) [Reserved]

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11466, Sept. 8, 1965]



Sec. 160.026-5  Marking.

    (a) General. The month and year of packing and the lot number shall 
be embossed on the top of the container. The container shall also be 
lithographed on one side in accordance with Sec. 160.026-3(b) with the 
following:


[[Page 67]]



                           ``U. S. Coast Guard

                           Approval No. ____''

                    (Not less than \3/22\" in height)

                               ``Contents

                          Approx. 10\2/3\ oz.''

                    (Not less than \3/32\" in height)

                               ``EMERGENCY

                                DRINKING

                                 WATER''

                    (Not less than \2/3\" in height)

                      (Name and address of packer)

                    (Not less than \1/8\" in height)

    (b) Other marking. In addition to any other marking placed on the 
smallest packing carton or box in which emergency drinking water 
containers are placed prior to shipment, each carton or box shall be 
plainly and permanently marked with the name and address of the packer, 
the month and year of packing, and the lot number.

[CGFR 53-25, 18 FR 7865, Dec. 5, 1953]



Sec. 160.026-6  Sampling, inspection, and tests of production lots.

    (a) General. Containers of emergency drinking water must be tested 
in accordance with the provisions of this section by an independent 
laboratory accepted by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR 159.010.
    (b) Lots. For purposes of sampling the production of approved 
emergency drinking water for lifeboats and life rafts, a lot shall 
consist of all cans of water to be offered for inspection at one time. 
Lots shall be numbered serially by the packer, and a new lot shall be 
started with any change or modification in materials or production 
methods.
    (c) Visual inspection of containers. The independent laboratory 
inspector shall select at random from each lot the number of sample 
filled containers indicated in table 160.026-6(c), which shall be 
examined visually for compliance with the requirements of this subpart. 
If the number of defective cans exceeds the acceptance number shown in 
the table for the samples selected, the lot shall be rejected.

    Table 160.026-6(c)--Sampling for Visual Inspection of Containers
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 No. of
                   Lot size                     cans in     Acceptance
                                                 sample       number
------------------------------------------------------------------------
800 and under................................         35               0
801 to 1,300.................................         50               1
1,301 to 3,200...............................         75               2
3,201 to 8,000...............................        110               3
8,001 and over...............................        150               4
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (d) Laboratory tests of containers and water. The manufacturer shall 
select at random from each lot the number of sets of 11 filled sample 
containers indicated in Table 160.026-6(d1), which shall be forwarded to 
an independent laboratory accepted by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR 
159.010. The independent laboratory shall perform the tests outlined in 
Table 160.026-6(d2). If any sample is found to be non-conforming in any 
of these tests, the lot shall be rejected.

           Table 160.026-6(d1)--Sampling for Laboratory Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Number of sets of samples to
                Lot size                            be selected
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3,200 and under.........................  1 set of 11 containers each.
3,201 and over..........................  2 sets of 11 containers each.
------------------------------------------------------------------------


         Table 160.026-6(d)(2)--Description of Laboratory Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Reference
 Number of containers per set of                       specification for
      samples to be tested           Type of test      test procedure to
                                                          be followed
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2...............................  Internal corrosion  MIL-W-15117.
                                   and vacuum.
9...............................  Bacteriological     MIL-W-15117 and
                                   limits and salt     U.S. Public
                                   content.            Health ``Drinking
                                                       Water
                                                       Standards.''
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 68]]

    (e) Lot acceptance. When the independent laboratory is satisfied 
that the emergency drinking water meets the requirements of this 
subpart, the lot shall be accepted. When permitted by the independent 
laboratory, rejected lots may be resubmitted for official inspection, 
provided all containers in the lot have been reworked by the packer, and 
all defective units removed. Emergency drinking water from rejected lots 
may not, unless subsequently accepted, be sold or offered for sale under 
representation as being in compliance with this subpart or as being 
approved for use on merchant vessels.

[CGFR 53-25, 18 FR 7865, Dec. 5, 1953, as amended by CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 
11466, Sept. 8, 1965; CGD 75-186, 41 FR 10437, Mar. 11, 1976; CGD 95-
028, 62 FR 51211, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.026-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) General. Emergency drinking water for lifeboats and liferafts on 
merchant vessels is approved only by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard.
    (b) Pre-approval samples and plans. Packers who desire to pack 
approved emergency drinking water shall have the required tests in 
accordance with Sec. 160.026-5 performed by an independent laboratory 
accepted by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR 159.010. A copy of the 
independent laboratory's report will be forwarded to the Commandant for 
examination, and, if satisfactory, an official approval number will be 
assigned to the manufacturer for the emergency drinking water.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51211, Sept. 30, 1997]



            Subpart 160.027--Life Floats for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGD 79-167, 47 FR 41376, Sept. 20, 1982, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.027-2  Type.

    (a) Each life float must meet the requirements in subpart 160.010 of 
this chapter for a peripheral body type buoyant apparatus designed so 
that persons supported are only partially immersed (180 N (40 lb.) of 
buoyancy per person required).
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.027-3  Additional requirements for life floats.

    (a) Each life float must have a platform designed to drop through 
the center of the float, whichever way the life float is floating. A 
typical arrangement is shown in Figure 160.027-3(a).
    (b) The platform must meet the requirements of one of the following 
paragraphs:

[[Page 69]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.008

    (1) A lattice type platform must be of western red cedar, port 
orford cedar, sitka spruce, northern white pine, or southern cypress 
slats constructed on an oak frame. The slats must have nominal cross-
section dimensions not less than 90 mm (3\5/8\ in.) by 9.5 mm (\3/8\ 
in.). The frame members must have

[[Page 70]]

nominal cross-section dimensions not less than 100 mm (4 in.) by 12.5 mm 
(\1/2\ in.). The space between adjacent slats must not exceed the width 
of the slats. The space between each frame member and the adjacent slat 
must not exceed twice the width of the slats. The platform must be 
riveted together at each intersection of--
    (i) Frame members,
    (ii) Slats, and
    (iii) Frame members and slats.
    (2) A plywood platform must be made of exterior or marine type 
plywood with surfaces that are either ``A'' or ``B'' grade as commonly 
designated in the plywood industry. Holes 35 mm (1\3/8\ in.) to 50 mm (2 
in.) in diameter must be drilled through the platform. The number of 
holes must be at least the number equal to (L-25) (W-25)/225, where L is 
the length of the platform in cm and W is the width of the platform in 
cm. (The formula is (L-10)(W-10)/36 where L and W are measured in 
inches.) The thickness of the plywood must be at least--
    (i) 12.5 mm (\1/2\ in.) for life floats of 10 persons capacity and 
under,
    (ii) 16 mm (\5/8\ in.) for life floats between 11 and 25 persons 
capacity inclusive, and
    (iii) 19 mm (\3/4\ in.) for life floats of 26 persons capacity and 
over.
    (3) A platform of construction differing from that described in 
either (1) or (2) of this paragraph will be approved if it has holes to 
permit the passage of water and if it passes the tests in Sec. 160.027-
7. The number of holes must be the same as required for a plywood 
platform. If the platform is netting on a frame, the netting must be 
constructed of cordage with a breaking strength of at least 1600 N (355 
lb.). The netting must be constructed on not more than 5 cm (2 in.) 
centers and must be knotted together at each point where the lines 
intersect.
    (c) Each platform must be of a material that is resistant to 
deterioration by exposure to weather or must have a surface that 
protects it from deterioration by exposure to weather. For a wood 
platform, this surface must be at least two coats of water resistant 
spar varnish, or two coats of marine paint.
    (d) Each part of the platform, including surfaces, edges, and rivets 
must be smooth and must not have cutting edges, points, or splinters 
which would be dangerous for bare feet.
    (e) The platform must be arranged so that under normal stowed 
conditions, it can be retained in the center of the float and can be 
readily released from this position for use.
    (f) The platform must be suspended from the body of the float by a 
net or an equivalent arrangement, which when fully extended, holds the 
top of the platform approximately 900 mm (36 in.) below the center of 
the float body.
    (1) The net must be constructed of cordage with a minimum breaking 
strength of 1600 N (355 lb.). The net must be attached to the platform 
through holes on centers that do not exceed 165 mm (6\1/2\ in.).
    (2) If the platform is suspended from the body of the float by an 
arrangement other than a net as described in paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section, the arrangement must be of equivalent to the net in terms of 
strength, resistance to tangling, and allowing the platform to freely 
pass through the center of the life float body.



Sec. 160.027-7  Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs.

    (a) The tests in this section are for life float platforms that do 
not meet the requirements of either Sec. 160.027-3(b) (1) or (2).
    (b) The float body must be supported so that the platform is 
suspended in the air by the net or equivalent supporting arrangement. 
The platform must be loaded evenly with a weight equal to 60 percent of 
the weight of the total number of persons for which the float is to be 
rated, assuming a weight of 75 kg (165 lb.) per person. The weight must 
be allowed to remain on the platform for ten minutes after which it is 
removed. The supporting arrangement and platform must not show any 
evidence of damage or permanent deformation as a result of this test.
    (c) The float body must be supported so that the platform is 
suspended in the air by the net or equivalent supporting arrangement. A 
bag of sand, shot or similar granular material weighing 90 kg (200 lb.) 
must be dropped onto the center of the platform

[[Page 71]]

from a height of 3 m (10 ft.). The supporting arrangement and platform 
must not show any damage that would affect the serviceability of the 
float or platform.
    (d) As part of the buoyancy test required in Sec. 160.010-7(e) of 
this chapter, the platform must be loaded with weights equal to \1/2\ 
the rated capacity of the float. There must be no damage to the 
supporting arrangement or platform as a result of this test.

    Note: Since the weights on the platform will be submerged during 
this test, allowance must be made for the displacement of the submerged 
weights. The weight required is calculated by the formula W=(18d)/(d-
4895), where W is the required submerged weight per person (in kg) and d 
is the density of the material (in kg/m3). (In customary U.S. 
units, the formula is W=40d)/(d-63) where W is in lb. and d is in lb./
ft.3).



     Subpart 160.028--Signal Pistols for Red Flare Distress Signals

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73078, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.028-2  Type.

    (a) Each signal pistol for launching a parachute distress signal 
that meets subpart 160.024 of this part must be of the center-firing 
type having chamber and bore dimensions within the limits indicated by 
Figure No. 160.028-2(a).
    (b) A signal pistol for launching an aerial flare not under 
paragraph (a) of this section may have any chamber and bore dimensions 
if they are not the dimensions for a conventional round of ammunition.



Sec. 160.028-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    (a) Materials. The materials used in signal pistols shall conform 
strictly to the specifications and drawings submitted by the 
manufacturer and approved by the Commandant. In general, all parts shall 
be corrosion-resistant or properly protected against corrosion. The 
ejection mechanism shall be of material possessing excellent wearing 
qualities.
    (b) Workmanship. Signal pistols shall be of first class workmanship 
and shall be free from imperfections of manufacture affecting their 
serviceability or appearance.
    (c) Construction and performance requirements. (Pistols intended for 
signals meeting Subpart 160.024). Signal pistols shall be of rugged 
construction and shall operate satisfactorily in firing and ejecting 
pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signals of the type 
covered by Subpart 160.024. The ejection mechanism shall be of sturdy 
design capable of withstanding rough and repeated usage. The overall 
size and weight of signal pistols should be kept to a minimum consistent 
with adequate strength and safety. When the pistol is cocked and the 
trigger is pulled, the firing pin shall project between 1.52 mm and 2.54 
mm (0.060 in. and 0.100 in.) beyond the face plate of the frame. When 
the barrel is locked in the firing position, the barrel chamber shall be 
not more than 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) from the face plate of the frame.



Sec. 160.028-4  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval test. An independent laboratory accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of this chapter must test three pistols in 
accordance with the operational test in paragraph (c) of this section.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests of each pistol must be conducted under the procedures in 
Sec. 159.007 of this chapter. Each pistol which passes the production 
inspections and tests must be stamped with the letters ``P.T.'' Each 
pistol which fails the test must not be represented as meeting this 
subpart or as being approved by the Coast Guard.
    (1) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include the inspection of the pistols 
during production, and inspection of the finished pistols, to determine 
that the pistols are being produced in accordance with the approved 
plans. Each pistol must be tested in accordance with the operational 
test in paragraph (c) of this section, except that checking of the 
chamber and bore dimensions is not required.
    (2) Inspections and tests by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant

[[Page 72]]

under Sec. 159.010 of this Chapter must inspect and test three pistols 
at least one each year. The inspection must determine that the pistols 
are being produced in accordance with the approved plans. The test must 
be in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
    (c) Operational test. The operational test must be conducted as 
follows:
    (1) Check the chamber and bore dimensions of the pistol.
    (2) Fire a dummy cartridge simulating a normal signal in size and 
weight, but with a charge double the normal charge.
    (3) Fire a normal signal.

[[Page 73]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.009

    (4) Recheck the chamber and bore dimensions.
    (5) The pistol must fire the signal properly, must not have any 
visible deformation or damage as a result of the test, and must not have 
any change in the chamber and bore dimensions.

[[Page 74]]



Sec. 160.028-5  Marking.

    (a) General. Each signal pistol shall be permanently and legibly 
marked with its serial number, Coast Guard approval number, and the name 
and address of the manufacturer.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.028-6  Container.

    (a) General. Containers for the stowage of signal pistols and pistol 
projected parachute red flare distress signals in lifeboats and life 
rafts on merchant vessels are not required to have specific approval or 
to be of specific design except for certain material, marking, and test 
requirements, which requirements are contained in Sec. 160.024-6 of 
subpart 160.024.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.028-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Signals are approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in 
subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



    Subpart 160.031--Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and 
                               Equipment)

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73080, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.031-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The following Federal specification is incorporated by reference 
into this subpart:
    (1) T-R-605 b, December 13, 1963 and Amendment 3, April 17, 1973--
Rope, Manila, and Sisal.
    (b) The Federal specification may be obtained from Customer Service, 
Naval Publications and Forms Center, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, 
PA. 19120 (tel: (215)697-2000). This specification is also on file in 
the Federal Register library.
    (c) Approval to incorporate by reference the material listed in this 
section was obtained from the Director of the Federal Register on 
September 24, 1979.



Sec. 160.031-2  Type and size.

    (a) The shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance shall be breech-
loading for the cartridge and muzzle-loading for the projectile, of not 
more than 13 mm (0.50 in.) caliber, chambered for blank rifle 
cartridges, smooth bored, and properly stocked, with shot line canister 
attached in a position below the barrel.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.031-3  Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    (a) All materials used in the construction of shoulder gun type 
line-throwing appliances and equipment shall be of good quality, 
suitable for the purpose intended, and shall conform to the requirements 
of this specification. The choice of materials shall be such that 
resistance to corrosion by salt water or spray, shock, temperature 
change, and wear will be obtained. The use of dissimilar metals in 
combination shall be avoided wherever possible, but when such contacts 
are necessary, provision shall be made to prevent such deleterious 
effects as galvanic corrosion, freezing or buckling of moving parts, and 
loosening or tightening of joints due to difference in coefficients of 
thermal expansion.
    (b) The design and construction shall be proper and substantial for 
effective and safe operation aboard ship.
    (c) The workmanship shall be first class and free from any 
imperfections of manufacture affecting appearance or serviceability of 
the gun.
    (d) The gun, when loaded and fired in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions, shall be capable of propelling through 
relatively still air, the service projectile with service line attached, 
for a distance of not less than 75 m (250 ft.) with deviation from the 
target not to exceed 4.5 m (15 ft.) either side.



Sec. 160.031-4  Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    (a) Ten service projectiles, each machined from steel or bronze, 
weighing about 225 g (8 oz.), and having a shank of sufficient length to 
project slightly beyond the muzzle, with an eye at the upper end for 
securing the service line.
    (b) Four service lines, each not less than 180 m (600 ft.) in 
length, of 1.5 mm (\1/16\-in.) or more in diameter, woven or braided 
nylon, very flexible, and having

[[Page 75]]

a breaking strength of not less than 625 N (140 lb.), or equivalent. 
Each line shall be one continuous length without splice, knot, or other 
weakening features and shall be made up or coiled in such way as to 
render it ready at all times for immediate use. The end of the line 
intended to be attached to projectile shall have securely attached 
thereto a substantial tag bearing a permanent legend indicating its 
purpose, and the other end of the line shall be tagged in the same 
manner to prevent delay in securing proper and immediate action with the 
equipment. The line shall be coiled or reeled in such manner that when 
all the line leaves the canister it automatically becomes unattached and 
free from the canister and the gun. The line canister shall be secured 
by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun.
    (c) One auxiliary line consisting of at least 150 m (500 ft.) of 7.5 
mm (3 in.) circumference manila complying with federal specification T-
R-605.
    (d) Twenty-five cartridges of the caliber and loading specified in 
the instructions furnished by the manufacturer of the gun. The 
cartridges shall be blank with waterproof paper wad.
    (e) One cleaning rod with brush.
    (f) One can of oil suitable for cleaning the gun and preserving the 
finish of the metal parts.
    (g) Twelve wiping patches of a size suitable for cleaning the bore.
    (h) One set of instructions including a list of the equipment 
furnished with the gun, the proper caliber and loading of the cartridges 
to be used in firing the gun, information as to the proper maintenance 
of the gun and equipment, and directions for loading and firing in 
service use shall be permanently engraved in plastic and mounted 
conspicuously in the case or box required by Sec. 160.031-4(i).
    (i) A suitable case or box, properly compartmented for stowage of 
the appliance and auxiliary equipment, is required for stowage on 
merchant vessels. The auxiliary line need not be stowed in the case.



Sec. 160.031-5  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval test. An independent laboratory accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of this chapter must test an appliance in 
accordance with the operational test in paragraph (c) of this section.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests of each appliance must be conducted under the procedures in 
Sec. 159.007 of this chapter. Each appliance which fails the inspections 
and tests must not be represented as meeting this Subpart or as being 
approved by the Coast Guard.
    (1) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include the inspection of appliances 
during production as well as inspection of finished appliances to 
determine that the appliances are being produced in accordance with the 
approved plans. Each appliance must be tested in accordance with 
paragraph (c) of this section except that the projectile may be fired 
without a service line attached, and the distance and deviation do not 
have to be measured.
    (2) Inspections and test by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of 
this chapter must inspect and test one appliance at least once each 
year. The inspection must determine that the appliances are being 
produced in accordance with the approved plans. The test must be in 
accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
    (c) Operational test. The operational test must be conducted as 
follows:
    (1) Three rounds must be fired by the gun, at least one of which 
must be with a service line attached to a projectile.
    (2) The projectile must be fired first by aiming it down an open 
course, and measuring the distance and deviation of the projectile.
    (3) After the projectile is fired, the other two rounds must be 
fired.
    (4) The distance and deviation of the projectile must be in 
accordance with Sec. 160.031-3(d) the gun must fire each round properly 
and the gun must not be fractured or damaged by the test.



Sec. 160.031-6  Marking.

    (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the 
barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the 
serial

[[Page 76]]

number for the gun, the official Coast Guard approval number, and the 
name of the manufacturer. The gun stock shall have recessed in it a 
brass or other corrosion-restistant plate showing legible maintenance 
instructions for the care of the gun and its parts to prevent corrosion. 
After the proof test, the gun barrel shall be marked with the letters 
``P.T.'' and the name or mark of the company.
    (b) Projectile. Projectiles shall be permanently and legibly marked 
with the name of the manufacturer.
    (c) Line and container. The end of a service line intended to be 
attached to the projectile shall have securely attached thereto a 
substantial tag bearing a permanent legend indicating its purpose, and 
the other end of the line shall be tagged in the same manner to prevent 
delay in securing proper and immediate action with the equipment. The 
container of new service lines shall bear the name of the manufacturer, 
date of manufacture, and a statement to the effect that in all respects 
the line meets the requirements of this subpart for service lines. Line 
canisters and reels shall bear the name of the manufacturer.



Sec. 160.031-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Shoulder gun line throwing appliances are approved by the Coast 
Guard under the procedures in subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



              Subpart 160.032--Davits for Merchant Vessels



Sec. 160.032-1  Applicable specifications.

    (a) Specifications. The following specifications of the issue in 
effect on the date the davits are manufactured form a part of this 
subpart:
    (1) Standards of ASTM:

ASTM A 27/ A 27M-95, Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, 
for General Application--160.032-3
ASTM A 36/A 36M-97a, Standard Specification for Carbon Structural 
Steel--160.032-3
ASTM A 216/A 216M-93 (1998), Standard Specification for Steel Castings, 
Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding for High-Temperature Service--
160.032-3

    (b) Copies on file. Copies of the specification standards referred 
to in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together 
with the approved plans and certificate of approval. You may purchase 
the standards of ASTM from the American Society for Testing and 
Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11466, Sept. 8, 1965; as amended by USCG-1999-5151, 64 
FR 67183, Dec. 1, 1999]



Sec. 160.032-2  General requirements for davits.

    (a) The requirements of this section apply to all new construction. 
Davits approved and in use prior to the regulations in this subpart may 
be continued in service if in satisfactory condition.
    (b) Davits may be either of the mechanical or gravity types.
    (1) Mechanical davits shall be designed to be swung out by screws, 
gears, or other means, using manual power for operation. Radial type 
davits with mechanical means for operating are not acceptable under this 
category.
    (2) Gravity davits shall be designed to be swung out without the use 
of manual, electric, steam, or other power supplied by the vessel.
    (3) Other types of davits will be given special consideration.
    (c) Davits shall be so designed that it will not be necessary to 
take up or slack the falls in order to crank out the davits.
    (d) For the purpose of calculations and conducting tests, the weight 
of the persons shall be taken at 165 pounds each.
    (e) The requirements of this subpart shall be complied with unless 
other arrangements in matters of construction details, design, strength, 
equivalent in safety and efficiency are approved by the Commandant.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5112, Aug. 17, 1949]



Sec. 160.032-3  Construction of davits.

    (a) Strength required. Davits shall be of such strength that the 
lifeboat may be lowered safely with its full complement of persons and 
equipment, it being assumed that the vessel is heeled 15 degrees in 
either direction and with a 10-degree trim. A minimum factor of safety 
of 6 on the ultimate strength of

[[Page 77]]

the materials shall be maintained at all times based on the approved 
working load.
    (b) Turning out. (1) Mechanical davits shall be designed so that 
they may be operated from the full inboard to the full outboard position 
when the lifeboat is fully equipped, but not loaded with persons, it 
being assumed that the vessel is heeled 15 degrees in either direction 
and with a 10-degree trim.
    (2) Gravity davits shall be designed so that they may be operated 
automatically from the full inboard to the full outboard position when 
the lifeboat is fully equipped, but not loaded with persons, it being 
assumed that the vessel is heeled 15 degrees in either direction and 
with a 10-degree trim. This operation shall be accomplished by merely 
releasing the brake of the lifeboat winch.
    (c) Materials. (1) Structural steel made by the open-hearth or 
electric furnace process shall be in accordance with ASTM A 36/A 36 M 
(incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.032-1).
    (2) Steel castings not intended for fusion welding shall be in 
accordance with ASTM A 36/A 36 M (incorporated by reference, see 
Sec. 160.032-1), Grades U-60-30, 60-30, 65-30, 65-35, and 70-36.
    (3) Steel castings intended to be fabricated by fusion welding shall 
be in accordance with ASTM Standard Specification A 216 (incorporated by 
reference, see Sec. 160.032-1), Grades WCA and WCB.
    (4) Cast iron shall not be used in the construction of davits.
    (5) Special consideration shall be given to the use of other 
materials. Proper affidavits concerning these materials will be 
required.
    (d) Bearings. Bearings of davits shall be of non-ferrous metal, or 
shall be of the roller or ball-bearing type. Positive means of retaining 
the bearings in position and of lubricating same shall be provided 
except that self-lubricated bearings in sheaves of manila rope blocks 
will be acceptable. The manufacturer shall furnish a lubrication chart 
for each davit together with a plate attached to the davit indicating 
the lubricants recommended for extremes in temperature.
    (e) Guards. All moving parts shall have suitable guards.
    (f) Welding. Welding, when employed, shall be performed by welders 
certified by the U.S. Coast Guard, American Bureau of Shipping, or U.S. 
Navy Department, and the electrodes used shall be of an approved type.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5112, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10898, Aug. 21, 1965; CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11466, Sept. 8, 1965; USCG-1999-
5151, 64 FR 67184, Dec. 1, 1999; USCG-2000-7790, 65 FR 58463, Sept. 29, 
2000]



Sec. 160.032-4  Capacity of davits.

    (a) Davits shall be approved for a working load after it has been 
demonstrated by detailed calculations that this working load can be 
carried with a minimum factor of safety of six based on the ultimate 
strength of the materials. It will also be necessary to conduct the 
tests specified in Sec. 160.032-5.
    (b) [Reserved]

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5113, Aug. 17, 1949]



Sec. 160.032-5  Inspection and testing of davits.

    (a) Material testing. (1) Where davit arms and frames are fabricated 
of steel castings, an inspector shall be present at the foundry where 
such castings are made to witness the tests prescribed by the applicable 
specification. The manufacturer shall furnish an affidavit stating that 
the material complies with the requirement of the specification noted in 
Sec. 160.032-3(c) (2) or (3). The inspector shall stamp the casting with 
the letters U.S.C.G., the Marine Inspection Office identification 
letters, the letters F.T., and the date of inspection.
    (2) The manufacturer shall furnish an affidavit stating that the 
structural steel complies with the requirements of the specification 
noted in Sec. 160.032-3(c)(1).
    (3) The affidavits referred to above shall be obtained from the 
foundry or mill supplying the material.
    (b) Factory tests for initial approval. (1) Mechanical davits shall 
be tested for strength and operation at the place of manufacture in the 
presence of an inspector. The davits shall be completely assembled. The 
tests to be conducted are as noted in paragraphs (b) (2) through (4) of 
this section.
    (2) A weight equal to 2.2 times the working load shall be suspended 
from the eye or end of the davit arm. With

[[Page 78]]

this load suspended from the davit it shall be operated from the full 
inboard to the full outboard position using the same operating crank or 
device used in actual practice aboard ship. The load shall then be swung 
in a fore and aft direction through an arc of approximately 10 degrees, 
each side of the vertical. The davit arm and frame shall show no 
permanent set or undue stress from this test. While this test is being 
conducted, the frame and arm, if of cast material, shall be subject to a 
test by being hammered to satisfy the inspector that the castings are 
sound and without flaws.
    (3) A weight equal to 0.5 times the normal working load shall be 
suspended from the eye or end of the davit arm. This load shall be moved 
from the full inboard to the full outboard position using the actual 
handles supplied with the davit. The time required for this operation 
shall not exceed 90 seconds. The above test shall also be conducted with 
the davits set up to simulate a 15-degree inboard list with a 10-degree 
trim to determine that the davits may be satisfactorily operated in that 
condition. The above test shall also be conducted with the davits set up 
to simulate a 15-degree outboard list with a 10-degree trim. This test 
shall determine that the davit arms will not run out under the weight of 
the light boat.
    (4) A load of 1.1 times the normal working load shall be moved from 
the full outboard to the full inboard position to demonstrate the 
strength of operation of the return mechanism.
    (5) Gravity davits shall be tested for strength and operation at the 
place of manufacture in the presence of an inspector. The davit arms, 
tracks, frames, attachments, etc., shall be set up in a manner similar 
to an actual shipboard installation. This installation shall include a 
lifeboat winch suitable for gravity davits and the falls shall be reeved 
in the normal manner. The tests to be conducted are as noted in 
paragraphs (b)(6) to (8) of this paragraph.
    (6) A weight equal to 1.1 times the working load shall be run from 
the full inboard to the full outboard position with the davit assembly 
in the normal upright condition. The davit arm, trackways, etc., shall 
show no permanent set or undue stress from this test.
    (7) A weight equal to 2.2 times the working load shall be attached 
to the falls and suspended from the davit arm when in the full outboard 
position. The load shall be swung in a fore and aft direction through an 
arc of approximately 10 degrees each side of the vertical. The davit arm 
and trackways shall show no permanent set or undue stress from this 
test.
    (8) The entire davit assembly shall then be heeled inboard 15 
degrees and with a 10-degree trim. In this condition a weight equal to 
0.5 times the working load shall be suspended from the falls and shall 
be operated from the full inboard to the full outboard position. This 
test shall demonstrate that the load is sufficient to turn out the davit 
by merely releasing the brake on the winch. Stops shall be made at 
intervals between the inboard and outboard positions to assure that the 
davit will start from any position.
    (c) Factory testing after approval. (1) After the design of a 
mechanical davit has been approved, subsequent davits of the same design 
shall be individually tested as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this 
section.
    (2) After the design of a gravity davit has been approved, 
subsequent davit arms of the same design shall be individually tested as 
described in paragraph (b)(7) of this section, except that the swing 
test may be eliminated if not practicable.
    (d) Name plate. (1) A corrosion resistant name plate shall be 
affixed to each davit arm and frame on which shall be stamped the name 
of the manufacturer, approval number, type and serial number of the 
davit, maximum working load in pounds per arm together with the Marine 
Inspection Office identification letters, the date, and the letters 
``U.S.C.G.''

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5113, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 
11467, Sept. 8, 1965; CGD 75-186, 41 FR 10437, Mar. 11, 1976]



Sec. 160.032-6  Procedure for approval of davits.

    (a) Before action is taken on any design of davit, detailed plans 
covering fully the arrangement and construction of the davit together 
with stress

[[Page 79]]

diagrams and calculations relative to the strength of the davit, and a 
complete bill of material setting forth the physical properties of all 
materials used shall be submitted to the Commandant through the 
Commander of the Coast Guard District having jurisdiction over the 
construction of the davit.
    (b) If the drawings required in paragraph (a) of this section are 
satisfactory the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which the 
davits are to be built shall be notified in writing when fabrication is 
to commence. An inspector will be assigned to supervise the construction 
in accordance with the plans and upon completion conduct the tests 
required by Sec. 160.032-5.
    (c) At the time that the tests are successfully completed, the 
manufacturer shall present to the inspector four corrected copies of the 
plans noted in paragraph (a) of this section, including any corrections, 
changes, or additions which may have been found necessary during 
construction or testing. If the manufacturer desires more than one set 
of approved plans, additional copies shall be submitted at that time.
    (d) Upon receipt of corrected drawings and satisfactory test report, 
the Commandant will issue a certificate of approval. No change shall be 
made in the design or construction without first receiving permission of 
the Commandant via the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which 
the davits are built.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5113, Aug. 17, 1949]



    Subpart 160.033--Mechanical Disengaging Apparatus, Lifeboat, for 
                            Merchant Vessels



Sec. 160.033-1  Applicable specifications.

    (a) Specifications. The following specifications of the issue in 
effect on the date mechanical disengaging apparatus is manufactured form 
a part of this subpart.
    (1) Coast Guard specifications:

160.035, Specification for Lifeboats for Merchant Vessels.

    (b) Copies on file. A copy of the specification regulations referred 
to in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together 
with the approved plans and certificate of approval. They shall be kept 
for a period consisting of the duration of approval and 6 months after 
termination of approval. The specification may be obtained from the 
Commandant (G-MSE), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20593-0001.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5113, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10899, Aug. 21, 1965; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34535, Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 95-
072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 
1996]



Sec. 160.033-2  General requirements for mechanical disengaging apparatus.

    (a) The requirements of this subpart apply to all new construction. 
Mechanical disengaging apparatus approved and in use prior to the 
regulations in this subpart may be continued in service if in 
satisfactory condition.
    (b) Mechanical disengaging apparatus installed in approved lifeboats 
shall be designed to release both ends of the lifeboat simultaneously 
under tension.
    (c) Other types of mechanical disengaging apparatus will be 
considered for lifeboats fitted on vessels operating on waters other 
than ocean, coastwise or Great Lakes, or for vessels of 3,000 gross tons 
and under operating in ocean, coastwise or Great Lakes service.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5113, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 60-36, 25 FR 
10637, Nov. 5, 1960]



Sec. 160.033-3  Construction of mechanical disengaging apparatus.

    (a) Mechanical disengaging apparatus shall be of such strength that 
the lifeboat in which installed may be safely lowered with its full 
complement of persons and equipment. A minimum factor of safety of six 
on the ultimate strength of the materials used shall be maintained at 
all times based on the approved working load per hook.
    (b) Mechanical disengaging apparatus shall be designed to release 
both ends of the lifeboat simultaneously under tension, which shall be 
effected by partially rotating a shaft which shall be continuous and 
extend from point of contact with the hooks. The control effecting the 
rotation of the shaft shall be painted bright red and shall have thereon 
in raised letters the words

[[Page 80]]

``DANGER--LEVER DROPS BOAT''. The control shall be readily accessible, 
secured to a permanent part of the lifeboat structure, and so installed 
as not to interfere with the inspection of any removable parts of the 
lifeboat or its equipment.
    (c) If closed type hooks are used, arrangements shall be made to 
effect the release of the falls in the event that the gear is 
inoperable.
    (d) Positive means of lubrication shall be provided for all 
bearings.
    (e) Welding, when employed, shall be performed by welders certified 
by the U. S. Coast Guard, American Bureau of Shipping, or U. S. Navy 
Department, and the electrodes used shall be of an approved type.
    (f) The manufacturer shall furnish mill or foundry affidavits 
relative to the physical and chemical properties of the materials used.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5113, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 52-10, 17 FR 
2365, Mar. 19, 1952; CGFR 57-27, 22 FR 4021, June 7, 1957]



Sec. 160.033-4  Inspection and testing of mechanical disengaging apparatus.

    (a) Inspection. Mechanical disengaging apparatus shall be inspected 
during the course of construction to determine that the arrangement and 
materials entering into the construction are in accordance with the 
approved plans.
    (b) Factory tests for initial approval. (1) Mechanical disengaging 
apparatus shall be tested to destruction in a jig built in accordance 
with the drawing required in Sec. 160.033-5(a). This test shall be 
conducted in the presence of an inspector.
    (2) Universal connections used to transmit the release power from 
the throw lever to the hook release shall be set up in a jig with the 
angles of leads set at 0.30, and 60 degrees, respectively. A load of 200 
pounds shall be applied at the end of a lever arm 24 inches long. This 
load shall be applied with the connecting rod secured beyond the 
universal and with the lever arm in the horizontal position. This test 
shall demonstrate that the universals have strength adequate for the 
purpose intended. There shall be no permanent set, or undue stress as a 
result of this test. Consideration will be given to arrangements other 
than universals submitted for this transmission of power.
    (c) Installation test prior to passing first unit installed. (1) 
Each new type or arrangement of mechanical disengaging apparatus shall 
be tested by suspending a lifeboat loaded with deadweight equivalent to 
the number of persons allowed in the lifeboat (165 pounds per person) 
together with the weight of the equipment, plus 10 percent of the total 
load. The release lever shall then be thrown over with this load 
suspended until the lifeboat is released. This test shall demonstrate 
the efficiency of the installation in an actual lifeboat. (This test may 
be conducted ashore by suspending the lifeboat just clear of the 
ground.)
    (d) Factory testing after approval. (1) In general, no factory tests 
after approval are required. However, each lifeboat in which mechanical 
disengaging apparatus is fitted shall be tested in accordance with 
Sec. 160.035-13(a) of subpart 160.035.
    (e) Name plate. A corrosion resistant name plate shall be attached 
to each hook assembly giving the manufacturer's name, approval number, 
and approved working load (as installed).

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5113, Aug. 17, 1949, as amended by CGFR 52-10, 17 FR 
2365, Mar. 19, 1952; CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965]



Sec. 160.033-5  Procedure for approval of mechanical disengaging apparatus.

    (a) Before action is taken on any design of mechanical disengaging 
apparatus, detailed plans covering fully the arrangement and 
construction of the apparatus, together with stress diagrams and 
calculations relative to the strength, proposed test jig to be used in 
the test prescribed in Sec. 160.033-4(b)(1), and a complete bill of 
material setting forth the physical and chemical properties of all the 
materials used shall be submitted to the Commandant through the 
Commander of the Coast Guard District having jurisdiction over the 
construction of the mechanical disengaging apparatus.
    (b) If the drawings required in paragraph (a) of this section are 
satisfactory, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which the 
mechanical disengaging apparatus is to be built, shall be notified in 
writing when

[[Page 81]]

fabrication is to commence. An inspector will be assigned to supervise 
the construction in accordance with the plans and upon completion, 
conduct the tests required by Sec. 160.033-4.
    (c) At the time that the tests are successfully completed, the 
manufacturer shall present to the inspector four corrected copies of the 
plans noted in paragraph (a) of this section, including any corrections, 
changes, or additions which may have been found necessary during 
construction or testing. If the manufacturer desires more than one set 
of approved plans, additional copies shall be submitted at that time.
    (d) Upon receipt of corrected drawings and satisfactory test report, 
the Commandant will issue a certificate of approval. No change shall be 
made in the design or construction without first receiving permission of 
the Commandant via the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which 
the mechanical disengaging apparatus is built.

[CGFR 49-18, 14 FR 5113, Aug. 17, 1949]



             Subpart 160.035--Lifeboats for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.035-1  Applicable specifications.

    (a) Specifications. The following specifications, of the issue in 
effect on the date lifeboats are manufactured form a part of this 
subpart.
    (1) Standards of ASTM:

ASTM A 36/A 36M-97a, Standard Specification for Carbon Structural 
Steel--160.035-3
ASTM A 653/A 653M-98, Standard Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc-
Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-
Dip Process--160.035-3

    (2) Military specifications:

MIL-P-18066--Plywood, Ship and Boat Construction.
MIL-Y-1140--Yarn, Cord, Sleeving, Cloth and Tape--Glass.
MIL-M-15617--Mats, Fibrous Glass, For Reinforcing Plastics.
MIL-R-7575--Resin, Polyester, Low-Pressure Laminating.
MIL-P-40619--Plastic Material, Cellular Polystyrene.
MIL-P-17549--Plastic Laminates, Fibrous Glass Reinforced, Marine 
Structural.
MIL-P-19644--Plastic Foam, Molded Polystyrene (Expanded Bead Type).
MIL-C-19663--Cloth, Glass, Woven Roving For Plastic Laminate.
MIL-R-21607--Resins, Polyester, Low Pressure Laminating, Fire Retardant.
MIL-P-21929--Plastic Material, Cellular Polyurethane, Rigid, Foam-In-
Place, Low Density.

    (3) Federal specifications:

TT-P-59--Paint, Ready-Mixed, International Orange.

    (4) Federal test method standard:

406--Plastics: Method of Testing.

    (5) Federal Communications Commission:

47 CFR part 83, Rules Governing Stations on Shipboard in the Maritime 
Service.

    (6) Coast Guard specifications:

160.033--Mechanical Disengaging Apparatus (For Lifeboats).
160.034--Hand Propelling Gear (For Life boats).
161.006--Searchlights, Motor Lifeboat.

    (b) Copies on file. Copies of the specifications and rules referred 
to in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together 
with the approved plans and certificate of approval. The Coast Guard 
Specifications may be obtained upon request from the Commandant. United 
States Coast Guard Headquarters, Washington, DC 20226. You may purchase 
the standards of ASTM from the American Society for Testing and 
Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. The 
Military Specifications may be obtained from the Commanding Officer, 
Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 19120. The 
Federal Communications Commission's Rules and Regulations may be 
obtained from the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 
20554. Federal Specifications and Standards may be obtained from the 
General Services Administration, Business Service Center, Washington, DC 
20407.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-133R, 37 FR 
17039, Aug. 24, 1972; USCG-1999-5151, 64 FR 67184, Dec. 1, 1999]



Sec. 160.035-2  General requirements for lifeboats.

    (a) The requirements of this subpart apply to all new construction. 
Lifeboats approved and in use prior to the

[[Page 82]]

regulations in this subpart may be continued in service if in 
satisfactory condition.
    (b) All lifeboats must be properly constructed and shall be of such 
form and proportions that they shall be readily maneuverable, have ample 
stability in a seaway, and sufficient freeboard when fully loaded with 
their full complement of persons and equipment. All lifeboats shall be 
capable of maintaining positive stability when open to the sea and 
loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment. All 
lifeboats must be open boats with rigid sides having internal buoyancy 
only. Lifeboats with a rigid shelter may be approved, provided that it 
may be readily opened from both inside and outside, and does not impede 
rapid embarkation and disembarkation or the launching and handling of 
the lifeboat.
    (c) Lifeboats may be constructed of steel, aluminum, fibrous glass 
reinforced plastic (FRP), or other materials receiving specific 
approval: Provided, That, the weight of the fully equipped and loaded 
lifeboat shall not exceed 44,800 pounds, and the carrying capacity 
calculated in accordance with Sec. 160.035-9 of this specification shall 
not exceed 150 persons.
    (1) The thwarts, side benches and footings of lifeboats shall be 
painted or otherwise colored international orange in accordance with 
Federal Specification TT-P-59. The area in way of the red mechanical 
disengaging gear control lever, from the keel to the side bench, shall 
be painted or otherwise colored white, to provide a contrasting 
background for the lever. This band of white should be approximately 12 
inches wide depending on the internal arrangements of the lifeboat.
    (d) For the purpose of calculations and conducting tests, the weight 
of the persons shall be taken at 165 pounds each.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 95-028, 62 FR 
51211, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.035-3  Construction of steel oar-propelled lifeboats.

    (a) Type. Lifeboats shall have rigid sides and be fitted with 
internal buoyancy so arranged that the boats will float in the flooded 
condition when fully loaded with persons and equipment. The capacity of 
an oar-propelled lifeboat is limited to a maximum of 59 persons. 
Lifeboats designed to carry 60, but not more than 100, persons shall be 
either hand-propelled or motor-propelled. Lifeboats designed to carry 
more than 100 persons shall be motor-propelled, except that a lifeboat 
designed to carry more than 100 persons may be hand-propelled if it is a 
replacement for a previously approved hand-propelled lifeboat.
    (b) Materials. (1) Plating for shell, floors, air tanks, etc., must 
be in accordance with ASTM A 653, Coating Designation G90 (incorporated 
by reference, see Sec. 160.035-1). The bend test required by these 
specifications must be made after the galvanizing or other anticorrosive 
treatment has been applied.
    (2) Rivets and rolled or extruded shapes such as keel, stem, 
sternpost, gunwales, etc., shall be made by the open-hearth or electric 
furnace process in accordance with ASTM Standard Specification A 36 
(incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.035-1). Consideration will be 
given to the use of other steels having equivalent strength where 
longitudinal cold forming is necessary.
    (c) Riveting. (1) Riveting of the shell plating to the keel, stem, 
and sternpost shall be button head rivets, staggered with not less than 
12 rivets to the foot. The distance from the edge of the plate to the 
centers of the rivets in the nearest row shall be not less than \1/2\ 
inch nor more than \3/4\ inch. Rivets connecting the shell to the 
gunwale shall be spaced not more than 3 inches on centers. The size of 
the rivets for connecting the shell plating to the keel, stem, 
sternpost, and gunwale shall be \1/4\-inch diameter for boats 28 feet 
and under and \5/16\-inch diameter for boats over 28 feet.
    (2) The connection of the floors to the shell shall be a single row 
of rivets not less than \3/16\ inch in diameter and spaced not more than 
3 inches on centers.
    (d) Welding. Welding may be substituted for riveting in any 
location. It shall be performed by welders qualified

[[Page 83]]

by the U.S. Coast Guard, American Bureau of Shipping, or U.S. Navy 
Department, and only approved electrodes shall be used. Details of the 
joints shall be indicated on the construction drawings submitted for 
approval.
    (e) Gunwale braces. (1) The gunwale braces shall be bolted to the 
thwarts with at least two carriage bolts of a size not less than that 
noted in table 160.035-3(e)(1) and riveted or welded to the gunwales. 
Where riveted to the gunwale, at least two rivets of a size not less 
than that noted in table 160.035-3(e)(1) shall be used.

                          Table 160.035-3(e)(1)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Brace size       Bolts and rivets
       Length of lifeboat              (inches)         diameter (inch)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
22 feet and under...............  3 x \1/4\           \5/16\
Over 22 feet and not over 28....  3 x \5/16\          \3/8\
Over 28 feet....................  3 x \3/8\           \7/16\
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Bracket type gunwale braces will be given special consideration.
    (f) Seats. (1) The thwarts, side benches, and end benches shall be 
of fir, yellow pine, fibrous glass reinforced plastic (FRP), or approved 
equivalent.
    (2) The edges of all thwarts, side, and end benches shall be well 
rounded.
    (3) Suitable foot rests shall be furnished at a distance of between 
17 and 20 inches below the thwarts and side benches. This may be 
accomplished by raising the footings from the bottom of the boat.
    (4) The leading edge of the thwart or end bench shall be located a 
minimum of 3 inches and a maximum of 6 inches distance from the Rottmer 
release gear.
    (g) Stretchers. Stretchers of sufficient size and strength shall be 
fitted in suitable positions for rowing.
    (h) Disengaging apparatus. (1) Connections for the disengaging 
apparatus shall have a minimum factor of safety of six.
    (2) For construction and capacity of disengaging apparatus, see 
subpart 160.033.
    (i) Plugs. Each lifeboat shall be fitted with an automatic plug so 
designed and installed as to insure complete drainage at all times when 
the boat is out of the water. The automatic plug shall be provided with 
a cap attached to the lifeboat by a suitable chain. The location of 
drain plug is to be marked on the vertical surface in the vicinity of 
the plug below the side bench with the word ``plug'' in 3-inch white 
letters and with an arrow pointing in the direction of the drain plug.
    (j) Protection against corrosion. (1) All steel or iron entering 
into the construction of lifeboats shall be galvanized by the hot dipped 
process. All fabricated pieces or sections are to be galvanized after 
fabrication. Other methods of corrosion prevention will be given special 
consideration.
    (2) Where welded construction is employed, the material shall be 
galvanized after welding unless impractical to do so in which case 
consideration will be given to equivalent protection.
    (3) Provisions shall be made to obtain a satisfactory bond between 
the metal and the paint.
    (k) Rudders. (1) Each lifeboat shall be fitted with a rudder and 
tiller. The rudder shall be fitted with a \1/2\-inch diameter manila 
lanyard of such length as to permit the rudder to be shipped without 
untying the lanyard.
    (2) A suitable hinged or pivoted tiller shall be provided.
    (3) Rudder stops shall be provided to limit the rudder angle to 
approximately 45 degrees each side of the centerline.
    (l) Buoyancy tanks. (1) All lifeboats shall have inherent buoyancy, 
or shall be fitted with buoyancy tanks or other equivalent noncorrodible 
buoyancy units, which shall not be adversely affected by oil or oil 
products, sufficient to float the boat and its equipment when the boat 
is flooded and open to the sea. An additional volume of buoyancy, or 
buoyancy units, equal to at least one-tenth the cubic capacity of the 
lifeboat shall be provided.
    (2) At least 50 percent of the buoyancy shall be located along the 
sides of the boat and shall be so located that the boat will be on even 
keel when flooded.
    (3) The tops of the buoyancy tanks or buoyancy units shall be 
protected by the side benches or other suitable means. The construction 
shall be such that water will not collect on the tops of the tanks.
    (4) Built-in buoyancy tanks. Each built-in buoyancy tank shall be 
filled

[[Page 84]]

with buoyancy material. The amount of material required shall be 
determined by the flooding test in accordance with Sec. 160.035-
11(b)(2). The buoyancy materials used shall meet the requirements set 
forth for core materials as follows:

Core............................  Polystyrene.......  MIL-P-40619
                                                      MIL-P-19644
                                  Polyurethane        MIL-P-21929
 

    (m) Equipment stowage. (1) Provision lockers, water tanks, and 
special equipment lockers shall be watertight and so designed and 
located as to fit under the side benches, end benches, or footings 
without projecting into the accommodation spaces of the lifeboat. In 
special cases, stowage under the thwarts will be permitted. Standard \1/
4\ inch pipe size testing nipples shall be fitted to all such lockers or 
tanks.
    (2) Water tanks shall be constructed of at least 18 USSG material. 
An opening with a dogged type cover shall be provided for removal of 
water cans. This opening shall be at least 7 inches in diameter, but in 
any case shall be of sufficient size that all water cans can be removed. 
In addition, built-in water tanks shall have an opening at least 13 
inches in diameter with a bolted cover for the purpose of inspection and 
maintenance. A 2-inch diameter fill cap shall be installed for the 
purpose of storing rain water. A standard \1/4\-inch pipe size drainage 
nipple with hexagonal cap shall be fitted in the bottom of the tank in 
an accessible location and may be used for air testing the water tank.
    (n) Grab rails. Grab rails shall be substantially attached to each 
lifeboat below the turn of the bilge and extend approximately one-half 
of the length of the lifeboat on each side. The ends of the grab rails 
shall be faired to prevent fouling and all connections of the rails to 
the lifeboat shall be made by riveting the palms of the brackets to a 
small plate and riveting the plate to the shell. To prevent rupture of 
the shell if the grab rail is carried away, more rivets shall be used in 
attaching the plate to the shell than in fastening the bracket to the 
plate. The clearance between the grab rail pipe and the hull shall be at 
least 1\1/2\ inches. The connections of the rails to a fibrous glass 
reinforced plastic lifeboat hull will be given special consideration.
    (o) Hand rails. All lifeboats intended for use in ocean and 
coastwise service shall be fitted with hand rails approximately 18 
inches in length, constructed and attached to the lifeboat in the same 
manner as the grab rails required by paragraph (n) of this section. The 
clearance between the hand rail pipe and the hull shall be at least 1\1/
2\ inches. The hand rails shall be located approximately parallel to and 
at both ends of the grab rails and spaced midway between the grab rail 
and the gunwale and midway between the grab rail and the keel on both 
sides of the lifeboat provided that, when the distance from grab rail to 
gunwale or to the keel exceeds 4 feet, two hand rails shall be fitted so 
as to provide equal spacing. In no case shall the hand rails project 
beyond the widest part of the boat. Recessed hand rails or other 
alternate arrangements will be given consideration.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51211, Sept. 30, 1997, as amended by USCG-1998-4442, 
63 FR 52191, Sept. 30, 1998; USCG-1999-5151, 64 FR 67184, Dec. 1, 1999; 
USCG-2000-7790, 65 FR 58463, Sept. 29, 2000]



Sec. 160.035-5  Construction of steel motor-propelled lifeboats with and without radio cabin.

    (a) General provisions applicable to all motor-propelled lifeboats. 
(1) A motor-propelled lifeboat, carried as part of the lifesaving 
equipment of a vessel, whether required or not, shall comply with all 
the requirements for an oar-propelled lifeboat, and in addition, shall 
have sufficient additional buoyancy to compensate for the weight of the 
engine and other equipment.
    (2) The engine shall be enclosed in a suitable engine box which 
shall be watertight with the exception of the top which may be 
weathertight. If the engine box is made of material other than steel or 
aluminum, such as fibrous glass reinforced plastic, it shall be made of 
fire retardant material. The top of the engine box shall be fitted with 
a screwdown mushroom vent. The

[[Page 85]]

engine box shall be fitted with a suitable drain. An engine starting 
instruction plate shall be permanently attached to the engine box. There 
shall be ample space between the engine and the engine box to permit 
proper maintenance and removal of engine accessories when necessary. If 
the internal arrangements of the engine in the engine box do not permit 
this, then suitable watertight hand-hole plates shall be installed in 
the vicinity of these accessories. The location of these plates and the 
accessibility to the accessories shall be to the satisfaction of the 
marine inspector. The marine inspector may require the removal of any 
accessory through these hand-hole plates that he may deem necessary to 
establish that it is of proper size and location.
    (3) Fuel tanks must be constructed of steel, fibrous glass 
reinforced plastic or other approved equivalent. Fuel tanks must be 
adequately supported and securely fastened inside the lifeboat to 
prevent any movement. Fuel tanks must have no openings in the bottom, 
sides or ends. Openings for fill, vent and feed pipes must be on the top 
surface of the tanks. The vent size for tanks of 50 gallons or less must 
not be less than \1/4\-inch O.D. tubing. Vents for larger tanks will be 
given special consideration. The access openings in the thwarts for the 
fill tank cap must have a flush cover or the top of the cap must be 
flush with the top of the thwart. Fuel feed pipes must be provided with 
a shutoff valve at the tank, where it is readily accessible and its 
location marked. Tanks must be tested by a static head above the tank 
top of ten feet of water without showing leakage or permanent 
deformation. A graduated measure stick or other means must be provided 
to determine the amount of the fuel in the tank.
    (i) Steel diesel oil fuel tanks shall have a thickness of not less 
than 12 USSG and shall not be galvanized on the inside; however, the 
outside of such tanks shall be so treated as to to obtain a corrosion 
resistance approximately equivalent to hot-dip galvanizing. Swash plates 
shall be fitted in tanks over 30 inches in length.
    (ii) Fibrous glass reinforced plastic diesel oil fuel tanks shall 
have a thickness of not less than 0.187 inch. The resins used shall be 
of a fire retardant type and shall qualify under military specification 
MIL-R-21607. The mechanical properties of the tank shall not be less 
than Grade No. 4 of military specification MIL-P-17549. Mat, woven 
roving and 1000th cloth shall be used. Tank laminates shall not be 
constructed exclusively with fibrous glass fabrics. An increment of 
random oriented, chopped fibrous glass reinforcement is deemed necessary 
to prevent porosity. An ounce and a half per square foot is considered 
minimum. Inclusion of fabrics in low pressure laminates are recommended 
to impart satisfactory containment, strength, and rigidity. For maximum 
strength, tank surfaces should be cambered and curved wherein practical. 
Fittings shall be made of nonferrous metal and securely bonded to the 
tank with epoxy resin. A fibrous glass reinforced plate or boss of the 
same thickness as the tank proper and 1\1/2\ times the outside 
dimensions of the fitting shall be used to strengthen the openings for 
fuel, fill and vent lines. Tanks shall be constructed of a minimum 
possible number of sections. Where two parts are joined there shall be a 
minimum of 2-inch overlap. Tanks exceeding 18 inches in any horizontal 
dimension shall be fitted with vertical baffle plates at intervals not 
exceeding 18 inches. Baffle plate flanges shall be integral and shall be 
of the same strength and stiffness as the tank wall. Flanges shall be 
bonded in place with mat and fabric. A suitable striking plate shall be 
installed at the bottom of the fuel measurement and fill pipe line. The 
laminate may be increased in thickness, in the way of the fill pipe. The 
cover of the fuel tank shall be through bolted as well as bonded. All 
fuel tanks shall bear legible, permanent labels, conveniently located 
for visual inspection, signifying full compliance with these 
specifications and including the following:
    (a) Manufacturer's name and address.
    (b) Date of construction and the inspector's initials.
    (c) Wall thickness (in decimals of one inch) and capacity U.S. 
gallons.
    (d) Material of construction: Polyester--Glass.

[[Page 86]]

    (4) Propeller shafting shall be of bronze or other suitable 
corrosion resistant materials. Fittings, pipes, connections, etc., shall 
be of high standard and good workmanship, and installed in accordance 
with good marine practice. The exhaust manifold shall be suitably 
insulated.
    (5) All engines shall be permanently installed and shall be equipped 
with an efficient cranking system. This system shall be one that can be 
operated by hand, such as a hand cranking, hydraulic cranking, or 
inertia cranking system, acceptable to the Commandant. If an electric 
cranking system consisting of an electric starter motor, generator and 
batteries are fitted, it shall be in addition to the required acceptable 
cranking system, the battery or batteries shall be installed within the 
watertight engine box. The battery box shall be so constructed as to 
retain the battery in position when the lifeboat is in a seaway. The 
battery box shall be 1 inch longer and 1 inch wider than the battery and 
shall be lined with 4-pound lead flashed up 3 inches on the sides and 
ends. The battery box may be made of fibrous glass reinforced plastic 
using a fire-retardant epoxy resin. This type of battery box will not be 
required to be lead lined.
    (i) Engines. The engine shall be a reliable, marine, compression-
ignition type and shall be capable of propelling the fully equipped and 
loaded lifeboat at a sustained speed of not less than 6 knots through 
smooth water over a measured course. Provision shall be made for going 
astern. Sufficient fuel for 24 hours continuous operation at 6 knots 
shall be provided. The engine used in approved lifeboats shall be 
capable of being started without the use of starting aids at a 
temperature of 20  deg.F., by the use of an acceptable cranking system. 
If water cooled, the engine shall be equipped with a closed fresh water 
cooling system. This system shall be cooled by a secondary medium, such 
as a water cooled heat exchanger.
    (ii) The hydraulic cranking system shall be a self-contained system 
which will provide the required cranking forces and engine r.p.m. as 
recommended by the engine manufacturer. The capacity of the hydraulic 
cranking system shall provide not less than six cranking cycles. Each 
cranking cycle shall provide the necessary number of revolutions at the 
required r.p.m. to the engine to meet the requirements of carrying its 
full rated load within twenty seconds after cranking is initiated with 
intake air and hydraulic cranking system at 20  deg.F. Capacity of the 
hydraulic cranking system sufficient for three cranking cycles under the 
above conditions, shall be held in reserve and arranged so that the 
operation of a single control by one person will isolate the discharged 
or initially used part of the system and permit the reserve capacity to 
be employed. The installation of an engine-driven pump is recommended 
but is not required. The hydraulic cranking shall meet the requirements 
prescribed in 46 CFR 58.30 and 46 CFR 61.10-5 of Subchapter F, Marine 
Engineering Regulations. The hydraulic system when used in lifeboats as 
engine cranking systems shall be leak-tested at its operating pressure 
after installation.
    (6) The following tools to perform emergency repairs and ordinary 
servicing shall be provided:

One 12-ounce ball peen hammer.
One screwdriver with 6-inch blade.
One pair of 8-inch slip-joint pliers.
One 8-inch adjustable end wrench.
One 12-inch adjustable end wrench.
One Phillips or cross-head screwdriver with a 6-inch blade.

    (b) Steel motor-propelled lifeboats without radio cabin or 
searchlight (Class 1). (1) The engine shall be a reliable marine type 
and shall be in accordance with paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section. If 
a starting battery is supplied, the engine shall be fitted with a marine 
type generator or alternator insulated as required by AIEE rules for 
marine service capable of charging the starting batteries. The battery 
box shall be in accordance with paragraph (a)(5) of this section.
    (c) Steel motor-propelled lifeboats without radio cabin but with 
searchlight (Class 2). (1) The engine shall be of a reliable marine type 
and shall be in accordance with paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section. The 
lifeboat shall be equipped with a searchlight constructed in accordance 
with subpart

[[Page 87]]

161.006 of this subchapter Q (Specifications). The engine shall be 
fitted with a marine type generator or alternator insulated as required 
by AIEE rules for marine service capable of charging the batteries used 
for the searchlight as well as the starting batteries, if fitted. The 
battery box shall be in accordance with paragraph (a)(5) of this 
section.
    (d) Steel motor-propelled lifeboats with radio cabin and searchlight 
(Class 3). (1) The engine shall be a reliable, marine type and shall be 
in accordance with paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section. The engine shall 
be fitted with a marine type generator or alternator insulated as 
required by AIEE rules for marine service, capable of charging the 
batteries used for the radio and searchlight as well as the starting 
battery, if fitted.
    (2) The radio and source of power for the radio and the searchlight 
shall be housed and protected from the elements by a suitable radio 
cabin. The entire installation shall comply with the requirements of the 
Federal Communications Commission, Rules Governing Stations on Shipboard 
in the Maritime Services. The radio cabin shall be of a size to contain 
the radio and source of power for the radio and searchlight, and the 
operator of the equipment. The top and sides of the radio cabin shall be 
watertight with the exception of the door which need not be watertight 
but shall be at least weathertight. The installation of the radio cabin 
shall take into consideration the concentration of weight in this area.
    (3) The searchlight shall be of an approved type constructed in 
accordance with specification Subpart 161.006 of this subchapter and 
shall be securely mounted on top of the radio cabin.
    (4) The batteries shall be installed in a box securely fastened 
inside the radio cabin. The battery box shall be in accordance with 
paragraph (a)(5) of this section.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-133R, 37 FR 
17039, Aug. 24, 1972; CGD 73-116R, 39 FR 12747, Apr. 8, 1974]



Sec. 160.035-6  Construction of aluminum oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled lifeboats.

    (a) General. Aluminum lifeboats shall comply with the general 
requirements for the construction and arrangement of steel lifeboats 
unless otherwise specified.

[[Page 88]]



                                                                               Table 160.035-6--Aluminum Lifeboats
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Bar keel,             Gunwales \1\                                                          Shell plating (Brown and Sharpe gage) \2\
              stem and   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Length of    sternpost                                               Independent air tanks                                                Built-in-air tanks
 boat not     (inches)       Angle bar     Flanged flat  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   over   --------------- (inches) 5086-   bar (inches)         5052-H32               6061-T6                          5052-H32                                       6061-T6
  (feet)                   H112/6061-T6   5086-H112/6061----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             5086-H112/                         T6                                                                            Inner                                         Inner
              6061-T6                                        Side      Bottom      Side      Bottom      Side      Bottom     shell     Bulkheads      Side      Bottom     shell     Bulkheads
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    12.0   2\3/4\x\3/4\    2\1/4\x2x\5/        4x\5/16\         14         14         14         14         14         14         14          14          14         14         15          15
                                    16\
    14.0   2\3/4\x\3/4\    2\1/4\x2x\5/        4x\5/16\         14         14         14         14         14         14         14          14          14         14         15          15
                                    16\
    16.0   2\3/4\x\3/4\     2\1/2\x2\1/   4\1/2\x\5/16\         14         14         14         14         14         14         14          14          14         14         15          15
                              4\x\5/16\
    18.0       3x\3/4\      2\1/2\x2\1/   4\1/2\x\5/16\         14         14         14         14         14         14         14          14          14         14         15          15
                              4\x\5/16\
    20.0           3x1      2\3/4\x2\1/        5x\5/16\         13         13         13         13         13         13         14          14          13         13         14          14
                              2\x\5/16\
    22.0           3x1      2\3/4\x2\1/        5x\5/16\         12         12         12         12         13         12         14          14          13         13         14          14
                              2\x\5/16\
    24.0      3\1/4\x1      2\3/4\x2\1/         5x\3/8\         11         11         11         11         11         11         13          13          12         12         14          14
                               2\x\3/8\
    26.0      3\1/2\x1      2\3/4\x2\1/         5x\3/8\         10          9         11         10         11         10         12          12          11         11         13          13
                               2\x\3/8\
    28.0      3\3/4\x1      2\3/4\x2\1/         5x\3/8\          9          8         10          9         10          9         12          12          11         10         13          13
                               2\x\3/8\
    30.0           4x1    3x2\3/4\x\3/8\   5\1/2\x\3/8\          9          8          9          8          9          8         11          11          10          9         12          12
    32.0           4x1    3x2\3/4\x\3/8\   5\1/2\x\3/8\          8          7          9          8          9          8         11          11          10          9         12          12
    34.0           4x1    3x2\3/4\x\3/8\   5\1/2\x\3/8\          8          7          8          7          8          7         10          10           9          8         11          11
    36.0           4x1    3x2\3/4\x\3/8\   5\1/2\x\3/8\          7          6          8          7          8          7         10          10           9          8         11          11
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Extruded shapes having substantially the scantlings of the angle bar gunwale are permitted. Where extruded shapes are used, a nosing as per Sec.  160.035-3(j) is not required provided the
  extruded shape has at its heel a generously rounded curve.
\2\ Brown and Sharpe gage decimal values: 15 gage equals 0.05707, 14 gage equals 0.06408; 13 gage equals 0.07196; 12 gage equals 0.08081; 11 gage equals 0.09074, 10 gage equals 0.1019; 9 gage
  equals 0.1144; 8 gage equals 0.1285; 7 gage equals 0.1443, and 6 gage equals 0.1620.


[[Page 89]]

    (b) Materials. (1) Plating for shell, air tanks, etc., shall be as 
shown in Table 160.035-6.
    (c) Welding. (1) Welding may be substituted for riveting in the 
following locations: Hoist plate to keel, disengaging gear grace plate 
to stem and sternpost, rudder attachment fitting to the sternpost, and 
the propeller shaft stern tube to the sternpost. When using 6061-T6 
aluminum, the welded area is to be heat-treated and checked by X-ray to 
assure a satisfactory weld. When using 5086-H 112 aluminum, the welded 
area is to be checked by a nondestructive test method such as X-ray, 
ultrasonic waves or fluorescent materials, to assure a satisfactory 
weld. Other methods of checking aluminum welds will be given separate 
consideration. The welding shall be performed by a welder qualified by 
the U.S. Coast Guard, American Bureau of Shipping, or U.S. Navy 
Department, and only suitable electrodes shall be used. Details of the 
joints shall be indicated on the construction drawings submitted for 
approval.
    (d) Dissimilar metals. (1) Where in the construction of aluminum 
lifeboats the use of dissimilar metals are employed such as, the 
installation of the mechanical disengaging gear, hand propelling gear, 
or engine, suitable insulation between the aluminum and these metals 
shall be used. Porous or absorbent materials shall not be used as 
insulating materials. Only non-porous materials such as plastics, rubber 
or neoprene base compounds, or micarta shall be used. Other suitable 
material will be given separate consideration. Fasteners used in joining 
dissimilar metals together shall be of the type that will minimize 
corrosion.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 95-028, 62 FR 
51213, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.035-8  Construction of fibrous glass reinforced plastic (F.R.P.), oar-, hand-, and motor-propelled lifeboats.

    (a) General requirements. (1) Plastic lifeboats shall comply with 
the general requirements for the construction and arrangement of steel 
lifeboats, except that unless otherwise specified, materials, 
scantlings, methods of construction, fastenings, methods of attachment 
of component parts, and other specific construction details may be 
varied by the builder in order to produce a structurally sound boat 
meeting in every respect recognized standards of first class 
construction and one which will satisfactorily meet the performance 
requirements set forth in this subpart.
    (2) Fibrous glass reinforced plastic lifeboats may be of the 
following categories of hull construction:

A--Single piece, outer hull construction.
B--Two piece, outer hull construction.
C--Single piece, inner hull construction.
D--Two piece, inner hull construction.
E--Multi-piece, inner hull construction.

    (b) Specific requirements--(1) Resin. The resin used shall be of the 
fire retardant, nonair inhibited-type conforming to Class A of Military 
Specification MIL-R-21607 and Grade A, Class O of Military Specification 
MIL-R-7575, including tests after 1 year's weathering. In addition, the 
test panels shall be tested for continued conformance with Military 
Specification MIL-R-21607. All tests, including weathering of samples, 
shall be accomplished by an independent laboratory. Complete 
certification by the independent laboratory with test data shall be 
submitted to Coast Guard (G-MSE) for acceptance. Class A resin shall be 
fire retardant without additives. Class B resins will be given 
consideration upon request. Class B resin shall be fire retardant with 
additives and shall meet the same test requirements as that for Class A 
resins. When Class B resin is used for the prototype lifeboat, additives 
for fire retardancy shall not be used in order to obtain a translucent 
laminate for inspection purposes. This prototype test lifeboat will not 
be stamped approved, nor will it be acceptable for merchant vessels. 
Whichever class of resin the manufacturer decides to use for his 
prototype lifeboat, shall be used in his production lifeboats. A note to 
this effect shall be included in his specifications and drawings for 
this particular size and type lifeboat.
    (2) Glass reinforcement. The glass reinforcement used shall have 
good laminated wet strength retention and shall

[[Page 90]]

meet the appropriate military specification stated in this paragraph. 
Glass cloth shall meet Military Specification MIL-Y-1140, Class C, form 
4, No. 1000-150. Woven roving shall conform to Military Specification 
MIL-C-19663, Style 605-308 or Style 605-604. Other glass materials 
equivalent in strength, design, wet out, and efficiency will be given 
consideration upon request.
    (3) Laminate. All exposed surfaces of the finished laminate shall 
present a smooth finish, and there shall be no protruding surface 
fibers, open voids, pits, cracks, bubbles or blisters. The laminate 
shall be essentially free from resin-starved or overimpregnated areas, 
and no foreign matter shall remain in the finished laminate. The entire 
laminate shall be fully cured and free of tackiness, and shall show no 
tendency to delaminate, peel, or craze in any overlay. The laminate 
shall not be released from the mold until a Barcol hardness reading of 
not less than 40-55 is obtained from at least 10 places on the nongel 
coated surface, including all interior inner and outer hull surfaces and 
built-in lockers. The mechanical properties of the laminate shall meet 
the requirements for a Grade 3 laminate as specified in Table I of 
Military Specification MIL-P-17549. Other grades will be given 
consideration on specific request. For the prototype boat of each design 
made by each manufacturer, the layup shall be made of unpigmented clear 
resins so that all details of construction will be visible for 
inspection and test panels representative of each prototype layup shall 
be tested in accordance with MIL-P-17549.
    (4) Weights of F.R.P. lifeboats. (i) The variations in weight 
between the fibrous glass reinforced plastic in the prototype F.R.P. 
lifeboat and the fibrous glass reinforced plastic in the production 
F.R.P. lifeboat shall be within 5 percent. This weight shall be for the 
F.R.P. sections only and shall not include the weight of any hardware or 
equipment.
    (ii) When assembling two similar sections as indicated by categories 
B and D of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the weights of the matching 
F.R.P. pieces shall be within 5 percent of each other.
    (iii) The recorded weights of the items indicated in paragraphs 
(b)(4) (i) and (ii) of this section shall be kept by the manufacturer, 
with each boat listed by size, type, and serial number.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-133R, 37 FR 
17039, Aug. 24, 1972; CGD 82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983; CGD 95-072, 
60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.035-9  Cubic capacity of lifeboats.

    (a) Definitions. The following definitions apply to the measurement 
of a lifeboat to determine its cubic capacity.
    (1) Length (L). The length is the distance in feet from the inside 
of the plating or planking at the stem to the corresponding position at 
the stern. In the case of a boat with a square stern, the after terminus 
is the inside of the transom.
    (2) Breadth (B). The breadth is the distance in feet over the 
plating or planking at the point where the breadth of the boat is 
greatest.
    (3) Depth (D). The depth is the distance in feet amidships inside 
the plating from the top of the keel to the level of the gunwale. The 
depth used for calculating purposes shall not exceed 45 percent of the 
breadth.
    (4) Sheer. Lifeboats shall have a sheer at each end at least equal 
to 4 percent of the length, and a sheer at the quarter points of at 
least 1 percent of the length. If less sheer is provided, the depth used 
to determine the cubic capacity shall be assumed to be reduced so as to 
achieve this minimum sheer.
    (b) Formula. The cubic capacity shall be determined by the following 
formula:


L  x  B  x  D  x  0.64

In the case of lifeboats with unusual proportions, the Commandant may 
require that the cubic capacity be calculated by exact measurements from 
which the exact seating capacity may be determined.
    (c) Motor-propelled lifeboat. The cubic capacity of a motor-
propelled lifeboat shall be determined in the same manner as an oar-
propelled lifeboat and then deducting from the gross volume, a volume 
equal to the engine box

[[Page 91]]

and accessories, and when carried, the radio cabin, searchlight, and 
their accessories. The volume of such equipment extending above the 
sheer line need not be deducted.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 95-028, 62 FR 
51213, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.035-10  Number of persons allowed in lifeboats.

    (a) The maximum number of persons for which the lifeboat may be 
rated is determined as noted in paragraphs (a) (1), (2), and (3) of this 
section. The smallest number obtained is the number to be used.
    (1) The number of persons which a lifeboat shall be permitted to 
accommodate shall be equal to the greatest whole number obtained by 
dividing the capacity in cubic feet by the factor shown in Table 
160.035-10(a). The net cubic capacity shall be determined by 
Sec. 160.035-9(b).

                           Table 160.035-10(a)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Length in feet--
--------------------------------------------------------------   Factor
                Of--                      But less than--
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      18.....................         14
18..................................  20.....................         13
20..................................  22.....................         12
22..................................  24.....................         11
24..................................  Or over................         10
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) The number of persons permitted in the lifeboat shall not exceed 
the number for which seating space is provided as determined by drawing 
figures to scale of a size as noted in Figure 160.035-10(a)(2) on an 
arrangement plan of the lifeboat.
    (3) The number of persons permitted in the lifeboat shall not exceed 
the number of persons wearing life preservers which can be seated in the 
lifeboat without interfering with the use of the oars or the operation 
of other propulsion equipment.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.068

                         Figure 160.035-10(a)(2)
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.035-11  Inspection and testing of lifeboats.

    (a) General. Coast Guard marine inspectors shall be admitted to any 
place in the builder's factory where work is done on these lifeboats or 
component materials or parts. Lifeboats shall be inspected during the 
course of construction to determine that the arrangements and materials 
entering into the construction are in accordance with approved plans, 
and to insure that

[[Page 92]]

the workmanship is of good quality. Samples of materials entering into 
construction may be taken by the marine inspectors for such tests as may 
be deemed necessary at any time there is any question as to suitability 
or adequacy of any material or arrangement.
    (b) Preapproval tests. Before approval is granted to any design of 
lifeboat, the following tests shall be made by a marine inspector:
    (1) Strength test. The light lifeboat shall be suspended by shackles 
at the bow and stern, or by means of the releasing gear, and the length, 
beam, and depth shall be measured. Weights shall then be added to equal 
the weight of the equipment, food, water, etc., and persons for which 
the boat is to be approved, and the length, beam, and depth measured. 
Additional weight shall then be added so that the suspended load is 25 
percent greater than the weight of the fully equipped and loaded 
lifeboat and the measurements repeated. All weights shall then be 
removed and the measurements rechecked. There shall be no appreciable 
set as a result of this test.
    (2) Flooding test. Lifeboats shall be flooded while open to the sea 
to determine the amount of buoyancy necessary to float the complete boat 
including releasing gear but with no equipment, provision lockers, water 
tanks, or fuel tanks aboard. If provision lockers, water tanks, and fuel 
tanks cannot be removed, they should be flooded or filled to the final 
waterline. Lifeboats fitted with watertight stowage compartments to 
accommodate individual drinking water containers shall have these 
individual containers aboard and placed in the stowage compartments 
which shall be sealed watertight during the flooding test. Ballast of 
equivalent weight and density should be substituted for the motor, 
shaft, propeller, radio battery, searchlight, etc., if they are to be 
installed.
    (i) Boats with independent buoyancy tanks or buoyancy units. The 
estimated amount of buoyancy to just float the boat in this condition 
should be fitted symmetrically aboard the lifeboat, and then the boat 
flooded. If the tops of the gunwales at their lowest point do not clear 
the surface of the water, the buoyancy shall be increased as necessary. 
An additional volume of buoyancy, or buoyancy units, equal to at least 
one-tenth the cubic capacity of the lifeboat shall be provided.
    (ii) Boats with built-in buoyancy compartments. When flood testing 
lifeboats with built-in buoyancy compartments weights shall be placed in 
the bottom of the lifeboat to counteract the buoyancy provided for the 
persons to be carried. The amount of weight required per person carried 
shall be as follows:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Weight per
                         Materials                              person
                                                               (pounds)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Iron or steel..............................................           72
Lead.......................................................           69
Concrete...................................................          110
------------------------------------------------------------------------


Other impervious material may be used if more convenient. The weight per 
person required is determined from the formula


W = 63d  d - 63

where d is the density of material in pounds per cubic foot (Sandbags 
should not be used for this purpose inasmuch as their weight under water 
is not readily predictable.) If the lifeboat weighted as above does not 
float with the gunwale at the lowest point just clear of the surface of 
the water, unit air tanks should be slipped beneath the thwarts until 
the gunwales do clear the surface of the water. The additional air 
tankage required shall be incorporated in the design of the lifeboat.
    (3) Seating capacity test. The lifeboat shall be fully loaded with 
equipment, and in this condition the number of persons for which the 
lifeboat is to be approved shall be seated, in accordance with the 
seating plan required in Sec. 160.035-14(a). All persons shall wear an 
approved life preserver and it shall be demonstrated by actual test that 
there is sufficient room to row the boat without interference.
    (4) Freeboard test. Freeboards shall be measured to the low point of 
the sheer with the lifeboat in light condition with neither equipment 
nor persons aboard, and in the loaded condition with full equipment and 
persons aboard.

[[Page 93]]

    (5) Stability test. Upon the conclusion of the seating test, all 
persons on one side of the centerline shall disembark. The remaining 
people should sit upright and not move from their original positions. 
(Not less than one-half in total number of persons should remain in the 
lifeboat.) Freeboard to the low point of sheer shall then be measured. 
This freeboard should, in general, be not less than 10 percent of the 
depth of the lifeboat.
    (c) Motor-propelled lifeboats must pass the tests as required for an 
oar-propelled lifeboat in Sec. 160.035-3. In addition, speed tests over 
a measured course and fuel consumption tests on a time basis shall be 
made to determine that the fully loaded motor-propelled lifeboats can 
maintain a speed of 6 knots for all classes of motor-propelled 
lifeboats, and that for each class of motor-propelled lifeboat its fuel 
tanks carry sufficient fuel for at least 24 hours at 6 knots. A 4-hour 
endurance trial shall be conducted with the fully loaded lifeboat at the 
RPM attained in the speed test in order to insure that there is no 
overheating, undue vibration, or other condition which would warrant the 
belief that the lifeboat could not maintain its proper speed for 24 
hours. The time consumed in conducting the speed and fuel consumption 
tests may be counted toward the 4-hour endurance test. It shall be 
demonstrated that all engines installed in motor lifeboats can be 
started by the acceptable cranking system installed with no previous 
warming up period.
    (d) Hand-propelled lifeboats shall be subjected to the same tests as 
required for an oar-propelled lifeboat. In addition, a test shall be 
made to assure that the lifeboat can be satisfactorily maneuvered with 
the hand-propelling gear. A speed of at least three knots shall be 
achieved in both light and load condition over a measured course of not 
less than 1,000 feet.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-133R, 37 FR 
17040, Aug. 24, 1972]



Sec. 160.035-12  Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P. lifeboats.

