[Title 50 CFR ]
[Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) - October 1, 2007 Edition]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]



[[Page i]]

          

          50


          Part 17 (Sec. Sec.  17.1 to 17.95(b))

                         Revised as of October 1, 2007


          Wildlife and Fisheries
          



________________________

          Containing a codification of documents of general 
          applicability and future effect

          As of October 1, 2007
          With Ancillaries
                    Published by
                    Office of the Federal Register
                    National Archives and Records
                    Administration
                    A Special Edition of the Federal Register

[[Page ii]]

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                            Table of Contents



                                                                    Page
  Explanation.................................................       v

  Title 50:
          Chapter I--United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 
          Department of the Interior (Continued)                     3
  Finding Aids:
      Table of CFR Titles and Chapters........................     871
      Alphabetical List of Agencies Appearing in the CFR......     889
      List of CFR Sections Affected...........................     899

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                     ----------------------------

                     Cite this Code: CFR
                     To cite the regulations in 
                       this volume use title, 
                       part and section number. 
                       Thus, 50 CFR 17.1 refers 
                       to title 50, part 17, 
                       section 1.

                     ----------------------------

[[Page v]]



                               EXPLANATION

    The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and 
permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive 
departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The Code is divided 
into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to Federal 
regulation. Each title is divided into chapters which usually bear the 
name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into 
parts covering specific regulatory areas.
    Each volume of the Code is revised at least once each calendar year 
and issued on a quarterly basis approximately as follows:

Title 1 through Title 16.................................as of January 1
Title 17 through Title 27..................................as of April 1
Title 28 through Title 41...................................as of July 1
Title 42 through Title 50................................as of October 1

    The appropriate revision date is printed on the cover of each 
volume.

LEGAL STATUS

    The contents of the Federal Register are required to be judicially 
noticed (44 U.S.C. 1507). The Code of Federal Regulations is prima facie 
evidence of the text of the original documents (44 U.S.C. 1510).

HOW TO USE THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

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OMB CONTROL NUMBERS

    The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-511) requires 
Federal agencies to display an OMB control number with their information 
collection request.

[[Page vi]]

Many agencies have begun publishing numerous OMB control numbers as 
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OBSOLETE PROVISIONS

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of provisions in effect on a given date in the past by using the 
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[[Page vii]]

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                              Raymond A. Mosley,
                                    Director,
                          Office of the Federal Register.

October 1, 2007.

[[Page ix]]



                               THIS TITLE

    Title 50--Fish and Wildlife is composed of nine volumes. The parts 
in these volumes are arranged in the following order: Parts 1-16; part 
17 (17.1 to 17.95(b)), part 17 (17.95(c) to end of 17.95), part 17 
(17.96 to 17.99(h)), part 17 (17.99(i) to end of part 17), parts 18-199, 
parts 200-599, parts 600-659 and part 660 to End. The first six volumes 
(parts 1-16, part 17 (17.1 to 17.95(b)), part 17 (17.95(c) to end of 
17.95), part 17 (17.96 to 17.99(h)), part 17 (17.99(i) to end of part 
17), and parts 18-199) contain the current regulations issued under 
chapter I--United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the 
Interior. The seventh volume (parts 200-599) contains the current 
regulations issued under chapter II--National Marine Fisheries Service, 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce; 
chapter III--International Fishing and Related Activities, chapter IV--
Joint Regulations (United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department 
of the Interior and National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce); Endangered 
Species Committee regulations; and chapter V--Marine Mammal Commission. 
The eighth and ninth volumes (parts 600-659 and part 660 to End) contain 
the current regulations issued under chapter VI--Fishery Conservation 
and Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 
Department of Commerce. The contents of these volumes represent all 
current regulations codified under this title of the CFR as of October 
1, 2007.

    Alphabetical listings of endangered and threatened wildlife and 
plants appear in Sec. Sec.  17.11 and 17.12.

    The OMB control numbers for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration appear in 15 CFR 902.1.

    For this volume, Cheryl E. Sirofchuck was Chief Editor. The Code of 
Federal Regulations publication program is under the direction of 
Michael L. White, assisted by Ann Worley.


[[Page 1]]



                    TITLE 50--WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES




        (This book contains part 17, Sec. Sec.  17.1 to 17.95(b))

  --------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    Part

chapter i--United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 
  Department of the Interior (Continued)....................          17

[[Page 3]]



 CHAPTER I--UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE 
                          INTERIOR (CONTINUED)




  --------------------------------------------------------------------

   SUBCHAPTER B--TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, 
 BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED)
Part                                                                Page
17              Endangered and threatened wildlife and 
                    plants..................................           5

[[Page 5]]



SUBCHAPTER B_TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, 
     EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED)



PART 17_ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS--Table of Contents




              Subpart A_Introduction and General Provisions

Sec.
17.1 Purpose of regulations.
17.2 Scope of regulations.
17.3 Definitions.
17.4 Pre-Act wildlife.
17.5 Alaska natives.
17.6 State cooperative agreements. [Reserved]
17.7 Raptor exemption.
17.8 Import exemption for threatened, CITES Appendix-II wildlife.
17.9 Permit applications and information collection requirements.

                             Subpart B_Lists

17.11 Endangered and threatened wildlife.
17.12 Endangered and threatened plants.

                      Subpart C_Endangered Wildlife

17.21 Prohibitions.
17.22 Permits for scientific purposes, enhancement of propagation or 
          survival, or for incidental taking.
17.23 Economic hardship permits.

                      Subpart D_Threatened Wildlife

17.31 Prohibitions.
17.32 Permits--general.
17.40 Special rules--mammals.
17.41 Special rules--birds.
17.42 Special rules--reptiles.
17.43 Special rules--amphibians.
17.44 Special rules--fishes.
17.45 Special rules--snails and clams. [Reserved]
17.46 Special rules--crustaceans.
17.47 [Reserved]
17.48 Special rules--common sponges and other forms. [Reserved]

                   Subpart E_Similarity of Appearance

17.50 General.
17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened.
17.52 Permits--similarity of appearance.

                       Subpart F_Endangered Plants

17.61 Prohibitions.
17.62 Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of 
          propagation or survival.
17.63 Economic hardship permits.

                       Subpart G_Threatened Plants

17.71 Prohibitions.
17.72 Permits--general.
17.73-17.78 [Reserved]

                   Subpart H_Experimental Populations

17.80 Definitions.
17.81 Listing.
17.82 Prohibitions.
17.83 Interagency cooperation.
17.84 Special rules--vertebrates.
17.85 Special rules--invertebrates.
17.86 Special rules--plants. [Reserved]

                    Subpart I_Interagency Cooperation

17.94 Critical habitats.
17.95 Critical habitat--fish and wildlife.

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1544; 16 U.S.C. 4201-
4245; Pub. L. 99-625, 100 Stat. 3500; unless otherwise noted.

    Source: 40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, unless otherwise noted.



              Subpart A_Introduction and General Provisions



Sec.  17.1  Purpose of regulations.

    (a) The regulations in this part implement the Endangered Species 
Act of 1973, 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543, except for those 
provisions in the Act concerning the Convention on International Trade 
in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, for which regulations are 
provided in part 23 of this subchapter.
    (b) The regulations identify those species of wildlife and plants 
determined by the Director to be endangered or threatened with 
extinction under section 4(a) of the Act and also carry over the species 
and subspecies of wildlife designated as endangered under the Endangered 
Species Conservation Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 275, 16 U.S.C. 668cc-1 to

[[Page 6]]

6) which are deemed endangered species under section 4(c)(3) of the Act.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 10465, Feb. 22, 1977]



Sec.  17.2  Scope of regulations.

    (a) The regulations of this part apply only to endangered and 
threatened wildlife and plants.
    (b) By agreement between the Service and the National Marine 
Fisheries Service, the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce has 
been specifically defined to include certain species, while jurisdiction 
is shared in regard to certain other species. Such species are footnoted 
in subpart B of this part, and reference is given to special rules of 
the National Marine Fisheries Service for those species.
    (c) The provisions in this part are in addition to, and are not in 
lieu of, other regulations of this subchapter B which may require a 
permit or prescribe additional restrictions or conditions for the 
importation, exportation, and interstate transportation of wildlife.
    (d) The examples used in this part are provided solely for the 
convenience of the public, and to explain the intent and meaning of the 
regulation to which they refer. They have no legal significance.
    (e) Certain of the wildlife and plants listed in Sec. Sec.  17.11 
and 17.12 as endangered or threatened are included in Appendix I, II or 
III to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of 
Wild Fauna and Flora. The importation, exportation and reexportation of 
such species are subject to additional regulations provided in part 23 
of this subchapter.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 10465, Feb. 22, 1977]



Sec.  17.3  Definitions.

    In addition to the definitions contained in part 10 of this 
subchapter, and unless the context otherwise requires, in this part 17:
    Act means the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543; 
87 Stat. 884);
    Adequately covered means, with respect to species listed pursuant to 
section 4 of the ESA, that a proposed conservation plan has satisfied 
the permit issuance criteria under section 10(a)(2)(B) of the ESA for 
the species covered by the plan, and, with respect to unlisted species, 
that a proposed conservation plan has satisfied the permit issuance 
criteria under section 10(a)(2)(B) of the ESA that would otherwise apply 
if the unlisted species covered by the plan were actually listed. For 
the Services to cover a species under a conservation plan, it must be 
listed on the section 10(a)(1)(B) permit.
    Alaskan Native means a person defined in the Alaska Native Claims 
Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1603(b) (85 Stat. 588)) as a citizen of the 
United States who is of one-fourth degree or more Alaska Indian 
(including Tsimshian Indians enrolled or not enrolled in the Metlaktla 
Indian Community), Eskimo, or Aleut blood, or combination thereof. The 
term includes any Native, as so defined, either or both of whose 
adoptive parents are not Natives. It also includes, in the absence of 
proof of a minimum blood quantum, any citizen of the United States who 
is regarded as an Alaska Native by the Native village or town of which 
he claims to be a member and whose father or mother is (or, if deceased, 
was) regarded as Native by any Native village or Native town. Any 
citizen enrolled by the Secretary pursuant to section 5 of the Alaska 
Native Claims Settlement Act shall be conclusively presumed to be an 
Alaskan Native for purposes of this part;
    Authentic native articles of handicrafts and clothing means items 
made by an Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo that are composed wholly or in some 
significant respect of natural materials and are significantly altered 
from their natural form and are produced, decorated, or fashioned in the 
exercise of traditional native handicrafts without the use of 
pantographs, multiple carvers, or similar mass-copying devices. Improved 
methods of production utilizing modern implements such as sewing 
machines or modern techniques at a tannery registered pursuant to Sec.  
18.23(c) of this subchapter (in the case of marine mammals) may be used 
as long as no large-scale mass production industry results. Traditional 
native handicrafts

[[Page 7]]

include, but are not limited to, weaving, carving, stitching, sewing, 
lacing, beading, drawing, and painting. The formation of traditional 
native groups, such as cooperatives, is permitted as long as no large-
scale mass production results;
    Bred in captivity or captive-bred refers to wildlife, including 
eggs, born or otherwise produced in captivity from parents that mated or 
otherwise transferred gametes in captivity, if reproduction is sexual, 
or from parents that were in captivity when development of the progeny 
began, if development is asexual.
    Captivity means that living wildlife is held in a controlled 
environment that is intensively manipulated by man for the purpose of 
producing wildlife of the selected species, and that has boundaries 
designed to prevent animal, eggs or gametes of the selected species from 
entering or leaving the controlled environment. General characteristics 
of captivity may include but are not limited to artificial housing, 
waste removal, health care, protection from predators, and artificially 
supplied food.
    Changed circumstances means changes in circumstances affecting a 
species or geographic area covered by a conservation plan or agreement 
that can reasonably be anticipated by plan or agreement developers and 
the Service and that can be planned for (e.g., the listing of new 
species, or a fire or other natural catastrophic event in areas prone to 
such events).
    Conservation plan means the plan required by section 10(a)(2)(A) of 
the ESA that an applicant must submit when applying for an incidental 
take permit. Conservation plans also are known as ``habitat conservation 
plans'' or ``HCPs.''
    Conserved habitat areas means areas explicitly designated for 
habitat restoration, acquisition, protection, or other conservation 
purposes under a conservation plan.
    Convention means the Convention on International Trade in Endangered 
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, TIAS 8249.
    Enhance the propagation or survival, when used in reference to 
wildlife in captivity, includes but is not limited to the following 
activities when it can be shown that such activities would not be 
detrimental to the survival of wild or captive populations of the 
affected species:
    (a) Provision of health care, management of populations by culling, 
contraception, euthanasia, grouping or handling of wildlife to control 
survivorship and reproduction, and similar normal practices of animal 
husbandry needed to maintain captive populations that are self-
sustaining and that possess as much genetic vitality as possible;
    (b) Accumulation and holding of living wildlife that is not 
immediately needed or suitable for propagative or scientific purposes, 
and the transfer of such wildlife between persons in order to relieve 
crowding or other problems hindering the propagation or survival of the 
captive population at the location from which the wildlife would be 
removed; and
    (c) Exhibition of living wildlife in a manner designed to educate 
the public about the ecological role and conservation needs of the 
affected species.
    Endangered means a species of wildlife listed in Sec.  17.11 or a 
species of plant listed in Sec.  17.12 and designated as endangered.
    Harass in the definition of ``take'' in the Act means an intentional 
or negligent act or omission which creates the likelihood of injury to 
wildlife by annoying it to such an extent as to significantly disrupt 
normal behavioral patterns which include, but are not limited to, 
breeding, feeding, or sheltering. This definition, when applied to 
captive wildlife, does not include generally accepted:
    (1) Animal husbandry practices that meet or exceed the minimum 
standards for facilities and care under the Animal Welfare Act,
    (2) Breeding procedures, or
    (3) Provisions of veterinary care for confining, tranquilizing, or 
anesthetizing, when such practices, procedures, or provisions are not 
likely to result in injury to the wildlife.
    Harm in the definition of ``take'' in the Act means an act which 
actually kills or injures wildlife. Such act may include significant 
habitat modification or degradation where it actually kills or injures 
wildlife by significantly