    (a) General. These tests are required in addition to the preapproval 
tests required for steel lifeboats in Sec. 160.035-11. The prototype 
boat of each size or design submitted will be required to perform 
satisfactorily in the following tests which will be made in the presence 
of a marine inspector.
    (b) Strength test. The following tests described in this paragraph 
are in lieu of the strength test in Sec. 160.035-11(b)(1):
    (1) Suspension tests. The light lifeboat shall be suspended freely 
from the releasing gear and the length, beam, and depth measured. 
Weights shall then be added to equal the weight of the equipment, food, 
water, and persons to be carried (see Sec. 160.035-11(b)(2)(ii)), and 
the length, beam, and depth measured. Additional weights shall then be 
added so that the suspended load is 25, 50, 75, and 100 percent greater 
than the weight of the fully equipped and loaded lifeboat and the 
measurements taken at each 25 percent increments. (Water may be used for 
all or any portion of the weight if desired.) All weights shall then be 
removed and final measurements taken. There shall be no fractures or 
other signs of excessive stress and no appreciable set as a result of 
this test.
    (2) Chock test. The light lifeboat shall be placed on blocks located 
under the keel at the quarter points and measurements of length, beam, 
and depth taken. The boat shall be flooded with water equal to the 
weight of all equipment, food, water, and persons to be carried and 
measurements of length, beam, and depth taken again. Additional 
measurements of 25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of the weight of the fully 
equipped and loaded lifeboat shall be added and the measurements taken 
at 25 percent increments. If the boat becomes full of water before 100 
percent overload is reached, no additional weight need be added, and the 
last deflection measurements with the boat under load shall be taken at 
this point. The boat shall be drained and final measurements taken. 
There shall be no fractures or other signs of excessive stress and no 
appreciable set as a result of this test.
    (3) Swing test. The boat shall be loaded with weights equal to the 
weight of all equipment, food, water and persons to be carried. It shall 
then be suspended by the releasing gear with falls 20 feet in length so 
arranged that when

[[Page 94]]

hanging freely the gunwale on one side of the boat is approximately 2 
inches from a stationary concrete or steel wall or other structure of 
similar construction and rigidity. The boat shall then be hauled 
outboard a horizontal distance of 8 feet from its original position. 
From this point, the boat shall be allowed to freely swing inboard and 
strike the wall along one side. There shall be no damage which would 
render the boat unserviceable.
    (4) Drop test. The boat shall be loaded with weights equal to the 
full weight of all equipment, food, water and persons to be carried. The 
boat shall then be suspended freely from the releasing gear and shall be 
dropped in a free fall into the water from a height of 10 feet. There 
shall be no damage which would render the boat unserviceable.
    (5) Thwart test. A 200-pound sand bag shall be dropped from a height 
of 6 feet on the center of each thwart span. The thwarts shall not 
fracture or otherwise be rendered unserviceable.
    (6) Towing test. With a towline rigged around the forward thwart in 
the same manner as the sea painter is normally rigged, the fully loaded 
lifeboat shall be towed at least 1,000 yards at a speed of not less than 
5 knots. The boat shall exhibit satisfactory towing characteristics and 
there shall be no appreciable damage to the thwart.
    (7) Tanks and lockers. Equipment tanks and watertight lockers shall 
be tested with not less than 1.0 p.s.i. of air pressure both before and 
after the tests described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (6) of this 
section.



Sec. 160.035-13  Testing and inspection after approval.

    (a) General. After the design of a lifeboat has been approved, 
subsequent lifeboats of the same design shall be individually inspected 
and tested as noted in Sec. 160.035-11(a) for metal lifeboats and 
paragraph (b) of this section for FRP. lifeboats. In addition, motors 
and band-propelling gear when installed shall be operated in the 
``ahead'', ``neutral'', and ``astern'' positions. If mechanical 
disengaging apparatus is fitted, it shall be tested by suspending the 
lifeboat loaded with deadweight equivalent to the number of persons 
allowed in the lifeboat (165 pounds per person) together with the weight 
of the equipment, plus 10 percent of the total load, including the 
weight of the lifeboat. The release lever shall then be thrown over with 
this load suspended until the lifeboat is released. The apparatus shall 
be capable of being operated freely by one man, without the use of aids 
or undue force to the satisfaction of the marine inspector. (This test 
may be conducted ashore by suspending the lifeboat just clear of the 
ground.)
    (b) Additional production inspection and tests for FRP. lifeboats--
(1) Inspection requirements. Each production model fibrous glass 
reinforced plastic lifeboat shall as a condition to its being accepted 
as Coast Guard approved equipment, be examined by a marine inspector at 
the following stages in its manufacture:
    (i) When the major, individual components of the shell and inner 
hull or buoyancy casing are completed but before they are assembled 
together. At this stage the marine inspector shall satisfy himself that 
these components comply with the approved plans and specifications by 
visual inspection, thickness measurements and comparison of the weights 
of the components with the weights recorded for the same components in 
the prototype.
    (ii) At the time the internal buoyancy is installed. If block 
plastic foam is used, it shall be inspected after it has been cut to 
size and shaped but before it is inserted and covered. The installation 
shall be completed in the presence of the marine inspector and he shall 
verify that the required amount is used by weighing the material. If 
foamed-in-place plastic foam is used, the marine inspector shall be 
present during the foaming operation. A sample of the foam shall be 
retained outside the boat and when it sets it shall be used to make a 
density determination of the material.
    (iii) When the boat is completed. At this stage the marine inspector 
shall check the scantlings of the minor components and the overall 
compliance with the plans. The manufacturer shall certify that the 
materials used are in accordance with the approved bill of materials.

[[Page 95]]

    (2) Test requirements. After the inspections listed in paragraph 
(b)(1) of this section are completed, the following tests are to be 
carried out to the satisfaction of the marine inspector:
    (i) The boat shall be suspended freely from the releasing gear and 
the length, breadth and depth measured. The boat shall then be flooded 
with water equal to 1\1/2\ times the weight of the boat, persons, 
equipment, and provisions and fuel (if motor driven) less the weight of 
the boat. This is represented by the following formula:

  Water added = 1.5  x  (empty boat + equipment + provisions + fuel + 
                          people) - empty boat

The length, breadth and depth shall be measured in this loaded condition 
and, again, after the load has been removed. The loaded deflections and 
the permanent deformations shall not significantly exceed those recorded 
for the prototype in the pre-approval tests. Also, while flooded, the 
exterior of the hull shall be examined for leaks or other defects. After 
the boat is drained, the attachment of the release gear shall be 
carefully examined.
    (ii) All provision tanks shall be tested by a static head above the 
tank top of 2 feet of water without showing leakage or permanent 
deformation.
    (iii) The plastic fuel tanks shall be tested by a static head above 
the tank top of 10 feet of water without showing leakage or permanent 
deformation.
    (c) Marking. (1) A corrosion resistant nameplate shall be affixed at 
the bow of each lifeboat on which is stamped the name of the 
manufacturer, serial number, approval number, dimensions of the 
lifeboat, cubic capacity, buoyancy capacity, net weight of the boat in 
Condition A and Condition B, the number of persons for which the 
lifeboat is approved, together with the Marine Inspection Office 
identification letters, the date, and the letters U.S.C.G. Condition A 
includes buoyancy and water tanks and provision stowage compartments but 
no equipment, provisions, water or persons. Condition B includes full 
required provisions and equipment, persons allowed at 10 cubic feet or 
by seating test whichever is less at 165 pounds and 3 quarts of water 
(6.25 pounds)--per person.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-133R, 37 FR 
17040, Aug. 24, 1972; CGD 75-186, 41 FR 10437, Mar. 11, 1976]



Sec. 160.035-14  Procedure for approval of lifeboats.

    (a) Before action is taken on any design of lifeboat, plans covering 
fully the arrangement and construction of the lifeboat, material 
specifications, together with a lines drawing, stowage arrangement, 
seating arrangement, and other details shall be submitted to the 
Commandant through the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which 
the lifeboat is built. The plans for approval must be detailed to a 
degree that the lifeboat can be constructed from the plans submitted.
    (b) If the drawings required in paragraph (a) of this section are 
satisfactory, the manufacturer shall notify the Commander of the Coast 
Guard District in which the lifeboat is built in writing when 
fabrication is to commence. A marine inspector will be assigned to 
witness the construction procedure in accordance with the plans, verify 
the tests required by Sec. 160.035-11 for metal lifeboats and 
Sec. 160.035-12 for additional tests required for F.R.P. lifeboats. 
Also, the manufacturer shall provide the necessary tools and facilities 
required to conduct the tests. The Coast Guard shall have the right to 
require such other additional tests as reasonably may be deemed 
necessary, either with the completed boat or component parts, depending 
upon the particular construction methods and materials used by the 
builder, or any unusual conditions or circumstances which may arise 
during the construction or testing.
    (c) At the time that the tests are successfully completed, the 
manufacturer shall present to the marine inspector four corrected copies 
of the plans noted in paragraph (a) of this section, including any 
corrections, changes, or additions which may have been found necessary 
during construction or testing. If the manufacturer desires more than 
one set of approved plans, additional copies shall be submitted at that 
time.
    (d) Upon receipt of corrected drawings and satisfactory test 
reports, the

[[Page 96]]

Commandant will issue a certificate of approval. No change shall be made 
in the design or construction without first receiving permission of the 
Commandant via the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which the 
lifeboat is built.



Subpart 160.036--Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress 
                                 Signals

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73081, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.036-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The following is incorporated by reference into this subpart:
    (1) ``The Universal Color Language'' and ``The Color Names 
Dictionary'' in Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Names, 
National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 440, December 1976.
    (b) NBS Special Publication 440 may be obtained by ordering from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, DC 20402 (Order by SD Catalog No. C13.10:440).
    (c) Approval to incorporate by reference the material listed in this 
section was obtained from the director of the Federal Register on 
November 1, 1979. The material is on file in the Federal Register 
library.



Sec. 160.036-2  Type.

    (a) Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signals 
specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall consist 
essentially of a completely self-contained device which can be fired 
from the hand to provide a rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress 
signal.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.036-3  Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled 
parachute red flare distress signals shall conform strictly to the 
specifications and drawings submitted by the manufacturer and approved 
by the Commandant. In general, all exposed parts shall be corrosion-
resistant or properly protected against corrosion.
    (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare 
distress signals shall be of first class workmanship and shall be free 
from imperfections of manufacture affecting their appearance or that may 
affect their serviceability.
    (c) Construction. The exterior case of the cartridge shall be made 
of a suitable metal and shall protect against the entrance of moisture. 
The construction shall be such that the parachute and pyrotechnic candle 
will be expelled at approximately the maximum altitude reached.
    (d) Performance. Signals shall meet all of the inspection and test 
requirements contained in Sec. 160.036-4.



Sec. 160.036-4  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a lot of at least 
100 signals from which samples must be taken for testing for approval 
under Sec. 160.036-7. The approval tests are the operational tests and 
technical tests in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. The approval 
tests must be conducted by an independent laboratory accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of this chapter.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests of each lot of signals produced must be conducted under the 
procedures in Sec. 159.007 of this chapter. Signals from a rejected lot 
must not be represented as meeting this Subpart or as being approved by 
the Coast Guard. If the manufacturer identifies the cause of the 
rejection of a lot of signals, the signals in the lot may be reworked by 
the manufacturer to correct the problem. Samples from the rejected lot 
must be retested in order to be accepted. Records shall be kept of the 
reasons for rejection, the reworking performed on the rejected lot, and 
the results of the second test.
    (1) Lot size. For the purposes of sampling the production of 
signals, a lot must consist of not more than 30,000 signals. Lots must 
be numbered serially by the manufacturer. A new lot must be started 
with:

[[Page 97]]

    (i) Any change in construction details,
    (ii) Any changes in sources of raw materials, or
    (iii) The start of production on a new production line or on a 
previously discontinued production line.
    (2) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include inspection of materials entering 
into construction of the signals and inspection of the finished signals, 
to determine that signals are being produced in accordance with the 
approved plans. Samples from each lot must be tested in accordance with 
the operational tests in paragraph (c) of this section.
    (3) Inspections and test by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of 
this chapter must perform or supervise the inspections and tests under 
paragraph (b)(2) of this section at least 4 times a year, unless the 
number of lots produced in a year is less than four. The inspections and 
tests must occur at least once during each quarterly period, unless no 
lots are produced during this period. If less than four lots are 
produced, the laboratory must perform or supervise the inspection and 
testing of each lot. In addition, the laboratory must perform or 
supervise the technical tests in paragraph (d) of this section at least 
once for every ten lots of signals produced, except that the number of 
technical tests must be at least one but not more than four per year. If 
a lot of signals tested by the independent laboratory is rejected, the 
laboratory must perform or supervise the inspections and tests of the 
reworked lot and the next lot of signals produced. The tests of each 
reworked lot and the next lot produced must not be counted for the 
purpose of meeting the requirement for the annual number of inspections 
and tests performed or supervised by the independent laboratory.
    (c) Operational tests. Each lot of signals must be sampled and 
tested as follows:
    (1) Sampling procedure and accept/reject criteria. A sample of 
signals must be selected at random from the lot. The size of the sample 
must be the individual sample size in Table 160.036-4(c)(1) 
corresponding to the lot size. Each signal in the sample is tested as 
prescribed in the test procedure in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. 
Each signal that has a defect listed in the table of defects (Table 
160.036-4(c)(2)) is assigned a score (failure percent) in accordance 
with that table. In the case of multiple defects, only the score having 
the highest numerical value is assigned to that signal. If the sum of 
all the failure percents (cumulative failure percent) for the number of 
units in the sample is less than or equal to the accept criterion, the 
lot is accepted. If this sum is equal to or more than the reject 
criterion the lot is rejected. If the cumulative failure percent falls 
between the accept and reject criteria, another sample is selected from 
the production lot and the operational tests are repeated. The 
cumulative failure percent of each sample tested is added to that of the 
previous samples to obtain the cumulative failure percent for all the 
signals tested (cumulative sample size). Additional samples are tested 
and the tests repeated until either the accept or reject criterion for 
the cumulative sample size is met. If any signal in the sample explodes 
when fired or ignites in a way that could burn or otherwise injure the 
person firing it, the lot is rejected without further testing. (This 
procedure is diagrammed in figure 160.036-4(c)).
    (2) Test procedure. Each sample signal (specimen) must be tested as 
follows:
    (i) Conditioning of test specimens--water resistence. Immerse 
specimen horizontally with uppermost portion of the signal approximately 
25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 24 hours.
    (ii) Firing and operating characteristics. Signals shall fire and 
operate satisfactorily when the manufacturer's directions are followed. 
The parachute and pyrotechnic candle shall be ejected at approximately 
the maximum altitude reached by the projectile case. The parachute shall 
open and properly suspend the pyrotechnic candle without fouling. The 
pyrotechnic candle shall burn with uniform intensity and without 
damaging the parachute, shrouds, or leader line.
    (iii) Altitude. The altitude reached by a signal is considered to be 
the height

[[Page 98]]

at which the parachute and pyrotechnic candle are ejected from the 
projectile case, as determined by visual observation against an object 
of known height, such as a tower or balloon, or by triangulation from 
two or more points of observation, or by other method satisfactory to 
the Commandant. The altitude reached shall be not less than 150 m (500 
ft.).
    (iv) Rate of descent. The rate of descent of a signal is considered 
to be the calculated average rate obtained by dividing the altitude by 
the time of descent to the surface. The rate of descent shall not exceed 
4.5 m (15 ft.) per second.
    (v) Burning time. The burning time of the pyrotechnic candle shall 
be obtained by stop watch measurement from the time a distinct, 
sustained flame is emitted until it ceases. The burning time shall be 
not less than 30 seconds.

                   Table 160.036-4(c)(1)--Accept and Reject Criteria for Operational Test Lots
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            Individual                          Cumulative
                 Lot size                     sample            Sample            sample    Accept\1\  Reject\1\
                                               size                                size
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
280 or                                             8    First.................         8       (\2\)        400
  less.                                                 Second................        16         100        500
                                                        Third.................        24         200        600
                                                        Fourth................        32         300        700
                                                        Fifth.................        40         500        800
                                                        Sixth.................        48         700        900
                                                        Seventh...............        56         950        951
281 to                                            13    First.................        13           0        400
  500.                                                  Second................        26         100        600
                                                        Third.................        39         300        800
                                                        Fourth................        52         500      1,000
                                                        Fifth.................        65         700      1,100
                                                        Sixth.................        78       1,000      1,200
                                                        Seventh...............        91       1,350      1,351
501 to                                            20    First.................        20           0        500
  1,200.                                                Second................        40         300        800
                                                        Third.................        60         600      1,000
                                                        Fourth................        80         800      1,300
                                                        Fifth.................       100       1,100      1,500
                                                        Sixth.................       120       1,400      1,700
                                                        Seventh...............       140       1,850      1,851
1,201 to                                          32    First.................        32         100        700
  3,200.                                                Second................        64         400      1,000
                                                        Third.................        96         800      1,300
                                                        Fourth................       128       1,200      1,700
                                                        Fifth.................       160       1,700      2,000
                                                        Sixth.................       192       2,100      2,300
                                                        Seventh...............       224       2,550      2,551
More                                              50    First.................        50         200        900
  than                                                  Second................       100         700      1,400
  3,201.                                                Third.................       150       1,300      1,900
                                                        Fourth................       200       1,900      2,500
                                                        Fifth.................       250       2,500      2,900
                                                        Sixth.................       300       3,100      3,300
                                                        Seventh...............       350       3,750      3,751
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Cumulative failure percent.
\2\ Lot may not be accepted. Next sample must be tested.


                          Table 160.036-4(c)(2)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Percentage
                       Kind of defect                         of failure
------------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Failure to fire.........................................          100
b. Failure to eject projectile contents....................          100
c. Failure to ignite pyrotechnic candle....................          100
d. Failure of parachute to open completely.................           75
e. Complete carrying away or destruction of parachute......           75
f. Altitude less than 70 pct of that required..............          100
g. Altitude less than 70 pct but less than 80 pct of that             75
 required..................................................
h. Altitude at least 80 pct but less than 90 pct of that              50
 required..................................................
i. Altitude at least 90 pct but less than 100 pct of that             25
 required..................................................
j. Average rate of descent greater than four times maximum           100
 permitted.................................................
k. Average rate of descent less than 4 but greater than 3             75
 times maximum permitted...................................
l. Average rate of descent less than 3 but greater than 2             50
 times maximum permitted...................................
m. Average rate of descent less than twice but greater than           25
 maximum permitted.........................................
n. Burning time less than 70 pct of that required..........          100
o. Burning time at least 70 pct but less than 80 pct of               75
 that required.............................................
p. Burning time at least 80 pct but less than 90 pct of               50
 that required.............................................
q. Burning time at least 90 pct but less than 100 pct of              25
 that required.............................................
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 99]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.010

    (d) Technical tests. Three signals must be subjected to each of the 
following tests. Two of the three signals must pass each test in order 
for the lot of signals to be accepted.
    (1) Luminous intensity. The luminous intensity of each pyrotechnic 
candle

[[Page 100]]

tested shall be measured by a visual photometer or equivalent 
photometric device while the specimen is supported in a horizontal 
position and the photometer is at right angles to the axis of the 
specimen. Visual luminous intensity readings shall be observed and 
recorded at approximately 5-second intervals during the burning of the 
specimen. The minimum photometric distance shall be 3 m (10 ft.). 
Recording photometers shall have a chart speed of at least 10 cm (4 in.) 
per minute. The luminous intensity of the specimen shall be computed as 
the arithmetical average of the readings recorded. The average luminous 
intensity of a specimen shall be not less than 20,000 candela.
    (2) Elevated temperature, humidity, and storage. Place specimen in a 
thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. 
with not less than 90 percent relative humidity for 72 hours. Remove 
specimen and store at room temperature (20 deg. to 25  deg.C.) with 
approximately 65 percent relative humidity for ten days. If for any 
reason it is not possible to operate the oven continuously for the 72-
hour period, it may be operated at the required temperature and humidity 
for 8 hours out of each 24 during the 72-hour conditioning period. 
(Total of 24 hours on and 48 hours off.) The signal shall not ignite or 
decompose during this conditioning. The signal shall fire and operate 
satisfactorily following this conditioning.
    (3) Spontaneous ignition. Place the specimen in a thermostatically 
controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. with not more than 
10% relative humidity for 48 consecutive hours. The signal shall not 
ignite or undergo marked decomposition.
    (4) Chromaticity. The color of the burning signal must be vivid red 
as defined by Sections 13 and 14 of the ``Color Names Dictionary.'' Two 
identical test plates of white cardboard about 30 cm  x  60 cm 
(12" x 24") are used. Except for a negligible amount of stray daylight, 
the first test plate is illuminated by light from the specimen placed at 
a distance of about 1.5 m (5 ft.). The second test plate is illuminated 
only by light from an incandescent lamp operated at a color temperature 
close to 2,848 deg. K at a distance of about 30 cm (1 ft.). The first 
plate is viewed directly, the second through combinations of Lovibond 
red, yellow, and blue glasses selected so as to approximate a 
chromaticity match. By separating the test plates by a wide 
unilluminated area (subtending at the observer about 45 deg.), it is 
possible to make accurate determinations of chromaticity in terms of the 
1931 CIE Standard Observer and Coordinate System, in spite of 
fluctuations in luminous intensity of the specimen by factors as high as 
2 or 3. The CIE coordinates are converted to the Munsell notation which 
is cross-referenced to the color name in Section 13 of the ``Color Names 
Dictionary'' (see the discussion in Section 10 of ``The Universal Color 
Language'').



Sec. 160.036-5  Marking.

    (a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare 
distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows:

    (Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled 
Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal--20,000 candela--30 seconds burning 
time. Use Only When Aircraft or Vessel Is Sighted. Directions--(In 
numbered paragraphs, simply worded instructions for firing the device). 
Service Life Expiration Date (date to be inserted by manufacturer) 
(Month and year manufactured) (Lot No. ____) Manufactured by (Name and 
address of manufacturer) U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. ____.

    (b) Marking of expiration date. The expiration date must be not more 
than 42 months from the date of manufacture.
    (c) Other marking. (1) On each hand-held rocket propelled parachute 
red flare distress signal there shall be die-stamped in figures not less 
than 3 mm (\1/8\ in.) high, on the signal, numbers indicating the month 
and year of manufacture, thus: ``6-54'' indicating June, 1954.
    (2) The pyrotechnic candle shall be legibly marked with the month 
and year of manufacture.
    (3) In addition to any other marking place on the smallest packing 
carton or box containing signals, each carton or box shall be plainly 
and permanently

[[Page 101]]

marked to show the service life expiration date, date of manufacture, 
and lot number.
    (4) The largest carton or box in which the manufacturer ships 
signals must be marked with the following or equivalent words: ``Keep 
under cover in a dry place.''

    Note: Compliance with the labeling requirements of this section does 
not relieve the manufacturer of the responsibility of complying with the 
label requirements of 15 U.S.C. 1263, the Federal Hazardous Substances 
Act.



Sec. 160.036-6  Container.

    (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and 
liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by 
the Coast Guard. The container must meet the requirements in Subpart 
160.021 (Sec. 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must 
be:

     Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals

    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.036-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Signals are approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in 
subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



           Subpart 160.037--Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73085, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.037-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The following are incorporated by reference into this subpart:
    (1) ``The Color Names Dictionary'' in Color: Universal Language and 
Dictionary of Names, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 
440, December 1976.
    (2) ``Development of a Laboratory Test for Evaluation of the 
Effectiveness of Smoke Signals,'' National Bureau of Standards Report 
4792, July 1956.
    (b) NBS Special Publication 440 may be obtained by ordering from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, DC 20402 (Order by SD Catalog No. C13.10:440).
    (c) NBS Report 4792 may be obtained from the Commandant (G-MSE), 
U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20593-0001.
    (d) Approval to incorporate by reference the materials listed in 
this section was obtained from the Director of the Federal Register on 
November 1 and 29, 1979. The materials are on file in the Federal 
Register library.

[CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73085, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 
82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34535, Sept. 7, 
1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, 
Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.037-2  Type.

    (a) Hand orange smoke distress signals specified by this subpart 
shall be one type which shall consist essentially of a wooden handle to 
which is attached a tubular casing having a sealing plug at the handle 
end, the casing being filled with a smoke producing composition and fuse 
with button of ignition material at the top, and a removable cap having 
a friction striking material on its top which may be exposed for use by 
pulling a tear strip. The signal is ignited by scraping the friction 
striker on top of the cap against the igniter button on top of the body 
of the signal. Alternate arrangements which conform to the performance 
requirements of this specification will be given special consideration.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.037-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    (a) Materials. The materials shall conform strictly to the 
specifications and drawings submitted by the manufacturer and approved 
by the Commandant. The color of the tube shall be orange. The 
combustible materials shall be of such nature as will not deteriorate 
during long storage, nor when subjected to frigid or tropical climates, 
or both.
    (b) Workmanship. Hand orange smoke distress signals shall be of 
first class workmanship and shall be free from imperfections of 
manufacture affecting their appearance or that may affect their 
serviceability. Moisture proof

[[Page 102]]

coatings shall be applied uniformly and shall be free from pinholes or 
other visible defects which would impair their usefulness.
    (c) Construction. The casing shall be fitted and secured to the 
handle with not less than a 25 mm (1 in.) overlap and shall be attached 
to the handle in such a manner that failure of the joint will not occur 
during tests, ignition, or operation. The plug shall be securely affixed 
in the casing to separate the smoke composition from the wooden handle. 
The smoke composition shall be thoroughly mixed and be uniformly 
compresssed throughout to preclude variations of density which may 
adversely affect uniformity of its smoke emitting characteristics. The 
cap shall have a lap fit of not less than 25 mm (1 in.) over the end of 
the casing and smoke composition to entirely and securely protect the 
exposed surface of the igniter button and end of smoke composition and 
casing, and shall have an inner shoulder so constructed that it is 
mechanically impossible for the inner surface of the cap to come in 
contact with the igniter button. The cap shall be securely attached to 
the casing in such manner as to preclude its accidental detachment. The 
cap shall be provided on its top with a friction striking material which 
shall, by a pull of the tear strip, be entirely exposed for striking the 
friction igniter button. The igniter button shall be non-water soluble 
or be protected from moisture by a coating of some waterproof substance, 
and shall be raised or exposed in such manner as to provide positive 
ignition by the friction striker. The igniter button shall be firmly 
secured in or on the top of the smoke composition; the arrangement shall 
be such that the ignition will be transmitted to the smoke producing 
composition. The assembled signal, consisting of tear strip, cap, 
casing, and handle, shall be sealed and treated to protect the signal 
from deterioration by moisture. The protective waterproof coating shall 
be applied so none adheres to the friction striking surface. Special 
consideration will be given to alternate waterproofing of the signal by 
means of a water-resistant coating on the signal plus packaging in a 
sealed plastic waterproof bag satisfactory to the Commandant.
    (d) Performance. Signals shall meet all the inspection and test 
requirements contained in Sec. 160.037-4.



Sec. 160.037-4  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a lot of at least 
100 signals from which samples must be taken for testing for approval 
under Sec. 160.037-7. The approval tests are the operational tests and 
technical tests in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. The approval 
tests must be conducted by an independent laboratory accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of this chapter.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests of each lot of signals produced must be conducted under the 
procedures in Sec. 159.007 of this chapter. Signals from a rejected lot 
must not be represented as meeting this subpart or as being approved by 
the Coast Guard. If the manufacturer identifies the cause of the 
rejection of a lot of signals, the signals in the lot may be reworked by 
the manufacturer to correct the problem. Samples from the rejected lot 
must be retested in order to be accepted. Records shall be kept of the 
reasons for rejection, the reworking performed on the rejected lot, and 
the results of the second test.
    (1) Lot size. For the purposes of sampling the production of 
signals, a lot must consist of not more than 30,000 signals. Lots must 
be numbered serially by the manufacturer. A new lot must be started 
with:
    (i) Any change in construction details,
    (ii) Any change in sources of raw materials, or
    (iii) The start of production on a new production line or on a 
previously discontinued production line.
    (2) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include inspection of materials entering 
into construction of the signals and inspection of the finished signals, 
to determine that signals are being produced in accordance with the 
approved plans. Samples from each lot must be tested

[[Page 103]]

in accordance with the operational tests in paragraph (c) of this 
section.
    (3) Inspections and tests by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of 
this Chapter must perform or supervise the inspections and tests under 
paragraph (b)(2) of this section at least 4 times a year, unless the 
number of lots produced in a year is less than four. The inspections and 
tests must occur at least once during each quarterly period, unless no 
lots are produced during this period. If less than four lots are 
produced, the laboratory must perform or supervise the inspection and 
testing of each lot. In addition, the laboratory must perform or 
supervise the technical tests in paragraph (d) of this section at least 
once for every ten lots of signals produced, except that the number of 
technical tests must be at least one but not more than four per year. If 
a lot of signals tested by the independent laboratory is rejected, the 
laboratory must perform or supervise the inspections and tests of the 
reworked lot and the next lot of signals produced. The tests of each 
reworked lot and the next lot produced must not be counted for the 
purpose of meeting the requirement for the annual number of inspections 
and tests performed or supervised by the independent laboratory.
    (c) Operational tests. Each lot of signals must be sampled and 
tested as follows:
    (1) Sampling procedure and accept/reject criteria. A sample of 
signals must be selected at random from the lot. The size of the sample 
must be the individual sample size in Table 160.037-4(c)(1) 
corresponding to the lot size. Each signal in the sample is tested as 
prescribed in the test procedure in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. 
Each signal that has a defect listed in the table of defeats (Table 
160.037-4(c)(2)) is assigned a score (failure percent) in accordance 
with that table. In the case of multiple defects, only the score having 
the highest numerical value is assigned to that signal. If the sum of 
all the failure percents (cumulative failure percent) for the number of 
units in the sample is less than or equal to the accept criterion, the 
lot is accepted. If the sum is equal to or more than the reject 
criterion the lot is rejected. If the cumulative failure percent falls 
between the accept and reject criteria, another sample is selected from 
the production lot and the operational tests are repeated. The 
cumulative failure percent of each sample tested is added to that of the 
previous samples to obtain the cumulative failure percent for all the 
signals tested (cumulative sample size). Additional samples are tested 
and the tests repeated until either the accept or reject criterion for 
the cumulative sample size is met. If any signal in the sample explodes 
when fired, or ignites in a way that could burn or otherwise injure the 
person firing it, the lot is rejected without further testing. (This 
procedure is diagrammed in figure 160.037-4(c)).
    (2) Test procedure. Each sample signal (specimen) must be tested as 
follows:
    (i) Conditioning of test specimens--water resistance. Immerse 
specimen horizontally with uppermost portion of the signal approximately 
25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 24 hours. 
If the signal is protected by alternate waterproofing consisting of a 
water-resistant coating on the signal plus packaging in a sealed plastic 
waterproof bag, the 24-hour water immersion conditioning will be 
conducted while the signal is in the sealed plastic waterproof bag and 
will be followed by an additional immersion of the bare signal (i.e., 
after removal from the bag) 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water 
for a period of 10 minutes.
    (ii) Waterproofing of igniter button. Remove the cap from the test 
specimen. Place head of specimen without cap about 25 mm (1 in.) under 
the surface of water for approximately 5 minutes. Remove specimen from 
the water and wipe dry.
    (iii) Smoke emitting time. Ignite specimen according to directions 
printed on the signal. The smoke emitting time of a specimen shall be 
obtained by stop watch measurements from the time of distinct, sustained 
smoke emission until it ceases. The watch shall be stopped during 
periods of flame emission. The smoke emitting time for a specimen shall 
be not less than 50 seconds.

[[Page 104]]

    (iv) Ignition and smoke emitting characteristics. Test specimens 
shall ignite and emit smoke properly when the directions on the signal 
are followed. Test specimens shall not ignite explosively in a manner 
that might be dangerous to the user or persons close by. The plug 
separating the smoke producing composition from the handle shall in no 
case allow flame or hot gases to pass through it or between it and the 
casing in such manner as might burn the hand while holding the signal by 
the handle.

                   Table 160.037-4(c)(1)--Accept and reject criteria for operational test lots
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                   Cumula-
                                              Individual                             tive
                  Lot size                      sample             Sample           sample  Accept\1\  Reject\1\
                                                 size                                size
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
280 or                                               8    First..................        8     (\2\)        400
  less.                                                   Second.................       16       100        500
                                                          Third..................       24       200        600
                                                          Fourth.................       32       300        700
                                                          Fifth..................       40       500        800
                                                          Sixth..................       48       700        900
                                                          Seventh................       56       950        951
281 to                                              13    First..................       13         0        400
  500.                                                    Second.................       26       100        600
                                                          Third..................       39       300        800
                                                          Fourth.................       52       500      1,000
                                                          Fifth..................       65       700      1,100
                                                          Sixth..................       78     1,000      1,200
                                                          Seventh................       91     1,350      1,351
501 to                                              20    First..................       20         0        500
  1,200.                                                  Second.................       40       300        800
                                                          Third..................       60       600      1,000
                                                          Fourth.................       80       800      1,300
                                                          Fifth..................      100     1,100      1,500
                                                          Sixth..................      120     1,400      1,700
                                                          Seventh................      140     1,850      1,851
1,201 to                                            32    First..................       32       100        700
  3,200.                                                  Second.................       64       400      1,000
                                                          Third..................       96       800      1,300
                                                          Fourth.................      128     1,200      1,700
                                                          Fifth..................      160     1,700      2,000
                                                          Sixth..................      192     2,100      2,300
                                                          Seventh................      224     2,550      2,551
More                                                50    First..................       50       200        900
  than                                                    Second.................      100       700      1,400
  3,201.                                                  Third..................      150     1,300      1,900
                                                          Fourth.................      200     1,900      2,500
                                                          Fifth..................      250     2,500      2,900
                                                          Sixth..................      300     3,100      3,300
                                                          Seventh................      350     3,750      3,751
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Cumulative failure percent.
\2\ Lot may not be accepted. Next sample must be tested.


                          Table 160.037-4(c)(2)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Percentage
                      Kind of defects                         of failure
------------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Failure to ignite.......................................          100
b. Ignites or burns dangerously............................           50
c. Non-uniform smoke-emitting rate.........................           50
d. Smoke-emitting time less than 70 pct of specified time..          100
e. Smoke-emitting time at least 70 pct but less than 80 pct           75
 of specified time.........................................
f. Smoke-emitting time at least 80 pct but less than 90 pct           50
 of specified time.........................................
g. Smoke-emitting time at least 90 pct but less than 100              25
 pct of specified time.....................................
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 105]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.011

    (d) Technical tests. Three signals must be subjected to each of the 
following tests. Two of the three signals must pass each test in order 
for the lot of signals to be accepted.
    (1) Underwater smoke emission. Condition each sample in accordance 
with

[[Page 106]]

paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. Ignite specimen and let it burn 
about 15 seconds in air. Submerge the burning signal in water in a 
vertical position with head down. Obtain underwater smoke emission time 
by stop watch measurements from time of submersion until smoke emission 
ceases. The test specimen shall burn underwater not less than 10 seconds 
when subjected to this test.
    (2) Bending strength. Place the specimen on supports 15 cm (6 in.) 
apart. Attach a weight of 35 kg (77 lb.) to a length of wire. Hang the 
weight from the supported signal by looping the wire around the signal 
approximately equidistant from the two points of support. Let the weight 
hang approximately 5 minutes. The test specimen shall not deflect more 
than 7 mm (\1/4\ in.), nor shall the joint between the casing and the 
handle fail when subjected to this test.
    (3) Tensile strength. Place the specimen in a chuck firmly holding 
it about 13 mm (\1/2\ in.) below the cap. Attach a weight of 35 kg (77 
lb.) to a length of wire. Hang the weight from the supported signal by 
looping the wire through a hole bored perpendicular to and through the 
axis of the handle. Let the weight hang approximately 5 minutes. The 
test specimen shall not show noticeable distortion, nor shall the joint 
between the casing and handle fail, when subjected to this test.
    (4) Elevated temperature, humidity and storage. Place specimen in a 
thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. 
with not less than 90 percent relative humidity for 72 hours. Remove 
specimen and store at room temperature (20 deg. to 25  deg.C.) with 
approximately 65 percent relative humidity for 10 days. If for any 
reason it is not possible to operate the oven continuously for the 72-
hour period, it may be operated at the required temperature and humidity 
for 8 hours out of each 24 during the 72-hour conditioning period. 
(Total of 24 hours on and 48 hours off.) The signal shall not ignite or 
decompose during this conditioning. The signal shall ignite and operate 
satisfactorily following this conditioning.
    (5) Spontaneous ignition. Place the specimen in a thermostatically 
controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. with not more than 
10% relative humidity for 48 consecutive hours. The signal shall not 
ignite or undergo marked decomposition.
    (6) Susceptibility to explosion. Remove smoke composition from 
signal and punch a small hole in the composition. Insert a No. 6 
commercial blasting cap. Ignite the cap. The test specimen shall not 
explode or ignite.
    (7) Color of smoke. Ignite specimen in the open air in daytime 
according to the directions printed on the signal, and determine the 
smoke color by direct visual comparison of the unshadowed portions of 
the smoke with a color chart held so as to receive the same daylight 
illumination as the unshadowed portions of the smoke. The color of the 
smoke must be orange as defined by Sections 13 and 14 of the ``Color 
Names Dictionary'' (colors 34-39 and 48-54).
    (8) Volume and density of smoke. The test specimen shall show less 
than 70 percent transmission for not less than 30 seconds when measured 
with apparatus having a light path of 19 cm (7\1/2\ in.), an optical 
system aperture of +3.7 degrees, and an entrance air flow of 18.4m3 
per minute (650 cu. ft. per minute), such apparatus to be as described 
in National Bureau of Standards Report No. 4792.



Sec. 160.037-5  Labeling and marking.

    (a) Labeling. Each hand orange smoke distress signal shall bear a 
label securely affixed thereto, showing in clear, indelible black 
lettering on an orange background, the following wording and 
information:

                  (Company brand or style designation)

                    Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signal

                For daytime use--50 seconds burning time

               Use Only When Aircraft or Vessel is Sighted

    Directions: Pull tape over top of cap. Remove cap and ignite flare 
by rubbing scratch surface on top of cap sharply across igniter button 
on head of signal.
    Caution: Stand with back to wind and point away from body when 
igniting or signal is burning.

[[Page 107]]

    Service Life Expiration Date (Month and year to be inserted by 
manufacturer) (Month and year manufactured) (Lot No. ____). Manufactured 
by (Name and address of manufacturer). U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 
____.

    (b) Marking of expiration date. The expiration date must not be more 
than 42 months from the date of manufacture.
    (c) Other marking. (1) There shall be die-stamped, in the side of 
the wooden handle in figures not less than 3 mm   (\1/8\ in.) high, 
numbers indicating the month and year of manufacture, thus: ``6-54'' 
indicating June, 1954.
    (2) In addition to any other marking place on the smallest packing 
carton or box containing hand orange smoke distress signals such cartons 
or boxes shall be plainly and permanently marked to show the service 
life expiration date, date of manufacture, and lot number.
    (3) The largest carton or box in which the manufacturer ships 
signals must be marked with the following or equivalent words: ``Keep 
under cover in a dry place.''

    Note: Compliance with the labeling requirements of this section does 
not relieve the manufacturer of the responsibility of complying with the 
label requirements of 15 U.S.C. 1263, the Federal Hazardous Substances 
Act.



Sec. 160.037-6  Container.

    (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and 
liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by 
the Coast Guard. The container must meet the requirements in subpart 
160.021 (Sec. 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must 
be: ``Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals.''
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.037-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Signals are approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in 
subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



    Subpart 160.038--Magazine Chests, Portable, for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGFR 49-43, 15 FR 122 Jan. 11, 1950, unless otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.038-1  Applicable specifications.

    (a) There are no other specifications applicable to this subpart.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.038-2  Type.

    (a) Portable magazine chests shall be of a type suitable for stowage 
of pyrotechnic distress signals, rockets, or powder for line-throwing 
guns, and shall be of a size not less than 6 nor more than 40 cubic feet 
capacity. Alternate types of construction to that specified below will 
be given special consideration.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.038-3  Materials, workmanship, and construction.

    (a) Portable magazine chests shall be constructed of metal and lined 
with wood.
    (b) The lining shall be so fitted and finished as to form a smooth 
surface within the interior of the chest. Fastenings shall be recessed 
below the surface to avoid projections within the interior. Construction 
shall be such as to separate all containers of explosives or 
pyrotechnics from contact with metal surfaces.
    (c) The metal shall be \1/8\ inch thick and free from crimps, 
buckles, and rough edges. All metal surfaces shall be wire brushed and 
all oil, grease, rust, loose scale, and other extraneous matter, removed 
before application of any primer. All surfaces of the metal chest and 
fittings shall be given a heavy coat of quick drying red lead, zinc 
chromate, or other suitable primer before painting. The finish shall 
consist of two coats of paint. The interior shall be lined with wood 
sheathing of a minimum thickness of \3/4\ inch. Securing means shall be 
countersunk below the surface of the sheathing. Securing means for the 
cover and 4 lashing rings shall be provided. The lashing rings shall be 
3" I.D.  x  \3/8\" wire permanently attached to the magazine chest. Two 
runners, not less than 2 inches high shall be permanently attached to 
the bottom of the chest.



Sec. 160.038-4  Inspections and tests.

    (a) Portable magazine chests specified by this subpart are not 
ordinarily

[[Page 108]]

subject to regularly s scheduled factory inspections.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.038-5  Marking.

    (a) Portable magazine chests used for the stowage of pyrotechnic 
signals, rockets, and powder for line-throwing guns shall be marked, in 
letters at least 3 inches high, with the following legend: ``Portable 
Magazine Chest, Inflammable--Keep Lights and Fire Away.''
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.038-6  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Portable magazine chests are not subject to formal approval, but 
will be accepted by the inspector on the basis of this subpart at annual 
inspections and reinspections of vessels.
    (b) [Reserved]

Subpart 160.039 [Reserved]



Subpart 160.040--Line-Throwing Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type 
                             (and Equipment)

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73089, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.040-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The following military specifications are incorporated by 
reference into this subpart:
    (1) MIL-R-23139 B, 16 August 1965--Rocket Motors, Surface Launched, 
Development and Qualification Requirements for.
    (2) MIL-R-45505 A, 2 April 1971--Line Throwing Apparatuses, Rocket 
and Projectile Units.
    (b) The military specifications may be obtained from Customer 
Service, Naval Publications and Forms Center, 5801 Tabor Avenue, 
Philadelphia, PA 19120 (tel: (215) 697-2000). These specifications are 
also on file in the Federal Register library.
    (c) Approval to incorporate by reference the materials listed in 
this section was obtained from the Director of the Federal Register on 
September 24, 1979.



Sec. 160.040-2  Type and size.

    (a) Impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliances required 
by this subpart shall be of a type consisting essentially of a pistol or 
launcher, which can be hand held and hand directed, or suitably 
supported and hand directed.
    (b) Impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliances shall 
weigh (complete with one rocket, bridle, and leader) not to exceed 16 kg 
(35 lb.) and shall be of a size easily manageable by one person.
    (c) Alternate arrangements which meet the performance requirements 
of this subpart will be given special consideration. Line-throwing 
appliances meeting the requirements of MIL-L-45505 Type I will be 
considered as meeting the requirements of this subpart subject to 
approval of the Commandant.



Sec. 160.040-3  Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    (a) Materials. All materials used in the construction of impulse-
projected rocket type line-throwing appliances and equipment shall be of 
good quality suitable for the purpose intended, and shall conform ot 
this subpart and to the specifications submitted by the manufacturer and 
approved by the Commandant. The choice of materials, when there is no 
specific requirement, shall be such that maximum safety to operating 
personnel will be maintained, and that resistance to corrosion by salt 
water or spray, shock, temperature change, and wear will be obtained. 
The use of dissimilar materials in combination shall be avoided wherever 
possible, but when such contacts are necessary, provision shall be made 
to prevent such deleterious effects as galvanic corrosion, freezing or 
buckling of moving parts, and loosening or tightening of joints due to 
differences in coefficients of thermal expansion.
    (b) Construction. The design and construction shall be such as to 
obtain effective and safe operation aboard vessels at sea.
    (c) Workmanship. Impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing 
appliances shall be of first class workmanship and shall be free from 
imperfections of

[[Page 109]]

manufacture affecting their appearance or that may affect their 
serviceability.
    (d) Performance. When the rocket is fired from the appliance in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, it shall be capable of 
passing the tests specified by Sec. 160.040-5(c).



Sec. 160.040-4  Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance.

    (a) Four rocket projectiles, each complete with bridle and leader of 
fire-resistant materials. Two of the projectiles shall be of the buoyant 
type.
    (b) Not less than 4 primer-ejector cartridges which fit the chamber 
of the pistol, gun, or launcher.
    (c) Four service lines, each 4 mm (\5/32\ in.) minimum diameter with 
a minimum breaking strenght of at least 2,250 N (500 lb.), and in one 
continual length not less than that specified in the approval of the 
appliance carried, without splice, knot, or other retarding or weaking 
features. The length of each service line will be assigned in the 
approval of the appliance as a round number approximately one-third in 
excess of the average distance the line is carried in the tests required 
by Sec. 160.040-7(c). The line shall be of either natural or synthetic 
fibers suitable for marine usage. The end of the line intended to be 
attached to the projectile shall have securely attached thereto a 
substantial tag bearing a permanent legend indicating its purpose, and 
the other end of the line shall be tagged in the same manner to prevent 
delay in securing proper and immediate action with the equipment. Each 
line shall be coiled, faked, or reeled in its own faking box or reel in 
such manner that when all the line leaves the container, it shall 
automatically become unattached and free from the container. The faking 
box or reel shall be big enough for the line. The reel type container 
shall consist of a reel upon which the line may be readily coiled and a 
canister or container into which the line may be placed that affords a 
fair lead through which the line may pay out. The reel must be so 
designed as to permit easy withdrawal after the line has been coiled. 
Containers of new lines shall bear the name of the manufacturer, date of 
manufacture, and a statement to the effect that in all respects the line 
meets the requirements of this specification.
    (d) [Reserved]
    (e) One cleaning rod with wire brush of non-ferrous metal, prongs 
arranged in a spiral of sufficient rigidity and size to clean the bore.
    (f) One can of oil suitable for cleaning and preserving the 
appliance.
    (g) Twelve flannel wiping patches of sufficient size to cover the 
brush and suitable for wiping the bore clean.
    (h) One set of instructions including a list of the equipment 
furnished with the appliance, information as to the proper maintenance 
of the appliance and equipment, and directions for loading and firing 
the appliance in service use shall be permanently engraved in plastic 
and mounted conspicuously in the case or box required by paragraph (i) 
of this section.
    (i) A suitable case or box, properly compartmented for stowage of 
the appliance and auxiliary equipment, is required for stowage on 
merchant vessels. The service line and auxiliary line need not be stowed 
in the case.



Sec. 160.040-5  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval tests. An independent laboratory accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of this chapter must perform or supervise 
the performance tests in paragraph (c) of this section.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests must be conducted under the procedures in Sec. 159.007 of this 
chapter. Each appliance or lot of rockets which fails the inspections 
and tests must not be represented as meeting this subpart or as being 
approved by the Coast Guard.
    (1) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include the inspection of appliances 
during production as well as inspection of finished appliances, to 
determine that the appliances are being produced in accordance with the 
approved plans. The performance tests in paragraph (c) of this section 
must be performed by the manufacturer.

[[Page 110]]

    (2) Inspections and tests by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of 
this chapter must inspect and test appliances and rockets at least once 
each year. The inspection must determine that the appliances and rockets 
are being produced in accordance with the appropriate plans. The tests 
must be in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
    (c) Performance tests--(1) Appliances. Each appliance shall be 
tested by firing three rounds. These rounds may be regular rockets or 
buoyant type rockets carrying regular service lines, as provided in 
paragraph (c)(2) of this paragraph or may be dummy projectiles, of the 
same size and weight as the regular rocket projectile, expelled into an 
earthen bank or other resisting medium from a reasonable distance. At 
least one of the rounds shall be fired using a primer-ejector cartridge 
loaded with a charge double the normal charge; the other rounds may be 
fired using regular primer-ejector cartridges. After the firing tests 
have been completed, each appliance shall be fired twice using the 
regular primer-ejector cartridges only, for the purposes of 
demonstrating that the appliance is still in operating condition. The 
entire assembly of the appliance shall then be examined. Results of the 
test firing and the physical examination shall show none of the 
following: Failure to eject cartridge, failure to close breech, trigger 
malfunction, safety lock failure to function, breech catch malfunction, 
broken spring, broken handgrips, cracked barrel or discharge chamber, 
firing pin or plunger broken, distorted or excessively worn or loose 
breech. A single misfire is acceptable if a second cartridge fires on 
repeated test. Misfire of both shall be cause for rejection of the 
appliance. More than one loose screw shall be cause for rejection. If an 
appliance exhibits a single loose screw, it may be retightened.
    (2) Rockets. The rocket shall utilize a solid fuel propellant which 
shall function in accordance with all applicable requirements of MIL-R-
23139. The use of black powder for the rocket motor is not acceptable. 
The ignition of the rocket motor shall occur at such a distance from the 
appliance so as not to spew flame, hot gaseous exhaust, or hot particles 
of propellant in such a manner as to create a hazard to personnel or the 
vessel. The rocket shall have a service line carrier assembly 
permanently attached and made of material, or suitably protected, to 
withstand the heat from the rocket motor's exhaust. From each 200 
rockets manufactured, not less than three must be selected to be tested 
by firing with service line attached. The rockets selected will, over a 
period of time, include representative samples of both the regular and 
buoyant type rockets, except that the approval test must include both 
types. The line shall be carried, under conditions of reasonably still 
atmosphere, a minimum of 230 m (750 ft.), without breaking or fouling 
the line, and the rocket shall alight not more than 15 m (50 ft.) from 
either side of the target line. In no case shall a test rocket be fired 
without a line attached. After a buoyant type rocket is fired, it shall 
demonstrate its ability to float in water for not less than 2 hours. 
Failure to meet any of the test requirements, nose cone cracks, rupture 
in flight, erratic flight, or unusual burning rate, shall be cause for 
rejection of rockets produced until suitable correction has been made. 
If rockets selected from this lot are used for the tests required in 
paragraph (c)(1) of this section this may be accepted as meeting the 
requirements of this paragraph.
    (3) Primer-ejector cartridges. Inasmuch as primer-ejector cartridges 
are used for the tests required by paragraphs (c) (1) and (2) of this 
paragraph, additional tests of primer-ejector cartridges will be made 
only when deemed advisable by the independent laboratory. Misfiring or 
failure of any kind shall be cause for rejection of cartridges produced 
until suitable correction has been made.



Sec. 160.040-6  Marking and labeling.

    (a) The appliance shall be permanently and legibly marked by die-
stamping or raised letters with the model designation of the appliance, 
the manufacturer's serial number for the appliance, the official Coast 
Guard approval number, and the name of the manufacturer. The rocket-
projectiles shall be legibly marked with the name

[[Page 111]]

of the manufacturer, the model designation, the official Coast Guard 
approval number, and month and year manufactured. Primer-ejector 
cartridges shall be permanently and legibly marked with the name of the 
manufacturer, and the model designation, the official Coast Guard 
approval number, and the month and year manufactured.
    (b) The containers of new service lines shall bear the name of the 
manufacturer, date of manufacture, and a statement to the effect that in 
all respects the line meets the requirements of this subpart for service 
lines. Line faking boxes and reels shall bear the name of the 
manufacturer.

    Note: Compliance with the labeling requirements of this section does 
not relieve the manufacturer of the responsibility of complying with the 
label requirements of 15 U.S.C 1263, the Federal Hazardous Substances 
Act.



Sec. 160.040-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Rocket type line-throwing appliances are approved by the Coast 
Guard under the procedures in subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



         Subpart 160.041--Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGFR 50-12, 15 FR 3093, May 20, 1950, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.041-1  Applicable specification and publication.

    (a) Specification. The following specification, of the issue in 
effect on the date first-aid kits are manufactured, forms a part of this 
subpart:
    (1) Federal specification:

GG-K-391, Kits (Empty), First Aid, Burn Treatment, and Snake Bite; and 
Kit Contents.

    (b) Publication. The following publication, of the issue in effect 
on the date first-aid kits are manufactured, forms a part of this 
subpart:
    (1) National Bureau of Standards Simplified Practice Recommendation:

No. R178-41, Packaging of First-aid Unit Dressings and Treatments.

    (c) Copies of the specification and publication referred to in this 
section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together with the 
approved plans and certificate of approval. They shall be kept for a 
period consisting of the duration of approval and 6 months after 
termination of approval. The Federal specification may be purchased from 
the Business Service Center, General Services Administration, 
Washington, DC 20407. The Naval Bureau of Standards publication may be 
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, DC 20402.

[CGFR 50-12, 15 FR 3093, May 20, 1950, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10899, Aug. 21, 1965]



Sec. 160.041-2  Type and size.

    (a) Type. First-aid kits covered by this specification shall be of 
the water-tight cabinet carrying type designated as Type II, Grade A, 
class B by Federal Specification GG-K-391. Alternate arrangements of 
materials meeting the performance requirements of this specification 
will be given special consideration.
    (b) Size. First-aid kits shall be of a size (approximately 
9" x 9" x 2\1/2\" inside) adequate for packing 24 standard single 
cartons (defined by National Bureau of Standards Simplified Practice 
Recommendations for Packaging of First-aid Unit Dressings and 
Treatments), or equivalent combinations of single, double, or triple 
cartons, the arrangement of the cartons to be such as to permit ready 
access to each item contained in the kit.



Sec. 160.041-3  Construction and workmanship.

    (a) Construction. The container shall be of substantial and rugged 
construction, with the body, handle, and all fittings of a corrosion-
resistant material or suitably protected against corrosion. All ferrous 
metal employed shall be protected by hot dip galvanizing, or other 
equally effective means. The thickness of metal in the container shall 
be at least equal to 20 USSG and all seams and joints shall be welded or 
brazed. Either the body or the cover shall contain a gasket of molded 
rubber or other material which will give a suitable watertight seal, and 
the mating piece shall be flanged or turned to

[[Page 112]]

form an effective bearing surface. The cover shall be fastened to the 
body by two positive closed type pull-down snap fasteners on one edge, 
which together with two positive open type pull-down snap fasteners at 
the opposite edge, and one positive open type pull-down snap fastener at 
each of the other two edges, shall effectively hold the bearing surfaces 
together to provide the required watertight closure. The container shall 
be capable of being opened and reclosed watertight.
    (b) Handle. A suitable carrying handle, approximately 3" x 1\1/4\", 
of 0.125" diameter steel wire, shall be securely mounted on the side or 
end of the body of the container, and be so arranged that when laid flat 
against the container it will not project beyond either the upper or 
lower edge, and shall provide ample finger clearance for carrying.
    (c) Cover fasteners. The cover fasteners shall be of the pull-down, 
draw bolt type or equivalent and of sufficient size and strength for the 
purpose. The fasteners shall be so constructed as not to jar loose by 
vibration, but to permit easy and quick opening with one hand. There may 
be no sharp edges and all parts shall be adequately protected against 
corrosion.



Sec. 160.041-4  Contents.

    (a) Individual cartons. Cartons shall be of the standard commercial 
unit type referred to by Simplified Practice Recommendation R178-41, 
properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of 
use, and shall contain all information required by Federal and State 
laws. Each package shall be inclosed in a jacket of tough, transparent 
material, properly sealed, which shall meet the watertight requirements 
of Sec. 160.041-5(f). Each carton and the contents therein shall conform 
to the applicable requirements of Federal Specification GG-K-391. 
Medicinal products shall conform to the latest revision of the U.S. 
Pharmacopoeia. Vials for tablets shall not be made of glass.
    (b) Items. The items contained in first-aid kit shall be as listed 
in Table 160.041-4(b).

                                   Table 160.041-4(b)--Items for First-Aid Kit
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                         No. of
                      Item                           Number per package          Size of package        packages
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bandage compress--4"...........................  1........................  Single...................          5
Bandage compress--2"...........................  4........................    do.....................          2
Waterproof adhesive compress--1"...............  16.......................    do.....................          2
Triangular bandage--40"........................  1........................    do.....................          3
Eye dressing packet, \1/8\ ounce Opthalmic       3........................    do.....................          1
 ointment, adhesive strips, cotton pads.
Bandage, gauze, compressed, 2 inches by 6 yards  2........................    do.....................          1
Tourniquet, forceps, scissors, 12 safety pins..  1, 1, 1, and 12,           Double...................          1
                                                  respectively.
Wire splint....................................  1........................  Single...................          1
Ammonia inhalants..............................  10.......................    do.....................          1
Iodine applicators (\1/2\ ml swab type)........  10.......................    do.....................          1
Aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine compound, 6\1/  5........................  Double...................          1
 2\ gr tablets, vials of 20.
Sterile petrolatum gauze, 3" x 18".............  4........................  Single...................          3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(c) Instructions. Instructions for the use of the contents of the first-
aid kit shall be printed in legible type on a durable surface and shall 
be securely attached to the inside of the cover. The instructions for 
the use of the contents are as follows:

               Directions for the Use of the First-Aid Kit
------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Item title                             Remarks
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ammonia inhalants...................  Break one and inhale for
                                       faintness, fainting, or collapse.
Aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine         Chew up and swallow 2 tablets
 tablets.                              every three hours for headache,
                                       colds, minor aches, pains, and
                                       fever. Maximum of 8 in twenty-
                                       four hours.
Bandage compress, 4" and 2".........  Apply as a dressing over wound.
                                       DON'T touch part that comes in
                                       contact with wound.
Bandage, gauze, compressed, 2"......  For securing splints, dressings,
                                       etc.
Bandage, triangular, compressed.....  Use as arm sling, tourniquet, or
                                       for retaining splints or
                                       dressings in place.

[[Page 113]]

 
Burn dressing.......................  The petrolatum gauze bandage is
                                       applied in at least two layers
                                       over the burned surface and an
                                       area extending 2" beyond it. The
                                       first dressing should be allowed
                                       to remain in place, changing only
                                       the outer, dry bandage as needed,
                                       for at least 10 days unless signs
                                       of infection develop after
                                       several days, in which case the
                                       dressing should be removed and
                                       the burn treated as an infected
                                       wound. Watch for blueness or
                                       coldness of the skin beyond the
                                       dressing and loosen the dressing
                                       if they appear.
Compress, adhesive, 1"..............  Apply as dressing over small
                                       wounds. DON'T touch part that
                                       comes in contact with wound.
Eye patch...........................  Apply as dressing over inflamed or
                                       injured eye.
Forceps.............................  Use to remove splinters or foreign
                                       bodies. Don't dig.
Ophthalmic ointment.................  Apply in space formed by pulling
                                       lower eyelid down, once daily for
                                       inflamed or injured eyes. Don't
                                       touch eyeball with tube.
Splint, wire........................  Pad with gauze and mold to member
                                       to immobilize broken bones. Hold
                                       in place with bandage. Do not
                                       attempt to set the bone.
Tincture of iodine, mild............  Remove protective sleeve, crush
                                       tube and apply swab end. DON'T
                                       use in or around eyes.
Tourniquet..........................  For control of hemorrhage. Loosen
                                       for a few seconds every 15
                                       minutes.
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Sec. 160.041-5  Inspections and tests.

    (a) Accelerated weathering. The container without contents shall be 
exposed to ultra violet light and subjected to a spray of water for 
about 30 seconds every 20 minutes for 100 hours at 120  deg.F. As an 
alternate to this test the container may be exposed to an ultra violet 
light for 100 hours at 130  deg.F. without the water spray. There shall 
be no evidence of warping or deterioration as a result of this test.
    (b) Salt spray. The container shall be exposed to a spray of 20% by 
weight of reagent grade sodium chloride at about 95  deg.F. for 100 
hours. There shall be no evidence of corrosion or disintegration of the 
material as a result of this test.
    (c) Temperature change. The container shall be exposed to a 
temperature of 150  deg.F. for one hour and then to a temperature of 30 
deg.F. below zero for one hour. There shall be no warping or 
deterioration of the gasket material as a result of this test.
    (d) Container watertightness. After the completion of all other 
container tests, a closed empty container, lined with colored blotting 
paper, with the cover in a horizontal position and uppermost shall be 
submerged under a head of one foot of water for a period of two hours. 
At the end of this period the container shall be removed, opened, and 
examined for the presence of moisture. No seepage shall be allowed.
    (e) Carton watertightness. Four cartons from each container tested 
shall be submerged under a head of one foot of water for a period of two 
hours. Upon opening the sealed wrappers there shall be no evidence of 
leakage of water.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 95-028, 62 FR 
51213, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.041-6  Marking.

    (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be permanently marked with the 
following information: name of manufacturer, trade name symbol, model 
number, or other identification used by the manufacturer, the Coast 
Guard Approval Number, and the words ``FIRST-AID KIT.'' This information 
may be embossed on the container or may be applied by silk screen 
process, using a suitable paint and protected as necessary to withstand 
the required tests, or by other means shown to be acceptable.
    (b) [Reserved]



         Subpart 160.042--Skids, Liferaft, for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGFR 50-12, 15 FR 3095, May 20, 1950, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.042-1  Applicable specification.

    (a) The following specification, of the issue in effect on the date 
life raft skids are manufactured, forms a part of this subpart:
    (1) Coast Guard specification:


[[Page 114]]


    160.018, Life Rafts.

    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.042-2  General requirements.

    (a) The requirements of this subpart provide for a standard life 
raft skid for use on ocean and coastwise vessels in conjunction with the 
stowage of Type A rafts which may be used on such vessels.
    (b) Life raft skids shall be constructed and arranged so as to 
properly support a Type A life raft in the stowed position and permit 
the launching of the life raft directly into the water without the 
application of any force other than that necessary to release the 
gripping arrangement and operate the release mechanism.
    (c) Arrangements other than those specified by this subpart will be 
given special consideration.



Sec. 160.042-3  Construction.

    (a) The trackways of the skids shall be constructed of 6" x 3\1/
2\" x \1/2\" structural angles, or of material of approved shape and 
equivalent strength, inclined approximately 60 degrees from the 
horizontal. The trackways shall be spaced 8'-4" from the inside of the 
3\1/2\" vertical leg of one trackway angle to the inside of the 3\1/2\" 
vertical leg of the other trackway angle. The inside of the 6" leg of 
the trackway angles shall form the skid surface for the life raft. The 
trackways shall be supported by a substantial structure suitable for 
stowing a Type A life raft at a 60-degree angle without having the raft 
project over the side of the vessel.
    (b) The lower end of the life raft shall be supported by a base 
plate so arranged as to permit launching of the raft by a quick release 
assembly.
    (c) All bearing surfaces of the quick release mechanism shall be 
constructed of non-corrosive metal. Alemite fittings shall be provided 
to insure positive lubrication of all bearing surfaces.



Sec. 160.042-4  Inspection.

    (a) Life raft skids covered by this subpart are not subject to 
inspection at the place of manufacture, but are inspected on the basis 
of this specification during the annual or other inspection of the 
vessel upon which they are placed.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.042-5  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Life raft skids are not subject to formal approval by the 
Commandant, but for each merchant vessel on which Type A life rafts are 
to be installed, plans showing the construction and arrangement of the 
life raft stowage and launching device on the vessel are required to be 
submitted for approval to the Commandant through the Commander of the 
Coast Guard District prior to the actual installation. Life raft skids 
should comply with the requirements of this specification in order to be 
acceptable for use in such installations.
    (b) Correspondence pertaining to the subject matter of this 
specification should be addressed to the Commander of the Coast Guard 
District in which the skids are to be installed.



    Subpart 160.043--Jackknife (With Can Opener) for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGFR 50-12, 15 FR 3095, May 20, 1950, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.043-1  Applicable specification and plan.

    (a) Specification. The following specification, of the issue in 
effect on the date jackknives are manufactured, forms a part of this 
subpart:
    (1) Federal specification:

QQ-M-151, Metals; General Specification for Inspection of.

    (b) Plan. The following plan, of the issue in effect on the date 
jackknives are manufactured, forms a part of this subpart:
    (1) Coast Guard:

Dwg. No. 160.043-1(b), Jackknife (With Can Opener).

    (c) Copies on file. A copy of the above specification and reference 
plan shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together with the 
approved plans and certificate of approval.



Sec. 160.043-2  Type.

    (a) The jackknife specified by this subpart shall be of a type as 
illustrated

[[Page 115]]

by Drawing No. 160.043-1(b), which consists of a one-bladed knife fitted 
with a can opener and a shackle to which a lanyard is attached, all made 
from materials as specified in this subpart. Alternate arrangements will 
be given special consideration.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.043-3  Materials.

    (a) Blade, can opener, and springs. The blade shall be made of AISI 
Type 440B stainless steel, heat treated to show a Rockwell hardness of 
C55 to C59. The can opener shall be made of AISI Type 420 stainless 
steel, heat treated to show a Rockwell hardness of C50 to C54. The 
springs shall be made of AISI Type 420 stainless steel, heat treated to 
show a Rockwell hardness of C44 to C48.
    (b) Linings and center. The linings and center shall be hard brass.
    (c) Bolsters and shackle. The bolsters and shackle shall be 18 
percent nickel-silver.
    (d) Handles. The handles shall be good quality, thermosetting, high 
impact plastic.
    (e) Rivets and pins. The rivets and pins shall be either hard brass 
or 18 percent nickel-silver as specified in this subpart.
    (f) Lanyard. The lanyard shall be cotton rope, \1/8\ inch nominal 
diameter.



Sec. 160.043-4  Construction and workmanship.

    (a) Blade. The blade shall be not less than 0.095 inch thick at the 
tang. Shall have a triangular section and sheeps foot point. It shall 
have a cutting edge approximately 3\1/8\ inches in length and shall be 
approximately \13/16\ inch in height at the point. The blade shall be 
uniformly ground and finished on both sides and sharpened to a uniform 
and keen edge, and it shall have a common nail nick on one side. Before 
assembling, the sides of the tang shall be uniformly polished.
    (b) Can opener. The can opener shall be not less than 0.072 inch 
thick at the tang, and 1\11/16\ to 1\15/16\ inches long overall. It 
shall be so designed that the cutting action turns the ragged edge down 
into the can, and shall be mounted at the same end of the knife as the 
blade and in such a manner that both rectangular and circular cans may 
be opened with a minimum of effort when the knife is held in the right 
hand and operated in a clockwise direction around the can. The cutting 
edge shall be suitably formed to obtain a smooth cutting action. It 
shall have a common nail nick on one side, and the extreme distal end 
shall be pointed. It shall be polished on both sides, and before 
assembling, the side of the tang shall be polished.
    (c) Springs. Each spring shall be of a thickness corresponding to 
the blade it operates, and the back edge and that section of the front 
edge coming in contact with the end of the tang of the blade shall be 
polished.
    (d) Linings and center. Linings and center shall be not less than 
0.022 inch in thickness and shall be polished before assembly.
    (e) Bolsters. The bolsters shall be approximately \9/16\ inch long 
by 0.100 inch thick measured at the center line.
    (f) Shackle. The shackle shall be of conventional design, not less 
than 0.120 inch in diameter, and shall extend not less than \3/4\ inch 
from the end of the knife. The shackle shall be attached to the knife by 
a solid nickel-silver pin not less than 0.080 inch in diameter which 
shall pass through the shackle and be securely fastened.
    (g) Handles. The handles shall be approximately 3\3/4\ inches long. 
They shall be well fitted at the bolsters and fastened to the linings by 
two solid rivets countersunk on the inside of the linings and smoothly 
rounded on the outside.
    (h) Rivets and pins. Pins holding the handles to the linings shall 
be of hard brass, not less than 0.048 inch in diameter. Middle and end 
pins shall be of hard brass not less than 0.095 inch in diameter. The 
bolster rivet shall be 18 percent nickel-silver not less than 0.095 inch 
in diameter. All rivets and pins shall have carefully spun heads.
    (i) Lanyard. A lanyard 6 feet in length shall be secured to the 
shackle.
    (j) Polishing and oiling. After assembly all outside surfaces shall 
be buffed, and the metal parts polished uniformly. The working parts 
shall be cleaned and oiled with a good grade of joint oil.

[[Page 116]]

    (k) Workmanship. Workmanship shall be first class in all respects, 
and jackknives shall be free from defects which may affect their 
serviceability.



Sec. 160.043-5  Inspections and tests.

    (a) General. Jackknives are not ordinarily subjected to regularly 
scheduled factory inspections, but the Commander of the Coast Guard 
District in which they are manufactured may detail an inspector at any 
time to places where jackknives are manufactured to check materials and 
construction methods, and to conduct such tests as may be required to 
satisfy himself that jackknives are being manufactured in compliance 
with the requirements of this specification and the manufacturer's plans 
and specifications as approved by the Commandant. The manufacturer shall 
admit the inspector to his plant and shall provide a suitable place and 
the necessary apparatus for use of the inspector in conducting tests at 
the place of manufacture.
    (b) Hardness test. Hardness of the blade, can opener, and spring 
metal shall be determined in accordance with the Rockwell method as 
described in Federal Specification QQ-M-151. Hardness impressions shall 
be made at locations representing the cutting edges and surfaces subject 
to wear, and they shall fall within the ranges set forth in 
Sec. 160.043-3(a).
    (c) Bending and drop tests. With all of the blade of the knife 
except the tang clamped in vertical jaws so that the handle is in a 
horizontal position, a downward load of 15 pounds shall be suspended 
from the lanyard and allowed to hang for a period of 5 minutes. The 
knife shall then be turned over, and the test repeated with the can 
opener in the jaws. The knife shall then be dropped on its side from a 
height of 8 feet onto a concrete floor. Both the blade and the can 
opener shall open and close properly, and the knife shall show no other 
evidence of failure at the conclusion of these tests.
    (d) Cutting test. The knife shall be used to cut various nonmetallic 
objects, including at least 10 shavings from a strip of oak or other 
hardwood, and to open various rectangular and circular cans, and shall 
show no noticeable loss in cutting ability.



Sec. 160.043-6  Marking and packing.

    (a) General. Jackknives specified by this subpart shall be stamped 
or otherwise permanently and legibly marked on the tang of the blade 
with the manufacturer's name or with a trade mark of such known 
character that the source of manufacture may be readily determined, and 
with the manufacturer's type or size designation.
    (b) Instructions for can opener. With each jackknife the 
manufacturer shall supply instructions, complete with an illustration, 
indicating the proper method for using the can opener.
    (c) Packing. Each jackknife, complete with lanyard attached, shall 
be packed in a heat-sealed bag of waterproof vinyl resin or polyethylene 
film not less than 0.004 inch in thickness. The bag shall be marked in a 
clear and legible manner with the Coast Guard approval number, the name 
and address of the manufacturer, and in letters not less than \1/4\ inch 
in height with the words. ``JACKKNIFE (WITH CAN OPENER)''. The 
instructions for use of the can opener as required by paragraph (b) of 
this section may also be printed on the bag.



      Subpart 160.044--Pumps, Bilge, Lifeboat, for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGFR 50-30, 16 FR 1085, Feb. 6, 1951, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.044-1  Applicable specifications.

    (a) There are no other specifications applicable to this subpart.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.044-2  Types and sizes.

    (a) Type. Bilge pumps covered by this subpart shall be manually 
operated, either oscillating, wing type, or full rotary type, with 
mountings so arranged as to permit attachment to a thwart or other part 
of the lifeboat structure without interference with the seating 
arrangement. Alternate types, arrangements or materials, which meet the 
performance requirements of this subpart will be given special 
consideration.
    (b) Sizes. Bilge pumps covered by this subpart shall be of three 
sizes, having capacities as follows:

[[Page 117]]

    (1) Size No. 1. 5 gallons per minute at 65 double strokes, 1 
for lifeboats up to 330 cubic feet capacity. 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

     1 A double stroke is a complete cycle from one extreme 
to the other and back again to the original starting point, or, for 
rotary type, one complete revolution.
     2 The capacity of a lifeboat for determining the size of 
the bilge pump shall be 0.6 times the product of the length, breadth, 
and depth of the lifeboat, in feet.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Size No. 2. 6 gallons per minute at 50 double strokes, for 
lifeboats from 330 cubic feet up to 700 cubic feet capacity.
    (3) Size No. 3. 15 gallons per minute at 50 double strokes, for 
lifeboats of 700 cubic feet or more capacity.



Sec. 160.044-3  General requirements.

    (a) Bilge pumps shall be of rugged construction, of first class 
workmanship in every respect, and free from any defects affecting 
serviceability. Where a choice of materials is permitted, the materials 
used shall be of good quality and suitable for the purpose intended, and 
shall be corrosion-resistant or protected against corrosion by 
acceptable means, except that parts subject to wear shall not depend 
upon coatings for corrosion resistance.
    (b) Bilge pumps covered by this subpart shall be capable of 
operating against a head pressure of 20 pounds per square inch when 
tested in accordance with Sec. 160.044-4(c).
    (c) The bilge pump body shall be of bronze and shall be provided 
with a cover plate or plates, attached by means of wing nuts at least 
1\1/4\ inches long, on not more than 6 studs, or by means of a suitable 
bayonet type joint, so as to be readily removable for inspection or 
cleaning.
    (d) The operating lever shall have a steel or bronze core through 
its entire length, but for comfort may have a gripping surface of wood 
or other suitable material. The lever shall be removable and shall be 
attached to the pump shaft which is to be square ended, by means of a 
set screw with 1\1/4\-inch wings, and further shall be connected to the 
pump body or shaft end by a retaining chain to prevent loss.
    (e) The suction line shall be fitted with an intake check valve and 
a suitable strainer. The strainer shall be removable for cleaning 
without the use of tools. The suction line shall contain no hose or 
fittings subject to collapsing when the pump is in service.
    (f) Suction and discharge outlets shall be not less than 1 inch 
inside diameter for pump sizes Nos. 1 and 2, and not less than 1\1/4\ 
inches inside diameter for pump size No. 3. Discharge outlets shall be 
provided with a tee of cast bronze or other corrosion-resistant 
material, with a removable plug at the top for priming, the plug to have 
a wing arrangement for removal by hand, and be secured to the tee by a 
retaining chain. The bottom of the tee shall have pipe threads to fit 
the discharge outlet of the pump, and the discharge portion of the tee 
shall be a plain clamp type male hose connection, with inside diameter 
not less than that of the pump discharge opening.



Sec. 160.044-4  Inspection and tests.

    (a) Capacity. The bilge pump being tested shall be set up over a 
source of water for operation with all the required fittings and 
connections, the set-up to simulate an installation in a lifeboat. The 
bilge pump shall be operated at the standard speed specified for its 
size, and the flow of water measured. The amount of water discharged 
shall not be less than that required by Sec. 160.044-2(b).
    (b) Head pressure. After the successful completion of the test 
outlined in paragraph (b) of this section, a pressure gage capable of 
registering 20 pounds per square inch, and a variable restriction, such 
as a nozzle, valve, etc., shall be fitted in the discharge line. The 
pump shall be put in operation with the discharge line open, and then 
the restriction shall be gradually closed until the pressure builds up 
to at least 20 pounds per square inch. This pressure shall be maintained 
for at least 15 seconds, after which the pump shall be disassembled and 
inspected. No destruction or deformation of parts sufficient to affect 
the serviceability of the pump shall be permitted as a result of this 
test.
    (c) Operating lever. With the pump firmly secured in such a position 
that both the shaft and operating lever are in a horizontal position, 
apply a downward load of 200 pounds for a period of

[[Page 118]]

5 minutes at the free end of the operating lever and perpendicular to 
its axis and the axis of the shaft. There shall be no slippage of the 
lever around the shaft, nor any evidence of permanent set or undue 
stress in any part of the pump. In cases where the design of the pump is 
such that this test may not be applicable to the complete pump, the pump 
shall be disassembled and the 200-pound load applied to the shaft and 
operating lever while the free end of the shaft is held in a vise or 
check so that both the shaft and the operating lever are in a horizontal 
position.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11467, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 95-028, 62 FR 
51213, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.044-5  Marking.

    (a) Each pump shall be permanently and legibly marked, in letters 
not less than \1/4\ inch high, either cast or stamped on the body, with 
the name of the manufacturer, the size for which approved (USCG No. 1, 2 
or 3), and the Coast Guard approval number. The tee required by 
Sec. 160.044-3(f) shall be permanently and legibly marked with the word 
``PRIME HERE''.
    (b) [Reserved]



  Subpart 160.047--Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Kapok or Fibrous 
                         Glass, Adult and Child



Sec. 160.047-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Specifications and Standards. This subpart makes reference to 
the following documents:
    (1) Federal Specification:

L-P-375C--Plastic Film, Flexible, Vinyl Chloride.

    (2) Military specifications:

MIL-W-530--Webbing, Textile, Cotton, General Purpose, Natural or in 
Colors.
MIL-B-2766--Batt, Fibrous Glass, Lifesaving Equipment.

    (3) Federal Standards:

No. 191--Textile Test Methods.
751A--Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings.

    (4) Coast Guard specification:

164.003--Kapok, Processed.

    (b) Plans. The following plans, of the issue in effect on the date 
buoyant vests are manufactured, form a part of this subpart:

Dwg. No. 160.047-1:
    Sheet 1, Rev. 2--Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement, Models AK-
1, and AF-1.
    Sheet 2, Rev. 2--Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement, Models 
CKM-1 and CFM-1.
    Sheet 3, Rev. 2--Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement, Models 
CKS-1 and CFS-1.
    Sheet 4, Rev. 1--Pad Patterns.

    (c) Copies on file. The manufacturer shall keep a copy of each 
specification and plan required by this section on file together with 
the certificate of approval. Plans and specifications may be obtained as 
follows:
    (1) The Coast Guard plans and specifications may be obtained from 
the Commandant (G-MSE), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20593-0001 or a 
recognized laboratory listed in Sec. 160.047-6b.
    (2) The Federal Specifications and Standard may be purchased from 
the Business Service Center, General Services Administration, 
Washington, DC 20407;
    (3) The military specifications may be obtained from the Commanding 
Officer, Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19120.

[CGD 65-37, 30 FR 11581, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 FR 
10836, May 31, 1972; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 
82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34535, Sept. 7, 
1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, 
Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.047-2  Model.

    Each buoyant vest specified in this subpart is a:
    (a) Model AK-1, adult, kapok (for persons weighing more than 90 
pounds);
    (b) Model AF-1, adult, fibrous glass (for persons weighing more than 
90 pounds);
    (c) Model CKM-1, child medium, kapok (for children weighing from 50 
to 90 pounds);
    (d) Model CFM-1, child medium, fibrous glass (for children weighing 
from 50 to 90 pounds);
    (e) Model CKS-1, child small, kapok (for children weighing less than 
50 pounds); or

[[Page 119]]

    (f) Model CFS-1, child small, fibrous glass (for children weighing 
less than 50 pounds).

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8119, Mar. 23, 1973]



Sec. 160.047-3  Materials.