[[Page 8]]

impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, feeding or 
sheltering.
    Incidental taking means any taking otherwise prohibited, if such 
taking is incidental to, and not the purpose of, the carrying out of an 
otherwise lawful activity.
    Industry or trade in the definition of ``commercial activity'' in 
the Act means the actual or intended transfer of wildlife or plants from 
one person to another person in the pursuit of gain or profit;
    Native village or town means any community, association, tribe, clan 
or group;
    Operating conservation program means those conservation management 
activities which are expressly agreed upon and described in a 
conservation plan or its Implementing Agreement, if any, and which are 
to be undertaken for the affected species when implementing an approved 
conservation plan, including measures to respond to changed 
circumstances.
    Population means a group of fish or wildlife in the same taxon below 
the subspecific level, in common spatial arrangement that interbreed 
when mature;
    Properly implemented conservation plan means any conservation plan, 
Implementing Agreement and permit whose commitments and provisions have 
been or are being fully implemented by the permittee.
    Property owner with respect to agreements outlined under Sec. Sec.  
17.22(c), 17.22(d), 17.32(c), and 17.32(d) means a person with a fee 
simple, leasehold, or other property interest (including owners of water 
or other natural resources), or any other entity that may have a 
property interest, sufficient to carry out the proposed management 
activities, subject to applicable State law, on non-Federal land.
    Specimen means any animal or plant, or any part, product, egg, seed 
or root of any animal or plant;
    Subsistence means the use of endangered or threatened wildlife for 
food, clothing, shelter, heating, transportation and other uses 
necessary to maintain the life of the taker of the wildlife, or those 
who depend upon the taker to provide them with such subsistence, and 
includes selling any edible portions of such wildlife in native villages 
and towns in Alaska for native consumption within native villages and 
towns;
    Threatened means a species of wildlife listed in Sec.  17.11 or 
plant listed in Sec.  17.12 and designated as threatened.
    Unforeseen circumstances means changes in circumstances affecting a 
species or geographic area covered by a conservation plan or agreement 
that could not reasonably have been anticipated by plan or agreement 
developers and the Service at the time of the conservation plan's or 
agreement's negotiation and development, and that result in a 
substantial and adverse change in the status of the covered species.
    Wasteful manner means any taking or method of taking which is likely 
to result in the killing or injury of endangered or threatened wildlife 
beyond those needed for subsistence purposes, or which results in the 
waste of a substantial portion of the wildlife, and includes without 
limitation the employment of a method of taking which is not likely to 
assure the capture or killing of the wildlife, or which is not 
immediately followed by a reasonable effort to retrieve the wildlife.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 28056, June 1, 1977; 
44 FR 54006, Sept. 17, 1979; 46 FR 54750, Nov. 4, 1981; 47 FR 31387, 
July 20, 1982; 50 FR 39687, Sept. 30, 1985; 63 FR 8870, Feb. 23, 1998; 
63 FR 48639, Sept. 11, 1998; 69 FR 24092, May 3, 2004; 71 FR 46870, Aug. 
15, 2006]



Sec.  17.4  Pre-Act wildlife.

    (a) The prohibitions defined in subparts C and D of this part 17 
shall not apply to any activity involving endangered or threatened 
wildlife which was held in captivity or in a controlled environment on 
December 28, 1973: Provided,
    (1) That the purposes of such holding were not contrary to the 
purposes of the Act; and
    (2) That the wildlife was not held in the course of a commercial 
activity.

    Example 1. On January 25, 1974, a tourist buys a stuffed hawksbill 
turtle (an endangered species listed since June, 1970), in a foreign 
country. On December 28, 1973, the stuffed turtle had been on display 
for sale.

[[Page 9]]

The tourist imports the stuffed turtle into the United States on January 
26, 1974. This is a violation of the Act since the stuffed turtle was 
held for commercial purposes on December 28, 1973.
    Example 2. On December 27, 1973 (or earlier), a tourist buys a 
leopard skin coat (the leopard has been listed as endangered since March 
1972) for his wife in a foreign country. On January 5, he imports it 
into the United States. He has not committed a violation since on 
December 28, 1973, he was the owner of the coat, for personal purposes, 
and the chain of commerce had ended with the sale on the 27th. Even if 
he did not finish paying for the coat for another year, as long as he 
had possession of it, and he was not going to resell it, but was using 
it for personal purposes, the Act does not apply to that coat.
    Example 3. On or before December 28, 1973, a hunter kills a leopard 
legally in Africa. He has the leopard mounted and imports it into the 
United States in March 1974. The importation is not subject to the Act. 
The hunter has not engaged in a commercial activity, even though he 
bought the services of a guide, outfitters, and a taxidermist to help 
him take, preserve, and import the leopard. This applies even if the 
trophy was in the possession of the taxidermist on December 28, 1973.
    Example 4. On January 15, 1974, a hunter kills a leopard legally in 
Africa. He has the leopard mounted and imports it into the United States 
in June 1974. This importation is a violation of the Act since the 
leopard was not in captivity or a controlled environment on December 28, 
1973.

    (b) Service officers or Customs officers may refuse to clear 
endangered or threatened wildlife for importation into or exportation 
from the United States, pursuant to Sec.  14.53 of this subchapter, 
until the importer or exporter can demonstrate that the exemption 
referred to in this section applies. Exempt status may be established by 
any sufficient evidence, including an affidavit containing the 
following:
    (1) The affiant's name and address;
    (2) Identification of the affiant;
    (3) Identification of the endangered or threatened wildlife which is 
the subject of the affidavit;
    (4) A statement by the affiant that to the best of his knowledge and 
belief, the endangered or threatened wildlife which is the subject of 
the affidavit was in captivity or in a controlled environment on 
December 28, 1973, and was not being held for purposes contrary to the 
Act or in the course of a commercial activity;
    (5) A statement by the affiant in the following language:

    The foregoing is principally based on the attached exhibits which, 
to the best of my knowledge and belief, are complete, true and correct. 
I understand that this affidavit is being submitted for the purpose of 
inducing the Federal Government to recognize an exempt status regarding 
(insert description of wildlife), under the Endangered Species Act of 
1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543), and regulations promulgated thereunder, and 
that any false statements may subject me to the criminal penalties of 18 
U.S.C. 1001.

    (6) As an attachment, records or other available evidence to show:
    (i) That the wildlife in question was being held in captivity or in 
a controlled environment on December 28, 1973;
    (ii) The purpose for which the wildlife was being held; and
    (iii) The nature of such holding (to establish that no commercial 
activity was involved).
    (c) This section applies only to wildlife born on or prior to 
December 28, 1973. It does not apply to the progeny of any such wildlife 
born after December 28, 1973.



Sec.  17.5  Alaska natives.

    (a) The provisions of subpart C of this part relating to the 
importation or the taking of endangered wildlife, and any provision of 
subpart D of this part relating to the importation or the taking of 
threatened wildlife, shall not apply to:
    (1) Any Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo who is an Alaskan native and who 
resides in Alaska; or
    (2) Any non-native permanent resident of an Alaskan native village 
who is primarily dependent upon the taking of wildlife for consumption 
or for the creation and sale of authentic native articles of handicrafts 
and clothing:

If the taking is primarily for subsistence purposes, and is not 
accomplished in a wasteful manner.
    (b) Edible portions of endangered or threatened wildlife taken or 
imported pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may be sold in native 
villages or towns in Alaska for native consumption within native 
villages and towns in Alaska.

[[Page 10]]

    (c) Non-edible by-products of endangered or threatened wildlife 
taken or imported pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may be sold 
in interstate commerce when made into authentic native articles of 
handicrafts and clothing.



Sec.  17.6  State cooperative agreements. [Reserved]



Sec.  17.7  Raptor exemption.

    (a) The prohibitions found in Sec. Sec.  17.21 and 17.31 do not 
apply to any raptor [a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or 
the Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus 
leucocephalus) or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)] legally held in 
captivity or in a controlled environment on November 10, 1978, or to any 
of its progeny, which is:
    (1) Possessed and banded in compliance with the terms of a valid 
permit issued under part 21 of this chapter; and
    (2) Identified in the earliest applicable annual report required to 
be filed by a permittee under part 21 of this chapter as in a 
permittee's possession on November 10, 1978, or as the progeny of such a 
raptor.
    (b) This section does not apply to any raptor intentionally returned 
to the wild.

[48 FR 31607, July 8, 1983]



Sec.  17.8  Import exemption for threatened, CITES Appendix-II wildlife.

    (a) Except as provided in a special rule in Sec. Sec.  17.40 through 
17.48 or in paragraph (b) of this section, all provisions of Sec. Sec.  
17.31 and 17.32 apply to any specimen of a threatened species of 
wildlife that is listed in Appendix II of the Convention.
    (b) Import. Except as provided in a special rule in Sec. Sec.  17.40 
through 17.48, any live or dead specimen of a fish and wildlife species 
listed as threatened under this part may be imported without a 
threatened species permit under Sec.  17.32 provided all of the 
following conditions are met:
    (1) The specimen was not acquired in foreign commerce or imported in 
the course of a commercial activity;
    (2) The species is listed in Appendix II of the Convention.
    (3) The specimen is imported and subsequently used in accordance 
with the requirements of part 23 of this subchapter, except as provided 
in paragraph (b)(4) of this section.
    (4) Personal and household effects (see Sec.  23.5) must be 
accompanied by a CITES document.
    (5) At the time of import, the importer must provide to the FWS 
documentation that shows the specimen was not acquired in foreign 
commerce in the course of a commercial activity.
    (6) All applicable requirements of part 14 of this subchapter are 
satisfied.

[72 FR 48446, Aug. 23, 2007]



Sec.  17.9  Permit applications and information collection requirements.

    (a) Address permit applications for activities affecting species 
listed under the Endangered Species Act, as amended, as follows:
    (1) Address activities affecting endangered and threatened species 
that are native to the United States to the Regional Director for the 
Region in which the activity is to take place. You can find addresses 
for the Regional Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. Send applications for 
interstate commerce in native endangered and threatened species to the 
Regional Director with lead responsibility for the species. To determine 
the appropriate region, call the nearest Regional Office:

Region 1 (Portland, OR): 503-231-6241
Region 2 (Albuquerque, NM): 505-248-6920
Region 3 (Twin Cities, MN): 612-713-5343
Region 4 (Atlanta, GA): 404-679-7313
Region 5 (Hadley, MA): 413-253-8628
Region 6 (Denver, CO): 303-236-8155, ext 263
Region 7 (Anchorage, AK): 907-786-3620
Headquarters (Washington, DC): 703-358-2106

    (2) Submit permit applications for activities affecting native 
endangered and threatened species in international movement or commerce, 
and all activities affecting nonnative endangered and threatened species 
to the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, (Attention Office of 
Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 700, Arlington, VA 
22203.
    (b) The Office of Management and Budget approved the information 
collection requirements contained in this part 17 under 44 U.S.C. 3507 
and assigned OMB Control Numbers 1018-0093

[[Page 11]]

and 1018-0094. The Service may not conduct or sponsor, and you are not 
required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a 
currently valid OMB control number. We are collecting this information 
to provide information necessary to evaluate permit applications. We 
will use this information to review permit applications and make 
decisions, according to criteria established in various Federal wildlife 
conservation statutes and regulations, on the issuance, suspension, 
revocation, or denial of permits. You must respond to obtain or retain a 
permit. We estimate the public reporting burden for these reporting 
requirements to vary from 2 to 2\1/2\ hours per response, including time 
for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and 
completing and reviewing the forms. Direct comments regarding the burden 
estimate or any other aspect of these reporting requirements to the 
Service Information Collection Control Officer, MS-222 ARLSQ, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 20240, or the Office of Management 
and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (1018-0093/0094), Washington, DC 
20603.

[63 FR 52635, Oct. 1, 1998. Redesignated at 72 FR 48446, Aug. 23, 2007]



                             Subpart B_Lists



Sec.  17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

    (a) The list in this section contains the names of all species of 
wildlife which have been determined by the Services to be Endangered or 
Threatened. It also contains the names of species of wildlife treated as 
Endangered or Threatened because they are sufficiently similar in 
appearance to Endangered or Threatened species (see Sec.  17.50 et 
seq.).
    (b) The columns entitled ``Common Name,'' ``Scientific Name,'' and 
``Vertebrate Population Where Endangered or Threatened'' define the 
species of wildlife within the meaning of the Act. Thus, differently 
classified geographic populations of the same vertebrate subspecies or 
species shall be identified by their differing geographic boundaries, 
even though the other two columns are identical. The term ``Entire'' 
means that all populations throughout the present range of a vertebrate 
species are listed. Although common names are included, they cannot be 
relied upon for identification of any specimen, since they may vary 
greatly in local usage. The Services shall use the most recently 
accepted scientific name. In cases in which confusion might arise, a 
synonym(s) will be provided in parentheses. The Services shall rely to 
the extent practicable on the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature.
    (c) In the ``Status'' column the following symbols are used: ``E'' 
for Endangered, ``T'' for Threatened, and ``E [or T] (S/A)'' for 
similarity of appearance species.
    (d) The other data in the list are nonregulatory in nature and are 
provided for the information of the reader. In the annual revision and 
compilation of this title, the following information may be amended 
without public notice: the spelling of species' names, historical range, 
footnotes, references to certain other applicable portions of this 
title, synonyms, and more current names. In any of these revised 
entries, neither the species, as defined in paragraph (b) of this 
section, nor its status may be changed without following the procedures 
of part 424 of this title.
    (e) The ``historic range'' indicates the known general distribution 
of the species or subspecies as reported in the current scientific 
literature. The present distribution may be greatly reduced from this 
historic range. This column does not imply any limitation on the 
application of the prohibitions in the Act or implementing rules. Such 
prohibitions apply to all individuals of the species, wherever found.
    (f)(1) A footnote to the Federal Register publication(s) listing or 
reclassifying a species is indicated under the column ``When listed.'' 
Footnote numbers to Sec. Sec.  17.11 and 17.12 are in the same numerical 
sequence, since plants and animals may be listed in the same Federal 
Register document. That document, at least since 1973, includes a 
statement indicating the basis for the listing, as well as the effective 
date(s) of said listing.

[[Page 12]]

    (2) The ``Special rules'' and ``Critical habitat'' columns provide a 
cross reference to other sections in parts 17, 222, 226, or 227. The 
``Special rules'' column will also be used to cite the special rules 
that describe experimental populations and determine if they are 
essential or nonessential. Separate listing will be made for 
experimental populations, and the status column will include the 
following symbols: ``XE'' for an essential experimental population and 
``XN'' for a nonessential experimental population. The term ``NA'' (not 
applicable) appearing in either of these two columns indicates that 
there are no special rules and/or critical habitat for that particular 
species. However, all other appropriate rules in parts 17, 217 through 
227, and 402 still apply to that species. In addition, there may be 
other rules in this title that relate to such wildlife, e.g., port-of-
entry requirements. It is not intended that the references in the 
``Special rules'' column list all the regulations of the two Services 
which might apply to the species or to the regulations of other Federal 
agencies or State or local governments.
    (g) The listing of a particular taxon includes all lower taxonomic 
units. For example, the genus Hylobates (gibbons) is listed as 
Endangered throughout its entire range (China, India, and SE Asia); 
consequently, all species, subspecies, and populations of that genus are 
considered listed as Endangered for the purposes of the Act. In 1978 (43 
FR 6230-6233) the species Haliaeetus leucocephalus (bald eagle) was 
listed as Threatened in ``USA (WA, OR, MN, WI, MI)'' rather than its 
entire population; thus, all individuals of the bald eagle found in 
those five States are considered listed as Threatened for the purposes 
of the Act.
    (h) The ``List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife'' is provided 
below:

[[Page 13]]



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           Species                                                       Vertebrate population
--------------------------------------------------------------      Historic Range        where endangered or     Status    When     Critical   Special
             Common name                  Scientific name                                      threatened                  listed    habitat     rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Mammals
Addax...............................  Addax nasomaculatus....  North Africa...........  Entire.................        E                   NA         NA
Anoa, lowland.......................  Bubalus depressicornis.  Indonesia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Anoa, mountain......................  Bubalus quarlesi.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Antelope, giant sable...............  Hippotragus niger        Angola.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       variani.
Antelope, Tibetan...................  Panthalops hodgsonii...  China, India, Nepal....  ......do...............        E  ........         NA
Argali..............................  Ovis ammon.............  Afganistan, China,       Entire except                  E   15, 475         NA         NA
                                                                India, Kazakhstan,       Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia,
                                                                Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia,    and Tajikistan.
                                                                Nepal, Pakistan,
                                                                Russia, Tajikistan,
                                                                Uzbekistan.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia,          T   15, 475         NA   17.40(j)
                                                                                         and Tajikistan.
Armadillo, giant....................  Priodontes maximus.....  Venezuela and Guyana to  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Argentina.
Armadillo, pink fairy...............  Chlamyphorus truncatus.  Argentina..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Ass, African wild...................  Equus asinus...........  Somalia, Sudan,          ......do...............        E     3, 22         NA         NA
                                                                Ethiopia.
Ass, Asian wild.....................  Equus hemionus.........  Southwestern and         ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Central Asia.
Avahi...............................  Avahi laniger (=entire   Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       genus).                  (=Madagascar).
Aye-aye.............................  Daubentonia              ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       madagascariensis.
Babirusa............................  Babyrousa babyrussa....  Indonesia..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Baboon, gelada......................  Theropithecus gelada...  Ethiopia...............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Bandicoot, barred...................  Perameles bougainville.  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Bandicoot, desert...................  Perameles eremiana.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Bandicoot, lesser rabbit............  Macrotis leucura.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Bandicoot, pig-footed...............  Chaeropus ecaudatus....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Bandicoot, rabbit...................  Macrotis lagotis.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Banteng.............................  Bos javanicus..........  Southeast Asia.........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Bat, Bulmer's fruit (flying fox)....  Aproteles bulmerae.....  Papua New Guinea.......  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
Bat, bumblebee......................  Craseonycteris           Thailand...............  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                       thonglongyai.
Bat, gray...........................  Myotis grisescens......  Central and              ......do...............        E        13         NA         NA
                                                                southeastern U.S.A..
Bat, Hawaiian hoary.................  Lasiurus cinereus        U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       semotus.
Bat, Indiana........................  Myotis sodalis.........  Eastern and Midwestern   ......do...............        E         1   17.95(a)         NA
                                                                U.S.A.
Bat, lesser long-nosed..............  Leptonycteris curasoae   U.S.A. (AZ, NM),         ......do...............        E       336         NA         NA
                                       yerbabuenae.             Mexico, Central
                                                                America.
Bat, little Mariana fruit...........  Pteropus tokudae.......  Western Pacific Ocean--  ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                                                U.S.A. (Guam).
Fruit Bat, Mariana (=fanihi, Mariana  Pteropus mariannus       Western Pacific Ocean--  ......do...............        T       156       Guam         NA
 flying fox).                          mariannus.               U.S.A. (GU, MP).                                                     17.95(a)
Bat, Mexican long-nosed.............  Leptonycteris nivalis..  U.S.A. (NM, TX),         ......do...............        E       336         NA         NA
                                                                Mexico, Central
                                                                America.
Bat, Ozark big-eared................  Corynorhinus             U.S.A. (MO, OK, AR)....  ......do...............        E        85         NA         NA
                                       (=Plecotus) townsendii
                                       ingens.
Bat, Rodrigues fruit (flying fox)...  Pteropus rodricensis...  Indian Ocean--Rodrigues  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                                                Island.
Bat, Singapore roundleaf horseshoe..  Hipposideros ridleyi...  Malaysia...............  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA

[[Page 14]]

 
Bat, Virginia big-eared.............  Corynorhinus             U.S.A. (KY, NC, WV, VA)  ......do...............        E        85   17.95(a)         NA
                                       (=Plecotus) townsendii
                                       virginianus.
Bear, American black................  Ursus americanus.......  North America..........  U.S.A. (LA, all           T(S/A)       456         NA   17.40(i)
                                                                                         counties; MS, TX, only
                                                                                         within the historic
                                                                                         county range of the
                                                                                         Louisiana black bear).
Bear, Baluchistan...................  Ursus thibetanus         Iran, Pakistan.........  Entire.................        E       233         NA         NA
                                       gedrosianus.
Bear, brown.........................  Ursus arctos arctos....  Palearctic.............  Italy..................        E   15, 15A         NA         NA
 Do.................................  Ursus arctos pruinosus.  China (Tibet)..........  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
Bear, grizzly.......................  Ursus arctos horribilis  North America..........  U.S.A., conterminous           T    1, 2D,         NA   17.40(b)
                                                                                         (lower 48) States,                 9, 759
                                                                                         except--(1) where
                                                                                         listed as an
                                                                                         experimental
                                                                                         population; and (2)
                                                                                         that portion of Idaho
                                                                                         that is east of
                                                                                         Interstate Highway 15
                                                                                         and north of U.S.
                                                                                         Highway 30; that
                                                                                         portion of Montana
                                                                                         that is east of
                                                                                         Interstate Highway 15
                                                                                         and south of
                                                                                         Interstate Highway 90;
                                                                                         that portion of
                                                                                         Wyoming south of
                                                                                         Interstate Highway 90,
                                                                                         west of Interstate
                                                                                         Highway 25, Wyoming
                                                                                         State Highway 220, and
                                                                                         U.S. Highway 287 south
                                                                                         of Three Forks (at the
                                                                                         220 and 287
                                                                                         intersection), and
                                                                                         north of Interstate
                                                                                         Highway 80 and U.S.
                                                                                         Highway 30.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (portions of ID        XN       706         NA   17.84(l)
                                                                                         and MT, see 17.84(l)).
Bear, Louisiana black...............  Ursus americanus         U.S.A. (LA--all          Entire.................        T       456         NA   17.40(i)
                                       luteolus.                counties; MS--all
                                                                counties south of or
                                                                touching a line from
                                                                Greenville, Washington
                                                                County, to Meridian,
                                                                Lauderdale County; TX--
                                                                all counties east of
                                                                or touching a line
                                                                from Linden, Cass
                                                                County, SW to Bryan,
                                                                Brazos County, thence
                                                                SSW to Rockport,
                                                                Aransas County).
Bear, Mexican grizzly...............  Ursus arctos...........  Holarctic..............  Mexico.................        E         3         NA         NA
Beaver..............................  Castor fiber birulai...  Mongolia...............  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
Bison, wood.........................  Bison bison athabascae.  Canada, northwestern     Canada.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                U.S.A.
Bobcat, Mexican.....................  Lynx (=Felis) rufus      Central Mexico.........  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       escuinapae.
Bontebok (antelope).................  Damaliscus pygarus       South Africa...........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=dorcas) dorcas.

[[Page 15]]

 
Camel, Bactrian.....................  Camelus bactrianus.....  Mongolia, China........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Caribou, woodland...................  Rangifer tarandus        U.S.A. (AK, ID, ME, MI,  U.S.A. (ID, WA), Canada        E     128E,         NA         NA
                                       caribou.                 MN, MT, NH, VT, WA,      (that part of S.E.               136, 143
                                                                WI), Canada.             British Columbia
                                                                                         bounded by the U.S.-
                                                                                         Can. border, Columbia
                                                                                         R., Kootenay R.,
                                                                                         Kootenay L., and
                                                                                         Kootenai R.).
Cat, Andean.........................  Felis jacobita.........  Chile, Peru, Bolivia,    Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Argentina.
Cat, Asian golden (=Temminck's).....  Catopuma (=Felis)        Nepal, China, Southeast  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       temminckii.              Asia, Indonesia
                                                                (Sumatra).
Cat, black-footed...................  Felis nigripes.........  Southern Africa........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Cat, flat-headed....................  Prionailurus (=Felis)    Malaysia, Indonesia....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       planiceps.
Cat, Iriomote.......................  Prionailurus (=Felis)    Japan (Iriomote Island,  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       bengalensis              Ryukyu Islands).
                                       iriomotensis.
Cat, leopard........................  Prionailurus (=Felis)    India, Southeast Asia..  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       bengalensis
                                       bengalensis.
Cat, marbled........................  Pardofelis (=Felis)      Nepal, Southeast Asia,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       marmorata.               Indonesia.
Cat, Pakistan sand..................  Felis margarita          Pakistan...............  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                       scheffeli.
Cat, tiger..........................  Leopardus (=Felis)       Costa Rica to northern   ......do...............        E         5         NA         NA
                                       tigrinus.                Argentina.
Chamois, Apennine...................  Rupicapra rupicapra      Italy..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       ornata.
Cheetah.............................  Acinonyx jubatus.......  Africa to India........  ......do...............        E      3, 5         NA         NA
Chimpanzee..........................  Pan troglodytes........  Africa--see 17.40(c)(3)  Wherever found in the          E   16, 376         NA         NA
                                                                                         wild.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Wherever found in              T   16, 376         NA   17.40(c)
                                                                                         captivity.
Chimpanzee, pygmy...................  Pan paniscus...........  Zaire..................  Entire.................        E   16, 376         NA         NA
Chinchilla..........................  Chinchilla brevicaudata  Bolivia................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       boliviana.
Civet, Malabar large-spotted........  Viverra civettina        India..................  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       (=megaspila c.).
Cochito.............................  Phocoena sinus.........  Mexico (Gulf of          ......do...............        E       169         NA         NA
                                                                California).
Deer, Bactrian......................  Cervus elaphus           Tajikistan, Uzbekistan,  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       bactrianus.              Afghanistan.
Deer, Barbary.......................  Cervus elaphus barbarus  Morocco, Tunisia,        ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Algeria.
Deer, Calamianes (=Philippine)......  Axis porcinus            Philippines (Calamian    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       calamianensis.           Islands).
Deer, Cedros Island mule............  Odocoileus hemionus      Mexico (Cedros Island).  ......do...............        E        10         NA         NA
                                       cedrosensis.
Deer, Columbian white-tailed........  Odocoileus virginianus   U.S.A. (WA, OR)........  Columbia River (Clark,         E     1,738         NA         NA
                                       leucurus.                                         Cowlitz, Pacific,
                                                                                         Skamania, and
                                                                                         Wahkiakum Counties,
                                                                                         WA, and Clatsop,
                                                                                         Columbia, and
                                                                                         Multnomah Counties,
                                                                                         OR).
Deer, Corsican red..................  Cervus elaphus           Corsica, Sardinia......  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       corsicanus.
Deer, Eld's brow-antlered...........  Cervus eldi............  India to Southeast Asia  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Deer, Formosan sika.................  Cervus nippon taiouanus  Taiwan.................  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Deer, Indochina hog.................  Axis (=Cervus) porcinus  Thailand, Indochina....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       annamiticus.
Deer, key...........................  Odocoileus virginianus   U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       clavium.
Deer, Kuhl's (=Bawean)..............  Axis porcinus kuhli....  Indonesia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Deer, marsh.........................  Blastocerus dichotomus.  Argentina, Uruguay,      ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Paraguay, Bolivia,
                                                                Brazil.
Deer, McNeill's.....................  Cervus elaphus           China (Sinkiang, Tibet)  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       macneilii.
Deer, musk..........................  Moschus spp. (all        Central and eastern      Afghanistan, Bhutan,           E        15         NA         NA
                                       species).                Asia.                    Burma, China (Tibet,
                                                                                         Yunnan), India, Nepal,
                                                                                         Pakistan, Sikkim.