    (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant 
vests must meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of this 
chapter. The requirements for materials specified in this section are 
minimum requirements, and consideration will be given to the use of 
alternate materials in lieu of those specified. Detailed technical data 
and samples of all proposed alternate materials must be submitted for 
approval before those materials are incorporated in the finished 
product.
    (b) Kapok. The kapok shall be all new material complying with 
Subpart 164.003 of this subchapter and shall be properly processed.
    (c) Fibrous glass. The fibrous glass shall comply with the 
requirements of specification MIL-B-2766.
    (d) Envelope. The buoyant vest envelope, or cover, shall be made 
from 39", 2.85 cotton jeans cloth, with a thread count of approximately 
96 x 64. The finished goods shall weigh not less than 4.2 ounces per 
square yard, shall have a thread count of not less than 94 x 60, and 
shall have a breaking strength of not less than 85 pounds in the warp 
and 50 pounds in the filling. Other cotton fabrics having a weight and 
breaking strength not less than the above will be acceptable. There are 
no restrictions as to color, but the fastness of the color to 
laundering, water, crocking and light shall be rated ``good'' when 
tested in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 191, Methods 
5610, 5630, 5650, and 5660.
    (e) Pad covering. The covering for the buoyant pad inserts shall be 
flexible vinyl film not less than 0.006" in thickness meeting the 
requirements of Federal Specification L-P-375 for Type I or II, class 1, 
film.
    (f) Tie tapes and body strap loops. The tie tapes and body strap 
loops for an adult or child size buoyant vest specified by this subpart 
must be \3/4\-inch cotton webbing meeting the requirements in military 
specification MIL-T-43566 (Class I) for Type I webbing.
    (f-1) Body straps. The complete body strap assembly, including 
hardware, must have a breaking strength of 150 pounds for an adult size 
and 115 pounds for a child size. The specifications for the webbing are 
as follows:
    (1) For an adult size vest, the webbing must be 1 inch.
    (2) For a child size vest, the webbing must be three-fourth inch and 
meet the requirements of military specification MIL-W-530 for Type IIa 
webbing.
    (f-2) Reinforcing tape. The reinforcing tape around the neck of a 
buoyant vest specified by this subpart must be \3/4\-inch cotton tape 
weighing 0.18 ounce or more per linear yard and having a minimum 
breaking strength of 120 pounds.
    (g) [Reserved]
    (h) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11581, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 
FR 10836, May 31, 1972; CGD 73-130R 39 FR 20684, June 13, 1974; CGD 78-
012; 43 FR 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983; 
CGD 84-068, 58 FR 29493, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.047-3a  Materials--Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    (a) Specifications. Dee ring and snap lock assemblies and other 
instruments of closure for buoyant vests may have decorative platings in 
any thickness and must meet the following specifications:
    (1) The device must be constructed of inherently corrosion resistant 
materials. As used in this section the term inherently corrosion 
resistant materials includes, but is not limited to, brass, bronze, and 
stainless steel.
    (2) The size of the opening of the device must be consistent with 
the webbing which will pass through the opening.
    (b) Testing requirements. Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and 
other instruments of closure for buoyant vests must--
    (1) Be tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which 
one or more of the following tests will be used:

[[Page 120]]

    (i) Application of a 20 percent sodium-chloride solution spray at a 
temperature of 95  deg.F (35  deg.C) for a period of 240 hours in 
accordance with the procedures contained in method 811 of the Federal 
Test Method Standard No. 151.
    (ii) Exposure to a carbon-arc weather-ometer for a period of 100 
hours.
    (iii) Submergence for a period of 100 hours in each of the 
following:
    (a) Leaded gasoline.
    (b) Gum turpentine.
    (iv) Exposure to a temperature of 0 deg.plus-minus5 
deg.F (--17.6plus-minus2.775  deg.C) for 24 hours; and
    (2) Within 5 minutes of completion of the weathering test required 
by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the assembly must be attached to a 
support and bear 150 pounds for an adult size and 115 pounds for a child 
size for 10 minutes at the ambient temperatures without breaking or 
distorting.

[CGD 73-130R, 39 FR 20684, June 13, 1974]



Sec. 160.047-4  Construction.

    (a) General. This specification covers buoyant vests which 
essentially consist of a vest-cut envelope containing compartments in 
which are enclosed pads of buoyant material arranged and distributed so 
as to provide the proper flotation characteristics and buoyancy required 
to hold the wearer in an upright backward position with head and face 
out of water. The buoyant vests are also fitted with tapes, webbing, and 
hardware to provide for proper adjustment and close and comfortable fit 
to the bodies of various size wearers.
    (b) Envelope. The envelope or cover shall be cut to the pattern 
shown on Dwg. No. 160.047-1, Sheet 1, for adult size, and Sheets 2 and 3 
for child sizes, and sewed with seams and stitching as shown on the 
drawing. Three compartments shall be formed to hold the buoyant pad 
inserts, two front compartments and one back compartment, and 
reinforcing strips of the same material as the cover shall be stitched 
to the inside of the front compartments in way of the strap attachments 
as shown by the drawings. As alternate construction, the front and/or 
back cover panels may be made in two pieces, provided that the two 
pieces are joined by a double stitched seam from the top center of the 
neck hole to the top of the vest as shown in Section J-J of the 
drawings.
    (c) Pad inserts--(1) Forming and sealing. The buoyant pad inserts 
shall each be formed from two pieces of film cut to the patterns shown 
by Dwg. No. 160.047-1, Sheet 4, which shall be heat-sealed tight. The 
heat-sealed pad seams shall show an adhesion of not less than 8 pounds 
when 1 inch strips cut across and perpendicular to the seams are pulled 
apart at a rate of separation of the clamping jaws of the test machine 
of 12 inches per minute.
    (2) Kapok-filled pads for Models AK-1, CKM-1, and CKS-1. The buoyant 
pad inserts for Models AK-1, CKM-1, and CKS-1 buoyant vests shall be 
filled with kapok distributed as provided in Table 160.047-4(c)(2).

                       Table 160.047-4(c)(2)--Distribution of Kapok in Buoyant Pad Inserts
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Model AK-1      Model CKM-1     Model CKS-1
                                                                     (minimum)       (minimum)       (minimum)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                          Ounces          Ounces          Ounces
Front pad (2) (each)............................................            5.75            3.75            2.50
Back pad........................................................            4.00            2.50            2.00
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
      Total.....................................................           15.50           10.00            7.00
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (3) Fibrous glass-filled pads for Models AF-1, CFM-1, and CFS-1. The 
buoyant pad inserts for Models AF-1, CFM-1, and CFS-1 buoyant vests 
shall be filled with fibrous glass distributed as provided in Table 
160.047-4(c)(3).

[[Page 121]]



                   Table 160.047-4(c)(3)--Distribution of Fibrous Glass in Buoyant Pad Inserts
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Model AF-1      Model CFM-1     Model CFS-1
                                                                     (minimum)       (minimum)       (minimum)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                          Ounces          Ounces          Ounces
Front pad (2) (each)............................................           10.25            6.75            4.50
Back............................................................            7.25            4.50            3.50
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
      Total.....................................................           27.75           18.00           12.50
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (4) Displacement of buoyant pad inserts. The volume of the finished 
individual heat-sealed buoyant pad inserts shall be such as to provide 
buoyancy as set forth in Table 160.047-4(c)(4) when tested in accordance 
with the method set forth in Sec. 160.047-5(e)(1), except that the pad 
covers shall not be slit open and the period of submergence shall be 
only long enough to determine the displacement of the pads.

                                                Table 160.047-4(c)(4)--Volume Displacement of Sealed Pads
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               Models AK-1 and AF-1                  Models CKM-1 and CFM-1                Models CKS-1 and CFS-1
                                     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Each                                   Each                                  Each
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Front pads..........................  6\1/4\ poundsplus-minus\1/4\ pound...  4\1/4\ poundsplus-minus\1/4\ pound...  2\3/4\ poundsplus-minus\1/4\ pound
Back pads...........................  4\1/4\ poundsplus-minus\1/4\ pound...  3\1/4\ poundsplus-minus\1/4\ pound...  2\1/2\ poundsplus-minus\1/4\ pound
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (d) Tie tapes. The tie tapes at the neck shall finish not less than 
12 inches in length for both adult and child size buoyant vests. They 
shall be arranged and attached to the envelope as shown by the drawings, 
and the free ends shall be doubled over and stitched in accordance with 
section H-H.
    (e) Body strap, hardware, and reinforcing tape. The body strap, 
hardware, and reinforcing tape shall be arranged as shown on the 
drawings and attached to the envelope with the seams and stitching 
indicated.
    (f) Stitching. All stitching shall be a short lock stitch conforming 
to Stitch Type 301 of Federal Standard No. 751, and there shall be not 
less than 7 nor more than 9 stitches to the inch. Both ends of the 
stitching forming the shoulder hinge seams and the top and bottom 
closing seams of the envelope shall be backstitched approximately \1/2\ 
inch.
    (g) Workmanship. Buoyant vests shall be of first-class workmanship 
and shall be free from any defects materially affecting their appearance 
or serviceability.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11581, Sept. 10, 1965]



Sec. 160.047-5  Inspections and tests.1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1 The manufacturer of a personal flotation device must meet 33 
CFR 181.701 through 33 CFR 181.705 which require an instruction pamphlet 
for each device that is sold or offered for sale for use on recreational 
boats.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (a) General. Manufacturers of listed and labeled buoyant vests 
shall--
    (1) Maintain quality control of the materials used, the 
manufacturing methods and the finished product to meet the requirements 
of this subpart by conducting sufficient inspections and tests of 
representative samples and components produced;
    (2) Make available to the recognized laboratory inspector and to the 
Coast Guard inspector, upon request, records of tests conducted by the 
manufacturer and records of materials used during production of the 
device including affidavits from suppliers; and
    (3) Permit any examination, inspection, and test required by the 
recognized laboratory or the Coast Guard for a listed and labeled 
device, either at the place of manufacture, or some other location.
    (b) Lot size and sampling. (1) A lot consists of 500 buoyant vests 
or fewer.
    (2) A new lot begins after any change or modification in materials 
used or manufacturing methods employed;

[[Page 122]]

    (3) The manufacturer of the buoyant vests shall notify the 
recognized laboratory when a lot is ready for inspection;
    (4) The manufacturer shall select samples in accordance with the 
requirements in Table 160.047-5(b)(4) from each lot of buoyant vests to 
be tested by the inspector in accordance with paragraph (e) of this 
section;

            Table 160.047-5(b)(4)--Sample for Buoyancy Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Number of
                          Lot size                             vests in
                                                                sample
------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 and under..............................................            1
101 to 200.................................................            2
201 to 300.................................................            3
301 to 500.................................................            4
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (5) The recognized laboratory must assign an inspector to a plant 
when notified that a lot is ready for inspection, to conduct tests and 
inspections on samples selected in accordance with paragraph (b)(4) of 
this section.
    (6) If a vest fails the buoyancy test, the sample from the next 
succeeding lot must consist of 10 specimen vests or more to be tested 
for buoyancy in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.
    (c) Additional tests. An inspector from the recognized laboratory or 
the Coast Guard may conduct an examination, test, and inspection of a 
listed and labeled buoyant device that is obtained from the manufacturer 
or through commercial channels to determine its conformance to the 
applicable requirements.
    (d) Test facilities. The manufacturer shall admit the laboratory 
inspector and the Coast Guard inspector to any part of the premises at 
the place of manufacture of a listed and labeled device to--
    (1) Examine, inspect, or test a sample of a part or a material that 
is included in the construction of the device; and
    (2) Conduct any necessary examination, inspection, or test in a 
suitable place and with appropriate apparatus provided by the 
manufacturer.
    (e) Buoyancy--(1) Buoyancy test method. Remove the buoyant pad 
inserts from the vest and cut three slits each not less than 2 inches in 
length and not less than 2 inches apart on both sides of each pad. 
Securely attach the spring scale in a position directly over the test 
tank. Suspend the weighted wire basket from the scale in such a manner 
that the basket is weighed while it is completely under water. In order 
to measure the actual buoyancy provided by the pads, proceed as follows:
    (i) Weigh the empty wire basket under water.
    (ii) Place the pads inside the basket and submerge it so that the 
top of the basket is at least 2 inches below the surface of the water 
for 24 hours. The tank shall be locked or sealed during this 24-hour 
submergence period. It is important that after the pads have once been 
submerged they shall remain submerged for the duration of the test, and 
at no time during the course of the test shall they be removed from the 
tank or otherwise exposed to air.
    (iii) After the 24-hour submergence period unlock or unseal the tank 
and weigh the weighted wire basket with the pads inside while both are 
still under water.
    (iv) The buoyancy is computed as (i) minus (iii).
    (2) Buoyancy required. The pad inserts from adult buoyant vests 
shall provide not less than 16 pounds buoyancy; the pad inserts from 
child medium vests shall provide not less than 11 pounds buoyancy; and 
the pad inserts from child small vests shall provide not less than 7\1/
4\ pounds buoyancy.
    (f) Body strap test. The complete body strap assembly, including 
hardware, shall be tested for strength by attaching the dee ring to a 
suitable support such that the assembly hangs vertically its full 
length. A weight as specified in Sec. 160.047-3(f) shall be attached to 
the other end on the snap hook for 10 minutes. The specified weight 
shall not break or excessively distort the body strap assembly.

[CGFR 65-37; 30 FR 11581, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 
FR 10836, May 31, 1972; CGD 75-008, 43 FR 9772, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.047-6  Marking.

    (a) Each buoyant vest must have the following information clearly 
marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet:

Type II Personal Flotation Device.

[[Page 123]]

Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
(Kapok or Fibrous glass) buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant 
force of (16 lb., 11 lb., or 7\1/4\ lb.).
Dry out thoroughly when wet.
Do not snag or puncture inner plastic cover.
If pads become waterlogged, replace device.
Approved for use on all recreational boats and on uninspected commercial 
vessels less than 40 feet in length not carrying passengers for hire by 
persons weighing (over 90 lb., 50 to 90 lb., or less than 50 lb.).
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.047/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.).
(Lot No.).

    (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be 
sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it 
will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed 
matter becoming illegible.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8119, Mar. 28, 1973, as amended by CGD 75-008, 43 FR 
9770, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.047-7  Recognized laboratory.

    (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under 
this subpart shall follow the approval procedures of subpart 159.005 of 
this chapter, and shall apply for approval directly to a recognized 
independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under 
Sec. 159.010-7 of this part, to perform testing and approval functions 
under this subpart:

Underwriters Laboratories, 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. Box 13995, Research 
Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919) 549-1400.

    (b) Production oversight must be performed by the same laboratory 
that performs the approval tests unless, as determined by the 
Commandant, the employees of the laboratory performing production 
oversight receive training and support equal to that of the laboratory 
that performed the approval testing.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13930, Mar. 28, 1996]



   Subpart 160.048--Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass



Sec. 160.048-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Specifications and Standards. This subpart makes reference to 
the following documents:
    (1) Military specification:

MIL-B-2766--Batt, Fibrous Glass, Lifesaving Equipment.

    (2) Federal Specifications:

CCC-C-700G--Cloth, Coated, Vinyl, Coated (Artificial Leather).
CCC-C-426D--Cloth, Cotton Drill.
L-P-375C--Plastic Film, Flexible, Vinyl Chloride.

    (3) Federal standard:

No. 751--Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings.

    (4) Coast Guard specification:

164.003--Kapok, Processed.

    (b) Plan. The following plan, of the issue in effect on the date 
kapok or fibrous glass buoyant cushions are manufactured, form a part of 
this subpart:
    (1) Coast Guard Dwg. No. 160.048-1.
    (c) Copies on File. Copies of the specifications and plan referred 
to in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together 
with the approved plans and certificate of approval. The Coast Guard 
specification and plan may be obtained upon request from the Commandant, 
U.S. Coast Guard, 2100 Second Street, SW., Washington, DC 20593-0001, or 
recognized laboratory. The Federal Specifications and the Federal 
Standard may be purchased from the Business Service Center, General 
Services Administration, Washington; DC 20407. The Military 
Specification may be obtained from the Commanding Officer, Naval Supply 
Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19120.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11583, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGFR 70-143, 35 
FR 19962, Dec. 30, 1970; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; 
USCG-1999-6216, 64 FR 53227, Oct. 1, 1999]



Sec. 160.048-2  Types and sizes.

    (a) Types. Buoyant cushions shall be of the box type, i.e., have 
top, bottom and gusset. Pillow type cushions without a gusset are not 
acceptable.

[[Page 124]]

    (b) Sizes. Buoyant cushions shall have not less than 225 square 
inches top surface area; widths and lengths which fall within the 
dimensions shown in Tables 160.048-4(c)(1)(i) and 160.048-4(c)(1)(ii); 
and thickness not less than 2 nor more than 3 inches, the thickness to 
be considered as the finished width of the gusset between seams.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11583, Sept. 10, 1965]



Sec. 160.048-3  Materials.

    (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant 
cushions must meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of 
this chapter.
    (b) Kapok. The kapok shall be all new material complying with 
Specification subpart 164.003 of this subchapter and shall be properly 
processed.
    (c) Fibrous glass. The fibrous glass shall comply with the 
requirements of specification MIL-B-2766.
    (d) Cover. Cotton fabrics and coated upholstery cloth meeting the 
minimum requirements set forth in paragraphs (d) (1) and (2) of this 
section are acceptable for use as covers for buoyant cushions, but 
alternate materials will be given special consideration. Pro rata widths 
of like construction will be acceptable.
    (1) Cotton fabrics. Cotton fabrics shall comply with the 
requirements of Federal Specification CCC-C-426 for Type I, Class 3 
material.
    (2) Coated upholstery cloth. Coated upholstery cloth shall comply 
with the requirements of Federal Specification CCC-A-700.
    (e) Pad covering. The covering for the buoyant pad inserts shall be 
flexible vinyl film not less than 0.008 inch in thickness meeting the 
requirements of Federal Specification L-P-375 for Type I or II, Class 1, 
film.
    (f) Grab straps. The grab straps shall be of materials permitted for 
the cover, or approved equivalent.
    (g) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam.
    (h) Welting. The welting where used may be any fiber or plastic 
material suitable for the purpose.

[CG FR 65-37, 30 FR 11583, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 78-012, 43 
FR 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 84-068, 58 FR 29493, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.048-4  Construction and workmanship.

    (a) General. This specification covers buoyant cushions of the box 
type filled with kapok or fibrous glass contained in heat-sealed vinyl 
film pad covers which are inserted in an outer cover fitted with grab 
straps. The primary purpose of such cushions is to provide buoyancy to 
aid a person in keeping afloat in the water. No hooks, snaps, or other 
means shall be included which might facilitate fastening the cushion to 
a boat. Buoyant cushions shall be of such size and volume as to provide 
not less than 20 pounds buoyancy when tested in the manner described in 
Sec. 160.048-5(e), but no cushion providing less than 225 square inches 
of top surface area or measuring less than 2 inches or more than 3 
inches in thickness will be acceptable.
    (b) Cover. One piece of material each for the top and bottom shall 
be stitched together to form the cover except that piecing of the cover 
material will be allowed provided it is for decorative purposes only. 
Gusset or boxing materials shall be of not more than two pieces. If more 
than one piece of material is used for the top, bottom, boxing or 
gusset, they shall be attached by a double row of stitching of the type 
shown in Federal Standard No. 751, for seam types SSw-2 or LS(b)-2. The 
top and bottom may be of any of the materials permitted for the cover, 
but the boxing or gusset shall be a cotton fabric as specified by 
Sec. 160.048-3(c)(1) or other equivalent material of a porous nature. 
Nonporous materials will not be permitted for the boxing or gusset, but 
coated upholstery cloth specified by Sec. 160.048-3(d)(2), perforated to 
permit adequate draining and drying will be acceptable.
    (c) Buoyant material. Buoyant cushions shall be filled with the 
minimum amounts of kapok or fibrous glass determined as follows:
    (1) Rectangular buoyant cushions 2 inches thick shall be filled with 
the amounts of kapok or fibrous glass indicated for the various widths 
and lengths of such cushions by Table 160.048-4(c)(1)(i) or 160.048-
4(c)(1)(ii), as applicable. Trapezoidal buoyant cushions 2 inches thick 
shall be filled with the amounts of kapok or fibrous glass

[[Page 125]]

indicated for the various widths and lengths of rectangular buoyant 
cushions by Table 160.048-4(c)(1)(i) or 160.048-4(c)(1)(ii) as 
applicable, on the basis that the length of a trapezoidal cushion shall 
be considered as its average length in each case.

  Table 160.048-4(c)(1)(i)--Weight of Kapok (in Ounces) for Filling Rectangular Buoyant Cushions 2 Inches Thick
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       Width (inches)
                                          ----------------------------------------------------------------------
             Length (inches)                                                                                Over
                                            12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   24
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
15.......................................  ...  ...  ...   20  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
16.......................................  ...  ...  ...   21   23  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
17.......................................  ...  ...   21   23   24   26  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
18.......................................  ...   21   22   24   26   27   29  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
19.......................................   20   22   24   25   27   29   30   32  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
20.......................................   21   23   25   27   28   30   32   34   36  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
21.......................................   22   24   26   28   30   32   34   35   37   39  ...  ...  ...  ....
22.......................................   23   25   27   29   31   33   35   37   39   41   43  ...  ...  ....
23.......................................   25   27   29   31   33   35   37   39   41   43   45   47  ...  ....
24.......................................   26   28   30   32   34   36   38   41   43   45   47   49   51  ....
25.......................................   27   29   31   33   36   38   40   42   44   47   49   51   53  ( 1)
26.......................................   28   30   32   35   37   39   42   44   46   49   51   53   55  ( 1)
27.......................................   29   31   34   36   38   41   43   46   48   50   53   55   58  ( 1)
28.......................................   30   32   35   37   40   42   44   47   50   52   55   57   60  ( 1)
29.......................................   31   34   36   39   41   44   46   49   52   54   57   59   62  ( 1)
30.......................................   32   35   37   40   43   45   48   51   53   56   59   61   64  ( 1)
31.......................................   33   36   39   41   44   47   50   52   55   58   61   63   66  ( 1)
32.......................................   34   37   40   43   46   48   51   54   57   60   62   65   68  ( 1)
33.......................................   35   38   41   44   47   50   53   56   59   62   64   67   70  ( 1)
34.......................................   36   39   42   45   48   51   54   57   60   63   66   69   73  ( 1)
35.......................................   37   40   44   47   50   53   56   59   62   65   68   72   75  ( 1)
36.......................................   38   42   45   48   51   54   58   61   64   67   70   74   77  ( 1)
Over 36..................................  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1)
                                             )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Determine amount of kapok from formula (1) contained in Sec.  160.048-4(c)(2).


 Table 160.048-4(c)(1)(ii)--Weight of Fibrous Glass (in Ounces) for Filling Rectangular Buoyant Cushion 2 Inches
                                                      Thick
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       Width (inches)
                                          ----------------------------------------------------------------------
             Length (inches)                                                                                Over
                                            12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   24
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
15.......................................  ...  ...  ...   36  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
16.......................................  ...  ...  ...   38   41  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
17.......................................  ...  ...   38   41   44   46  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
18.......................................  ...   37   40   43   46   49   52  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
19.......................................   36   40   43   46   49   52   55   58  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
20.......................................   38   42   45   48   51   54   58   61   64  ...  ...  ...  ...  ....
21.......................................   40   44   47   50   54   57   60   64   67   71  ...  ...  ...  ....
22.......................................   42   46   49   53   56   60   63   67   70   74   77  ...  ...  ....
23.......................................   44   48   52   55   59   63   66   70   74   77   81   85  ...  ....
24.......................................   46   50   54   58   61   65   69   73   77   81   84   88   92  ....
25.......................................   48   52   56   60   64   68   72   76   80   84   88   92   96  ( 1)
26.......................................   50   54   58   62   67   71   75   79   83   87   92   96  100  ( 1)
27.......................................   52   56   60   65   69   73   78   82   86   91   95   99  104  ( 1)
28.......................................   54   58   63   67   72   76   81   85   90   94   99  103  108  ( 1)
29.......................................   56   60   65   70   74   79   84   88   93   97  102  107  111  ( 1)
30.......................................   58   62   67   72   77   82   86   91   96  101  106  110  115  ( 1)
31.......................................   60   64   69   74   79   84   89   94   99  104  109  114  119  ( 1)
32.......................................   61   67   72   77   82   87   92   97  103  108  113  118  123  ( 1)
33.......................................   63   69   74   79   84   90   95  100  106  111  116  121  127  ( 1)
34.......................................   65   71   76   82   87   92   98  103  109  114  120  125  131  ( 1)
35.......................................   67   73   78   84   90   95  101  106  112  118  123  129  134  ( 1)
36.......................................   69   75   81   86   92   98  104  109  115  121  127  132  138  ( 1)
Over 36..................................  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1  ( 1)
                                             )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )    )
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Determine amount of fibrous glass from formula (2) contained in Sec.  160.048-4(c)(2).


[[Page 126]]

    (2) All buoyant cushions more than 2 inches thick, and all buoyant 
cushions 2 inches thick which are of shapes different from those covered 
by paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall be filled with kapok or 
fibrous glass as determined in the following formulas:

Amount of kapok (ounces) = A  x  t  22.5    (1)

Amount of fibrous glass (ounces) = A  x  t  12.5    (2)

Where:

A = Top surface area of cushion in square inches as determined from 
measurements taken along finished edges.
t = Thickness of boxing or gusset of finished cushion in inches.

    (d) Pad covers for buoyant material. Before being inserted in the 
outer cover the buoyant material shall be placed in waterproof vinyl 
film pad covers which shall be heat-sealed tight. The heat-sealed pad 
seams shall show an adhesion of not less than 8 pounds when one inch 
strips cut across and perpendicular to the seams are pulled apart at a 
rate of separation of the clamping jaws of the test machine of 12 inches 
per minute. Each cushion shall contain not less than four pads and all 
pads in a cushion shall contain approximately equal portions of the 
total amount of buoyant material in the cushion. The buoyant material 
may be inserted directly into the vinyl film pad covers, or may first be 
packed in bags made of print cloth or other suitable material and then 
inserted into the vinyl film pad covers. The pads shall be of such size 
as to adequately fill the outer cover, and prior to sealing, the pads 
shall be evacuated of air sufficiently that when sat on the pads will 
not ``balloon'' excessively because of the pressure in the pad covers. 
For 15" x 15" x 2" cushions the four vinyl film pad covers shall each be 
cut approximately 12" wide  x  12" long or approximately 8" wide  x  18" 
long shall have a sealed area of approximately 125 square inches; shall 
contain not less than 5 ounces of kapok or 9 ounces of fibrous glass 
each; and the volume displacement of the individual heat-sealed pad 
inserts shall be 5\1/2\ pounds each, plus or minus \1/2\ pound, when 
tested in accordance with the method set forth in Sec. 160.048-5(e)(1), 
except that the pad covers shall not be slit open, and the period of 
submergence shall be only long enough to determine the displacement of 
the pads.
    (e) Grab straps. Grab straps shall be attached as shown on Dwg. No. 
160.048-1 and shall finish 20 inches long and 1 inch wide at opposite 
ends. The grab straps, if formed from cover material shall be folded and 
stitched together so as to produce a double thickness with raw edges 
turned under. Other means will be given special consideration.
    (f) Seams and stitching. Seams shall be constructed with not less 
than a \3/8\ inch border between the seam and the edge of the cover 
materials. All stitching shall be a lock stitch, 7 to 9 stitches per 
inch, except as follows: Chain stitching 6 to 8 stitches per inch, with 
20/4 thread on top and 40/3 thread on the bottom, will be acceptable in 
constructing straps.
    (g) Workmanship. All cushions shall be of first class workmanship 
and shall be free from defects materially affecting their appearance or 
serviceability. Cushions classified as ``seconds'' or ``irregular'' will 
not be acceptable under this specification.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11583, Sept. 10, 1965]



Sec. 160.048-5  Inspections and tests.1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1 The manufacturer of a personal flotation device must meet 33 
CFR 181.701 through 33 CFR 181.705 which require an instruction pamphlet 
for each device that is sold or offered for sale for use on recreational 
boats.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (a) General. Manufacturers of listed and labeled buoyant cushions 
shall maintain quality control of the materials used, manufacturing 
methods and the finished product so as to meet the applicable 
requirements, and shall make sufficient inspections and tests of 
representative samples and components produced to maintain the quality 
of the finished product. Records of tests conducted by the manufacturer 
and records of materials, including affidavits by suppliers that 
applicable requirements are met, entering into construction shall be 
made available to the recognized laboratory inspector or the Coast Guard 
inspector, or both, for review upon request. Any examinations, 
inspections and test which are required by the recognized laboratory

[[Page 127]]

for listed and labeled devices produced will be conducted by the 
laboratory inspector at the place of manufacture or other location at 
the option of the laboratory.
    (b) Lot size and sampling. (1) A lot shall consist of not more than 
1,000 buoyant cushions. A new lot shall be started with any change or 
modification in materials used or manufacturing methods employed. When a 
lot of buoyant cushions is ready for inspection, the manufacturer shall 
notify the recognized laboratory so that they may, at their discretion, 
assign an inspector to the plant for the purpose of making any tests and 
inspections deemed necessary. From each lot of buoyant cushions, the 
manufacturer or the recognized laboratory or U.S. Coast Guard inspector, 
when assigned, shall select samples in accordance with Table 160.048-
5(b)(1) to be tested for buoyancy in accordance with paragraph (e) of 
this section.

           Table 160.048-5(b)(1)--Sampling for Buoyancy Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 No. of
                           Lot size                             cushions
                                                               in sample
------------------------------------------------------------------------
200 and under................................................          1
201 to 400...................................................          2
401 to 600...................................................          3
601 to 1,000.................................................          4
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) For a lot next succeeding one from which any sample cushion 
failed the buoyancy test, the sample shall consist of not less than 10 
specimen cushions to be tested for buoyancy in accordance with paragraph 
(e) of this section.
    (c) Additional tests. Unannounced examinations, tests and 
inspections of samples obtained either directly from the manufacturer or 
through commercial channels may be made to determine the suitability of 
a product for listing and labeling, or to determine conformance of a 
labeled product to the applicable requirements. These may be conducted 
by the recognized laboratory or the Coast Guard.
    (d) Test facilities. The laboratory inspector, or the Coast Guard 
inspector, or both, shall be admitted to any place in the factory where 
work is being done on listed and labeled products, and either or both 
inspectors may take samples of parts or materials entering into 
construction of final assemblies, for further examinations, inspections, 
or tests. The manufacturer shall provide a suitable place and the 
apparatus necessary for the performance of the tests which are done at 
the place of manufacture.
    (e) Buoyancy--(1) Buoyancy test method. Remove the buoyant pad 
inserts from the cushion and cut three slits in the vinyl film, each not 
less than 6 inches in length on both sides of each pad. Securely attach 
the spring scale in a position directly over the test tank. Suspend the 
weighted wire basket from the scale in such a manner that the basket is 
weighed while it is completely under water. In order to measure the 
actual buoyance provided by the pads, the underwater weight of the empty 
basket should exceed the buoyancy of the pads. To obtain the buoyancy of 
the pads, proceed as follows:
    (i) Weigh the empty wire basket under water.
    (ii) Place the pads inside the basket and submerge it so that the 
top of the basket is at least 2 inches below the surface of the water 
for 24 hours. The tank shall be locked or sealed during this 24-hour 
submergence period. It is important that after the pads have once been 
submerged that they shall remain submerged for the duration of the test, 
and at no time during the course of the test shall they be removed from 
the tank or otherwise exposed to air.
    (iii) After the 24-hour submergence period unlock or unseal the tank 
and weigh the weighted wire basket with the pads inside while both are 
still under water.
    (iv) The buoyancy is computed as (i) minus (iii).
    (2) Buoyancy required. The buoyant pads from the cushion shall 
provide not less than 20 pounds total buoyancy.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11585, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGFR 70-143, 35 
FR 19963, Dec. 30, 1970; CGD 78-008, 43 FR 9772, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.048-6  Marking.

    (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly 
marked in waterproof lettering:
    (1) In letters that can be read at a distance of 2 feet:

[[Page 128]]

Type IV Personal Flotation Device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
Dry out thoroughly when wet.
(Kapok or Fibrous glass) buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant 
force of 20 lb.
Do not snag or puncture inner plastic cover.
If pads become waterlogged, replace device.
Approved for use on recreational boats only as a throwable device.
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.048/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.).
(Lot No.).
(Size; width, thickness, and length, including both top and bottom for 
trapezoidal cushions.).

    (2) In letters that are distinctively set off or larger than all 
other marking, and are at least one-fourth of an inch in height:

                      WARNING: DO NOT WEAR ON BACK

    (b) Waterproofness of marking. Marking for buoyant cushions shall be 
sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it 
will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed 
matter becoming illegible.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11585, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGFR 70-143, 35 
FR 19963, Dec. 30, 1970; CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8119, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 75-
008, 43 FR 9771, Mar. 9, 1978; CGD 92-045, 58 FR 41608, Aug. 4, 1993; 
CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51213, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.048-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Group approval. A single group approval will be granted to each 
manufacturer to cover all buoyant cushions which have materials and 
construction strictly in conformance with this subpart, which are 2 
inches thick, and which are filled with kapok or fibrous glass in 
accordance with Sec. 160.048-4(c)(1).
    (b) Special approvals. Special approvals will be granted separately 
to each manufacturer for each kapok or fibrous glass buoyant cushion he 
proposes to manufacture which is not included under the group approval 
provided by paragraph (b) of this section, for example: A kapok or 
fibrous glass buoyant cushion having cover material not specifically 
provided for by this subpart; or any buoyant cushion more than 2 inches 
thick; or any buoyant cushion having a different shape.
    (c) A buoyant cushion is approved when it bears the compliance label 
of the recognized laboratory.

[CGFR 70-143, 35 FR 19963, Dec. 30, 1970, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 
FR 8119, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13930, Mar. 28, 1996; 61 FR 
15162, Apr. 4, 1996]



Sec. 160.048-8  Recognized laboratory.

    (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under 
this subpart shall follow the approval procedures of subpart 159.005 of 
this chapter, and shall apply for approval directly to a recognized 
independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under 
Sec. 159.010-7 of this part, to perform testing and approval functions 
under this subpart:
    Underwriters Laboratories, 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. Box 13995, 
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919) 549-1400.
    (b) Production oversight must be performed by the same laboratory 
that performs the approval tests unless, as determined by the 
Commandant, the employees of the laboratory performed production 
oversight receive training and support equal to that of the laboratory 
that performed the approval testing.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13930, Mar. 28, 1996]



    Subpart 160.049--Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam



Sec. 160.049-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Specifications and Standards. This subpart makes reference to 
the following documents:
    (1) Federal Specifications:

CCC-C-700G-Cloth, Coated, Vinyl, Coated (Artificial Leather).
CCC-C-426D-Cloth, Cotton Drill.

    (2) Federal standard:

No. 751--Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings.
    (3) Coast Guard specifications:

160.055--Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam, Adult and Child.
164.015--Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shapes.

    (4) Military specifications. MIL-C-43006--Cloth, Laminated, Vinyl-
Nylon, High Strength, Flexible.

[[Page 129]]

    (b) Plan. The following plan, of the issue in effect on the date 
unicellular plastic foam buoyant cushions are manufactured, form a part 
of this subpart:
    (1) Coast Guard Dwg. No. 160.049-1.
    (c) Copies on file. Copies of the specifications and plan referred 
to in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together 
with the approved plans and certificate of approval. The Coast Guard 
specifications and plan may be obtained upon request from the 
Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, 2100 Second Street SW., Washington, DC 
20593-0001, or recognized laboratory. The Federal Specifications and the 
Federal Standard may be purchased from the Business Service Center, 
General Services Administration, Washington, DC 20407.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11586, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGFR 70-143, 35 
FR 19964, Dec. 30, 1970; CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8119, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 78-
012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34535, Sept. 
7, 1988; USCG-1999-6216, 64 FR 53228, Oct. 1, 1999]



Sec. 160.049-2  Types and sizes.

    (a) Type. Buoyant cushions shall be of the box type, i.e., have top, 
bottom, and gusset. Pillow type cushions without a gusset are not 
acceptable.
    (b) Sizes. Buoyant cushions shall have not less than 225 square 
inches of top surface area, shall contain not less than 630 cubic inches 
of buoyant material, shall not be less than 2 inches thick, and shall 
have width no less than 12 inches and length no less than 15 inches, 
respectively.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11586, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by USCG-1998-4442, 
63 FR 52191, Sept. 30, 1998]



Sec. 160.049-3  Materials.

    (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant 
cushions must meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019.
    (b) Unicellular plastic foam. The unicellular plastic foam shall be 
all new material complying with the requirements of Specification 
subpart 164.015 for Type A or B foam.
    (c) Cover. Cotton fabrics and coated upholstery cloth meeting the 
minimum requirements set forth in paragraphs (c) (1) and (2) of this 
section, are acceptable for use as covers for buoyant cushions. Vinyl-
dip coating meeting the requirements set forth in paragraph (c)(3) of 
this section will also be acceptable. Alternate materials will be given 
special consideration. Pro rata widths of like construction will be 
acceptable.
    (1) Cotton fabrics. Cotton fabrics shall comply with the 
requirements of Federal Specification CCC-C-426 for Type I, Class 3 
material.
    (2) Coated upholstery cloth. Coated upholstery cloth shall comply 
with the requirements of Federal Specification CCC-A-700.
    (3) Vinyl-dip. The vinyl-dip coating shall comply with the coating 
requirements of Sec. 160.055-5(b)(2) except there are no color 
restrictions.
    (4) Adhesive. The adhesive shall be an all-purpose waterproof vinyl 
type. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. EC-870 or EC-1070, United 
States Rubber Co. M6256, Herculite Protective Fabrics Corp. CVV, 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. R.828, or equal, are acceptable.
    (5) Reinforcing fabric. The reinforcing fabric shall be type II, 
class I, laminated vinyl-nylon high strength cloth in accordance with 
the requirements of Specification MIL-C-43006.
    (d) Grab Straps. The grab straps shall be of materials permitted for 
the cover, or approved equivalent.
    (e) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam.
    (f) Welting. The welting where used may be of any fiber or plastic 
material suitable for the purpose.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11586, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGFR 70-143, 35 
FR 19964, Dec. 30, 1970; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 84-
068, 58 FR 29493, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.049-4  Construction and workmanship.

    (a) General. This specification covers buoyant cushions of the box 
type filled with unicellular plastic foam buoyant material. Such 
cushions consist essentially of a buoyant insert contained in an outer 
cover fitted with grab straps. The primary purpose of such cushions is 
to provide buoyancy to aid a person in keeping afloat in the water. 
Buoyant

[[Page 130]]

cushions providing less than 20 pounds buoyancy or less than 2 inches in 
thickness will not be acceptable.
    (b) Cover. One piece of material each for the top and bottom shall 
be stitched together to form the cover except that piecing of the cover 
material will be allowed provided it is for decorative purposes only. 
Gusset or boxing materials shall be of not more than two pieces. If more 
than one piece of material is used for the top, bottom, boxing or 
gusset, they shall be attached by a double row of stitching of the type 
shown in Federal Standard No. 751, for Seam types SSw-2 or LSb-2. The 
top and bottom may be of any of the materials permitted for the cover, 
but the boxing or gusset shall be a cotton fabric as specified by 
Sec. 160.049-3(b)(1) or other equivalent material of a porous nature. 
Nonporous materials will not be permitted for the boxing or gusset, but 
coated upholstery cloth specified by Sec. 160.049-3(c)(2), perforated to 
permit adequate draining and drying will be acceptable.
    (c) Buoyant material. A buoyant insert for a buoyant cushion must 
comply with the requirements in paragraph (c) (1) and (2) of this 
section and may be:
    (1) Molded in one piece; or
    (2) Built up from sheet material if it is formed from:
    (i) Three pieces or less in each layer, cemented together with an 
all-purpose vinyl adhesive such as or equivalent to U.S. Rubber No. M-
6256 or Minnesota Mining No. EC-870 and No. EC-1070;
    (ii) Three layers or less that may be cemented; and
    (iii) Staggered butts and seams of adjacent layers.
    (d) Grab Straps. Grab straps shall be attached as shown on Dwg. No. 
160,049-1 and shall finish 20 inches long and 1 inch wide at opposite 
ends. The grab straps, if formed from cover material shall be folded and 
stitched together so as to produce a double thickness with raw edges 
turned under. Other means will be given special consideration.
    (e) Seams and stitching. Seams shall be constructed with not less 
than a \3/8\-inch border between the seam and the edge of the cover 
materials. All stitching shall be a lock stitch, 7 to 9 stitches per 
inch, except as follows: Chain stitching 6 to 8 stitches per inch with 
20/4 thread on top and 40/3 thread on the bottom, will be acceptable in 
constructing grab straps.
    (f) Workmanship. All cushions shall be of first class workmanship 
and shall be free from defects materially affecting their appearance or 
serviceability. Cushions classified as ``seconds'' or ``irregular'' will 
not be acceptable under this specification.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11586, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 
FR 8119, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.049-5  Inspections and tests.1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1 The manufacturer of a personal flotation device must meet 33 
CFR 181.701 through 33 CFR 181.705 which require an instruction pamphlet 
for each device that is sold or offered for sale for use on recreational 
boats.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (a) General. Manufacturers of listed and labeled buoyant cushions 
shall maintain quality control of the materials used, manufacturing 
methods and the finished product so as to meet the applicable 
requirements, and shall make sufficient inspections and tests of 
representative samples and components produced to maintain the quality 
of the finished product. Records of tests conducted by the manufacturer 
and records of materials, including affidavits by suppliers that 
applicable requirements are met, entering into construction shall be 
made available to the recognized laboratory inspector or the Coast Guard 
inspector, or both, for review upon request. Any examinations, 
inspections and tests which are required by the recognized laboratory 
for listed and labeled devices produced will be conducted by the 
laboratory inspector at the place of manufacture or other location at 
the option of the laboratory.
    (b) Lot size and sampling. (1) A lot shall consist of not more than 
1,000 buoyant cushions. A new lot shall be started with any change or 
modification in materials used or manufacturing methods employed. When a 
lot of buoyant cushions is ready for inspection, the manufacturer shall 
notify the recognized laboratory so that they may, at their discretion, 
assign an inspector to the plant for the purpose of making any tests and 
inspections

[[Page 131]]

deemed necessary. From each lot of buoyant cushions, the manufacturer or 
the recognized laboratory or U.S. Coast Guard inspector, when assigned, 
shall select samples in accordance with table 160.049-5(b)(1) to be 
tested for buoyancy in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.

           Table 160.049-5(b)(1)--Sampling for Buoyancy Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Number of
                           Lot size                             cushions
                                                               in sample
------------------------------------------------------------------------
200 and under................................................          1
201 to 400...................................................          2
401 to 600...................................................          3
601 to 1,000.................................................          4
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (c) Additional tests. Unannounced examinations, tests and 
inspections of samples obtained either directly from the manufacturer or 
through commercial channels may be made to determine the suitability of 
a product for listing and labeling, or to determine conformance of a 
labeled product to the applicable requirements. These may be conducted 
by the recognized laboratory or the U.S. Coast Guard.
    (d) Test facilities. The laboratory inspector, or the Coast Guard 
inspector, or both, shall be admitted to any place in the factory where 
work is being done on listed and labeled products, and either or both 
inspectors may take samples of parts or materials entering into 
construction of final assemblies, for further examinations, inspections, 
or tests. The manufacturer shall provide a suitable place and the 
apparatus necessary for the performance of the tests which are done at 
the place of manufacture.
    (e) Buoyancy--(1) Buoyancy test method. Securely attach the spring 
scale in a position directly over the test tank. Suspend the weighted 
wire basket from the scale in such a manner that the basket is weighed 
while it is completely under water. In order to measure the actual 
buoyancy provided by the cushion, the underwater weight of the empty 
basket should exceed the buoyancy of the cushion. To obtain the buoyancy 
of the cushion, proceed as follows:
    (i) Weigh the empty wire basket under water.
    (ii) Place the cushion inside the basket and submerge it so that the 
top of the basket is at least 2 inches below the surface of the water 
for 24 hours. The tank shall be locked or sealed during this 24-hour 
submergence period. It is important that after the cushion has once been 
submerged that it shall remain submerged for the duration of the test, 
and at no time during the course of the test shall it be removed from 
the tank or otherwise exposed to air.
    (iii) After the 24-hour submergence period unlock or unseal the tank 
and weigh the weighted wire basket with the cushion inside while both 
are still under water.
    (iv) The buoyancy is computed as (i) minus (iii).
    (2) Buoyancy required. Each cushion shall provide not less than 20 
pounds buoyancy.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11587, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGFR 70-143, 35 
FR 19964, Dec. 30, 1970; CGD 75-008, 43 FR 9772, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.049-6  Marking.

    (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly 
marked in waterproof lettering:
    (1) In letters that can be read at a distance of 2 feet:

Type IV Personal Flotation Device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
(Name of buoyant material) buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant 
force of 20 lb.
Dry out thoroughly when wet.
Approved for use on recreational boats only as a throwable device.
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.049/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.).
(Lot No.).
(Size; width, thickness, and length, including both top and bottom for 
trapezoidal cushions.).
    (2) In letters that are distinctively set off or larger than all 
other marking, and are at least one-fourth of an inch in height:

                      WARNING: DO NOT WEAR ON BACK

    (b) Waterproofness of marking. Marking for buoyant cushions shall be 
sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it 
will

[[Page 132]]

withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter 
becoming illegible.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11588, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGFR 70-143, 35 
FR 19964, Dec. 30, 1970; CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8119, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 75-
008, 43 FR 9771, Mar. 9, 1978; CGD 92-045, 58 FR 41608, Aug. 4, 1993; 
CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51213, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.049-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Group approval. A single group approval will be granted to each 
manufacturer to cover all buoyant cushions which have materials and 
construction strictly in conformance with this subpart, and which are in 
accordance with Sec. 160.049-4(c)(1).
    (b) Special approvals. Special approvals will be granted separately 
to each manufacturer for each unicellular plastic foam buoyant cushion 
he proposes to manufacture which is not included under the group 
approval provided for by paragraph (b) of this section, for example: a 
buoyant cushion having cover material not specifically provided for by 
this subpart, or any buoyant cushion having a different shape.
    (c) A buoyant cushion is approved when it bears the compliance label 
of the recognized laboratory.

[CGFR 70-143, 35 FR 19964, Dec. 30, 1970, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 
FR 8119, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13930, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 160.049-8  Recognized laboratory.

    (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under 
this subpart shall follow the approval procedures of subpart 159.005 of 
this chapter, and shall apply for approval directly to a recognized 
independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under 
Sec. 159.010-7 of this part, to perform testing and approval functions 
under this subpart:

Underwriters Laboratories, 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. Box 13995, Research 
Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919) 549-1400.

    (b) Production oversight must be performed by the same laboratory 
that performs the approval tests unless, as determined by the 
Commandant, the employees of the laboratory performing production 
oversight receive training and support equal to that of the laboratory 
that performed the approval testing.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13930, Mar. 28, 1996]



   Subpart 160.050--Specification for a Buoy, Life Ring, Unicellular 
                                 Plastic



Sec. 160.050-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Standard. This subpart makes reference to Federal Standard No. 
595-Colors in Sec. 160.050-3.
    (b) Copies on file. The Federal Standard may be obtained from the 
Business Service Center, General Services Administration, Washington, DC 
20407.

[USCG-1999-6216, 64 FR 53228, Oct. 1, 1999]



Sec. 160.050-2  Types and sizes.

    (a) Type. Life buoys shall be of the annular ring type as described 
in this subpart, but alternate arrangements meeting the performance 
requirements set forth will be given special consideration.
    (b) Sizes. Ring life buoys shall be of the sizes set forth in Table 
160.050-2(b). A tolerance of a plus or minus 5 percent will be allowable 
on the dimensions indicated in Table 160.050-2(b).

       Table 160.050-2(b)--Sizes and Dimensions of Ring Life Buoys
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Dimensions
                                                               (inches)
                            Size                               Finished
                                                                 ring
------------------------------------------------------------------------
30-inch....................................................           30
24-inch....................................................           24
20-inch....................................................           20
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[CGFR 54-46, 19 FR 8707, Dec. 18, 1954, as amended by CGFR 62-17, 27 FR 
9045, Sept. 11, 1962]



Sec. 160.050-3  Materials.

    (a) General. All exposed materials must be resistant to oil or oil 
products, salt water and anticipated weather conditions encountered at 
sea. All components used in construction of buoys and life rings must 
meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of this chapter.
    (b) Unicellular plastic. The unicellular plastic material used in 
fabrication of the buoy body shall meet the requirements of subpart 
164.015 of this subchapter for Type C material. The

[[Page 133]]

buoy's body shall be finished with two coats of vinyl base paint. The 
ring life buoys shall be either international orange (Color No. 12197 of 
Federal Standard 595) or white in color and the colorfastness shall be 
rated ``good'' when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method 
Standard No. 191 Methods 5610, 5630, 5650, and 5660.

    Note: On vessels on an international voyage, all ring life buoys 
shall be international orange in color.)

    (c) Grab line. The grab line shall be \3/8\-inch diameter 
polyethylene, polypropylene, or other suitable buoyant type synthetic 
material having a minimum breaking strength of 1,350 pounds.
    (d) Beckets. The beckets for securing the grab line shall be 2-inch 
polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon, saran or other suitable synthetic 
material having a minimum breaking strength of 585 pounds. In addition, 
polyethylene and polypropylene shall be weather-resistant type which is 
stabilized as to heat, oxidation, and ultraviolet light degradation.
    (e) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11477, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGFR 65-64, 31 FR 
562, Jan. 18, 1966; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 84-068, 
58 FR 29493, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.050-4  Construction and workmanship.

    (a) General. This specification covers ring life buoys which provide 
buoyancy to aid in keeping persons afloat in the water. Each buoy 
consists of a body constructed in the shape of an annular ring, with an 
approximately elliptical body cross section and which is fitted with a 
grab line around the outside periphery. The outside and inside diameters 
of the ring and the length and width of the cross section of the body 
shall be uniform throughout.
    (b) Body. The body shall be made in either one or two pieces. If of 
two pieces, the pieces shall be equal in size and shall be adhesive 
bonded along a center line through an axis passing through the flat area 
dimension of the body. The adhesive shall be a liquid cold setting, 
polymerizable, nonsolvent, containing material of the 
phenolepichlorhydrin type or equivalent having good strength retention 
under outdoor weathering conditions.
    (c) Grab line. The finished length of the grab line shall be four 
times the outside diameter of the buoy. The ends of the grab line shall 
be securely and neatly spliced together, or shall be hand whipped with a 
needle and both ends securely and smoothly seized together. The grab 
line shall encircle the buoy and shall be held in place by the beckets. 
The spliced or seized ends of the grab line shall be placed in the 
center of the width of one of the beckets.
    (d) Beckets. Each ring buoy shall be fitted with four beckets 
located at equidistant points about the body of the buoy. The beckets 
shall be passed around the body of the buoy with the free ends to the 
outside, and shall be securely cemented to the buoy with a suitable 
waterproof adhesive which is compatible with the unicellular plastic 
used in the buoy body. The ends of the beckets shall be turned under at 
least 1 inch, one end to go around the grab line, and the other to be 
laid flat against the first end. The beckets shall then be stitched to 
the grab line with not less than five hand stitches made with two parts 
of thread or machined stitched with not less than three stitches per 
inch. Alternate methods for rigging beckets and grab line will be given 
special consideration.
    (e) Weight. The weight of the completely assembled buoy shall be not 
less than 2.5 pounds and not more than 4.25 pounds for the 20-inch size, 
not less than 3.0 pounds and not more than 5.5 pounds for the 24-inch 
size, and not less than 5.0 and not more than 7.5 pounds for the 30-inch 
size.
    (f) Workmanship. Ring life buoys shall be of first class workmanship 
and free from any defects materially affecting their appearance or 
serviceability.

[CGFR 54-46, 19 FR 8707, Dec. 18, 1954, as amended by CGFR 62-17, 27 FR 
9045, Sept. 11, 1962; CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11477, Sept. 8, 1965]



Sec. 160.050-5  Sampling, tests, and inspection.

    (a) General. Production tests and inspections must be conducted in 
accordance with this section, subpart 159.007

[[Page 134]]

of this chapter, and if conducted by an independent laboratory, the 
independent laboratory's procedures for production inspections and tests 
as accepted by the Commandant. The Commandant may prescribe additional 
production tests and inspections necessary to maintain quality control 
and to monitor compliance with the requirements of this subchapter.
    (b) Oversight. In addition to responsibilities set out in part 159 
of this chapter and the accepted laboratory procedures for production 
inspections and tests, each manufacturer of a ring life buoy and each 
laboratory inspector shall comply with the following, as applicable:
    (1) Manufacturer. Each manufacturer must--
    (i) Perform all tests and examinations necessary to show compliance 
with this subpart and the subpart under which the ring life buoy is 
approved on each lot before any inspector's tests and inspection of the 
lot;
    (ii) Follow established procedures for maintaining quality control 
of the materials used, manufacturing operations, and the finished 
product; and
    (iii) Allow an inspector to take samples of completed units or of 
component materials for tests required by this subpart and for tests 
relating to the safety of the design.
    (iv) Meet 33 CFR 181.701 through 33 CFR 181.705 which requires an 
instruction pamphlet for each device that is sold or offered for sale 
for use on recreational boats, and must make the pamphlet accessible 
prior to purchase.
    (2) Laboratory. An inspector from the accepted laboratory shall 
oversee production in accordance with the laboratory's procedures for 
production inspections and tests accepted by the Commandant. During 
production oversight, the inspector shall not perform or supervise any 
production test or inspection unless--
    (i) The manufacturer has a valid approval certificate; and
    (ii) The inspector has first observed the manufacturer's production 
methods and any revisions to those methods.
    (3) At least quarterly, the inspector shall check the manufacturer's 
compliance with the company's quality control procedures, examine the 
manufacturer's required records, and observe the manufacturer perform 
each of the required production tests.
    (c) Test facilities. The manufacturer shall provide a suitable place 
and apparatus for conducting the tests and inspections necessary to 
determine compliance of ring life buoys with this subpart. The 
manufacturer shall provide means to secure any test that is not 
continuously observed, such as the 48 hour buoyancy test. The 
manufacturer must have the calibration of all test equipment checked in 
accordance with the test equipment manufacturer's recommendation and 
interval but not less than at least once every year.
    (d) Lots. A lot may not consist of more than 1000 life buoys. A lot 
number must be assigned to each group of life buoys produced. Lots must 
be numbered serially. A new lot must be started whenever any change in 
materials or a revision to a production method is made, and whenever any 
substantial discontinuity in the production process occurs. The lot 
number assigned, along with the approval number, must enable the ring 
life buoy manufacturer to determine the supplier's identifying 
information for the component lot.
    (e) Samples. (1) From each lot of ring life buoys, manufacturers 
shall randomly select a number of samples from completed units at least 
equal to the applicable number required by table 160.050-5(e) for 
buoyancy testing. Additional samples must be selected for any tests, 
examinations, and inspections required by the laboratory's production 
inspections and tests procedures.

             Table 160.050-5(e)--Sampling for Buoyancy Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Number
                                                                 of life
                           Lot size                             buoys in
                                                                 sample
------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 and under.................................................         1
101 to 200....................................................         2
201 to 300....................................................         3
301 to 500....................................................         4
501 to 750....................................................         6
751 to 1000...................................................         8
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) For a lot next succeeding one from which any sample ring life 
buoy failed the buoyancy or strength test, the sample shall consist of 
not less than ten specimen ring life buoys to be

[[Page 135]]

tested for buoyancy in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section.
    (f) Tests--(1) Strength test. The buoy body shall be suspended by a 
2-inch-wide strap. A similar strap shall be passed around the opposite 
side of the buoy and a 200-pound weight suspended by it from the buoy. 
After 30 minutes, the buoy body shall be examined, and there shall be no 
breaks, cracks or permanent deformation.
    (2) Resistance to damage test. The buoy body shall be dropped three 
times from a height of 6 feet onto concrete, and there shall be no 
breaks or cracks in the body.
    (3) Buoyancy test. To obtain the buoyancy of the buoy, proceed as 
follows:
    (i) Weigh iron or other weight under water. The weight shall be more 
than sufficient to submerge the buoy.
    (ii) Attach the iron or other weight to the buoy and submerge with 
the top of the buoy at least 2 inches below the surface for 48 hours.
    (iii) After the 48-hour submergence period, weigh the buoy with the 
weight attached while both are still under water.
    (iv) The buoyancy is computed as paragraph (f)(3)(i) minus paragraph 
(f)(3)(iii) of this section.
    (4) Buoyancy required. The buoys shall provide a buoyancy of not 
less than 16.5 pounds for the 20-and 24-inch sizes, and not less than 32 
pounds for the 30-inch size.
    (g) Lot inspection. On each lot, the laboratory inspector shall 
perform a final lot inspection to be satisfied that the ring life buoys 
meet this subpart. Each lot must demonstrate--
    (1) First quality workmanship;
    (2) That the general arrangement and attachment of all components 
are as specified in the approved plans and specifications; and
    (3) Compliance with the marking requirements in the applicable 
approval subpart.
    (h) Lot acceptance. When the independent laboratory has determined 
that the ring life buoys in the lot are of a type officially approved in 
the name of the company, and that such ring life buoys meet the 
requirements of this subpart, they shall be plainly marked in waterproof 
ink with the independent laboratory's name or identifying mark.
    (i) Lot rejection. Each nonconforming unit must be rejected. If 
three or more nonconforming units are rejected for the same kind of 
defect, lot inspection must be discontinued and the lot rejected. The 
inspector must discontinue lot inspection and reject the lot if 
examination of individual units or the records for the lot shows 
noncompliance with either this subchapter or the laboratory's or the 
manufacturer's quality control procedures. A rejected unit or lot may be 
resubmitted for testing and inspection if the manufacturer first removes 
and destroys each defective unit or, if authorized by the laboratory, 
reworks the unit or lot to correct the defect. A rejected lot or 
rejected unit may not be sold or offered for sale under the 
representation that it meets this subpart or that it is Coast Guard-
approved.

[CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11478, Sept. 8, 1965, as amended by CGD 95-028, 62 FR 
51213, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.050-6  Marking.

    (a) Each ring buoy must have the following information in waterproof 
lettering:

Type IV Personal Flotation Device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
(Name of buoyant material) buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant 
force of (32 lb. or 16\1/2\ lb.).
Approved for use on recreational boats only as a throwable device.
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.050/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor).
(Size).
USCG (Marine Inspection Office identification letters).
(Lot No.).

    (b) A method of marking that is different from the requirements of 
paragraph (a) of this section may be given consideration by the Coast 
Guard.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8120, Mar. 28, 1973, as amended by CGD 75-186, 41 FR 
10437, Mar. 11, 1976; CGD 75-008, 43 FR 9771, Mar. 9, 1978; 43 FR 10913, 
Mar. 16, 1978; CGD 92-045, 58 FR 41608, Aug. 4, 1993; CGD 95-028, 62 FR 
51214, Sept. 30, 1997]

[[Page 136]]



Sec. 160.050-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) General. Designs of ring life buoys are approved only by the 
Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Manufacturers seeking approval of a ring 
life buoy design shall follow the procedures of this section and subpart 
159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) Each application for approval of a ring life buoy must contain 
the information specified in Sec. 159.005-5 of this chapter. The 
application and, except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d)(2) of this 
section, a prototype ring life buoy must be submitted to the Commandant 
for preapproval review. If a similar design has already been approved, 
the Commandant may waive the preapproval review under Secs. 159.005-5 
and 159.005-7 of this chapter.
    (c) If the ring life buoy is of a standard design, the application:
    (1) Must include the following: A statement of any exceptions to the 
standard plans and specifications, including drawings, product 
description, construction specifications, and/or bill of materials.
    (2) Need not include: The information specified in Sec. 159.005-
5(a)(2).
    (d) If the ring life buoy is of a non-standard design, the 
application must include the following:
    (1) Plans and specifications containing the information required by 
Sec. 159.005-12 of this chapter, including drawings, product 
description, construction specifications, and bill of materials.
    (2) The information specified in Sec. 159.005-5(a)(2) (i) through 
(iii) of this chapter, except that, if preapproval review has been 
waived, the manufacturer is not required to send a prototype ring life 
buoy sample to the Commandant.
    (3) Performance testing results of the design performed by an 
independent laboratory that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the 
Coast Guard under Sec. 159.010-7 of this subchapter covering the in-
water testing of personal flotation devices showing equivalence to the 
standard design's performance in all material respects.
    (4) Buoyancy and other relevant tolerances to be complied with 
during production.
    (5) The text of any optional marking to be included on the ring life 
buoy in addition to the markings required by the applicable approval 
subpart.
    (6) For any conditionally approved ring life buoy, the intended 
approval condition(s).
    (e) The description of quality control procedures required by 
Sec. 159.005-9 of this chapter may be omitted if the manufacturer's 
planned quality control procedures meet the requirements of those 
accepted by the Commandant for the independent laboratory performing 
production inspections and tests.
    (f) Waiver of tests. A manufacturer may request that the Commandant 
waive any test prescribed for approval under the applicable subpart. To 
request a waiver, the manufacturer must submit to the Commandant and the 
laboratory described in Sec. 159.010, one of the following:
    (1) Satisfactory test results on a ring life buoy of sufficiently 
similar design as determined by the Commandant.
    (2) Engineering analysis demonstrating that the test for which a 
waiver is requested is not appropriate for the particular design 
submitted for approval or that, because of its design or construction, 
it is not possible for the ring life buoy to fail that test.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51214, Sept. 30, 1997]



       Subpart 160.051--Inflatable Liferafts for Domestic Service

    Source: CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25546, May 9, 1997, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.051-1  Scope.

    This subpart prescribes requirements for approval by the Coast Guard 
of A, B, and Coastal Service inflatable liferafts for use only in 
domestic service. These liferafts must comply with all of the 
requirements for SOLAS A and SOLAS B liferafts in subpart 160.151 except 
as specified in this subpart.



Sec. 160.051-3  Definitions.

    In this subpart, the term:
    A or B liferaft means an inflatable liferaft that meets the 
requirements prescribed in subpart 160.151 for a SOLAS A or SOLAS B 
liferaft, respectively, except that the capacity is less than 6 persons 
and the liferaft cannot contain SOLAS markings.

[[Page 137]]

    Coastal Service liferaft means a liferaft that does not meet the all 
of the requirements prescribed in subpart 160.151 for a SOLAS A or SOLAS 
B liferaft, but that instead meets the requirements of this subpart and 
is approved for use on certain uninspected vessels under subchapter C of 
this chapter.



Sec. 160.051-5  Design and performance of Coastal Service inflatable liferafts.

    To obtain Coast Guard approval, each Coastal Service inflatable 
liferaft must comply with subpart 160.151, with the following 
exceptions:
    (a) Canopy requirements (Regulation III/38.1.5). The canopy may--
    (1) Be of a type that is furled when the liferaft inflates and that 
can be set in place by the occupants. A furled canopy must be secured to 
the buoyancy tubes over 50 percent or more of the liferaft's 
circumference;
    (2) Be of an uninsulated, single-ply design; and
    (3) Have an interior of any color.
    (b) Viewing port (Regulation III/38.1.5.5). The liferaft need not 
have the viewing port described in Regulation III/38.1.5.5.
    (c) Rainwater collection (Regulation III/38.1.5.6). The liferaft 
need not have the means of rainwater collection described in Regulation 
III/38.1.5.6.
    (d) Capacity (Regulation III/38.2.1). The carrying capacity must be 
not less than four persons.
    (e) Floor insulation (Regulation III/39.2.2). The floor may be 
uninsulated.
    (f) Boarding ramps (Regulation III/39.4.1). The liferaft need be 
provided with boarding ramps only if the combined cross-section diameter 
of the buoyancy chambers is greater than 500 mm (19.5 in).
    (g) Stability (Regulation III/39.5.1). Each Coastal Service 
inflatable liferaft must either meet the stability criteria in 
Sec. 160.151-17(a) or be fitted with water-containing stability pockets 
meeting the following requirements:
    (1) The total volume of the pockets must be not less than 25 percent 
of the minimum required volume of the principal buoyancy compartments of 
the liferaft.
    (2) The pockets must be securely attached and evenly distributed 
around the periphery of the exterior bottom of the liferaft. They may be 
omitted at the locations of inflation cylinders.
    (3) The pockets must be designed to deploy underwater when the 
liferaft inflates. If weights are used for this purpose, they must be of 
corrosion-resistant material.
    (h) Lamp (Regulation III/39.6.3). The liferaft need not have the 
manually controlled interior lamp described in Regulation III/39.6.3.
    (i) Markings (Regulations III/39.7.3.4 and III/39.7.3.5). The words 
``COASTAL SERVICE'' must appear on the container, and the type of 
equipment pack must be identified as ``Coastal Service''. No ``SOLAS'' 
markings may appear on the container.
    (j) Drop test. The drop test required under paragraph 1/5.1 of IMO 
Resolution A.689(17) and 160.151-27(a) may be from a lesser height, if 
that height is the maximum height of stowage marked on the container.
    (k) Loading and seating test. For the loading and seating test 
required under paragraph 1/5.7 of IMO Resolution A.689(17) and 
Sec. 160.151-27(a), the loaded freeboard of the liferaft must be not 
less than 200 mm (8 in.).
    (l) Cold-inflation test. The cold-inflation test required under 
paragraph 1/5.17.3.3.2 of IMO Resolution A.689(17) and Sec. 160.151-
27(a) must be conducted at a test temperature of -18  deg.C (0  deg.F).



Sec. 160.051-7  Design and performance of A and B inflatable liferafts.

    To obtain Coast Guard approval, each A and B inflatable liferaft 
must comply with the requirements in subpart 160.151, with the following 
exceptions:
    (a) Capacity (Regulation III/38.2.1). The carrying capacity must be 
not less than four persons.
    (b) Markings (Regulations III/39.7.3.4 and III/39.7.3.5). The type 
of equipment pack must be identified as ``A'' or ``B'', respectively, 
instead of ``SOLAS A'' or ``SOLAS B''. No ``SOLAS'' markings may appear 
on the container.



Sec. 160.051-9  Equipment required for Coastal Service inflatable liferafts.

    In lieu of the equipment specified in Sec. 160.151-21, the following 
equipment must be provided with a Coastal Service inflatable liferaft:

[[Page 138]]

    (a) Rescue quoit and heaving line. One rescue quoit and a heaving 
line as described in Sec. 160.151-21(a).
    (b) Knife. One knife, of a type designed to minimize the chance of 
damage to the inflatable liferaft and secured with a lanyard.
    (c) Bailer. One bailer as described in Sec. 160.151-21(c).
    (d) Sponge. One sponge as described in Sec. 160.151-21(d).
    (e) Sea anchor. One sea anchor as described in Sec. 160.151-21(e).
    (f) Paddles. Two paddles of the same size and type as used to pass 
the maneuverability test in paragraph 1/5.10 of IMO Resolution 
A.689(17).
    (g) Whistle. One whistle as described in Sec. 160.151-21(i) of this 
part.
    (h) Flashlight. One flashlight with spare batteries as described in 
Sec. 160.151-21(m).
    (i) Signalling mirror. One signalling mirror as described in 
Sec. 160.151-21(o).
    (j) Survival instructions. Instructions on how to survive as 
described in Sec. 160.151-21(v).
    (k) Instructions for immediate action. Instructions for immediate 
action as described in Sec. 160.151-21(w).
    (l) Repair outfit. One set of sealing clamps or plugs as described 
in Sec. 160.151-21(y)(1).
    (m) Pump or bellows. One pump or bellows as described in 
Sec. 160.151-21(z).
    (n) Plugs for pressure-relief valves. Plugs for pressure-relief 
valves as described in Sec. 160.151-21(aa).



 Subpart 160.052--Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic 
                          Foam, Adult and Child



Sec. 160.052-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Specifications and Standards. This subpart makes reference to 
the following documents.
    (1) [Reserved]
    (2) Military specification:

MIL-W-530F--Webbing, Textile, Cotton, General Purpose, Natural and in 
Colors.

    (3) Federal Standards:

No. 191--Textile Test Methods.
No. 751A--Stitches, Seams, and Stitching.

    (4) Coast Guard specifications:

160.055--Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam, Adult and Child.
164.015--Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant Sheet and Molded Shapes.

    (b) Plans. The following plans, of the issue in effect on the date 
buoyant vests are manufactured, form a part of this subpart:

Dwg. No. 160.052-1:
    Sheet 1--Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement, Model AP.
    Sheet 2--Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement, Model CPM.
    Sheet 3--Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement, Model CPS.
    Sheet 4--Insert Patterns.

    (c) Copies on file. The manufacturer shall keep a copy of each 
specification and plan required by this section on file together with 
the certificate of approval. Plans and specifications may be obtained as 
follows:
    (1) The Coast Guard plans and specifications may be obtained upon 
request from the Commandant (G-MSE), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 
20593-0001, or a recognized laboratory listed in Sec. 160.052-8b.
    (2) The Federal Specifications and Standards may be purchased from 
the Business Service Center, General Services Administration, 
Washington, DC 20407.
    (3) The military specification may be obtained from the Commanding 
Officer, Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19120.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11588, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 
FR 10837, May 31, 1972; CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8120, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 78-
012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 
1983; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34536, Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, 
Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.052-2  Size and model.

    (a) A standard buoyant vest is manufactured in accordance with a 
plan specified in Sec. 160.052-1(b) and is a:
    (1) Model AP, adult (for persons over 90 pounds);
    (2) Model CPM, child, medium (for persons weighing from 50 to 90 
pounds); or
    (3) Model CPS, child, small (for persons weighing less than 50 
pounds).
    (b) A nonstandard buoyant vest is:
    (1) Manufactured in accordance with the manufacturer's approved 
plan;
    (2) Equivalent in performance to the standard buoyant vest; and

[[Page 139]]

    (3) Assigned a model designation by the manufacturer for the 
following sizes:
    (i) Adult (for persons weighing over 90 pounds);
    (ii) Child, medium (for persons weighing from 50 to 90 pounds);
    (iii) Child, small (for persons weighing less than 50 pounds).

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8120, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.052-3  Materials--standard vests.

    (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant 
vests must meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of this 
chapter. The requirements for materials specified in this section are 
minimum requirements, and consideration will be given to the use of 
alternate materials in lieu of those specified. Detailed technical data 
and samples of all proposed alternate materials shall be submitted for 
approval before those materials are incorporated in the finished 
product.
    (b) Unicellular plastic foam. The unicellular plastic foam shall be 
all new material complying with the requirements of specification 
Subpart 164.015 of this subchapter for Type A or B foam.
    (c) Envelope. The buoyant vest envelope, or cover, shall be made 
from 39", 2.85 cotton jeans cloth, with a thread count of approximately 
96 x 64. The finished goods shall weigh not less than 4.2 ounces per 
square yard, shall have thread count of not less than 94 x 60, and shall 
have a breaking strength of not less than 85 pounds in the warp and 50 
pounds in the filling. Other cotton fabrics having a weight and breaking 
strength not less than the above will be acceptable. There are no 
restrictions as to color, but the fastness of the color to laundering, 
water, crocking, and light shall be rated ``good'' when tested in 
accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 191, Methods 5610, 
5630, 5650, and 5660.
    (d) Tie tapes and body strap loops. The tie tapes and body strap 
loops for both adult and child sizes must be \3/4\-inch cotton webbing 
meeting the requirements of military specification MIL-T-43566 (Class I) 
for Type I webbing.
    (d-1) Body straps. The complete body strap assembly, including 
hardware, must have a minimum breaking strength of 150 pounds for an 
adult size and 115 pounds for a child size. The specifications for the 
webbing are as follows:
    (1) For an adult size vest, the webbing must be 1 inch;
    (2) For a child size vest, the webbing must be three-quarter inch 
and meet the requirements of military specification MIL-W-530 for Type 
IIa webbing.
    (e) [Reserved]
    (f) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11588, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 
FR 10837, May 31, 1972; CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8120, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 73-
130R, 39 FR 20684, June 13, 1974; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27154, June 22, 
1978; CGD 82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983; CGD 84-068, 58 FR 29493, 
May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.052-3a  Materials--Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    (a) Specifications. Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other 
instruments of closure for buoyant vests may have decorative platings in 
any thickness and must meet the following specifications:
    (1) The device must be constructed of inherently corrosion resistant 
materials. As used in this section the term inherently corrosion 
resistant materials includes, but is not limited to brass, bronze, and 
stainless steel.
    (2) The size of the opening of the device must be consistent with 
the webbing which will pass through the opening.
    (b) Testing requirements. Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and 
other instruments of closure for buoyant vests must--
    (1) Be tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which 
one or more of the following tests will be used:
    (i) Application of a 20 percent sodium-chloride solution spray at a 
temperature of 95  deg.F (35  deg.C) for a period of 240 hours in 
accordance with the procedures contained in method 811 of the Federal 
Test Method Standard No. 151.
    (ii) Exposure to a carbon-arc weatherometer for a period of 100 
hours.

[[Page 140]]

    (iii) Submergence for a period of 100 hours in each of the 
following:
    (a) Leaded gasoline.
    (b) Gum turpentine.
    (iv) Exposure to a temperature of 0 deg.plus-minus5 
deg.F (17.6plus-minus2.775  deg.C) for 24 hours; and
    (2) Within 5 minutes of completion of the weathering test required 
by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the assembly must be attached to a 
support and bear 150 pounds for an adult size and 115 pounds for a child 
size for 10 minutes at ambient temperatures without breaking or 
distorting.

[CGD 73-130R, 39 FR 20684, June 13, 1974]



Sec. 160.052-4  Materials--nonstandard vests.

    (a) General. All materials used in nonstandard buoyant vests must be 
equivalent to those specified in Sec. 160.052-3 and be obtained from a 
supplier who furnishes an affidavit in accordance with the requirement 
in Sec. 160.052-3(a).
    (b) Cover. A vinyl-dip coating may be allowed for the covering of 
the vest instead of a fabric envelope if the coating meets the 
requirements in Sec. 160.055-5(b)(2) of this chapter except there is no 
color restriction.
    (c) Reinforcing tape. When used, the reinforcing tape around the 
neck shall be \3/4\" cotton tape weighing not less than 0.18 ounces per 
linear yard having a minimum breaking strength of not less than 120 
pounds.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11588, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 
FR 10837, May 31, 1972; 37 FR 11774, June 14, 1972, CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 
8120, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.052-5  Construction--standard vests.

    (a) General. This specification covers buoyant vests which 
essentially consist of a fabric envelope in which are enclosed inserts 
of buoyant material arranged and distributed so as to provide the 
flotation characteristics and buoyancy required to hold the wearer in an 
upright or slightly backward position with head and face out of water. 
The buoyant vests are also fitted with straps and hardware to provide 
for proper adjustment and close and comfortable fit to the bodies of 
various size wearers.
    (b) Envelope. The envelope or cover shall be made of three pieces. 
Two pieces of fabric shall be cut to the pattern shown on Dwg. No. 
160.052-1, Sheet 1 for adult size, and Sheets 2 and 3 for child sizes, 
and joined together with a third piece which forms a 2" finished gusset 
strip all around. Reinforcing strips of the same material as the 
envelope shall be stitched to the inside of the front piece of the 
envelope in way of the strap attachments as shown by the drawings.
    (c) Buoyant inserts. The unicellular plastic foam buoyant inserts 
shall be cut and formed as shown on Dwg. 160.052-1, Sheet 4.
    (d) Tie tapes, body straps, and hardware. The tie tapes, body 
straps, and hardware shall be arranged as shown on the drawings and 
attached to the envelope with the seams and stitching indicated.
    (e) Stitching. All stitching shall be short lock stitch conforming 
to Stitch Type 301 of Federal Standard No. 751, and there shall be not 
less than 7 nor more than 9 stitches to the inch.
    (f) Workmanship. Buoyant vests shall be of first-class workmanship 
and shall be free from any defects materially affecting their appearance 
or service-ability.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11588, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD, 72-163R, 38 
FR 8120, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.052-6  Construction--nonstandard vests.

    (a) General. The construction methods used for nonstandard buoyant 
vests must be equivalent to those requirements in Sec. 160.052-5 for a 
standard vest and also meet the requirements in this section.
    (b) Size. Each nonstandard vest must contain the following volume of 
plastic foam buoyant material, determined by the displacement method:
    (1) Five hundred cubic inches or more for an adult size;
    (2) Three hundred and fifty cubic inches or more for a child, medium 
size;
    (3) Two hundred and twenty-five cubic inches or more for a child, 
small size.

[[Page 141]]

    (c) Arrangement of buoyant material. The buoyant material in a 
nonstandard vest must:
    (1) Be arranged to hold the wearer in an upright or backward 
position with head and face out of water;
    (2) Have no tendency to turn a wearer face downward in the water; 
and
    (3) Be arranged so that 70 to 75 percent of the total is located in 
the front of the vest.
    (d) Neck opening. Each cloth-covered nonstandard vest must have at 
the neck opening:
    (1) A gusset; or
    (2) Reinforcing tape.
    (e) Adjustment, fit, and donning. Each nonstandard vest must be made 
with adjustments to:
    (1) Fit a range of wearers for the type designed; and
    (2) Facilitate donning time for an uninitiated person.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8120, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.052-7  Inspections and tests--standard and nonstandard vests.1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1 The manufacturer of a personal flotation device must meet 33 
CFR 181.701 through 33 CFR 181.705 which require an instruction pamphlet 
for each device that is sold or offered for sale for use on recreational 
boats.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (a) General. Manufacturers of listed and labeled buoyant vests 
shall--
    (1) Maintain quality control of the materials used, the 
manufacturing methods and workmanship, and the finished product to meet 
the requirements of this subpart by conducting sufficient inspections 
and tests of representative samples and components produced;
    (2) Make available to the recognized laboratory inspector and the 
Coast Guard inspector, upon request, records of tests conducted by the 
manufacturer and records of materials used during production of the 
device, including affidavits by supplier; and
    (3) Permit any examination, inspection, and test required by the 
recognized laboratory or the Coast Guard for a produced listed and 
labeled device, either at the place of manufacture or some other 
location.
    (b) Lot size and sampling. (1) A lot consists of 500 buoyant vests 
or fewer.
    (2) A new lot begins after any change or modification in materials 
used or manufacturing methods employed.
    (3) The manufacturer of the buoyant vests shall notify the 
recognized laboratory when a lot is ready for inspection.
    (4) The manufacturer shall select samples in accordance with the 
requirements in Table 160.052-7(b)(4) from each lot of buoyant vests to 
be tested for buoyancy in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.