[[Page 16]]

 
Deer, North China sika..............  Cervus nippon            China (Shantung and      Entire.................        E        50         NA         NA
                                       mandarinus.              Chihli Provinces).
Deer, pampas........................  Ozotoceros bezoarticus.  Brazil, Argentina,       ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Uruguay, Bolivia,
                                                                Paraguay.
Deer, Persian fallow................  Dama mesopotamica        Iraq, Iran.............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=dama m.).
Deer, Ryukyu sika...................  Cervus nippon keramae..  Japan (Ryukyu Islands).  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Deer, Shansi sika...................  Cervus nippon            China (Shansi Province)  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       grassianus.
Deer, South China sika..............  Cervus nippon kopschi..  Southern China.........  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Deer, swamp.........................  Cervus duvauceli.......  India, Nepal...........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Deer, Visayan.......................  Cervus alfredi.........  Philippines............  ......do...............        E       320         NA         NA
Deer, Yarkand.......................  Cervus elaphus           China (Sinkiang).......  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       yarkandensis.
Dhole...............................  Cuon alpinus...........  C.I.S., Korea, China,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                India, Southeast Asia.
Dibbler.............................  Antechinus apicalis....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Dog, African wild...................  Lycaon pictus..........  Sub-Saharan Africa.....  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
Dolphin, Chinese river..............  Lipotes vexillifer.....  China..................  ......do...............        E       350         NA         NA
Dolphin, Indus River................  Platanista minor.......  Pakistan (Indus R. and   ......do...............        E       417         NA         NA
                                                                tributaries).
Drill...............................  Mandrillus (=Papio)      Equatorial West Africa.  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       leucophaeus.
Dugong..............................  Dugong dugon...........  East Africa to southern  ......do...............        E    4, 740         NA         NA
                                                                Japan, including Palau.
Duiker, Jentink's...................  Cephalophus jentinki...  Sierra Leone, Liberia,   ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Ivory Coast.
Eland, western giant................  Taurotragus derbianus    Senegal to Ivory Coast.  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       derbianus.
Elephant, African...................  Loxodonta africana.....  Africa.................  ......do...............        T        40         NA   17.40(e)
Elephant, Asian.....................  Elephas maximus........  South-central and        ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                southeastern Asia.
Ferret. black-footed................  Mustela nigripes.......  Western U.S.A., Western  Entire, except where           E     1, 3,         NA         NA
                                                                Canada.                  listed as an                         433,
                                                                                         experimental                         545,
                                                                                         population.                          546,
                                                                                                                              582,
                                                                                                                              646,
                                                                                                                          703, 737
......do............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (specified             XN      433,         NA   17.84(g)
                                                                                         portions of AZ, CO,                  545,
                                                                                         MT, SD, UT, and WY,                  546,
                                                                                         see 17.84(g)(9)).                    582,
                                                                                                                              646,
                                                                                                                          703, 737
Fox, northern swift.................  Vulpes velox hebes.....  U.S.A. (northern         Canada.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                plains), Canada.
Fox, San Joaquin kit................  Vulpes macrotis mutica.  U.S.A. (CA)............  Entire.................        E         1         NA         NA
Fox, San Miguel Island..............  Urocyon littoralis       ......do...............  ......do...............        E       742   17.95(a)         NA
                                       littoralis.
Fox, Santa Catalina Island..........  Urocyon littoralis       ......do...............  ......do...............        E       742   17.95(a)         NA
                                       catalinae.
Fox, Santa Cruz Island..............  Urocyon littoralis       ......do...............  ......do...............        E       742   17.95(a)         NA
                                       santacruzae.
Fox, Santa Rosa Island..............  Urocyon littoralis       ......do...............  ......do...............        E       742   17.95(a)         NA
                                       santarosae.

[[Page 17]]

 
Fox, Simien.........................  Canis simensis.........  Ethiopia...............  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Gazelle, Arabian....................  Gazella gazella........  Arabian Peninsula,       ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Palestine, Sinai.
Gazelle, Clark's....................  Ammodorcas clarkei.....  Somalia, Ethiopia......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gazelle, dama.......................  Gazella dama...........  North Africa...........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gazelle, Moroccan...................  Gazella dorcas           Morocco, Algeria,        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       massaesyla.              Tunisia.
Gazelle, mountain (=Cuvier's).......  Gazella cuvieri........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gazelle, Pelzeln's..................  Gazella dorcas pelzelni  Somalia................  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Gazelle, sand.......................  Gazella subgutturosa     Jordan, Arabian          ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       marica.                  Peninsula.
Gazelle, Saudi Arabian..............  Gazella dorcas saudiya.  Israel, Iraq, Jordan,    ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Syria, Arabian
                                                                Peninsula.
Gazelle, slender-horned.............  Gazella leptoceros.....  Sudan, Egypt, Algeria,   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Libya.
Gibbons.............................  Hylobates spp.           China, India, Southeast  ......do...............        E     3, 15         NA         NA
                                       (including Nomascus).    Asia.
Goral...............................  Nemorhaedus goral......  East Asia..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Gorilla.............................  Gorilla gorilla........  Central and western      ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Africa.
Hare, hispid........................  Caprolagus hispidus....  India, Nepal, Bhutan...  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Hartebeest, Swayne's................  Alcelaphus buselaphus    Ethiopia, Somalia......  ......do...............        E     3, 50         NA         NA
                                       swaynei.
Hartebeest, Tora....................  Alcelaphus buselaphus    Ethiopia, Sudan, Egypt.  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       tora.
Hog, pygmy..........................  Sus salvanius..........  India, Nepal, Bhutan,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Sikkim.
Horse, Przewalski's.................  Equus przewalskii......  Mongolia, China........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Huemul, north Andean................  Hippocamelus antisensis  Ecuador, Peru, Chile,    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Bolivia, Argentina.
Huemul, south Andean................  Hippocamelus bisulcus..  Chile, Argentina.......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Hutia, Cabrera's....................  Capromys angelcabrerai.  Cuba...................  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
Hutia, dwarf........................  Capromys nana..........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
Hutia, large-eared..................  Capromys auritus.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
Hutia, little earth.................  Capromys sanfelipensis.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
Hyena, Barbary......................  Hyaena hyaena barbara..  Morocco, Algeria,        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Tunisia.
Hyena, brown........................  Parahyaena (=Hyaena)     Southern Africa........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       brunnea.
Ibex, Pyrenean......................  Capra pyrenaica          Spain..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pyrenaica.
Ibex, Walia.........................  Capra walie............  Ethiopia...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Impala, black-faced.................  Aepyceros melampus       Namibia, Angola........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       petersi.
Indri...............................  Indri indri (=entire     Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       genus).                  (=Madagascar).
Jaguar..............................  Panthera onca..........  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, LA, NM,  ......do...............        E    5, 622         NA         NA
                                                                TX), Mexico, Central
                                                                and South America.
Jaguarundi, Guatemalan..............  Herpailurus (=Felis)     Mexico, Nicaragua......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       yagouaroundi fossata.
Jaguarundi, Gulf Coast..............  Herpailurus (=Felis)     U.S.A. (TX), Mexico....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       yagouaroundi cacomitli.
Jaguarundi, Panamanian..............  Herpailurus (=Felis)     Nicaragua, Costa Rica,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       yagouaroundi             Panama.
                                       panamensis.
Jaguarundi, Sinaloan................  Herpailurus (=Felis)     U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       yagouaroundi tolteca.
Kangaroo rat, Fresno................  Dipodomys nitratoides    U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       170   17.95(a)         NA
                                       exilis.
Kangaroo rat, giant.................  Dipodomys ingens.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       251         NA         NA
Kangaroo rat, Morro Bay.............  Dipodomys heermanni      ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2   17.95(a)         NA
                                       morroensis.

[[Page 18]]

 
Kangaroo rat, San Bernardino          Dipodomys merriami       ......do...............  ......do...............        E     632E,   17.95(a)         NA
 Merriam's..                           parvus.                                                                                 645
Kangaroo rat, Stephens'.............  Dipodomys stephensi      ......do...............  ......do...............        E       338         NA         NA
                                       (incl. D. cascus).
Kangaroo rat, Tipton................  Dipodomys nitratoides    ......do...............  ......do...............        E       312         NA         NA
                                       nitratoides.
Kangaroo, Tasmanian forester........  Macropus giganteus       Australia (Tasmania)...  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
                                       tasmaniensis.
Koala...............................  Phascolarctos cinereus.  Australia..............  Australia..............        T       698         NA         NA
Kouprey.............................  Bos sauveli............  Vietnam, Laos,           Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Cambodia, Thailand.
Langur, capped......................  Trachypithecus           India, Burma,            ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Presbytis) pileatus.   Bangladesh.
Langur, Douc........................  Pygathrix nemaeus......  Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Langur, Francois'...................  Trachypithecus           China (Kwangsi),         ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       (=Presbytis) francoisi.  Indochina.
Langur, golden......................  Trachypithecus           India (Assam), Bhutan..  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Presbytis) geei.
Langur, gray (=entellus)............  Semnopithecus            China (Tibet), India,    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Presbytis) entellus.   Pakistan, Kashmir, Sri
                                                                Lanka, Sikkim,
                                                                Bangladesh.
Langur, long-tailed.................  Presbytis potenziani...  Indonesia..............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Langur, Pagi Island.................  Nasalis concolor.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Langur, purple-faced................  Presbytis senex........  Sri Lanka..............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Lechwe, red.........................  Kobus leche............  Southern Africa........  ......do...............        T    3, 15,         NA         NA
                                                                                                                               106
Lemurs..............................  Lemuridae (incl. genera  Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E    3, 15,         NA         NA
                                       Lemur, Phaner,           (=Madagascar).                                                 15A
                                       Hapalemur, Lepilemur,
                                       Microcebus, Allocebus,
                                       Cheirogaleus, Varecia).
Leopard.............................  Panthera pardus........  Africa, Asia...........  Wherever found, except         E     3, 5,         NA         NA
                                                                                         where it is listed as                 114
                                                                                         Threatened as set
                                                                                         forth below.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  In Africa, in the wild,        T     3, 5,         NA   17.40(f)
                                                                                         south of, and                         114
                                                                                         including, the
                                                                                         following countries:
                                                                                         Gabon, Congo, Zaire,
                                                                                         Uganda, Kenya.
Leopard, clouded....................  Neofelis nebulosa......  Southeastern and south-  Entire.................        E     3, 15         NA         NA
                                                                central Asia, Taiwan.
Leopard, snow.......................  Uncia (=Panthera) uncia  Central Asia...........  ......do...............        E         5         NA         NA
Linsang, spotted....................  Prionodon pardicolor...  Nepal, Assam, Vietnam,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Cambodia, Laos, Burma.
Lion, Asiatic.......................  Panthera leo persica...  Turkey to India........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Loris, lesser slow..................  Nycticebus pygmaeus....  Indochina..............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Lynx, Canada........................  Lynx canadensis........  U.S.A. (AK, CO, ID, CO,  CO, ID, ME, MI, MN, MT,        T       692   17.95(a)   17.40(k)
                                                                ID, ME, MI, MN, MT,      NH, NY, OR, UT, VT,
                                                                NH, NY, OR, UT, VT,      WA, WI, WY.
                                                                WA, WI, WY), Canada,
                                                                circumboreal.

[[Page 19]]

 
Lynx, Spanish.......................  Felis pardina..........  Spain, Portugal........  Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
Macaque, Formosan rock..............  Macaca cyclopis........  Taiwan.................  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Macaque, Japanese...................  Macaca fuscata.........  Japan (Shikoku, Kyushu   ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
                                                                and Honshu Islands).
Macaque, lion-tailed................  Macaca silenus.........  India..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Macaque, stump-tailed...............  Macaca arctoides.......  India (Assam) to         ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
                                                                southern China.
Macaque, Toque......................  Macaca sinica..........  Sri Lanka..............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Manatee, Amazonian..................  Trichechus inunguis....  South America (Amazon    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                R. basin).
Manatee, West African...............  Trichechus senegalensis  West Coast of Africa     ......do...............        T        52         NA         NA
                                                                from Senegal R. to
                                                                Cuanza R.
Manatee, West Indian................  Trichechus manatus.....  U.S.A. (southeastern),   ......do...............        E      1, 3   17.95(a)  17.108(a)
                                                                Caribbean Sea, South
                                                                America.
Mandrill............................  Mandrillus (=Papio)      Equatorial West Africa.  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       sphinx.
Mangabey, Tana River................  Cercocebus galeritus     Kenya..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       galeritus.
Mangabey, white-collared............  Cercocebus torquatus...  Senegal to Ghana;        ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                                                Nigeria to Gabon.
Margay..............................  Leopardus (=Felis)       U.S.A. (TX), Central     Mexico southward.......        E         5         NA         NA
                                       wiedii.                  and South America.
Markhor, chiltan (=wild goat).......  Capra falconeri          Chiltan Range of west-   Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=aegagrus)              central Pakistan.
                                       chiltanensis.
Markhor, Kabul......................  Capra falconeri          Afghanistan, Pakistan..  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       megaceros.
Markhor, straight-horned............  Capra falconeri jerdoni  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Marmoset, buff-headed...............  Callithrix flaviceps...  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
Marmoset, cotton-top................  Saguinus oedipus.......  Costa Rica to Colombia.  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
Marmoset, Goeldi's..................  Callimico goeldii......  Brazil, Colombia,        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia.
Marmoset, white-eared (=buffy tufted- Callithrix aurita        Brazil.................  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
 ear).                                 (=jacchus a.).
Marmot, Vancouver Island............  Marmota vancouverensis.  Canada (Vancouver        ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                                                Island).
Marsupial, eastern jerboa...........  Antechinomys laniger...  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Marsupial-mouse, large desert.......  Sminthopsis psammophila  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Marsupial-mouse, long-tailed........  Sminthopsis              ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       longicaudata.
Marten, Formosan yellow-throated....  Martes flavigula         Taiwan.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       chrysospila.
Monkey, black colobus...............  Colobus satanas........  Equatorial Guinea,       ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                                                People's Republic of
                                                                Congo, Cameroon, Gabon.
Monkey, black howler................  Alouatta pigra.........  Mexico, Guatemala,       ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
                                                                Belize.
Monkey, Diana.......................  Cercopithecus diana....  Coastal West Africa....  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
Monkey, Guizhou snub-nosed..........  Rhinopithecus brelichi.  China..................  ......do...............        E       400         NA         NA
Monkey, L'hoest's...................  Cercopithecus lhoesti..  Upper eastern Congo R.   ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                                                Basin, Cameroon.
Monkey, mantled howler..............  Alouatta palliata......  Mexico to South America  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Monkey, Preuss' red colobus.........  Procolobus (=Colobus)    Cameroon...............  ......do...............        E       139         NA         NA
                                       preussi (=badius p.).
Monkey, proboscis...................  Nasalis larvatus.......  Borneo.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Monkey, red-backed squirrel.........  Saimiri oerstedii......  Costa Rica, Panama.....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Monkey, red-bellied.................  Cercopithecus            Western Nigeria........  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       erythrogaster.
Monkey, red-eared nose-spotted......  Cercopithecus            Nigeria, Cameroon,       ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
                                       erythrotis.              Fernando Po.
Monkey, Sichuan snub-nosed..........  Rhinopithecus roxellana  China..................  ......do...............        E       400         NA         NA