             Table 160.052-7(b)(4)--Sample for Buoyant Vests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Number of
                          Lot size                             vests in
                                                                sample
------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 and under..............................................            1
101 to 200.................................................            2
201 to 300.................................................            3
301 to 500.................................................            4
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (5) The manufacturer shall test--
    (i) At least one vest from each lot for buoyancy in accordance with 
procedures contained in paragraph (e) of this section; and
    (ii) At least one vest in each 10 lots for strength of the body 
strap assembly in accordance with the procedures contained in paragraph 
(f) of this section.
    (6) If a vest fails the buoyancy test, the sample from the next 
succeeding lot must consist of 10 specimen vests or more to be tested 
for buoyancy in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.
    (7) The manufacturer shall keep on file and make available to the 
laboratory inspector and Coast Guard inspector the records of 
inspections and tests, together with affidavits concerning the material.
    (c) Additional compliance tests. An inspector from the recognized 
laboratory or Coast Guard may conduct an examination, test and 
inspection of a buoyant device that is obtained from the manufacturer or 
through commercial channels to determine the suitability of the device 
for listing and labeling or to determine its conformance to applicable 
requirements.
    (d) Test facilities. The manufacturer shall admit the laboratory 
inspector and the Coast Guard inspector to any part of the premises at 
the place of

[[Page 142]]

manufacture of a listed and labeled device to--
    (1) Examine, inspect, or test a sample of a part or a material that 
is included in the construction of the device; and
    (2) Conduct any necessary examination, inspection, or test in a 
suitable place and with appropriate apparatus provided by the 
manufacturer.
    (e) Buoyancy--(1) Buoyancy test method. Remove the buoyant inserts 
from the vests. Securely attach the spring scale in a position directly 
over the test tank. Suspend the weighted wire basket from the scale in 
such a manner that the basket can be weighed while it is completely 
under water. In order to measure the actual buoyancy provided by the 
inserts, the underwater weight of the empty basket should exceed the 
buoyancy of the inserts. To obtan the buoyancy of the inserts, proceed 
as follows:
    (i) Weigh the empty wire basket under water.
    (ii) Place the inserts inside the basket and submerge it so that the 
top of the basket is at least 2 inches below the surface of the water. 
Allow the inserts to remain submerged for 24 hours. The tank shall be 
locked or sealed during this 24-hour submergence period. It is important 
that after the inserts have once been submerged they shall remain 
submerged for the duration of the test, and at no time during the course 
of the test shall they be removed from the tank or otherwise exposed to 
air.
    (iii) After the 24-hour submergence period, unlock or unseal the 
tank and weigh the wire basket with the inserts inside while both are 
still under water.
    (iv) The buoyancy is computed as paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section 
minus paragraph (e)(i)(iii) of this section.
    (2) Buoyancy required. The buoyant inserts from adult size buoyant 
vests shall provide not less than 15\1/2\ pounds buoyancy in fresh 
water; the inserts from child medium size vests shall provide not less 
than 11 pounds buoyancy; and the inserts from child small size vests 
shall provide not less than 7 pounds buoyancy.
    (f) Body strap test. The complete body strap assembly including 
hardware, shall be tested for strength by attaching the dee ring to a 
suitable support such that the assembly hangs vertically its full 
length. A weight as specified in Sec. 160.052-3(d) shall be attached to 
the other end of the snap hook for 10 minutes. The specified weight 
shall not break or excessively distort the body strap assembly.
    (g) Additional approval tests for nonstandard vests. Tests in 
addition to those required by this section may be conducted by the 
inspector for nonstandard vests to determine performance equivalence to 
a standard vest. Such additional tests may include determining 
performance in water, suitability of materials, donning time, ease of 
adjustment, and similar equivalency tests. Costs of any additional tests 
must be assumed by the manufacturer.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11588, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 
FR 10837, May 31, 1972; CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8120, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 75-
008, 43 FR 9772, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.052-8  Marking.

    (a) Each buoyant vest must have the following information clearly 
marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet:

Type II--Personal flotation device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
(Name of buoyant material) provides a minimum buoyant force of (15\1/2\ 
lb., 11 lb., or 7 lb.).
Dry out thoroughly when wet.
Approved for use on all recreational boats and on uninspected commercial 
vessels less than 40 feet in length not carrying passengers for hire by 
persons weighing (over 90 lb., 50 to 90 lb., or less than 50 lb.).
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.050/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor).
(Lot No.)

    (b) Waterproof marking. Marking for buoyant vests shall be 
sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it 
will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed 
matter becoming illegible.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8120, Mar. 28, 1973, as amended by CGD 75-008, 43 FR 
9771, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.052-9  Recognized laboratory.

    (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under 
this

[[Page 143]]

subpart shall follow the approval procedures of subpart 159.005 of this 
chapter, and shall apply for approval directly to a recognized 
independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under 
Sec. 159.010-7 of this part, to perform testing and approval functions 
under this subpart:

Underwriters Laboratories, 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. Box 13995, Research 
Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919) 549-1400.

    (b) Production oversight must be performed by the same laboratory 
that performs the approval tests unless, as determined by the 
Commandant, the employees of the laboratory performing production 
oversight receive training and support equal to that of the laboratory 
that performed the approval testing.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13930, Mar. 28, 1996]



          Subpart 160.053--Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam

    Source: CGFR 59-22, 24 FR 4961, June 18, 1959, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.053-1  Applicable specifications.

    (a) Specification. The following specification of the issue in 
effect on the date unicellular plastic foam work vests are manufactured, 
form a part of this subpart:
    (1) Military specification: MIL-L-17653A--Life Preserver, Vest, Work 
Type, Unicellular Plastic.
    (2) [Reserved]
    (b) Copies on file. Copies of the specification referred to in this 
section, as well as the various specifications forming a part thereof, 
shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together with the certificate 
of approval. They shall be kept for a period consisting of the duration 
of approval and 6 months after termination of approval. Federal 
specifications may be purchased from the Business Service Center, 
General Services Administration, Washington, DC 20407. Military 
specifications may be obtained from the Commanding Officer, Naval Supply 
Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 19120.

[CGFR 59-22, 24 FR 4961, June 18, 1959, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10899 Aug. 21, 1965; CGD 72-163, 38 FR 8120, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 78-012, 
43 FR 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51215, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.053-2  Type.

    (a) Unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart 
shall be of the type described in Military Specification MIL-L-17653A, 
but alternate designs equivalent in materials, construction, 
performance, and workmanship will be given consideration.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.053-3  Materials, construction and workmanship.

    (a) General. Except as otherwise specifically provided by this 
subpart and subparts 164.019 and 164.023 of this chapter, the materials, 
construction, and workmanship of unicellular plastic foam work vests 
specified by this subpart shall conform to the requirements of Military 
Specification MIL-L-17653A.
    (b) Color of envelope. Indian Orange, Cable No. 70072, Standard 
Color Card of America, will be acceptable in lieu of the Scarlet-Munsell 
7.5 red \6/10\ color specified for envelopes or covers by paragraph 
3.1.1.1 of Specification MIL-L-17653A.
    (c) Color of webbing and thread. The color of the webbing and thread 
need not match the color of the envelope as specified by paragraphs 
3.1.3 and 3.2.8 of Specification MIL-L-17653A.
    (d) Materials; acceptance and quality. All components used in the 
construction of work vests must meet the applicable requirements of 
subpart 164.019 of this chapter.

[CGFR 59-22, 24 FR 4961, June 18, 1959, as amended by CGD 84-068, 58 FR 
29493, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.053-4  Inspections and tests.

    (a) General. Work vests are not inspected at regularly scheduled 
factory inspections; however, the Commander of the Coast Guard District 
may detail a marine inspector at any time to visit

[[Page 144]]

any place where work vests are manufactured to observe production 
methods and to conduct any inspections or tests which may be deemed 
advisable. The marine inspector shall be admitted to any place in the 
factory where work is done on work vests or component materials, and 
samples of materials entering into construction may be taken by the 
marine inspector and tests made for compliance with the applicable 
requirements.
    (b) Manufacturer's inspections and tests. Manufacturers of approved 
work vests shall maintain quality control of the materials used, 
manufacturing methods, workmanship, and the finished product so as to 
meet the requirements of this specification, and shall make full 
inspections and tests of representative samples from each lot to 
maintain the quality of their product.
    (c) Lot size. A lot shall consist of not more than 500 work vests 
manufactured at the same time. Lots shall be numbered serially by the 
manufacturer, and if at any time during the manufacture of a lot, any 
change or modification in materials or production methods is made, a new 
lot shall be started.
    (d) Test facilities. The manufacturer shall provide a suitable place 
and shall have on hand the necessary apparatus for conducting buoyancy 
tests in compliance with this specification. The apparatus shall include 
accurate spring scales of adequate capacity, weighted wire mesh baskets, 
and a test tank or tanks which can be locked or sealed in such a manner 
as to preclude disturbance of work vests undergoing tests or change in 
water level.
    (e) Buoyancy--(1) Buoyancy test method. Remove the buoyant inserts 
from the vest. Securely attach the spring scale in a position directly 
over the test tank. Suspend the weighted wire basket from the scale in 
such a manner that the basket can be weighed while it is completely 
under water. In order to measure the actual buoyancy provided by the 
inserts, the underwater weight of the empty basket should exceed the 
buoyancy of the inserts. To obtain the buoyancy of the inserts, proceed 
as follows:
    (i) Weigh the empty wire basket under water.
    (ii) Place the inserts inside the basket and submerge it so that the 
top of the basket is at least 2 inches below the surface of the water. 
Allow the inserts to remain submerged for 24 hours. The tank shall be 
locked or sealed during this 24-hour submergence period.
    (iii) After the 24-hour submergence period, unlock the tank and 
weigh the wire basket with the inserts inside while both are still under 
water.
    (iv) The buoyancy is computed as paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section 
minus paragraph (e)(1)(iii) of this section.
    (2) Buoyancy required. The buoyant inserts from work vests shall 
provide not less than 17\1/2\ pounds buoyancy in fresh water.



Sec. 160.053-5  Marking.

    (a) Each work vest must have the following information clearly 
printed in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 
feet:

Type V--Personal flotation device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
(Name of buoyant material) buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant 
force of 17\1/2\ lbs.
Approved for use on Merchant Vessels as a work vest.
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.053/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.)
(Lot No.)
This vest is filled with (name of buoyant material), which will not be 
harmed by repeated wetting. Hang up and dry thoroughly when vest is wet.

    (b) Additional marking required. In addition to the wording included 
on the marking tag, on a front compartment of each work vest there shall 
be stenciled in waterproof ink in letters not less than one inch in 
height, the words, ``WORK VEST ONLY.''
    (c) Waterproofness of marking tags. Marking tags shall be 
sufficiently waterproof so that after 48 hours submergence in water, 
they will withstand

[[Page 145]]

rubbing by hand with moderate pressure while wet without the printed 
matter becoming illegible.

[CGFR 59-22, 24 FR 4961, June 18, 1959, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 
8121, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 75-008, 43 FR 9771, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.053-6  Procedure for approval.

    (a) General. Work vests for use on merchant vessels are approved 
only by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. Manufacturers seeking approval 
of a work vest shall follow the procedures of this section and subpart 
159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) If the work vest is of a standard design, as described by 
Sec. 160.053-3, in order to be approved, the work vest must be tested in 
accordance with Sec. 160.053-4 by an independent laboratory accepted by 
the Coast Guard under 46 CFR 159.010.
    (c) If the work vest is of a non-standard design, the application 
must include the following:
    (1) Plans and specifications containing the information required by 
Sec. 159.005-12 of this chapter, including drawings, product 
description, construction specifications, and bill of materials.
    (2) The information specified in Sec. 159.005-5(a)(2) (i) through 
(iii) of this chapter, except that, if preapproval review has been 
waived, the manufacturer is not required to send a prototype work vest 
sample to the Commandant.
    (3) Performance testing results of the design performed by an 
independent laboratory, that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the 
Coast Guard under Sec. 159.010-7 of this subchapter covering the in-
water testing of personal flotation devices, showing equivalence to the 
standard design's performance in all material respects.
    (4) Any special purpose(s) for which the work vest is designed and 
the vessel(s) or vessel type(s) on which its use is intended.
    (5) Buoyancy and other relevant tolerances to be complied with 
during production.
    (6) The text of any optional marking to be included on the work vest 
in addition to the markings required by Sec. 160.053.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51215, Sept. 30, 1997]



       Subpart 160.054--Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts

    Source: CGFR 60-36, 25 FR 10637, Nov. 5, 1960, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.054-1  Applicable specification.

    (a) Specification. The following specification of the issue in 
effect on the date first aid kits are manufactured forms a part of this 
subpart:
    (1) Coast Guard specification 160.041--Kits, First-Aid.
    (2) [Reserved]
    (b) Copies on file. Copies of the specification regulations referred 
to in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together 
with the approved plans and certificate of approval. They shall be kept 
for a period consisting of the duration of approval and 6 months after 
termination of approval. The Coast Guard specification may be obtained 
from the Commandant (G-MSE), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20593-
0001.

[CGFR 60-36, 25 FR 10637, Nov. 5, 1960, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10899, Aug. 21, 1965; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34536, Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 95-
072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 
1996]



Sec. 160.054-2  Type and size.

    (a) Type. First-aid kits covered by this specification shall be of 
the water-tight type. Alternate arrangements of materials meeting the 
performance requirements of this specification will be given special 
consideration.
    (b) Size. First-aid kits shall be of a size adequate for packing 12 
standard single cartons of the kind indicated in specification subpart 
160.041.



Sec. 160.054-3  Construction.

    (a) Construction. The container shall be constructed of tough 
transparent material, not less than .008 inch nominal thickness, 
properly sealed around three edges, and having the fourth edge closed in 
such manner that it is capable of being opened and reclosed watertight. 
The re-openable closure may be a plastic zip seal closure without 
slider,

[[Page 146]]

or other means which meet the test requirements of Sec. 160.054-5.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.054-4  Contents.

    (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type 
indicated in Specification subpart 160.041.
    (b) Items. The items contained in first-aid kit shall be as listed 
in Table 160.054-4(b).

                                   Table 160.054-4(b)--Items for First-Aid Kit
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                         No. of
                    Item                              No. per pkg.                 Size of pkg.           pkgs.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bandage compress--4 inches..................  1...........................  Single....................         1
Bandage compress--2 inches..................  4...........................  Single....................         1
Waterproof adhesive compress--1 inch........  16..........................  Single....................         1
Eye dressing packet, \1/8\ oz. Ophthalmic     3...........................  Single....................         1
 ointment, adhesive strips, cotton pads..
Bandage, gauze, compressed, 2 inches  x  6    2...........................  Single....................         1
 yards.
Tourniquet, forceps, scissors, 12 safety      1, 1, 1, and 12,              Double....................         1
 pins.                                         respectively.
Wire splint.................................  1...........................  Single....................         1
Ammonia inhalants...........................  10..........................  Single....................         1
Iodine applicators, (\1/2\ ml swab type)....  10..........................  Single....................         1
Aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine compound,    2...........................  Single....................         1
 6\1/2\ Gr. tablets, vials of 20.
Sterile petrolatum gauze, 3 inches by 18      4...........................  Single....................         1
 inches.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (c) Instructions. Instructions for the use of the contents of the 
first-aid kit shall be printed in legible type and either shall be 
placed inside the container or printed on the container in waterproof 
ink. The instructions for the use of the contents are as indicated in 
Specification subpart 160.041, except that the triangular bandage is 
omitted.



Sec. 160.054-5  Inspections and tests.

    (a) Salt spray. The container shall be exposed to a spray of 20 
percent by weight of reagent grade sodium chloride at about 95  deg.F. 
for 100 hours. There shall be no disintegration of the material as a 
result of this test.
    (b) Container Watertightness. With the required number of items 
inside, the closed container, with reclosable edge uppermost, shall be 
submerged under a head of one foot of water for a period of two hours. 
At the end of this period, the container shall be removed, surface 
dried, opened, and examined for the presence of moisture. No seepage 
shall be allowed.

[CGFR 60-36, 25 FR 10637, Nov. 5, 1960, as amended by CGD 95-028, 62 FR 
51215, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.054-6  Marking.

    (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be plainly and permanently 
marked with the following information: Name and address of the 
manufacturer, model number or other manufacturer's identification of the 
kit, the Coast Guard approval number, and the words ``First-Aid Kit--For 
Inflatable Life Rafts''. If the means for opening and re-closing are not 
self-evident, suitable directions shall be marked along the closure; 
such as, for the zip seal closure, an arrow, with the words ``To Open, 
Lift by Thumb Nail'', and ``To Close, Press Together Full Length''. The 
marking may be applied to the container by the silk screen process, 
using a suitable ink or paint, or may be applied by other means shown to 
be acceptable.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.054-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Manufacturer's plans. In order to obtain approval, submit 
detailed plans showing fully the construction, material specification, 
arrangement, and list of contents to the Commander of the Coast Guard 
District in which the factory is located. Each drawing shall have an 
identifying number, and date, and shall indicate the manufacturer's 
symbol, trade name, or other identification for the first-aid kit. At 
the time of selection of the pre-approval sample, the manufacturer shall 
furnish the inspector four copies of all plans

[[Page 147]]

and specifications, corrected as may be required, for forwarding to the 
Commandant.
    (b) Pre-approval sample. After the first drawings have been examined 
and found to appear satisfactory, a marine inspector will be detailed to 
the factory to observe the manufacturing facilities and methods and to 
obtain two samples, complete with contents which will be forwarded, 
prepaid by the manufacturer, to the Commandant for the necessary 
conditioning and tests in accordance with Sec. 160.054-5 to determine 
the suitability of the first-aid kit for use in conjunction with 
lifesaving equipment on board merchant vessels. The cost of the tests 
shall be borne by the manufacturer.

[CGFR 60-36, 25 FR 10637, Nov. 5, 1960, as amended by CGFR 65-16, 30 FR 
10899, Aug. 21, 1965; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34536, Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 95-
028, 62 FR 51215, Sept. 30, 1997]



 Subpart 160.055--Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam, Adult and 
                       Child, for Merchant Vessels



Sec. 160.055-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Specifications and Standards. This subpart makes reference to 
the following documents:
    (1) Military Specifications:

MIL-W-530F--Webbing, Textile, Cotton, General Purpose, Natural or in 
Colors.
MIL-T-3530E--Thread and Twine; Mildew Resistant or Water Repellant 
Treated.
MIL-W-17337D--Webbing, Woven, Nylon.
MIL-C-43006D--Cloth and Strip Laminated, Vinyl-Nylon High Strength, 
Flexible.

    (2) Federal Specifications:

CCC-C-700G--Cloth, Coated, Vinyl, Coated (Artificial Leather).
CCC-C-426D--Cloth, Drill, Cotton.

    (3) Federal Standards:

No. 191--Textile Test Methods.
No. 595A--Color.
No. 751A--Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings.

    (4) Standards of ASTM:

ASTM D 413-82 (1993), Standard Test Methods for Rubber Property--
Adhesion to Flexible Substrate--160.055-3
ASTM D 570-95, Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics--
160.055-3
ASTM D 882-97, Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin 
Plastic Sheeting--160.055-3
ASTM D 1004-94a, Standard Test Method for Initial Tear Resistance of 
Plastic Film and Sheeting--160.055-3

    (5) Coast Guard specification:

164.015--Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape.

    (b) Plans. The following plans, of the issue in effect on the date 
unicellular plastic foam life preservers are manufactured, form a part 
of this subpart:

Dwg. No. 160.055-IA:
    Sheet 1--Construction and Arrangement, Vinyl Dip Coated, Model 62, 
Adult.
    Sheet 2--Construction and Arrangement, Vinyl Dip Coated, Model 66, 
Child.
Dwg. No. 160.055-IB:
    Sheet 1--Construction and Arrangement, Cloth Covered, Model 63, 
Adult.
    Sheet 2--Buoyant Inserts, Model 63.
    Sheet 3--Construction and Arrangement, Cloth Covered, Model 67, 
Child.
    Sheet 4--Buoyant Inserts, Model 67.

    (c) Copies on file. Copies of the specifications, standards, and 
plans referred to in this section shall be kept on file by the 
manufacturer, together with the approved plans and certificate of 
approval. The Coast Guard Specification and plans may be obtained upon 
request from the Commandant (G-MSE), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 
20593-0001. The Federal Specifications and the Federal Standards may be 
purchased from the Business Service Center, General Services 
Administration, Washington, DC 20407. The Military Specifications may be 
obtained from the Commanding Officer, Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor 
Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 19120. The ASTM Standards may be purchased 
from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor 
Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

[CGFR 66-73, 32 FR 5500, Apr. 4, 1967, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 
8121, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 
88-070, 53 FR 34536, Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 
1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996; CGD 97-057, 62 FR 51048, 
Sept. 30, 1997; USCG-1999-5151, 64 FR 67184, Dec. 1, 1999]



Sec. 160.055-2  Type and model.

    Each life preserver specified in this subpart is a:

[[Page 148]]

    (a) Standard, bib type, vinyl dip coated:
    (1) Model 62, adult (for persons weighing over 90 pounds); or
    (2) Model 66, child (for persons weighing less than 90 pounds); or
    (b) Standard, bib type, cloth covered;
    (1) Model 63, adult (for persons weighing over 90 pounds); or
    (2) Model 67, child (for persons weighing less than 90 pounds); or
    (c) Nonstandard, shaped type:
    (1) Model, 1 adult (for persons weighing over 90 pounds); 
or
    (2) Model, 1 child (for persons weighless than 90 
pounds).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

     1 A model designation for each nonstandard life 
preserver is to be assigned by the manufacturer. That designation must 
be different from any standard lifesaving device designation.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8121, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.055-3  Materials--standard life preservers.

    (a) General. All components used in the construction of life 
preservers must meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of 
this chapter. The requirements for materials specified in this section 
are minimum requirements, and consideration will be given to the use of 
alternate materials in lieu of those specified. Detailed technical data 
and samples of all proposed alternate materials must be submitted for 
approval before those materials are incorporated in the finished 
product.
    (b) Unicellular plastic foam. The unicellular plastic foam shall be 
all new material complying with the requirements of Subpart 164.015 of 
this chapter for Type A foam.
    (c) Envelope. The life preserver envelope, or cover, shall be made 
of cotton drill. The color shall be Indian Orange, Cable No. 70072, 
Standard Color Card of America, issued by the Textile Color Association 
of the United States, Inc., 200 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y., or 
Scarlet Munsell 7.5 Red 6/10. The drill shall be evenly dyed, and the 
fastness of the color to laundering, water, crocking, and light shall be 
rated ``good'' when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method 
Standard No. 191, Methods 5610, 5630, 5650, and 5660. After dyeing, the 
drill shall be treated with a mildew-inhibitor of the type specified in 
paragraph (e) of this section. The finished goods shall contain not more 
than 2 percent residual sizing or other nonfibrous material, shall weigh 
not less than 6.5 ounces per square yard, shall have a thread count of 
not less than 74 in the warp and 56 in the filling, and shall have a 
breaking strength (grab method) of not less than 105 pounds in the warp 
and 70 pounds in the filling. Properly mildew-inhibited drills meeting 
the physical requirements of Federal Specification CCC-C-426 for Type I, 
Class 3 drill will be acceptable. If it is proposed to treat the fabric 
with a fire-retardant substance, full details shall be submitted to the 
Commandant for determination as to what samples will be needed for 
testing.
    (d) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam.
    (e) Mildew-inhibitor. The mildew-inhibitor shall be 
dihydroxydichloro-diphenylmethane, known commercially as Compound G-4, 
applied by the aqueous method. The amount of inhibitor deposited shall 
be not more than 1.50 percent and not less than 1 percent of the dry 
weight of the finished goods.
    (f) Adhesive. The adhesive shall be an all-purpose waterproof vinyl 
type. (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. EC-870 or EC-1070, United 
States Rubber Co. M-6256, Herculite Protective Fabrics Corp., CVV, 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. R 828, or equal.)
    (g) Reinforcing fabric. The reinforcing fabric shall be Type III, 
Class I, laminated vinyl-nylon high strength cloth in accordance with 
the requirements of Specification MIL-C-43006.
    (h) Webbing. There are no restrictions as to color, but the fastness 
of the color to laundering, water, crocking, and light shall be rated 
``good'' when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 
191, Methods 5610, 5630, 5650, and 5660. The complete body strap 
assembly shall have a minimum breaking strength of 360 pounds.
    (1) Nylon webbing. This webbing shall be 1-inch wide nylon webbing 
in accordance with the requirements of Specification MIL-W-17337.

[[Page 149]]

    (2) Cotton webbing. This webbing shall be 1-inch cotton webbing 
meeting the requirements of Specification MIL-W-530 for Type IIb 
webbing. This webbing shall be treated with a mildew-inhibitor of the 
type specified in paragraph (e) of this section.
    (i) Hardware. All hardware shall be brass, bronze, or stainless 
steel, and of the approximate size indicated by the drawings. Steel 
hardware, protected against corrosion by plating, is not acceptable. 
Snap hook springs shall be phosphor bronze or other suitable corrosion-
resistant material. Dee ring, o-ring, slide adjuster and snap hook ends 
shall be welded or brazed, or they may be a one-piece casting. The 
complete body strap assembly shall have a minimum breaking strength of 
360 pounds.
    (j) Coating. The coating for the plastic foam shall be a liquid 
elastomeric vinyl compound. The coating shall be International Orange in 
color (Color No. 12197 of Federal Standard 595) or Scarlet Munsel 7.5, 
Red 6/10 and shall meet the following requirements in Table 160.055-
3(j):

                                               Table 160.055-3(j)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Property                           Test method                          Requirement
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tensile strength......................  ASTM-D882, Method B, \1/2\ in.  1,200 p.s.i., minimum.
                                         dumbbell die.
Ultimate elongation...................  ASTM-D882, Method B, \1/2\ in.  320 percent, minimum.
                                         dumbbell die.
Tear resistance.......................  ASTM-D1004, Constant            90 pounds per inch, minimum.
                                         Elongation Machine.
Abrasion resistance...................  FS CCC-T-191, Method 5304, No.  100,000 double rubs.
                                         8 cotton duck, 6 lb. tension,
                                         2 lb. pressure.
Blocking..............................  FS CCC-T-191, Method 5872, 30   No blocking.
                                         minutes at 180  deg.F., \1/4\
                                         p.s.i.
Accelerated weathering................  FS CCC-T-191, Method 5670, 120  Color change--very slight.
                                         hours.                         Cracking--None.
                                                                        Flexibility--No change.
Plasticizer heat loss.................  FS CCC-A-700, paragraph 4.4.4,  8 percent, maximum.
                                         48 hours at 221  deg.F.
Adhesion to foam--Tensile pull........  ASTM-D413, machine method, 12
                                         in. per minute, 1 in. strip.
  Film to foam skin...................  ..............................  4 lb./in., minimum.
  Film to foam (no skin)..............  ..............................  2 lb./in., minimum.
Water absorption......................  ASTM-D570, 24 hours at 70       0.5 percent, maximum.
                                         deg.F.
Cold crack (unsupported film) 0  deg.F  Coast Guard, 164.015,           No cracking.
                                         paragraph 164.015-4(j).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[CGFR 66-73, 32 FR 5500, Apr. 4, 1967, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 
8121, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 
84-068, 58 FR 29493, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.055-4  Materials--nonstandard life preservers.

    All materials used in nonstandard life preservers must be equivalent 
to those specified in Sec. 160.055-3 for standard life preservers.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8121, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.055-5  Construction--standard life preservers.

    (a) General. This specification covers life preservers which 
essentially consist of plastic foam buoyant material arranged and 
distributed so as to provide the flotation characteristics and buoyancy 
required to hold the wearer in an upright or slightly backward position 
with head and face clear of the water. The life preservers are also 
arranged so as to be reversible and are fitted with straps and hardware 
to provide proper adjustment and fit to the bodies of various size 
wearers.
    (b) Construction--standard, vinyl dip coated life preserver. This 
device is constructed from one piece of unicellular plastic foam with 
neck hole and the body slit in the front, vinyl dip coating, and fitted 
and adjustable body strap.
    (1) Buoyant material. The buoyant material of the life preserver 
shall be a molded shape or made from one or two sheets of foam finished 
so as to have dimensions after coating in accordance with the pattern 
shown on Dwg. No. 160.055-1A, Sheet 1, for adult size and Sheet 2 for 
child size. The reinforcing fabric shall be cemented on the foam buoyant 
body before coating.
    (2) Coating. After all cutting and shaping of the buoyant body and 
installation of the reinforcing fabric, the

[[Page 150]]

entire body of the life preserver shall be coated evenly and smoothly to 
a minimum thickness of 0.010" with a liquid vinyl coating material of 
the type described in Sec. 160.055-3(j).
    (3) Body strap. After the coating on the buoyant body of the life 
preserver is fully cured, a nylon webbing body strap shall be attached 
as shown on Dwg. No. 160.055-IA.
    (4) Stitching. All stitching shall be a short lock stitch, 
conforming to Stitch Type 301 of Federal Standard 751, with nylon 
thread, and there shall be not less than 9 nor more than 11 stitches to 
the inch. Bar tacking with nylon thread is acceptable as noted on Dwg. 
No. 160-055-IA.
    (c) Construction--standard, cloth covered life preserver. This 
device is constructed from three sections of unicellular plastic foam 
contained in a cloth envelope and has a neck hole, the body slit in the 
front, and a fitted and adjustable body strap.
    (1) Buoyant material. The buoyant material of the life preserver 
shall be three sections of foam cut so as to have finished dimensions in 
accordance with the patterns shown on Dwg. No. 160.055-IB, Sheet 2, for 
adult size and Sheet 4, for child size. One or two layers of foam may be 
used to make up each section.
    (2) Envelope. The envelope shall be cut to the pattern shown on Dwg. 
No. 160.055-IB, Sheet 1, for adult size, and Sheet 3, for child size, 
and joined by seams and stitching as shown on the drawing. Alternate 
finished envelopes are permitted as noted on Dwg. No. 160.055-IB.
    (3) Body strap. The body strap may be cotton or nylon webbing and 
shall be attached by stitching as shown on the Dwg. No. 160.055-IB, 
Sheet 1, for adult size and Sheet 3, for child size.
    (4) Stitching. All stitching shall be a short lock stitch conforming 
to Stitch Type 301 of Federal Standard No. 751, and there shall be not 
less than 7 nor more than 9 stitches to the inch if cotton thread is 
used, and not less than 9 nor more than 11 if nylon thread is used. Bar 
tacking is acceptable as noted on Dwg. No. 160.055-IB.
    (d) Workmanship. Life preservers shall be of first-class workmanship 
and shall be free from any defects materially affecting their appearance 
or service-ability.

[CGFR 66-73, 32 FR 5500, Apr. 4, 1967, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 
8121, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.055-6  Construction--nonstandard, life preservers.

    (a) General. The construction methods used for a nonstandard life 
preserver must be equivalent to the requirements in Sec. 160.055-5 for a 
standard life preserver and also meet the requirements in this section.
    (b) Size. Each nonstandard life preserver must contain the following 
volume of plastic foam buoyant material, determined by the displacement 
method:
    (1) 700 cubic inches or more for an adult size;
    (2) 350 cubic inches or more for a child size.
    (c) Arrangement of buoyant materials. The buoyant material in 
nonstandard life preservers must:
    (1) Be arranged to hold the wearer in an upright or backward 
position with head and face out of water;
    (2) Have no tendency to turn the wearer face downward in the water; 
and
    (3) Be arranged so that 68 to 73 percent of the total is located in 
the front of the life preserver.
    (d) Adjustment, fit, and donning. Each nonstandard life preserver 
must be capable of being:
    (1) Worn reversed;
    (2) Adjusted to fit a range of wearers for the type designed; and
    (3) Donned in a time comparable to that of a standard life 
preserver.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8121, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.055-7  Sampling, tests, and inspections.

    (a) Production tests and inspections must be conducted by the 
manufacturer of a life preserver and the accepted laboratory inspector 
in accordance with this section and Sec. 160.001-5.
    (b) Buoyancy test. The buoyancy of the pad inserts from the life 
preserver shall be determined according to Sec. 160.001-5(f) of this 
part with each compartment of the buoyant pad insert covers slit so as 
not to entrap air. The

[[Page 151]]

period of submersion must be at least 48 hours.
    (c) Buoyancy required. The buoyant pad inserts from Model 3 adult 
life preservers shall provide not less than 25 pounds buoyancy in fresh 
water, and the pads from Model 5 child life preservers shall provide not 
less than 16.5 pounds buoyancy.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51215, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.055-8  Marking.

    Each life preserver must have the following information clearly 
marked in waterproof lettering:
    (a) In letters three-fourths of an inch or more in height;
    (1) Adult (for persons weighing over 90 pounds); or
    (2) Child (for persons weighing less than 90 pounds).
    (b) In letters that can be read at a distance of 2 feet:

Type I or Type V Personal Flotation Device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
(Name of buoyant material) buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant 
force of (22 lb. or 11 lb.).
Approved for use on all vessels by persons weighing (90 lb. or more, or 
less than 90 lb.).
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.055/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor).
(Lot No.)

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8121, Mar. 28, 1973, as amended by CGD 75-008, 43 FR 
9771, Mar. 9, 1978; 43 FR 10913, Mar. 11, 1978]



Sec. 160.055-9  Procedure for approval--standard and nonstandard life preservers.

    (a) General. Manufacturers seeking approval of a life preserver 
design shall follow the procedures of subpart 159.005 of this chapter, 
as explained in Sec. 160.001-3 of this part.
    (b) Assignment of inspector; standard life preservers. Upon receipt 
of an approval of a standard life preserver, a Coast Guard inspector is 
assigned to the factory to:
    (1) Observe the production facilities and manufacturing methods;
    (2) Select from a lot of 10 manufactured life preservers or more, 
three or more of each model for examination;
    (3) Test the selected sample for compliance with the requirements of 
this subpart; and
    (4) Forward to the Commandant a copy of his report of the tests and 
the production and manufacturing facilities, a specimen life preserver 
selected from those already manufactured but not tested, and one copy of 
an affidavit for each material used in the life preservers.
    (b-1) Approval number--standard life preserver. An approval number 
is assigned to the manufacturer by the Coast Guard for a standard life 
preserver found to be in compliance with the requirements of this 
subpart.
    (c) Assignment of inspector--nonstandard life preserver. Upon 
receipt of an application from a manufacturer for approval of 
nonstandard life preservers, an inspector is assigned to the factory to:
    (1) Observe the production facilities and manufacturing methods;
    (2) Select three samples of life preservers of each model for which 
approval is desired;
    (3) Forward to the Commandant:
    (i) Three samples of each model of life preserver;
    (ii) A copy of the inspector's report of tests and the production 
and manufacturing facilities; and
    (iii) Four copies each of fully dimensioned, full-scale drawings 
showing all details of construction of the sample life preservers 
submitted, material affidavits, and four copies of a bill of materials 
showing all materials used in construction of the life preservers 
submitted by the manufacturer.
    (c-1) Approval number--nonstandard life preserver. An official 
approval number is assigned to the manufacturer by the Coast Guard for a 
nonstandard life preserver approved after tests.
    (d) Private brand labels. Private brand labels are those bearing the 
name and address of a distributor in lieu of the manufacturer. In order 
for a manufacturer to apply for an approval number to be used on such a 
private brand label, he shall forward a letter of request to the 
Commander of the Coast Guard District in which the factory is located, 
setting forth the life preservers involved, together with a letter from 
his distributor also requesting

[[Page 152]]

that approval be issued. The manufacturer's request for approval 
together with that of his distributor, will be forwarded to the 
Commandant, and when deemed advisable, an approval number or numbers 
will be issued in the name of the distributor. Approvals issued to a 
distributor under such an arrangement shall apply only to life 
preservers made by the manufacturer named on the certificate of 
approval, and this manufacturer shall be responsible for compliance of 
the life preservers with the requirements of this subpart.

[CGFR 66-73, 32 FR 5500, Apr. 4, 1967, as amended by CGD 163R, 38 FR 
8121, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27154, June 22, 1978; CGD 88-070, 
53 FR 34536, Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51215, Sept. 30, 1997]



                      Subpart 160.056--Rescue Boat

    Source: CGFR 61-15, 26 FR 9300, Sept. 30, 1961, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.056-1  General requirements.

    (a) Rescue boats accepted and in use prior to the effective date of 
this subpart may be continued in service if in satisfactory condition.
    (b) All rescue boats must be properly constructed, of such form as 
to be readily maneuverable, and be of the open rowboat type. They shall 
be suitable for use of three persons.
    (c) Rescue boats shall be constructed of materials acceptable to the 
Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, having jurisdiction of 
construction.



Sec. 160.056-2  Construction.

    (a) General. Rescue boats shall be square-sterned, of normal 
proportions, not less than 11 feet nor more than 14 feet in length. The 
length shall be the overall horizontal distance from bow to stern.
    (b) Construction. The method of construction shall be such as is 
accepted as good engineering practice in the case of the specific 
material used. The hull shall be suitably stiffened to assure adequate 
strength.
    (c) Weight. The weight of the rescue boat, fully equipped, shall not 
exceed 225 pounds.
    (d) Seats. The rescue boat shall be fitted with three thwarts. The 
middle thwart shall be arranged as the rowing seat.
    (e) Internal buoyancy. Buoyant material of suitable unicellular 
plastic foam shall be installed in the rescue boat. This material shall 
be protected from mechanical damage. It shall be distributed uniformly 
in the boat and such that at least one-quarter of the required volume is 
located at the sides of the boat. The minimum amount of buoyant 
material, in cubic feet, shall be determined by the following:


B = 2+(W- Wd) 62.4-c    (1)

Where:

B = Volume of buoyant material required in cubic feet.
W = Weight of equipped boat, in pounds.
d = Specific gravity of hull material.
c = Density of buoyant material, in pounds per cubic foot.



Sec. 160.056-3  Fittings and equipment.

    (a) Fittings. (1) The rescue boat shall be fitted with one pair of 
rowlock sockets. Detachable rowlocks shall be permanently attached to 
the boat by chain or other suitable means.
    (2) At least one eyebolt, ring, or other fitting suitable for 
attaching a painter shall be fitted to the bow and stern.
    (b) Equipment. (1) The rescue boat shall be provided with one pair 
of oars of suitable size and material.
    (2) A painter shall be attached to the bow and to the stern 
fittings. Each shall be of suitable material, at least \3/8\-inch in 
diameter, and at least 30 feet long.



Sec. 160.056-4  Approval tests of prototype rescue boat.

    (a) Drop test. The rescue boat, fully equipped, shall be dropped, in 
a free fall, from a ten-foot height into water. No damage which would 
render the rescue boat unserviceable shall result from this drop.
    (b) Stability and freeboard test. The rescue boat shall have 
sufficient stability and freeboard so that the gunwale on the low side 
shall not be submerged with 350 pounds placed nine inches from the side 
in way of and about the level of the middle thwart.

[[Page 153]]

    (c) Rescue boarding test. With one man in the rowing position, a 
second kneeling on the stern thwart facing aft, and a third man balanced 
on the transom, the minimum freeboard of the transom shall be five 
inches. The men should average 165 pounds each. This test simulates the 
rescue of a person over the transom by a two-man boat crew.
    (d) Rowing test. Three men, averaging 165 pounds each, shall be 
seated on the centerline of the boat, one on each thwart. One man, in 
the rowing position, using ordinary rowing technique, shall demonstrate 
the satisfactory course keeping and maneuvering characteristics of the 
boat in the ahead and astern directions.



Sec. 160.056-6  Name plate.

    (a) Each rescue boat shall have permanently fitted at the transom a 
metal name plate, galvanically compatible with the hull material, and 
bearing information relating to the testing and approval of the 
prototype boat. Either raised or indented letters shall be used.
    (b) The following information shall appear on the name plate:

                               RescueBoat

U.S.C.G. Specification 160.056
Prototype approved______________________________________________________
                                                            (Date)      
Approved by OCMI________________________________________________________
                                                            (Port)      
Date of manufacture_____________________________________________________
                                                            (Date)      
Manufacturer's serial No._______________________________________________
Manufacturer's name and address_________________________________________



Sec. 160.056-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) The manufacturer shall submit a request for approval to the 
Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, having jurisdiction of the place 
of manufacture of the rescue boat.
    (b) Formal plans will not be required. However, a combined general 
arrangement and construction plan is required, which includes principal 
dimensions, and descriptive data of hull material, buoyant material, and 
equipment.
    (c) When plans and data are satisfactory, the Officer in Charge, 
Marine Inspection, will assign a marine inspector to conduct the tests 
required by Sec. 160.056-4.
    (d) Upon successful completion of the test, the inspector shall 
submit a written report to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection. A 
copy of this report, with plans and photographs, shall be forwarded to 
the Commandant for record purposes. The date of approval and the marine 
inspector's initials shall be indicated in this report.
    (e) The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall issue a letter 
to the manufacturer indicating that approval of the rescue boat has been 
granted, and will include any conditions imposed. A copy of this 
approval letter shall be forwarded to the District Commander and to the 
Commandant.
    (f) If a rescue boat is required on short notice, a boat may be 
approved on an individual basis: Provided, That the requirements in this 
subpart are met to the satisfaction of the Officer in Charge Marine 
Inspection. Sketches of the boat showing alterations may be submitted in 
lieu of the manufacturer's general arrangement and construction plan. 
Under these circumstances, the letter indicating that approval of the 
rescue boat has been granted shall be issued to the vessel using the 
boat.

[CGFR 61-15, 26 FR 9300, Sept. 30, 1961, as amended by CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 
11480, Sept. 8, 1965]



  Subpart 160.057--Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes)

    Source: CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73091, Dec. 17, 1979, unless 
otherwise noted.



Sec. 160.057-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) The following are incorporated by reference into this subpart:
    (1) ``The Color Names Dictionary'' in Color: Universal Language and 
Dictionary of Names, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 
440, December 1976.
    (2) ``Development of a Laboratory Test for Evaluation of the 
Effectiveness of Smoke Signals,'' National Bureau of Standards Report 
4792, July 1956.
    (b) NBS Special Publication 440 may be obtained by ordering from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, DC 20402 (Order by SD Catalog No. C13.10:440).

[[Page 154]]

    (c) NBS Report 4792 may be obtained from the Commandant (G-MSE), 
U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20593-0001.
    (d) Approval to incorporate by reference the materials listed in 
this section was obtained from the Director of the Federal Register on 
November 1 and 29, 1979. The materials are on file in the Federal 
Register library.

[CGD 76-048a and 76-048b, 44 FR 73091, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 
82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34536, Sept. 7, 
1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, 
Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.057-2  Type.

    (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this 
subpart shall be of one type which shall consist essentially of an outer 
container, ballast, an air chamber, an inner container, the smoke 
producing composition, and an igniter mechanism. Alternate arrangements 
which conform to the performance requirements of this specification will 
be given special consideration.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.057-3  Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    (a) Materials. The materials shall conform strictly to the 
specifications and drawings submitted by the manufacturer and approved 
by the Commandant. Metal for containers shall be not less than 0.5 mm 
(0.020 in.) in thickness. Other dimensions or materials may be 
considered upon special request when presented with supporting data. 
Igniter systems shall be of corrosion-resistant metal. The combustible 
material shall be of such nature that it will not deteriorate during 
long storage, nor when subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or 
both.
    (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress signals shall be of 
first class workmanship and shall be free from imperfections of 
manufacture affecting their appearance or that may affect their 
serviceability.
    (c) Construction. The outer container shall be cylindrical and of a 
size suitable for intended use. All sheet metal seams should be hook 
jointed and soldered. The whole container shall be covered with two 
coats of waterproof paint or other equivalent protection system. The 
igniter mechanism shall operate and provide ignition of the signal 
automatically when the ring life buoy to which it is attached is thrown 
overboard.
    (d) Performance. Signals shall meet all the inspection and test 
requirements contained in Sec. 160.057-4.



Sec. 160.057-4  Approval and production tests.

    (a) Approval tests. The manufacturer must produce a lot of at least 
20 signals from which samples must be taken for testing for approval 
under Sec. 160.057-7. The approval tests are the operational tests and 
technical tests in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. The approval 
tests must be conducted by an independent laboratory accepted by the 
Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of this chapter.
    (b) Production inspections and tests. Production inspections and 
tests of each lot of signals produced must be conducted under the 
procedures in Sec. 159.007 of this chapter. Signals from a rejected lot 
must not be represented as meeting this subpart or as being approved by 
the Coast Guard. If the manufacturer identifies the cause of the 
rejection of a lot of signals, the signals in the lot may be reworked by 
the manufacturer to correct the problem. Samples from the rejected lot 
must be retested in order to be accepted. Records shall be kept of the 
reasons for rejection, the reworking performed on the rejected lot, and 
the results of the second test.
    (1) Lot size. For the purposes of sampling the production of 
signals, a lot must consist of not more than 1,200 signals. Lots must be 
numbered serially by the manufacturer. A new lot must be started with: 
(i) Any change in construction details, (ii) any change in sources of 
raw materials, or (iii) the start of production on a new production line 
or on a previously discontinued production line.
    (2) Inspections and tests by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's 
quality control procedures must include inspection of materials entering 
into construction of the signals and inspection of the finished signals, 
to determine that signals are being produced in

[[Page 155]]

accordance with the approved plans. Samples from each lot must be tested 
in accordance with the operational tests in paragraph (c) of this 
section.
    (3) Inspections and tests by an independent laboratory. An 
independent laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Sec. 159.010 of 
this chapter must perform or supervise the inspections and tests under 
paragraph (b)(2) of this section at least 4 times a year, unless the 
number of lots produced in a year is less than four. The inspections and 
tests must occur at least once during each quarterly period, unless no 
lots are produced during that period. If less than four lots are 
produced, the laboratory must perform or supervise the inspection and 
testing of each lot. In addition, the laboratory must perform or 
supervise the technical tests in paragraph (d) of this section at least 
once for every ten lots of signals produced, except that the number of 
technical tests must be at least one but not more than four per year. If 
a lot of signals tested by the independent laboratory is rejected, the 
laboratory must perform or supervise the inspections and tests of the 
reworked lot and the next lot of signals produced. The tests of each 
reworked lot and the next lot produced must not be counted for the 
purpose of meeting the requirement for the annual number of inspections 
and tests performed or supervised by the independent laboratory.
    (c) Operational tests. Each lot of signals must be sampled and 
tested as follows:
    (1) Sampling procedure and accept/reject criteria. A sample of 
signals must be selected at random from the lot. The size of the sample 
must be the individual sample size in Table 160.057-4(c)(1) 
corresponding to the lot size. Each signal in the sample is tested as 
prescribed in the test procedure in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. 
Each signal that has a defect listed in the table of defects (Table 
160.057-4(c)(2)) is assigned a score (failure percent) in accordance 
with that table. In the case of multiple defects, only the score having 
the highest numerical value is assigned to that signal If the sum of all 
the failure percents (cumulative failure percent) for the number of 
units in the sample is less than or equal to the accept criterion, the 
lot is accepted. If this sum is equal to or more than the reject 
criterion the lot is rejected.

If the cumulative failure percent falls between the accept and reject 
criteria, another sample is selected from the production lot and the 
operational tests are repeated. The cumulative failure percent of each 
sample tested is added to that of the previous samples to obtain the 
cumulative failure percent for all the signals tested (cumulative sample 
size). Additional samples are tested and the tests repeated until either 
the accept or reject criterion for the cumulative sample size is met. If 
any signal in the sample explodes when fired, or ignites in a way that 
could burn or otherwise injure the person firing it, the lot is rejected 
without further testing. (This procedure is diagrammed in figure 
160.057-4(c)).
    (2) Test procedure. Each sample signal (specimen) must be tested as 
follows:
    (i) Conditioning of test specimens--water resistance. Immerse 
specimen horizontally with uppermost portion of the signal approximately 
25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 24 hours.
    (ii) Smoke emitting time. Ignite specimen according to the 
directions printed on the signal and place signal in tub or barrel of 
water. The smoke emitting time of a specimen shall be obtained by stop 
watch measurements from the time of distinct, sustained smoke emission 
until it ceases. There shall be no flame emission during the entire 
smoke emitting time of the signal. The smoke emitting time for a 
specimen shall not be less than 15 minutes. When the tests are performed 
or supervised by an independent laboratory, this test shall be conducted 
with approximately 6 mm (\1/4\ in.) of gasoline covering the water in 
the tub or barrel. The gasoline vapors shall not ignite during the 
entire smoke emitting time of the signal.
    (iii) Ignition and smoke emitting characteristics. Test specimens 
shall ignite and emit smoke properly when the directions on the signal 
are followed. Test specimens shall not ignite explosively in a manner 
that might be dangerous to the user or persons close by. Test specimens 
shall emit smoke at a uniform rate while floating in calm to

[[Page 156]]

rough water. Signals should be so constructed that water submerging the 
signal in moderately heavy seas will not cause it to become inoperable.

                   Table 160.057-4(c)(1)--Accept and reject criteria for operational test lots
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                   Cumula-
                                              Individual                             tive
                  Lot size                      sample             Sample           sample  Accept\1\  Reject\1\
                                                 size                                size
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
150 or                                                 2  First..................        2   ( \2\ )        200
  less.                                                   Second.................        4   ( \2\ )        200
                                                          Third..................        6         0        200
                                                          Fourth.................        8         0        300
                                                          Fifth..................       10       100        300
                                                          Sixth..................       12       100        300
                                                          Seventh................       14       299        300
151 to                                                 3  First..................        3   ( \2\ )        200
  500.                                                    Second.................        6         0        300
                                                          Third..................        9         0        300
                                                          Fourth.................       12       100        400
                                                          Fifth..................       15       200        400
                                                          Sixth..................       18       300        500
                                                          Seventh................       21       499        500
More                                                   5  First..................        5   ( \2\ )        300
  than                                                    Second.................       10         0        300
  501.                                                    Third..................       15       100        400
                                                          Fourth.................       20       200        500
                                                          Fifth..................       25       300        600
                                                          Sixth..................       30       400        600
                                                          Seventh................       35       699        700
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Cumulative failure percent.
\2\ Lot may not be accepted. Next sample must be tested.


                          Table 160.057-4(c)(2)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Percentage
                      Kind of defects                        of failures
------------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Failure to ignite.......................................          100
b. Ignites or burns dangerously............................          100
c. Nonuniform smoke emitting rate..........................           50
d. Smoke-emitting time less than 70 percent of specified             100
 time......................................................
e. Smoke-emitting time at least 70 percent but less than 80           75
 percent of specified time.................................
f. Smoke-emitting time at least 80 percent but less than 90           50
 percent of specified time.................................
g. Smoke-emitting time at least 90 percent but less than              25
 100 percent of specified time.............................
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 157]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.012

    (d) Technical tests. One signal must be subjected to each of the 
following tests. Each signal must pass the test in order for the lot of 
signals to be accepted.
    (1) Drop test. One signal must be attached to a ring life buoy and 
arranged

[[Page 158]]

to be ignited by the dropping buoy in the same manner as it would be 
when used on a vessel. The signal and buoy must be mounted at least 27 m 
(90 ft.) above the surface of a body of water. The buoy is released and 
must cause the signal to ignite and fall to the water with the buoy. The 
signal must remain afloat and emit smoke at least 15 minutes.
    (2) Wave test. A signal shall be tested in a manner simulating its 
use at sea. The signal shall be ignited and thrown overboard under 
conditions where waves are at least 30 cm (1 ft.) high. The smoke 
emitting time must be for the full 15 minutes and the signal shall float 
in such a manner that it shall function properly during this test. The 
signal shall be attached to a ring life buoy in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions.
    (3) Underwater smoke emission. Condition the signal in accordance 
with paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. Ignite specimen and let it 
burn about 15 seconds in air. Submerge the burning signal in water in a 
vertical position with head down. Obtain underwater smoke emission time 
by stop watch measurements from time of submersion until smoke emission 
ceases. The test specimen shall emit smoke under water not less than 30 
seconds when subjected to this test.
    (4) Elevated Temperature, Humidity and Storage. Place specimen in a 
thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. 
with not less than 90 percent relative humidity for 72 hours. Remove 
specimen and store at room temperature (20 deg. to 25  deg.C.) with 
approximately 65 percent relative humidity for 10 days. If for any 
reason it is not possible to operate the oven continuously for the 72-
hour period, it may be operated at the required temperature and humidity 
for 8 hours out of each 24 during the 72-hour conditioning period. 
(Total of 24 hours on and 48 hours off.) The signal shall not ignite or 
decompose during this conditioning. The signal shall ignite and operate 
satisfactorily following this conditioning.
    (5) Spontaneous ignition. Place the specimen in a thermostatically 
controlled even-temperature oven held at 75  deg.C. with not more than 
10% relative humidity for 48 consecutive hours. The signal must not 
ignite or undergo marked decomposition.
    (6) Susceptibility to explosion. Remove smoke composition from 
signal and punch a small hole in the composition. Insert a No. 6 
commercial blasting cap. Ignite the cap. The test specimen shall not 
explode or ignite.
    (7) Corrosion resistance. Expose the complete specimen with cover 
secured hand-tight to a finely divided spray of 20 percent by weight 
sodium chloride solution at a temperature between 32  deg.C and 38 
deg.C (90  deg.F and 100  deg.F) for 100 hours. The container and cap 
must not be corroded in any fashion that would impair their proper 
functioning.
    (8) Color of smoke. Ignite specimen in the open air in daytime 
according to the directions printed on the signal, and determine the 
smoke color by direct visual comparison of the unshadowed portions of 
the smoke with a color chart held so as to receive the same daylight 
illumination as the unshadowed portions of the smoke. The color of the 
smoke must be orange as defined by sections 13 and 14 of the ``Color 
Names Dictionary'' (colors 34-39 and 48-54).
    (9) Volume and density of smoke. The test specimen shall show less 
than 70 percent transmission for not less than 12 minutes when measured 
with apparatus having a light path of 19 cm (7\1/2\ in.), an optical 
system aperture of +3.7 degrees, and an entrance air flow of 18.4m 
3 per minute (650 cu. ft. per minute), such apparatus to be 
as described in National Bureau of Standards Report No. 4792.



Sec. 160.057-5  Marking.

    (a) Directions for use. Each floating orange smoke distress signal 
shall be plainly and indelibly marked in black lettering not less than 3 
mm (\1/8\ in.) high ``Approved for daytime use only'', and in black 
lettering not less than 5 mm (\3/16\ in.) high with the word 
``Directions''. Immediately below shall be similarly marked in black 
lettering not less than 3 mm (\1/8\ in.) high in numbered paragraphs, 
and in simple and easily understood wording, instructions to be followed 
to make the device operative. Pasted-on labels are not acceptable.

[[Page 159]]

    (b) Other markings. (1) There shall be embossed or die-stamped, in 
the outer container in figures not less than 5 mm (\3/16\ in.) high, 
numbers, indicating the month and year of manufacture, thus: ``6-54'' 
indicating June 1954. The outer container shall also be plainly and 
indelibly marked with the commercial designation of the signal, the 
words ``Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signal (15 minutes)'', name and 
address of the manufacturer, the Coast Guard Approval No., the service 
life expiration date (month and year to be entered by the manufacturer), 
the month and year of manufacture and the lot number.
    (2) In addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing 
carton or box containing floating orange smoke distress signals, such 
cartons or boxes shall be plainly and indelibly marked to show the 
service life expiration date, the month and year of manufacture, and the 
lot number.
    (3) The largest carton or box in which the manufacturer ships 
signals must be marked with the following or equivalent words: ``Keep 
under cover in a dry place.''
    (c) Marking of expiration date. The expiration date must be not more 
than 42 months from the date of manufacture.

    Note: Compliance with the labeling requirements of this section does 
not relieve the manufacturer of the responsibility of complying with the 
label requirements of 15 U.S.C. 1263, the Federal Hazardous Substances 
Act.



Sec. 160.057-7  Procedure for approval.

    (a) Signals are approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in 
subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) [Reserved]



     Subpart 160.058--Desalter Kits, Sea Water, for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11483, Sept. 8, 1965, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.058-1  Applicable specification.

    (a) Specification. The following specification, of the issue in 
effect on the date the desalter kits are manufactured, forms a part of 
this subpart:
    (1) Military specification. MIL-D-5531D--Desalter Kit, Sea Water, 
Mark 2.
    (2) [Reserved]
    (b) Copies on file. A copy of the specification referred to in this 
section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer, together with the 
approved plans and certificate of approval. The Military Specification 
may be obtained from the Commanding Officer, Naval Supply Depot, 5801 
Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa., 19120.



Sec. 160.058-2  Type.

    (a) Desalter kits specified by this subpart shall be of the type 
described in the specification listed in Sec. 160.058-1(a)(1).
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.058-3  Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    (a) The materials, construction, workmanship, general and detail 
requirements shall conform to the requirements of the specification 
listed in Sec. 160.058-1(a)(1), except as otherwise specifically 
provided by this subpart.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.058-4  Inspections.

    (a) Desalter kits specified by this subpart are not inspected at 
regularly scheduled factory inspections; however, the Commander of the 
Coast Guard District in which the desalter kits are manufactured may 
detail a marine inspector at any time to visit places where desalter 
kits are manufactured to check materials and construction methods and to 
satisfy himself that the desalter kits are being manufactured in 
compliance with the requirements of the specification listed in 
Sec. 160.058-1(a)(1) as modified by this specification and are suitable 
for the intended purpose. The manufacturer shall admit the marine 
inspector to his plant and shall provide a suitable place and the 
necessary apparatus for the use of the marine inspector in conducting 
tests at the place of manufacture.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.058-5  Labeling and marking.

    (a) In addition to the marking and instructions required by the 
specification

[[Page 160]]

listed in Sec. 160.058-1(a)(1), the Coast Guard approval number shall be 
included. The contract number may be omitted.
    (b) [Reserved]



     Subpart 160.060--Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular 
                   Polyethylene Foam, Adult and Child



Sec. 160.060-1  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Specifications and Standards. This subpart makes reference to 
the following documents:
    (1) [Reserved]
    (2) Military Specification:

MIL-W-530F-Webbing, Textile, Cotton, General Purpose, Natural or in 
Colors.

    (3) Federal Standards:

No. 191-Textile Test Methods.
No. 751A-Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings.

    (4) Coast Guard Specification:

164.013--Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal 
Pattern)

    (b) Plans. The following plans, of the issue in effect on the date 
buoyant vests are manufacture, form a part of this subpart:

Dwg. No. 160.060-1:
    Sheet 1--Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement, Model AY.
    Sheet 2--Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement, Model CYM.
    Sheet 3--Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement, Model CYS.
    Sheet 4--Insert Pattern, Model AY.
    Sheet 5--Insert Pattern, Model CYM.
    Sheet 6--Insert Pattern, Model CYS.

    (c) Copies on file. Copies of the specifications and plans referred 
to in this section shall be kept on file by the manufacturer together 
with the Certificate of Approval.
    (1) The Coast Guard plans and specifications may be obtained upon 
request from the Commandant (G-MSE), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 
20593-0001 or a recognized laboratory listed in Sec. 160.060-8b.
    (2) The Federal Specifications and Standard may be purchased from 
the Business Service Center, General Services Administration, 
Washington, DC, 20407.
    (3) The Military Specification may be obtained from the Commanding 
Officer, Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa., 
19120.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11590, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 
FR 10839, May 31, 1972; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27153, 27154, June 22, 1978; 
CGD 82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34536, Sept. 7, 
1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, 
Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.060-2  Type and model.

    Each buoyant vest specified in this subpart is a:
    (a) Standard:
    (1) Model AY, adult (for persons weighing over 90 pounds); or
    (2) Model CYM, child, medium (for children weighing from 50 to 90 
pounds); or
    (3) Model CYS, child, small (for children weighing less than 50 
pounds); or
    (b) Nonstandard:
    (1) Model, 1 adult (for persons weighing over 90 pounds);
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

     1 A model designation for a nonstandard vest is to be 
assigned by the individual manufactured and must be different from any 
standard vest.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (2) Model, 1 child, medium (for persons weighing from 50 
to 90 pounds) or
    (3) Model, 1 child, small (for persons weighing less than 
50 pounds).

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8122, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.060-3  Materials--standard vests.

    (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant 
vests must meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of this 
chapter. The requirements for materials specified in this section are 
minimum requirements, and consideration will be given to the use of 
alternate materials in lieu of those specified. Detailed technical data 
and samples of all proposed alternate materials must be submitted for 
approval before those materials are incorporated in the finished 
product.
    (b) Unicellular polyethylene foam. The unicellular polyethylene foam 
shall be all new material complying with specification subpart 164.013 
of this subchapter.
    (c) Envelope. The buoyant vest envelope, or cover, shall be made 
from 39", 2.85 cotton jeans cloth, with a thread count of approximately 
96  x  64. The finished goods shall weigh not less than

[[Page 161]]

4.2 ounces per square yard, shall have thread count of not less than 94 
x  60, and shall have a breaking strength of not less than 85 pounds in 
the warp and 50 pounds in the filling. Other cotton fabrics having a 
weight and breaking strength not less than the above will be acceptable. 
There are no restrictions as to color, but the fastness of the color to 
laundering, water, crocking, and light shall be rated ``good'' when 
tested in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 191, Methods 
5610, 5630, 5650, and 5660.
    (d) Tie tapes and body strap loops. The tie tapes and body strap 
loops for both adult and child sizes must be \3/4\-inch cotton webbing 
meeting the requirements of military specification MIL-T-43566 (Class I) 
for Type I webbing.
    (d-1) Body straps. The complete body strap assembly including 
hardware, must have a minimum breaking strength of 150 pounds for an 
adult size and 115 pounds for a child size. The specifications for the 
webbing are as follows:
    (1) For an adult size vest, the webbing must be 1 inch.
    (2) For a child size vest, the webbing must be three-quarter inch 
and meet military specification MIL-W-530 for Type IIa webbing.
    (e) [Reserved]
    (f) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11590, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 
FR 10839, May 31, 1972; CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8122, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 73-
130R, 39 FR 20684, June 13, 1974; CGD 78-012, 43 FR 27154, June 22, 
1978; CGD 82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34536, 
Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 84-068, 58 FR 29494, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.060-3a  Materials--Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    (a) Specifications. Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other 
instruments of closure for buoyant vests may have decorative platings in 
any thickness and must meet the following specifications:
    (1) The device must be constructed of inherently corrosion resistant 
materials. As used in this section the term inherently corrosion 
resistant materials includes, but is not limited to, brass, bronze, and 
stainless steel.
    (2) The size of the opening of the device must be consistent with 
the webbing which will pass through the opening.
    (b) Testing requirements. Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and 
other instruments of closure for buoyant vests must--
    (1) Be tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which 
one or more of the following tests will be used:
    (i) Application of a 20 percent sodium-chloride solution spray at a 
temperature of 95  deg.F (35  deg.C) for a period of 240 hours in 
accordance with the procedures contained in method 811 of the Federal 
Test Method Standard No. 151.
    (ii) Exposure to a carbon-arc weatherometer for a period of 100 
hours.
    (iii) Submergence for a period of 100 hours in each of the 
following:
    (a) Leaded gasoline.
    (b) Gum turpentine.
    (iv) Exposure to a temperature of 0 deg.plus-minus5 
deg.F (17.6plus-minus2.775  deg.C) for 24 hours; and
    (2) Within 5 minutes of completion of the weathering test required 
by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the assembly must be attached to a 
support and bear 150 pounds for an adult size and 115 pounds for a child 
size for 10 minutes at ambient temperatures without breaking or 
distorting.

[CGD 73-130R, 39 FR 20684, June 13, 1974]



Sec. 160.060-4  Materials--nonstandard vests.

    (a) General. All materials used in nonstandard buoyant vests must be 
equivalent to those specified in Sec. 160.060-3 and be obtained from a 
supplier who furnishes an affidavit in accordance with the requirements 
in Sec. 160.060-3(a).
    (b) Reinforcing tape. When used, the reinforcing tape around the 
neck shall be \3/4\" cotton tape weighing not less than 0.18 ounce per 
linear yard having a minimum breaking strength of not less than 120 
pounds.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11590, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 
FR 8122, Mar. 28, 1973]

[[Page 162]]



Sec. 160.060-5  Construction--standard vests.

    (a) General. This specification covers buoyant vests which 
essentially consist of a fabric envelope in which are enclosed inserts 
of buoyant material arranged and distributed so as to provide the 
flotation characteristics and buoyancy required to hold the wearer in an 
upright or slightly backward position with head and face out of water. 
The buoyant vests are also fitted with straps and hardware to provide 
for proper adjustment and close and comfortable fit to the bodies of 
various size wearers.
    (b) Envelope. The envelope or cover shall be made of three pieces. 
Two pieces of fabric shall be cut to the pattern shown on Dwg. No. 
160.060-1, Sheet 1 for the adult size, and Sheets 2 and 3 for child 
sizes, and joined together with a third piece which forms a 2\1/4\" 
finished gusset strip all around. Reinforcing strips of the same 
material as the envelope shall be stitched to the inside of the front 
piece of the envelope in way of the strap attachments as shown by the 
drawings.
    (c) Buoyant inserts. The unicellular plastic foam buoyant inserts 
shall be cut and formed as shown on Dwg. No. 160.060-1, Sheets 4, 5, and 
6 for the adult, child medium, and child small sizes, respectively.
    (d) Tie tapes, body straps, and hardware. The tie tapes, body 
straps, and hardware shall be arranged as shown on the drawings and 
attached to the envelope with the seams and stitching indicated.
    (e) Stitching. All stitching shall be short lock stitch conforming 
to Stitch Type 301 of Federal Standard No. 751, and there shall be not 
less than 7 nor more than 9 stitches to the inch.
    (f) Workmanship. Buoyant vests shall be of first-class workmanship 
and shall be free from any defects materially affecting their appearance 
or serviceability.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11590, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 
FR 8122, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.060-6  Construction--nonstandard vests.

    (a) General. The construction methods used for a nonstandard buoyant 
vest must be equivalent to the requirements in Sec. 160.060-5 for 
standard vests and also meet the requirements specified in this section.
    (b) Sizes. Each nonstandard vest must contain the following volume 
of unicellular polyethylene foam buoyant material, determined by the 
displacement method:
    (1) Five hundred cubic inches or more for the adult size, for 
persons weighing over 90 pounds.
    (2) Three hundred and fifty cubic inches or more for a child medium 
size, for children weighing from 50 to 90 pounds.
    (3) Two hundred and twenty-five cubic inches or more for children 
weighing less than 50 pounds.
    (c) Arrangement of buoyant material. The buoyant material in a 
nonstandard vest must:
    (1) Be arranged to hold the wearer in an upright or backward 
position with head and face out of water;
    (2) Have no tendency to turn the wearer face downward in the water; 
and
    (3) Be arranged so that 70 to 75 percent of the total is located in 
the front of the vest.
    (d) Neck opening. Each cloth covered nonstandard vest must have at 
the neck opening:
    (1) A gusset; or
    (2) Reinforcing tape.
    (e) Adjustment, fit, and donning. Each nonstandard vest must be made 
with adjustments to:
    (1) Fit a range of wearers for the type designed; and
    (2) Facilitate donning time for an uninitiated person.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8122, Mar. 28, 1973]



Sec. 160.060-7  Inspections and tests--standard and nonstandard vests.1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1 The manufacturer of a personal flotation device must meet 33 
CFR 181.701 through 33 CFR 181.705 which require an instruction pamphlet 
for each device that is sold or offered for sale for use on recreational 
boats.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (a) General. Manufacturers of listed and labeled buoyant vests 
shall--
    (1) Maintain quality control of the materials used, the 
manufacturing methods, and the finished product to meet the applicable 
requirements of

[[Page 163]]

this subpart by conducting sufficient inspections and tests of 
representative samples and components produced;
    (2) Make available to the recognized laboratory inspector and the 
Coast Guard inspector, upon request, records of tests conducted by the 
manufacturer and records of materials used during production of the 
device, including affidavits by suppliers; and
    (3) Permit any examination, inspection and test required by the 
recognized laboratory or the Coast Guard for a produced listed and 
labeled device, either at the place of manufacture or some other 
location.
    (b) Lot size and sampling. (1) A lot shall consist of 500 buoyant 
vests or fewer;
    (2) A new lot begins after any change or modification in materials 
used or manufacturing methods employed;
    (3) The manufacturer of the buoyant vests shall notify the 
recognized laboratory when a lot is ready for inspection;
    (4) The manufacturer shall select samples in accordance with the 
requirements in Table 160.060-7(b)(4) from each lot of buoyant vests to 
be tested for buoyancy in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.

            Table 160.060-7(b)(4)--Sample for Buoyancy Tests
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Number of
                           Lot size                             vests in
                                                                 sample
------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 and under................................................          1
101 to 200...................................................          2
201 to 300...................................................          3
301 to 500...................................................          4
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (5) If a sample vest fails the buoyancy test, the sample from the 
next succeeding lot must consist of 10 specimen vests or more to be 
tested for buoyancy in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.
    (c) Additional compliance tests. An inspector from the recognized 
laboratory or Coast Guard may conduct an examination, test and 
inspection of a buoyant device that is obtained from the manufacturer or 
through commercial channels to determine the suitability of the device 
for listing and labeling, or to determine its conformance to applicable 
requirements.
    (d) Test facilities. The manufacturer shall admit the laboratory 
inspector and the Coast Guard inspector to any part of the premises at 
the place of manufacture of a listed and labeled device to--
    (1) Examine, inspect, or test a sample of a part or a material that 
is included in the construction of the device; and
    (2) Conduct any examination, inspection, or test in a suitable place 
and with appropriate apparatus provided by the manufacturer.
    (e) Buoyancy--(1) Buoyancy test method. Remove the buoyant inserts 
from the vests. Securely attach the spring scale in a position directly 
over the test tank. Suspend the weighted wire basket from the scale in 
such a manner that the basket can be weighed while it is completely 
under water. In order to measure the actual buoyancy provided by the 
inserts, the underwater weight of the empty basket should exceed the 
buoyancy of the inserts. To obtain the buoyancy of the inserts, proceed 
as follows:
    (i) Weigh the empty wire basket under water.
    (ii) Place the inserts inside the basket and submerge it so that the 
top of the basket is at least 2 inches below the surface of the water. 
Allow the inserts to remain submerged for 24 hours. The tank shall be 
locked or sealed during this 24-hour submergence period. It is important 
that after the inserts have once been submerged they shall remain 
submerged for the duration of the test, and at no time during the course 
of the test shall they be removed from the tank or otherwise exposed to 
air.
    (iii) After the 24-hour submergence period, unlock or unseal the 
tank and weigh the wire basket with the inserts inside while both are 
still under water.
    (iv) The buoyancy is computed as paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section 
minus paragraph (e)(1)(iii) of this section.
    (2) Buoyancy required. The buoyant inserts from adult size buoyant 
vests shall provide not less than 15\1/2\ pounds of buoyancy in fresh 
water; the inserts from the child medium size buoyant vests shall 
provide not less than 11 pounds buoyancy; and the inserts from the child 
small size buoyant vests shall provide not less than 7 pounds buoyancy.

[[Page 164]]

    (f) Body strap test. The complete body strap assembly, including 
hardware shall be tested for strength by attaching the dee ring to a 
suitable support such that the assembly hangs vertically its full 
length. A weight as specified in Sec. 160.060-3(d) shall be attached to 
the other end on the snap hook for 10 minutes. The specified weight 
shall not break or excessively distort the body strap assembly.
    (g) Additional approval tests for nonstandard vests. Tests in 
addition to those required by this section may be conducted by the 
inspector for a nonstandard vest to determine performance equivalence to 
a standard vest. Such additional tests may include determining 
performance in water, suitability of materials, donning time, ease of 
adjustment, and similar equivalency tests. Costs for any additional 
tests must be assumed by the manufacturer.

[CGFR 65-37, 30 FR 11590, Sept. 10, 1965, as amended by CGD 72-90R, 37 
FR 10839, May 31, 1972; CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8122, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 75-
008, 43 FR 9772, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.060-8  Marking.

    (a) Each buoyant vest must have the following information clearly 
marked in waterproof lettering:

Type II Personal Flotation Device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
Polyethylene foam buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant force of 
(15\1/2\ lb., 11 lb., or 7 lb.).
Dry out thoroughly when wet.
Approved for use on all recreational boats and on uninspected commercial 
vessels less than 40 feet in length not carrying passengers for hire by 
persons weighing (more than 90 lb., 50 to 90 lb., or less than 50 lb.).
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.060/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor).
(Lot No.).

    (b) Waterproof marking. Marking of buoyant vests shall be 
sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it 
will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without printed matter 
becoming illegible.

[CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 8122, Mar. 28, 1973, as amended by CGD 75-008, 43 FR 
9771, Mar. 9, 1978]



Sec. 160.060-9  Recognized laboratory.

    (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under 
this subpart shall follow the approval procedures of subpart 159.005 of 
this chapter, and shall apply for approval directly to a recognized 
independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under 
Sec. 159.010-7 of this part, to perform testing and approval functions 
under this subpart:

Underwriters Laboratories, 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. Box 13995, Research 
Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919) 549-1400.

    (b) Production oversight must be performed by the same laboratory 
that performs the approval tests unless, as determined by the 
Commandant, the employees of the laboratory performing production 
oversight receive training and support equal to that of the laboratory 
that performed the approval testing.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13930, Mar. 28, 1996]



  Subpart 160.061--Fishing Tackle Kits, Emergency, for Merchant Vessels

    Source: CGFR 65-9, 30 FR 11483, Sept. 8, 1965, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.061-1  Applicable specifications.

    (a) The following specifications, of the issue in effect on the date 
emergency fishing tackle kits are manufactured, form a part of this 
subpart:
    (1) Federal specifications:

QQ-I-706--Iron and steel; sheet, tinned (tin plate).
QQ-W-423--Wire, steel, corrosion-resisting
HH-P-91--Packing, fiber, hard sheet.
CCC-F-451--Flannel, canton.

    (2) Military specifications:

MIL-H-2846--Hooks, fish, steel.
MIL-B-1418--Blades, razor, safety.
MIL-A-140--Adhesive, water-resistant, W.P. barrier-material.

    (b) Copies of the specifications referred to in this section shall 
be kept on file by the manufacturer, together with the approved plans, 
if any, and the certificate of approval.
    (1) The Federal Specifications may be purchased from the Business 
Service Center, General Services Administration, Washington, DC 20407.

[[Page 165]]

    (2) The Military Specifications may be obtained from the Commanding 
Officer, Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 19120.



Sec. 160.061-2  Requirements.

    (a) Material. Material shall be as specified in this subpart.
    (b) Assembly. Emergency fishing kits shall consist of fishing rigs, 
accessories, and instructions furnished in a hermetically sealed 
container.
    (c) Components. Each fishing kit shall consist of the items listed 
in table 160.06-2(c).

                    Table 160.061-2(c)--Fishing Kits
------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Item No.                    Description \1\       Quantity
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1..................................  Booklet, Fishing              1 ea.
                                      Instructions (Refer to
                                      Sec.  160.061-3(i)).
2..................................  Container, Fishing Kit        1 ea.
                                      (See Fig. 2).
3..................................  Hooks, treble, size 1,        2 ea.
                                      short shank.
4..................................  Hooks, size 7/0, 5/0, 1/      2 ea.
                                      0, 2, 6, 8,
                                      O'Shaugnessy, straight
                                      shank, double strength.
5..................................  Leader, wire, 0.011-inch      2 ea.
                                      diameter, 27-pound test
                                      (with No. 3 snap on one
                                      end and No. 7 swivel on
                                      the other end) 6-inch
                                      length.
6..................................  Leader, wire, 0.016-inch      2 ea.
                                      diameter, 58-pound test
                                      (with No. 3 snap on one
                                      end and No. 4 swivel on
                                      the other end) 12-inch
                                      length.
7..................................  Leader, monofilament,         4 ea.
                                      0.021-inch diameter, 15-
                                      pound test, 4-foot
                                      length.
8..................................  Line, monofilament, 18-       1 ea.
                                      pound test, 100-foot
                                      length.
9..................................  Line, nylon or dacron,        1 ea.
                                      braided, 63-pound test,
                                      150 feet length.
10.................................  Pad, canton flannel, 2\3/     1 ea.
                                      4\ inches square,
                                      specification CCC-F-451,
                                      color, bright yellow.
11.................................  Pad, canton flannel, 2\3/     1 ea.
                                      4\ inches square,
                                      specification CCC-F-451,
                                      color, bright red.
12.................................  Lure, spoon, removable        1 ea.
                                      No. 6 hook, yellow
                                      feathers, blade length
                                      1\3/32\ inches, width
                                      \15/32\ inch, weight \1/
                                      20\ ounce, polished
                                      copper finish.
13.................................  Lure, spoon, removable        1 ea.
                                      No. 5/0 hook, yellow
                                      feathers, blade length 3
                                      inches, width \7/8\
                                      inch, weight \2/5\
                                      ounce, polished chrome
                                      finish.
14.................................  Lure, spoon, free             1 ea.
                                      swinging No. 1 treble
                                      double strength, short
                                      shank, blade length 2\3/
                                      16\ inches, width \13/
                                      16\ inch, weight \1/4\
                                      ounce, stainless steel
                                      or chrome plated brass.
15.................................  Sinkers, pinch on or          1 ea.
                                      equal, \1/4\ ounce, \5/
                                      16\ ounce, 1 ounce.
16.................................  Foil, shiny, 4 inches         1 ea.
                                      square.
17.................................  Squid, tinned body,           1 ea.
                                      length 2 inches, weight
                                      \1/2\ ounce.
18.................................  Jig, painted lead head,       1 ea.
                                      bucktail feathered with
                                      1/0 hook.
19.................................  Jig, painted lead head,       1 ea.
                                      bucktail feathered with
                                      3/0 hook.
20.................................  Blades, razor, safety,        1 ea.
                                      single edge.
21.................................  Bait, pork rind, 4 inches     4 ea.
                                      long, \1/2\ inch wide,
                                      with ends tapered to \1/
                                      8\ inch wide and rounded.
22.................................  Snap and swivels, No. 3..     6 ea.
23.................................  Card, leader knots and        1 ea.
                                      hitches (fig. 1).
24.................................  Winder (see Sec.  160.061-    2 ea.
                                      3(h)).
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ The tolerances of these items shall be plus or minus \1/32\-inch on
  all dimensions.



Sec. 160.061-3  Design and construction.

    (a) Container. The container shall be made of ethyl cellulose, 
clear, type EM--1, Specification MIL-P-3412 or better. The dimensions 
shall not exceed those specified in Figure 2. Other packaging 
arrangements acceptable to the Commandant will be considered.
    (b) Card. A card showing leader knots and hitches shall be provided 
as per Figure 1. Size of card should not exceed 2\3/4\ by 4\3/4\ inches.
    (c) Hooks. Unless otherwise specified, all hooks shall be of forged 
steel, hollow ground with filed out points. The hooks shall be of ringed 
type and shall be tinned. Hooks shall be tempered, tough, flexible, and 
resilient.
    (d) Leaders. Wire leaders shall be of stainless steel, and shall be 
attached to snaps and swivels with not less than six turns of wire. 
Monofilament leaders shall be blue mist and shall be provided with a \5/
8\-inch inside diameter end loop on one end.

[[Page 166]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.013

    (e) Snaps and swivels. Swivels shall be either of brass or bronze. 
Snaps shall be stainless steel.
    (f) Lines. Unless otherwise specified nylon lines shall be hard 
braided, waterproofed, and heat set to reduce ``stretch''. Lines may be 
either camouflage or mist in color.
    (g) Spoons. Spoons shall be of the single-blade, egg-shaped dished 
type with either fixed or free-swinging hooks. The spoons shall be 
stainless steel or stamped from brass and plated to resist corrosion. 
Each spoon shall, on the forward end, be provided with an eye for 
attachment to the line. Spoons having free-swinging hooks shall have the 
hooks attached by means of a split ring through a hole in the rear of 
the blade. In fixed-hook spoons, the hook shall be attached to the spoon 
by a screw and shall be shaped to conform to the contour of the spoon. 
Feathers, if provided, shall be yellow hackle feathers attached to the 
hook by wrapping with thread, and the wrapping coated with red lacquer.