[[Page 20]]

 
Monkey, spider......................  Ateles geoffroyi         Costa Rica, Nicaragua..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       frontatus.
 Do.................................  Ateles geoffroyl         Costa Rica, Panama.....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       panamensis.
Monkey, Tana River red colobus......  Procolobus (=Colobus)    Kenya..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       rufomitratus (=badius
                                       r.).
Monkey, Tonkin snub-nosed...........  Rhinopithecus avunculus  Vietnam................  ......do...............        E   16, 400         NA         NA
Monkey, woolly spider...............  Brachyteles arachnoides  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Monkey, yellow-tailed woolly........  Lagothrix flavicauda...  Andes of northern Peru.  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
Monkey, Yunnan snub-nosed...........  Rhinopithecus bieti....  China..................  ......do...............        E       400         NA         NA
Monkey, Zanzibar red colobus........  Procolobus (=Colobus)    Tanzania...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pennantii (=kirki)
                                       kirki.
Mountain beaver, Point Arena........  Aplodontia rufa nigra..  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       454         NA         NA
Mouse, Alabama beach................  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       183   17.95(a)         NA
                                       ammobates.
Mouse, Anastasia Island beach.......  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       349         NA         NA
                                       phasma.
Mouse, Australian native............  Notomys aquilo.........  Australia..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
 Do.................................  Zyzomys pedunculatus...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Mouse, Choctawhatchee beach.........  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       183   17.95(a)         NA
                                       allophrys.
Mouse, Field's......................  Pseudomys fieldi.......  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Mouse, Gould's......................  Pseudomys gouldii......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Mouse, Key Largo cotton.............  Peromyscus gossypinus    U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E     131E,         NA         NA
                                       allapaticola.                                                                           160
Mouse, New Holland..................  Pseudomys                Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       novaehollandiae.
Mouse, Pacific pocket...............  Perognathus              U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E     526E,         NA         NA
                                       longimembris pacificus.                                                                 554
Mouse, Perdido Key beach............  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (AL, FL)........  ......do...............        E       183   17.95(a)         NA
                                       trissyllepsis.
Mouse, Preble's meadow jumping......  Zapus hudsonius preblei  U.S.A. (CO, WY)........  ......do...............        T       636   17.95(a)   17.40(l)
Mouse, salt marsh harvest...........  Reithrodontomys          U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       raviventris.
Mouse, Shark Bay....................  Pseudomys praeconis....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Mouse, Shortridge's.................  Pseudomys shortridgei..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Mouse, smoky........................  Pseudomys fumeus.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Mouse, southeastern beach...........  Peromyscus polionotus    U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T       349         NA         NA
                                       niveiventris.
Mouse, St. Andrew beach.............  Peromyscus polionotus    ......do...............  ......do...............        E       655   17.95(a)         NA
                                       peninsularis.
Mouse, western......................  Pseudomys occidentalis.  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Muntjac, Fea's......................  Muntiacus feae.........  Northern Thailand,       ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                                                Burma.
Native-cat, eastern.................  Dasyurus viverrinus....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Numbat..............................  Myrmecobius fasciatus..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E      4, 6         NA         NA
Ocelot..............................  Leopardus (=Felis)       U.S.A. (AZ, TX) to       ......do...............        E    5, 119         NA         NA
                                       pardalis.                Central and South
                                                                America.
Orangutan...........................  Pongo pygmaeus.........  Borneo, Sumatra........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Oryx, Arabian.......................  Oryx leucoryx..........  Arabian Peninsula......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Oryx, scimitar-horned...............  Oryx dammah............  North Africa...........  ......do...............        E                   NA         NA
Otter, Cameroon clawless............  Aonyx congicus           Cameroon, Nigeria......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=congica) microdon.

[[Page 21]]

 
Otter, giant........................  Pteronura brasiliensis.  South America..........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Otter, long-tailed..................  Lontra (=Lutra)          ......do...............  ......do...............        E     3, 15         NA         NA
                                       longicaudis (incl.
                                       platensis).
Otter, marine.......................  Lontra (=Lutra) felina.  Peru south to Straits    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                of Magellan.
Otter, northern sea.................  Enhydra lutris kenyoni.  U.S.A. (AK, WA)........  Southwest Alaska, from         T  ........         NA         NA
                                                                                         Attu Island to Western
                                                                                         Cook Inlet, including
                                                                                         Bristol Bay, the
                                                                                         Kodiak Archipelago,
                                                                                         and the Barren Islands.
Otter, southern river...............  Lontra (=Lutra)          Chile, Argentina.......  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       provocax.
Otter, southern sea.................  Enhydra lutris nereis..  West Coast, U.S.A. (CA,  Entire, except where           T   21, 284         NA   17.84(d)
                                                                OR, WA) south to         listed below.
                                                                Mexico (Baja
                                                                California).
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  All areas subject to          XN       284         NA   17.84(d)
                                                                                         U.S. jurisdiction
                                                                                         south of Pt.
                                                                                         Conception, CA
                                                                                         (34[deg]26.9[min] N.
                                                                                         Lat.) [Note--status
                                                                                         governed by Pub. L. 99-
                                                                                         625, 100 Stat. 3500.].
Panda, giant........................  Ailuropoda melanoleuca.  China..................  Entire.................        E       139         NA         NA
Pangolin, Temnick's ground..........  Manis temmincki........  Africa.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Panther, Florida....................  Puma (=Felis) concolor   U.S.A. (LA and AR east   ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       coryi.                   to SC and FL).
Planigale, little...................  Planigale ingrami        Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       subtilissima.
Planigale, southern.................  Planigale tenuirostris.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Porcupine, thin-spined..............  Chaetomys subspinosus..  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Possum, Leadbeater's................  Gymnobelideus            Australia..............  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
                                       leadbeateri.
Possum, mountain pygmy..............  Burramys parvus........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Possum, scaly-tailed................  Wyulda squamicaudata...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Prairie dog, Mexican................  Cynomys mexicanus......  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Prairie dog, Utah...................  Cynomys parvidens......  U.S.A. (UT)............  ......do...............        T    6, 149         NA   17.40(g)
Pronghorn, peninsular...............  Antilocapra americana    Mexico (Baja             ......do...............        E        10         NA         NA
                                       peninsularis.            California).
Pronghorn, Sonoran..................  Antilocapra americana    U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico....  ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                       sonoriensis.
Pudu................................  Pudu pudu..............  Southern South America.  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Puma (=mountain lion)...............  Puma (=Felis) concolor   Canada to South America  U.S.A. (FL)............   T(S/A)       432         NA   17.40(h)
                                       (all subsp. except
                                       coryi).
Puma, Costa Rican...................  Puma (=Felis) concolor   Nicaragua, Panama,       Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       costaricensis.           Costa Rica.
Puma (=cougar), eastern.............  Puma (=Felis) concolor   Eastern North America..  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
                                       couguar.
Quokka..............................  Setonix brachyurus.....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Rabbit, Columbia Basin pygmy........  Brachylagus idahoensis.  U.S.A. (western          U.S.A. (WA--Douglas,           E  ........         NA         NA
                                                                conterminous U.S.).      Grant, Lincoln, Adams,
                                                                                         Benton Counties).
Rabbit, Lower Keys..................  Sylvilagus palustris     U.S.A. (FL)............  Entire.................        E       390         NA         NA
                                       hefneri.
Rabbit, riparian brush..............  Sylvilagus bachmani      U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       687         NA         NA
                                       riparius.
Rabbit, Ryukyu......................  Pentalagus furnessi....  Japan (Ryukyu Islands).  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Rabbit, volcano.....................  Romerolagus diazi......  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Rat, false water....................  Xeromys myoides........  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rat, stick-nest.....................  Leporillus conditor....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA

[[Page 22]]

 
Rat-kangaroo, brush-tailed..........  Bettongia penicillata..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rat-kangaroo, desert (=plain).......  Caloprymnus campestris.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rat-kangaroo, Gaimard's.............  Bettongia gaimardi.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Rat-kangaroo, Lesuer's..............  Bettongia lesueur......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rat-kangaroo, Queensland............  Bettongia tropica......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rhinoceros, black...................  Diceros bicornis.......  Sub-Saharan Africa.....  ......do...............        E        97         NA         NA
Rhinoceros, great Indian............  Rhinoceros unicornis...  India, Nepal...........  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Rhinoceros, Javan...................  Rhinoceros sondaicus...  Indonesia, Indochina,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Burma, Thailand,
                                                                Sikkim, Bangladesh,
                                                                Malaysia.
Rhinoceros, northern white..........  Ceratotherium simum      Zaire, Sudan, Uganda,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       cottoni.                 Central African
                                                                Republic.
Rhinoceros, Sumatran................  Dicerorhinus             Bangladesh to Vietnam    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       sumatrensis.             to Indonesia (Borneo).
Rice rat............................  Oryzomys palustris       U.S.A. (FL)............  Lower FL Keys (west of         E       421   17.95(a)         NA
                                       natator.                                          Seven Mile Bridge).
Saiga, Mongolian (antelope).........  Saiga tatarica           Mongolia...............  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       mongolica.
Saki, southern bearded..............  Chiropotes satanas       Brazil.................  ......do...............        E       233         NA         NA
                                       satanas.
Saki, white-nosed...................  Chiropotes albinasus...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Sea-lion, Steller...................  Eumetopias jubatus.....  U.S.A. (AK, CA, OR,      Entire, except the             T     384E,    226.202   223.102,
                                                                WA), Canada, Russia;     population segment               408, 614               223.202
                                                                North Pacific Ocean.     west of 144[deg] W.
                                                                                         Long.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Population segment west        E    384E ,    226.202         NA
                                                                                         of 144[deg] W. Long.             408, 614
Seal, Caribbean monk................  Monachus tropicalis....  Caribbean Sea, Gulf of   Entire.................        E    1, 2D,         NA         NA
                                                                Mexico.                                                         45
Seal, Guadalupe fur.................  Arctocephalus townsendi  U.S.A. (Farallon         ......do...............        T    1, 2D,         NA    223.201
                                                                Islands of CA) south                                           212
                                                                to Mexico (Islas
                                                                Revillagigedo).
Seal, Hawaiian monk.................  Monachus schauinslandi.  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E        18    226.201         NA
Seal, Mediterranean monk............  Monachus monachus......  Mediterranean,           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Northwest African
                                                                Coast and Black Sea.
Seal, Saimaa........................  Phoca hispida saimensis  Finland (Lake Saimaa)..  ......do...............        E       508         NA         NA
Seledang............................  Bos gaurus.............  Bangladesh, Southeast    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Asia, India.
Serow...............................  Naemorhedus              East Asia, Sumatra.....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Capricornis)
                                       sumatraensis.
Serval, Barbary.....................  Leptailurus (=Felis)     Algeria................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       serval constantina.
Shapo...............................  Ovis vignei vignei.....  Kashmir................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Sheep, bighorn......................  Ovis canadensis........  U.S.A. (Western          U.S.A. (CA) Peninsular         E       634   17.95(a)         NA
                                                                conterminous states),    Ranges.
                                                                Canada (southwestern),
                                                                Mexico (northern).
Sheep, Sierra Nevada bighorn........  Ovis canadensis          ......do...............  U.S.A. (CA) Sierra             E     660E,         NA         NA
                                       californiana.                                     Nevada.                               675
Shou................................  Cervus elaphus wallichi  Tibet, Bhutan..........  Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA

[[Page 23]]

 
Shrew, Buena Vista Lake.............  Sorex ornatus relictus.  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       725   17.95(a)         NA
Siamang.............................  Symphalangus             Malaysia, Indonesia....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       syndactylus.
Sifakas.............................  Propithecus spp........  Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                                                (=Madagascar).
Sloth, Brazilian three-toed.........  Bradypus torquatus.....  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Solenodon, Cuban....................  Solenodon cubanus......  Cuba...................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Solenodon, Haitian..................  Solenodon paradoxus....  Dominican Republic,      ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Haiti.
Squirrel, Carolina northern flying..  Glaucomys sabrinus       U.S.A. (NC, TN)........  ......do...............        E       189         NA         NA
                                       coloratus.
Squirrel, Delmarva Peninsula fox....  Sciurus niger cinereus.  U.S.A. (Delmarva         Entire, except Sussex          E   1, 161,         NA         NA
                                                                Peninsula to             Co., DE.                              168
                                                                southeastern PA).
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (DE--Sussex Co.)       XN       161         NA   17.84(a)
Squirrel, Mount Graham red..........  Tamiasciurus hudsonicus  U.S.A. (AZ)............  Entire.................        E       268   17.95(a)         NA
                                       grahamensis.
Squirrel, northern Idaho ground.....  Spermophilus brunneus    U.S.A. (ID)............  ......do...............        T       693         NA         NA
                                       brunneus.
Squirrel, Virginia northern flying..  Glaucomys sabrinus       U.S.A. (VA, WV)........  ......do...............        E       189         NA         NA
                                       fuscus.
Stag, Barbary.......................  Cervus elaphus barbarus  Tunisia, Algeria.......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Stag, Kashmir.......................  Cervus elaphus hanglu..  Kashmir................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Suni, Zanzibar......................  Neotragus moschatus      Zanzibar (and nearby     ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
                                       moschatus.               islands).
Tahr, Arabian.......................  Hemitragus jayakari....  Oman...................  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Tamaraw.............................  Bubalus mindorensis....  Philippines............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Tamarin, golden-rumped..............  Leontopithecus spp.....  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Tamarin, pied.......................  Saguinus bicolor.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        16         NA         NA
Tamarin, white-footed...............  Saguinus leucopus......  Colombia...............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Tapir, Asian........................  Tapirus indicus........  Burma, Laos, Cambodia,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Vietnam, Malaysia,
                                                                Indonesia, Thailand.
Tapir, Central American.............  Tapirus bairdii........  Southern Mexico to       ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Colombia and Ecuador.
Tapir, mountain.....................  Tapirus pinchaque......  Colombia, Ecuador and    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                possibly Peru and
                                                                Venezuela.
Tapir, South American (=Brazilian)..  Tapirus terrestris.....  Colombia and Venezuela   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                south to Paraguay and
                                                                Argentina.
Tarsier, Philippine.................  Tarsius syrichta.......  Philippines............  ......do...............        T        16         NA   17.40(c)
Tiger...............................  Panthera tigris........  Temperate and tropical   ......do...............        E      3, 5         NA         NA
                                                                Asia.
Tiger, Tasmanian....................  Thylacinus cynocephalus  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Uakari (all species)................  Cacajao spp............  Peru, Brazil, Ecuador,   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Colombia, Venezuela.
Urial...............................  Ovis musimon ophion....  Cyprus.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Vicu[ntilde]a.......................  Vicugna vicugna........  Argentina, Bolivia,      Entire, except Ecudator        T    3, 724         NA  17.40 (m)
                                                                Chile, Ecuador, Peru.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Ecuador................        E    3, 724         NA         NA
Vole, Amargosa......................  Microtus californicus    U.S.A. (CA)............  Entire.................        E       166   17.95(a)         NA
                                       scirpensis.
Vole, Florida salt marsh............  Microtus pennsylvanicus  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E       415         NA         NA
                                       dukecampbelli.
Vole, Hualapai Mexican..............  Microtus mexicanus       U.S.A. (AZ)............  ......do...............        E       292         NA         NA
                                       hualpaiensis.
Wallaby, banded hare................  Lagostrophus fasciatus.  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Wallaby, brindled nail-tailed.......  Onychogalea fraenata...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Wallaby, crescent nail-tailed.......  Onychogalea lunata.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Wallaby, Parma......................  Macropus parma.........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA

[[Page 24]]

 
Wallaby, western hare...............  Lagorchestes hirsutus..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Wallaby, yellow-footed rock.........  Petrogale xanthopus....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Whale, blue.........................  Balaenoptera musculus..  Oceanic................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Whale, bowhead......................  Balaena mysticetus.....  Oceanic (north           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                latitudes only).
Whale, finback......................  Balaenoptera physalus..  Oceanic................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Whale, gray.........................  Eschrichtius robustus..  North Pacific Ocean--    Entire, except eastern         E    3, 540         NA         NA
                                                                coastal and Bering       North Pacific Ocean--
                                                                Sea, formerly North      coastal and Bering,
                                                                Atlantic Ocean.          Beaufort, and Chukchi
                                                                                         Seas.
Whale, humpback.....................  Megaptera novaeangliae.  Oceanic................  Entire.................        E         3         NA   224.101,
                                                                                                                                                 224.103
Whale, killer.......................  Orcinus orca...........  Pacific Ocean..........  Southern Resident DPS,         E       756         NA         NA
                                                                                         which consists of
                                                                                         whales from the J, K,
                                                                                         and L pods, wherever
                                                                                         they are found in the
                                                                                         wild.
Whale, North Atlantic right.........  Eubalaena glacialis....  Oceanic................  Entire.................        E         3    226.203    224.103
Whale, North Pacific right..........  Eubalaena japonica.....  ...... do..............  ...... do..............        E         3         NA         NA
Whale, Southern right...............  Eubalaena australis....  ...... do..............  ...... do..............        E         3         NA         NA
Whale, Sei..........................  Balaenoptera borealis..  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Whale, sperm........................  Physeter catodon         ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=macrocephalus).
Wolf, gray..........................  Canis lupus............  Holarctic..............  U.S.A., conterminous           E     1, 6,         NA         NA
                                                                                         (lower 48) States,                13, 15,
                                                                                         except: (1) Where                35, 561,
                                                                                         listed as an                         562,
                                                                                         experimental                     631, 745
                                                                                         population below; (2)
                                                                                         Minnesota, Wisconsin,
                                                                                         Michigan, eastern
                                                                                         North Dakota (that
                                                                                         portion north and east
                                                                                         of the Missouri River
                                                                                         upstream to Lake
                                                                                         Sakakawea and east of
                                                                                         the centerline of
                                                                                         Highway 83 from Lake
                                                                                         Sakakawea to the
                                                                                         Canadian border),
                                                                                         eastern South Dakota
                                                                                         (that portion north
                                                                                         and east of the
                                                                                         Missouri River),
                                                                                         northern Iowa,
                                                                                         northern Illinois, and
                                                                                         northern Indiana
                                                                                         (those portions of IA,
                                                                                         IL, and IN north of
                                                                                         the centerline of
                                                                                         Interstate Highway
                                                                                         80), and northwestern
                                                                                         Ohio (that portion
                                                                                         north of the
                                                                                         centerline of
                                                                                         Interstate Highway 80
                                                                                         and west of the Maumee
                                                                                         River at Toledo); and
                                                                                         (3) Mexico.

[[Page 25]]

 
Do..................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (WY and portions       XN      561,         NA   17.84(i)
                                                                                         of ID and MT--see                562, 745              17.84(n)
                                                                                         17.84(i) and (n).
Do..................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (portions of AZ,       XN       631         NA   17.84(k)
                                                                                         NM, and TX--see
                                                                                         17.84(k)).
Wolf, maned.........................  Chrysocyon brachyurus..  Argentina, Bolivia,      Entire.................        E         4         NA         NA
                                                                Brazil, Paraguay,
                                                                Uruguay.
Wolf, red...........................  Canis rufus............  U.S.A. (SE U.S.A., west  Entire, except where           E   1, 248,         NA         NA
                                                                to central TX).          listed as experimental           449, 579
                                                                                         populations below.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (portions of NC        XN      248,         NA   17.84(c)
                                                                                         and TN--see                      449, 579
                                                                                         17.84(c)(9)).
Wombat, Queensland hairy-nosed        Lasiorhinus krefftii     Australia..............  Entire.................        E      4, 6         NA         NA
 (incl. Barnard's).                    (formerly L. barnardi
                                       and L. gillespiei).
Woodrat, Key Largo..................  Neotoma floridana        U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E     131E,         NA         NA
                                       smalli.                                                                                 160
Woodrat, riparian (San Joaquin        Neotoma fuscipes         U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       687         NA         NA
 Valley).                              riparia.
Yak, wild...........................  Bos mutus (=grunniens    China (Tibet), India...  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       m.).
Zebra, Grevy's......................  Equus grevyi...........  Kenya, Ethiopia,         ......do...............        T        54         NA         NA
                                                                Somalia.
Zebra, Hartmann's mountain..........  Equus zebra hartmannae.  Namibia, Angola........  ......do...............        T   54, 111         NA         NA
Zebra, mountain.....................  Equus zebra zebra......  South Africa...........  ......do...............        E   15, 111         NA         NA
                Birds
`Akepa, Hawaii (honeycreeper).......  Loxops coccineus         U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       coccineus.
`Akepa, Maui (honeycreeper).........  Loxops coccineus         ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       ochraceus.
`Akialoa, Kauai (honeycreeper)......  Hemignathus procerus...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
`Akiapola`au (honeycreeper).........  Hemignathus munroi.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Albatross, Amsterdam................  Diomedea amsterdamensis  Indian Ocean--Amsterdam  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Island.
Albatross, short-tailed.............  Phoebastria (=Diomedea)  North Pacific Ocean and  ......do...............        E    3, 700         NA         NA
                                       albatrus.                Bering Sea--Canada,
                                                                China, Japan, Mexico,
                                                                Russia, Taiwan, U.S.A.
                                                                (AK, CA, HI, OR, WA).
Alethe, Thyolo......................  Alethe choloensis......  Malawi, Mozambique.....  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Blackbird, yellow-shouldered........  Agelaius xanthomus.....  U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E        17   17.95(b)         NA
Bobwhite, masked (quail)............  Colinus virginianus      U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico      ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                       ridgwayi.                (Sonora).
Booby, Abbott's.....................  Papasula (=Sula)         Indian Ocean--Christmas  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       abbotti.                 Island.
Bristlebird, western................  Dasyornis longirostris   Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=brachypterus l.).
Bristlebird, western rufous.........  Dasyornis broadbenti     ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       littoralis.
Bulbul, Mauritius olivaceous........  Hypsipetes borbonicus    Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       olivaceus.
Bullfinch, Sao Miguel (finch).......  Pyrrhula pyrrhula        Eastern Atlantic Ocean-- ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       murina.                  Azores.
Bush-shrike, Ulugura................  Malaconotus alius......  Tanzania...............  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
Bushwren, New Zealand...............  Xenicus longipes.......  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Bustard, great Indian...............  Ardeotis (=Choriotis)    India, Pakistan........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       nigriceps.
Cahow...............................  Pterodroma cahow.......  North Atlantic Ocean--   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Bermuda.
Caracara, Audubon's crested.........  Polyborus plancus        U.S.A. (AZ, FL, LA, NM,  U.S.A. (FL)............        T       280         NA         NA
                                       audubonii.               TX) south to Panama;
                                                                Cuba.
Condor, Andean......................  Vultur gryphus.........  Colombia to Chile and    Entire.................        E         4         NA         NA
                                                                Argentina.
Condor, California..................  Gymnogyps californianus  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, OR),     U.S.A. only, except            E    1, 597   17.95(b)         NA
                                                                Mexico (Baja             where listed as an
                                                                California).             experimental
                                                                                         population below.

[[Page 26]]

 
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (specific              XN       597         NA   17.84(j)
                                                                                         portions of Arizona,
                                                                                         Nevada, and Utah).
Coot, Hawaiian......................  Fulica americana alai..  U.S.A. (HI)............  Entire.................        E         2         NA         NA
Cotinga, banded.....................  Cotinga maculata.......  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Cotinga, white-winged...............  Xipholena atropurpurea.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Crane, black-necked.................  Grus nigricollis.......  China (Tibet)..........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Crane, Cuba sandhill................  Grus canadensis          West Indies--Cuba......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       nesiotes.
Crane, hooded.......................  Grus monacha...........  Japan, Russia..........  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Crane, Japanese.....................  Grus japonensis........  China, Japan, Korea,     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Russia.
Crane, Mississippi sandhill.........  Grus canadensis pulla..  U.S.A. (MS)............  ......do...............        E         6   17.95(b)         NA
Crane, Siberian white...............  Grus leucogeranus......  C.I.S. (Siberia) to      ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                                                India, including Iran
                                                                and China.
Crane, white-naped..................  Grus vipio.............  Mongolia...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Crane, whooping.....................  Grus americana.........  Canada, U.S.A. (Rocky    Entire, except where           E      1, 3   17.95(b)         NA
                                                                Mountains east to        listed as an
                                                                Carolinas), Mexico.      experimental
                                                                                         population.
Do..................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL, AR, CO, FL,       XN      487,         NA   17.84(h)
                                                                                         GA, ID, IL, IN, IA,              621, 710
                                                                                         KY, LA, MI, MN, MS,
                                                                                         MO, NC, NM, OH, SC,
                                                                                         TN, UT, VA, WI, WV,
                                                                                         WY).
Creeper, Hawaii.....................  Oreomystis mana........  U.S.A. (HI)............  Entire.................        E        10         NA         NA
Creeper, Molokai....................  Paroreomyza flammea....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
Creeper, Oahu.......................  Paroreomyza maculata...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
Crow, Hawaiian......................  Corvus hawaiiensis.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Crow, Mariana.......................  Corvus kubaryi.........  Western Pacific Ocean    ......do...............        E       156   17.95(b)         NA
                                                                USA (Guam, Rota).
Crow, white-necked..................  Corvus leucognaphalus..  U.S.A. (PR), Dominican   ......do...............        E       419         NA         NA
                                                                Republic, Haiti.
Cuckoo-shrike, Mauritius............  Coquus typicus.........  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Cuckoo-shrike, Reunion..............  Coquus newtoni.........  Indian Ocean--Reunion..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Curassow, razor-billed..............  Mitu mitu mitu.........  Brazil (Eastern).......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Curassow, red-billed................  Crax blumenbachii......  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Curassow, Trinidad white-headed.....  Pipile pipile pipile...  West Indies--Trinidad..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Curlew, Eskimo......................  Numenius borealis......  Alaska and northern      ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                                                Canada to Argentina.
Dove, cloven-feathered..............  Drepanoptila             Southwest Pacific        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       holosericea.             Ocean--New Caledonia.
Dove, Grenada gray-fronted..........  Leptotila rufaxilla      West Indies--Grenada...  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       wellsi.
Duck, Hawaiian......................  Anas wyvilliana........  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Duck, Laysan........................  Anas laysanensis.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Duck, pink-headed...................  Rhodonessa               India..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       caryophyllacea.
Duck, white-winged wood.............  Cairina scutulata......  India, Malaysia,         ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Indonesia, Thailand.
Eagle, Greenland white-tailed.......  Haliaeetus albicilla     Greenland and adjacent   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       groenlandicus.           Atlantic islands.
Eagle, harpy........................  Harpia harpyja.........  Mexico south to          ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Argentina.