[[Page 167]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.014

                                Figure 2
    (h) Winder. Winders shall conform to Figure 3, or shall be of an 
equivalent commercial design suitable to contain required length of 
line.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.015

    Figure 3--Winder. Material: Packing; fiber, hard sheet, 
Specification HH-P-91; dimensions in inches: Unless otherwise specified; 
tolerances: Fractions plus or minus \1/32\-inch.
    (i) Booklet of instructions. The fishing instructions shall be 
prepared in pamphlet form, approximately 2\1/2\ inches by 4\1/2\ inches 
on parchment paper, in waterproof ink, with printing on one side of the 
paper only. The booklet shall contain a complete description of how and 
under what conditions each component should be used, and general 
suggestions for fishing. It shall be prepared in easy to read form in 
such a manner that a completely inexperienced person will know what 
equipment to use and how to use it. Both physical form and the contents 
of the booklet shall be specially approved by the Commandant, U.S. Coast 
Guard, prior to acceptance. A copy of approved contents for the 
instruction booklet will be furnished on request.



Sec. 160.061-4  Kit assembly.

    (a) Preparation of items. The items shall be prepared for packing 
into the kit as indicated below. Each transparent envelope shall be 
closed by heat sealing.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                Item No.                     Preparation for assembly
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 23,    None.
 24.
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 21, 22...........  Insert in a transparent
                                           envelope.
8 and 9.................................  Gather into a hank 4\1/2\
                                           inches long and restrain with
                                           tape.

[[Page 168]]

 
20......................................  Wrap in paper envelope.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (b) Packing of items. The components of the kit, after being 
prepared as specified, shall be packed in the container in such manner 
that there is a minimum possibility of any item being bent or crushed. 
The marking label shall be placed on the bottom of the container with 
the wording facing out. The instruction booklet shall be packed, front 
cover up, under the lid. The container shall be sealed after the 
components have been packaged therein with an 18-inch length of \3/4\-
inch wide adhesive tape conforming to Specification JAN-P-127. The tape 
shall be applied around the perimeter of the container with an equal 
amount on each side of the juncture of the two sections of the 
container. An alternate packaging arrangement acceptable to the 
Commandant will be acceptable.



Sec. 160.061-5  Marking.

    (a) General. The containers shall be stenciled on the bottom in 
black with the manufacturer's name or trademark and type or model number 
in letters approximately \3/16\ inch high, together with the following 
legend in letters \3/16\ inch high:

                        UNITED STATES COAST GUARD

                         APPROVAL NO. 160.061/--

                      EMERGENCY FISHING TACKLE KIT

                                OPEN ONLY

                        FOR ACTUAL EMERGENCY USE

                           NOT FOR INSPECTION

    (b) [Reserved]



  Subpart 160.062--Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual

    Source: CGFR 68-32, 33 FR 5721, Apr. 12, 1968, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.062-1  Applicable specifications, and referenced material.

    (a) Specifications and standards. The following specifications of 
the issue in effect on the date releases are manufactured or 
reconditioned shall form a part of the regulations of this subpart (see 
Secs. 2.75-17 through 2.75-19 of subchapter A (Procedures Applicable to 
the Public) of this chapter):
    (1) Military Specifications and Standards:

MIL-R-15041C--Releases, lifesaving equipment, hydraulic and manual.
MIL-STD-105--Sample procedures and tables for inspection by attributes.

    (2) Federal Test Method Standards:

Standard No. 151--Metals, test methods.

    (b) Technical references. For guidance purposes the technical 
reference may be used, which is entitled ``Corrosion Handbook,'' 1948, 
by H. H. Uhlig, and published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third 
Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016, and priced at $21 per copy.
    (c) Copies on file. A copy of the specifications and standards 
listed in paragraph (a) of this section shall be kept on file by the 
manufacturer, together with the approved plans, specifications and 
certificate of approval. It is the manufacturer's responsibility to have 
the latest issue, including addenda and changes, of these specifications 
and standards on hand when manufacturing or reconditioning equipment 
under this specification subpart.
    (1) The military specifications and standards may be obtained from 
the Commanding Officer, Naval Supply Depot, 5801 Tabor Avenue, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19120.
    (2) The Federal standards may be obtained from the Business Service 
Center, General Services Administration, Washington, DC 20407.



Sec. 160.062-2  Types.

    (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under Sec. 160.062-1(a)(1) 
are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load 
under hydrostatic pressure.
    (b) All hydraulic releases given an approval under this subpart 
shall be designed and tested to operate with spring-tensioned gripes. 
Such gripes shall be considered as a part of each approval.
    (c) Alternate designs will be given special consideration, but the 
expense of their preliminary investigation at a

[[Page 169]]

laboratory accepted by the Commandant shall be borne by the 
manufacturer.

[CGFR 68-32, 33 FR 5721, Apr. 12, 1968, as amended by CGD 73-153R, 40 FR 
4422, Jan. 30, 1975]



Sec. 160.062-3  Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    (a) General. The materials, construction, workmanship, and 
performance requirements shall conform to the requirements of the 
specifications listed in Sec. 160.062-1(a)(1) except as otherwise 
provided by this subpart. In addition, all metals and materials used in 
a hydraulic release must be compatible with each other so that the final 
assembly under conditions of use is not subject to such deleterious 
effects as galvanic corrosion, freezing, or buckling of moving parts, or 
loosening and tightening of joints due to differences in coefficients of 
thermal expansion. Galvanizing or other forms of metallic coating on the 
parts of a hydraulic release are not acceptable. The criteria for 
accepting any combination of materials shall be determined by testing or 
by the data stated in Sec. 160.062-1(b).
    (b) Buoyant load capacity. A hydraulic release working in 
conjunction with its spring-tensioned gripe must demonstrate that it can 
release buoyant loads between the limits of 200 pounds and 3,750 pounds 
and within the range of depths specified by paragraph (c) of this 
section.
    (c) Release depth. A hydraulic release shall automatically release 
the buoyant loads described in paragraph (b) of this section at depths 
between 5 feet to 15 feet prior to being tested for either the 
temperature or the corrosion resistance tests of 160.062-4(c)(2). After 
exposure to these temperature and corrosion tests, a hydraulic release 
shall release the buoyant loads of paragraph (b) of this section between 
the depths of 5 feet to 25 feet.



Sec. 160.062-4  Inspections and tests.

    (a) General. Marine inspectors shall be assigned to make factory 
inspections of hydraulic releases, as described in paragraph (d) of this 
section for sampling and testing. In addition, the Commander of the 
Coast Guard District may detail a marine inspector at any time to visit 
any place where approved hydraulic releases are manufactured or 
reconditioned to observe production methods and to conduct any 
inspections or tests which may be deemed advisable. The marine inspector 
shall be admitted to any place in the factory or place where work is 
done on hydraulic releases or their components. In addition, the marine 
inspector may take samples of assembled hydraulic releases or parts or 
materials used in their construction for further examination, 
inspection, or tests. The manufacturer shall provide a suitable place 
and the apparatus necessary for the performance of the tests which are 
conducted at the place of manufacture by the marine inspector.
    (b) Classification of tests. The sampling, inspections, and tests 
conducted upon hydraulic releases shall fall within one of the following 
general classifications, as described hereafter:
    (1) Preapproval tests.
    (2) Factory inspections and tests.
    (3) Spot check tests.
    (4) Periodic servicing tests.
    (c) Preapproval testing. The ``Visual and dimensional examination'' 
referred to in Table 160.062-4(c) shall be conducted by a marine 
inspector at the factory. The ``Physical and operational tests'' of that 
table shall be conducted at a laboratory accepted by the Commandant.

                Table 160.062-4(c)--Preapproval Tests \1\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of
specimens           Name of tests                    Reference
------------------------------------------------------------------------
      4    Visual and dimensional          Para. 4.2.1, 4.2.2, and 4.3
            examination.                    of MIL-R-15041C.
      4    Physical and operational tests  Para. 4.2.1, 4.2.3, and 4.4
                                            of MIL-R-15041C.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ These tests are called ``Lot acceptance tests,'' in Military
  Specification MIL-R-15041C.

    (1) Visual and dimensional examination. The marine inspector shall 
examine the 4 hydraulic release samples of the preapproval sample for 
their visual and dimensional characteristics. If all 4 of the devices 
are in agreement with the manufacturer's plans previously reviewed by 
the Commandant, the 4 devices will be accepted and are to be assembled 
for further testing under the

[[Page 170]]

``Physical and operational tests'' of paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
    (2) Physical and operational tests. Each hydraulic release selected 
under Table 160.062-4(c) for the ``Physical and operational tests'' 
shall undergo each of the tests described in this paragraph without 
renewal of parts or repairs between the tests. The tests shall be 
conducted in the following sequence:
    (i) Submergence test. A hydraulic release shall be tested by 
applying buoyant loads of its designed capacity to its spring-tensioned 
gripe as required under Sec. 160.062-3(b) while the device is submerged 
in water or in a water-filled pressure testing tank. A hydraulic release 
shall show by its submergence test that it meets the buoyant capacity 
and release depth requirements of Sec. 160.062-3 (b) and (c) by 
automatically tripping and releasing its load.
    (ii) Temperature test. After its submergence test, a hydraulic 
release sample shall be placed in a cold box at minus 30 degrees F. for 
4 hours. Upon completion of this conditioning, the sample device shall 
be opened for inspection and shall show no significant change in the 
position of the hydraulic or manual control as a result of the low 
temperature exposure.
    (iii) Corrosion resisting test. After the completion of its 
temperature test, a hydraulic release sample shall be exposed to a 20 
percent salt spray test for 160 continuous hours in accordance with 
Federal Test Method Standard No. 151. At the conclusion of this test, 
the sample device shall be entirely serviceable and shall show a minimal 
amount of corrosion.
    (iv) Second temperature test. After its corrosion resisting test, a 
hydraulic release sample shall undergo a repeat of the temperature test, 
subdivision (ii) of this paragraph.
    (v) Second submergence test. The final test of a hydraulic release 
sample shall be a repeat of the submergence test, paragraph (c)(2)(i) of 
this section.
    (d) Factory inspections and tests. For purposes of sampling, a lot 
shall consist of not more than 500 hydraulic releases of the same model. 
Manufacturers of approved hydraulic releases shall maintain quality 
control of the materials used, manufacturing methods, workmanship, and 
the finished product as to produce hydraulic releases in conformity with 
the approvals previously issued by the Commandant.
    (1) Visual and dimensional examination. A random sample of hydraulic 
releases shall be selected by a marine inspector at the factory in 
accordance with Table 160.062-4(d)(1) from each assembled lot. After the 
samples have been selected, they will undergo an examination of visual 
and dimensional characteristics by referring to their approved drawings 
with their acceptance based on Table 160.062-4(d)(1) and MIL-STD-105, 
and checking for compliance with specific details as described therein.

 Table 160.062-4(d)(1)--Sampling for Visual and Dimensional Examination
                                   \1\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Rejection
     Number of release devices in       Number of release      number
            inspection lot              devices in sample   (defectives)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
15 and under.........................  All................  ............
16 to 25.............................  15.................            1
26 to 40.............................  25.................            1
41 to 110............................  35.................            2
111 to 180...........................  50.................            2
181 to 300...........................  75.................            3
301 to 500...........................  110................            2
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ This table is derived from Table I of Paragraph 4.2.2 of Military
  Specification MIL-R-15041C.

    (2) Physical and operational tests. If the sampling and examination 
of paragraph (d)(1) of this section are satisfactory, the marine 
inspector shall select an additional random sample of hydraulic releases 
from the same assembled lot as described above. This second group of 
samples, of a number determined by Table 160.062-4(d)(2), shall be 
forwarded for testing at the manufacturer's expense to a laboratory 
accepted by the Commandant. Each hydraulic release shall undergo each of 
the tests described in this paragraph without renewal of parts or 
repairs between tests. The tests shall be conducted in the following 
sequence:
    (i) Submergence test. Same test as described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) 
of this section.
    (ii) Temperature test. Same test as described in paragraph 
(c)(2)(ii) of this section.
    (iii) Corrosion resisting test. Same test as described in paragraph 
(c)(2)(iii) of this section.

[[Page 171]]

    (iv) Second temperature test. Same test as described in paragraph 
(c)(2)(iv) of this section.
    (v) Second submergence test. Same test as described in paragraph 
(c)(2)(v) of this section.

 Table 160.062-4(d)(2)--Sampling for Physical and Operational Tests \1\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Rejection
                                                                number
     Number of release devices in          Number release      (failures
            inspection lot                devices in sample     in the
                                                                tests)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
15 and under..........................  4...................           1
16 to 25..............................  5...................           1
26 to 40..............................  7...................           1
41 to 110.............................  10..................           1
111 to 180............................  12..................           1
181 to 300............................  16..................           1
301 to 500............................  20..................           1
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ This table is derived from Table II of Paragraph 4.2.3 of Military
  Specification MIL-R-15041C.

    (3) Lot acceptance at a factory. The submergence test of paragraph 
(c)(2)(i) shall be performed on each of the remaining hydraulic releases 
in a production lot after the selection of the lot samples required by 
paragraph (d)(2) of this section. Such individual submergence tests may 
be performed at the factory in a pressure tank apparatus which simulates 
the hydrostatic pressure and the various tension loads on the hydraulic 
release. Those hydraulic releases which do not pass this submergence 
test shall be removed from the production lot as unacceptable, but may 
be reworked and included in a subsequent lot. After the completion of 
these individual submergence tests and after receipt of the laboratory's 
test report showing that the tests on the lot samples were 
satisfactorily met, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which 
the factory is located shall have the manufacturer notified that this 
production lot of hydraulic releases meets the requirements of this 
specification subpart. After being marked as required by Sec. 160.062-5, 
the manufacturer may sell such hydraulic releases as approved equipment.
    (i) Hydraulic releases which have been rejected may not, unless 
subsequently accepted, be sold or offered for sale under representation 
as being in compliance with this specification or as being approved for 
use on vessels subject to inspection under this chapter.
    (4) Records and test reports. The manufacturer shall maintain 
records and copies of test reports for each production lot of hydraulic 
releases manufactured for a period of five (5) years from the date 
notified that a production lot meets the requirements in this subpart. 
These records and test reports, upon request, shall be made available to 
the marine inspector. The manufacturer will be provided with a copy of 
the laboratory's test report concerning each production lot of hydraulic 
releases submitted for testing.
    (e) Spot checks. As one of the conditions in granting an approval 
for a hydraulic release under this subpart, the Coast Guard reserves the 
right to spot check at any time and at any place the product, parts, and 
complete assemblies of hydraulic releases covered by the approval. The 
spot check shall be by a marine inspector who shall be admitted to the 
place or places where work may be performed before, during, or after the 
manufacture of hydraulic releases or at any place where hydraulic 
releases may be assembled, reworked, repaired, or reconditioned by the 
manufacturer of any repair facility accepted by the Commandant in 
accordance with the procedure contained in Sec. 160.062-7. A spot check 
includes having a marine inspector compare materials, parts, and 
workmanship and/or complete hydraulic releases with the manufacturer's 
approved plans, records and test reports to ascertain compliance with 
these requirements. The marine inspector may select samples of materials 
or parts used in the construction of hydraulic releases and complete 
hydraulic releases and may order or have performed any or all of the 
tests described in this section conducted on such devices or parts 
thereof. This work and any tests required shall be borne by the 
manufacturer without cost to the Coast Guard.
    (f) Periodic Servicing and Testing. A hydraulic release is inspected 
as follows:
    (1) Inspection for devices not installed after manufacture. A 
hydraulic release, that is not installed after manufacture and is stored 
for period of 24 months or less, is not required to be inspected or 
tested before installation but must be stamped by a marine inspector on 
the

[[Page 172]]

inspection tag required in Sec. 160.062-5(b)(2) with--
    (i) The word ``Installed'';
    (ii) The installation date; and
    (iii) The Marine Inspection Office identification letters.
    (2) Inspection for devices that have been installed. A hydraulic 
release that is installed for a period of 12 months or more must pass 
the test contained in paragraph (f)(3) of this section and be marked as 
required in paragraph (f)(5) of this section. If, after passing the 
test, the device is stored for a period of 24 months or less, it must be 
stamped as required in paragraph (f)(1) of this paragraph by the marine 
inspector before reinstallation.
    (3) Devices stored longer than 24 months. A hydraulic release that 
is stored for a period of more than 24 months must be inspected and 
tested by an employee of a repair or test facility, accepted in 
accordance with the requirement contained in Sec. 160.062-7 or 
Sec. 160.062-8, as follows:
    (i) The device must be manually operated to determine if it 
releases.
    (ii) If the device releases, it must pass the submergence test 
contained in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, at a depth between 5 
feet and 15 feet and be marked as required in paragraph (f)(5) of this 
section.
    (iii) If the device fails to release or fails to pass the 
submergence test required in paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section, the 
device must be disassembled, repaired, and tested in accordance with the 
requirements contained in paragraph (f)(4) of this paragraph.
    (4) Disassembly and repair tests. If a hydraulic release fails the 
test contained in paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section, it must be 
disassembled and repaired by the manufacturer or a repair facility 
accepted in accord with the requirements contained in Sec. 160.062-7 and 
be tested as follows:
    (i) A production lot must be formed consisting of 12 or more but not 
exceeding 100 devices.
    (ii) In the presence of a marine inspector, the device must pass the 
submergence test contained in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section at a 
depth between 5 feet and 15 feet.
    (iii) Any device that fails must be--
    (A) Repaired;
    (B) Placed in a subsequent lot; and
    (C) Submitted to the submergence test contained in paragraph 
(c)(2)(i) of this section at a depth between 5 feet and 15 feet.
    (5) Marking of devices. If a hydraulic release passes the 
submergence test required in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section at a 
depth between 5 feet and 15 feet the marine inspector stamps the 
inspection tag with--
    (i) The test date;
    (ii) The Marine Inspection Office identification letters; and
    (iii) The letters ``USCG''.

[CGFR 68-32, 33 FR 5721, Apr. 12, 1968, as amended by CGD 73-153R, 40 FR 
4422, Jan. 30, 1975; CGD 75-186, 41 FR 10437, Mar. 11, 1976]



Sec. 160.062-5  Markings.

    (a) Hydraulic releases manufactured prior to the granting of a 
certificate of approval to the manufacturer may be permitted in service 
only to July 1, 1969. However, such hydraulic releases meeting the type 
and design requirements covered by a current certificate of approval may 
be repaired and/or reconditioned as provided in Sec. 160.062-4(f) and be 
accepted as approved equipment when it bears the following markings:
    (1) Body marking. The name of the manufacturer and the model 
designation are plainly visible.
    (2) Inspection tag markings. Each hydraulic release repaired or 
reconditioned shall be provided with a 2" by 3\1/2\" stainless steel tag 
of a minimum thickness of 0.032 inches. This tag shall be permanently 
attached to a hydraulic release with a single stainless steel link made 
of wire \3/16\" in diameter. This link shall provide nonrigid attachment 
of the tag to the hydraulic release. The top of the inspection tag shall 
be stamped in block characters not less than \1/16\" in height with the 
manufacturer's name, Coast Guard approval number, the limits of buoyant 
capacity in pounds, the Marine Inspection Office identification letters, 
and the letters ``USCG.'' The remaining space on the tag will be used 
for the stamping of periodic servicing test dates and the marine 
inspector's initials as described in Sec. 160.062-4(f).
    (b) Hydraulic release manufactured under a certificate of approval 
issued

[[Page 173]]

under this subpart shall be provided with 2 sets of markings as follows:
    (1) Body marking. The metal body of a hydraulic release shall be 
stamped in block characters not less than \1/8\" in height on a plainly 
visible portion with the name of the manufacturer, the model 
designation, the limits of buoyant capacity in pounds, the method of 
manual release, the notation ``DO NOT PAINT'', Coast Guard approval 
number, the Marine Inspection Office identification letters, and the 
letters ``USCG''.
    (2) Inspection tag markings. Each hydraulic release shall be 
provided at its time of manufacture with a 2" by 3\1/2\" stainless steel 
tag of a minimum thickness of 0.032 inch. This tag shall be permanently 
attached to a hydraulic release with a single stainless steel link made 
of wire \3/16\" in diameter. This link shall provide nonrigid attachment 
of the tag to the hydraulic release. The top of the inspection tag shall 
be stamped in block characters not less than \1/8\" in height with the 
original lot number of the hydraulic release, its date of manufacture, 
and its release depth range in feet. The remaining space on the tag will 
be used for the stamping of periodic servicing test dates and the Marine 
Inspection Office identification letters as described in Sec. 160.062-
4(f).

[CGFR 68-32, 33 FR 5721, Apr. 12, 1968, as amended by CGD75-186, 41 FR 
10437, Mar. 11, 1976]



Sec. 160.062-6  Procedure for approval.

    General. Hydraulic releases for use on lifesaving equipment for 
merchant vessels are approved only by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. 
In order to be approved, the hydraulic releases must be tested in 
accordance with Sec. 160.062-4(c) by an independent laboratory accepted 
by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR 159.010. The independent laboratory will 
forward the report to the Commandant for examination, and if 
satisfactory an official approval number will be assigned to the 
manufacturer for the model hydraulic release submitted.

[CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51215, Sept. 30, 1997]



Sec. 160.062-7  Procedures for acceptance of repair facility.

    (a) Before a repair facility is accepted by the Commandant to 
perform the services required in Sec. 160.062-4(f), it must be inspected 
by the cognizant Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, to determine if 
it has--
    (1) The testing apparatus to perform all the tests required in 
Sec. 160.062-4;
    (2) A source of supply of replacement parts for a hydraulic release, 
evidenced by a signed agreement between the facility and his source of 
supply, or the parts for it; all replacement parts must be in compliance 
with applicable specifications and standards contained in Sec. 160.062-
1; and
    (3) Employees competent to perform the services required in this 
paragraph. Each employee who is engaged in serving a hydraulic release 
must demonstrate his competence to the Officer in Charge, Marine 
Inspection by--
    (i) Disassembling a hydraulic release;
    (ii) Making all necessary repairs to the disassembled unit;
    (iii) Reassembling the unit in conformance with the specifications 
and standards contained in Sec. 160.062-1(a); and
    (iv) Showing that the reassembled unit meets the buoyant capacity 
and release depth requirements contained in Sec. 160.062-3 (b) and (c) 
after being inspected and tested in conformance with the requirements 
contained in Sec. 160.062-4(f).
    (b) Based on the report of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, 
regarding the inspection required in paragraph (a) of this section, the 
Commandant notifies the facility that--
    (1) It is an accepted repair facility for the reconditioning and 
testing of hydraulic releases; or
    (2) It is not accepted as a repair facility, lists each discrepancy 
noted by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, and describes the 
procedure for reinspection if applicable corrections are made.

[CGD 73-153R, 40 FR 4422, Jan. 30, 1975]

[[Page 174]]



Sec. 160.062-8  Procedures for acceptance of testing facility.

    (a) The Commandant may consider the acceptance of a facility that 
conducts only the submergence test contained in Sec. 160.062-4(c)(2)(i). 
Before a facility is accepted by the Commandant to conduct this test, it 
must be inspected by the cognizant Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, 
to determine if it has--
    (1) The testing apparatus to perform the test required in 
Sec. 160.062-4(c)(2)(i); and
    (2) Employees competent to perform the test required in 
Sec. 160.062-4(c)(2)(i). Each employee who is engaged in testing a 
device must demonstrate his competence to the Officer in Charge, Marine 
Inspection by conducting a submergence test.
    (b) Based on the report of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, 
regarding the inspection required in paragraph (a) of this section, the 
Commandant notifies each applicant, in accordance with the procedures 
described in Sec. 160.062-7(b), whether or not it is an accepted testing 
facility.

[CGD 73-153R, 40 FR 4422, Jan. 30, 1975]



                 Subpart 160.064--Marine Buoyant Devices



Sec. 160.064-1  Applicable specifications.

    (a) Specifications. There are no other Coast Guard specifications 
applicable to this subpart.
    (b) [Reserved]

[CGFR 64-30, 29 FR 7388, June 6, 1964]



Sec. 160.064-2  Types and models.

    (a) Types. Water safety buoyant devices covered by this subpart 
shall be of two general types, viz, those intended to be worn on the 
body and those intended to be thrown.
    (b) Models. Water safety buoyant devices may be of different models 
which incorporate characteristics considered valuable for safety in 
various fields of water sports or boating activities.
    (c) Sizes. Water safety buoyant devices designed to be worn shall be 
of sizes suitable for adults or children, as intended and marked on the 
device. Water safety buoyant devices intended to be thrown in water 
shall be of a minimum size intended for adults.
    (d) Dimensions. A foam cushion designed to be thrown must be 2 
inches or more in thickness and must have 225 or more square inches of 
top surface area.

[CGFR 64-30, 29 FR 7388, June 6, 1964, as amended by CGD 73-246R, 39 FR 
36967, Oct. 16, 1974]



Sec. 160.064-3  Requirements.1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1  The manufacturer of a personal flotation device must meet 
33 CFR 181.701 through 33 CFR 181.705 which require an instruction 
pamphlet for each device that is sold or offered for sale for use on 
recreational boats.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (a) General. Every water safety buoyant device shall conform to the 
requirements as accepted by the Commandant for listing and labeling by a 
recognized laboratory, and shall be of such design, materials, and 
construction as to meet the requirements specified in this section.
    (b) Designs and constructions. Water safety buoyant devices shall be 
of designs suitable for the purposes intended. A design intended to be 
worn on the body shall be capable of being adjusted and secured to fit 
the range of wearers for which designed with as few fastenings or 
adjustments as are consistent with the purpose of the device. Designs 
may be varied, but shall not provide means intended for fastening or 
securing the device to a boat. The arrangement of the buoyancy of 
devices intended to be worn on the body shall provide for flotation of 
the wearer in an upright, slightly backward position in the water to as 
great a degree as is consistent with the special purpose intended, and 
in no case shall the device have a tendency to turn the wearer face 
downward in the water. Devices intended to be thrown shall not provide 
means for adjustment or close fitting to the body. Methods of 
construction shall provide strengths, with reinforcements where 
necessary, to be adequate for the intended use and purpose of the 
device.
    (c) Materials. All materials used in any device covered by this 
subpart must meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of this 
chapter and shall be all new materials and shall be suitable for the 
purpose intended and

[[Page 175]]

shall be at least equivalent to corresponding materials specified for 
standard buoyant vests or buoyant cushions. Hardware or fastenings shall 
be of sufficient strength for the purpose of the device and shall be of 
inherently corrosion-resistant material, such as stainless steel, brass, 
bronze, certain plastics, etc. Decorative platings of any thickness are 
permissible. Fabrics, coated fabrics, tapes, and webbing shall be 
selected with a view to the purposes of the device and shall be either 
mildew resistant or treated for mildew resistance. Buoyancy shall be 
provided by inherently buoyant material and shall not be dependent upon 
loose, granulated material, gas compartments or inflation. So long as 
the minimum required buoyancy is provided by inherently buoyant 
material, the use of supplementary gas compartments, or inflation, will 
be permitted to supply additional buoyancy.
    (d) Buoyancy. (1) Buoyancy for devices to be worn is as follows:
    (i) Devices for persons weighing more than 90 pounds must have 15\1/
2\ pounds or more of buoyancy.
    (ii) Devices for persons weighing 50 to 90 pounds must have 11 
pounds or more of buoyancy.
    (iii) Devices for persons weighing less than 50 pounds must have 7 
pounds or more of buoyancy.
    (2) Buoyancy for devices to be thrown is as follows:
    (i) Ring life buoys must have 16\1/2\ pounds or more of buoyancy.
    (ii) Foam cushions must have 18 pounds or more of buoyancy.
    (iii) A device other than those specified in paragraph (d)(2) (i) or 
(ii) of this section must have 20 pounds or more of buoyancy.
    (3) The buoyancy values required in paragraphs (d) (1) and (2) of 
this section must be as follows:
    (i) For each device containing foam buoyant materials, the required 
buoyancy value must remain after the device has been submerged in fresh 
water for 24 or more continuous hours.
    (ii) For each device containing kapok, the required buoyancy value 
must remain after the device has been submerged in fresh water for 48 or 
more continuous hours.
    (e) Workmanship. Water safety buoyant devices covered by this 
subpart shall be of first class workmanship and shall be free from any 
defects materially affecting their appearance or serviceability.

[CGFR 64-30, 29 FR 7388, June 6, 1964, as amended by CGD 73-246R, 39 FR 
36967, Oct. 16, 1974; CGD 75-008, 43 FR 9772, Mar. 9, 1978; CGD 84-068, 
58 FR 29494, May 20, 1993]



Sec. 160.064-4  Marking.

    (a) Each water safety buoyant device must have the following 
information clearly marked in waterproof lettering:
    (1) For devices to be worn:

(Type II or Type III) Personal Flotation Device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
(Name of buoyant material) buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant 
force of (15\1/2\ lb., 11 lb., or 7 lb.).
(Special purpose intended.).
Approved for use on recreational boats and on uninspected commercial 
vessels less than 40 feet in length not carrying passengers for hire by 
persons weighing (more than 90 lb., 50 to 90 lb., 30 to 50 lb., or less 
than 30 lb.).
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.064/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor).
(Lot No.).

    (2) For devices to be thrown:

Type IV Personal Flotation Device.
Inspected and tested in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
(Name of buoyant material) buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant 
force of (16\1/2\ lb., 18 lb., or 20 lb.).
(Special purpose intended).
Approved for use on recreational boats only as a throwable device.
U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. 160.064/(assigned manufacturer's No.)/
(Revision No.); (Model No.).
(Name and address of manufacturer or distributor).
(Lot No.).

    (b) Durability of marking. Marking shall be of a type which will be 
durable

[[Page 176]]

and legible for the expected life of the device.

[CGFR 64-30, 29 FR 7388, June 6, 1964, as amended by CGD 72-163R, 38 FR 
8122, Mar. 28, 1973; CGD 73-246R, 39 FR 36967, Oct. 16, 1974; CGD 75-
008, 43 FR 9772, Mar. 9, 1978; CGD 92-045, 58 FR 41609, Aug. 4, 1993; 
CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51215, Sept. 30, 1997; USCG-1998-4442, 63 FR 52191, 
Sept. 30, 1998]



Sec. 160.064-6  Examinations, tests and inspections.

    (a) Manufacturer's inspection and tests. Manufacturers of listed and 
labeled water safety buoyant devices shall maintain quality control of 
the materials used, manufacturing methods and the finished product so as 
to meet the applicable requirements, and shall make sufficient 
inspections and tests of representative samples and components produced 
to maintain the quality of the finished product. Records of tests 
conducted by the manufacturer and records of materials, including 
affidavits by suppliers that applicable requirements are met, entering 
into construction shall be made available to the recognized laboratory 
inspector or to the Coast Guard marine inspector, or both, for review 
upon request.
    (b) Laboratory inspections and tests. Such examinations, inspections 
and tests as are required by the recognized laboratory for listed and 
labeled devices produced will be conducted by the laboratory inspector 
at the place of manufacture or other location at the option of the 
laboratory.
    (c) Test facilities. The laboratory inspector, or the Coast Guard 
marine inspector assigned by the Commander of the District in which the 
factory is located, or both, shall be admitted to any place in the 
factory where work is being done on listed and labeled products, and 
either or both inspectors may take samples of parts or materials 
entering into construction or final assemblies, for further 
examinations, inspections, or tests. The manufacturer shall provide a 
suitable place and the apparatus necessary for the performance of the 
tests which are done at the place of manufacture.
    (d) Additional tests, etc. Unannounced examinations, tests, and 
inspections of samples obtained either directly from the manufacturer or 
through commercial channels may be made to determine the suitability of 
a product for listing and labeling, or to determine conformance of a 
labeled product to the applicable requirements. These may be conducted 
by the recognized laboratory or the United States Coast Guard.

[CGFR 64-30, 29 FR 7388, June 6, 1964, as amended by CGD 73-246R, 39 FR 
36967, Oct. 16, 1974]



Sec. 160.064-7  Recognized laboratory.

    (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under 
this subpart shall follow the approval procedures of subpart 159.005 of 
this chapter, and shall apply for approval directly to a recognized 
independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under 
Sec. 159.010-7 of this part, to perform testing and approval functions 
under this subpart:

Underwriters Laboratories, 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. Box 13995, Research 
Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919) 549-1400.

    (b) Production oversight must be performed by the same laboratory 
that performs the approval tests unless, as determined by the 
Commandant, the employees of the laboratory performing production 
oversight receive training and support equal to that of the laboratory 
that performed the approval testing.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13931, Mar. 28, 1996]



Subpart 160.066--Distress Signal for Boats, Red Aerial Pyrotechnic Flare

    Source: CGD 76-183a, 44 FR 73050, Dec. 17, 1979, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.066-1  Type.

    (a) Red aerial pyrotechnic distress signals specified by this 
subpart must be either self-contained or pistol launched, and either 
meteor or parachute assisted type.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.066-5  Design, construction, and manufacturing requirements.

    (a) Each signal must be either:
    (1) A self-contained unit with all necessary components for firing 
the signal, or

[[Page 177]]

    (2) A cartridge intended for firing from a signal pistol that is 
approved under Subpart 160.028 of this chapter.
    (b) Each signal unit must have an interior chamber which contains 
the main propulsion charge and which is constructed so that it is 
capable of withstanding the forces generated by ignition without 
rupture, crack, or deformation of any kind.
    (c) Signals must be constructed in lots numbered serially by the 
manufacturer. A new lot must be started when:
    (1) Any change in construction details occurs;
    (2) Any change in sources of raw materials occurs;
    (3) Production is started on a new production line or on a 
previously discontinued production line; or
    (4) A lot exceeds 30,000 units.



Sec. 160.066-7  Performance requirements.

    (a) Each signal must:
    (1) Burn ``vivid red'' when tested as specified in Sec. 160.021-
4(d)(7) for at least 5.5 seconds.
    (2) Have a peak luminous intensity of at least 10,000 candela.
    (3) Burn a total of not less than 1,000 candleminutes (Cm) using the 
formula
I  x  T = Cm

Where:

I = the luminous intensity measured as in subsection (c);
T = the total burn time of the device in minutes; and
Cm = the candle-minute rating of the device.

    (4) Burn out completely before falling back to the level of launch.
    (5) Function in a manner that would not cause burns or injury to an 
unprotected person firing the signal in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions.
    (6) Not malfunction in a manner that would cause burns or injury to 
an unprotected person firing the signal in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions.
    (b) Each signal must meet the requirements of paragraph (a) after:
    (1) Submersion in water for 24 hours, or
    (2) If protected by a sealed container, submersion in water for 24 
hours inside the sealed container immediately followed by submersion for 
10 minutes without the container, and
    (3) Being exposed to the Elevated Temperature, Humidity, and Storage 
Test in Sec. 160.066-13(b).
    (c) Testing for burn time and luminous intensity pursuant to 
paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2), respectively, shall be conducted in 
conformity with the following requirements and procedures:
    (1) The chart speed of the light measuring equipment shall not be 
slower than 5 seconds per inch;
    (2) The chart sweep of the light measuring equipment shall not be 
slower than .5 seconds for full scale;
    (3) The first and last seconds of the burn shall be eliminated in 
measuring luminous intensity;
    (4) The time during which the candle burns (excluding first and last 
seconds of burn) is to be used to determine the luminous intensity by 
averaging the readings taken during the burning; and
    (5) Burn time is to be measured from first light of the signal to 
dark.



Sec. 160.066-9  Labeling.

    (a) Each signal must be legibly and indelibly marked with the 
following information:
    (1) The manufacturer's name,
    (2) The designed burning time of the pyrotechnic candle(s),
    (3) The specific signal pistol for which the signal is designed, if 
any,
    (4) The lot number,
    (5) The Coast Guard approval number,
    (6) Operation and storage instructions,
    (7) The month and year of expiration determined by Sec. 160.066-10, 
and
    (8) The words:
    ``Aerial Flare. Acceptable as a Day and Night Visual Distress Signal 
for boats as required by 33 CFR 175.110. For Emergency Use Only''.
    (b) If the signal is too small to contain all of the information 
required by paragraph (a) and any labeling which may be required by 
paragraph (d), the information required by paragraphs (a) (2), (6), and 
(8) may be printed on a separate piece of paper packed with each signal 
or with the smallest container in which several signals are packed.
    (c) The largest carton or box in which the manufacturer ships 
signals must be

[[Page 178]]

marked with the following or equivalent words: ``Keep under cover in a 
dry place.''
    (d) Compliance with the labeling requirements of this section does 
not relieve the manufacturer of the responsibility of complying with the 
label requirements of the Federal Hazardous Substances Act, 15 U.S.C. 
1263.



Sec. 160.066-10  Expiration date.

    Each approved signal must have an expiration date marked on it. That 
date must not be more than forty-two months from date of manufacture.



Sec. 160.066-11  Approval procedures.

    (a) Red aerial pyrotechnic flare distress signals are approved under 
the procedures of subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) The manufacturer must produce a lot of at least 100 signals from 
which samples for approval testing must be drawn. Approval testing must 
be conducted in accordance with the operational tests in Sec. 160.066-12 
and the technical tests in Sec. 160.066-13. In order for the signal to 
be approved, the samples must pass both the operational and the 
technical tests.
    (c) The approval tests must be performed by an independent 
laboratory accepted by the Commandant under Subpart 159.010 of this 
chapter.

[CGD 76-183a, 44 FR 73050, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 93-055, 61 
FR 13931, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 160.066-12  Operational tests.

    (a) The procedure for conducting operational tests is described in 
figure (1).
    (1) An ``accept lot'' decision must be reached in order to pass the 
operational tests.
    (2) If a ``reject lot'' decision is reached, the entire lot is 
rejected.
    (3) Signals from ``reject lots'' may be reworked by the manufacturer 
to correct the deficiency for which they were rejected and be 
resubmitted for inspection. Records shall be kept of the reasons for 
rejection, the reworking performed on the ``reject lot'', and the result 
of the second test. Signals from ``reject lots'' may not, unless 
subsequently accepted, be sold or offered for sale as being in 
compliance with this specification.
    (b) Each signal selected for the operational tests must be 
conditioned by:
    (1) Being submerged under at least 25 mm (1 in.) of water for 24 
hours without any protection other than its waterproofing; or
    (2) If waterproofing is provided by a sealed plastic bag or other 
waterproof packaging, submersion under 25 mm (1 in.) of water for 24 
hours in the packaging, followed immediately by submersion under 25 mm 
(1 in.) of water for 10 minutes with the signal removed from the 
packaging.
    (c) After each signal selected has undergone the conditioning 
required by paragraph (b) of this section it must be fired as described 
by the manufacturer's operating instructions. The following data as 
observed must be recorded for each signal:
    (1) Burning time of the pyrotechnic candle;
    (2) Color;
    (3) Whether the pyrotechnic candle burns out above, at, or below the 
level of launch.
    (d) A signal fails the operational tests if:
    (1) It fails to fire,
    (2) The pyrotechnic candle fails to ignite,
    (3) The pyrotechnic candle continues to burn after it falls back to 
the level of launch,
    (4) The observed color is other than vivid red, or
    (5) The burning time is less than 5.5 seconds.
    (e) A lot is rejected if a ``reject lot'' decision is reached using 
Figure (1) and Table 1 after completion of the operational tests.

[[Page 179]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.016


[[Page 180]]



                         Table 1-- Accept and Reject Criteria for Operational Test Lots
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Individual                            Cumulative
               Lot size                   sample             Sample             sample    Accept \1\  Reject \1\
                                           size                                  size
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
280 or                                       8      First...................        8      (\2\)           4
  less.                                             Second..................       16          1           5
                                                    Third...................       24          2           6
                                                    Fourth..................       32          3           7
                                                    Fifth...................       40          5           8
                                                    Sixth...................       48          7           9
                                                    Seventh.................       56          9          10
281 to                                      13      First...................       13      (\2\)           4
  500.                                              Second..................       26          1           6
                                                    Third...................       39          3           8
                                                    Fourth..................       52          5          10
                                                    Fifth...................       65          7          11
                                                    Sixth...................       78         10          12
                                                    Seventh.................       91         13          14
501 to                                      20      First...................       20      (\2\)           5
  1,200.                                            Second..................       40          3           8
                                                    Third...................       60          6          10
                                                    Fourth..................       80          8          13
                                                    Fifth...................      100         11          15
                                                    Sixth...................      120         14          17
                                                    Seventh.................      140         18          19
1,201 to                                    32      First...................       32          1           7
  3,200.                                            Second..................       64          4          10
                                                    Third...................       96          8          13
                                                    Fourth..................      128         12          17
                                                    Fifth...................      160         17          20
                                                    Sixth...................      192         21          23
                                                    Seventh.................      224         25          26
More                                        50      First...................       50          2           9
  than                                              Second..................      100          7          14
  3,200.                                            Third...................      150         13          19
                                                    Fourth..................      200         19          25
                                                    Fifth...................      250         25          29
                                                    Sixth...................      300         31          33
                                                    Seventh.................      350         37          38
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Cumulative number of failures.
\2\ Lot may not be accepted. Next sample must be tested.



Sec. 160.066-13  Technical tests.

    (a) The following conditions apply to technical tests as described 
in this section:
    (1) A total of nine signals must be selected at random from the lot 
being tested;
    (2) If the signals are protected by sealed packaging, then the 
conditioning for the technical tests must be conducted with the signal 
in the sealed packaging;
    (3) If signals in the test sample fail to pass one of the technical 
tests, the entire lot is rejected;
    (4) Signals from ``reject lots'' may be reworked by the manufacturer 
to correct the deficiency for which they were rejected and be 
resubmitted for inspection. Records shall be kept of the reasons for 
rejection, the reworking performed on the ``reject lot'', and the result 
of the second test. Signals from ``reject lots'' may not, unless 
subsequently accepted, be sold or offered for sale as being in 
compliance with this specification.
    (b) The Elevated Temperature, Humidity, and Storage Test must be 
conducted in the following manner:
    (1) Select three signals from the nine;
    (2) Place each signal in a thermostatically controlled even-
temperature oven held at 55 Degrees C (131 Degrees F), and at not less 
than 90% relative humidity, for at least 72 hours (If for any reason it 
is not possbie to operate the oven continuously for the 72 hour period, 
it may be operated at the required temperature and humidity for 8 hours 
of each 24 during the 72 hour conditioning period.);
    (3) After removal from the oven immediately place each signal in a 
chamber:
    (i) At a temperature of at least 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) but not 
more than 25 degrees C (77 degrees F);
    (ii) At not less than 65% relative humidity;
    (iii) For ten days;
    (4) Then remove each signal from any sealed packaging and fire it.
    (5) The test sample fails the test if:
    (i) Any signal ignites or decomposes before firing;
    (ii) Any signal when fired malfunctions in a manner that would cause 
burns or injury to an unprotected person firing the signal, or;
    (iii) Two or more of the signals fail to project and ignite the 
pyrotechnic candle.
    (c) The Spontaneous Combustion Test must be performed in the 
following manner:
    (1) Select three signals from the remaining six signals and place 
them in a thermostatically controlled even temperature over for 48 hours 
at a temperature of 75 degrees C (167 degrees F).
    (2) The test sample fails the test if any signal ignites or 
decomposes during the test.
    (d) The Luminous Intensity and Chromaticity Test must be performed 
in the following manner:
    (1) Remove the pyrotechnic candle from the remaining three signals.

[[Page 181]]

    (2) Ignite, measure, and record the intensity of the burning candle 
with a visual photometer or equivalent photometric device or automatic 
recorder:
    (i) While the specimen is supported in a horizontal position and the 
photometer is at right angles to the axis of the specimen,
    (ii) At a distance of at least 3 m (10 ft.).
    (3) Calculate the intensity of the candle as in Sec. 160.066-7(c).
    (4) Measure and record the chromaticity of the burning candle as 
specified in Sec. 160.021-4(d)(4).
    (5) The test sample fails the test if more than one signal has a 
luminous intensity of less than 10,000 candela, or more than one signal 
is not ``vivid red''.



Sec. 160.066-15  Production testing.

    (a) Production tests must be performed under the procedures in 
Subpart 159.007 of this chapter.
    (b) The operational tests in Sec. 160.066-12 must be performed for 
every lot of signals produced.
    (c) The technical tests in Sec. 160.066-13 must be performed at 
least once every twelve months,or at least once every 10 lots, whichever 
occurs first.
    (d) If a lot is rejected on the basis of the technical tests, then 
each subsequent lot produced must be tested according to the technical 
tests until samples from a lot pass these tests.
    (e) An independent laboratory acceptable to the Commandant must 
perform or directly supervise:
    (1) Each technical test, and
    (2) All operational tests for at least four lots in a 12 month 
period, unless fewer than four lots are produced in a 12 month period. 
If less than four lots are produced in a 12 month period, each 
operational test must be performed or directly supervised by the 
independent laboratory.
    (f) If a lot selected by the independent laboratory for an 
operational test is rejected, then the operational tests for the next 
lot produced, and the rejected lot, if reworked, must be performed or 
directly supervised by the independent laboratory. The tests required by 
this paragraph must not be counted for the purpose of meeting the 
requirements of paragraph (e).
    (g) The independent laboratory selects the lots upon which technical 
tests are performed.
    (h) If the manufacturer produces more than four lots within a 12 
month period, the independent laboratory selects the lots for which it 
performs or directly supervises the operational tests.
    (i) The operational test performed or directly supervised by the 
independent laboratory must occur at least once during each quarterly 
period, unless no lots are produced during that period.
    (j) The independent laboratory, when it performs or directly 
supervises the technical tests required by paragraph (c) or (d) of this 
section, must inspect the signals selected for testing and compare them 
with the approved plans. Each signal inspected must conform to the 
plans.

Subpart 160.071  [Reserved]



        Subpart 160.072--Distress Signals for Boats, Orange Flag

    Source: CGD 76-183a, 44 FR 73054, Dec. 17, 1979, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.072-1  Applicability.

    (a) This subpart establishes standards for distress flags for boats.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.072-3  General performance requirements.

    (a) Each flag must:
    (1) Be a square or rectangle at least 90 cm (36 inches) wide and at 
least 90 cm (36 inches) long. If the flag is a rectangle, the shorter 
side cannot be less than \2/3\ the length of the longer side;
    (2) Have no less than 70% of the total area colored a bright red-
orange color;
    (3) Display a black disc and a black square on the red-orange 
background on both sides arranged as follows:
    (i) The diameter of the disc and the length of one side of the 
square shall be equal, and shall each be \1/3\ of the length of the 
longest side of the flag, or 30 cm (12 inches), whichever is greater.
    (ii) The disc and square must be centered on one axis of the flag 
parallel to the longest side of the flag as shown in

[[Page 182]]

Figure 160.072-3. If the flag is a square, the axis may be parallel to 
any side.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.017

                            Figure 160.072-3
    (iii) The disc and square shall be separated by a distance of \1/6\ 
the length of the longest side of the flag or 15 cm (6 inches), 
whichever is greater.
    (4) Be capable of passing the accelerated weathering test of 
Sec. 160.072-5;
    (5) Have reinforced corners, each with a grommet; and,
    (6) Be packaged with 4 pieces of line, with a tensile strength of at 
least 225 N (Newtons) (50 lbs) no less than 30 cm (12 inches) long, 
capable of passing through the grommets freely.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.072-5  Accelerated weathering test.

    (a) Condition the flag, folded to \1/16\th its size or as packaged, 
whichever is smaller, by submersion in 5% by weight sodium chloride 
solution for 2 hours followed immediately by storage at 95% 
(plus-minus5) related humidity and 40  deg.C 
(plus-minus3 deg.) (100  deg.F plus-minus5 deg.) 
for at least 15 days.
    (b) Unfold and suspend flag by the lines provided, secured through 
each grommet.
    (c) Subject the flag to alternate 3 minute cycles of 5% by weight 
sodium chloride solution at 55 degrees (plus-minus5 deg.) C 
and air blasts of 40 knots at 55 degrees (plus-minus5 deg.) 
C, perpendicular to and over the entire surface of one side of the flag, 
without interruption for a period of not less than 24 hours.
    (d) The flag fails the accelerated weathering test if
    (1) After conditioning, the flag cannot be unfolded without damage,
    (2) There is any tearing,
    (3) The flag does not retain its bright red/orange color,
    (4) The disc and square images no longer meet the requirements of 
Sec. 160.072-3(a)(3) or,
    (5) There is any visible rot over more than 3% of the flag's 
surface.



Sec. 160.072-7  Manufacturer certification and labeling.

    (a) Each distress flag intended as a Day Visual Distress Signal 
required by 33 CFR Part 175 must be certified by the manufacturer as 
complying with the requirements of this subpart.
    (b) Each distress flag must be legibly and indelibly marked with:
    (1) The manufacturer's name; and
    (2) The following words--
    ``Day Visual Distress Signal for Boats. Complies with U.S. Coast 
Guard Requirements in 46 CFR 160.072. For Emergency Use Only''.



Sec. 160.072-09  Manufacturer notification.

    (a) Each manufacturer certifying flags in accordance with the 
specifications of this subpart must send written notice to the 
Commandant (G-MSE), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20591--
    (1) Within 30 days after first certifying a flag,
    (2) Every five years as long as the manufacturer continues to 
produce flags, and
    (3) Each time the design or construction material of the flag 
changes.
    (b) [Reserved]

[CGD 76-183a, 44 FR 73054, Dec. 17, 1979, as amended by CGD 88-070, 53 
FR 34536, Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 
95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 
1996]



  Subpart 160.073--Float-Free Link or Life Floats and Buoyant Apparatus

    Source: CGD 79-167, 47 FR 41378, Sept. 20, 1982, unless otherwise 
noted.

[[Page 183]]



Sec. 160.073-1  Scope.

    (a) This subpart contains requirements for a float-free link used 
for connecting a life float or buoyant apparatus painter to a vessel. 
The float-free link is designed to be broken by the buoyant force of the 
life float or buoyant apparatus so that the float or apparatus breaks 
free of a vessel that sinks in water deeper than the length of the 
painter.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.073-5  Certification.

    (a) The float-free link is not approved by the Coast Guard. The 
manufacturer of the link must certify that it meets all of the 
requirements of this subpart by application of the markings required in 
Sec. 160.073-20.
    (b) If the manufacturer wants the link to be listed in the Coast 
Guard publication COMDTINST M16714.3 (Series), ``Equipment Lists,'' the 
manufacturer must send a letter requesting the listing to Commandant (G-
MSE), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20593-0001.

[CGD 79-167, 47 FR 41378, Sept. 20, 1982, as amended by CGD 88-070, 53 
FR 34536, Sept. 7, 1988; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 
96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.073-10  Construction and performance.

    (a) The link must be constructed essentially as shown in figure 
160.073-10. The link must be formed from a single salt water corrosion-
resistant wire. A loop at least 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter must be 
provided at each end of the wire. Each loop must be permanently secured.
    (b) The breaking strength of each link must be between:
    (1) 450 N (100 lb.) and 600 N (134 lb.) for links intended for life 
floats and buoyant apparatus of 10 persons and less capacity.
    (2) 900 N (200 lb.) and 1200 N (268 lb.) for links intended for life 
floats and buoyant apparatus of 11 to 20 persons capacity.
    (3) 1800 N (400 lb.) and 2400 N (536 lb.) for links intended for 
life floats and buoyant apparatus of 21 persons and more capacity.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.018



Sec. 160.073-15  Tests.

    (a) The manufacturer shall perform a tensile test on the first three 
links made from a particular spool of wire. The test must be done by 
slowly loading the link until it breaks. The link must break between the 
limits specified in Sec. 160.073-10(b). The break must occur in the 
length of wire at or between the points where the loops are secured (see 
Figure 160.073-10).
    (b) If each of the three links passes the test, each link 
constructed in the same manner from the same spool of wire may be 
certified by the manufacturer as meeting the requirements of this 
subpart.
    (c) If one or more of the three links fails the test, no link 
manufactured in the same manner and from the same spool of wire as the 
test links may be certified as meeting the requirements of this subpart.



Sec. 160.073-20  Marking.

    (a) Each link certified by the manufacturer to meet the requirements 
of this subpart must have a corrosion resistant, waterproof tag attached 
to it that has the following information on it (the manufacturer must 
make the appropriate entries in the indicated space):

FLOAT-FREE LINK FOR LIFE FLOATS AND BUOYANT APPARATUS
Of (10 or less) (11 to 20) (21 or more) persons capacity.
Normal breaking strength ____.
Meets U.S. coast guard
Requirements--46 CFR 160.073.
Made by: (name and address) ______
(Date) ____
    (b) [Reserved]

[[Page 184]]



   Subpart 160.076--Inflatable Recreational Personal Flotation Devices

    Source: CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.076-1  Scope.

    (a) This subpart contains structural and performance standards for 
approval of inflatable recreational personal flotation devices (PFDs), 
as well as requirements for production follow-up inspections, associated 
manuals, information pamphlets, and markings.
    (b) Inflatable PFDs approved under this subpart--
    (1) Rely entirely upon inflation for buoyancy; and
    (2) Are approved for use by adults only.



Sec. 160.076-3  Applicability.

    Inflatable PFDs approved under this subpart may be used to meet the 
carriage requirements of 33 CFR 175.15 and 175.17 on the following types 
of vessels only:
    (a) Recreational vessels.
    (b) Uninspected recreational submersible vessels.



Sec. 160.076-5  Definitions.

    As used in this part:
    Commandant means the Chief of the Lifesaving and Fire Safety 
Division, Marine Safety and Environmental Protection. Address: 
Commandant (G-MSE-4), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second St. 
SW., Washington, DC 20593-0001; phone: 202-267-1444; facsimile: 202-267-
1069; electronic mail: ``mvi-3/G-M18@cgsmtp.uscg.mil''.
    Conditional approval means a category of PFD which has condition(s) 
on its approval with which the user must comply in order for the PFD to 
be counted toward meeting the carriage requirements of the vessel being 
used. All conditionally approved PFDs are designated Approval Type V.
    First quality workmanship means construction which is free from any 
defect materially affecting appearance or serviceability.
    Inflation medium means any solid, liquid, or gas that, when 
activated, provides inflation for buoyancy.
    Inspector means a recognized laboratory representative assigned to 
perform, supervise or oversee the duties described in Secs. 160.076-29 
and 160.076-31 of this subpart or any Coast Guard representative 
performing duties related to the approval.
    MOU means memorandum of understanding which describes the approval 
functions a recognized independent laboratory performs for the Coast 
Guard, and the recognized independent laboratory's working arrangements 
with the Coast Guard.
    Performance type means the in-water performance classification of 
the PFD (I, II, or III).
    PFD means personal flotation device as defined in 33 CFR 175.13.
    PFD Approval Type means the Type designation assigned by the 
Commandant, as documented in the approval certificate for the PFD, based 
primarily on the in-water performance and serviceability of the PFD.
    Plans and specifications means the drawings, product description, 
construction specifications, and bill of materials submitted in 
accordance with Sec. 160.076-13 for approval of a PFD design.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 FR 
50466, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 94-110, 61 FR 13945, Mar. 28, 1996; CGD 96-
041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.076-7  PFD Approval Type.

    (a) An inflatable PFD may be approved without conditions as a Type 
I, II, or III PFD for persons over 36 kg (80 lb) if it meets the 
requirements of this subpart.
    (b) Each inflatable PFD that can be demonstrated to meet the in-
water performance requirements of a type I, II or III PFD in UL 1180 
during approval testing and the applicable requirements of this subpart 
provided that certain conditions are placed on its use, may be approved 
as a Type V PFD. Each such PFD has conditional approval.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13945, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 160.076-9  Conditional approval.

    (a) A conditionally approved inflatable PFD is categorized as a Type 
V

[[Page 185]]

PFD and may be used to meet the Coast Guard PFD carriage requirements of 
33 CFR part 175 only if the PFD is used in accordance with any 
requirements on the approval label. PFDs marked ``Approved only when 
worn'' must be worn whenever the vessel is underway and the intended 
wearer is not within an enclosed space if the PFD is intended to be used 
to satisfy the requirements of 33 CFR part 175. Note: Additional 
approved PFDs may be needed to satisfy the requirements of 33 CFR part 
175 if ``Approved only when worn'' PFDs are not worn.
    (b) PFDs not meeting the performance specifications for type I, II, 
or III PFDs in UL 1180 may be classified as Type V, conditionally 
approved PFDs, when the Commandant determines that the performance or 
design characteristics of the PFD make such classification appropriate.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13945, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 160.076-11  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Certain materials are incorporated by reference into this 
subpart with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register in 
accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any 
edition other than the one listed in paragraph (b) of this section, the 
Coast Guard must publish notice of the change in the Federal Register, 
and the material must be available to the public. All approved material 
is available for inspection at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 
North Capitol Street NW., suite 700, Washington, DC and at the U.S. 
Coast Guard, Lifesaving and Fire Safety Division (G-MSE-4), 2100 Second 
Street, SW., Washington, DC 20593-0001, and is available from the 
sources indicated in paragraph (b) of this section.
    (b) The materials approved for incorporation by reference in this 
subpart, and the sections affected are as follows:

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

ASTM D 751-95, Standard Test Methods for Coated Fabrics--160.076-25
ASTM D 1434-82 (1988), Standard Test Method for Determining Gas 
Permeability Characteristics of Plastic Film and Sheeting--160.076-25

Federal Standards
Naval Publishing and Printing Center, Customer Service, 700 Robbins 
Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19120.
    In Federal Test Method Standard No. 191A (dated July 20, 1978) the 
following methods:

    (1) Method 5100, Strength and Elongation, Breaking of Woven Cloth; 
Grab Method, 160.076-25;
    (2) Method 5132, Strength of Cloth, Tearing; Falling-Pendulum 
Method, 160.076-25;
    (3) Method 5134, Strength of Cloth, Tearing; Tongue Method, 160.076-
25.

Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 12 Laboratory Drive, Research Triangle 
Park, NC 27709-3995 (Phone (919) 549-1400; Facsimile: (919) 549-1842)
UL 1123, ``Marine Buoyant Devices'', February 17, 1995, 160.076-35;
UL 1180, ``Fully Inflatable Recreational Personal Flotation Devices'', 
May 15, 1995, 160.076-7; 160.076-21; 160.076-23; 160.076-25; 160.076-29; 
160.076-31; 160.076-37; 160.076-39.
UL 1191, ``Components for Personal Flotation Devices'', May 16, 1995, 
160.076-21; 160.076-25; 160.076-39.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 FR 
50467, Sept. 29, 1995, CGD 94-110, 61 FR 13945, Mar. 28, 1996; CGD 96-
041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996; CGD 97-057, 62 FR 51048, Sept. 30, 
1997; USCG-1999-5151, 64 FR 67184, Dec. 1, 1999]



Sec. 160.076-13  Approval procedures for inflatable PFDs.

    (a) Manufacturers seeking approval of an inflatable PFD design shall 
follow the procedures of this section and subpart 159.005 of this 
chapter.
    (b) Each application for approval of an inflatable PFD must contain 
the information specified in Sec. 159.005-5 of this chapter. The 
application must be submitted to a recognized laboratory. One copy of 
the application and, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this 
section, a prototype PFD must be submitted to the Commandant for 
preapproval review. If a similar design has already been approved, the 
Commandant may authorize the recognized laboratory to waive the 
preapproval review under Secs. 159.005-5 and 159.005-7 of this chapter.
    (c) The application must include the following:

[[Page 186]]

    (1) Plans and specifications containing the information required by 
Sec. 159.005-12 of this chapter, including drawings, product 
description, construction specifications, and bill of materials.
    (2) The information specified in Sec. 159.005-5(a)(2) (i) through 
(iii) of this chapter must be included in the application, except that, 
if preapproval review has been waived, the manufacturer is not required 
to send a prototype PFD sample to the Commandant.
    (3) The type of performance (Type I, II, or III) that the PFD is 
designed to provide along with the Approval Type sought (Type I, II, 
III, or V).
    (4) Any special purpose(s) for which the PFD is designed and the 
vessel(s) or vessel type(s) on which its use is intended.
    (5) Buoyancy, torque, and other relevant tolerances to be met during 
production.
    (6) The text of any optional marking to be included on the PFD in 
addition to the markings required by Sec. 160.076-39.
    (7) A draft of the information pamphlet required by Sec. 160.076-35.
    (8) A draft of the owner's manual required by Sec. 160.076-37.
    (9) For any conditionally approved PFD, the intended approval 
condition(s).
    (d) The description required by Sec. 159.005-9 of this chapter of 
quality control procedures may be omitted if the manufacturer's planned 
quality control procedures meet the requirements of Secs. 160.076-29 and 
160.076-31.
    (e) Manual and pamphlet. Before granting approval of a PFD design, 
the Commandant may require changes to the manual and information 
pamphlet submitted for review to ensure compliance with the requirements 
of Secs. 160.076-35 and 160.076-37.
    (f) Waiver of tests. A manufacturer may request that the Commandant 
waive any test prescribed for approval under this subpart. To request a 
waiver, the manufacturer must submit to the Commandant and the 
recognized laboratory, one of the following:
    (1) Satisfactory test results on a PFD of sufficiently similar 
design as determined by the Commandant.
    (2) Engineering analysis demonstrating that the test for which a 
waiver is requested is not appropriate for the particular design 
submitted for approval or that, because of its design or construction, 
it is not possible for the PFD to fail that test.
    (g) Alternative requirements. A PFD that does not meet the 
requirements of this subpart may be approved by the Commandant if the 
device--
    (1) Meets other requirements prescribed by the Commandant in place 
of or in addition to the requirements of this subpart; and
    (2) As determined by the Commandant, provides at least the same 
degree of safety provided by other PFDs that meet the requirements of 
this subpart.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13946, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 160.076-15  Suspension or termination of approval.

    As provided in Sec. 159.005-15 of this chapter, the Commandant may 
suspend or terminate the approval of an inflatable PFD design if the 
manufacturer fails to comply with this subpart or the recognized 
laboratory's accepted procedures or requirements.



Sec. 160.076-17  Approval of design or material changes.

    (a) The manufacturer must submit any proposed changes in design, 
material, or construction to the recognized laboratory and the 
Commandant for approval before changing PFD production methods.
    (b) Determinations of equivalence of design, construction, and 
materials may be made only by the Commandant or a designated 
representative.



Sec. 160.076-19  Recognized laboratories.

    (a) PFDs. The following laboratories are recognized under 
Sec. 159.010-9 of this chapter to perform the approval and production 
oversight functions required by this subpart:
    Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. Box 
13995, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919) 549-1400.
    (b) Components. The following laboratories are recognized under 
subpart 159.010 of this chapter and may perform the component material 
acceptance,

[[Page 187]]

production oversight, and certification functions required by 
Sec. 160.076-21(a)(1):
    Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. Box 
13995, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919) 549-1400.



Sec. 160.076-21  Component materials.

    (a) Each component material used in the manufacturer of an 
inflatable PFD must--
    (1) Meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of this 
chapter, UL 1191, UL 1180, and this section; and
    (2) Be of good quality and suitable for the purpose intended.
    (b) The average permeability of inflation chamber material, 
determined in accordance with the procedures specified in Sec. 160.076-
25(d)(2)(iii) must not be more than 110% of the permeability of the 
materials determined in approval testing required by Sec. 160.076-
25(d)(2)(iii).
    (c) The average grab breaking strength and tear strength of the 
inflation chamber material, determined in accordance with the procedures 
specified in Secs. 160.076-25(d)(2)(i) and 160.076-25(d)(2)(ii), must be 
at least 90% of the grab breaking strength and tear strength determined 
from testing required by Secs. 160.076-25(d)(2)(i) and 160.076-
25(d)(2)(ii). No individual sample result for breaking strength or tear 
strength may be more than 20% below the results obtained in approval 
testing.
    (d) Each manual, automatic, or manual-auto inflation mechanism must 
be marked in accordance with Sec. 160.076-39(e).

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13946, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 160.076-23  Construction and performance requirements.

    (a) Each inflatable PFD design must--
    (1) Meet the requirements in UL 1180 applicable to the PFD 
performance type for which approval is sought; and
    (2) Meet any additional requirements that the Commandant may 
prescribe to approve unique or novel designs.
    (b) [Reserved]

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13946, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 160.076-25  Approval testing.

    (a) To obtain approval of an inflatable PFD design, approval tests 
specified in UL 1180 and this section must be conducted or supervised by 
a recognized laboratory using PFDs that have been constructed in 
accordance with the plans and specifications submitted with the 
application for approval.
    (b) Each PFD design must pass the tests required by UL 1180 and this 
section that are applicable to the PFD performance type for which 
approval is sought.
    (c) Each test subject participating in the tests in UL 1180, section 
6 shall in addition, demonstrate that the test subject can repack the 
PFD such that it can be used in the donning tests and manual activation 
tests required by--
    (1) Section 6.2.3 of UL 1180; and
    (2) Sections 6.4.1, and 6.4.2 of UL 1180, if the test engineer 
cannot verify that the manual and oral inflators are properly stowed.
    (d) Each PFD design must pass the following tests and evaluations:
    (1) Visual examination. The complete PFD must be visually examined 
for compliance with the construction and performance requirements of 
Secs. 160.076-21 and 160.076-23 and UL 1180 and 1191.
    (2) Inflation chamber properties. The following tests must be 
conducted after successful completion of all other approval tests. The 
test samples used in the following tests must come from one or more PFDs 
that were each used in all the Use Characteristics Tests required by UL 
1180 section 6.
    (i) Grab breaking strength. The grab breaking strength of chamber 
materials must be determined in accordance with Method No. 5100 of 
Federal Test Method Standard 191 or ASTM D 751 (incorporated by 
reference, see Sec. 160.076-11).
    (ii) Tear strength. The tear strength of chamber materials must be 
determined in accordance with Method No. 5132 or 5134 of Federal Test 
Method Standard 191 or ASTM D 751 (incorporated by reference, see 
Sec. 160.076-11).
    (iii) Permeability. The permeability of chamber materials must be 
determined in accordance with ASTM D 1434 (incorporated by reference, 
see Sec. 160.076-11) using CO2 as the test gas.

[[Page 188]]

    (iv) Seam strength. The seam strength of the seams in each inflation 
chamber of at least one PFD must be determined in accordance with ASTM D 
751 (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.076-11) except that 25 by 
200 mm (1 by 8 in.) samples may be used where insufficient length of 
straight seam is available.
    (e) Additional tests. The Commandant may prescribe additional tests 
for approval of novel or unique designs.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13946, Mar. 28, 1996; USCG-2000-7790, 65 FR 58463, Sept. 29, 2000]



Sec. 160.076-27  [Reserved]



Sec. 160.076-29  Production oversight.

    (a) Production tests and inspections must be conducted in accordance 
with this section and subpart 159.007 of this chapter unless the 
Commandant authorizes alternative tests and inspections. The Commandant 
may prescribe additional production tests and inspections necessary to 
maintain quality control and to monitor compliance with the requirements 
of this subpart.
    (b) Production oversight must be performed by the same laboratory 
that performs the approval tests unless the Commandant determines that 
the employees of an alternative laboratory have received training and 
have access to the same information as the inspectors of the laboratory 
that conducted the approval testing.
    (c) In addition to responsibilities set out in part 159 of this 
chapter and the accepted Laboratory Follow-up Procedures, each 
manufacturer of an inflatable PFD and each recognized laboratory 
inspector shall comply with the following, as applicable:
    (1) Manufacturer. Each manufacturer must--
    (i) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, perform 
all required tests and examinations on each PFD lot before any required 
inspector's tests and inspection of the lot;
    (ii) Follow established procedures for maintaining quality control 
of the materials used, manufacturing operations, and the finished 
product;
    (iii) Implement a continuing program of employee training and a 
program for maintaining production and test equipment;
    (iv) Admit the inspector to any place in the factory where work is 
done on PFDs or component materials, and where parts or completed PFDs 
are stored;
    (v) Have an inspector observe the production methods used in 
producing the first PFD lot and observe any revisions in production 
methods made thereafter; and
    (vi) Allow the inspector to take samples of completed PFDs or of 
component materials for tests required by this subpart and for tests 
relating to the safety of the design.
    (2) Recognized laboratory oversight. An inspector from a recognized 
laboratory shall oversee production in accordance with the MOU. During 
production oversight, the inspector shall not perform or supervise any 
production test or inspection unless--
    (i) The manufacturer has a valid approval certificate; and
    (ii) The inspector has first observed the manufacturer's production 
methods and any revisions to those methods.
    (3) The inspector must perform or supervise testing and inspection 
of at least one in each five lots of PFDs produced.
    (4) During each inspection, the inspector must check for compliance 
with the manufacturer's quality control procedures.
    (5) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(6) of this section, at least 
once each calendar quarter, the inspector must examine the 
manufacturer's records required by Sec. 160.076-33 and observe the 
manufacturer perform each of the tests required by Sec. 160.076-31(c).
    (6) If less than six lots are produced during a calendar year, only 
one lot inspection and one records' examination and test performance 
observation are required during that year. Each lot tested and inspected 
under paragraph (c)(3) of this section must be within seven lots of the 
previous lot inspected.
    (d) PFD lots. A lot number must be assigned in accordance with UL 
1180 to each group of PFDs produced. Lots must be numbered serially. A 
new lot must be started whenever any change

[[Page 189]]

in materials or a revision to a production method is made, and whenever 
any substantial discontinuity in the production process occurs. Changes 
in lots of component materials must be treated as changes in materials. 
The lot number assigned, along with the approval number, must enable the 
PFD manufacturer, by referring to the records required by this subpart, 
to determine the supplier of the components used in the PFD and the 
component supplier's identifying information for the component lot.
    (e) Samples. For the tests, examinations, and inspections required 
by Sec. 160.076-31, inspectors and manufacturers shall select samples as 
provided in this paragraph.
    (1) Samples shall be selected at random from a lot in which all PFDs 
or materials in the lot are available for selection. Except as provided 
in Sec. 160.076-31(c), samples must be selected from completed PFDs.
    (2) Different samples must be selected for the manufacturer's and 
inspector's tests, except, if the total production for any five 
consecutive lots does not exceed 250 PFDs, the manufacturer's and 
inspector's tests may be run on the same sample(s) at the same time.
    (3) The number of samples selected per lot must be at least equal to 
the applicable number required by Table 160.076-29A for manufacturers or 
Table 160.076-29B for inspectors.
    (4) The following additional requirements apply as indicated in 
Table 160.076-29A to individual sample selections by manufacturers:
    (i) Samples must be selected from each lot of incoming material. The 
tests required under paragraphs 160.076-25(d)(2)(i) through 160.076-
25(d)(2)(iv) prescribe the number of samples to select.
    (ii) Samples selected for the indicated tests may not be used for 
more than one test.
    (iii) If a sample fails the over-pressure test, the number of 
samples to be tested in the next lot produced must be at least two 
percent of the total number of PFDs in the lot or 10 PFDs, whichever is 
greater.
    (iv) The indicated test must be conducted at least once each 
calendar quarter or whenever a new lot of material is used or a 
production process is revised.
    (5) The following additional requirements apply as indicated in 
Table 160.076-29B to individual sample selections by inspectors:
    (i) Samples selected for the indicated tests may not be used for 
more than one test.
    (ii) The indicated test may be omitted if it was conducted by the 
manufacturer on the materials used and by the inspector on a previous 
lot within the past 12 months.
    (iii) One sample of each means of marking on each type of fabric or 
finish used in PFD construction must be tested at least every six months 
or whenever a new lot of materials is used.

                                 Table 160.076-29A--Manufacturer's Sampling Plan
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Number of Samples Per Lot
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Lot     1-100     101-200    201-300    301-500    501-750    751-1000
---------------------size:--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tests:
    Inflation Chamber Materials...............                             See Note (a)
    Seam Strength.............................          1          1          2          2          3          4
    Over-pressure (b)(c)......................          1          2          3          4          6          8
    Air Retention.............................                       EVERY DEVICE IN THE LOT
    Buoyancy and Inflation Medium Retention...          1          2          3          4          6          8
    Tensile Strength..........................                             See Note (d)
Detailed Product Examination..................          2          2          3          4          6          8
Retest Sample Size (b)........................  .........  .........         13         13         20         20
Final Lot Inspection..........................                       EVERY DEVICE IN THE LOT
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Notes to Table:  (a) See Sec.  160.076-29(e)(4)(i).  (b) See Sec.  160.076-29(e)(4)(ii).  (c) See Sec.  160.076-
  29(e)(4)(iii).  (d) See Sec.  160.076-29(e)(4)(iv).


[[Page 190]]


                                  Table 160.076-29B--Inspector's Sampling Plan
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Number of Samples Per Lot
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Lot     1-100     101-200    201-300    301-500    501-750    751-1000
---------------------size:--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tests:
    Over-pressure (a).........................          1          1          2          2          3          4
    Air Retention.............................          1          1          2          2          3          4
    Buoyancy & Inflation Medium Retention.....          1          1          2          2          3          4
    Tensile Strength..........................                             See Note (b)
    Waterproof marking........................                             See Note (c)
Detailed Project Examination..................          1          1          1          2          2          3
Retest Sample Size (a)........................         10         10         13         13         20         20
Final Lot Inspection..........................         10         15         20         25         27         30
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Notes to Table:  (a) See Sec.  160.076-29(e)(5)(i).  (b) See Sec.  160.076-29(e)(5)(ii).  (c) See Sec.  160.076-
  29(e)(5)(iii).

    (f) Accept/reject criteria: manufacturer testing. (1) A PFD lot 
passes production testing if each sample passes each test.

    (2) In lots of 200 or less PFDs, the lot must be rejected if any 
sample fails one or more tests.

    (3) In lots of more than 200 PFDs, the lot must be rejected if--

    (i) One sample fails more than one test;

    (ii) More than one sample fails any test or combination of tests; or

    (iii) One sample fails one test and in redoing that test with the 
number of samples specified for retesting in Table 160.076-29A, one or 
more samples fail the retest.

    (4) A rejected PFD lot may be retested only if allowed under 
Sec. 160.076-31(e).

    (g) Accept/reject criteria: independent laboratory testing. (1) A 
lot passes production testing if each sample passes each test.

    (2) A lot must be rejected if--

    (i) A sample fails more than one test;

    (ii) More than one sample fails any test or combination of tests; or

    (iii) One sample fails one test and in redoing that test with the 
number of samples specified for retesting in Table 160.076-29B, one or 
more samples fail the test.

    (3) A rejected lot may be retested only if allowed under 
Sec. 160.076-31(e).

    (h) Facilities and equipment. (1) General. The manufacturer must 
provide the test equipment and facilities necessary for performing 
production tests, examinations, and inspections, unless Commandant has 
accepted testing at a location other than the manufacturer's facility.

    (2) Calibration. The manufacturer must have the calibration of all 
test equipment checked at least every six months by a weights and 
measures agency or the equipment manufacturer, distributor, or dealer.

    (3) Facilities. The manufacturer must provide a suitable place and 
the necessary equipment for the inspector to use in conducting or 
supervising tests. For the final lot inspection, the manufacturer must 
provide a suitable working environment and a smooth-top table for the 
inspector's use.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13946, Mar. 28, 1996; 61 FR 15868, 61 FR Apr. 9, 1996]



Sec. 160.076-31  Production tests and examinations.

    (a) Samples used in testing must be selected in accordance with 
Sec. 160.076-29(e).

    (b) On each sample selected--

    (1) The manufacturer must conduct the tests in paragraphs (c)(2) 
through (c)(8) of this section;

    (2) The recognized laboratory inspector must conduct or supervise 
the tests in paragraphs (c)(4) through (c)(8) of this section; and

    (3) In addition to meeting the requirements of this section, each 
test result must meet the requirements, if any, contained in the 
approved plans and specifications.

    (c) When conducting the tests specified by this paragraph, the 
following conditions must be met:
    (1) Inflation chamber materials. The average and individual results 
of testing

[[Page 191]]

the minimum number of samples prescribed by Sec. 160.076-25(d)(2) must 
comply with the requirements in Sec. 160.076-21 (b) and (c) for 
permeability, grab strength, and tear strength. Lots not meeting this 
requirement must be rejected and, unless authorized by the Commandant, 
may not be subdivided and retested.
    (2) Seam strength. The seams in each inflation chamber of each 
sample must be tested in accordance with Sec. 160.076-25(d)(2)(iv). The 
results for each inflation chamber must be at least 90% of the results 
obtained in approval testing.
    (3) Over-pressure. Each sample must be tested in accordance with and 
meet UL 1180 section 7.15. Prior to initiating the test at the specified 
values, samples may be prestressed by inflating them to a greater 
pressure than the required test pressure.
    (4) Air retention. Each sample must be tested in accordance with and 
meet UL 1180 section 7.16. Prior to initiating the test at the specified 
values, test samples may be prestressed by inflating to a pressure 
greater than the design pressure, but not exceeding 50 percent of the 
required pressure for the tests in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. No 
alternate test method may be used that decreases the length of the test 
unless authorized by the Commandant. Such alternative test must require 
a proportionately lower allowable pressure loss and the same percentage 
sensitivity and accuracy as the standard allowable loss measured with 
the standard instrumentation.
    (5) Buoyancy and inflation medium retention. Each sample must be 
tested in accordance with and meet UL 1180 section 7.2.2-7.2.10, except 
7.2.5. Each buoyancy value must fall within the tolerances specified in 
the approved plans and specifications.
    (6) Tensile strength. Each sample primary closure system must be 
tested in accordance with and meet UL 1180 section 7.4.1 and .2.
    (7) Detailed product examination. Each sample PFD must be 
disassembled to the extent necessary to determine compliance with the 
following:
    (i) All dimensions and seam allowances must be within tolerances 
prescribed in the approved plans and specifications.
    (ii) The torque of each screw type mechanical fastener must be 
within its tolerance as prescribed in the approved plans and 
specifications.
    (iii) The arrangement, markings, and workmanship must be as 
specified in the approved plans and specifications and this subpart.
    (iv) The PFD must not contain any apparent defects.
    (8) Waterproof Marking Test. Each sample must be completely 
submerged in fresh water for at least 30 minutes. The sample must then 
be removed, immediately placed on a hard surface, and the markings 
vigorously rubbed with the fingers for 15 seconds. If the printing 
becomes illegible, the sample must be rejected.
    (d) Final lot examination and inspection--(1) General. On each PFD 
lot that passes production testing, the manufacturer shall perform a 
final lot examination and, on every fifth lot, a laboratory inspector 
shall perform a final lot inspection. Samples must be selected in 
accordance with paragraph Sec. 160.076-29(e). Each final lot must 
demonstrate--
    (i) First quality workmanship;
    (ii) That the general arrangement and attachment of all components, 
such as body straps, closures, inflation mechanisms, tie tapes, and 
drawstrings, are as specified in the approved plans and specifications;
    (iii) Compliance with the marking requirements in Sec. 160.076-39; 
and
    (iv) That the information pamphlet and owner's manual required by 
Sec. 160.076-35 and 160.076-37, respectively, are securely attached to 
the device, with the pamphlet selection information visible and 
accessible prior to purchase.
    (2) Accept/reject criteria. Each nonconforming PFD must be rejected. 
If three or more nonconforming PFDs are rejected for the same kind of 
defect, lot examination or inspection must be discontinued and the lot 
rejected.
    (3) Manufacturer examination. This examination must be conducted by 
a manufacturer's representative who is familiar with the approved plans 
and specifications, the functioning of the

[[Page 192]]

PFD and its components, and the production testing procedures. This 
person must not be responsible for meeting production schedules or be 
supervised by someone who is. This person must prepare and sign the 
record required by 159.007-13(a) of this chapter and 160.076-33(b).
    (4) Independent laboratory inspection. (i) The inspector must 
discontinue lot inspection and reject the lot if examination of 
individual PFDs or the records for the lot shows noncompliance with 
either this section or the laboratory's or the manufacturer's quality 
control procedures.
    (ii) If the inspector rejects a lot, the inspector must advise the 
Commandant or the recognized laboratory within 15 days.
    (iii) The inspector must prepare and sign the inspection record 
required by 159.007-13(a) of this chapter and 160.076-33(b). If the lot 
passes, the record must include the inspector's certification that the 
lot passed inspection and that no evidence of noncompliance with this 
section was observed.
    (e) Disposition of rejected PFD lot or PFD. (1) A rejected PFD lot 
may be resubmitted for testing, examination or inspection if the 
manufacturer first removes and destroys each defective PFD or, if 
authorized by the Commandant, reworks the lot to correct the defect.
    (2) Any PFD rejected in a final lot examination or inspection may be 
resubmitted for examination or inspection if all defects have been 
corrected and reexamination or reinspection is authorized by the 
Commandant.
    (3) A rejected lot or rejected PFD may not be sold or offered for 
sale under the representation that it meets this subpart or that it is 
Coast Guard-approved.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13946, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 160.076-33  Manufacturer records.