[[Page 27]]

 
Eagle, Madagascar sea...............  Haliaeetus vociferoides  Madagascar.............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Eagle, Madagascar serpent...........  Eutriorchis astur......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Eagle, Philippine...................  Pithecophaga jefferyi..  Philippines............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Eagle, Spanish imperial.............  Aquila heliaca           Spain, Morocco, Algeria  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       adalberti.
Egret, Chinese......................  Egretta eulophotes.....  China, Korea...........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Eider, spectacled...................  Somateria fischeri.....  U.S.A. (AK), Russia....  ......do...............        T       503   17.95(b)         NA
Eider, Steller's....................  Polysticta stelleri....  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AK breeding            T       616   17.95(b)         NA
                                                                                         population only).
Elepaio, Oahu.......................  Chasiempis               U.S.A. (HI)............  Entire.................        E       696   17.95(b)         NA
                                       sandwichensis ibidis
                                       (Chasiempis
                                       sandwichensis gayi).
Falcon, Eurasian peregrine..........  Falco peregrinus         Europe, Eurasia south    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       peregrinus.              to Africa and Mideast.
Falcon, northern aplomado...........  Falco femoralis          U.S.A. (AZ, NM, TX),     Entire, except where           E       216         NA         NA
                                       septentrionalis.         Mexico, Guatemala.       listed as an
                                                                                         experimental
                                                                                         population.
Falcon, northern aplomado...........  Falco femoralis          ......do...............  U.S.A. (AZ, NM)........       XN       758         NA   17.84(p)
                                       septentrionalis.
Finch, Laysan (honeycreeper)........  Telespyza cantans......  U.S.A. (HI)............  Entire.................        E         1         NA         NA
Finch, Nihoa (honeycreeper).........  Telespyza ultima.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Flycatcher, Euler's.................  Empidonax euleri         West Indies--Grenada...  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       johnstonei.
Flycatcher, Seychelles paradise.....  Terpsiphone corvina....  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles.
Flycatcher, southwestern willow.....  Empidonax traillii       U.S.A. (AZ, CA, CO, NM,  ......do...............        E       577   17.95(b)         NA
                                       extimus.                 TX, UT), Mexico.
Flycatcher, Tahiti..................  Pomarea nigra..........  South Pacific Ocean--    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Tahiti.
Fody, Mauritius.....................  Foudia rubra...........  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Fody, Rodrigues.....................  Foudia flavicans.......  Indian Ocean--Rodrigues  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Island (Mauritius).
Fody, Seychelles (weaver-finch).....  Foudia sechellarum.....  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles.
Francolin, Djibouti.................  Francolinus ochropectus  Djibouti...............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Frigatebird, Andrew's...............  Fregata andrewsi.......  East Indian Ocean......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Gnatcatcher, coastal California.....  Polioptila californica   U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        T       496   17.95(b)  17.41 (b)
                                       californica.
Goose, Hawaiian.....................  Branta (=Nesochen)       U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       sandvicensis.
Goshawk, Christmas Island...........  Accipiter fasciatus      Indian Ocean--Christmas  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       natalis.                 Island.
Grackle, slender-billed.............  Quisicalus palustris...  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Grasswren, Eyrean (flycatcher)......  Amytornis goyderi......  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Grebe, Alaotra......................  Tachybaptus              Madagascar.............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                       rufoflavatus.
Grebe, Atitlan......................  Podilymbus gigas.......  Guatemala..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Greenshank, Nordmann's..............  Tringa guttifer........  Russia, Japan, south to  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Malaya, Borneo.
Guan, horned........................  Oreophasis derbianus...  Guatemala, Mexico......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Guan, white-winged..................  Penelope albipennis....  Peru...................  ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
Guineafowl, white-breasted..........  Agelastes meleagrides..  West Africa............  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
Gull, Audouin's.....................  Larus audouinii........  Mediterranean Sea......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gull, relict........................  Larus relictus.........  India, China...........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Hawk, Galapagos.....................  Buteo galapagoensis....  Ecuador (Galapagos       ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Islands).
Hawk, Hawaiian......................  Buteo solitarius.......  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Hawk, Puerto Rican broad-winged.....  Buteo platypterus        U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E       550         NA         NA
                                       brunnescens.
Hawk, Puerto Rican sharp-shinned....  Accipiter striatus       ......do...............  ......do...............        E       550         NA         NA
                                       venator.
Hermit, hook-billed (hummingbird)...  Ramphodon (=Glaucis)     Brazil.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       dohrnii.
Honeycreeper, crested...............  Palmeria dolei.........  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Honeyeater, helmeted................  Lichenostomus melanops   Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       cassidix (=Meliphaga
                                       c.).

[[Page 28]]

 
Hornbill, helmeted..................  Buceros (=Rhinoplax)     Thailand, Malaysia.....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       vigil.
Ibis, Japanese crested..............  Nipponia nippon........  China, Japan, Russia,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Korea.
Ibis, northern bald.................  Geronticus eremita.....  Southern Europe,         ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
                                                                southwestern Asia,
                                                                northern Africa.
Kagu................................  Rhynochetos jubatus....  South Pacific Ocean--    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                New Caledonia.
Kakapo..............................  Strigops habroptilus...  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Kestrel, Mauritius..................  Falco punctatus........  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Kestrel, Seychelles.................  Falco araea............  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles Islands.
Kingfisher, Guam Micronesian........  Halcyon cinnamomina      Western Pacific Ocean    ......do...............        E       156   17.95(b)         NA
                                       cinnamomina.             USA (Guam).
Kite, Cuba hook-billed..............  Chondrohierax uncinatus  West Indies--Cuba......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       wilsonii.
Kite, Everglade snail...............  Rostrhamus sociabilis    U.S.A. (FL), Cuba......  U.S.A. (FL)............        E         1   17.95(b)         NA
                                       plumbeus.
Kite, Grenada hook-billed...........  Chondrohierax uncinatus  West Indies--Grenada...  Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       mirus.
Kokako (wattlebird).................  Callaeas cinerea.......  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Lark, Raso..........................  Alauda razae...........  Atlantic Ocean--Raso     ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Island (Cape Verde).
Macaw, glaucous.....................  Anodorhynchus glaucus..  Paraguay, Uruguay,       ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Brazil.
Macaw, indigo.......................  Anodorhynchus leari....  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Macaw, little blue..................  Cyanopsitta spixii.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Magpie-robin, Seychelles (thrush)...  Copsychus sechellarum..  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles Islands.
Malimbe, Ibadan.....................  Malimbus ibadanensis...  Nigeria................  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Malkoha, red-faced (cuckoo).........  Phaenicophaeus           Sri Lanka (=Ceylon)....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pyrrhocephalus.
Megapode, Maleo.....................  Macrocephalon maleo....  Indonesia (Celebes)....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Megapode, Micronesian (=La            Megapodius laperouse...  West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
 Perouse's).                                                    Palau Islands, U.S.A.
                                                                (Mariana Islands).
Millerbird, Nihoa (old world          Acrocephalus familiaris  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
 warbler).                             kingi.
Moorhen, Hawaiian common............  Gallinula chloropus      U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       sandvicensis.
Moorhen, Mariana common.............  Gallinula chloropus      West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                       guami.                   U.S.A. (Guam, Tinian,
                                                                Saipan, Pagan).
Murrelet, marbled...................  Brachyramphus            U.S.A. (AK, CA, OR,      U.S.A. (CA, OR, WA)....        T       479   17.95(b)         NA
                                       marmoratus marmoratus.   WA), Canada (B.C.).
Nightjar, Puerto Rican..............  Caprimulgus noctitherus  U.S.A. (PR)............  Entire.................        E         6         NA         NA
Nukupu`u (honeycreeper).............  Hemignathus lucidus....  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E      1, 2         NA         NA
Nuthatch, Algerian..................  Sitta ledanti..........  Algeria................  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
`O`o, Kauai (honeyeater)............  Moho braccatus.........  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Ostrich, Arabian....................  Struthio camelus         Jordan, Saudi Arabia...  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       syriacus.
Ostrich, West African...............  Struthio camelus spatzi  Spanish Sahara.........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
`O`u (honeycreeper).................  Psittirostra psittacea.  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Owl, Anjouan scops..................  Otus rutilus capnodes..  Indian Ocean--Comoro     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Island.
Owl, giant scops....................  Mimizuku (=Otus)         Philippines--Marinduque  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       gurneyi.                 and Mindanao Island.
Owl, Madagascar red.................  Tyto soumagnei.........  Madagascar.............  ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA

[[Page 29]]

 
Owl, Mexican spotted................  Strix occidentalis       U.S.A. (AZ, CO, NM, TX,  ......do...............        T       494   17.95(b)         NA
                                       lucida.                  UT), Mexico.
Owl, northern spotted...............  Strix occidentalis       U.S.A. (CA, OR, WA),     ......do...............        T       393   17.95(b)         NA
                                       caurina.                 Canada (B.C.).
Owl, Seychelles scops...............  Otus magicus             Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=insularis) insularis.  Seychelles Islands.
Owlet, Morden's.....................  Otus ireneae...........  Kenya..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Oystercatcher, Canarian black.......  Haematopus meadewaldoi.  Atlantic Ocean--Canary   ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Islands.
Palila (honeycreeper)...............  Loxioides bailleui.....  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1   17.95(b)         NA
Parakeet, blue-throated (=ochre-      Pyrrhura cruentata.....  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
 marked).
Parakeet, Forbes'...................  Cyanoramphus auriceps    New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       forbesi.
Parakeet, golden....................  Aratinga guarouba......  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Parakeet, golden-shouldered.........  Psephotus                Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       chrysopterygius.
Parakeet, Mauritius.................  Psittacula echo........  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parakeet, Norfolk Island............  Cyanoramphus cookii      Australia (Norfolk       ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
                                       (=novaezelandiae c.).    Island).
Parakeet, orange-bellied............  Neophema chrysogaster..  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Parakeet, paradise..................  Psephotus pulcherrimus.  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Parakeet, scarlet-chested...........  Neophema splendida.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
Parakeet, turquoise.................  Neophema pulchella.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parrot, Bahaman or Cuban............  Amazona leucocephala...  West Indies--Cuba,       ......do...............        E     3, 15         NA         NA
                                                                Bahamas, Caymans.
Parrot, ground......................  Pezoporus wallicus.....  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Parrot, imperial....................  Amazona imperialis.....  West Indies--Dominica..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parrot, night (=Australian).........  Geopsittacus             Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       occidentalis.
Parrot, Puerto Rican................  Amazona vittata........  U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Parrot, red-browed..................  Amazona rhodocorytha...  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parrot, red-capped..................  Pionopsitta pileata....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Parrot, red-necked..................  Amazona arausiaca......  West Indies--Dominica..  ......do...............        E        50         NA         NA
Parrot, red-spectacled..............  Amazona pretrei pretrei  Brazil, Argentina......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Parrot, red-tailed..................  Amazona brasiliensis...  Brazil.................  ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
Parrot, Seychelles lesser vasa......  Coracopsis nigra         Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                       barklyi.                 Seychelles (Praslin
                                                                Island).
Parrot, St. Vincent.................  Amazona guildingii.....  West Indies--St.         ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Vincent.
Parrot, St. Lucia...................  Amazona versicolor.....  West Indies--St. Lucia.  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Parrot, thick-billed................  Rhynchopsitta            Mexico, U.S.A. (AZ, NM)  Mexico.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pachyrhyncha.
Parrot, vinaceous-breasted..........  Amazona vinacea........  Brazil.................  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
Parrotbill, Maui (honeycreeper).....  Pseudonestor             U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       xanthophrys.
Pelican, brown......................  Pelecanus occidentalis.  U.S.A (Carolinas to TX,  Entire, except U.S.            E     2, 3,         NA         NA
                                                                CA, OR, WA), West        Atlantic coast, FL, AL.               171
                                                                Indies, coastal
                                                                Central and South
                                                                America.
Penguin, Galapagos..................  Spheniscus mendiculus..  Ecuador (Galapagos       Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Islands).
Petrel, Hawaiian dark-rumped........  Pterodroma phaeopygia    U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       sandwichensis.
Petrel, Madeira.....................  Pterodroma madeira.....  Atlantic Ocean--Madeira  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Island.
Petrel, Mascarene black.............  Pterodroma aterrima....  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                (Reunion Island).
Pheasant, bar-tailed................  Syrmaticus humaie......  Burma, China...........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Blyth's tragopan..........  Tragopan blythii.......  Burma, China, India....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA

[[Page 30]]

 
Pheasant, brown eared...............  Crossoptilon             China..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       mantchuricum.
Pheasant, Cabot's tragopan..........  Tragopan caboti........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, cheer.....................  Catreus wallichii......  India, Nepal, Pakistan.  ......do...............        E       401         NA         NA
Pheasant, Chinese monal.............  Lophophorus lhuysii....  China..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Edward's..................  Lophura edwardsi.......  Vietnam................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Elliot's..................  Syrmaticus ellioti.....  China..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Pheasant, imperial..................  Lophura imperialis.....  Vietnam................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Mikado....................  Syrmaticus mikado......  Taiwan.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Palawan peacock...........  Polyplectron emphanum..  Philippines............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Sclater's monal...........  Lophophorus sclateri...  Burma, China, India....  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, Swinhoe's.................  Lophura swinhoii.......  Taiwan.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, western tragopan..........  Tragopan melanocephalus  India, Pakistan........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pheasant, white eared...............  Crossoptilon             China (Tibet), India...  ......do...............        E         4         NA         NA
                                       crossoptilon.
Pigeon, Azores wood.................  Columba palumbus         East Atlantic Ocean--    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       azorica.                 Azores.
Pigeon, Chatham Island..............  Hemiphaga                New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       novaeseelandiae
                                       chathamensis.
Pigeon, Mindoro imperial (=zone-      Ducula mindorensis.....  Philippines............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
 tailed).
Pigeon, pink........................  Columba mayeri.........  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Pigeon, Puerto Rican plain..........  Columba inornata         U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       wetmorei.
Pigeon, white-tailed laurel.........  Columba junoniae.......  Atlantic Ocean--Canary   ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
                                                                Islands.
Piping-guan, black-fronted..........  Pipile jacutinga.......  Argentina..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Pitta, Koch's.......................  Pitta kochi............  Philippines............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Plover, New Zealand shore...........  Thinornis                New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       novaeseelandiae.
Plover, piping......................  Charadrius melodus.....  U.S.A. (Great Lakes,     Great Lakes, watershed         E       211   17.95(b)         NA
                                                                northern Great Plains,   in States of IL, IN,
                                                                Atlantic and Gulf        MI, MN, NY, OH, PA,
                                                                Coasts, PR, VI)          and WI and Canada
                                                                Canada, Mexico,          (Ont.).
                                                                Bahamas, West Indies.
Plover, piping......................  Charadrius melodus.....  U.S.A. (Great Lakes,     Northern Great Plains          T       211   17.95(b)         NA
                                                                northern Great Plains,   in States of MN, MT,
                                                                Atlantic and Gulf        ND, NE, and SD.
                                                                Coasts, PR, VI)
                                                                Canada, Mexico,
                                                                Bahamas, West Indies.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Entire, except those           T       211         NA         NA
                                                                                         areas where listed as
                                                                                         endangered above.
Plover, western snowy...............  Charadrius alexandrinus  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, CO, KS,  U.S.A. (CA, OR, WA),           T       493   17.95(b)         NA
                                       nivosus.                 NM, NV, OK, OR, TX,      Mexico (within 50
                                                                UT, WA), Mexico.         miles of Pacific
                                                                                         coast).
Pochard, Madagascar.................  Aythya innotata........  Madagascar.............  Entire.................        E       571         NA         NA
Po`ouli (honeycreeper)..............  Melamprosops phaeosoma.  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E        10         NA         NA
Prairie-chicken, Attwater's greater.  Tympanuchus cupido       U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       attwateri.
Quail, Merriam's Montezuma..........  Cyrtonyx montezumae      Mexico (Vera Cruz).....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       merriami.
Quetzel, resplendent................  Pharomachrus mocinno...  Mexico to Panama.......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Rail, Aukland Island................  Rallus pectoralis        New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       muelleri.
Rail, California clapper............  Rallus longirostris      U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       obsoletus.
Rail, Guam..........................  Rallus owstoni.........  Western Pacific Ocean--  Entire, except Rota....        E     146E,         NA         NA
                                                                U.S.A. (Guam).                                            156, 371