    (a) Each manufacturer of inflatable PFDs shall keep the records of 
production inspections and tests as required by Sec. 159.007-13 of this 
chapter, except that they must be retained for at least 120 months after 
the month in which the inspection or test was conducted.
    (b) In addition to the information required by Sec. 159.007-13 of 
this chapter, the manufacturer's records must also include the following 
information:
    (1) For each test, the serial number of the test instrument used if 
more than one test instrument was available.
    (2) For each test and inspection, the identification of the samples 
used, the lot number, the approval number, and the number of PFDs in the 
lot.
    (3) For each lot rejected, the cause for rejection, any corrective 
action taken, and the final disposition of the lot.
    (4) For all materials used in production the--
    (i) Name and address of the supplier;
    (ii) Date of purchase and receipt;
    (iii) Lot number; and
    (iv) Where required by Sec. 164.019-5 of this chapter, the 
certification received with standard components.
    (5) A copy of this subpart.
    (6) Each document incorporated by reference in Sec. 160.076-11.
    (7) A copy of the approved plans and specifications.
    (8) The approval certificate obtained in accordance with Sec. 2.75-1 
and 2.75-5 of this chapter.
    (9) Certificates evidencing calibration of test equipment, including 
the identity of the agency performing the calibration, date of 
calibration, and results.
    (c) A description or photographs of procedures and equipment used in 
testing required by Sec. 159.007-13(a)(4) of this chapter, is not 
required if the manufacturer's procedures and equipment meet the 
requirements of this subpart.
    (d) The records required by paragraph (b)(4) of this section must be 
kept for at least 120 months after preparation. All other records 
required by paragraph (b) of this section must be kept for at least 60 
months after the PFD approval expires or is terminated.



Sec. 160.076-35  Information pamphlet.

    A pamphlet that is consistent in format to that specified in UL 1123 
must be attached to each inflatable PFD sold or offered for sale in such 
a way that a prospective purchaser can read the

[[Page 193]]

pamphlet prior to purchase. The pamphlet text and layout must be 
submitted to the Commandant for approval. The text must be printed in 
each pamphlet exactly as approved by the Commandant. Additional 
information, instructions, or illustrations must not be included within 
the approved text and layout. Sample pamphlet text and layout may be 
obtained by contacting the Commandant. This pamphlet may be combined 
with the manual required by Sec. 160.076-37 if PFD selection and warning 
information is provided on the PFD packaging in such a way that it 
remains visible until purchase.



Sec. 160.076-37  Owner's manual.

    (a) General. The manufacturer must provide an owner's manual with 
each inflatable PFD sold or offered for sale. A draft of the manual for 
each model must be submitted for approval in accordance with 
Sec. 160.076-13.
    (b) Manual contents. Each owner's manual must contain the 
information specified in section 11 of UL 1180, and, if the PFD is 
conditionally approved, an explanation of the meaning of, and reasons 
for, the approval conditions.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13947, Mar. 28, 1996]



Sec. 160.076-39  Marking.

    (a) General. Each inflatable PFD must be marked as specified in UL 
1180 section 10 and this section.
    (b) PFD Type. Based on its approval certificate, each PFD must be 
marked as follows--
    (l) ``Type I PFD'';
    (2) ``Type II PFD'';
    (3) ``Type III PFD''; or
    (4) ``Type V [insert exact text of description noted on the approval 
certificate, if any] PFD--[insert text required by paragraph (c) of this 
section]. This PFD provides in-water performance equivalent to a Type 
[insert performance type criteria noted on the approval certificate] 
PFD.''
    (c) A Type V, conditionally approved, inflatable PFD must be marked 
with the approval conditions specified on the approval certificate.
    (d) Additional markings. (1) Unless otherwise noted on the approval 
certificate, each inflatable PFD must be marked with the following:
    (i) ``NOT APPROVED TO MEET CARRIAGE REQUIREMENTS ON COMMERCIAL 
VESSELS.''
    (ii) The unique model, style, or part number of the inflation 
mechanism approved for use on the PFD.
    (2) [Reserved]
    (e) Inflation mechanisms. Each manual, automatic, or manual-auto 
inflation mechanism must be permanently marked with its unique model 
number.

[CGD 94-110, 60 FR 32848, June 23, 1995, as amended by CGD 94-110, 61 FR 
13947, Mar. 28, 1996]



      Subpart 160.077--Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices

    Source: CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.077-1  Scope.

    (a) This specification contains requirements for approving hybrid 
inflatable personal flotation devices (hybrid PFDs).
    (b) Under this chapter and 33 CFR part 175, certain commercial 
vessels and recreational boats may carry Type I, II, or III hybrid PFDs 
to meet carriage requirements. Type V hybrid PFDs may be substituted for 
other required PFDs if they are worn under conditions prescribed in 
their manual as required by Sec. 160.077-29 and on their marking as 
prescribed in Sec. 160.077-31. For recreational boats or boaters 
involved in a special activity, hybrid PFD approval may also be limited 
to that activity.
    (c) Unless approved as a Type I SOLAS Lifejacket, a hybrid PFD on an 
inspected commercial vessel will be approved only--
    (1) As work vest; or
    (2) For the special purpose stated on the approval certificate and 
PFD marking.
    (d) A hybrid PFD may be approved for adults, weighing over 40 kg (90 
lb); youths, weighing 23-40 kg (50-90 lb); small children, weighing 14-
23 kg (30-50 lb); or for the size range of persons for which the design 
has been tested, as indicated on the PFD's label.
    (e) This specification also contains requirements for--

[[Page 194]]

    (1) Manufacturers and sellers of recreational hybrid PFD's to 
provide an information pamphlet and owner's manual with each PFD; and
    (2) Manufacturers of commercial hybrid PFD's to provide a user's 
manual.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174, 60 FR 
2486, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-2  Definitions.

    (a) Commandant means the Chief of the Lifesaving and Fire Safety 
Division, Marine Safety and Environmental Protection. Address: 
Commandant (G-MSE-4), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street 
SW., Washington, DC 20593-0001.
    (b) Commercial hybrid PFD means a hybrid PFD approved for use on 
commercial vessels identified on the PFD label.
    (c) First quality workmanship means construction which is free from 
any defect materially affecting appearance or serviceability.
    (d) Hybrid PFD means a personal flotation device that has at least 
one inflation chamber in combination with inherently buoyant material.
    (e) Inflation medium means any solid, liquid, or gas, that, when 
activated, provides inflation for buoyancy.
    (f) Inspector means an independent laboratory representative 
assigned to perform duties described in Sec. 160.077-23.
    (g) PFD means a personal flotation device of a type approved under 
this subpart.
    (h) Recreational hybrid PFD means a hybrid PFD approved for use on a 
recreational boat as defined in 33 CFR 175.3.
    (i) [Reserved]
    (j) Reference vest means a model AK-1, adult PFD; model CKM-1, child 
medium PFD; or model CKS-2, child small PFD, meeting the requirements of 
subpart 160.047 of this chapter, except that, in lieu of the weight and 
displacement values prescribed in Tables 160.047-4(c)(2) and 160.047-
4(c)(4), each insert must have the minimum weight of kapok and 
displacement as shown in Table 160.077-2(j). To achieve the specified 
volume displacement, front and back insert pad coverings may be larger 
than the dimensions prescribed by Sec. 160.047-1(b) and the width of the 
front fabric envelope and height of the back fabric envelope may be 
increased to accommodate a circumference no greater than 1/4" larger 
than the filled insert circumference. As an alternative, unicellular 
plastic foam inserts of the specified displacement and of an equivalent 
shape, as accepted by the Commandant, may be substituted for kapok 
inserts.

                 Table 160.077-2(j)--Reference Vest Minimum Kapok Weight and Volume Displacement
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Front insert (2 each)                         Back insert
                               ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Reference PFD type          Minimum kapok     Volume displacement    Minimum kapok   Volume displacement N
                                  weight g (oz)           N (lb)           weight g (oz)            (lb)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Devices for adults, weighing
 over 40 kg (90 lb):
    Type II, III, and V         234 (8.25).......  401       156 (5.5).......  271
     Recreational.                                  (9.00.2                     (6.00.25
                                                    5)                                      )
Devices for youths, weighing
 23-40 kg (50-90 lb):
    Type I....................  184 (6.5)........  311       170 (6.0).......  301
                                                    (7.00.2                     (6.50.25
                                                    5)                                      )
    Type II, III, and V \1\...  156 (5.5)........  261       149 (5.25)......  241
                                                    (5.750.                     (5.50.l2
                                                    25)                                     5)
Devices for small children,
 weighing 14-23 kg (30-50 lb):
    Type I....................  128 (4.5)........  211       156 (5.5).......  301
                                                    (4.750.                     (6.50.25
                                                    25)                                     )
    Type II...................  100 (3.5)........  171       135 (4.75)......  221
                                                    (3.750.                     (5.00.25
                                                    25)                                     )
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Both Recreational and Commercial.

    (k) Second stage donning means adjustments or steps necessary to 
make a PFD provide its intended flotation characteristics after the 
device has been properly donned and then inflated.
    (l) SOLAS lifejacket, in the case of a hybrid inflatable PFD, means 
a PFD approved as meeting the requirements

[[Page 195]]

for lifejackets in the 1983 Amendments to the International Convention 
for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 74/83), in addition to the 
requirements of this subpart.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174A, 51 
FR 4351, Feb. 4, 1986; CGD 88-070, 53 FR 34536, Sept. 7, 1988. 
Redesignated and amended by CGD 78-174, 60 FR 2486, Jan. 9, 1995; 60 FR 
7131, Feb. 7, 1995; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50466, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 
61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.077-3  Required to be worn.

    (a) A Type V hybrid PFD may be used to meet the Coast Guard PFD 
carriage requirements of subpart 25.25 of this chapter, and 33 CFR part 
175, only if the PFD is used in accordance with any requirements on the 
approval label. PFDs marked ``REQUIRED TO BE WORN'' must be worn 
whenever the vessel is underway and the intended wearer is not within an 
enclosed space.
    (b) If hybrid PFD's with the marking ``REQUIRED TO BE WORN'' are not 
worn under the conditions stated in paragraph (a) of this section, other 
approved PFD's will have to be provided to comply with the applicable 
carriage requirements in 33 CFR part 175 and subpart 25.25 of this 
chapter.
    (c) The following PFD's must be marked ``REQUIRED TO BE WORN'' as 
specified in Sec. 160.077-31:
    (1) Each Type V recreational hybrid PFD.
    (2) Each Type V commercial hybrid PFD.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985. Redesignated and amended by CGD 
78-174, 60 FR 2486, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-4  Type.

    (a) A hybrid PFD that successfully passes all applicable tests may 
be approved as a Type I, II, III, or V for various size ranges of 
persons weighing over 23 kg (50 lb), as Type I or II for persons 
weighing 14-23 kg (30-50 lb) or as Type I or II for other sizes. A Type 
V PFD has limitations on its approval.
    (b) The approval tests in this subpart require each Type V hybrid 
PFD to have at least the same performance as a Type I, II, or III PFD 
for adult and youth sizes or Type I or II PFD for child sizes.
    (c) A hybrid PFD may be approved for use on recreational boats, 
commercial vessels or both if the applicable requirements are met.

[CGD 78-174, 60 FR 2486, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-5  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Certain materials are incorporated by reference into this 
subpart with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register. The 
Office of the Federal Register publishes a table, ``Material Approved 
for Incorporation by Reference,'' which appears in the Finding Aids 
section of this volume. In that table is found the date of the edition 
approved, citations to the particular sections of this part where the 
material is incorporated, addresses where the material is available, and 
the date of approval by the Director of the Federal Register. To enforce 
any edition other than the one listed in the table, notice of the change 
must be published in the Federal Register and the material made 
available to the public. All approved material is on file at the Office 
of the Federal Register, Washington, DC 20408, and at the U.S. Coast 
Guard, Lifesaving and Fire Safety Division (G-MSE-4), Washington, DC 
20593.
    (b) The materials approved for incorporation by reference in this 
subpart are:

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

ASTM B 117-97, Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) 
Apparatus--160.077-11
ASTM D 751-95, Standard Test Methods for Coated Fabrics--160.077-19
ASTM D 1434-82 (1988), Standard Test Method for Determining Gas 
Permeability Characteristics of Plastic Film and Sheeting--160.077-19

Federal Standards
In Federal Test Method Standard No. 191 the following test methods:
    (1) Method 5100, Strength and Elongation, Breaking of Woven Cloth; 
Grab Method.
    (2) Method 5132, Strength of Cloth, Tearing; Falling-Pendulum 
Method.
    (3) Method 5134, Strength of Cloth, Tearing; Tongue Method.
    (4) Method 5804.1, Weathering Resistance of Cloth; Accelerated 
Weathering Method.
    (5) Method 5762, Mildew Resistance of Textile Materials; Soil Burial 
Method.

[[Page 196]]

Federal Standard No. 751, Stitches, Seams, and Stitching.

Military Specifications
MIL-L-24611(SH)--Life Preserver Support Package For Life Preserver, MK 
4.

National Bureau of Standards (NBS)
``The Universal Color Language'' and ``The Color Names Dictionary'' in 
Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Names, National Bureau of 
Standards Special Publication 440.

Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
UL 1191, ``Components for Personal Flotation Devices.''
UL 1517, ``Hybrid Personal Flotation Devices.''

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985. Redesignated by CGD 78-174, 60 
FR 2486, Jan. 9, 1995; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-
041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996; USCG -1999-5151, 64 FR 67184, Dec. 1, 
1999]



Sec. 160.077-6  Approval procedures.

    (a) General. Subpart 159.005 of this chapter contains the approval 
procedures. Those procedures must be followed, excepted as modified in 
this paragraph.
    (1) Preapproval review under Secs. 159.005-5 and 159.005-7 may be 
omitted if a similar design has already been approved.
    (2) The information required in all three subparagraphs of 
Sec. 159.005-5(a)(2) must be included in the application.
    (3) The application must also include the following:
    (i) The type of performance (i.e. Donned Type I, Type II or Type 
III) that the PFD is designed to provide.
    (ii) Any special purpose(s) for which the PFD is designed and the 
vessel(s) or type(s) of vessel on which its use is planned.
    (iii) Buoyancy and torque tolerances to be allowed in production.
    (iv) The text of any optional marking to be provided in addition to 
required text.
    (v) The manual required by Sec. 160.077-29 (UL 1517 text may be 
omitted in this submission).
    (vi) The size range of wearers that the device is intended to fit.
    (4) The description of quality control procedures required by 
Sec. 159.005-9 of this chapter to be submitted with the test report may 
be omitted as long as the manufacturer's planned quality control 
procedures comply with Sec. 160.077-23.
    (b) Waiver of tests. If a manufacturer requests that any test in 
this subpart be waived, one of the following must be provided to the 
Commandant as justification for the waiver:
    (1) Acceptable test results on a PFD of sufficiently similar design.
    (2) Engineering analysis showing that the test is not applicable to 
the particular design or that by design or construction the PFD cannot 
fail the test.
    (c) Alternative Requirements. A PFD that does not meet requirements 
in this subpart may still be approved if the device--
    (1) Meets other requirements prescribed by the Commandant in place 
of or in addition to requirements in this subpart; and
    (2) Provides at least the same degree of safety provided by other 
PFD's that do comply with this subpart.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174A, 51 
FR 4351, Feb. 4, 1986. Redesignated and amended by CGD 78-174, 60 FR 
2491, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-7  Procedure for approval of design or material revision.

    (a) Each change in design, material, or construction of an approved 
PFD must be approved by the Commandant before being used in any 
production of PFDs.
    (b) Determinations of equivalence of design, construction, and 
materials may be made only by the Commandant.

[CGD 78-174, 60 FR 2492, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-9  Recognized laboratory.

    (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under 
this subpart shall follow the approval procedures of subpart 159.005 of 
this chapter, and shall apply for approval directly to a recognized 
independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under 
Sec. 159.010-7 of this part, to perform testing and approval functions 
under this subpart: Underwriters Laboratories, 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. 
Box 13995, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919) 549-1400.
    (b) Production oversight must be performed by the same laboratory 
that performs the approval tests unless, as determined by the 
Commandant, the

[[Page 197]]

employees of the laboratory performing production oversight receive 
training and support equal to that of the laboratory that performed the 
approval testing.

[CGD 93-055, 61 FR 13931, Mar. 28, 1996; 61 FR 15868, Apr. 9, 1996]



Sec. 160.077-11  Materials--Recreational Hybrid PFD's.

    (a) General--(1) Application. This section contains requirements for 
materials used in recreational hybrid PFD's.
    (2) Condition of Materials. All materials must be new.
    (3) Acceptance, certification, and quality. All components used in 
the construction of hybrid PFDs must meet the applicable requirements of 
subpart 164.019 of this chapter.
    (4) Temperature range. Unless otherwise specified in standards 
incorporated by reference in this section, all materials must be 
designed for use in all weather conditions throughout a temperature 
range of -30  deg.C to +65  deg.C (-22  deg.F to +150  deg.F).
    (5) Weathering Resistance. Each non-metallic component which is not 
suitably covered to shield against ultraviolet exposure must be designed 
to--
    (i) Retain at least 40% of its strength after being subjected to 300 
hours of sunshine carbon arc weathering as specified by Method 5804.1 of 
Federal Test Method Standard Number 191; or
    (ii) Meet UL 1517, section 4.3.
    (6) Fungus Resistance. Each non-metallic component must be designed 
to retain at least 90% of its strength after being subjected to the 
mildew resistance test specified by Method 5762 of Federal Test Method 
Standard 191 when untreated cotton is used as the control specimen. 
Also, the gas transmission rate of inflation chamber materials must not 
be increased by more than 10% after being subjected to this test. 
Materials that are covered when used in the PFD may be tested with that 
covering.
    (7) Corrosion resistance. Each metal component must be--
    (i) Galvanically compatible with each other metal part in contact 
with it; and
    (ii) Unless it is expendable (such as an inflation medium 
cartridge), 410 stainless steel or have salt water and salt air 
corrosion characteristics equal or superior to 410 stainless steel or 
perform its intended function, and have no visible pitting or other 
damage on any surface, after 720 hours of salt spray testing according 
to ASTM B 117 (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.077-5).
    (8) Materials not covered. Materials not covered in this section 
must be of good quality and suitable for the purpose intended.
    (b) Flotation material. Inherent buoyancy must be provided by--
    (1) Plastic foam meeting--
    (i) Subpart 164.013 of this chapter;
    (ii) Subpart 164.015 of this chapter; or
    (iii) UL 1191 and having a V factor of 89 except that foam with a 
lower V factor may be used if it provides buoyancy which, after a normal 
service life, is at least equal to that of a PFD made with material 
having a V factor of 89 and the required minimum inherent buoyancy when 
new; or
    (2) Kapok meeting subpart 164.003 of this chapter.
    (c) Fabric--(1) All fabric. All fabric, except inner envelope 
fabric, must--
    (i) Be of a type accepted for use on Type I PFD's approved under 
subpart 160.002 of this chapter; or
    (ii) Meet the Type V requirements for ``Fabrics for Wearable 
Devices'' in UL 1191, except that its breaking strength must be at least 
400 N (90 lb.) in both the directions of greater and lesser thread 
count.
    (2) Rubber coated fabric. Rubber coated fabric must be of a copper-
inhibiting type.
    (3) Inner envelope fabric. Inner envelope fabric must--
    (i) Meet the requirements in paragraph (c)(i) of this section; or
    (ii) Be of a type accepted for use on Type II PFD's approved under 
subpart 160.047 of this chapter.
    (d) Inflation chamber materials--(1) All materials. The average 
permeability of inflation chamber material must not be more than 110% of 
the permeability of materials determined in approval testing prescribed 
in Sec. 160.077-19(d). The average grab breaking strength and tear 
strength of the material must be at least 90% of the grab breaking 
strength and tear strength determined from testing prescribed in 
Sec. 160.077-19(d). No individual sample result for

[[Page 198]]

breaking strength or tear strength may be more than 20% below the 
results obtained in approval testing.
    (2) Fabric covered chambers. Each material used in the construction 
of inflation chambers that are covered with fabric must meet the 
requirements specified for--
    (i) Bladder materials in section 3.2.6 of MIL-L-24611(SH) if the 
material is an unsupported film, except that any color or finish may be 
used; or
    (ii) Coated fabric in section 3.1.1 of TSO-C13 if the material is a 
coated fabric.
    (3) Uncovered chambers. Each material used in the construction of 
inflation chambers that are not covered with fabric must meet the 
requirements specified in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) and (a)(5)(i) of this 
section.
    (e) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam. Thread and fabric combinations must have similar elongation and 
durability characteristics.
    (f) Webbing. Webbing used as a body strap, tie tape or drawstring, 
or reinforcing tape must meet Sec. 160.002-3(e), Sec. 160.002-3(f), and 
Sec. 160.002-3(h) of this chapter respectively. Webbing used for tie 
tape or drawstring must be capable of easily holding a knot and being 
easily tied and untied. Webbing used as reinforcing tape must be smooth 
enough to prevent chafing the wearer.
    (g) Closures--(1) Strength. Each closure such as a buckle, snap hook 
and dee ring, or other type of fastening must comply with UL 1517, 
section 4.1. The width of each closure opening through which body strap 
webbing passes must be the same as the width of that webbing.
    (2) Means of Locking. Each closure used to secure a PFD to the body, 
except a zipper, must have a quick and positive means of locking, such 
as a snap hook and dee ring.
    (3) Zipper. If a zipper is used to secure a PFD to the wearer it 
must be--
    (i) Easily initiated;
    (ii) Non-jamming;
    (iii) Right handed; and
    (iv) Of a locking type.
    (h) Inflation medium. If a hybrid PFD has an automatic or manual 
inflation mechanism--
    (1) The inflation medium must not contain or produce compounds more 
toxic than CO2 in sufficient quantity to cause an adverse 
reaction if inhaled through any of its oral inflation mechanisms; and
    (2) Any chemical reaction during inflation must not leave a toxic 
residue.
    (i) [Reserved]
    (j) Kapok pad covering. If kapok flotation material is used, pad 
covering that meets Sec. 160.047-3(e) of this chapter must be provided 
to enclose the material in at least three separate pads.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 84-068, 58 FR 
29494, May 20, 1993; CGD 78-174, 60 FR 2486, Jan. 9, 1995; USCG-2000-
7790, 65 FR 58463, Sept. 29, 2000]



Sec. 160.077-13  Materials--Type I and Commercial Hybrid PFD.

    (a) General. All commercial hybrid PFD materials must meet 
Sec. 160.077-11 and this section.
    (b) Closures. Each closure other than a zipper must have a minimum 
breaking strength of 1000 N (225 lbs). If a zipper is used to secure the 
PFD to the body, it must be used in combination with another closure 
that has a quick and positive means of locking.
    (c) Retroreflective Material. Each PFD must have at least 200 sq. 
cm. (31 sq. in.) of retroreflective material on its front side, at least 
200 sq. cm. on its back side and at least 200 sq. cm. of material on 
each reversible side, if any. The material must be Type I material that 
is approved under Subpart 164.018 of this chapter. The material attached 
on each side must be divided equally between the upper quadrants of the 
side. The material, as attached, must not impair PFD performance.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174, 60 FR 
2487, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-15  Construction and Performance--Recreational Hybrid PFD.

    (a) Performance. (1) Each recreational hybrid PFD must be able to 
pass the tests in Sec. 160.077-19.
    (2) Each recreational hybrid PFD must--

[[Page 199]]

    (i) If second stage donning is required, have an obvious method for 
doing it;
    (ii) If it is to be marked as Type II or Type V providing Type I or 
II performance, not require second stage donning to achieve that 
performance;
    (iii) Be capable of being worn while inflated at 60 N (13 lb.) of 
buoyancy without significantly changing its appearance from, or making 
it significantly less comfortable than, the uninflated condition;
    (iv) Not cause significant discomfort to the wearer during and after 
inflation; and
    (v) If it has a manual or automatic inflation mechanism and can be 
put on inside out, not restrict breathing when donned inside out, 
adjusted to fit, and inflated.
    (b) Construction; General. Each recreational hybrid PFD must--
    (1) Have one or more inflation chambers;
    (2) Have at least one oral means of inflation on each inflation 
chamber;
    (3) Have at least one automatic inflation mechanism that inflates at 
least one chamber, if marked as providing Type I or II performance;
    (4) Be constructed so that the intended method of donning is obvious 
to an untrained wearer;
    (5) Not have a channel that can direct water to the wearer's face to 
any greater extent than that of the reference vest defined in 
Sec. 160.077-3(j).
    (6) Have a retainer for each adjustable closure to prevent any part 
of the closure from being easily removed from the PFD;
    (7) If marked as universally sized for wearers weighing over 40 kg 
(90 pounds), have a chest size range of at least 76 to 120 cm (30 to 52 
in.);
    (8) Not have means of access to any inherently buoyant inserts;
    (9) Not have edges, projections, or corners, either external or 
internal, that are sufficiently sharp to damage the PFD or cause injury 
to anyone using or maintaining the PFD;
    (10) Be of first quality workmanship;
    (11) Unless otherwise allowed by the approval certificate--
    (i) Not incorporate means obviously intended for attaching the PFD 
to the vessel; and
    (ii) Not have any instructions indicating that attachment is 
intended;
    (12) Except as otherwise required by this section, meet UL Standard 
1517, sections 6.14, 6.20, 7.1, 7.3, 7.8, 8.4, and 9; and
    (13) Provide the minimum buoyancies specified in Table 160.077-
15(b)(13).

                         Table 160.077-15(b)(13)--Buoyancy for Recreational Hybrid PFDs
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Adult                      Youth                   Small child
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Inherent buoyancy (deflated
 condition):
    Type II...................  45 N (10 lb)..............  40 N (9 lb)..............  30 N (7 lb)
    Type III..................  45 N (10 lb)..............  40 N (9 lb)..............  N/A
    Type V....................  33 N (7.5 lb).............  34 N (7.5 lb)............  N/A
Total buoyancy (inflated
 condition):
    Type II...................  100 N (22 lb).............  67 N (15 lb).............  53 N (12 lb)
    Type III..................  100 N (22 lb).............  67 N (15 lb).............  N/A
    Type V....................  100 N (22 lb).............  67 N (15 lb).............  N/A
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (14) Meet any additional requirements that the Commandant may 
prescribe, if necessary, to approve unique or novel designs.
    (c) Inflation mechanism. (1) Each inflation mechanism on a 
recreational hybrid PFD must--
    (i) Not require tools to activate it or replace its inflation medium 
cartridge or water sensitive element;
    (ii) Have an intended method of operation that is obvious to an 
untrained wearer; and
    (iii) Be located outside of its inflation chamber.
    (2) Each oral inflation mechanism must--
    (i) Be designed to operate without pulling on the mechanism;
    (ii) Not be capable of locking in the open or closed position except 
that, a friction-fit dust cap that only locks in the closed position may 
be used; and
    (iii) Have a non-toxic mouthpiece.
    (3) Each automatic and manual inflation mechanism must--

[[Page 200]]

    (i) Have a simple method for replacing the inflation medium 
cartridge; and
    (ii) Be in a ready-to-use condition or be conspicuously marked to 
indicate that the inflation mechanism is not in a ready-to-use condition 
and that the purchaser must assemble it.
    (4) Each manual inflation mechanism must--
    (i) Provide an easy means of inflation that requires only one 
deliberate action on the part of the wearer to actuate it; and
    (ii) Be operated by pulling on an inflation handle that is marked 
``Jerk to Inflate'' at two visible locations.
    (5) Each automatic inflation mechanism must--
    (i) Have an obvious method for indicating whether the mechanism has 
been activated; and
    (ii) Be incapable of assembly without its water sensitive element.
    (6) The marking required for the inflation handle of a manual 
inflation mechanism must be waterproof, permanent, and readable from a 
distance of 2.5 m (8 ft.).
    (d) Deflation mechanism. (1) Each inflation chamber must have its 
own deflation mechanism.
    (2) Each deflation mechanism must--
    (i) Be readily accessible to either hand when the PFD is worn while 
inflated;
    (ii) Not require tools to operate it;
    (iii) Have an intended method of operation that is obvious to an 
untrained wearer, and
    (iv) Not be able to be locked in the open or closed position.
    (3) The deflation mechanism may be the oral inflation mechanism.
    (e) Sewn seams. Stitching used in each structural seam of a PFD must 
provide performance equal to or better than a Class 300 Lockstitch 
meeting Federal Standard No. 751.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174A, 51 
FR 4351, Feb. 4, 1986; CGD 78-174, 60 FR 2487, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-17  Construction and Performance--Type I and Commercial Hybrid PFD.

    (a) General. Each commercial hybrid PFD must meet--
    (1) Paragraph (b) of this section; and
    (2) Section 160.077-15, except Sec. 160.077-15(a)(2)(iii) and 
Sec. 160.077-15(c)(1)(i).
    (b) Additional requirements. Each commercial hybrid PFD must--
    (1) Be able to pass the tests in Sec. 160.077-21;
    (2) Not present a snag hazard when properly worn;
    (3) When worn inflated, have a visible external surface area of at 
least 1300 sq. cm (200 sq. in.) in front and 450 sq. cm (70 sq. in.) in 
back that are primarily vivid reddish orange as defined by sections 13 
and 14 of the ``Color Names Dictionary'';
    (4) Have at least one inflation chamber, except that a hybrid PFD 
approved as a SOLAS lifejacket must have at least two inflation 
chambers;
    (5) Have at least one manual inflation mechanism.
    (6) Have at least one automatic inflation mechanism that inflates at 
least one chamber; and
    (7) Not require second stage donning after inflation.
    (8) If approved for adults, be universally sized as specified in 
Sec. 160.077-15(b)(7).
    (9) Commercial hybrid PFDs employing closures with less than 1600 N 
(360 lb) strength, must have at least two closures that meet UL 1517, 
Section 22.1.
    (10) Each commercial hybrid PFD must have an attachment for a PFD 
light securely fastened to the front shoulder area. The location should 
be such that if the light is attached it will not damage or impair the 
performance of the PFD.
    (11) In the deflated and the inflated condition, provide buoyancies 
of at least the values in Table 160.077-17(b)(11).

                 Table 160.077-17(b)(11)--Minimum Buoyancy of Type I and Commercial Hybrid PFDs
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                           Adult                      Youth                   Small child
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Inherent buoyancy (deflated
 condition):
    Type I....................  70 N (15.5 lb)............  50 N (11 lb).............  40 N (9 lb)
    Type V....................  60 N (13 lb)..............  34 N (7.5 lb)............  N/A
Total buoyancy (inflated
 condition):

[[Page 201]]

 
    Type I....................  130 N (30 lb).............  80 N (18 lb).............  67 N (15 lb)
    Type V....................  100 N (22 lb).............  67 N (15 lb).............  N/A
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174, 60 FR 
2487, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-19  Approval Testing--Recreational Hybrid PFD's.

    (a) General. (1) This section contains approval tests and 
examinations for recreational hybrid PFD's. Each test and examination 
must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. The tests 
must be done using PFD's that have been constructed in accordance with 
the plans and specifications in the application for approval. In each 
test only one PFD is required to be tested unless otherwise specified or 
needed to complete the tests in paragraph (d) of this section.
    (2) All data relating to buoyancy and pressure must be taken at, or 
corrected to, standard atmospheric pressure of 760 mm (29.92 inches) of 
mercury and temperature of 20  deg.C (68  deg.F).
    (3) The tests in paragraph (b) of this section must be completed 
before doing the tests in paragraph (d) of this section.
    (4) In each test that specifies inflation by an automatic inflation 
mechanism and either or both of the other mechanisms, the automatic 
inflation mechanism must be tested first.
    (5) Some tests in this section require PFD's to be tested while 
being worn. The number and characteristics of the test subjects must be 
as prescribed in section 11 of UL 1517.
    (b) Tests. Each PFD design must be tested according to the 
procedures in the following tests and meet the requirements in those 
tests:
    (1) Donning and Operability, UL 1517, section 12.
    (2) Jump Test, UL 1517, section 13.
    (3) Flotation Stability and Inflation.
    (i) Uninflated Flotation Stability, UL 1517, section 14.

    Note: If the freeboard of a test subject is close to zero, caution 
must be taken to prevent the subject from inhaling water. The subject 
may use lightweight breathing aids to avoid inhaling water.

    (ii) Inflation, UL 1517, section 14.3 through 14.5 using a PFD with 
each automatic inflation mechanism disabled.
    (iii) Inflated flotation stability, UL 1517, section 15, for Type II 
and Type III performance except comparisons are to be made to the 
appropriate size and Type reference vest as defined in Sec. 160.077-
2(j).
    (4) Water Emergence, UL 1517, section 16.
    (5) Operation Force Test, UL 1517, section 17.
    (6) Buoyancy, buoyancy distribution, and inflation medium retention 
test, UL 1517, sections 18 and 19, except:
    (i) Recreational hybrid inflatables must provide minimum buoyancy as 
specified in Table 160.077-15(b)(13):
    (ii) The buoyancy and volume displacement of kapok buoyant inserts 
must be tested in accordance with the procedures prescribed in 
Sec. 160.047-4(c)(4) and Sec. 160.047-5(e)(1) in lieu of the procedures 
in UL 1517, section 18 and 19.
    (7) Inflation Chamber Tests.
    (i) Over-pressure Test, UL 1517, section 28.
    (ii) Air Retention Test, UL 1517, section 29.
    (8) Temperature Cycling Tests, UL 1517, section 23.
    (9) Solvent Exposure Test, UL 1517, section 24.
    (10) Environmental Tests, UL 1517, section 31.1.
    (i) Humidity Exposure, UL 1517, section 31.4.
    (ii) Rain Exposure, UL 1517, section 31.2 and 31.3.
    (11) Abrasion/Compression Test, UL 1517, section 26.
    (12) Water Entrapment Test, UL 1517, section 20.
    (13) Tensile Tests, UL 1517, section 22.
    (14) Strength of Attachment of Inflation Mechanism, UL 1517, section 
30.

[[Page 202]]

    (15) Flame Exposure Test, UL 1517, section 25.
    (16) Impact Test, UL 1517, section 21.
    (17) Seam Strength Test, UL 1517, section 33.
    (18) Puncture Test, UL 1517, section 27.
    (c) Visual Examination. One complete PFD must be visually examined 
for compliance with the requirements of Sec. 160.077-15.
    (d) Inflation Chamber Properties--(1) General. The tests in this 
paragraph must be run if the tests in paragraph (b) of this section are 
successfully completed. The results of these tests will be used to check 
the quality of incoming PFD components and the production process. Test 
samples must come from one of more PFD's that were each used in all of 
the tests in paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(6), (b)(7), (b)(16), and (b)(18) of 
this section.
    (2) Grab breaking strength. Grab breaking strength of chamber 
materials must be determined according to Method No. 5100 of Federal 
Test Method Standard 191, or ASTM D 751 (incorporated by reference, see 
Sec. 160.077-5).
    (3) Tear strength. Tear strength of chamber materials must be 
determined according to Method No. 5132 or 5134 of Federal Test Method 
Standard 191, or ASTM D 751 (incorporated by reference, see 
Sec. 160.077-5).
    (4) Permeability. The permeability of chamber materials must be 
determined according to ASTM D 1434 (incorporated by reference, see 
Sec. 160.077-5) using CO2 as the test gas.
    (5) Seam strength. The seam strength of the seams in each inflation 
chamber of at least one PFD must be determined according to ASTM D 751 
(incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.077-5), except that 25 mm by 
200 mm (1 in. by 8 in.) samples may be used where insufficient length of 
straight seam is available.
    (e) The Commandant may prescribe additional tests, if necessary, to 
approve unique or novel designs.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174, 60 FR 
2487, Jan. 9, 1995; USCG-2000-7790, 65 FR 58463, Sept. 29, 2000]



Sec. 160.077-21  Approval Testing--Type I and Commercial Hybrid PFD.

    (a) General. This section contains commercial hybrid PFD approval 
tests. The provisions of Sec. 160.077-19(a) apply to each test in this 
section.
    (b) Tests. Each test prescribed in Sec. 160.077-19(b), except the 
tests in paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(3)(i), (b)(3)(ii), and (b)(6), must be 
conducted and passed.
    (c) Additional tests. Each PFD design must also be tested according 
to the procedures in the following tests and meet the requirements in 
these tests:
    (1) Jump test, UL 1517, section S6 for Adult size. Youth and Small 
Child sizes are exempt from this test.
    (2) In-water removal, UL 1517, section S9 for Adult and Youth sizes. 
The Small Child size is exempt from this test.
    (3) Buoyancy and inflation medium retention test, UL 1517, Section 
S10, except the minimum buoyancies must be as specified in the Table 
160.077-17(b)(11):
    (4) Flotation stability.
    (i) Uninflated flotation stability, UL 1517, section S7, except that 
for Type I devices the requirements of paragraph S7.1.A apply to all 
subjects regardless of their in-water weight. For Type V adult-size 
devices the requirements of paragraph S7.1.A apply to all adult subjects 
having an in-water weight of 13 lb or less, and the requirements of 
paragraph S7.1.B apply to all other adult subjects.

    Note: --If the freeboard of a test subject is close to zero, caution 
must be taken to prevent the subject from inhaling water. The subject 
may use lightweight breathing aids to avoid inhaling water.

    (ii) Righting action test, 46 CFR 160.176-13(d)(2) through (d)(5) 
for Type I hybrid PFDs. UL 1517, Section S8, for Type V hybrid PFDs.
    (5) Flotation stability--youths and small children.
    (i) Uninflated flotation stability, UL 1517, section S7, except that 
the requirements of paragraph S7.1.A apply to all subjects regardless of 
their in-water weight.
    (ii) Righting action test, UL 1517, Section 15.3 through 15.13, for 
Youth and

[[Page 203]]

Small Child hybrid PFDs except comparisons are to be made to the 
appropriate size and type reference vest as defined in Sec. 160.077-
2(j).
    (d) Flotation Stability Criteria. At the end of the righting action 
test--
    (1) At least 75% of the PFD's retroreflective material on the 
outside of the PFD, and the PFD light, must be above the water when the 
subject is floating in the stable flotation attitude; and
    (2) The subject when floating in the stable flotation position and 
looking to the side, must be able to see--
    (i) The water no more than 3 m (10 ft.) away; or
    (ii) A mark on a vertical scale no higher than the lowest mark which 
can be viewed when floating in the same position in the reference vest 
defined in Sec. 160.077-3(j).
    (3) Each adult test subject must have a freeboard of at least:
    (i) 100 mm (4 inches) if the PFD being tested is to be approved as a 
Type I hybrid PFD; or
    (ii) 120 mm (4.75 inches) if the PFD being tested is to be approved 
as a SOLAS lifejacket.
    (e) Visual Examination. One complete PFD must be visually examined 
for compliance with the requirements of Sec. 160.077-15 and 
Sec. 160.077-17.
    (f) Inflation Chamber Properties. If the tests in paragraphs (b) and 
(c) of this section are completed successfully, the tests in 
Sec. 160.077-19(d) must be run.
    (g) The Commandant may prescribe additional tests, if necessary, to 
approve unique or novel designs.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174, 60 FR 
2488, Jan. 9, 1995; 60 FR 7131, Feb. 7, 1995; CGD 95-072, 60 FR 50466, 
Sept. 29, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-23  Production tests and inspections.

    (a) General. (1) Production tests and inspections must be conducted 
in accordance with this section and subpart 159.007 of this chapter.
    (2) The Commandant may prescribe additional production tests and 
inspections if needed to maintain quality control and check for 
compliance with the requirements of this subpart.
    (b) Test and Inspection Responsibilities. In addition to 
responsibilities set out in part 159 of this chapter, each manufacturer 
of a hybrid PFD and each independent laboratory inspector must comply 
with the following, as applicable:
    (1) Manufacturer. Each manufacturer must--(i) Perform all required 
tests and examinations on each PFD lot before the independent laboratory 
inspector tests and inspects the lot, except as provided in 
Sec. 160.077-23(d)(5);
    (ii) Perform required testing of each incoming lot of inflation 
chamber material before using that lot in production;
    (iii) Have procedures for maintaining quality control of the 
materials used, manufacturing operations, and the finished product;
    (iv) Have a continuing program of employee training and a program 
for maintaining production and test equipment;
    (v) Have an inspector from the independent laboratory observe the 
production methods used in producing the first PFD lot produced and 
observe any revisions made thereafter in production methods;
    (vi) Admit the inspector and any Coast Guard representative to any 
place in the factory where work is done on hybrid PFD's or component 
materials, and where completed PFD's are stored; and
    (vii) Allow the inspector and any Coast Guard representative to take 
samples of completed PFD's or of component materials for tests 
prescribed in this subpart.
    (2) Independent Laboratory.
    (i) An inspector may not perform or supervise any production test or 
inspection unless--
    (A) The manufacturer has a current approval certificate; and
    (B) The inspector has first observed the manufacturer's production 
methods and any revisions to those methods.
    (ii) Except as specified in paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section, an 
inspector must perform or supervise testing and inspection of at least 
one PFD lot in each five lots produced.
    (iii) During each inspection, the inspector must check for 
noncompliance with the manufacturer's quality control procedures.

[[Page 204]]

    (iv) Except as specified in paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section, at 
least once each calendar quarter, the inspector must, as a check on the 
manufacturer's compliance with this section, examine the manufacturer's 
records required by Sec. 160.077-25 and observe the manufacturer perform 
each of the tests required by paragraph (h) of this section.
    (v) If less than six lots are produced during any calendar year, 
only one lot inspection in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this 
section, and one records examination and test performance observation in 
accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section is required during 
that year. Each lot tested and inspected must be within seven lots of 
the previous lot inspected.
    (c) PFD Lots. A lot number must be assigned to each group of PFD's 
produced. No lot may exceed 1000 PFD's. A new lot must be started 
whenever any change in materials or a production method is made, or 
whenever any substantial discontinuity in the production process occurs. 
Changes in lots of component materials must be treated as changes in 
materials. Lots must be numbered serially. The lot number assigned, 
along with the approval number, must enable the PFD manufacturer, by 
referring to the records required by this subpart, to determine who 
produced the components used in the PFD.
    (d) Samples. (1) Samples used in testing and inspections must be 
selected at random. Sampling must be done only when all PFD's or 
materials in the lot are available for selection.
    (2) Each sample PFD selected must be complete, unless otherwise 
specified in paragraph (h) of this section.
    (3) Each adult test subject must have a freeboard of at least:
    (i) 100 mm (4 inches) if the PFD being tested is to be approved as a 
Type I hybrid PFD; or
    (ii) 120 mm (4.75 inches) if the PFD being tested is to be approved 
as a SOLAS lifejacket.
    (4) The number of samples selected per lot must be at least the 
number listed in Table 160.077-23A or Table 160.077-23B, as applicable, 
except as allowed in paragraph (d)(5) of this section.
    (5) If the total production for any five consecutive lots does not 
exceed 250 devices, the manufacturer's and inspector's tests can be run 
on the same sample(s) at the same time.

                                   Table 160.077-23A--Manufacturer's Sampling
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       Number of samples per lot
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               Lot size
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                       1-100   101-200   201-300   301-500   501-750   751-1000
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tests:
  Inflation chamber materials.......................
                                                   See note 1
  Seam strength.....................................       1         1         2         2         3           4
  Over-pressure(2), (3).............................       1         2         3         4         6           8
  Air retention.....................................
                                             Every device in the lot
  Buoyancy and inflation media retention............       1         2         3         4         6           8
  Tensile strength(4)...............................       1         1         1         1         1           1
  Detailed product examination......................       2         2         3         4         6           8
Retest sample size(2)...............................  ......  ........        13        13        20          20
Final lot examination...............................
                                             Every device in the lot
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Notes to Table:
(1) Samples must be selected from each lot of incoming material. The tests referenced in Sec.  160.077-19(d)(2)
  through Sec.  160.077-19(d)(4) prescribe the number of samples to select.
(2) Samples selected for this test may not be the same samples selected for other tests.
(3) If any sample fails this test, the number of samples to be tested in the next lot produced must be at least
  2% of the total number of PFD's in the lot or 10 PFD's, whichever is greater.
(4) This test is required only when a new lot of materials is used and when a revised production process is
  used. However, the test must be run at least once every calendar quarter regardless of whether a new lot of
  materials or revised process is started in that quarter.


[[Page 205]]


                                     Table 160.077-23B--Inspector's Sampling
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       Number of samples per lot
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               Lot size
                                                     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                       1-100   101-200   201-300   301-500   501-750   751-1000
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tests:
  Over-pressure 1...................................       1         1         2         2         3           4
  Air retention.....................................       1         1         2         2         3           4
  Buoyancy and inflation media retention............       1         1         2         2         3           4
  Tensile strength 2................................       1         1         1         1         1           1
  Waterproof marking................................
                                             See note 3 for sampling
  Detailed product examination......................       1         1         1         2         2           3
Retest sample size 1................................      10        10        13        13        20          20
Final Lot Inspection................................      10        15        20        25        27          30
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Notes to Table:
(1) Samples selected for this test may not be the same PFD's selected for other tests.
(2) This test may be omitted if the manufacturer has previously conducted it and the inspector has conducted the
  test on a previous lot within the past year.
(3) One sample of each means of marking on each type of fabric or finish used in PFD construction must be tested
  whenever a new lot of materials is used or at least every six months regardless of whether a new lot of
  materials was used within the past six months.

    (e) Accept/Reject Criteria: Manufacturer Testing. (1) A PFD lot 
passes production testing if each sample passes each test.
    (2) In lots of 200 or less PFD's the lot must be rejected if any 
sample fails one or more tests.
    (3) In lots of more than 200 PFD's, the lost must be rejected if--
    (i) One sample fails more than one test;
    (ii) More than one sample fails; or
    (iii) One sample fails one test and in redoing that test with the 
number of samples specified for retesting in Table 160.077-23A, one or 
more samples fail the test.
    (4) A rejected PFD lot may be retested only if allowed under 
paragraph (k) of this section.
    (5) In testing inflation chamber materials, a lot is accepted only 
if the average of the results of testing the minimum number of samples 
prescribed in the reference tests in Sec. 160.077-19(d) is within the 
tolerances specified in Sec. 160.077-11(d)(1). Any lot that is rejected 
may not be used in production.
    (f) Accept/Reject Criteria: Independent Laboratory Testing. (1) A 
lot passes production testing if each sample passes each test.
    (2) A lot must be rejected if--
    (i) One sample fails more than one test;
    (ii) More than one sample fails; or
    (iii) One sample fails one test and in redoing that test with the 
number of samples specified for retesting in Table 160.077-23B, one or 
more samples fail the test.
    (3) A rejected lot may be retested only if allowed under paragraph 
(k) of this section.
    (g) Facilities and Equipment--(1) General. The manufacturer must 
provide the test equipment and facilities described in this section for 
performing production tests, examinations, and inspections.
    (2) Calibration. The manufacturer must have the calibration of all 
test equipment checked at least annually by a weights and measures 
agency or the equipment manufacturer, distributor, or dealer.
    (3) Equipment. The following equipment is required:
    (i) A Sample Basket for buoyancy tests. It must be made of wire mesh 
and be of sufficient size and durability to hold a complete inflated 
PFD. The basket must be heavy enough or be sufficiently weighted to 
become submerged when holding a test sample.
    (ii) A Tank Filled with Fresh Water for buoyancy tests. The height 
of the tank must be sufficient to allow a water depth of at least 5 cm 
(2 inches) from the water surface to the top of the basket when the 
basket is not touching the bottom. The length and width of the tank must 
be sufficient to prevent each submerged basket from contacting another 
basket or the tank sides and bottom. Means for locking or

[[Page 206]]

sealing the tank must be provided to prevent disturbance of any samples 
or a change in water level during testing.
    (iii) A Scale that has sufficient capacity to weigh a submerged 
sample basket. The scale must be sensitive to 14 g (0.5 oz) and must not 
have an error exceeding 14 g (0.5 oz).
    (iv) Tensile Test Equipment that is suitable for applying pulling 
force in conducting body strap assembly strength subtests. The equipment 
assembly may be (A) a known weight and winch, (B) a scale, winch, and 
fixed anchor, or (C) a tensile test machine that is capable of holding a 
given tension. The assembly must provide accuracy to maintain a pulling 
force within 2 percent of specified force. Additionally, if 
the closed loop test method is used, two cylinders of the type described 
in that method must be provided.
    (v) A Thermometer that is sensitive to 0.5  deg.C (1  deg.F) and 
does not have an error exceeding 0.25  deg.C (0.5  deg.F).
    (vi) A Barometer that is capable of reading mm (inches) of mercury 
with a sensitivity of 1 mm (0.05 in.) Hg and an error not exceeding 
0.05 mm (0.02 in.) Hg.
    (vii) A Regulated Air Supply that is capable of supplying the air 
necessary to conduct the tests specified in paragraphs (h)(4) and (h)(5) 
of this section.
    (viii) A Pressure Gauge that is capable of measuring air pressure 
with a sensitivity of 1 kPa (0.1 psig) and an error not exceeding 
0.5 kPa (0.05 psig).
    (ix) A Torque Wrench if any screw fasteners are used. The wrench 
must be sensitive to, and have an error of less than, one-half the 
specified tolerance for the torque values of the fasteners.
    (x) Inflation chamber materials test equipment. If the required 
tests in paragraph (h)(2) of this section are performed by the PFD 
manufacturer, test equipment suitable for conducting Grab Breaking 
Strength, Tear Strength, Permeability, and Seam Strength tests must be 
available at the PFD manufacturer's facility.
    (4) Facilities. The manufacturer must provide a suitable place and 
the necessary apparatus for the inspector to use in conducting or 
supervising tests. For the final lot inspection, the manufacturer must 
provide a suitable working environment and a smooth-top table for the 
inspector's use.
    (h) Production Tests and Examinations--(1) General. (i) Samples used 
in testing must be selected according to paragraph (d) of this section.
    (ii) On the samples selected for testing--
    (A) The manufacturer must conduct the tests in paragraph (h)(2) 
through (h)(8) of this section; and
    (B) The independent laboratory inspector must conduct or supervise 
the tests in paragraph (h)(4) through (h)(9) of this section.
    (iii) Each individual test result must, in addition to meeting the 
requirements in this paragraph, comply with the requirements, if any, 
set out in the approved plans and specifications.
    (2) Inflation Chamber Materials. Each sample must be tested 
according to Sec. 160.077-19(d)(1) through Sec. 160.077-19(d)(4). The 
average and individual results of testing the minimum number of samples 
prescribed in Sec. 160.077-19(d) must comply with the requirements in 
Sec. 160.077-11(d)(1).
    (3) Seam Strength. The seams in each inflation chamber of each 
sample must be tested according to Secs. 160.077-19(d)(1) and 160.077-
19(d)(5). The results for each inflation chamber must be at least 90% of 
the results obtained in approval testing.
    (4) Over-pressure. Each sample must be tested according to and meet 
UL 1517, section 28. Test samples may be prestressed by inflating them 
to a greater pressure than the required test pressure prior to 
initiating the test at the specified values.
    (5) Air Retention. Each sample must be tested according to and meet 
UL 1517, section 36. Prior to initiating the test at the specified 
values, test samples may be prestressed by inflating to a pressure 
greater than the design pressure, but not exceeding 50 percent of the 
required pressure for the tests in paragraph (h)(4) of this section. Any 
alternate test method that decreases the length of the test must be 
accepted by the Commandant and must require a proportionately lower 
allowable pressure loss and the same percentage sensitivity and accuracy 
as the standard allowable loss measured with the standard 
instrumentation.

[[Page 207]]

    (6) Buoyancy and Inflation Medium Retention. Each sample must be 
tested according to and meet Sec. 160.077-19(b)(6), except that the UL 
1517 section 19 test is not required unless specified on the approved 
plans and specifications. In addition to meeting the minimum values 
required by Sec. 160.077-19(b)(6), each buoyancy value must fall within 
the tolerances specified in the approved plans and specifications.
    (7) Tensile Strength. Each sample must be tested according to and 
meet UL 1517, section 22.
    (8) Detailed Product Examination. Each sample must be disassembled 
to the extent necessary to determine compliance with the following:
    (i) All dimensions and seam allowances must be within tolerances 
prescribed in the approved plans and specifications.
    (ii) The torque of each screw type mechanical fastener must be 
within its tolerance as prescribed in the approved plans and 
specifications.
    (iii) The arrangement, markings, and workmanship must be as 
specified on the approved plans and specifications and this subpart.
    (iv) The PFD must not otherwise be defective.
    (9) Waterproof Marking Test. Each sample is completely submerged in 
fresh water for at least 30 min. and then removed and immediately placed 
on a hard surface. The markings are vigorously rubbed with the fingers 
for 15 seconds. If the printing becomes illegible, the sample is 
rejected.
    (i) [Reserved]
    (j) Final Lot Examination and Inspection. (1) General. On each PFD 
lot that passes production testing, the manufacturer must perform a 
final lot examination and an independent laboratory inspector must 
perform a final lot inspection. Samples must be selected according to 
paragraph (d) of this section. Each final lot examination and inspection 
must show--
    (i) First quality workmanship;
    (ii) That the general arrangement and attachment of all components 
such as body straps, closures, inflation mechanisms, tie tapes, 
drawstrings, etc. are as specified in the approved plans and 
specifications; and
    (iii) Compliance with the marking requirements in Sec. 160.077-31.
    (2) Accept/Reject Criteria. Each nonconforming PFD must be rejected. 
If three or more nonconforming PFD's are rejected for the same kind of 
defect, lot examination or inspection must be discontinued and the lot 
rejected.
    (3) Manufacturer Examination. This examination must be done by a 
manufacturer's representative who is familiar with the approved plans 
and specifications, the functioning of the PFD and its components, and 
the production testing procedures. This person must not be responsible 
for meeting production schedules or be supervised by someone who is. 
This person must prepare and sign the inspection record required by 
Sec. 159.077-13 of this chapter and Sec. 160.077-25(b).
    (4) Independent Laboratory Inspection. (i) The inspector must 
discontinue lot inspection and reject the lot if observation of the 
records for the lot or of individual PFD's shows noncompliance with this 
section or the manufacturer's quality control procedures.
    (ii) An inspector may not perform a final lot inspection unless the 
manufacturer has a current approval certificate.
    (iii) If the inspector rejects a lot, the inspector shall notify the 
Commandant immediately.
    (iv) The inspector must prepare and sign the record required by 
Sec. 159.077-13 of this chapter and Sec. 160.077-25(b). If the lot 
passes, the record must also include the inspector's certification to 
that effect and a certification that no evidence of noncompliance with 
this section was observed.
    (k) Disposition of PFD's Rejected in Testing or Inspections. (1) A 
rejected PFD lot may be resubmitted for testing, examination, or 
inspection if the manufacturer first removes and destroys each PFD 
having the same type of defect or, if authorized by the Commandant or an 
authorized representative of the Commandant, reworks the lot to correct 
the defect.
    (2) Any PFD rejected in a final lot examination or inspection may be 
resubmitted for examination or inspection if

[[Page 208]]

all defects have been corrected and reexamination or reinspection is 
authorized by the Commandant or an authorized representative of the 
Commandant.
    (3) A rejected lot or rejected PFD may not be sold or offered for 
sale with the representation that it meets this subpart or that it is 
Coast Guard approved.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174A, 51 
FR 4351, Feb. 4, 1986; CGD 78-174, 60 FR 2488, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-25  Manufacturer records.

    (a) Each manufacturer of hybrid PFD's must keep the records required 
by Sec. 159.007-13 of this chapter, except that they must be retained at 
least 120 months after the month in which the inspection or test was 
conducted.
    (b) Each record required by Sec. 159.007-13 of this chapter must 
also include the following information:
    (1) For each test, the serial number of the test instrument used if 
there is more than one available.
    (2) For each test and inspection, the identification of the samples 
used, the lot number, the approval number, and the number of PFD's in 
the lot.
    (3) For each lot rejected, the cause for rejection, any corrective 
action taken, and the final disposition of the lot.
    (c) The description or photographs of procedures and apparatus used 
in testing is not required for the records prescribed in Sec. 159.077-13 
of this chapter as long as the manufacturer's procedures and apparatus 
meet the requirements of this subpart.
    (d) Each manufacturer of hybrid PFD's must also keep the following 
records:
    (1) Records for all materials used in production including the 
following:
    (i) Name and address of the supplier.
    (ii) Date of purchase and receipt.
    (iii) Lot number.
    (iv) Certification meeting Sec. 160.077-11(a)(4).
    (2) A copy of this subpart.
    (3) Each document incorporated by reference in Sec. 160.077-9.
    (4) A copy of the approved plans and specifications.
    (5) The approval certificate.
    (6) Calibration of test equipment, including the identity of the 
agency performing the calibration, date of calibration, and results.
    (e) The records required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section must be 
kept for at least 120 months after preparation. All other records 
required by paragraph (d) of this section must be kept for at least 60 
months.

    Effective Date Note: At 50 FR 33935, Aug. 22, 1985, Sec. 160.077-25 
(a) and (e) were added. This amendment contains information collection 
requirements which will not be effective until approval has been 
obtained from the Office of Management and Budget.



Sec. 160.077-27  Pamphlet.

    (a) Each recreational hybrid PFD sold or offered for sale must be 
provided with a pamphlet that a prospective purchaser can read prior to 
purchase. The required pamphlet text must be printed verbatim and in the 
sequence set out in paragraph (e) of this section. Additional 
information, instructions, or illustrations must not be included within 
the required text. The type size shall be no smaller than 8-point.
    (b) Each pamphlet must be prominently marked ``Seller, do not remove 
pamphlet.''
    (c) No person may sell or offer for sale any recreational hybrid PFD 
unless the pamphlet required by this section is provided with it.
    (d) The text specified in paragraphs (e)(2) of this section must be 
accompanied by illustrations of the types of devices being described. 
The illustrations provided must be either photographs or drawings of the 
manufacturer's own products or illustrations of other Coast Guard-
approved PFDs.
    (e) For a Type I hybrid PFD intended for recreational use or a Type 
II, III, or V recreational hybrid PFD, the pamphlet contents must be as 
follows:
    (1) The text in UL 1517, Section 39, item A;
    (2) The following text and illustrations:

           There Are Five Types of Personal Flotation Devices

    This is a Type [insert approved Type] Hybrid Inflatable PFD.

    Note: The following types of PFDs are designed to perform as 
described in calm water

[[Page 209]]

and when the wearer is not wearing any other flotation material (such as 
a wetsuit).

    Type I--A Type I PFD has the greatest required inherent buoyancy and 
turns most unconscious persons in the water from a face down position to 
a vertical and slightly backward position, therefore greatly increasing 
one's chances of survival. The Type I PFD is suitable for all waters, 
especially for cruising on waters where rescue may be slow coming, such 
as large bodies of water where it is not likely that boats will be 
nearby. This type PFD is the most effective of all types in rough water. 
It is reversible and available in only two sizes--Adult (over 40 kg (90 
lb)) and child (less than 40 kg (90 lb)) which are universal sizes 
(designed for all persons in the appropriate category).

[Insert illustration of Type I PFD]

    Type II--A Type II PFD turns most wearers to a vertical and slightly 
backward position in the water. The turning action of a Type II PFD is 
less noticeable than the turning action of a Type I PFD and the Type II 
PFD will not turn as many persons under the same conditions as the Type 
I. The Type II PFD is usually more comfortable to wear than the Type I. 
This type of PFD is designed to fit a wide range of people for easy 
emergency use, and is available in the following sizes: Adult (over 40 
kg (90 lb)), Medium Child (23-40 kg (50-90 lb)), and two categories of 
Small Child (less than 23 kg (50 lb) or less than 14 kg (30 lb). 
Additionally, some models are sized by chest sizes. You may prefer to 
use the Type II where there is a good chance of fast rescue, such as 
areas where it is common for other persons to be engaged in boating, 
fishing and other water activities.

[Insert illustration of Type II PFD]

    Type III--The Type III PFD allows the wearer to tilt backwards in 
the water, and the device will maintain the wearer in that position and 
will not turn the wearer face down. It is not designed to turn the 
wearer face up. A Type III is generally more comfortable than a Type II, 
comes in a variety of styles which should be matched to the individual 
use, and is often the best choice for water sports, such as skiing, 
hunting, fishing, canoeing, and kayaking. This type PFD normally comes 
in many chest sizes and weight ranges; however, some universal sizes are 
available. You may also prefer to use the Type III where there is a 
probability of quick rescue such as areas where it is common for other 
persons to be engaged in boating, fishing, and other water activities.

[Insert illustration of Type III PFD]

    Hybrid Inflatable Type I, II, or III--A Type I, II, or III Hybrid 
PFD is an inflatable device which is the most comfortable PFD to wear 
and has a minimal amount of buoyancy when deflated and significantly 
increased buoyancy when inflated (See accompanying table for actual 
buoyancy for your Type of hybrid). When inflated it turns the wearer 
with the action of a Type I, II, or III PFD as indicated on its label. 
Boaters taking advantage of the extra comfort of hybrid inflatable PFDs 
must take additional care in the use of these devices. Boaters should 
test their hybrid PFDs in the water, under safe, controlled conditions 
to know how well the devices float them with limited buoyancy. 
Approximately 90 percent of boaters will float while wearing a Type II 
or III hybrid inflatable PFD when it is not inflated. However, hybrid 
inflatable PFDs are not recommended for non-swimmers unless worn with 
enough additional inflation to float the wearer. Almost all boaters will 
float while wearing a Type I hybrid inflatable PFD that is not inflated. 
The PFD's `performance type' indicates whether it should be used only 
where help is nearby, or if it also may be used where help may be slow 
coming. Type I hybrids are suitable where rescue may be slow coming, 
while Types II and III are good only when there is a chance of fast 
rescue. Type I hybrids are approved in three weight ranges, adult, for 
persons weighing over 40 kg (90 lb); youth, for persons weighing 23-40 
kg (50-90 lb); and small child, for persons weighing 14-23 kg (30-50 
lb). Type II hybrid PFDs are approved in the same size ranges as Type I 
hybrids but may be available in a number of chest sizes and in universal 
adult sizes. Type III hybrids are only approved in adult and youth sizes 
but may also be available in a number of chest sizes and in universal 
adult sizes.

[For a pamphlet provided with a Type I, II or III hybrid PFD, insert 
illustration of the Type Hybrid PFD being sold]

    Type IV--A Type IV PFD is normally thrown or tossed to a person who 
has fallen overboard so that the person can grasp and hold the device 
until rescued. Until May 15, 1995 (or May 1, 1996 at commercial 
liveries), the Type IV is acceptable in place of a wearable device in 
certain instances. However, this type is suitable only where there is a 
good chance of quick rescue, such as areas where it is common for other 
persons to be nearby engaged in boating, fishing, and other water 
activities. It is not recommended for use by non-swimmers and children.

[Insert illustration of Type IV PFD]

    Type V (General)--A Type V PFD is a PFD approved for restricted uses 
or activities such as boardsailing, or commercial white water rafting. 
These PFDs are not suitable for other boating activities. The label on 
the PFD indicates the kinds of activities for which the PFD may be used 
and whether there are limitations on how it may be used.
    Type V Hybrid--A Type V Hybrid PFD is an inflatable device which can 
be the most comfortable and has very little buoyancy when it

[[Page 210]]

is not inflated, and considerably more buoyancy when it is inflated. In 
order for the device to count toward carriage requirements on 
recreational boats, it must be worn except when the boat is not underway 
or when the user is below deck. When inflated it turns the wearer 
similar to the action provided by a Type I, II, or III PFD (the type of 
performance is indicated on the label). This type of PFD is more 
comfortable because it is less bulky when it is not inflated. Boaters 
taking advantage of the extra comfort of hybrid inflatable PFDs must 
take additional care in the use of these devices. Boaters should test 
their hybrid PFDs in the water, under safe, controlled conditions to 
know how well the devices float them with limited buoyancy. 
Approximately 70 percent of boaters will float while wearing a Type V 
hybrid PFD when the device is not inflated. Therefore, it is not 
recommended for non-swimmers unless worn with enough additional 
inflation to float the wearer. The PFD's ``performance type'' indicates 
whether it should be used only where help is nearby, or if it may also 
be used where help may be slow coming. This type of PFD is approved in 
two sizes, adult, for persons weighing over 40 kg (90 lb); and youth, 
for persons weighing 23-40 kg (50-90 lb), and may be available in a 
number of chest sizes and in universal adult sizes.

[For a pamphlet provided with a Type V hybrid PFD, insert illustration 
of TYPE V Hybrid PFD]

    (3) A table with the applicable PFD Type, size, and buoyancy values 
from Table 160.077-15(b)(13) or 160.077-17(b)(11), as applicable; and
    (4) The text in UL 1517, Section 39, items D, E, and F.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174, 60 FR 
2489, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-29  PFD Manuals.

    (a) Approval. The text of each manual required by this section is 
reviewed with the application for approval. Changes may be required if 
needed to comply with this section.
    (b) Required Manuals. An owner's manual must be provided with each 
recreational and commercial hybrid PFD sold or offered for sale as 
follows:
    (1) The manual text for a recreational hybrid PFD must be printed 
verbatim and in the sequence set out in paragraph (c) or (d) of this 
section, as applicable.
    (2) The manual for a commercial hybrid PFD must meet the 
requirements of paragraph (f) of this section except that the manual for 
a commercial Type I PFD which is also labeled for recreational use must 
meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.
    (3) Additional information, instructions, or illustrations may be 
included within the specified text of the manuals required by this 
section if there is no contradiction to the required information.
    (c) Type I, II or III Hybrid PFD. For a Type I, II and III hybrid 
PFD the manual contents must be as follows:
    (1) The following text:

                           Hybrid Limitations

    This PFD has limited inherent buoyancy which means YOU MAY HAVE TO 
INFLATE THIS PFD TO FLOAT, and its inflatable portion requires 
maintenance. While these PFDs are not required to be worn, if you have 
an accident or fall overboard, you are much more likely to survive if 
you are already wearing a PFD.
    There is only one way to find out if you will float while wearing 
the PFD when it is not inflated. That is to try this PFD in the water as 
explained in [insert reference to the section of the manual that 
discusses how to test the PFD]. If you have not tested this device in 
accordance with these guidelines, the Coast Guard does not recommend its 
use.

    (2) Instructions on use including instructions on donning, 
inflation, replenishing inflation mechanisms, and recommended practice 
operation;
    (3) Instructions on how to properly inspect and maintain the PFD, 
and recommendations concerning frequency of inspection;
    (4) Instructions on how to get the PFD repaired;
    (5) The text in UL 1517, Section 40, items B and D;
    (6) The following text:

                         Why Do You Need a PFD?

    A PFD provides buoyancy to help keep your head above water and to 
help you stay face up. The average in-water-weight of an adult is only 
about 5 to 10 pounds. The buoyancy provided by most PFDs will support 
that weight in water. However, the hybrid Type I, II, or III PFD may be 
an exception. The uninflated buoyancy provided by this PFD may only 
float 90 percent of the boating public. This is because the inherent 
buoyancy has been reduced to make it more comfortable to wear. So, you 
may not float adequately without inflating the device. Once

[[Page 211]]

the device is inflated you will have a minimum of 22 lb of buoyancy for 
adult sizes, which should be more than enough to float everyone. (See 
table above [below] for the actual minimum buoyancy for different Types 
of hybrids.) Your body weight alone does not determine your in-water-
weight. Since there is no simple method of determining your weight in 
water, you should try the device in the water in both its deflated and 
inflated condition.

    (7) The text in UL 1517, Section 40, item G;
    (8) The following text:

                              Wear Your PFD

    Your PFD won't help you if you don't have it on. It is well-known 
that most boating accidents occur on calm water during a clear sunny 
day. It is also true that in approximately 80 percent of all boating 
accident fatalities, the victim did not use a PFD. Don't wait until it's 
too late. Non-swimmers and children especially should wear their PFD at 
all times when on or near the water. Hybrid Type I, II, III or V PFDs 
are not recommended for non-swimmers unless inflated enough to float the 
wearer.

    (9) The text in UL 1517, Section 40, items I, J, K, and L; and
    (10) A table with the applicable PFD Type, size, and buoyancy values 
from Table 160.077-15(b)(13) or 160.077-17(b)(11), as applicable, or 
provide a reference to appropriate pamphlet table, if the pamphlet is 
combined with the manual.
    (d) Type V Recreational Hybrid PFD. For a Type V recreational hybrid 
PFD the manual contents must be as follows:
    (1) The text in UL 1517, Section 40, item A;
    (2) Instructions on use including instructions on donning, 
inflation, replenishing inflation mechanisms, and recommended practice 
operation;
    (3) Instructions on how to properly inspect and maintain the PFD, 
and recommendations concerning frequency of inspection;
    (4) Instructions on how to get the PFD repaired; and
    (5) The text in UL 1517, section 40, that is not included under 
paragraph (d)(1) of this section.
    (e) Commercial Hybrid PFD. (1) For a commercial hybrid PFD that is 
``REQUIRED TO BE WORN'' the manual must meet the requirements of 
paragraph (d) of this section.
    (2) For a commercial hybrid PFD approved as a ``Work Vest Only'' or 
Type I PFD the manual must meet the requirements of either paragraphs 
(e) (3) and (4) or of paragraph (c) of this section. The manual for a 
commercial Type I hybrid PFD which is also labeled for use on 
recreational boats must meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this 
section.
    (3) Each commercial hybrid PFD approved with special purpose 
limitation must have a user's manual that--
    (i) Explains in detail the proper care, maintenance, stowage, and 
use of the PFD; and
    (ii) Includes any other safety information as prescribed by the 
approval certificate.
    (4) If the manual required in paragraph (e)(3) of this section calls 
for inspection or service by vessel personnel, the manual must--
    (i) Specify personnel training or qualifications needed;
    (ii) Explain how to identify the PFDs that need to be inspected; and
    (iii) Provide a log in which inspections and servicing may be 
recorded.
    (5) If a PFD light approved under subpart 161.012 is not provided at 
time of sale, the manual must specify the recommended type of light to 
be used.
    (6) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (b) of this 
section, manufacturers that make shipments to purchasers that do not 
redistribute the PFDs, must provide at least one manual in each carton 
of PFDs shipped.

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174, 60 FR 
2490, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-30  Spare operating components and temporary marking.

    (a) Spare operating components. Each recreational and commercial 
hybrid PFD must--
    (1) If it has a manual or automatic inflation mechanism and is 
packaged and sold with one inflation medium cartridge loaded into the 
inflation mechanism, have at least two additional spare inflation 
cartridges packaged with it. If it is sold without an inflation medium 
cartridge loaded into the inflation mechanism, it must be packaged and 
sold with at least three cartridges; and

[[Page 212]]

    (2) If it has an automatic inflation mechanism and is packaged and 
sold with one water sensitive element loaded into the inflation 
mechanism, have at least two additional spare water sensitive elements 
packaged with it. If it is sold without a water sensitive element loaded 
into the inflation mechanism, it must be packaged and sold with at least 
three water sensitive elements.
    (b) Temporary marking. Each recreational and commercial hybrid PFD 
which is sold--
    (1) In a ready-to-use condition but which has covers or restraints 
to inhibit tampering with the inflation mechanism prior to sale, must 
have any such covers or restraints conspicuously marked ``REMOVE 
IMMEDIATELY AFTER PURCHASE.''; or
    (2) Without an inflation medium cartridge, a water sensitive 
element, or both pre-loaded into the inflation mechanism, must include 
the markings required in Sec. 160.077-15(c)(3)(ii).

[CGD 78-174, 60 FR 2491, Jan. 9, 1995]



Sec. 160.077-31  PFD Marking.

    (a) General. Each hybrid PFD must be marked with the applicable 
information required by this section. Each marking must be waterproof, 
clear, permanent, and readable from a distance of three feet.
    (b) Prominence. Each marking, other than the text in paragraphs (c) 
and (d) of this section, must be significantly less prominent and in 
smaller print than paragraph (c) and (d) text.
    (c) Recreational Hybrid PFD. Each recreational hybrid PFD must be 
marked with the following text using capital letters where shown and be 
presented in the exact order shown:

                 Type [II, III, or V, as applicable] PFD

[See paragraph (k) of this section for exact text to be used here]

    Recreational hybrid inflatable--Approved for use only on 
recreational boats. [For Type V only] REQUIRED TO BE WORN to meet Coast 
Guard carriage requirements (except for persons in enclosed spaces as 
explained in owner's manual).
[For Type V only] When inflated this PFD provides performance equivalent 
to a [see paragraph (h) of this section for exact test to be used here].

    A Pamphlet and Owner's Manual must be provided with this PFD.

            WARNING--TO REDUCE THE RISK OF DEATH BY DROWNING

--YOU MAY HAVE TO INFLATE THIS PFD TO FLOAT.
--TRY THIS PFD IN THE WATER EACH SEASON TO SEE IF IT WILL FLOAT YOU 
WITHOUT INFLATION.
--CHOOSE THE RIGHT SIZE PFD AND WEAR IT--FASTEN ALL CLOSURES AND ADJUST 
FOR SNUG FIT.
--THIS PFD REQUIRES MAINTENANCE. FOLLOW MANUFACTURER'S USE AND CARE 
INSTRUCTIONS.
--REMOVE HEAVY OBJECTS FROM POCKETS IN AN EMERGENCY.
--[Unless impact tested at high speed as noted on the approval 
certificate] DO NOT USE IN HIGH-SPEED ACTIVITIES.
--DO NOT DRINK ALCOHOL WHILE BOATING.

    (d) Type I and Commercial Hybrid PFD. Each Type I hybrid PFD 
intended for recreational use and each commercial hybrid PFD must be 
marked with the following text using capital letters where shown and be 
presented in the exact order shown:

     Type [``I'', ``V'', or ``V Work Vest Only'', as applicable] PFD

[See paragraph (k) of this section for exact text to be used here]

    Commercial hybrid inflatable--Approved for use on [see paragraph (j) 
of this section for exact text to be used here].
[For Type V only] When inflated this PFD provides performance equivalent 
to a [see paragraph (h) of this section for exact test to be used here].
[For Type I devices intended for recreational use] A Pamphlet and 
Owner's Manual must be provided with this PFD.

            WARNING--TO REDUCE THE RISK OF DEATH BY DROWNING

--YOU MAY HAVE TO INFLATE THIS PFD TO FLOAT.
--TRY THIS PFD IN THE WATER EACH SEASON TO SEE IF IT WILL FLOAT YOU 
WITHOUT INFLATION.
--[For Type I devices intended for recreational use] CHOOSE THE RIGHT 
SIZE PFD AND WEAR IT.
--FASTEN ALL CLOSURES AND ADJUST FOR SNUG FIT.
--THIS PFD MUST BE MAINTAINED, STOWED, AND USED ONLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH 
THE OWNER'S MANUAL.
--REMOVE HEAVY OBJECTS FROM POCKETS IN AN EMERGENCY.

[[Page 213]]

--[Unless impact tested at high speed as noted on the approval 
certificate For Type I devices intended for recreational use] DO NOT USE 
IN HIGH-SPEED ACTIVITIES.
--[For Type I devices intended for recreational use] DO NOT DRINK 
ALCOHOL WHILE BOATING.

    (e) All PFD's. Each hybrid PFD must also be marked with the 
following information below the text required by paragraph (c) or (d) of 
this section:
    (1) U.S. Coast Guard Approval Number (insert assigned approval 
number).
    (2) Manufacturer's or private labeler's name and address.
    (3) Lot Number.
    (4) Date, or year and calendar quarter, of manufacture.
    (5) Necessary vital care or use instructions, if any, such as the 
following:
    (i) Warning against dry cleaning.
    (ii) Size and type of inflation medium cartridges required.
    (iii) Specific donning instructions.
    (f) Identification of User. Each hybrid PFD must have adequate space 
within which to mark the name or other identification of the intended 
user.
    (g) Flotation material buoyancy loss. When kapok flotation material 
is used, the statement ``--REPLACE PFD IF PADS BECOME STIFF OR 
WATERLOGGED.'' must follow the warning ``--TRY THIS PFD IN THE WATER 
EACH SEASON TO SEE IF IT WILL FLOAT YOU WITHOUT INFLATION.'' required by 
paragraph (c) or (d) of this section.
    (h) Type equivalence. The exact text to be inserted for Type V 
hybrid PFDs will be one of the following type equivalents as noted on 
the Approval Certificate.
    (i) [Reserved]
    (j) Approved use. Unless the Commandant has authorized omitting the 
display of approved use, the exact text to be inserted will be one or 
more of the following statements as noted on the approval certificate:
    (1) ``all recreational boats and on uninspected commercial vessels''
    (2) ``all recreational boats and on uninspected commercial vessels. 
REQUIRED TO BE WORN to meet Coast Guard carriage requirements (except 
for persons in enclosed spaces as explained in owner's manual)''
    (3) ``inspected commercial vessels as a WORK VEST only.''
    (4) ``[Insert exact text of special purpose or limitation and 
vessel(s) or vessel type(s), noted on approval certificate].''
    (k) Size Ranges. The exact text to be inserted will be one of the 
following statements as noted on the approval certificate:
    (1) ADULT--For persons weighing more than 40 kg (90 lb).
    (2) YOUTH--For persons weighing 23-40 kg (50-90 lb).
    (3) CHILD SMALL--For persons weighing 14-23 kg (30-50 lb).
    (4) ``[Other text noted on approval certificate].''

[CGD 78-174, 50 FR 33928, Aug. 22, 1985, as amended by CGD 78-174A, 51 
FR 4351, Feb. 4, 1986; CGD 78-174, 60 FR 2491, Jan. 9, 1995; 60 FR 7131, 
Feb. 7, 1995]



              Subpart 160.151--Inflatable Liferafts (SOLAS)

    Source: CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25547, May 9, 1997, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.151-1  Scope.

    This subpart prescribes standards, tests, and procedures for 
approval by the Coast Guard of SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts, 
and for their periodic inspection and repair at approved facilities 
(``servicing''). Certain provisions of this subpart also apply to 
inflatable buoyant apparatus as specified in Sec. 160.010-3 and to 
inflatable liferafts for domestic service as specified in subpart 
160.051.



Sec. 160.151-3  Definitions.

    In this subpart, the term:
    Commandant means the Commandant (G-MSE), United States Coast Guard, 
2100 Second Street, SW., Washington, DC 20593-0001.
    Servicing means periodic inspection, necessary repair, and repacking 
by a servicing facility approved by the Coast Guard. Requirements for 
periodic inspection and repair of inflatable liferafts approved by the 
Coast Guard are described in Secs. 160.151-35 through 160.151-57.
    SOLAS means the International Convention for the Safety of Life at 
Sea, 1974, as amended by the International Maritime Organization through 
the

[[Page 214]]

1988 (GMDSS) amendments, dated 9 November 1988.
    SOLAS A Liferaft means a liferaft that meets the requirements of 
this subpart for an inflatable liferaft complying with SOLAS and 
equipped with a SOLAS A equipment pack.
    SOLAS B Liferaft means a liferaft that meets the requirements of 
this subpart for an inflatable liferaft complying with SOLAS and 
equipped with a SOLAS B equipment pack.



Sec. 160.151-5  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this subpart 
with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register in accordance 
with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other 
than that specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the Coast Guard 
must publish notice of change in the Federal Register and make the 
material available to the public. All approved material is on file at 
the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street NW., Suite 
700, Washington, DC, and at the U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Design and 
Engineering Standards (G-MSE), 2100 Second Street SW., Washington, DC 
20593-0001, and is available from the sources indicated in paragraph (b) 
of this section.
    (b) The material approved for incorporation by reference in this 
subpart and the sections affected are as follows:

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.
ASTM F 1014-92, Standard Specification for Flashlights on Vessels--
160.151-21

International Maritime Organization (IMO)
Publications Section, 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, England
Resolution A.689(17)--Recommendation on Testing of Life-saving 
Appliances, 27 November 1991, including amendments through Resolution 
MSC.54(66), adopted 30 May 1996--160.151-21; 160.151-27; 160.151-31; 
160.151-57
Resolution A.657(16)--Instructions for Action in Survival Craft, 19 
November 1989--160.151-21
Resolution A.658(16)--Use and Fitting of Retro-reflective Materials on 
Life-saving Appliances, 20 November 1989--160.151-15; 160.151-57.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau 
of Standards)
c/o National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161
NBS Special Publication 440 (Order No. PB265225) Color: Universal 
Language and Dictionary of Names, 1976--160.151-15

Naval Forms and Publications Center
Customer Service, Code 1052, 5801 Tabor Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19120
MIL-C-17415E--(Ships)--Cloth, Coated, and Webbing, Inflatable Boat and 
Miscellaneous Use--160.151-15

[CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25547, May 9, 1997, as amended at USCG-1999-5151, 64 
FR 67184, Dec. 1, 1999]



Sec. 160.151-7  Construction of inflatable liferafts.

    Except as specified in this subpart, each SOLAS A and SOLAS B 
inflatable liferaft must meet the requirements of Chapter III of SOLAS. 
To be approved under this subpart, inflatable liferafts must be 
constructed in accordance with the following provisions of SOLAS:
    (a) Chapter III, Regulation 30, paragraph 2 (III/30.2), General 
requirements for life-saving appliances.
    (b) Chapter III, Regulation 38 (III/38) General requirements for 
liferafts.
    (c) Chapter III, Regulation 39 (III/39) Inflatable liferafts.
    (d) Chapter III, Regulation 51 (III/51) Training manual.
    (e) Chapter III, Regulation 52 (III/52) Instructions for on-board 
maintenance.



Sec. 160.151-9  Independent laboratory.

    Tests and inspections that this subpart requires to be conducted by 
an independent laboratory must be conducted by an independent laboratory 
accepted by the Coast Guard under subpart 159.010 of part 159 of this 
chapter to perform such tests and inspections. A list of accepted 
laboratories is available from the Commandant.



Sec. 160.151-11  Approval procedure.

    (a) A manufacturer seeking approval of an inflatable liferaft must 
comply with the procedures in part 159, subpart 159.005, of this chapter 
and in this section.
    (b) A manufacturer seeking approval of an inflatable liferaft must 
submit an application meeting the requirements

[[Page 215]]

of Sec. 159.005-5 of this chapter for preapproval review. To meet the 
requirements of Sec. 159.005-5(a)(2) of this chapter, the manufacturer 
shall submit--
    (1) General-arrangement drawing including principal dimensions;
    (2) Seating-arrangement plan;
    (3) Plans for subassemblies;
    (4) Plans for carriage and, in detail, stowage of equipment;
    (5) Plans for the inflation system;
    (6) Plans for the outer container;
    (7) Plans for any lifting shackle or ring, including diameter in 
cross-section, used for connecting the suspension tackle of a davit-
launched inflatable liferaft to the automatic disengaging device used 
for its hoisting and lowering;
    (8) Other drawing(s) necessary to show that the inflatable liferaft 
complies with the requirements of this subpart;
    (9) Description of methods of seam and joint construction;
    (10) Samples and identification of each material used in the 
buoyancy chambers, floor, and canopy, including the identity of their 
manufacturers, and segments of each type of seam made from such 
materials; and
    (11) Complete data pertinent to the installation and use of the 
proposed inflatable liferaft, including the maximum proposed height of 
its installation above the water, and the maximum length of the sea 
painter installed in the inflatable liferaft.



Sec. 160.151-13  Fabrication of prototype inflatable liferafts for approval.

    If the manufacturer is notified that the information submitted in 
accordance with Sec. 160.151-11 is satisfactory to the Commandant, 
fabrication of a prototype inflatable liferaft must proceed in the 
following sequence:
    (a) The manufacturer shall arrange for an independent laboratory to 
inspect the liferaft during its fabrication and prepare an inspection 
report meeting the requirements of Sec. 159.005-11 of this chapter. The 
independent laboratory shall conduct at least one inspection during 
layup of the buoyancy tubes of the liferaft, at least one inspection of 
the finished liferaft when fully inflated, and as many other inspections 
as are necessary to determine that the liferaft--
    (1) Is constructed by the methods and with the materials specified 
in the plans;
    (2) Passes the applicable inspections and tests required by 
Sec. 160.151-31; and
    (3) Conforms with the manufacturer's plans.
    (b) The manufacturer shall submit the independent laboratory's 
inspection report to the Commandant for review.
    (c) If, after review of the inspection report of the independent 
laboratory, the Commandant notifies the manufacturer that the liferaft 
is in compliance with the requirements of this subpart, the manufacturer 
may proceed with the approval tests required under Secs. 160.151-27 and 
160.151-29.
    (d) The manufacturer shall notify the cognizant OCMI of where the 
approval tests required under Secs. 160.151-27 and 160.151-29 will take 
place and arrange with the OCMI a testing schedule that allows for a 
Coast Guard inspector to travel to the site where the testing is to be 
performed.
    (e) The manufacturer shall admit the Coast Guard inspector to any 
place where work or testing is performed on inflatable liferafts or 
their component parts and materials for the purpose of--
    (1) Assuring that the quality-assurance program of the manufacturer 
is satisfactory;
    (2) Witnessing tests; and
    (3) Taking samples of parts or materials for additional inspections 
or tests.
    (f) The manufacturer shall make available to the Coast Guard 
inspector the affidavits or invoices from the suppliers of all essential 
materials used in the production of inflatable liferafts, together with 
records identifying the lot numbers of the liferafts in which such 
materials were used.
    (g) On conclusion of the approval testing, the manufacturer shall 
comply with the requirements of Sec. 159.005-9(a)(5) of this chapter by 
submitting the following to the Commandant:
    (1) The report of the prototype testing prepared by the 
manufacturer. The report must include a signed statement by the Coast 
Guard inspector who witnessed the testing, indicating that the

[[Page 216]]

report accurately describes the testing and its results.
    (2) The final plans of the liferaft as built. The plans must 
include--
    (i) The servicing manual described in Sec. 160.151-37;
    (ii) The instructions for training and maintenance described in 
Secs. 160.151-59 and 160.151-61, respectively;
    (iii) The final version of the plans required under Sec. 160.151-
11(b), including--
    (A) Each correction, change, or addition made during the 
construction and approval testing of prototypes;
    (B) Sufficient detail to determine that each requirement of this 
subpart is met;
    (C) Fabrication details for the inflatable liferaft, including 
details of the method of making seams and joints; and
    (D) Full details of the inflation system.
    (3) A description of the quality-control procedures that will apply 
to the production of the inflatable liferaft. These must include--
    (i) The system for checking material certifications received from 
suppliers;
    (ii) The method for controlling the inventory of materials;
    (iii) The method for checking quality of seams and joints; and
    (iv) The inspection checklists used during various stages of 
fabrication to assure that the approved liferaft complies with the 
approved plans and the requirements of this subpart.

[CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25547, May 9, 1997; 62 FR 35392, July 1, 1997]



Sec. 160.151-15   Design and performance of inflatable liferafts.

    To satisfy the requirements of the regulations of SOLAS indicated in 
Sec. 160.151-7, each inflatable liferaft must meet the following 
requirements of this section:
    (a) Workmanship and materials (Regulation III/30.2.1). Each liferaft 
must be constructed of the following types of materials meeting MIL-C-
17415E, or materials accepted by the Commandant as equivalent or 
superior--
    (1) Type 2, Class B, for the canopy;
    (2) Type 8 for seam tape;
    (3) Type 11 for the inflatable floor; and
    (4) Type 16, Class AA, for all other inflatable compartments and 
structural components.
    (b) Seams (Regulation III/30.2.1). Each seam must be at least as 
strong as the weakest of the materials joined by the seam. Each seam 
must be covered with tape where necessary to prevent lifting of and 
damage to fabric edges.
    (c) Protection from cold inflation-gas (Regulation III/30.2.1). Each 
inflatable compartment must be provided with a protective liner or 
baffling arrangement at the inflation-gas inlet, or other equally 
effective means to prevent damage from exposure to cold inflation-gas.
    (d) Compatibility of dissimilar materials (Regulation III/30.2.4). 
Where dissimilar materials are combined in the construction of a 
liferaft, provisions must be made to prevent loosening or tightening due 
to differences in thermal expansion, freezing, buckling, galvanic 
corrosion, or other incompatibilities.
    (e) Color (Regulation III/30.2.6). The primary color of the exterior 
of the canopy must be vivid reddish orange (color number 34 of NBS 
Special Publication 440), or a fluorescent color of a similar hue.
    (f) Retroreflective material (Regulation III/30.2.7). Each 
inflatable liferaft must be marked with Type I retroreflective material 
approved under part 164, subpart 164.018, of this chapter as complying 
with SOLAS. The arrangement of the retroreflective material must comply 
with IMO Resolution A.658(16).
    (g) Towing attachments (Regulation III/38.1.4.) Each towing 
attachment must be reinforced strongly enough to withstand the towing 
strain, and marked to indicate its function.
    (h) Weight (Regulation III/38.2.2). The weight of the liferaft 
including its container and equipment may not exceed 185 kg (407.8 lb), 
unless the liferaft is intended for launching into the water directly 
from its stowed position using an inclined or hand-tilted rack, or is 
served by a launching appliance approved by the Commandant under 
approval series 160.163.
    (i) Lifelines (Regulation III/38.3.1). Each lifeline must be made of 
nylon tubular webbing with a minimum diameter of 14 mm (9/16-inch), rope 
with a minimum diameter of 10 mm (\3/8\-inch),

[[Page 217]]

or equivalent. Each lifeline-attachment patch must have a minimum 
breaking strength of 1.5 kN (350 lb) pull exerted perpendicular to the 
base of the patch. Each bight of an exterior lifeline must be long 
enough to allow the lifeline to reach to the waterline of the liferaft 
when it is afloat.
    (j) Painter length (Regulation III/38.3.2). The length of the 
liferaft painter shall be not less than 10 meters (33 feet) plus the 
liferaft's maximum stowage height, or 15 meters (49 feet), whichever is 
greater.
    (k) Painter system (Regulation III/38.6.1). The painter protruding 
from the liferaft container must be inherently resistant, or treated to 
be resistant, to deterioration from sunlight and salt spray, and 
resistant to absorption and wicking of water.
    (l) Inflation cylinders (Regulation III/39.2.3). Each compressed-gas 
inflation cylinder within the liferaft must meet the requirements of 
Sec. 147.60 of this chapter, and be installed so that--
    (1) Slings and reinforcements of sufficient strength retain the 
inflation cylinders in place when the liferaft is dropped into the water 
from its stowage height and during inflation; and
    (2) The painter and the inflation cylinders of the liferaft are 
linked to start inflation when the painter is pulled by one person 
exerting a force not exceeding 150 N (34 lb).
    (m) Boarding ladders (Regulation III/39.4.2). The steps of each 
boarding ladder must provide a suitable foothold.
    (n) Canopy lamps (Regulation III/39.6.2). The exterior liferaft 
canopy lamp must be approved by the Commandant under approval series 
161.101.
    (o) Containers (Regulation III/39.7.1). Each container for packing 
liferafts--
    (1) Must include a telltale made with a seal-and-wire, or 
equivalent, method for indicating whether the liferaft has been tampered 
with or used since packing;
    (2) Must be designed so that the liferaft breaks free of the 
container when inflation is initiated, without the need to manually open 
or remove any closing arrangement;
    (3) Must have an interior surface smooth and free from splinters, 
barbs, or rough projections;
    (4) Must be of rigid construction where the liferaft is intended for 
float-free launching or for exposed stowage on deck;
    (5) If rigid, must be designed to facilitate securing the inflatable 
liferaft to a vessel to permit quick release for manual launching;
    (6) If constructed of fibrous-glass-reinforced plastic, must be 
provided with a means to prevent abrasion of the liferaft fabric, such 
as by using a gel-coated interior finish of the container, enclosing the 
liferaft in an envelope of plastic film, or equivalent means; and
    (7) Except as provided in paragraph (o)(4) of this section, may be 
of fabric construction. Each container of fabric construction must be 
made of coated cloth, include carrying handles and drain holes, and be 
adaptable to stowage and expeditious removal from lockers and deck-
mounted enclosures adjacent to liferaft-launching stations. The weight 
of a liferaft in a fabric container including its container and 
equipment may not exceed 100 kg (220 lb).

[CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25547, May 9, 1997, as amended by USCG-1998-4442, 63 
FR 52192, Sept. 30, 1998]



Sec. 160.151-17  Additional requirements for design and performance of SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts.

    To satisfy the requirements of the indicated regulations of SOLAS, 
each SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferaft must be manufactured in 
accordance with Secs. 160.151-7 and 160.151-15, and must comply with the 
following additional requirements:
    (a) Stability (Regulation III/39.5.1). (1) Each liferaft with a 
capacity of more than 8 persons must have a waterplane of circular or 
elliptical shape. A hexagonal, octagonal, or similar outline 
approximating a circular or elliptical shape is acceptable.
    (2) Each liferaft manufactured under this subpart must have water-
containing stability appendages on its underside to resist capsizing 
from wind and waves. These appendages must meet the following 
requirements:
    (i) The total volume of the appendages must not be less than 220 
liters

[[Page 218]]

(7.77 ft\3\) for liferafts approved to accommodate up to 10 persons. The 
volume of an appendage is calculated using the bottom of the lowest 
opening in an appendage as the height of the appendage, and by deducting 
the volume of any objects inside the appendage. No opening designed to 
close as water is forced out of an appendage is an opening for the 
purpose of this calculation.
    (ii) The total volume of the appendages for liferafts approved to 
accommodate more than 10 persons must be not less than 20  x  N liters 
(0.706  x  N ft\3\), where N = the number of persons for which the 
liferaft is approved.
    (iii) The appendages must be securely attached and evenly 
distributed around the periphery of the exterior bottom of the liferaft. 
They may be omitted at the locations of inflation cylinders.
    (iv) The appendages must consist of at least two separate parts so 
that damage to one part will permit at least half of the required total 
volume to remain intact.
    (v) Openings in or between the appendages must be provided to limit 
the formation of air pockets under the inflatable liferaft.
    (vi) The appendages must be designed to deploy underwater when the 
liferaft inflates, and to fill to at least 60 percent of their capacity 
within 25 seconds of deployment. If weights are used for this purpose, 
they must be of corrosion-resistant material.
    (vii) The primary color of the appendages must be vivid reddish 
orange (color number 34 of NBS Special Publication 440), or a 
fluorescent color of a similar hue.
    (b) Boarding ramp (Regulation III/39.4.1). The boarding ramp must 
have sufficient size and buoyancy to support one person weighing 100 kg 
(220 lb), sitting or kneeling and not holding onto any other part of the 
liferaft.
    (c) Marking (Regulation III/39.8). Means must be provided for 
identifying the liferaft with the name and port of registry of the ship 
to which it is to be fitted, so that the identification can be changed 
without opening the liferaft container.

[CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25547, May 9, 1997, as amended by USCG-1998-4442, 63 
FR 52192, Sept. 30, 1998]



Sec. 160.151-21  Equipment required for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts.

    To obtain Coast Guard approval, the equipment in each SOLAS A and 
SOLAS B inflatable liferaft must meet the following specific 
requirements when complying with the indicated regulations of SOLAS:
    (a) Heaving line (Regulation III/38.5.1.1). The buoyant heaving line 
described by Regulation III/38.5.1.1 must have a breaking strength of 
not less than 1.1 kN (250 lb), and must be attached to the inflatable 
liferaft near the entrance furthest from the painter attachment.
    (b) Jackknife (Regulation III/38.5.1.2). Each folding knife carried 
as permitted by Regulation III/38.5.1.2 must be a jackknife approved by 
the Commandant under approval series 160.043.
    (c) Bailer (Regulation III/38.5.1.3). Each bailer described by 
Regulation III/38.5.1.3 must have a volume of at least 2 L (125 in\3\).
    (d) Sponge (Regulation III/38.5.1.4). Each sponge described by 
Regulation III/38.5.1.4 must have a volume of at least 750 cm\3\ (48 
in\3\) when saturated with water.
    (e) Sea anchors (Regulation III/38.5.1.5). Sea anchors without the 
swivels described by Regulation III/38.5.1.5 may be used if, during the 
towing test, a sea anchor of their design does not rotate when streamed. 
The sea anchors need not have the tripping lines described by Regulation 
III/38.5.1.5 if, during the towing test, a sea anchor of their design 
can be hauled in by one person.
    (f) Paddles (Regulation III/38.5.1.6).The paddles must be at least 
1.2 m (4 ft) long and must be of the same size and type as used to pass 
the maneuverability test in paragraph 1/5.10 of IMO Resolution 
A.689(17).
    (g) Tin-opener (Regulation III/38.5.1.7). Each sharp part of a tin-
opener described by Regulation III/38.5.1.7 must have a guard.
    (h) First-aid kit (Regulation III/38.5.1.8). Each first-aid kit 
described by Regulation III/38.5.1.8 must be approved by the Commandant 
under approval series 160.054.
    (i) Whistle (Regulation III/38.5.1.9). The whistle described by 
Regulation III/38.5.1.9 must be a ball-type or multi-

[[Page 219]]

tone whistle of corrosion-resistant construction.
    (j) Rocket parachute flare (Regulation III/38.5.1.10). Each rocket 
parachute flare described by Regulation III/38.5.1.10 must be approved 
by the Commandant under approval series 160.136.
    (k) Hand flare (Regulation III/38.5.1.11). Each hand flare described 
by Regulation III/38.5.1.11 must be approved by the Commandant under 
approval series 160.121.
    (l) Buoyant smoke signal (Regulation III/38.5.1.12). Each buoyant 
smoke signal described by Regulation III/38.5.1.12 must be of the 
floating type approved by the Commandant under approval series 160.122.
    (m) Electric torch (Regulation III/38.5.1.13). The waterproof 
electric torch described by Regulation III/38.5.1.13 must be a Type I or 
Type III flashlight constructed and marked in accordance with ASTM F 
1014 (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.151-5. Three-cell-size 
flashlights bearing Coast Guard approval numbers in the 161.008 series 
may continue to be used as long as they are serviceable.
    (n) Radar reflector (Regulation III/38.5.1.14). The radar reflector 
may be omitted if the outside of the container of the inflatable 
liferaft includes a notice near the ``SOLAS A'' or ``SOLAS B'' marking 
indicating that no radar reflector is included.
    (o) Signalling mirror (Regulation III/38.5.1.15). Each signalling 
mirror described by Regulation III/38.5.1.15 must be approved by the 
Commandant under approval series 160.020.
    (p) Lifesaving signals (Regulation III/38.5.1.16). If not provided 
on a waterproof card or sealed in a transparent waterproof container as 
described in Regulation III/38.5.1.16, the table of lifesaving signals 
may be provided as part of the instruction manual.
    (q) Fishing tackle (Regulation III/38.5.1.17). The fishing tackle 
must be in a kit approved by the Commandant under approval series 
160.061.
    (r) Food rations (Regulation III/38.5.1.18.) The food rations must 
be approved by the Commandant under approval series 160.046.
    (s) Drinking water (Regulation III/38.5.1.19). The fresh water 
required by Regulation III/38.5.1.19 must be ``emergency drinking 
water'' approved by the Commandant under approval series 160.026. The 
desalting apparatus described in Regulation III/38.5.1.19 must be 
approved by the Commandant under approval series 160.058. 1.0 liter/
person of the required water may be replaced by an approved manually 
powered reverse osmosis desalinator capable of producing an equal amount 
of water in two days.
    (t) Drinking cup (Regulation III/38.5.1.20). The drinking cup 
described in Regulation III/38.5.1.20 must be graduated in ounces or 
milliliters or both.
    (u) Anti-seasickness medicine (Regulation III/38.5.1.21). The anti-
seasickness medicine required by Regulation III/38.5.1.21 must include 
instructions for use and be marked with an expiration date.
    (v) Survival instructions (Regulation III/38.5.1.22). The 
instructions required by Regulation III/38.5.1.22 on how to survive in a 
liferaft must--
    (1) Be waterproof;
    (2) Whatever other language or languages they may be in, be in 
English;
    (3) Meet the guidelines in IMO Resolution A.657(16); and
    (4) Be suspended in a clear film envelope from one of the arch tubes 
of the canopy.
    (w) Instructions for immediate action (Regulation III/38.5.1.23). 
The instructions for immediate action must--
    (1) Be waterproof;
    (2) Whatever other language or languages they may be in, be in 
English;
    (3) Meet the guidelines in IMO Resolution A.657(16);
    (4) Explain both the noise accompanying the operation of any 
provided pressure-relief valves, and the need to render them inoperable 
after they complete venting; and
    (5) Be suspended from the inside canopy, so they are immediately 
visible by survivors on entering the inflatable liferaft. They may be 
contained in the same envelope with the instructions on how to survive 
if the instructions for immediate action are visible through both faces 
of the envelope.
    (x) Thermal protective aid (Regulation III/38.5.1.24).
    Each thermal protective aid described by Regulation III/38.5.1.24 
must

[[Page 220]]

be approved by the Commandant under approval series 160.174.
    (y) Repair outfit (Regulation III/39.10.1.1). The repair outfit 
required by Regulation III/39.10.1.1 must include--
    (1) Six or more sealing clamps or serrated conical plugs, or a 
combination of the two;
    (2) Five or more tube patches at least 50 mm (2 in) in diameter;
    (3) A roughing tool, if necessary to apply the patches; and
    (4) If the patches are not self-adhesive, a container of cement 
compatible with the liferaft fabric and the patches, marked with 
instructions for use and an expiration date.
    (z) Pump or bellows (Regulation III/39.10.1.2). The pump or bellows 
required by Regulation III/39.10.1.2 must be manually operable and 
arranged to be capable of inflating any part of the inflatable structure 
of the liferaft.
    (aa) Plugs for pressure-relief valves. Plugs for rendering pressure-
relief valves inoperable must be provided in any liferaft fitted with 
such valves, unless the valves are of a type that can be rendered 
inoperable without separate plugs. If provided, plugs for pressure-
relief valves must be usable with hands gloved in an immersion suit, and 
must either float or be secured to the liferaft by a lanyard.

[CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25547, May 9, 1997, as amended by USCG-1998-4442, 63 
FR 52192, Sept. 30, 1998; USCG-2000-7790, 65 FR 58464, Sept. 29, 2000]



Sec. 160.151-25  Additional equipment for inflatable liferafts.

    The manufacturer may specify additional equipment to be carried in 
inflatable liferafts if the equipment is identified in the 
manufacturer's approved drawings and if the packing and inspection of 
the equipment is covered in the servicing manual. Any such additional 
equipment for which performance or approval standards are prescribed in 
this part or in 47 CFR part 80 must comply with those standards.



Sec. 160.151-27  Approval inspections and tests for inflatable liferafts.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, to satisfy 
the testing requirements of: IMO Resolution A.689(17), part 1, 
paragraphs 5.1 through 5.15 inclusive; paragraph 5.16 for a davit-
launched inflatable liferaft; and paragraph 5.17, a prototype inflatable 
liferaft of each design submitted for Coast Guard approval must meet the 
additional specific requirements and tests specified in paragraphs (c) 
and (d) of this section.
    (b) The Commandant may waive certain tests for a liferaft identical 
in construction to a liferaft that has successfully completed the tests, 
if the liferafts differ only in size and are of essentially the same 
design.
    (c) Tests must be conducted in accordance with the indicated 
paragraphs of IMO Resolution A.689(17), except:
    (1) Jump test (Paragraph 1/5.2). One-half of the jumps must be with 
the canopy erect, and the remainder with the canopy furled or deflated. 
If a ``suitable and equivalent mass'' is used, it must be equipped with 
the shoes described in paragraph 1/5.2.1 of Resolution A.689(17), and 
arranged so the shoes strike the liferaft first.
    (2) Mooring-out test (Paragraph 1/5.5). Initial inflation may be 
with compressed air.
    (3) Loading and seating test (Paragraph 1/5.7). For a liferaft not 
intended for use with a launching or embarkation appliance, the persons 
used to determine seating capacity shall wear insulated buoyant 
immersion suits rather than lifejackets.
    (4) Boarding test (Paragraph 1/5.8). This test must be performed 
using each boarding ramp or boarding ladder which is installed on the 
liferaft.
    (5) Canopy-closure test (Paragraph 1/5.12). This test is required 
only for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts. For a davit-launched 
liferaft, any opening near the lifting eye should be sealed during the 
test to prevent the ingress of water. The water accumulated within the 
liferaft at the end of the test must not exceed 4 liters (1 gallon).
    (6) Detailed inspection (Paragraph 1/5.14). The independent 
laboratory's inspection of the prototype liferaft under Sec. 160.151-
13(a) satisfies the requirements of paragraph 1/5.14.
    (7) Davit-launched liferafts--strength test (Paragraph 1/5.16.1). 
The calculation of combined strength of the lifting

[[Page 221]]

components must be based on the lesser of--
    (i) The lowest breaking strength obtained for each item; or
    (ii) The component manufacturer's ultimate strength rating.
    (d) The boarding ramp on each liferaft equipped with one must be 
demonstrated capable of supporting one person weighing 100 kg (220 lb), 
sitting or kneeling and not holding onto any other part of the liferaft.



Sec. 160.151-29  Additional approval tests for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts.

    To verify compliance with the requirements of Regulation III/39.5.1, 
the following test must be conducted for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable 
liferafts in addition to those required by Sec. 160.151-27 and IMO 
Resolution A.689(17):
    (a) Test of filling time for stability appendages. A representative 
sample of each type and size of stability appendage to be fitted to a 
liferaft must be tested as follows:
    (1) The appendage must be attached to a testing jig similar in 
material and construction to the appendage's intended location on a 
liferaft. The method of attachment must be the same as used on a 
liferaft. The appendage and jig must be attached to a scale capable of 
recording peak readings, and suspended over a pool of calm water. The 
dry weight must be recorded.
    (2) The appendage and jig must then be quickly lowered into the 
water until the appendage is completely submerged. When the appendage 
has been in the water for 25 seconds, it must be smoothly lifted 
completely out of the water, and the peak weight after the appendage is 
removed from the water recorded.
    (3) The difference in weights measured according to paragraphs (a) 
(1) and (2) of this section must be at least 60 percent of the 
appendage's volume, calculated in accordance with Sec. 160.151-
17(a)(2)(i).
    (b) [Reserved]

[CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25547, May 9, 1997, as amended by USCG-1998-4442, 63 
FR 52192, Sept. 30, 1998]



Sec. 160.151-31  Production inspections and tests of inflatable liferafts.

    (a) Production inspections and tests of inflatable liferafts must be 
carried out in accordance with the procedures for independent laboratory 
inspection in part 159, subpart 159.007, of this chapter and with those 
of this section.
    (b) Each liferaft approved by the Coast Guard must be identified 
with unique lot and serial numbers as follows:
    (1) Each lot must consist of not more than 50 liferafts of the same 
design and carrying capacity.
    (2) A new lot must begin whenever the liferafts undergo changes of 
design, material, production method, or source of supply for any 
essential component.
    (3) The manufacturer may use a running-lot system, whereby the 
fabrication of the individual liferafts of a lot occurs over an extended 
interval under an irregular schedule. Each running lot must comprise not 
more than 10 liferafts of the same design and carrying capacity. Each 
running-lot system must be in accordance with a procedure proposed by 
the manufacturer and approved by the Commandant.
    (4) Unless a lot is a running lot, each lot must consist of 
liferafts produced under a process of continuous production.
    (c) Among the records required to be retained by the manufacturer 
under Sec. 159.007-13 of this chapter, are affidavits or invoices from 
the suppliers identifying all essential materials used in the production 
of approved liferafts, together with the lot numbers of the liferafts 
constructed with those materials.
    (d) Each approved liferaft must pass each of the inspections and 
tests described in IMO Resolution A.689(17), part 2, paragraphs 5.1.3 
through 5.1.6 inclusive, and prescribed by paragraphs (e) through (g) of 
this section. For a davit-launched liferaft, these tests must be 
preceded by the test described in IMO Resolution A.689(17), part 2, 
paragraph 5.2.
    (e) The test described in IMO Resolution A.689(17), Paragraph 2/
5.1.5, must be conducted under the following conditions:
    (1) The test must last 1 hour, with a maximum allowable pressure 
drop of 5

[[Page 222]]

percent after compensation for changes in ambient temperature and 
barometric pressure.
    (2) For each degree Celsius of rise in temperature, 0.385 kPa must 
be subtracted from the final pressure reading (0.031 psig per degree 
Fahrenheit). For each degree Celsius of drop in temperature, 0.385 kPa 
must be added to the final pressure reading (again, 0.031 psig per 
degree Fahrenheit).
    (3) For each mm of mercury of rise in barometric pressure, 0.133 kPa 
must be added to the final temperature-corrected pressure reading (0.049 
psig per 0.1 inch of mercury). For each mm of mercury of drop in 
barometric pressure, 0.133 kPa must be subtracted from the final 
temperature-corrected pressure reading (again, 0.049 psig per 0.1 inch 
of mercury). Corrections for changes in ambient barometric pressure are 
necessary only if a measuring instrument open to the atmosphere, such as 
a manometer, is used.
    (f) One liferaft from each lot of fewer than 30 liferafts, and two 
from each lot of 30 to 50 liferafts, must pass the test described in IMO 
Resolution A.689(17), part 2, paragraphs 5.1.1 and 5.1.2. If any 
liferaft fails this test--
    (1) The reason for the failure must be determined;
    (2) Each liferaft in the lot must be examined for the defect and 
repaired if reparable, or scrapped if irreparable; and
    (3) The lot test must be repeated, including random selection of the 
liferaft or liferafts to be tested. If any liferafts from the lot have 
left the place of manufacture, they must be recalled for examination, 
repair, and testing as necessary; or else the required actions must take 
place at an approved servicing facility.
    (g) The manufacturer shall arrange for inspections by an accepted 
independent laboratory at least once in each calendar quarter in which 
production of liferafts approved by the Coast Guard takes place. The 
time and date of each inspection must be selected by the independent 
laboratory, to occur when completed liferafts are in the manufacturing 
facility and others are under construction. The manufacturer shall 
ensure that the inspector from the independent laboratory--
    (1) Conducts the inspection and witnesses the tests required by 
paragraph (f) of this section, and further conducts a visual inspection 
to verify that the liferafts are being made in accordance with the 
approved plans and the requirements of this subpart;
    (2) Examines the records of production inspections and tests for 
liferafts produced since the last inspection by an independent 
laboratory to verify that each required inspection and test has been 
carried out satisfactorily;
    (3) Conducts a design audit on at least one liferaft approved by the 
Coast Guard each year. If possible, different models of liferafts must 
be examined in the design audit from year to year. To retain Coast Guard 
approval, the manufacturer shall demonstrate to the inspector during 
each design audit that--
    (i) Each part used in the liferaft matches the part called for by 
the approved plans;
    (ii) Each part and subassembly are of the materials and components 
indicated on the approved plans or their bills of materials; and
    (iii) Each critical dimension is correct as shown either by 
measurement or by proper fit and function in the next-higher assembly.

[CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25547, May 9, 1997, as amended by USCG-1998-4442, 63 
FR 52192, Sept. 30, 1998]



Sec. 160.151-33  Marking and labeling.

    (a) Whatever other languages they may be in, markings required on 
each inflatable liferaft and its container must be in English.
    (b) The markings required on the liferaft container under Regulation 
III/39.7.3 of SOLAS must be on a plate or label sufficiently durable to 
withstand continuous exposure to environmental conditions at sea for the 
life of the liferaft. In addition, the container must be marked with 
the--
    (1) Manufacturer's model identification; and
    (2) U.S. Coast Guard approval number.
    (c) In addition to the markings required on the inflatable liferaft 
under Regulation III/39.8 of SOLAS, the liferaft must be marked with 
the--
    (1) Manufacturer's model identification;

[[Page 223]]

    (2) Lot number; and
    (3) U.S. Coast Guard approval number.



Sec. 160.151-35  Servicing.

    (a) Inspection and repair. Inflatable liferafts carried under the 
regulations in this chapter, and in chapter I of title 33 CFR, must be 
inspected periodically by a servicing facility approved by the Coast 
Guard, repaired as necessary, and repacked. Requirements for periodic 
inspection and repair of liferafts approved by the Coast Guard appear in 
Secs. 160.151-37 through 160.151-57.
    (b) Manufacturer's requirements. To retain Coast Guard approval of 
liferafts, the manufacturer must:
    (1) Prepare a servicing manual or manuals complying with 
Sec. 160.151-37 to cover each model and size of liferaft that the 
manufacturer produces. The manual or manuals must be submitted to the 
Commandant for approval.
    (2) At least once each year, issue a list of revisions to the manual 
or manuals, and issue a list of bulletins affecting the manual or 
manuals, that are in effect.
    (3) Make available to each servicing facility approved by the Coast 
Guard the manual or manuals, the revisions, the bulletins, the plans, 
and any unique parts and tools that may be necessary to service the 
liferaft. The plans may be either the manufacturing drawings, or special 
plans prepared especially for use by servicing technicians. They may be 
incorporated into the manual or manuals.
    (4) Have a training program complying with Sec. 160.151-39 for the 
certification of servicing technicians.
    (5) Notify the OCMI for the zone in which the servicing facility is 
located whenever the manufacturer becomes aware of servicing at approved 
facilities that is not in accordance with the requirements of this 
subpart, or aware of falsification by an approved facility of records 
required by this subpart.
    (c) A manufacturer of liferafts not approved by the Coast Guard may 
establish servicing facilities approved by the Coast Guard for such 
liferafts in the United States if the manufacturer meets the 
requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.



Sec. 160.151-37  Servicing manual.

    (a) The servicing manual must provide instructions on performing the 
following tasks:
    (1) Removing the inflatable liferaft from the container for testing 
without damaging the liferaft or its contents.
    (2) Examining the liferaft and its container for damage and wear 
including deteriorated structural joints and seams.
    (3) Determining the need for repairs.
    (4) Performing each repair which can be made by a servicing 
facility.
    (5) Identifying repairs that the manufacturer must perform.
    (6) Determining when liferaft equipment must be replaced.
    (7) Conducting tests required by Sec. 160.151-57.
    (8) Repacking the liferaft.
    (9) Changing the maximum height of stowage of the liferaft by 
changing the length of the painter.
    (10) Special equipment limitations or packing instructions, if any, 
necessary to qualify the liferaft for a particular height of stowage.
    (11) Changing the service of the liferaft by changing the contents 
of the equipment pack.
    (12) Proper marking of the liferaft container, including approval 
number, persons' capacity, maximum height of stowage, service (equipment 
pack), and expiration date of servicing.
    (13) A list of parts for--
    (i) Survival equipment;
    (ii) Compressed-gas cylinders;
    (iii) Inflation valves;
    (iv) Relief valves; and
    (v) Repair equipment.
    (14) The necessary pressures for each size of approved liferaft for 
conducting the ``Necessary Additional Pressure'' test required by 
Sec. 160.151-57(k).
    (b) Each revision to a servicing manual, and each bulletin, that 
authorizes the modification of a liferaft, or that affects the 
compliance of a liferaft with any requirement under this subpart, must 
be submitted to and approved by the Commandant. Other revisions and 
bulletins need not be approved, but a copy of each must be submitted to 
the Commandant when issued.

[[Page 224]]

    (c) Each manual provided under this section must bear the original 
signature of a representative of the manufacturer attesting that it is a 
true copy of the manual approved by the Commandant.



Sec. 160.151-39  Training of servicing technicians.

    (a) The training program for certification of servicing technicians 
must include--
    (1) Training and practice in packing an inflatable liferaft, 
repairing buoyancy tubes, repairing inflation-system valves, and other 
inspections and operations described in the approved servicing manual;
    (2) An evaluation at the end of the training to determine whether 
each trainee has successfully completed the training; and
    (3) Issuance of a certificate of competence to each technician who 
successfully completes the training.
    (b) The manufacturer shall maintain refresher training for 
recertification of previously trained servicing technicians. This 
training must include--
    (1) Checking the performance of the technicians in the inspections 
and operations described in the manual;
    (2) Retraining of the technicians in inspections and operations for 
which they are deficient;
    (3) Training and practice in new inspections and operations;
    (4) An evaluation at the end of the training to determine whether or 
not each trainee has successfully completed the training; and
    (5) Issuance of a certificate of competence to each technician who 
successfully completes the training.
    (c) Each time the manufacturer holds a course for servicing 
technicians who will perform servicing on liferafts approved by the 
Coast Guard, the manufacturer shall notify the cognizant OCMI 
sufficiently in advance to allow, at the option of the OCMI, for a Coast 
Guard inspector or inspectors to travel to the site where the training 
is to occur.



Sec. 160.151-41  Approval of servicing facilities.

    (a) To obtain and maintain Coast Guard approval as an ``approved 
servicing facility'' for a particular manufacturer's inflatable 
liferafts, a facility must meet the requirements, and follow the 
procedures, of this section.
    (b) The owner or operator of a servicing facility desiring Coast 
Guard approval shall apply to the cognizant OCMI. The application must 
include--
    (1) The name and address of the facility;
    (2) The name(s) of its competent servicing technician(s);
    (3) Identification of the manufacturer(s) of the liferafts the 
facility will service; and
    (4) Any limits or special conditions that should apply to the 
approval of the facility.
    (c) The owner or operator of the servicing facility shall arrange 
for an inspection with the OCMI to whom the owner or operator applied 
under paragraph (b) of this section. A currently trained servicing 
technician shall successfully demonstrate the complete service to each 
make and type of liferaft for which approval as a servicing facility is 
sought, in the presence of a Coast Guard inspector or of a third-party 
inspector accepted by the OCMI, or such technician shall present 
evidence of having performed such service at the time of initial or 
refresher training. The service must include:
    (1) Removing the liferaft from the container for testing without 
damaging the liferaft or its contents;
    (2) Examining the liferaft and its container for damage and wear;
    (3) Determining the need for repairs;
    (4) Determining whether equipment must be replaced;
    (5) Conducting the tests required by Sec. 160.151-57;
    (6) Repacking the liferaft;
    (7) Inflating the fully packed liferaft using its inflation 
mechanism; and
    (8) Repairing a leak in a main buoyancy chamber, and subjecting the 
repaired chamber to the Necessary Additional Pressure test described in 
Sec. 160.151-57(k). This repair may be done on a liferaft that actually 
needs it, on one condemned, or on an inflatable chamber fabricated of 
liferaft material specifically for this purpose. (An otherwise 
serviceable liferaft should not be damaged for this purpose.)

[[Page 225]]

    (d) Whenever servicing of liferafts takes place, each servicing 
facility must allow Coast Guard inspectors or third-party inspectors 
accepted by the OCMI access to the place where the servicing occurs.
    (e) Each servicing facility must employ at least one servicing 
technician who has successfully completed the manufacturer's training 
described in Sec. 160.151-39 (a) or (b), including training in the 
servicing of davit-launched liferafts if the facility will service 
these. The training must have been completed within the preceding--
    (1) 12 months for the facility to obtain its approval to service the 
liferafts of a particular manufacturer; or
    (2) 36 months for the facility to retain approval to service the 
liferafts of a particular manufacturer.



Sec. 160.151-43  Conditions at servicing facilities.

    (a) Each facility must maintain a room to service inflatable 
liferafts that--
    (1) Is clean;
    (2) Is fully enclosed;
    (3) Has enough space to service the number of liferafts likely to be 
present for service at one time;
    (4) Has a ceiling high enough to hold and allow overturning of a 
fully inflated liferaft of the largest size to be serviced, or is 
furnished with an equally efficient means to facilitate the inspection 
of bottom seams;
    (5) Has a smooth floor that will not damage a liferaft, can be 
easily cleaned, and is kept clean and free from oil, grease, and 
abrasive material;
    (6) Is well lit but free from direct sunlight;
    (7) Is arranged to maintain an even temperature and low humidity in 
each area where liferafts are pressure tested, including by mechanical 
air-conditioning equipment in climates where it is necessary;
    (8) Is arranged so that stored liferafts are not subjected to 
excessive loads and, if stacked one directly on top of another, does not 
have them stacked more than two liferafts high;
    (9) Is efficiently ventilated but free of drafts; and
    (10) Is a designated no-smoking area.
    (b) In addition to the room required by paragraph (a) of this 
section, each facility must maintain areas or rooms for storage of 
liferafts awaiting servicing, repair, or delivery; for repair and 
painting of reinforced plastic containers; for storage of pyrotechnics 
and other materials, such as spare parts and required equipment; and for 
administrative purposes.



Sec. 160.151-45  Equipment required for servicing facilities.

    Each servicing facility approved by the Coast Guard must maintain 
equipment to carry out the operations described in the manufacturer's 
servicing manual approved in accordance with Sec. 160.151-35(b)(1), 
including--
    (a) A set of plans, as specified in Sec. 160.151-35(b)(3), for each 
inflatable liferaft to be serviced;
    (b) A current copy of this subpart;
    (c) A current copy of the manual approved in accordance with 
Sec. 160.151-35(b)(1), including all revisions and bulletins in effect 
as indicated on the annual list issued in accordance with Sec. 160.151-
35(b)(2);
    (d) Hot presses (if applicable);
    (e) Safety-type glue pots or equivalents;
    (f) Abrasive devices;
    (g) A source of clean, dry, pressurized air; hoses; and attachments 
for inflating liferafts;
    (h) A source of vacuum; hoses; and attachments for deflating 
liferafts;
    (i) Mercury manometer, water manometer, or other pressure-
measurement device or pressure gauge of equivalent accuracy and 
sensitivity;
    (j) Thermometer;
    (k) Barometer, aneroid or mercury;
    (l) Calibrated torque-wrench for assembling the inflation system;
    (m) Accurate weighing scale;
    (n) Repair materials and equipment, and spare parts as specified in 
the applicable manual, except that items of limited ``shelf life'' need 
not be stocked if they are readily available;
    (o) A complete stock of the survival equipment required to be stowed 
in the liferafts, except for items of equipment that are readily 
available;
    (p) A means for load-testing davit-launched liferafts, unless the 
facility

[[Page 226]]

services only non-davit-launched liferafts;
    (q) A supply of parts for all inflation components and valves 
specified in the applicable manual; and
    (r) A tool board that clearly indicates where each small tool is 
stored, or has an equivalent means to make sure that no tools are left 
in the liferaft when repacked.



Sec. 160.151-47  Requirements for owners or operators of servicing facilities.

    To maintain Coast Guard approval, the owner or operator of each 
servicing facility approved by the Coast Guard must--
    (a) Ensure that servicing technicians have received sufficient 
information and training to follow instructions for changes and for new 
techniques related to the inflatable liferafts serviced by the facility, 
and have available at least one copy of each manufacturer's approved 
servicing manual, revision, and bulletin;
    (b) Calibrate each pressure gauge, mechanically-operated barometer, 
and weighing scale at intervals of not more than 1 year, or in 
accordance with the equipment manufacturer's requirements;
    (c) Ensure that each liferaft serviced under the facility's Coast 
Guard approval is serviced by or under the direct supervision of a 
servicing technician who has completed the requirements of either 
Sec. 160.151-39 (a) or (b);
    (d) Ensure that each liferaft serviced under the facility's Coast 
Guard approval is serviced in accordance with the approved manual;
    (e) Specify which makes of liferafts the facility is approved to 
service when representing that the facility is approved by the Coast 
Guard; and
    (f) Ensure that the facility does not service any make of liferaft 
for an inspected vessel of the U.S. or any other U.S.-flag vessel 
required to carry approved liferafts, unless the facility is approved by 
the Coast Guard to service that make of liferafts.



Sec. 160.151-49  Approval of servicing facilities at remote sites.

    A servicing facility may be approved for servicing liferafts at a 
remote site, provided that appropriate arrangements have been made to 
ensure that each such site meets the requirements of Secs. 160.151-
41(e), 160.151-43, and 160.151-45. The facility must have a portable 
assortment of test equipment, spare parts, and replacement survival 
equipment to accompany the technician doing the servicing. However, if 
repair of liferafts will not be attempted at a remote site, equipment 
needed for repair does not need to be available at that site. A facility 
must be specifically authorized in its letter of approval to conduct 
servicing at a remote site.



Sec. 160.151-51  Notice of approval.

    If the cognizant OCMI determines that the servicing facility meets 
the applicable requirements of Secs. 160.151-39 through 160.151-47, the 
OCMI notifies the facility that it is approved and notifies the 
Commandant. The Commandant issues an approval letter to the servicing 
facility with copies to the OCMI and to the manufacturer(s) whose 
liferafts the facility is approved to service. The letter will specify 
any limits on the approval, and will assign the facility's approval code 
for use on the inspection sticker required by Sec. 160.151-57(m)(3). The 
Commandant will maintain a current list of approved facilities.



Sec. 160.151-53  Notice to OCMI of servicing.

    (a) Before servicing an inflatable liferaft under the servicing 
facility's Coast Guard approval, the owner or operator of the facility 
must tell the cognizant OCMI for each liferaft to be serviced--
    (1) The make and size of the liferaft;
    (2) The age of the liferaft; and
    (3) Whether the liferaft is due for a five-year inflation test.
    (b) The OCMI will inform the servicing facility whether the 
servicing of the liferaft must be witnessed by an inspector.
    (c) If the OCMI requires the servicing of the liferaft to be 
witnessed by an inspector--
    (1) The servicing facility must arrange a schedule with the OCMI 
that will allow a Coast Guard inspector to travel to the site where the 
servicing is to occur;

[[Page 227]]

    (2) The owner or operator of the servicing facility, by permission 
of the OCMI, may arrange for the servicing to be witnessed instead by a 
third-party inspector accepted by the OCMI if a Coast Guard marine 
inspector is not available in a timely manner; and
    (3) The servicing facility must not begin servicing the liferaft 
until the inspector arrives at the site.
    (d) No deviation from servicing-manual procedures may occur without 
the prior approval of the OCMI. To request the approval of a deviation, 
the owner or operator of the servicing facility shall notify the OCMI of 
the proposed deviation from the procedures, and must explain to the OCMI 
the need for the deviation.



Sec. 160.151-55  Withdrawal of approval.

    (a) The OCMI may withdraw the approval of the servicing facility, or 
may suspend its approval pending correction of deficiencies, if the 
Coast Guard inspector or accepted third-party inspector finds that--
    (1) The facility does not meet the requirements of Secs. 160.151-41 
through 160.151-47, or
    (2) The servicing is not performed in accordance with Sec. 160.151-
57.
    (b) A withdrawal of approval may be appealed in accordance with part 
1, subpart 1.03, of this chapter.
    (c) The OCMI may remove a suspension pending correction of 
deficiencies if the servicing facility demonstrates that the 
deficiencies have been corrected.



Sec. 160.151-57  Servicing procedure.

    (a) Each inflatable liferaft serviced by a servicing facility 
approved by the Coast Guard must be inspected and tested in accordance 
with paragraphs (b) through (r) of this section, and the manufacturer's 
servicing manual approved in accordance with Sec. 160.151-35(b)(1).
    (b) The following procedures must be carried out at each servicing:
    (1) The working-pressure leakage test described in IMO Resolution 
A.689(17), paragraph 2/5.1.5, must be conducted.
    (2) Inflation hoses must be pressurized and checked for damage and 
leakage as part of the working-pressure leakage test, or in a separate 
test.
    (3) An inflatable floor must be inflated until it is firm, and let 
stand for one hour. The inflatable floor must still be firm at the end 
of the hour.
    (4) The seams connecting the floor to the buoyancy tube must be 
checked for slippage, rupture, and lifting of edges.
    (5) Each item of survival equipment must be examined, and--
    (i) Replaced if its expiration date has passed; and
    (ii) Otherwise, repaired or replaced if it is damaged or 
unserviceable.
    (6) Each battery must be replaced with a fresh one if--
    (i) Its expiration date has passed;
    (ii) It has no expiration date; or
    (iii) It is to return to service in an item of survival equipment, 
but its measured voltage is less than its rated voltage.
    (7) Each power cell for the top and inside canopy lights must be 
inspected and tested as prescribed in the servicing manual unless it is 
a battery serviced in accordance with paragraph (b)(6) of this section. 
Each cell that is tested and found satisfactory may be reinstalled. Each 
cell that is outdated, is not tested, or fails the test must be 
replaced.
    (8) If the liferaft is equipped with an Emergency Position-
Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) or a Search and Rescue Transponder 
(SART), the EPIRB or SART must be inspected and tested in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. An EPIRB must be tested using the 
integrated test circuit and output indicator to determine whether it is 
operative. Each EPIRB or SART not operative must be repaired or 
replaced.
    (9) The manual inflation-pump must be tested for proper operation.
    (10) Each damaged, faded, or incorrect instruction label or 
identification label on the liferaft or its container must be replaced.
    (11) Each liferaft must be examined to ensure that it is properly 
marked with retroreflective material. The arrangement of the 
retroreflective material must meet the requirements of IMO Resolution 
A.658(16). Damaged or missing retroreflective material must be replaced 
with Type I material approved under part 164, subpart 164.018,

[[Page 228]]

of this subchapter as complying with SOLAS.
    (12) Each inflation cylinder must be weighed. If its weight loss 
exceeds five percent of the weight of the charge, it must be recharged.
    (c) When an inflation cylinder is recharged for any reason, the 
following inflation-head components must be renewed:
    (1) The poppet-pin assembly, if any.
    (2) Each plastic or elastomeric seal, and each other part that 
deteriorates with age.
    (d) Each recharged inflation cylinder must stand for at least two 
weeks and be checked for leakage by weighing before being installed in a 
liferaft. An alternative mechanical or chemical test for fast detection 
of leakage may be used if the servicing manual approved by the 
Commandant in accordance with Sec. 160.151-35(b)(1) provides for it.
    (e) Each inflation cylinder that requires a hydrostatic test under 
49 CFR 173.34 must be tested and marked in accordance with that section.
    (f) At every second servicing of a davit-launched liferaft, the 
launching-load test in paragraph 2/5.2 of IMO Resolution A.689(17) must 
be conducted.
    (g) At every fifth annual servicing, before the conduct of the tests 
and inspections required in paragraphs (b) through of this section, each 
liferaft must be removed from its container and, while still folded, 
inflated by the operation of its gas-inflation system.
    (h) Each liferaft showing minor leaks during the gas inflation test 
conducted in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section, may be 
repaired.
    (i) Each liferaft ten or more years past its date of manufacture 
must be condemned if it leaks extensively, or shows fabric damage other 
than minor porosity, during the gas inflation test conducted in 
accordance with paragraph (g) of this section.
    (j) After the gas inflation test conducted in accordance with 
paragraph (g) of this section, the liferaft may be evacuated and 
refilled with air for the tests in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this 
section.
    (k) At each annual servicing of a liferaft ten or more years past 
its date of manufacture during which the gas-inflation test in paragraph 
(g) of this section is not conducted, a ``Necessary Additional 
Pressure'' (NAP) test must be conducted. Before the tests and 
inspections required in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section are 
conducted, the NAP test must be completed, using the following 
procedure:
    (1) Plug or otherwise disable the pressure-relief valves.
    (2) Gradually raise the pressure to the lesser of 2 times the design 
working pressure, or that specified in the manufacturer's servicing 
manual as sufficient to impose a tensile load on the tube fabric of 20 
percent of its minimum required tensile strength.
    (3) After 5 minutes, there should be no seam slippage, cracking, 
other defects, or pressure drop greater than 5 percent. If cracking in 
the buoyancy tubes is audible, accompanied by pressure loss, condemn the 
liferaft. If it is not, reduce the pressure in all buoyancy chambers 
simultaneously by enabling the pressure-relief valves.
    (l) At each annual servicing of a liferaft 10 or more years past its 
date of manufacture, the integrity of the seams connecting the floor to 
the buoyancy tube must be checked by the following procedure, or an 
equivalent procedure specified in the manufacturer's approved servicing 
manual:
    (1) With the buoyancy tube supported a sufficient distance above the 
floor of the servicing facility to maintain clearance during the test, a 
person weighing not less than 75 kg (165 lb) shall walk or crawl around 
the entire perimeter of the floor of the liferaft.
    (2) The seams connecting the floor to the buoyancy tube must then be 
inspected for slippage, rupture, and lifting of edges.
    (m) The servicing facility must complete the following for each 
liferaft that passes these inspections and tests:
    (1) Permanently mark the liferaft on its outside canopy, or on a 
servicing-record panel on an interior portion of one of its buoyancy 
tubes near an entrance, with--
    (i) The date of the servicing;
    (ii) The identification and location of the servicing facility; and
    (iii) If applicable, an indication that the special fifth-year 
servicing was performed.

[[Page 229]]

    (2) Permanently and legibly mark on the identification device 
provided in accordance with Sec. 160.151-17(c), or on the outside canopy 
of the liferaft, the name, if known, of the vessel on which the raft 
will be installed or the name, if known, of the vessel owner.
    (3) Affix an inspection sticker to the liferaft container or valise. 
The sticker must be of a type that will remain legible for at least 2 
years when exposed to a marine environment, and that cannot be removed 
without being destroyed. The sticker must be about 100 mm x 150 mm (4 by 
6 inches), with the last digit of the year of expiration superimposed 
over a background color that corresponds to the colors specified for the 
validation stickers for recreational-boat numbers in 33 CFR 174.15(c), 
and be marked with the Coast Guard identifying insignia in accordance 
with the requirements of 33 CFR 23.12. The sticker must also contain the 
following:
    (i) The name of the manufacturer of the liferaft.
    (ii) The year and month of expiration determined in accordance with 
paragraph (n) of this section.
    (iii) Identification of the servicing facility, printed on the 
sticker or indicated on the sticker by punch using an approval code 
issued by the Commandant.
    (n) The expiration date of the servicing sticker is 12 months after 
the date the liferaft was repacked, except that:
    (1) For a new liferaft, the expiration date may be not more than two 
years after the date the liferaft was first packed, if--
    (i) Dated survival equipment in the liferaft will not expire before 
the sticker expiration date; and
    (ii) The liferaft will not be installed on a vessel certificated 
under SOLAS.
    (2) For a liferaft stored indoors, under controlled temperatures 
(between 0  deg.C (32  deg.F) and 45  deg.C (113  deg.F)), for not more 
than 6 months from the date it was serviced or first packed, the 
expiration date may be extended up to the length of time the liferaft 
remained in storage.
    (3) For a liferaft stored indoors, under controlled temperatures 
(between 0  deg.C (32  deg.F) and 45  deg.C (113  deg.F)), for not more 
than 12 months from the date it was serviced or first packed, the 
expiration date may be extended up to the length of time the liferaft 
remained in storage, if the liferaft is opened, inspected, and repacked 
in a servicing facility approved in accordance with Secs. 160.151-49 and 
160.151-51. When the liferaft is opened--
    (i) The condition of the liferaft must be visually checked and found 
to be satisfactory;
    (ii) The inflation cylinders must be checked and weighed in 
accordance with paragraph (b)(12) of this section;
    (iii) All survival equipment whose expiration date has passed must 
be replaced; and
    (iv) All undated batteries must be replaced.
    (o) The servicing facility must remove and destroy the markings of 
Coast Guard approval on each liferaft condemned in the course of any 
servicing test or inspection.
    (p) The servicing facility must issue a certificate to the liferaft 
owner or owner's agent for each liferaft it services. The certificate 
must include--
    (1) The name of the manufacturer of the liferaft;
    (2) The serial number of the liferaft;
    (3) The date of servicing and repacking;
    (4) A record of the fifth-year gas-inflation test required in 
paragraph (g) of this section, whenever that test is performed;
    (5) A record of the hydrostatic test of each inflation cylinder 
required in paragraph (e) of this section, whenever that test is 
performed;
    (6) A record of any deviation from the procedures of the 
manufacturer's servicing manual authorized by the OCMI in accordance 
with Sec. 160.151-53(d);
    (7) The identification of the servicing facility, including its 
name, address, and the approval code assigned by the Commandant in 
accordance with Sec. 160.151-51;
    (8) The name, if known, of the vessel or vessel owner receiving the 
liferaft; and
    (9) The date the liferaft is returned to the owner or owner's agent.
    (q) The servicing facility must keep a record of each liferaft 
approved by the Coast Guard that it services for at

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least five years, and must make those records available to the Coast 
Guard upon request. Those records must include--
    (1) The serial number of the liferaft;
    (2) The date of servicing and repacking;
    (3) The identification of any Coast Guard or third-party inspector 
present;
    (4) The name, if known, of the vessel or vessel owner receiving the 
liferaft; and
    (5) The date the liferaft is returned to the owner or owner's agent.
    (r) The servicing facility must prepare and transmit to the OCMI, at 
least annually, statistics showing the nature and extent of damage to 
and defects found in liferafts during servicing and repair. The facility 
must notify the OCMI immediately of any critical defects it finds that 
may affect other liferafts.

[CGD 85-205, 62 FR 25547, May 9, 1997, as amended by USCG-1998-4442, 63 
FR 52192, Sept. 30, 1998]



Sec. 160.151-59  Operating instructions and information for the ship's training manual.

    (a) The liferaft manufacturer shall make operating instructions and 
information for the ship's training manual available in English to 
purchasers of inflatable liferafts approved by the Coast Guard, to 
enable vessel operators to meet regulations III/18.2, 19.3, 51, and 52 
of SOLAS.
    (b) The instructions and information required by paragraph (a) of 
this section may be combined with similar material for hydrostatic 
releases or launching equipment, and must explain--
    (1) Release of the inflatable liferaft from its stowage position;
    (2) Launching of the liferaft;
    (3) Survival procedures, including instructions for use of survival 
equipment aboard; and
    (4) Shipboard installations of the liferaft.
    (c) The operating instructions required by paragraphs (a) and (b) of 
this section must also be made available in the form of an instruction 
placard. The placard must be not greater than 36 cm (14 in.) by 51 cm 
(20 in.), made of durable material and suitable for display near 
installations of liferafts on vessels, providing simple procedures and 
illustrations for launching, inflating, and boarding the liferaft.



Sec. 160.151-61  Maintenance instructions.

    (a) The liferaft manufacturer shall make maintenance instructions 
available in English to purchasers of inflatable liferafts approved by 
the Coast Guard, to enable vessel operators to meet regulations III/19.3 
and III/52 of SOLAS.
    (b) The maintenance instructions required by paragraph (a) of this 
section must include--
    (1) A checklist for use in monthly, external, visual inspections of 
the packed liferaft;
    (2) An explanation of the requirements for periodic servicing of the 
liferaft by an approved servicing facility; and
    (3) A log for maintaining records of inspections and maintenance.



                    Subpart 160.171--Immersion Suits

    Source: CGD 84-069a, 52 FR 1188, Jan. 12, 1987, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.171-1  Scope.

    This subpart contains construction and performance requirements, and 
approval tests for adult and child insulated, buoyant immersion suits 
that are designed to prevent shock upon entering cold water and lessen 
the effect of hypothermia (extreme body heat loss due to immersion in 
cold water). Immersion suits approved under this subpart will meet the 
requirements of Regulation 33 of Chapter III of the International 
Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, under the Second Set 
of Amendments adopted 17 June 1983.



Sec. 160.171-3  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Certain materials are incorporated by reference into this 
subchapter with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register in 
accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The Office of the 
Federal Register publishes a table, ``Material Approved for 
Incorporation by Reference,'' which appears in the Finding Aids section 
of this volume. In that

[[Page 231]]

table is found citations to the particular sections of this part where 
the material is incorporated. To enforce any edition other than the one 
listed in paragraph (b) of this section, notice of change must be 
published in the Federal Register and the material made available. All 
approved material is on file at the Office of the Federal Register, 
Washington, DC 20408, and at the U.S. Coast Guard, Lifesaving and Fire 
Safety Division (G-MSE-4), Washington, DC 20593.
    (b) The materials approved for incorporation by reference in this 
subpart are:

American Society for Testing and Materials
100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

ASTM B 117-97, Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) 
Apparatus--160.171-17
ASTM C 177-85 (1993), Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux 
Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the 
Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus--160.171-17
ASTM C 518-91, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux 
Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat 
Flow Meter Apparatus--160.171-17
ASTM D 975-98, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils--160.171-17
ASTM D 1004-94a, Standard Test Method for Initial Tear Resistance of 
Plastic Film and Sheeting--160.171-17

Federal Standards Specification Unit (WFSIA)
Regional Office Building, Room 6039, 7th and D Streets SW, Washington, 
DC 20407.
National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 440--Color, Universal 
Language and Dictionary of Names; December 1976.
Federal Test Method Standard No. 191a dated July 20, 1978, Method 
5304.1, Abrasion Resistance of Cloth, Oscillatory Cylinder (Wyzenbeek) 
Method, dated July 9, 1971.
Federal Standard No. 751a, Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings, dated 
January 25, 1965.

Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
12 Laboratory Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995.
UL 1191, First Edition (Standard for Components for Personal Flotation 
Devices), as revised March 29, 1977.

[CGD 84-069a, 52 FR 1188, Jan. 12, 1987, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 FR 
50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996; CGD 97-
057, 62 FR 51048, Sept. 30, 1997; USCG -1999-5151, 64 FR 67184, Dec. 1, 
1999]



Sec. 160.171-5  Independent laboratory.

    The approval and production tests in this subpart must be conducted 
by an independent laboratory accepted by the Coast Guard under subpart 
159.010 of this chapter.



Sec. 160.171-7  Approval procedures.

    (a) General. An immersion suit is approved by the Coast Guard under 
the procedures in subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) Approval testing. Each approval test must be conducted in 
accordance with Sec. 160.171-17 or Sec. 160.171-19.
    (c) Approval of child size and oversize adult suits. No child size 
or oversize adult sized suit will be approved unless the adult size of 
the suit has been approved.



Sec. 160.171-9  Construction.

    (a) General. Each immersion suit must be constructed primarily of a 
closed-cell flexible foam that meets the buoyancy and thermal insulation 
requirements in Sec. 160.171-11 (a) and (c). Each suit must be designed 
to cover the wearer's entire body, except for the area of the nose and 
eyes. It must be capable of being worn inside-out or be clearly capable 
of being worn in only one way and, as far as possible, incapable of 
being donned incorrectly.
    (b) Impact resistance and body strength. The body of each suit must 
be designed to allow the wearer to jump from a height of at least 4.5 m 
into the water without injury and without dislodging or damaging the 
suit.
    (c) Seams. Stitching in each sewn structural seam of an immersion 
suit must be lock type stitching that meets the requirements in Federal 
Standard No. 751 for one of the following:
    (1) Class 300 Lockstitch.
    (2) Class 700 Single Thread Lockstitch.

Other stitches which are not true lock stitches may be used to reinforce 
a glued seam provided the adhesive alone has the required seam strength 
after the non-standard stitch has been removed.
    (d) Seam strength. Each seam must have a strength of at least 225 
Newtons (50 lb.).

[[Page 232]]

    (e) Closures and seals. Each closure and seal must be designed so 
that, following a jump from a height of not less than 4.5 m into the 
water, there is no undue ingress of water into the suit.
    (f) Hardware. All hardware of an immersion suit must be of a size 
and design that allows ease of operation by the wearer. The hardware 
must be attached to the suit in a manner that allows the wearer to 
operate it easily and that prevents it from attaining a position in 
which it can be operated improperly.
    (g) Metal parts. Each metal part of an immersion suit must be--
    (1) 410 stainless steel or have salt water and salt air corrosion 
characteristics equal or superior to 410 stainless steel; and
    (2) Galvanically compatable with each other metal part in contact 
with it.
    (h) Suit exterior. The primary color of the exterior of each suit 
must be vivid reddish orange (color number 34 of National Bureau of 
Standards Publication 440). The exterior surface of the suit must resist 
tearing and abrasion when tested as prescribed in Sec. 160.171-17 (n) 
and (o).
    (i) Buoyant materials and compartments. Buoyant materials used in a 
suit must not be loose or granular. The suit must not have an inflated 
or inflatable chamber, except as prescribed in Sec. 160.171-11(a)(2).
    (j) Hand and arm construction. The hand of each suit must be a glove 
that allows sufficient dexterity for the wearer to pick up a 9.5 mm (3/8 
in.) diameter wooden pencil from a table and write with it, after being 
immersed in water at 5  deg.C for a period of one hour. The glove may 
not be removable unless it is attached to the arm and unless it can be 
secured to the arm or stowed in a pocket on the arm when not in use. A 
removable glove must be designed so that there is no undue ingress of 
water into the glove during use. Each arm with a removable glove must 
have a wristlet seal that meets paragraph (e) of this section.
    (k) Leg construction. Each suit must be designed to minimize or 
reduce free air in its legs when the wearer enters the water headfirst.
    (l) Foot construction. Each leg of a suit must have a foot that has 
a hard sole or enough room for a work shoe to be worn inside. The sole 
of each foot must be--
    (1) Natural or synthetic rubber that is ribbed or bossed for skid 
resistance; and
    (2) Designed to prevent the wearer from slipping when the suit is 
tested as prescribed in Sec. 160.171-17(c)(5).
    (m) Size. Each adult suit must fit persons ranging in weight from 50 
kg (110 lb.) to 150 kg (330 lb.) and in height from 1.5 m (59 in.) to 
1.9 m (75 in.). Each child size suit must fit children or small adults 
ranging in weight from 20 kg (44 lb.) to 50 kg (110 lb.) and in height 
from 1.0 m (39 in.) to 1.5 m (59 in.). An oversize adult suit is 
intended for persons too large for the standard adult suit. Each suit 
must be capable of being worn comfortably over clothing and must not 
restrict the wearer's motion. The suit size and design must allow 
successful completion of the mobility tests prescribed in Sec. 160.171-
17(c)(2) through (7).
    (n) Retroreflective material. Each immersion suit must be fitted 
with Type I retroreflective material that meets subpart 164.018 of this 
chapter. When the wearer of an immersion suit is in any stable floating 
position, at least 200 cm \2\ (31 sq. in.) of the material must be 
visible above water.
    (o) PFD Light. Each immersion suit must be designed so that a light 
meeting the requirements of subpart 161.012 of this chapter can be 
attached to its front shoulder area and so that the light when attached 
does not damage the suit and cannot adversely affect its performance. If 
the manufacturer of the suit designates a specific location for the 
light, or designates a specific model light, this information must be 
clearly printed on the suit or in the instructions prescribed by 
Sec. 160.171-15(c).
    (p) Inflation tube. If the suit has an inflatable auxiliary means of 
buoyancy, each joint in the oral inflation tube must be joined with a 
clamping device. A flange connection between the tube and the inflatable 
chamber must be reinforced so that the flange on the inflation tube is 
secured between the material of the inflatable section and the 
reinforcement.

[[Page 233]]



Sec. 160.171-11  Performance.

    (a) Buoyancy. Each suit must meet the following buoyancy 
requirements as measured in the test conducted under Sec. 160.171-17(h):
    (1) The adjusted buoyancy of each adult and each oversize adult size 
suit must be at least 100 N (22 lb.). The adjusted buoyancy of each 
child size suit must be at least 50 N (11 lb.) The measured buoyancy 
must not be reduced by more than 5% after 24 hours submersion in fresh 
water.
    (2) Each suit must have a stable floating position in which the 
wearer's head must be tilted to a position between 30 deg. and 80 deg. 
above the horizontal, with the mouth and nose at least 120 mm (4\3/4\ 
in.) above the surface of the water. If necessary, this position may be 
obtained through the use of an auxiliary means of buoyancy such as an 
inflatable bladder behind the wearer's head.
    (3) If an auxiliary means of buoyancy is necessary to meet paragraph 
(a)(2) of this section, the suit must have a stable floating position 
without the auxiliary means of buoyancy in which the mouth and nose of 
the wearer are at least 50 mm (2 in.) above the surface of the water.
    (4) The buoyancy of any auxiliary means of buoyancy must not be 
counted when determining the buoyancy of the suit.
    (b) Righting. The suit must be designed to turn the body of an 
unconscious person in the water from any position to one where the mouth 
is clear of the water in not more than five seconds, without assistance 
or the use of any means of auxiliary buoyancy which must be inflated by 
the wearer; or to allow the wearer to turn from a face down to a face up 
position in not more than 5 seconds, without assistance or the use of 
any means of auxiliary buoyancy. If an automatically inflated means of 
auxiliary buoyancy is used to meet this paragraph, the inflation 
mechanism must meet the requirements for commercial hybrid PFDs in 
Sec. 160.077-15(c) of this chapter, and the tests required under 
Sec. 160.077-21(c)(3) of this chapter. Auxiliary buoyancy, if fitted 
and/or inflated, must not interfere with righting.
    (c) Thermal protection. The suit must be designed to protect against 
loss of body heat as follows:
    (1) The thermal conductivity of the suit material when submerged 1 m 
(39 in.) in water must be less than or equal to that of a control sample 
of 4.75 mm (\3/16\ in.) thick, closed-cell neoprene foam. The control 
sample of foam must have a thermal conductivity of not more than 0.055 
watt/meter- deg. K (0.38 Btu-in./hr.-sq.ft.-  deg.F).
    (2) The suit must provide the wearer with sufficient thermal 
insulation, following one jump into the water from a height of 4.5 m, to 
ensure that the wearer's body core temperature does not fall more than 2 
 deg.C (3.6  deg.F) after a period of 6 hours immersion in calm 
circulating water at a temperature of between 0  deg.C (32  deg.F) and 2 
 deg.C (35.6  deg.F).
    (d) Donning time. Each suit must be designed so that a person can 
don the suit correctly within two minutes after reading the donning and 
use instructions described in Sec. 160.171-15(a).
    (e) Vision. Each suit must be designed to allow unrestricted vision 
throughout an arc of 60 deg. to either side of the wearer's straight-
ahead line of sight when the wearer's head is turned to any angle 
between 30 deg. to the right and 30 deg. to the left. Each suit must be 
designed to allow a standing wearer to move head and eyes up and down 
far enough to see both feet and a spot directly overhead.
    (f) Water penetration. An immersion suit must be designed to prevent 
undue ingress of water into the suit following a period of flotation in 
calm water of one hour.
    (g) Splash protection. Each suit must have a means to prevent water 
spray from directly entering the wearer's mouth.
    (h) Storage temperature. Each suit must be designed so that it will 
not be damaged by storage in its storage case at any temperature between 
-30  deg.C (-22  deg.F) and +65  deg.C (149  deg.F).
    (i) Flame exposure. Each suit must be designed to prevent sustained 
burning or continued melting after it is totally enveloped in a fire for 
a period of 2 seconds.
    (j) Oil resistance. Each immersion suit must be designed to be 
useable after a 24 hour exposure to diesel oil.

[[Page 234]]



Sec. 160.171-13  Storage case.

    (a) Each suit must have a storage case made of vinyl coated cloth or 
material that provides an equivalent measure of protection to the suit.
    (b) Each storage case must be designed so that it is still useable 
after two seconds contact with a gasoline fire.



Sec. 160.171-15  Instructions.

    (a) Each suit must have instructions for its donning and use in an 
emergency. The instructions must be in English and must not exceed 50 
words. Illustrations must be used in addition to the words. These 
instructions must be on the exterior of the storage case or printed on a 
waterproof card attached to the storage case or to the suit.
    (b) If the suit has an inflatable auxiliary means of buoyancy, 
separate instructions covering the use of the inflation valve must be 
provided on the suit near the valve or on a waterproof card attached 
near the valve.
    (c) Instructions for donning and use of the suit in an emergency 
must also be available in a format suitable for mounting on a bulkhead 
of a vessel. This placard must be in English, must include 
illustrations, and must include a warning as to the risk of entrapment 
in a submerged compartment due to the buoyancy of the suit.
    (d) Instructions for donning and use of the suit in an emergency, 
instructions for care and repair of the suit, and any additional 
necessary information concerning stowage and use of the suit on a vessel 
must be available in 8\1/2\ x 11 loose-leaf format suitable for 
inclusion in the vessel's training manual.



Sec. 160.171-17  Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Caution: During each of the in-water tests prescribed in this 
section, a person ready to render assistance when needed should be near 
each subject in the water.
    (a) General. An adult size immersion suit must be tested as 
prescribed in this section. If the suit is also made in a child size, a 
child size suit must be tested as prescribed in Sec. 160.171-19. If the 
suit is also made in an oversize adult size, an oversize adult suit must 
be tested as prescribed in Sec. 160.171-17(g) to determine the measured 
buoyancy for the suit. No additional testing will be required if the 
oversize adult suit is of the same design as the adult suit except for 
extra material to provide for larger persons.
    (b) Test samples. Each test prescribed in this section may be 
performed by using as many immersion suits as needed to make efficient 
use of the test subjects and test equipment, except that each subject in 
the impact test described in Sec. 160.171-17(c)(11) must not use more 
than one suit during the test, and the suits used in the impact test 
must also be used in the thermal protection test described in 
Sec. 160.171-17(d).
    (c) Mobility and flotation tests. The mobility and flotation 
capabilities of each immersion suit must be tested under the following 
conditions and procedures:
    (1) Test subjects. Seven males and three females must be used in the 
tests described in this paragraph. The subjects must represent each of 
the three physical types (ectomorphic, endomorphic, and mesomorphic). 
Each subject must be in good health. The heaviest subject, of either 
sex, must weigh at least 135 kg (298 lb.). The heaviest male subject 
must weigh at least 115 kg (254 lb.) and the lightest male subject must 
weigh not more than 55 kg (121 lb). The heaviest female subject must 
weigh at least 115 kg (254 lb.) and the lightest female subject must 
weigh not more than 55 kg (121 lb). Each subject must be unfamiliar with 
the specific suit under test. Each subject must wear a standard range of 
clothing consisting of:

(i)  Underwear (short sleeved, short legged);
(ii)  Shirt (long sleeved);
(iii)  Trousers (not woolen);
(iv)  Woolen or equivalent synthetic socks;
(v)  Rubber soled work shoes.

    (2) Donning time. Each subject is removed from the view of the other 
subjects and allowed one minute to examine a suit and the manufacturer's 
instructions for donning and use of the suit in an emergency. At the end 
of this period, the subject attempts to don the suit as rapidly as 
possible

[[Page 235]]

without the aid of a chair or any support to lean on. If the subject 
does not don the suit completely, including gloves and any other 
accessories, within two minutes, the subject removes the suit and is 
given a demonstration of correct donning, and again attempts to don the 
suit. At least nine of the ten subjects must be able to don the suit 
completely, including time to remove shoes if necessary, in two minutes 
in at least one of the two attempts.
    (3) Field of vision. The immersion suit's field of vision must be 
tested as follows:
    (i) While wearing a suit, each subject sits upright and faces 
straight ahead. An observer is positioned to one side of the subject at 
an angle of 60 deg. away from the subject's straight-ahead line of 
sight. The observer must be able to see the subject's closest eye at 
this position. The observer then walks past the front of the subject to 
a position on the subject's other side that is at an angle of 60 deg. 
away from the subject's straight-ahead line of sight. The suit must not 
obstruct the observer's view of the subject's eyes at any point between 
the two positions.
    (ii) While wearing the suit, each subject stands upright and faces 
straight ahead. An observer is positioned to one side of the subject at 
an angle of 90 deg. away from the subject's straight-ahead line of 
sight. The subject then turns his or her head through an arc of 30 deg. 
toward the position of the observer. This procedure is repeated with the 
observer positioned on the other side of the subject at an angle of 
90 deg. away from the subject's straight ahead line of sight. The suit 
must not obstruct the observer's view of the subject's eyes when the 
subject's head is turned 30 deg. toward the observer.
    (iii) While wearing the suit, each subject stands upright and faces 
straight ahead. Through a combination of head and eye movement, the 
subject looks first at a spot directly overhead, then looks at a spot on 
or between the feet. An observer must verify that the subject can make 
the necessary head and eye movements while wearing the suit.
    (4) Hand dexterity. A physician must always be present during this 
test. While wearing a suit, including a removable glove if any, and 
after being immersed in water at 5  deg.C (41  deg.F) for a period of 
one hour, each subject must be able to pick up a 9.5 mm (\3/8\ in.) 
diameter wooden pencil from a flat hard surfaced table using only one 
hand. Still using only one hand, the subject must be able to position 
the pencil and write with it. At least eight of the ten test subjects 
must be able to complete this test. This test may be performed in 
conjunction with the thermal protection test described in Sec. 160.171-
17(d), in which case five of the six test subjects specified in 
Sec. 160.171-17(d)(1) must be able to complete the test.
    (5) Walking. A 30 m (100 ft.) long walking course must be laid out 
on a smooth linoleum floor. The finish on the floor must allow water to 
lie on it in a sheet rather than in beads. The course may have gradual 
turns, but must not have any abrupt change in direction. Each subject is 
timed walking the course two times at a normal pace with the floor dry. 
Each subject then dons a suit and is timed again walking the course two 
times with the floor wet. The subject is given adequate rest between 
trials to avoid fatigue. The subject must not slip on the wet floor when 
wearing the suit. The average time for each subject to walk the course 
while wearing the suit must be not more than 1.25 times the subject's 
average time to walk the course without the suit.
    (6) Climbing. A vertical ladder extending at least 5 meters (17 
feet) above a level floor must be used for this test. Each subject is 
timed climbing the ladder twice to a rung at least 3 meters (10 feet) 
above the floor. The subject then dons a suit and is again timed 
climbing to the same rung twice. The subject is given adequate rest 
between trials to avoid fatigue. The average time for each subject to 
climb the ladder while wearing the suit must not be more than 1.25 times 
the subject's average time to climb the ladder without the suit.
    (7) Swimming and water emergence test. A pool with an inflatable 
liferaft at one side must be used for this test. The liferaft must be of 
a type approved under Subpart 160.051 of this Chapter and must not have 
a boarding ramp. Each subject, wearing a life preserver but not the 
immersion suit, enters the

[[Page 236]]

water and swims 25 m. The subject must then be able to emerge from the 
pool onto the liferaft using only the hands placed on top of the 
liferaft as an aid and without pushing off of the bottom of the pool. 
Any subject unable to emerge onto the liferaft within 30 seconds is 
disqualified for this test. At least five subjects must qualify and be 
used for this test. If less than five subjects of the original ten 
qualify, substitute subjects must be used. Each qualified subject, after 
sufficient rest to avoid fatigue, repeats this test wearing an immersion 
suit instead of the life preserver. At least two-thirds of the qualified 
subjects must be able to swim this distance, and emerge onto the 
liferaft within 30 seconds, wearing the immersion suit.
    (8) Stability and retroreflective material. While wearing the suit 
in water witiout any auxiliary means of buoyancy, each subject assumes a 
face-up position and then allows his or her body to become limp. The 
distance from the water surface to the lowest part of the subject's 
mouth or nose is measured. This procedure is repeated using the 
auxiliary means of buoyancy, if one is provided. For each test subject, 
the stable position and the distance of the mouth and nose above the 
water must be prescribed in Sec. 160.171-11(a)(2) and Sec. 160.171-
11(a)(3). During this test, each subject must be viewed by observers to 
determine whether the retroreflective material of the suit meets 
Sec. 160.171-9(n).
    (9) Righting. Each subject while wearing a suit in water, without 
the use of any auxiliary means of buoyancy, takes a deep breath, assumes 
a face-down position, allows his or her body to become limp, and slowly 
expels air. The suit must cause the subject to turn to a position where 
the face is clear of the water within 5 seconds; or if the suit does not 
turn the subject within 5 seconds, the subject must be able to turn face 
up under his or her own power within 5 seconds. If the suit is provided 
with any means of auxiliary buoyancy, the procedure is repeated under 
each of the following applicable conditions:
    (i) With any means of auxiliary buoyancy attached but not inflated;
    (ii) With any means of auxiliary buoyancy which must be inflated by 
the wearer inflated according to the instructions; or
    (iii) With any means of auxiliary buoyancy which inflates 
automatically inflated by its automatic mechanism.
    (10) Water and air penetration. Each subject is weighed while 
wearing a pre-wetted suit without any auxiliary means of buoyancy. The 
subject jumps into water from a height that will cause the subject to be 
completely immersed. The subject swims or treads water for approximately 
one minute, emerges from the water, and is weighed within 10 seconds 
after emerging. The procedure is repeated with the subject entering the 
water headfirst. If air accumulates in the legs as the subject enters 
the water head-first, it must be expelled automatically. At the end of 
this test, the weight of the subject in the suit must not exceed the 
weight of the subject in the suit at the beginning of the test by more 
than 500 grams. Each test subject then re-enters the water and floats 
for a period of one hour. The subject then emerges from the water and is 
weighed within 10 seconds. The weight of the subject in the suit at the 
end of this test must not exceed the weight of the subject in the suit 
at the beginning of the period of flotation by more than 200 grams.
    (11) Impact. While wearing a suit without any auxiliary means of 
buoyancy, each subject jumps into water feet first six times from a 
height of 4.5 m (15 ft.) above the water surface. Each subject must be 
able to assume a face up stable position without assistance after each 
jump. The suit must not tear, separate at any seam, or exhibit any 
characteristic that could render it unsafe or unsuitable for use in 
water.
    (d) Thermal protection. The thermal protection capability of a suit 
must be tested under the following conditions and procedures;
    (1) Test subjects. Male subjects must be used for this test. Each 
subject must be familiarized with the test procedure before starting the 
test. Each subject must have somatotype parameters within the following 
ranges according to the Heath-Carter anthropometric method: endomorphy 
3.51.0; mesomorphy 4.01.5; ectomorphy 
3.51.0.

    Note: The following publication, among others, contains guidance for 
use of the

[[Page 237]]

Heath-Carter anthropometric method: ``Body Type and Performance,'' 
Hebbelinck and Ross; FITNESS, HEALTH AND WORK CAPACITY, INTERNATIONAL 
STANDARDS FOR ASSESSMENT; Larson, L. A. (Ed.); International Committee 
for the Standardization of Physical Fitness Tests; Macmillan; New York; 
1974 (pp. 266-283).


Each subject must have had a normal night's sleep before the test, a 
well-balanced meal 1 to 5 hours before the test, and no alcoholic 
beverages for 24 hours before the test. In addition to the suit, each 
subject must wear:
    (i) Underwear (short sleeved, short legged);
    (ii) Shirt (long sleeved);
    (ii) Trousers (not woolen);
    (iv) Woolen or equivalent synthetic socks;
    (v) Work shoes, if the suit is designed for shoes to be worn inside.
    (2) Test equipment. The test must be conducted in calm water with a 
temperature between 0  deg.C (32  deg.F) and 2  deg.C (35.6  deg.F). The 
air temperature 300 mm (1 ft.) above the water surface must be between 
minus 10  deg.C (14  deg.F) and 20  deg.C (68  deg.F). Each subject must 
be instrumented with an electrocardiograph, a thermistor or thermocouple 
in the rectum placed 150 mm (6 in) beyond the anus, thermistor or 
thermocouple in the lumbar region, a thermistor or thermocouple on the 
tip of the index finger, and a thermistor or thermocouple on the tip of 
the great toe. Each thermistor or thermocouple must have an accuracy of 
0.1  deg.C (0.18  deg.F). The suits used in this test must be the same 
ones previously subjected to the impact test described in Sec. 160.171-
17(c)(11).
    (3) Test procedure. A physician must always be present during this 
test. Before donning the suit, each subject rests quietly in a room with 
a temperature between 10  deg.C (50  deg.F) and 25  deg.C (77  deg.F) 
for 15 minutes. The rectal temperature is then recorded as the initial 
rectal temperature. The subject dons a suit as rapidly as possible 
without damaging the instrumentation and immediately enters the water. 
The subject assumes a face-up, stable floating position. No auxiliary 
means of buoyancy may be used during this test. The subject remains in 
the water engaging in activity that maintains the heart rate between 50 
and 140 per minute for the first hour, and between 50 and 120 per minute 
during the remainder of the test, except that no attempt is made to 
control heart rate if the subject is shivering. Each thermistor or 
thermocouple reading is recorded at least every 10 minutes.
    (4) Completion of testing. Testing of a subject ends six hours after 
he first enters the water, unless terminated sooner.
    (5) Termination of test. Testing of a subject must be terminated 
before completion if any of the following occurs:
    (i) The physician determines that the subject should not continue.
    (ii) The subject requests termination due to discomfort or illness.
    (iii) The subject's rectal temperature drops more than 2  deg.C (3.6 
 deg.F) below the initial rectal temperature, unless the physician 
determines that the subject may continue.
    (iv) The subject's lumbar, finger, or toe temperature drops below 10 
 deg.C (50  deg.F), unless the physician determines that the subject may 
continue.
    (6) Test results. The test results must be prepared as follows:
    (i) The total rectal temperature drop during the test period and the 
average lumbar, finger and toe temperature at the end of the test must 
be determined for each subject in the test, except subjects who did not 
complete testing for a reason stated in paragraph (d)(5)(i) or 
(d)(5)(ii) of this section. These temperatures and temperature drops 
must then be averaged. The average drop in rectal temperature must not 
be more than 2  deg.C (3.6  deg.F), and the average lumbar, toe and 
finger temperature must not be less than 5  deg.C (41  deg.F). Data from 
at least four subjects must be used in making these temperature 
calculations.
    (ii) Rates of toe, finger, lumbar, and rectal temperature drop for 
each subject who did not complete testing for a reason stated in 
paragraph (d)(5)(iii) or (d)(5)(iv) of this section must be determined 
using the highest temperature measured and the temperature measured 
immediately before testing was terminated. These rates must be used to 
extrapolate to 6 hours the estimated rectal, finger, lumbar, and toe 
temperature at the end of that time. These

[[Page 238]]

estimated temperatures must be the temperatures used in computing the 
average temperatures described in paragraph (d)(6)(i) of this section.
    (e) Insulation. Suit material must be tested under the following 
conditions and procedures, except that if the suit material meets the 
requirements for the control sample in paragraph (e)(1)(iii) of this 
section, the test procedure in paragraph (e)(2) of this section is not 
required.
    (1) Test equipment. The following equipment is required for this 
test:
    (i) A sealed copper or aluminum can that has at least two parallel 
flat surfaces and that contains at least two liters (two quarts) or 
water and no air. One possible configuration of the can shown in figure 
160.171-17(e)(1)(i).
    (ii) A thermistor or thermocouple that has an accuracy of 
0.1  deg.C (0.18  deg.F) and that is arranged to 
measure the temperature of the water in the can.
    (iii) A control sample of two flat pieces of 4.75 mm (3/16 in.) 
thick, closed cell neoprene foam of sufficient size to enclose the can 
between them. The control sample must have a thermal conductivity of not 
more than 0.055 watt/meter- deg. K (0.38 Btu-in./hr.-sq.ft.-  deg.F). 
The thermal conductivity of the control sample must be determined in 
accordance with the procedures in ASTM C 177 or ASTM C 518 (incorporated 
by reference, see Sec. 160.171-3).
    (iv) Two flat pieces of suit material of sufficient size to enclose 
the can between them. The surface covering, surface treatment, and 
number of layers of the material tested must be the same as those of 
material used in the suit. If the material used in the suit varies in 
thickness or number of layers, the material tested must be 
representative of the portion of the suit having the least thickness or 
number of layers.
    (v) A clamping arrangement to form a watertight seal around the 
edges of the material when the can is enclosed inside. A sealing 
compound may be used. Figure 160.171-17(e)(1)(v) shows one possible 
arrangement of the clamping arrangement.
    (vi) A container of water deep enough to hold the entire assembly of 
the can, material, and clamp at least 1 meter (39 in.) below the surface 
of the water.
    (vii) A means to control the temperature of the water in the 
container between 0  deg.C (32  deg.F) and 1  deg.C (33.8  deg.F).
    (viii) A thermistor or thermocouple that has an accuracy of 
0.1  deg.C (0.18  deg.F) and that is arranged to measure the 
temperature of the water in the container at the depth at which the can, 
material, and clamp are held.
    (2) Test procedure. The can is held under water (which can be at 
room temperature) and clamped between the two pieces of the neoprene 
control sample so that the assembly formed conforms as closely as 
possible to the shape of the can, and so that water fills all void 
spaces between the can and the sample. When the water temperature in the 
can is at or above 45  deg.C (113  deg.F), the assembly is then placed 
in the container and submerged to a depth of 1 m (39 in.) at the highest 
point of the assembly. The water temperature in the container must be 
between 0  deg.C (32  deg.F) and 1  deg.C (33.8  deg.F) and must be 
maintained within this range for the remainder of the test. No part of 
the assembly may touch the bottom or sides of the container. Every two 
minutes the assembly is shaken and then inverted from its previous 
position. The time for the water inside the can to drop from 45  deg.C 
(113  deg.F) to 33  deg.C (91  deg.F) is recorded. This procedure is 
performed three times using the control sample and then repeated three 
times using the suit material instead of the control sample. The 
shortest time for the drop in water temperature when the suit material 
is used must be greater than or equal to the shortest time when the 
neoprene control sample is used.
    (f) Storage temperature. Two samples of the immersion suits, in 
their storage cases, must be alternately subjected to surrounding 
temperatures of -30  deg.C to +65  deg.C. These alternating cycles need 
not follow immediately after each other and the following procedure, 
repeated for a total of ten cycles, is acceptable:
    (1) 8 hours conditioning at 65  deg.C to be completed in one day;
    (2) The specimens removed from the warm chamber that same day and 
left

[[Page 239]]

exposed under ordinary room conditions until the next day;
    (3) 8 hours conditioning at -30  deg.C to be completed the next day; 
and
    (4) The specimens removed from the cold chamber that same day and 
left exposed under ordinary room conditions until the next day. At the 
conclusion of the final cycle of cold storage, two test subjects who 
successfully completed the donning test in paragraph (c)(2) of this 
section enter the cold chamber, unpack and don the immersion suits. 
Alternatively, the suits may be upacked in the chamber, then removed and 
immediately donned. Neither of the suits must show damage such as 
shrinking, cracking, swelling, dissolution or change of mechanical 
qualities.
    (g) Measured buoyancy. The buoyancy of a suit must be measured under 
the following conditions and procedures:
    (1) Test equipment. The following equipment is required for this 
test:
    (i) A mesh basket that is large enough to hold a folded suit, and 
that is weighted sufficiently to overcome the buoyancy of the suit when 
placed in the basket.
    (ii) A tank of water that is large enough to contain the basket 
submerged with its top edge 50 mm (2 in.) below the surface of the 
water.
    (iii) A scale or load cell that has an accuracy of 0.15 Newtons (1/2 
oz.) and that is arranged to support and weigh the basket in the tank.
    (2) Test procedure. The basket is submerged so that its top edge is 
50 mm (2 in.) below the surface of the water. The basket is then 
weighed. Thereafter, a suit is submerged in water and then filled with 
water, folded, and placed in the submerged basket. The basket is titled 
45 deg. from the vertical for five minutes in each of four different 
directions to allow all entrapped air to escape. The basket is then 
suspended with its top edge 50 mm (2 in.) below the surface of the water 
for 24 hours. At the beginning and end of this period, the basket and 
suit are weighed underwater. The measured buoyancy of the suit is the 
difference between this weight and the weight of the basket as 
determined at the beginning of the test. The measured buoyancy after 24 
hours must not be more than 5% lower than the initial measured buoyancy. 
The measured buoyancy after 24 hours is used to determine adjusted 
buoyancy as described in paragraph (h) of this section.
    (h) Adjusted buoyancy. The adjusted buoyancy of a suit is its 
measured buoyancy reduced by the percentage buoyancy loss factor of the 
buoyant suit material. The percentage buoyancy loss factor is part of 
the buoyancy rating code determined in accordance with UL 1191, except 
that the minimum number of samples required to determine each property 
is 10 instead of 75.
    (i) Suit flame exposure. The suit's resistance to flame must be 
tested under the following conditions and procedures:
    (1) Test equipment. The following equipment is required for this 
test:
    (i) A metal pan that is at least 300 mm (12 in.) wide, 450 mm (18 
in.) long, and 60 mm (2\1/2\ in.) deep. The pan must have at least 12 mm 
(\1/2\ in.) of water on the bottom with approximately 40 mm (1\1/2\ in.) 
of gasoline floating on top of the water.
    (ii) An arrangement to hold the suit over the gasoline.
    (2) Test procedure. A suit is held from its top by the holding 
arrangement. The gasoline is ignited and allowed to burn for 
approximately 30 seconds in a draft-free location. The suit is then held 
with the lowest part of each foot 240 mm (9.5 in.) above the surface of 
the burning gasoline. After two seconds, measured from the moment the 
flame first contacts the suit, the suit is removed from the fire. The 
suit must not sustain burning or continue melting after removal from the 
flames. If the suit sustains any visible damage other than scorching, it 
must then be subjected to the stability test described in paragraph 
(c)(8) of this section, except that only one subject need be used; the 
impact test described in paragraph (c)(11) of this section, except that 
only one subject need be used; the thermal protection test described in 
paragraph (d) of this section, except that only one subject need be 
used; and the buoyancy test described in paragraph (g) of this section, 
except that the buoyancy test need be conducted for only 2 hours.
    (j) Storage case flame exposure. The storage case must be tested 
using the same equipment required for the suit

[[Page 240]]

flame exposure test. The immersion suit must be inside the storage case 
for this test. The storage case is held from its top by the holding 
arrangement. The gasoline is ignited and allowed to burn for 
approximately 30 seconds in a draft-free location. The storage case is 
then held with its lowest part 240 mm (9.5 in.) above the surface of the 
burning gasoline. After two seconds, measured from the moment the flames 
first contact the case, the case is removed from the fire. If the case 
is burning, it is allowed to continue to burn for six seconds before the 
flames are extinguished. The storage case material must not burn through 
at any point in this test and the immersion suit must not sustain any 
visible damage.
    (k) Corrosion resistance. Each metal part of a suit that is not 410 
stainless steel, or for which published evidence of salt-spray corrosion 
resistance equal to or greater than 410 stainless steel is not 
available, must be tested as described in ASTM B 117 (incorporated by 
reference, see Sec. 160.171-3). A sample of each metal under test and a 
sample of 410 stainless steel must be tested for 720 hours. At the 
conclusion of the test, each sample of test metal must show corrosion 
resistance equal to or better than the sample of 410 stainless steel.
    (l) Body strength. The body strength of a suit must be tested under 
the following conditions and procedures:
    (1) Test equipment. The test apparatus shown in figure 160.171-
17(1)(1) must be used for this test. This apparatus consists of--
    (i) Two rigid cylinders each 125 mm (5 in.) in diameter, with an eye 
or ring at each end;
    (ii) A weight of 135 kg (300 lb.); and
    (iii) Ropes or cables of sufficient length to allow the suit to be 
suspended as shown in Figure 160.171-17(1)(1).
    (2) Test procedure. The suit is cut at the waist and wrists, or 
holes are cut into it as necessary to accommodate the test apparatus. 
The suit is immersed in water for at least two minutes. The suit is then 
removed from the water and immediately arranged on the test apparatus, 
using each closure as it would be used by a person wearing the suit. The 
135 kg (300 lb.) load is applied for 5 minutes. No part of the suit may 
tear or break during this test. The suit must not be damaged in any way 
that would allow water to enter or that would affect the performance of 
the suit.
    (m) Seam strength. The strength of each different type of seam used 
in a suit must be tested under the following conditions and procedures:
    (1) Test equipment. The following equipment must be used for this 
test.
    (i) A chamber in which air temperature can be kept at 23  deg.C 
(73.4  deg.F) 2  deg.C (1.8  deg.F) and in which relative 
humidity can be kept at 50% 5%.
    (ii) A device to apply tension to the seam by the means of a pair of 
top jaws and a pair of bottom jaws. Each set of jaws must grip the 
material on both sides so that it does not slip when the load is 
applied.
    (2) Test samples. Each test sample must consist of two pieces of 
suit material, each of which is a 100 mm (4 in.) square. The two pieces 
are joined by a seam as shown in figure 160.171-17(m)(3). For each type 
of seam, 5 samples are required. Each sample may be cut from the suit or 
may be prepared specifically for this test. One type of seam is 
distinguished from another by the type and size of stitch or other 
joining method used and by the type and thickness of the materials 
joined at the seam.
    (3) Test procedure. Each sample is conditioned for at least 40 hours 
at 23  deg.C (73.4  deg.F) 2 deg.(1.8  deg.F) C and 50% 
5% relative humidity. Immediately after conditioning, each 
sample is mounted individually in the tension device as shown in figure 
160.171-17(m)(3). The jaws are separated at a rate of 5 mm/second (12 
in./minute). The force at rupture is recorded. The average force at 
rupture must be at least 225 Newtons (50 lb.).
    (n) Tear resistance. The tear resistance of suit material must be 
determined by the method described in ASTM D 1004. If more than one 
material is used, each material must be tested. If varying thickness of 
a material are used in the suit, samples representing the thinnest 
portion of the material must be tested. If multiple layers of a material 
are used in the suit, samples representing the layer on the exterior of 
the suit must be tested. Any material which is a composite

[[Page 241]]

formed of two or more materials bonded together is considered to be a 
single material. The average tearing strength of each material must be 
at least 45 Newtons (10 lb.).
    (o) Abrasion resistance. The abrasion resistance of each type of 
suit material on the exterior of the suit must be determined by the 
method described in Federal Test Method Standard 191, Method 5304.1. If 
varying thicknesses of exterior suit material are used, samples 
representing the thinnest portion of the material must be tested. If 
exterior material has multiple layers, samples of the layer on the 
outside surface of the suit must be tested. Any exterior material which 
is a composite formed of two or more layers bonded together is 
considered to be a single material and the abradant must be applied to 
the surface that is on the exterior of the suit. The residual breaking 
strength of each material must be at least 225 Newtons (50 lb.).
    (p) Test for oil resistance. After all its apertures have been 
sealed, an immersion suit is immersed under a 100 mm head of diesel oil, 
grade No. 2-D as defined in ASTM D 975 (incorporated by reference, see 
Sec. 160.171-3) for 24 hours. The surface oil is then wiped off and the 
immersion suit subjected to the leak test prescribed in Sec. 160.171-
17(c)(10). The ingress of water must not be greater than 200 grams.

[CGD 84-069a, 52 FR 1188, Jan. 12, 1987; USCG-2000-7790, 65 FR 58464, 
Sept. 29, 2000]



Sec. 160.171-19  Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    A child size suit must pass the following tests:
    (a) The stability test prescribed in Sec. 160.171-17(c)(8), except 
that only six children need be used as test subjects and they can be of 
either sex. The subjects must be within the ranges of weight and height 
prescribed in Sec. 160.171-9(m). The heaviest subject must weigh at 
least 10 kg (22 lb.) more than the lightest subject. During this test 
the face seal, neck and chin fit are evaluated and must be comparable to 
the fit of the corresponding adult size suit on an adult.
    (b) The buoyancy test prescribed in Sec. 160.171-17(g).
    (c) The body strength test prescribed in Sec. 160.171-17(k) except 
that the cylinders must be 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter and the test weight 
must be 55 kg (120 lb.).



Sec. 160.171-23  Marking.

    (a) Each immersion suit must be marked with the words ``IMMERSION 
SUIT--COMPLIES WITH SOLAS 74/83,'' the name of the manufacturer, the 
date of manufacturer, the model, the size, and the Coast Guard approval 
number.
    (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words ``immersion 
suit'' and the size.
    (c) The markings for the child size immersion suits required under 
paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section must also include the following 
statements in print smaller than the word ``child'': ``(Small Adult 
Under 50 kg. (110 lb.))'', and ``Children Require Adult Assistance for 
Donning and Use.''
    (d) If an auxiliary means of buoyancy is removable and is needed to 
meet Sec. 160.171-11(a)(2), the marking on the suit must indicate that 
the suit is not Coast Guard approved unless the auxiliary means of 
buoyancy is attached.



Sec. 160.171-25  Production testing.

    (a) Immersion suit production testing is conducted under the 
procedures in this section and subpart 159.007 of this chapter.
    (b) One out of every 100 immersion suits produced must be tested as 
prescribed in Sec. 160.171-17(g) and must be given a complete visual 
examination. The suit must be selected at random from a production lot 
of 100 suits and tested by or under the supervision of the independent 
laboratory. A suit fails this test if--
    (1) The measured buoyancy of the suit differs by more than 10% from 
the measured buoyancy of the suit tested for approval,
    (2) The adjusted buoyancy of the suit calculated using the buoyancy 
loss factor determined during approval testing is less than that 
required in Sec. 160.171-11(a)(1), or
    (3) The visual examination shows that the suit does not conform to 
the approved design.

[[Page 242]]

    (c) If the suit fails to pass the test as prescribed in paragraph 
(b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section, 10 additional suits from the same lot 
must be selected at random and subjected to the test. If a defect in the 
suit is detected upon visual examination, 10 additional suits from the 
same lot must be selected at random and examined for the defect.
    (d) If one or more of the 10 suits fails to pass the test or 
examination, each suit in the lot must be tested or examined for the 
defect for which the lot was rejected. Only suits that pass the test or 
that are free of defects may be sold as Coast Guard approved.
    (e) The manufacturer must ensure that the quality control procedure 
described in the test plans previously submitted for approval under 
Sec. 159.005-9(a)(5)(iii) is followed.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.019

         Figure 160.171(e)(1)(i). Water can for insulation test.
      
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.020
    
          Figure 160.171-17(e)(1)(v). Insulation Test Assembly.

[[Page 243]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.021


[[Page 244]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC03MR91.023



                Subpart 160.174--Thermal Protective Aids

    Source: CGD 84-069b, 51 FR 19343, May 29, 1986, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.174-1  Scope.

    This subpart contains construction and performance requirements, and 
approval tests for thermal protective aids that are designed to minimize 
the occurrence of or aid in the recovery from hypothermia (lowered body 
temperature) during long periods in a survival craft.



Sec. 160.174-3  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Certain materials are incorporated by reference into this 
subchapter with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register. 
The Office of the Federal Register publishes a table, ``Material 
Approved for Incorporation by Reference,'' which appears in the Finding 
Aids section of this volume. In that table is found citations to the 
particular sections of this part where the material is incorporated and 
the date of the approval by the Director of the Federal Register. To 
enforce any edition other than the one listed in paragraph (b) of the 
section, notice of

[[Page 245]]

change must be published in the Federal Register and the material made 
available. All approved material is on file at the Office of the Federal 
Register, Washington, DC 20408, and at the U.S. Coast Guard, Lifesaving 
and Fire Safety Division (G-MSE-4), Washington, DC 20593.
    (b) The materials approved for incorporation by reference in this 
subpart are:

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.
ASTM C 177-85 (1993), Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux 
Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the 
Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus--160.174-17
ASTM C 518-91, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux 
Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat 
Flow Meter Apparatus--160.174-17
ASTM D 975-98, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils--160.174-17
ASTM D 1004-94a, Standard Test Method for Initial Tear Resistance of 
Plastic Film and Sheeting--160.174-17
ASTM D 1518-85 (1990), Standard Test Method for Thermal Transmittance of 
Textile Materials--160.174-17

General Services Administration
Specification Unit (WFSIA), Regional Office Building, Room 6039, 7th and 
D Streets SW., Washington, DC 20407
Federal Standard No. 751a--Stitches, Seams, and Stitchings.
National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 440--Color, Universal 
Language and Dictionary of Names.


[CGD 84-069b, 51 FR 19343, May 29, 1986, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 FR 
50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996; CGD 97-
057, 62 FR 51049, Sept. 30, 1997; USCG-1999-6216, 64 FR 53228, Oct. 1, 
1999; USCG -1999-5151, 64 FR 67184, Dec. 1, 1999]



Sec. 160.174-5  Independent laboratory.

    (a) The approval and production tests and inspections in this 
subpart must be conducted by an independent laboratory accepted by the 
Coast Guard under subpart 159.010 of this chapter.
    (b)  [Reserved]



Sec. 160.174-7  Approval procedures.

    (a) General. A thermal protective aid is approved by the Coast Guard 
under the procedures in subpart 159.005 of this chapter.
    (b) Approval testing. Each approval test must be conducted in 
accordance with Sec. 160.174-17.



Sec. 160.174-9  Construction.

    (a) General. Each thermal protective aid must be constructed 
primarily of a durable insulating or heat reflecting material that meets 
the thermal insulation requirements in Sec. 160.174-11(a). Each aid must 
be designed to cover the wearer's entire body, except for the area of 
the mouth, nose, and eyes.
    (b) Seams. Stitching, if used in structural seams of a thermal 
protective aid, must be lock type stitching that meets the requirements 
in Federal Standard No. 751 for one of the following:
    (1) Class 300 lockstitch.
    (2) Class 700 single thread lock stitch.
    (c) Seam strength. Each seam must have a strength of at least 225 
Newtons (50 lb.).
    (d) Hardware. All hardware of a thermal protective aid must be of a 
size and design that allows ease of operation by the wearer. The 
hardware must be attached to the aid in a manner that allows the wearer 
to operate it easily and that prevents it from attaining a position in 
which it can be operated improperly.
    (e) Metal parts. Each metal part of a thermal protective aid must 
be--
    (1) 410 stainless steel or have salt water and salt air corrosion 
characteristics equal to or superior to 410 stainless steel; and
    (2) Galvanically compatible with each other metal part in contact 
with it.
    (f) Thermal protective aid exterior. The primary color of the 
exterior surface of each thermal protective aid must be vivid reddish 
orange (color number 34 of National Bureau of Standards Publication 
440). The exterior surface of the aid must resist tearing when tested as 
prescribed in Sec. 160.174-17(i).
    (g) Hand and arm construction. The hand of each thermal protective 
aid must be a glove that allows sufficient dexterity for the wearer to 
close and open the zipper or other hardware of the aid and to open and 
eat survival rations, unless the glove is removable. The glove may not 
be removable unless it is attached to the arm and unless it

[[Page 246]]

can be secured to the arm or stowed in a pocket on the arm when not in 
use.
    (h) Retroreflective material. Each thermal protective aid must be 
fitted with at least 200 cm2(31 sq. in.) of Type I 
retroreflective material that meets subpart 164.018 of this chapter.
    (i) Size. Each thermal protective aid must fit persons ranging in 
weight from 50 kg. (110 lbs.) to 150 kg. (330 lbs.) and in height from 
1.5 m. (59 in.) to 1.9 m. (75 in.).
    (j) Lifejacket. Each thermal protective aid must be designed so that 
any Type I Personal Flotation Device meeting the requirements of this 
chapter can be worn inside the aid and, when worn, will not damage the 
aid and will not adversely affect its performance.



Sec. 160.174-11  Performance.

    (a) Thermal protection. The thermal protective aid must be designed 
to protect against loss of body heat as follows:
    (1) The thermal conductivity of the material from which the thermal 
protective aid is constructed must be not more than 0.25 W/(m- deg.K).
    (2) The thermal protective aid must prevent evaporative heat loss.
    (3) The aid must function properly at an air temperature of -30 
deg.C (-22  deg.F) to +20  deg.C (68  deg.F).
    (b) Donning Time. Each thermal protective aid must be designed to 
enable a person to don the aid correctly within one minute after reading 
the donning and use instructions described in Sec. 160.174-15(a).
    (c) Storage Temperature. A thermal protective aid must not be 
damaged by storage in its storage case at any temperature between -30 
deg.C (-22  deg.F) and +65 C (149  deg.F).
    (d) In water performance. The thermal protective aid must be 
designed to permit the wearer to remove it in the water within two 
minutes, if it impairs ability to swim.
    (e) Water penetration. The fabric from which the thermal protective 
aid is constructed must maintain its watertight integrity when 
supporting a column of water 2 meters high.
    (f) Oil resistance. Each thermal protective aid must be designed to 
be useable after 24 hours exposure to diesel oil.



Sec. 160.174-13  Storage case.

    Each thermal protective aid must be provided with a ziplock bag or 
equivalent storage case.



Sec. 160.174-15  Instructions.

    (a) Each thermal protective aid must have instructions for its 
donning and use in an emergency. The instructions must be in English and 
must not exceed 50 words. Illustrations must be used in addition to the 
words. The instructions must include advice as to whether to swim in the 
aid or discard it if the wearer is thrown into the water.
    (b) The instructions required by paragraph (a) of this section must 
be on the exterior of the storage case, printed on a waterproof card 
attached to the storage case, or printed on the thermal protective aid 
and visible through a transparent storage case. The instructions must 
also be available in 8\1/2\ x 11 inch loose-leaf format for inclusion in 
the vessel's training manual.



Sec. 160.174-17  Approval testing.

    (a) General. A thermal protective aid must be tested as prescribed 
in this section.
    (b) Mobility and swimming tests. The mobility and swimming 
capabilities of each thermal protective aid must be tested under the 
following conditions and procedures:
    (1) Test subjects. Seven males and three females must be used in the 
tests described in this paragraph. The subjects must represent each of 
the three physical types (ectomorphic, endomorphic, and mesomorphic). 
Each subject must be in good health. The heaviest male subject must 
weigh at least 25 kg (55 lb) more than the lightest male subject. The 
heaviest female subject must weigh at least 25 kg (55 lb) more than the 
lightest female subject. The heaviest subject must weigh 
1505 Kg (33011 lbs.) and the lightest subject 
must weigh 505 Kg (11011 lbs.). Each subject 
must be unfamiliar with the specific thermal protective aid under test. 
Each subject must wear a standard range of clothing consisting of:

[[Page 247]]

    (i) Underwear (short sleeved, short legged);
    (ii) Shirt (long sleeved);
    (iii) Trousers (not woolen);
    (iv) Woolen socks;
    (v) Rubber soled shoes; and
    (vi) A life preserver.
    (2) Donning test. Each subject is removed from the view of the other 
subjects and allowed one minute to examine the thermal protective aid 
and the manufacturer's instructions for donning and use of the aid in an 
emergency. At the end of this period, the subject attempts to don the 
thermal protective aid as rapidly as possible. If the subject does not 
don the thermal protective aid completely, including gloves and any 
other accessories, within 60 seconds, the subject removes the aid and is 
given a demonstration of correct donning, and again attempts to don the 
aid. At least nine out of ten subjects must be able to don the thermal 
protective aid completely in 60 seconds on at least one of the two 
attempts.
    (3) Discarding test. If the thermal protective aid impairs the 
ability of the wearer to swim, it must be demonstrated that it can be 
discarded by the test subjects, when immersed in water, in not more than 
two minutes. Caution: During each of the in water tests prescribed in 
this section, a person ready to render assistance when needed should be 
near each subject in the water.
    (i) Unless the manufacturer specifies in the instructions that the 
thermal protective aid does impair ability to swim and should always be 
discarded in the water, each subject, wearing a life preserver, enters 
the water and swims 25 meters. The subject, after sufficient rest to 
avoid fatigue, repeats this test wearing a thermal protective aid in 
addition to the life preserver. At least nine out of ten subjects must 
be able to swim this distance wearing the thermal protective aid in not 
more than 125% of the time taken to swim the distance wearing only a 
life preserver, or the aid will be determined to impair the ability to 
swim.
    (ii) If the thermal protective aid is determined by the above test 
or specified by the manufacturer to impair the ability to swim, each 
subject, after entering the water from a height of one meter (three 
feet), attempts to remove the aid and discard it. At least nine out of 
ten subjects must be able to discard the device within two minutes.
    (c) [Reserved]
    (d) Storage temperature. Two samples of the thermal protective aids, 
in their storage cases, are alternately subjected to surrounding 
temperatures of -30  deg.C to +65  deg.C. These alternating cycles need 
not follow immediately after each other and the following procedure, 
repeated for a total of ten cycles, is acceptable:
    (1) 8 hours conditioning at 65  deg.C to be completed in one day;
    (2) The specimens removed from the warm chamber that same day and 
left exposed under ordinary room conditions until the next day;
    (3) 8 hours conditioning at -30  deg.C to be completed the next day; 
and
    (4) The specimens removed from the cold chamber that same day and 
left exposed under ordinary room conditions until the next day. At the 
conclusion of step (3) of the final cycle of cold storage, two test 
subjects who successfully completed the donning test previously enter 
the cold chamber, unpack and don the thermal protective aids. The aids 
must not show any damage, such as shrinking, cracking, swelling, 
dissolution or change of mechanical qualities.
    (e) Water penetration. A sample of the fabric from which the thermal 
protective aid is constructed is installed as a membrane at one end of a 
tube of at least 2.5 cm (one inch) diameter and 2 meters long. The tube 
is fixed in a vertical position with the membrane at the bottom, and 
filled with water. After one hour the membrane must continue to support 
the column of water with no leakage.
    (f) Insulation. The material from which the thermal protective aid 
is constructed is tested in accordance with the procedures in ASTM C 
177, ASTM C 518, or ASTM D 1518. The material must have a thermal 
conductivity of not more than 0.25 W/(m- deg.K) (incorporated by 
reference, see Sec. 160.174-3).
    (g) Test for oil resistance. After all its apertures have been 
sealed, a thermal protective aid is immersed under a 100

[[Page 248]]

mm head of diesel oil, grade no. 2-D as defined in ASTM D 975 
(incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.174-3), for 24 hours. The 
surface oil is then wiped off and a sample of the material from the aid 
is again tested in accordance with the procedures in ASTM C 177 or ASTM 
C 518 (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.174-3). The material must 
still have a thermal conductivity of not more than 0.25 W/(m- deg. K).
    (h) Seam strength. The strength of each different type of seam used 
in a thermal protective aid must be tested under the following 
conditions and procedures.
    (1) Test equipment. The following equipment must be used in this 
test:
    (i) A chamber in which air temperature can be kept at 25  deg.C 
(73.4  deg.F) 2  deg.C (1.8  deg.F) and in which relative 
humidity can be kept at 50% 5%.
    (ii) A device to apply tension to the seam by means of a pair of top 
jaws and a pair of bottom jaws. Each set of jaws must grip the material 
on both sides so that it does not slip when the load is applied. Each 
front jaw must be 25 mm (1 inch) wide by 25 mm (1 inch) long. The 
distance between the jaws before the load is applied must be 75mm (3 
inches).
    (2) Test samples. Each test sample consists of two pieces of the 
material from which the thermal protective aid is constructed, each of 
which is 100 mm (4 inches) square. The two pieces are joined by a seam 
as shown in figure 160.171-17(m)(3). For each type of seam, 5 samples 
are required. Each sample may be cut from a thermal protective aid or 
may be prepared specifically for this test. One type of seam is 
distinguished from another by the type and size of stitch or other 
joining method used (including orientation of warp and fill, if any) and 
by the type and thickness of the materials joined at the seam.
    (3) Test procedure. Each sample is conditioned for at least 40 hours 
at 23  deg.C2  deg.C and 50% 5% relative 
humidity. Immediately after conditioning, each sample is mounted 
individually in the tension device as shown in figure 160.171-17(m)(3). 
The jaws are separated at a rate of 5 mm/second (12 in/minute). The 
maximum force to achieve rupture is recorded. The average force at 
rupture must be at least 225 Newtons (50 lb).
    (i) Tear resistance. The tear resistance of the material from which 
a thermal protective aid is constructed must be determined by the method 
described in ASTM D 1004 (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.174-
3). If more than one material is used, each material must be tested. If 
varying thicknesses of a material are used in the aid, samples 
representing the thinnest portion of the material must be tested. If 
multiple layers of a material are used in the aid, samples representing 
the layer on the exterior of the aid must be tested. Any material that 
is a composite formed of two or more materials bonded together is 
considered to be a single material. The average tearing strength of each 
material must be at least 45 Newtons (10 lb).

[CGD 84-069b, 51 FR 19343, May 29, 1986, as amended by CGD 84-069a, 52 
FR 1197, Jan. 12, 1987; USCG-2000-7790, 65 FR 58464, Sept. 29, 2000]



Sec. 160.174-23  Marking.

    (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words 
``Thermal Protective Aid,'' the name of the manufacturer, the model, the 
date of manufacture or a lot number from which the date of manufacture 
may be determined, and the Coast Guard approval number.
    (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words ``Thermal 
Protective Aid'' or the thermal protective aid must have a similar 
marking which is visible through a transparent storage case.



Sec. 160.174-25  Production testing.

    (a) Thermal protective aid production testing is conducted under the 
procedures in this section and subpart 159.007 of this chapter.
    (b) One out of every 100 thermal protective aids produced must be 
given a complete visual examination. The sample must be selected at 
random from a production lot of 100 thermal protective aids and examined 
by or under the supervision of the independent laboratory. The sample 
fails if the visual examination shows that the aid does not conform to 
the approved design.

[[Page 249]]

    (c) If a defect in the thermal protective aid is detected upon 
visual examination, 10 additional samples from the same lot must be 
selected at random and examined for the defect.
    (d) If one or more of the 10 samples fails the examination, each 
thermal protective aid in the lot must be examined for the defect for 
which the lot was rejected. Only thermal protective aids that are free 
of defects may be sold as Coast Guard approved.

[CGD 84-069b, 51 FR 19343, May 29, 1986; 51 FR 20650, June 6, 1986]



                 Subpart 160.176--Inflatable Lifejackets

    Source: CGD 78-174b, 54 FR 50320, Dec. 5, 1989, unless otherwise 
noted.



Sec. 160.176-1  Scope.

    (a) This subpart contains structural and performance standards and 
procedures for approval of inflatable lifejackets, as well as 
requirements for associated manuals, servicing programs, and shore-side 
service facilities.
    (b) Other regulations in this chapter provide that inflatable 
lifejackets must be:
    (1) Serviced annually at designated servicing facilities; and
    (2) Maintained in accordance with their user manuals.
    (c) Inflatable lifejackets approved under this subpart--
    (1) Rely entirely upon inflation for buoyancy;
    (2) Meet the requirements for lifejackets in the 1983 Amendments to 
the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 
74/83);
    (3) Have performance equivalent to Type I Personal Flotation Devices 
(PFD's) with any one chamber deflated; and
    (4) Are designed to be worn by adults.



Sec. 160.176-2  Application.

    (a) Inflatable lifejackets approved under this subpart may be used 
to meet carriage requirements for Type I PFD's only on:
    (1) Uninspected submersible vessels; and
    (2) Inspected vessels for which a servicing program has been 
approved by the Commandant.
    (b) [Reserved]



Sec. 160.176-3  Definitions.

    (a) Commandant means the Chief of the Lifesaving and Fire Safety 
Division, Marine Safety and Environmental Protection. Address: 
Commandant (G-MSE-4), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second St. 
SW., Washington, DC 20593-0001.
    (b) First quality worksmanship means construction which is free from 
any defect materially affecting appearance or serviceability.
    (c) Functional deterioration means--
    (1) Damage such as deformation in hardware or a rip, tear, or loose 
stitches;
    (2) Decline in any performance characteristic; or
    (3) Any other change making the lifejacket unfit for use.
    (d) Functional residual capacity (FRC) means the amount of lung 
volume a person has remaining at the bottom of the normal breathing 
cycle when at rest.
    (e) Inflation medium means any solid, liquid, or gas, that, when 
activated, provides inflation for buoyancy.
    (f) Inspector means an independent laboratory representative 
assigned to perform the duties described in Sec. 160.176-15 of this 
subpart.
    (g) PFD means personal flotation device as defined in 33 CFR 175.13.
    (h) Reference vest means a model AK-1 PFD meeting subpart 160.047 of 
this part, except that, in lieu of the weight and displacement values 
prescribed in Tables 160.047-4(c)(2) and Sec. 160.047-(4)(c)(4), each 
front insert must have a weight of kapok of at least 8.25 oz. and a 
volume displacement of 9.0  0.25 lb., and the back insert 
must have a weight of kapok of at least 5.5 oz. and a volume 
displacement of 6.0  0.25 lb. To achieve the specified 
volume displacement, front insert envelopes may be larger than the 
dimensions prescribed by Sec. 160.047-1(b).
    (i) [Reserved]
    (j) Second stage donning means adjustments or steps necessary to 
make a lifejacket provide its intended flotation characteristics after 
the device

[[Page 250]]

has been properly donned and then inflated.

[CGD 78-174b, 54 FR 50320, Dec. 5, 1989, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 FR 
50466, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996]



Sec. 160.176-4  Incorporation by reference.

    (a) Certain materials are incorporated by reference into this 
subpart with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register in 
accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a). To enforce any edition other than the 
one listed in paragraph (b) of this section, notice of the change must 
be published in the Federal Register and the material made available to 
the public. All approved material is on file at the Office of the 
Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., suite 700, Washington, 
DC and at the U.S. Coast Guard, Lifesaving and Fire Safety Division (G-
MSE-4), 2100 Second Street, SW., Washington, DC 20593-0001, and is 
available from the sources indicated in paragraph (b) of this section.
    (b) The materials approved for incorporation by reference in this 
subpart, and the sections affected are:

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.
ASTM B 117-97, Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) 
Apparatus--160.176-8; 160.176-13
ASTM D 751-95, Standard Test Methods for Coated Fabrics--160.176-13
ASTM D 975-98, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils--160.176-13
ASTM D 1434-82 (1988), Standard Test Method for Determining Gas 
Permeability Characteristics of Plastic Film and Sheeting--160.176-13

Federal Aviation Administration Technical Standard Order
Policy and Procedure Br., AWS-110, Aircraft Engineering Division, Office 
of Airworthiness, 800 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20591
TSO-C13d, Federal Aviation Administration Standard for Life Preservers, 
January 3, 1983--160.176-8

Federal Standards
Naval Publications and Forms Center, Customer Service, Code 1052, 5801 
Tabor Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19120
In Federal Test Method Standard No. 191A (dated July 20, 1978) the 
following methods:
    (1) Method 5100, Strength and Elongation, Breaking of Woven Cloth; 
Grab Method--160.176-13
    (2) Method 5132, Strength of Cloth, Tearing; Falling-Pendulum 
Method--160.176-13
    (3) Method 5134, Strength of Cloth, Tearing; Tongue Method--160.176-
13
    (4) Method 5804.1, Weathering Resistance of Cloth; Accelerated 
Weathering Method--160.176-8
    (5) Method 5762, Mildew Resistance of Textile Materials; Soil Burial 
Method--160.176-8
Federal Standard No. 751a, Stitches, Seams, and Stitching, January 25, 
1965--160.176-9

Military Specifications
Naval Publications and Forms Center, Customer Service, Code 1052, 5801 
Tabor Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19120
MIL-L-24611--Life Preserver Support Package For Life Preserver, MK 4, 
dated May 18, 1982--160.176-8

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (formerly National 
Bureau of Standards)
C/O Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, DC 20402
Special Pub. 440, Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Names; 
``The Universal Color Language'' and ``The Color Names Dictionary'', 
1976--160.176-9

Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 12 Laboratory Drive, Research Triangle 
Park, NC 27709-3995.P.O. Box 13995, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-
3995
UL 1191, ``Components for Personal Flotation Devices'', November 11, 
1984--160.176-8; 160.176-13

[CGD 78-174b, 54 FR 50320, Dec. 5, 1989, as amended by CGD 95-072, 60 FR 
50467, Sept. 29, 1995; CGD 96-041, 61 FR 50733, Sept. 27, 1996; CGD 97-
057, 62 FR 51049, Sept. 30, 1997; USCG-1999-5151, 64 FR 67185, Dec. 1, 
1999]



Sec. 160.176-5  Approval procedures.

    (a) Modifications to general procedures. Subpart 159.005 of this 
chapter contains the approval procedures. Those procedures must be 
followed, except as modified in this paragraph.
    (1) Preapproval review under Secs. 159.005-5 and 159.005-7 may be 
omitted if a similar design has already been approved.
    (2) The information required under Sec. 159.005-5(a)(2) (i) through 
(iii) of this chapter must be included in the application.
    (3) The application must also include the following:
    (i) The Type of performance (i.e. Type I or Type V) that the 
lifejacket is designed to provide.

[[Page 251]]

    (ii) Any special purpose(s) for which the lifejacket is designed and 
the vessel(s) or vessel type(s) on which its use is planned.
    (iii) Buoyancy and torque values along with tolerances to be allowed 
in production. The Coast Guard normally will approve tolerances of up to 
10% unless prototypes are tested at greater extremes or 
greater tolerances are otherwise justified.
    (iv) The text of any optional marking to be provided in addition to 
required text.
    (v) The service manual and written guidelines required by 
Secs. 160.176-19(c) and 160.176-19(d) of the part and the user's manual 
required by Sec. 160.176-21 of this part.
    (vi) A list of proposed servicing facilities.
    (4) The description of quality control procedures required by 
Sec. 159.005-9 of this chapter to be submitted with the test report may 
be omitted as long as the manufacturer's planned quality control 
procedures comply with Sec. 160.176-15 of this part.
    (5) The test report must include, in addition to information 
required by Sec. 159.005-9 of this chapter, a report of inspection of 
each proposed servicing facility. The report must include the time, 
date, place, and name of the person doing the inspection and 
observations that show whether the facility meets Secs. 160.176-
19(b)(2), 160-176-19(b)(4), and 160.176-19(d) of this part.
    (6) The certificate of approval, when issued, is accompanied by a 
letter to the manufacturer listing the servicing facilities that have 
been approved. Copies of the letter are also provided for each facility.
    (7) An approval will be suspended or terminated under Sec. 159.005-
15 of this chapter if the manufacturer fails to maintain approved 
servicing facilities that meet Sec. 160.176-19 of this part.
    (b) Manuals and guidelines. The manuals and servicing facility 
guidelines required by this subpart are reviewed with the application 
for lifejacket approval. Changes will be required if needed to comply 
with Secs. 160.176-19 and 160.176-21 of this part.
    (c) Approval of servicing facilities. (1) Approval of servicing 
facilities initially proposed for use is considered during and as a part 
of the lifejacket approval process described in paragraph (a) of this 
section.
    (2) Other servicing facilities may subsequently be considered for 
approval, upon submission of a letter of application to Commandant 
containing each of the applicable items required of manufacturers and 
laboratories under Sec. 159.005-5 of this chapter and the following:
    (i) A copy of guidelines meeting Sec. 160.176-19(d) of this part, if 
different from those originally approved with the lifejacket;
    (ii) A list of the sources the servicing facility proposes to use 
for parts and manuals for the servicing of the make and model of 
lifejacket applied for; and
    (iii) A report of inspection prepared by an independent laboratory 
which includes the time, date, and place of the inspection, the name of 
the inspector, and observations that show whether the facility meets 
Secs. 160.176-19(b)(2) through 160.176-19(b)(4) and 160.176-19(d) of 
this part.
    (3) To conduct servicing at a remote or mobile site, the servicing 
facility must be authorized in its letter of approval to conduct this 
type of servicing. Approval for servicing at these sites is obtained 
according to paragraph (c)(2) of this section except that portable or 
mobile equipment must be available when evaluating the compliance with 
Sec. 160.176-19(b)(3) of this part.
    (4) Each change to equipment, procedure, or qualification and 
training of personnel of an approved servicing facility must be also 
approved.
    (d) Waiver of tests. If a manufacturer requests that any test in 
this subpart be waived, one of the following must be provided to the 
Commandant as justification for the waiver:
    (1) Acceptable test results on a lifejacket of sufficiently similar 
design.
    (2) Engineering analysis showing that the test is not applicable to 
the particular design or that by design or construction the lifejacket 
can not fail the test.
    (e) Alternative requirements. A lifejacket that does not meet 
requirements in this subpart may still be approved if the device--
    (1) Meets other requirements prescribed by the Commandant in place 
of

[[Page 252]]

or in addition to requirements in this subpart; and
    (2) Provides at least the same degree of safety provided by other 
lifejackets that do comply with this subpart.

[CGD 78-1746, 54 FR 50320, Dec. 5, 1989, as amended by CGD 78-174b, 56 
FR 29441, June 27, 1991]



Sec. 160.176-6  Procedure for approval of design or material revision.

    (a) Each change in design, material, or construction must be 
approved by the Commandant before being used in lifejacket production.
    (b) Determinations of equivalence of design, construction, and 
materials may only be made by the Commandant.



Sec. 160.176-7  Independent laboratories.

    A list of independent laboratories which have been accepted by the 
Commandant for conducting or supervising the following tests and 
inspections required by this subpart, may be obtained from the 
Commandant:
    (a) Approval tests.
    (b) Production tests and inspections.
    (c) Inspection of approved servicing facilities.
    (d) Testing of materials for the purpose of making the certification 
required by Sec. 160.176-8(a)(3) of this part.



Sec. 160.176-8  Materials.

    (a) General--(1) Acceptance, certification, and quality. All 
components used in the construction of lifejackets must meet the 
requirements of subpart 164.019 of this chapter.
    (2) Condition of materials. All materials must be new.
    (3) Temperature range. Unless otherwise specified in standards 
incorporated by reference in this section, all materials must be usable 
in all weather conditions throughout a temperature range of -30 
+ C to +65 + C(-22 + F to +150 
+ F).
    (4) Weathering resistance. Each non-metallic component which is not 
suitably covered to shield against ultraviolet exposure must retain at 
least 40% of its strength after being subjected to 300 hours of sunshine 
carbon arc weathering as specified by Method 5804.1 of Federal Test 
Method Standard Number 191A.
    (5) Fungus resistance. Each non-metallic component must retain at 
least 90% of its strength after being subjected to the mildew resistance 
test specified by Method 5762 of Federal Test Method Standard No. 191A 
when untreated cotton is used as the control specimen. Also, the gas 
transmission rate of inflation chamber materials must not be increased 
by more than 10% after being subjected to this test. Materials that are 
covered when used in the lifejacket may be tested with the covering 
material.
    (6) Corrosion resistance. Each metal component must--
    (i) Be galvanically compatible with each other metal part in contact 
with it; and
    (ii) Unless it is expendable (such as an inflation medium 
cartridge), be 410 stainless steel, have salt water and salt air 
corrosion characteristics equal or superior to 410 stainless steel, or 
perform its intended function and have no visible pitting or other 
damage on any surface after 720 hours of salt spray testing according to 
ASTM B 117 (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.176-4).
    (7) Materials not covered. Materials having no additional specific 
requirements in this section must be of good quality and suitable for 
the purpose intended.
    (b) Fabric--(1) All fabric. All fabric must--
    (i) Be of a type accepted for use on Type I life preservers approved 
under subpart 160.002 of this part; or
    (ii) Meet the Type V requirements for ``Fabrics for Wearable 
Devices'' in UL 1191 except that breaking strength must be at least 400 
N (90 lb.) in both directions of greater and lesser thread count.
    (2) Rubber coated fabric. Rubber coated fabric must be of a copper-
inhibiting type.
    (c) Inflation chamber materials--(1) All materials. (i) The average 
permeability of inflation chamber material, determined according to the 
procedures specified in Sec. 160.176-13(y)(3) of this part, must not be 
more than 110% of the permeability of the materials determined in 
approval testing prescribed in Sec. 160.176-13(y)(3) of this part.

[[Page 253]]

    (ii) The average grab breaking strength and tear strength of the 
material, determined according to the procedures specified in 
Secs. 160.176-13(y)(1) and 160.176-13(y)(2) of this part, must be at 
least 90% of the grab breaking strength and tear strength determined 
from testing prescribed in Secs. 160.176-13(y)(1) and 160.176-13(y)(2) 
of this part. No individual sample result for breaking strength or tear 
strength may be more than 20% below the results obtained in approval 
testing.
    (2) Fabric covered chambers. Each material used in the construction 
of inflation chambers that are covered with fabric must meet the 
requirements specified for--
    (i) ``Bladder'' materials in section 3.2.6 of MIL-L-24611(SH) if the 
material is an unsupported film; or
    (ii) Coated fabric in section 3.1.1 of TSO-C13d if the material is a 
coated fabric.
    (3) Uncovered chambers. Each material used in the construction of 
inflation chambers that are not covered with fabric must meet the 
requirements specified in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.
    (d) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 
164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each 
seam. Thread and fabric combinations must have similar elongation and 
durability characteristics.
    (e) Webbing. Webbing used as a body strap, tie tape or drawstring, 
or reinforcing tape must meet Sec. 160.002-3(e), Sec. 160.002-3(f), 
Sec. 160.002-3(h) of this part respectively. Webbing used for tie tape 
or drawstring must easily hold a knot and be easily tied and untied. 
Webbing used as reinforcing tape must not chafe the wearer.
    (f) Closures--(1) Strength. Each buckle, snap hook, dee ring or 
other type of fastening must have a minimum breaking strength of 1600 N 
(360 lbs). The width of each opening in a closure, through which body 
strap webbing passes, must be the same as the width of that webbing.
    (2) Means of Locking. Each closure used to secure a lifejacket to 
the body, except a zipper, must have a quick and positive locking 
mechanism, such as a snap hook and dee ring.
    (3) Zipper. If a zipper is used to secure the lifejacket to the 
body, it must be--
    (i) Easily initiated;
    (ii) Non-jamming;
    (iii) Right handed;
    (iv) Of a locking type; and
    (v) Used in combination with another type of closure that has a 
quick and positive means of locking.
    (g) Inflation medium. (1) No inflation medium may contain any 
compound that is more toxic than CO2 if inhaled through any 
of the oral inflation mechanisms.
    (2) Any chemical reaction of inflation medium during inflation must 
not produce a toxic residue.
    (h) Adhesives. Adhesives must be waterproof and acceptable for use 
with the materials being bonded.
    (i) [Reserved]
    (j) Retroreflective Material. Each lifejacket must have at least 200 
sq. cm. (31 sq. in.) of retroreflective material on its front side, at 
least 200 sq. cm. on its back side, and at least 200 sq. cm. of material 
on each reversible side. The retroreflective material must be Type I 
material that is approved under subpart 164.018 of this chapter. The 
retroreflective material attached on each side must be divided equally 
between the upper quadrants of the side. Attachment of retroreflective 
material must not impair lifejacket performance or durability.
    (k) PFD light. Each lifejacket must have a PFD light that is 
approved under subpart 161.012 of this chapter and that meets the 
requirements of Regulations III/30.2 and III/32.3 of the 1983 Amendments 
to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 
(SOLAS 74/83). The light must be securely attached to the front shoulder 
area of the lifejacket. Attachment of the light must not impair 
lifejacket performance.
    (l) [Reserved]
    (m) Whistle. Each lifejacket must have a whistle of the ball type or 
multi-tone type and of corrosion-resistant construction. The whistle 
must be securely attached to the lifejacket by a lanyard. The lanyard 
must be long enough to permit the whistle to reach the mouth of the 
wearer. If the lanyard would normally allow the whistle to hang below 
the waist of the average

[[Page 254]]

size wearer, the whistle must be stowed in a pocket on the lifejacket. 
The attachment of the whistle must not impair lifejacket performance.

[CGD 78-1746, 54 FR 50320, Dec. 5, 1989, as amended by CGD 78-174b, 56 
FR 29441, June 27, 1991; CGD 84-068, 58 FR 29494, May 20, 1993; USCG-
2000-7790, 65 FR 58464, Sept. 29, 2000]



Sec. 160.176-9  Construction.

    (a) General Features. Each inflatable lifejacket must--
    (1) Have at least two inflation chambers;
    (2) Be constructed so that the intended method of donning is obvious 
to an untrained wearer;
    (3) If approved for use on a passenger vessel, be inside a sealed, 
non-reusable package that can be easily opened;
    (4) Have a retainer for each adjustable closure to prevent any part 
of the closure from being easily removed from the lifejacket;
    (5) Be universally sized for wearers weighing over 40 kg. (90 
pounds) and have a chest size range of at least 76 to 120 cm. (30 to 52 
in.);
    (6) Unless the lifejacket is designed so that it can only be donned 
in one way, be constructed to be donned with either the inner or outer 
surface of the lifejacket next to the wearer (be reversible);
    (7) Not have a channel that can direct water to the wearer's face to 
any greater extent than that of the reference vest defined in 
Sec. 160.176-3(h) of this part;
    (8) Not have edges, projections, or corners, either external or 
internal, that are sharp enough to damage the lifejacket or to cause 
injury to anyone using or maintaining the lifejacket;
    (9) Have a means for drainage of entrapped water;
    (10) Be primarily vivid reddish orange, as defined by sections 13 
and 14 of the ``Color Names Dictionary,'' on its external surfaces;
    (11) Be of first quality workmanship;
    (12) Unless otherwise allowed by the approval certificate--
    (i) Not incorporate means obviously intended for attaching the 
lifejacket to the vessel; and
    (ii) Not have any instructions indicating attachment to a vessel is 
intended; and
    (13) Meet any additional requirements that the Commandant may 
prescribe, if necessary, to approve unique or novel designs.
    (b) Inflation mechanisms. (1) Each inflatable lifejacket must have
    (i) At least one automatic inflation mechanism;
    (ii) At least two manual inflation mechanisms on separate chambers;
    (iii) At least one oral inflation mechanism on each chamber; and
    (iv) At least one manual inflation mechanism or one automatic 
inflation mechanism on each inflation chamber.
    (2) Each inflation mechanism must
    (i) Have an intended method of operation that is obvious to an 
untrained wearer;
    (ii) Not require tools to activate the mechanism;
    (iii) Be located outside its inflation chamber; and
    (iv) Be in a ready to use condition.
    (3) Each oral inflation mechanism must
    (i) Be easily accessible after inflation for the wearer to ``top 
off'' each chamber by mouth;
    (ii) Operate without pulling on the mechanism;
    (iii) Not be able to be locked in the open or closed position; and
    (iv) Have a non-toxic mouthpiece.
    (4) Each manual inflation mechanism must
    (i) Provide an easy means of inflation that requires only one 
deliberate action on the part of the wearer to actuate it;
    (ii) Have a simple method for replacing its inflation medium 
cartridge; and
    (iii) Be operated by pulling on an inflation handle that is marked 
``Jerk to Inflate'' at two visible locations.
    (5) Each automatic inflation mechanism must
    (i) Have a simple method for replacing its inflation medium 
cartridge and water sensitive element;
    (ii) Have an obvious method of indicating whether the mechanism has 
been activated; and
    (iii) Be incapable of assembly without its water sensitive element.
    (6) The marking required for the inflation handle of a manual 
inflation

[[Page 255]]

mechanism must be waterproof, permanent, and readable from a distance of 
2.5 m (8 feet).
    (c) Deflation mechanism. (1) Each chamber must have its own 
deflation mechanism.
    (2) Each deflation mechanism must
    (i) Be readily accessible to either hand when the lifejacket is worn 
while inflated;
    (ii) Not require tools to operate it;
    (iii) Not be able to be locked in the open or closed position; and
    (iv) Have an intended method of operation which is obvious to an 
untrained wearer.
    (3) The deflation mechanism may also be the oral inflation 
mechanism.
    (d) Sewn seams. Stitching used in each structural seam of a 
lifejacket must provide performance equal to or better than a Class 300 
Lockstitch meeting Federal Standard No. 751a.
    (e) Textiles. All cut edges of textile materials must be treated or 
sewn to minimize raveling.
    (f) Body strap attachment. Each body strap assembly must be securely 
attached to the lifejacket.



Sec. 160.176-11  Performance.

    (a) General. Each inflatable lifejacket must be able to pass the 
tests in Sec. 160.176-13 of this part.
    (b) Snag Hazard. The lifejacket must not present a snag hazard when 
properly worn.
    (c) Chamber Attachment. Each inflation chamber on or inside an 
inflatable lifejacket must not be able to be moved to a position that-
    (1) Prevents full inflation; or
    (2) Allows inflation in a location other than in its intended 
location.
    (d) Comfort. The lifejacket must not cause significant discomfort to 
the wearer during and after inflation.



Sec. 160.176-13  Approval Tests.

    (a) General. (1) This section contains requirements for approval 
tests and examinations of inflatable lifejackets. Each test or 
examination must be conducted or supervised by an independent 
laboratory. The tests must be done using lifejackets that have been 
constructed in accordance with the plans and specifications in the 
application for approval. Unless otherwise specified, only one 
lifejacket, which may or may not have been subjected to other tests, is 
required to be tested in each test. One or more lifejackets that have 
been tested as prescribed in paragraph (h) of this section must be used 
for the tests prescribed in paragraphs (j), (n), (q), and (r) of this 
section. The tests prescribed in paragraph (y) of this section require 
one or more lifejackets as specified in that paragraph.
    (2) All data relating to buoyancy and pressure must be taken at, or 
corrected to, an atmospheric pressure of 760 mm (29.92 inches) of 
mercury and a temperature of 20  deg.C (68  deg.F).
    (3) The tests in this section are not required to be run in the 
order listed, except where a particular order is specified.
    (4) Some tests in this section require a lifejacket to be tested 
while being worn. In each of these tests the test subjects must 
represent a range of small, medium, and large heights and weights. 
Unless otherwise specified, a minimum of 18 test subjects, including 
both males and females, must be used. The test subjects must not be 
practiced in the use of the lifejacket being tested. However, they must 
be familiar with the use of other Coast Guard approved lifejackets. 
Unless specified otherwise, test subjects must wear only swim suits. 
Each test subject must be able to swim and relax in the water.

    Note: Some tests have inherent hazards for which adequate safeguards 
must be taken to protect personnel and property in conducting the tests.

    (b) Donning. (1) No second stage donning is allowed in the tests in 
this paragraph. Test subjects may read the donning instructions to be 
provided with the device, if any. An uninflated lifejacket with size 
adjustment at its mid-range is given to each test subject with the 
instruction: ``Please don as quickly as possible, adjust to fit snugly, 
and inflate.'' Each subject must, within one minute, don the uninflated 
lifejacket, adjust it to fit snugly, and then activate the manual 
inflation mechanism.

    Note: For this test the manual inflation mechanism may be disabled.


[[Page 256]]


    (2) The average time of all subjects to complete the test in 
paragraph (b)(1) of this section must not exceed 30 seconds. The 
criteria in this paragraph do not apply to the tests in paragraphs 
(b)(3) and (b)(4) of this section.
    (3) The test in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is repeated with 
each subject wearing an insulated, hooded parka and gloves made from 
heavy, cotton-jersey (knit) fabric.
    (4) The test in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is then repeated 
twice more with a fully inflated lifejacket. In the first test the 
subjects must wear swim suits and in the second test, parka and gloves.
    (c) Inflation Testing. No second stage donning is allowed in the 
tests in this paragraph. A lifejacket with each automatic inflation 
mechanism disabled must be used for the tests prescribed in paragraphs 
(c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section. For the tests prescribed in paragraph 
(c)(4) of this section, remove any non-reusable cover or packaging from 
the lifejacket, but do not open any cover or closure which is intended 
to be closed when the lifejacket is worn in the uninflated condition.
    (1) Each test subject dons an uninflated lifejacket and is 
instructed to enter the water and swim for approximately 30 seconds and 
then, on command, inflate the lifejacket using only oral inflation 
mechanisms. Within 30 seconds after the command is given, the lifejacket 
must be sufficiently inflated to float each subject with respiration 
unimpeded.
    (2) Each test subject dons an uninflated lifejacket and is 
instructed to enter the water and swim for approximately 30 seconds, 
bring both hands to the surface, and then, on command, inflate the 
lifejacket using each manual inflation mechanism. Each test subject must 
find and operate all the manual inflation mechanisms within 5 seconds 
after the command is given. The manual inflation mechanisms must inflate 
the lifejacket sufficiently to float the wearers within 5 seconds after 
the mechanisms are operated. Within 20 seconds after activation each 
subject must be floating in the position described in paragraph (d)(3) 
of this section.
    (3) One small and one large test subject don uninflated lifejackets 
and jump feet first from a height of 1 meter into the water. The 
automatic inflation mechanisms must inflate the lifejackets sufficiently 
to float the wearers within 10 seconds after the subjects enter the 
water. Within 20 seconds after entering the water each subject must be 
floating in the position described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.
    (4) Air at a pressure of 4.2 kPa (0.6 psig) is applied separately to 
each oral inflation mechanism of the lifejacket. In each application the 
chamber must fully inflate within 1 minute.
    (5) Each oral inflation mechanism of an unpacked lifejacket is 
connected to a regulated air source constantly supplying air at a 
pressure of 7 kPa (1 psig). Each mechanism must pass at least 100,000 cc 
of air per minute.
    (d) Flotation stability--(1) Uninflated flotation stability. 
Lifejackets with their automatic inflation mechanisms disabled must be 
used for this test. Each subject dons an uninflated lifejacket, enters 
the water, and assumes an upright, slightly back of vertical, position. 
Each subject then relaxes. For each subject that floats, the uninflated 
lifejacket must not tend to turn the wearer face-down when the head is 
allowed to fall back.
    (2) Righting action. (i) Each test subject dons an uninflated 
lifejacket, enters the water, allows the automatic inflation mechanism 
to inflate the lifejacket, and swims for 30 seconds. While swimming, 
freedom of movement and comfort are observed and noted by the person 
conducting the test. Freedom of movement and comfort must comply with 
Sec. 160.176-11(d). Also, each subject must demonstrate that the 
lifejacket can be adjusted while the subject is in the water.
    (ii) Each subject then takes three gentle breast strokes and while 
still face-down in the water, relaxes completely while slowly exhaling 
to FRC. Each subject remains in this limp position long enough to 
determine if the lifejacket will turn the subject from the face-down 
position to a position in which the subject's breathing is not impaired. 
The time from the last

[[Page 257]]

breast stroke until breathing is not impaired is recorded. Each subject 
repeats these steps two additional times, and the average time for the 
three righting actions is calculated. This average time must not exceed 
5 seconds.
    (iii) If the lifejacket does not have automatic inflation mechanisms 
for all chambers, the tests in paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (d)(2)(ii) of 
this section are repeated with each lifejacket fully inflated.
    (iv) Each subject then performs the test in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of 
this section with one chamber of the lifejacket deflated. This test is 
then repeated as many times as necessary to test the lifejacket with a 
different chamber deflated until each chamber has been tested in this 
manner.
    (v) Each subject then performs the test in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of 
this section but exhales to FRC at the end of the third breast stroke 
and holds the breath prior to relaxing.
    (3) Static measurements. At the end of each test with each subject 
in Sec. 160.176-13(d)(2)(ii), through Sec. 160.176-13(d)(2)(v)--
    (i) The freeboard (the distance from the water surface to the bottom 
of the mouth) must be at least 100 mm (4.0 in.) without repositioning of 
any part of the body and at least 120 mm (4.75 in.) after the head is 
positioned on the lifejacket for maximum freeboard and then relaxed;
    (ii) The distance from water surface to the lower portion of the ear 
canal must be at least 50 mm (2 in.);
    (iii) The torso angle (the angle between a vertical line and a line 
passing through the shoulder and hip) must be between 20 deg. and 
65 deg. (back of vertical);
    (iv) The face-plane angle (the angle between a vertical line and a 
line passing through the most forward part of the forehead and chin) 
must be between 15 deg. and 60 deg. (back of vertical);
    (v) The lowest mark on a vertical scale 6 m (20 ft.) from and in 
front of the subject which the subject can see without moving the head 
must be no higher than 0.3 m (12 in.) from the water level.
    (vi) The subject when looking to the side, must be able to see the 
water within 3 m (10 ft.) away; and
    (vii) At least 75% of the retroreflective material on the outside of 
the lifejacket, and the PFD light, must be above the water.
    (4) Average requirements. The test results for all subjects must be 
averaged for the following static measurements and must comply with the 
following:
    (i) The average freeboard prior to positioning the head for maximum 
freeboard must be at least 120 mm (4.75 in.);
    (ii) The average torso angle must be between 30 deg. and 50 deg. 
(back of vertical); and
    (iii) The average face-plane angle must be between 20 deg. and 
50 deg. (back of vertical).
    (5) ``HELP'' Position. Starting in a relaxed, face-up position of 
static balance, each subject brings the legs and arms in towards the 
body so as to attain the ``HELP'' position (a fetal position, but 
holding the head back). The lifejacket must not turn the subject face 
down in the water.
    (e) Jump test. (1) Each test subject dons an uninflated lifejacket 
and with hands above head, jumps feet first, into the water from a 
height of 4.5 m (15 ft.). No second stage donning is allowed during this 
test and the lifejacket must--
    (i) Inflate automatically, float the subject to the surface, and 
stabilize the body with the mouth out of the water;
    (ii) Maintain its intended position on the wearer;
    (iii) Not be damaged; and
    (iv) Not cause injury to the wearer.
    (2) The jump test in paragraph (e)(1) of this section is repeated 
using a lifejacket which has been fully inflated manually.
    (3) The jump test in paragraph (e)(2) of this section is then 
conducted with one chamber deflated.This test is then repeated as many 
times as necessary to test the lifejacket with a different chamber 
deflated until each chamber has been tested in this manner.

    Note: Before conducting these tests at the 4.5 m height, subjects 
should first do the test from heights of 1 m and 3 m to lessen the 
possibility of injury. It is suggested that subjects wear a long-sleeve 
cotton shirt to prevent abrasions when testing the device in the 
inflated condition and that the teeth should be tightly clenched 
together when jumping.


[[Page 258]]


    (f) Water emergence--(1) Equipment. A pool with a wooden platform at 
one side must be used for this test.The platform must be 300 mm (12 in.) 
above the water surface and must not float on the water. The platform 
must have a smooth painted surface. Alternatively, a Coast Guard 
approved inflatable liferaft may be used in lieu of a platform.
    (2) Qualifying. Each test subject enters the water wearing only a 
bathing suit and swims 25 m. The subject must then be able to emerge 
from the pool onto the platform using only his or her hands on the top 
of the platform as an aid and without pushing off of the bottom of the 
pool. Any subject unable to emerge onto the platform within 30 seconds 
is disqualified for this test. If less than 2/3 of the test subjects 
qualify, substitute subjects must be used.
    (3) Test. Each qualified subject dons an inflated lifejacket, enters 
the water and swims 25 m. Afterward, at least 2/3 of the qualified 
subjects must then be able to climb out of the pool in the manner 
prescribed in paragraph (f)(2) of this section within 45 seconds while 
wearing the lifejacket. If marking on the lifejacket so indicates, and 
if the wearer can read the marking while the lifejacket is being worn, 
the subjects may deflate the device during the 45 second attempt.
    (g) Lanyard pull test and strength. (1) An uninflated lifejacket is 
placed on a rigid metal test form built according to Figure 160.176-
13(n)(2) and suspended vertically.
    (2) The inflation handle of each manual inflation mechanism is 
attached to a force indicator. The force indicator is then used to 
activate each manual inflation mechanism separately. The force required 
to activate each mechanism is recorded. In each test the force must be 
between 25 and 70 N (5 and 15 lb.).
    (3) A weight of 225 N (50 lb.) is in turn attached to the inflation 
handle of each manual inflation mechanism. The weight is then allowed to 
hang freely for 5 minutes from each manual inflation mechanism. The 
handle must not separate from the mechanism.
    (h) Temperature cycling tests. (1) Three uninflated lifejackets, 2 
packed and 1 unpacked, are maintained at room temperature (20 
 3  deg.C (68 + 6  deg.F)) for 4 hours and then at a 
temperature of 65  2  deg.C (150  5  deg.F) for 
20 hours. The lifejackets are then maintained at room temperature for at 
least 4 hours, after which they are maintained at a temperature of minus 
30  2  deg.C (-22  5  deg.F) for 20 hours. This 
cycle is then repeated once.
    (2) Upon the completion of the conditioning in paragraph (h)(1) of 
this section all sealed or non-reusable packaging is removed from the 
two packed units. The lifejackets must show no functional deterioration 
after being inflated immediately after removal from the conditioning. 
The lifejackets must be inflated as follows:
    (i) One unit which was packed during conditioning must fully inflate 
within 2 minutes using only oral inflation.
    (ii) The other unit which was packed during conditioning must fully 
inflate within 45 seconds of submersion in water at 2  2 
deg.C (37  5  deg.F) as a result of automatic inflation.
    (iii) The unit which was unpacked during conditioning must fully 
inflate within 30 seconds of activation of the manual inflation 
mechanisms.
    (3) The same 3 lifejackets used for the test in paragraph (h)(1) of 
this section are deflated and, with 2 repacked and 1 unpacked, are 
maintained at room temperature for 4 hours and then at a temperature of 
minus 30  2  deg.C (-22  5  deg.F) for 20 hours. 
The lifejackets are then stored at room temperature for at least 4 
hours, after which they are maintained at a temperature of 65 
 2  deg.C (150  5  deg.F) for 20 hours. This 
cycle is then repeated once. The steps in paragraph (h)(2) of this 
section are then repeated, and the lifejackets must meet the criteria in 
that paragraph.
    (i) [Reserved]
    (j) Buoyancy and inflation medium retention test. A lifejacket which 
has been used in the tests in paragraph (h) of this section must be used 
for this test.
    (1) Equipment. The following equipment is required for this test:
    (i) A wire mesh basket that is large enough to hold the inflated 
lifejacket without compressing it, is designed not to allow the 
lifejacket to float free, and is heavy enough to overcome the buoyancy 
of the lifejacket.

[[Page 259]]

    (ii) A scale that is sensitive to 14 g (0.5 oz.) and that has an 
error of less than 14 g (0.5 oz.).
    (iii) A test tank, filled with fresh water, that is large enough to 
hold the basket with its top 50 mm (2 in.) below the surface without the 
basket touching the tank.
    (2) Method. One inflation chamber is inflated using its automatic 
inflation mechanism. The lifejacket is placed in the basket. The basket 
is then suspended from the scale and submerged in the test tank with the 
lifejacket and basket completely below the water surface. An initial 
reading of the scale is taken after 30 minutes and again after 24 hours. 
The buoyancy of the lifejacket is the submerged weight of the basket 
minus the submerged weight of the basket with the lifejacket inside. 
This test is repeated as many times as necessary until each chamber has 
been tested. On each chamber that does not have an automatic inflation 
mechanism the manual or oral inflation mechanism may be used.
    (3) Requirement. The buoyancy of each inflation chamber must be 
within the tolerances specified in the plans and specifications for the 
lifejacket required by Sec. 160.176-5(a)(2) of this part. Each inflation 
chamber must retain at least 95% of its initial buoyancy after being 
submerged for 24 hours.
    (k) Uninflated floatation test. A packed lifejacket, with all 
automatic inflation mechanisms disabled, is dropped from a height of 1 m 
(3 ft.) into fresh water. The lifejacket must remain floating on the 
surface of the water for at least 30 minutes. This test is repeated with 
an unpacked, uninflated lifejacket, with all automatic inflation 
mechanisms disabled.
    (l) [Reserved]
    (m) Environmental tests--(1) Salt spray exposure. An uninflated 
lifejacket is subjected to 720 hours of salt spray as specified by ASTM 
B 117 (incorporated by reference, see Sec. 160.176-4). The automatic 
inflation mechanism(s) must not be activated by the salt spray. The 
lifejacket is then inflated first using the automatic inflation 
mechanism(s) and then twice more using first the manual mechanisms and 
then the oral mechanisms. The lifejacket must show no functional 
deterioration.
    (2) Rain exposure. An uninflated lifejacket is mounted on a rigid 
metal test form built according to Figure 160.176-13(n)(2). The test 
form must be vertical. Spray nozzles that deliver 0.05 mm of water per 
second (0.7 inch/hour) over the area of the lifejacket at a temperature 
between 2 and 16  deg.C (35 and 60  deg.F) and at a 45 deg. angle below 
horizontal toward the lifejacket are mounted 1.5 m (4.5 ft.) above the 
base of the test form. There must be at least 4 nozzles evenly spaced 
around the lifejacket at a horizontal distance of 1 m from the center of 
the lifejacket and each nozzle must deliver water at the same rate. 
Water is then sprayed on the lifejacket for 1 hour. The lifejacket must 
not inflate during the test.
    (n) Tensile tests. Two lifejackets that have been subjected to the 
tests in paragraph (h) of this section must be used for these tests.
    (1) Body tensile test. (i) In this test one lifejacket must be fully 
inflated and the other deflated.
    (ii) Two unconnected rigid cylinders are passed through the body 
portion of each lifejacket, or through the encircling body strap for 
yoke style devices, with one closure fastened and adjusted to its mid 
range, as shown in Figure 160.176-13(n)(1). Each cylinder must be 125 mm 
(5 inches) in diameter. The top cylinder is connected to a winch or 
pulley system. The bottom cylinder is connected to a test load which 
when combined with the weight of the lower cylinder and the linkage 
equals 325 kg