[[Page 31]]

 
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Rota...................       XN       371         NA   17.84(f)
Rail, light-footed clapper..........  Rallus longirostris      U.S.A. (CA), Mexico      U.S.A. only............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       levipes.                 (Baja California).
Rail, Lord Howe wood................  Gallirallus              Australia (Lord Howe     Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=Tricholimnas)          Island).
                                       sylvestris.
Rail, Yuma clapper..................  Rallus longirostris      Mexico, U.S.A. (AZ, CA)  U.S.A. only............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       yumanensis.
Rhea, lesser (incl. Darwin's).......  Rhea (=Pterocnemia)      Argentina, Bolivia,      Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pennata.                 Peru, Uruguay.
Robin, Chatham Island...............  Petroica traversi......  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Robin, dappled mountain.............  Arcanator orostruthus..  Mozambique, Tanzania...  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
Robin, scarlet-breasted (flycatcher)  Petroica multicolor      Australia (Norfolk       ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       multicolor.              Island).
Rockfowl, grey-necked...............  Picathartes oreas......  Cameroon, Gabon........  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Rockfowl, white-necked..............  Picathartes              Africa--Togo to Sierra   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       gymnocephalus.           Leone.
Roller, long-tailed ground..........  Uratelornis chimaera...  Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                (=Madagascar).
Scrub-bird, noisy...................  Atrichornis clamosus...  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Scrub-jay, Florida..................  Aphelocoma coerulescens  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T       267         NA         NA
Shama, Cebu black (thrush)..........  Copsychus niger          Philippines............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       cebuensis.
Shearwater, Newell's Townsend's.....  Puffinus auricularis     U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        T        10         NA         NA
                                       newelli.
Shrike, San Clemente loggerhead.....  Lanius ludovicianus      U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E        26         NA         NA
                                       mearnsi.
Siskin, red.........................  Carduelis cucullata....  South America..........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Sparrow, Cape Sable seaside.........  Ammodramus maritimus     U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E         1   17.95(b)         NA
                                       mirabilis.
Sparrow, Florida grasshopper........  Ammodramus savannarum    ......do...............  ......do...............        E       239         NA         NA
                                       floridanus.
Sparrow, San Clemente sage..........  Amphispiza belli         U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T        26         NA         NA
                                       clementeae.
Sparrowhawk, Anjouan Island.........  Accipiter francesii      Indian Ocean--Comoro     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       pusillus.                Islands.
Starling, Ponape mountain...........  Aplonis pelzelni.......  West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Federated States of
                                                                Micronesia.
Starling, Rothschild's (myna).......  Leucopsar rothschildi..  Indonesia (Bali).......  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Stilt, Hawaiian.....................  Himantopus mexicanus     U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       (=himantopus) knudseni.
Stork, oriental white...............  Ciconia boyciana         China, Japan, Korea,     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=ciconia b.).           Russia.
Stork, wood.........................  Mycteria americana.....  U.S.A., (CA, AZ, TX, to  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA, SC)        E       142         NA         NA
                                                                Carolinas), Mexico, C.
                                                                and S. America.
Sunbird, Marungu....................  Nectarinia prigoginei..  Zaire..................  Entire.................        E       571         NA         NA
Swiftlet, Mariana gray..............  Aerodramus vanikorensis  Western Pacific Ocean--  ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                       bartschi.                U.S.A. (Guam, Rota,
                                                                Tinian, Saipan,
                                                                Agiguan).
Teal, Campbell Island flightless....  Anas aucklandica         New Zealand (Campbell    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       nesiotis.                Island).
Tern, California least..............  Sterna antillarum        Mexico, U.S.A. (CA)....  ......do...............        E      2, 3         NA         NA
                                       browni.
Tern, least.........................  Sterna antillarum......  U.S.A. (Atlantic and     U.S.A. (AR, CO, IA, IL,        E       182         NA         NA
                                                                Gulf coasts, Miss. R.    IN, KS, KY, LA--Miss.
                                                                Basin, CA), Greater      R. and tribs. N of
                                                                and Lesser Antilles,     Baton Rouge, MS--Miss.
                                                                Bahamas, Mexico;         R., MO, MT, ND, NE,
                                                                winters Central          NM, OK, SD, TN, TX--
                                                                America, northern        except within 50 miles
                                                                South America.           of coast).
Tern, roseate.......................  Sterna dougallii         Tropical and temperate   U.S.A. (Atlantic Coast         E       296         NA         NA
                                       dougallii.               coasts of Atlantic       south to NC), Canada
                                                                Basin and East Africa.   (Newf., N.S, Que.),
                                                                                         Bermuda.

[[Page 32]]

 
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Western Hemisphere and         T       296         NA         NA
                                                                                         adjacent oceans, incl.
                                                                                         U.S.A. (FL, PR, VI),
                                                                                         where not listed as
                                                                                         endangered.
Thrasher, white-breasted............  Ramphocinclus            West Indies--St. Lucia,  Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       brachyurus.              Martinique.
Thrush, large Kauai.................  Myadestes myadestinus..  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
Thrush, Molokai.....................  Myadestes lanaiensis     ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       rutha.
Thrush, New Zealand (wattlebird)....  Turnagra capensis......  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Thrush, small Kauai.................  Myadestes palmeri......  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Thrush, Taita.......................  Turdus olivaceous        Kenya..................  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                       helleri.
Tinamou, solitary...................  Tinamus solitarius.....  Brazil, Paraguay,        ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Argentina.
Towhee, Inyo California.............  Pipilo crissalis         U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       282   17.95(b)         NA
                                       eremophilus.
Trembler, Martinique (thrasher).....  Cinclocerthia ruficauda  West Indies--Martinique  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       gutturalis.
Turaco, Bannerman's.................  Tauraco bannermani.....  Cameroon...............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Turtle-dove, Seychelles.............  Streptopelia picturata   Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                       rostrata.                Seychelles.
Vanga, Pollen's.....................  Xenopirostris polleni..  Madagascar.............  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
Vanga, Van Dam's....................  Xenopirostris damii....  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       571         NA         NA
Vireo, black-capped.................  Vireo atricapillus.....  U.S.A. (KS, LA, NE, OK,  ......do...............        E       294         NA         NA
                                                                TX), Mexico..
Vireo, least Bell's.................  Vireo bellii pusillus..  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        E       228   17.95(b)         NA
Wanderer, plain (collared-hemipode).  Pedionomous torquatus..  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Warbler, Aldabra (old world warbler)  Nesillas aldabranus....  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles (Aldabra
                                                                Island).
Warbler (wood), Bachman's...........  Vermivora bachmanii....  U.S.A. (Southeastern),   ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                                                Cuba.
Warbler (wood), Barbados yellow.....  Dendroica petechia       West Indies--Barbados..  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       petechia.
Warbler (wood), golden-cheeked......  Dendroica chrysoparia..  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico,     ......do...............        E     387E,         NA         NA
                                                                Guatemala, Honduras,                                           411
                                                                Nicaragua, Belize.
Warbler (wood), Kirtland's..........  Dendroica kirtlandii...  U.S.A. (principally      ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                                                MI), Canada, West
                                                                Indies--Bahama Islands.
Warbler, nightingale reed, (old       Acrocephalus luscinia..  West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E      3, 4         NA         NA
 world warbler).                                                U.S.A. (Guam,
                                                                Alamagan, Saipan).
Warbler, Rodrigues (old world         Bebrornis rodericanus..  Mauritius (Rodrigues     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
 warbler).                                                      Islands).
Warbler (wood), Semper's............  Leucopeza semperi......  West Indies--St. Lucia.  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Warbler, Seychelles (old world        Bebrornis sechellensis.  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
 warbler).                                                      Seychelles Island.
Wattle-eye, banded..................  Platysteira laticincta.  Cameroon...............  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Weaver, Clarke's....................  Ploceus golandi........  Kenya..................  ......do...............        E       571         NA         NA
Whipbird, western...................  Psophodes nigrogularis.  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
White-eye, bridled..................  Zosterops                Western Pacific Ocean--  ......do...............        E       156         NA         NA
                                       conspicillatus           U.S.A. (Guam).
                                       conspicillatus.
White-eye, Norfolk Island...........  Zosterops albogularis..  Indian Ocean--Norfolk    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Islands.
White-eye, Ponape greater...........  Rukia longirostra......  West Pacific Ocean--     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Federated States of
                                                                Micronesia.

[[Page 33]]

 
White-eye, Rota bridled.............  Zosterops rotensis.....  Western Pacific Ocean-   ......do...............        E       741   17.95(b)         NA
                                                                U.S.A (Commonwealth of
                                                                the Northern Mariana
                                                                Islands).
White-eye, Seychelles...............  Zosterops modesta......  Indian Ocean--           ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Seychelles.
Woodpecker, imperial................  Campephilus imperialis.  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Woodpecker, ivory-billed............  Campephilus principalis  U.S.A. (southcentral     ......do...............        E      1, 3         NA         NA
                                                                and southeastern),
                                                                Cuba.
Woodpecker, red-cockaded............  Picoides borealis......  U.S.A. (southcentral     ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                                                and southeastern).
Woodpecker, Tristam's...............  Dryocopus javensis       Korea..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       richardsi.
Wren, Guadeloupe house..............  Troglodytes aedon        West Indies--Guadeloupe  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       guadeloupensis.
Wren, St. Lucia house...............  Troglodytes aedon        West Indies--St. Lucia.  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       mesoleucus.
              Reptiles
Alligator, American.................  Alligator                Southeastern U.S.A.....  ......do...............   T(S/A)    1, 11,         NA   17.42(a)
                                       mississippiensis.                                                                   20, 51,
                                                                                                                          60, 113,
                                                                                                                              134,
                                                                                                                          186, 269
Alligator, Chinese..................  Alligator sinensis.....  China..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Anole, Culebra Island giant.........  Anolis roosevelti......  U.S.A. (PR--Culebra      ......do...............        E        25   17.95(c)         NA
                                                                Island).
Boa, Jamaican.......................  Epicrates subflavus....  Jamaica................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Boa, Mona...........................  Epicrates monensis       U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        T        33   17.95(c)         NA
                                       monensis.
Boa, Puerto Rican...................  Epicrates inornatus....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
Boa, Round Island [unnamed].........  Bolyeria multocarinata.  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
 Do.................................  Casarea dussumieri.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
Boa, Virgin Islands tree............  Epicrates monensis       U.S.A. (PR), British     ......do...............        E     2, 86         NA         NA
                                       granti.                  Virgin Islands.
Caiman, Apaporis River..............  Caiman crocodilus        Colombia...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       apaporiensis.
Caiman, black.......................  Melanosuchus niger.....  Amazon basin...........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Caiman, broad-snouted...............  Caiman latirostris.....  Brazil, Argentina,       ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Paraguay, Uruguay.
Caiman, brown.......................  Caiman crocodilus        Mexico, Central          ......do...............   T(S/A)       695         NA   17.42(g)
                                       fuscus (includes         America, Colombia,
                                       Caiman crocodilus        Ecuador, Venezuela,
                                       chiapasius).             Peru.
Caiman, common......................  Caiman crocodilus        Brazil, Colombia,        ......do...............   T(S/A)       695         NA   17.42(g)
                                       crocodilus.              Ecuador, French
                                                                Guiana, Guyana,
                                                                Suriname, Venezuela,
                                                                Bolivia, Peru.
Caiman, yacare......................  Caiman yacare..........  Argentina, Bolivia,      ......do...............        T    3, 695         NA   17.42(g)
                                                                Brazil, Paraguay.
Chuckwalla, San Esteban Island......  Sauromalus varius......  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
Crocodile, African dwarf............  Osteolaemus tetraspis    West Africa............  ......do...............        E   15, 15A         NA         NA
                                       tetraspis.
Crocodile, African slender-snouted..  Crocodylus cataphractus  Western and central      ......do...............        E         5         NA         NA
                                                                Africa.
 Crocodile, American................  Crocodylus acutus......  U.S.A. (FL), Mexico,     Entire, except in              E        87         NA         NA
                                                                Caribbean, Central and   U.S.A. (FL).
                                                                South America.
Do..................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (FL)............        T        10   17.95(c)         NA
Crocodile, American.................  Crocodylus acutus......  U.S.A. (FL), Mexico,     Entire.................        E    10, 87   17.95(c)         NA
                                                                Caribbean, Central and
                                                                South America.
Crocodile, Ceylon mugger............  Crocodylus palustris     Sri Lanka..............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       kimbula.
Crocodile, Congo dwarf..............  Osteolaemus tetraspis    Congo R. drainage......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       osborni.

[[Page 34]]

 
Crocodile, Cuban....................  Crocodylus rhombifer...  Cuba...................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Crocodile, Morelet's................  Crocodylus moreletii...  Mexico, Belize,          ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Guatemala.
Crocodile, mugger...................  Crocodylus palustris     India, Pakistan, Iran,   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       palustris.               Bangladesh.
Crocodile, Nile.....................  Crocodylus niloticus...  Africa, Middle East....  ......do...............        T   3, 279,         NA   17.42(c)
                                                                                                                              334,
                                                                                                                          514, 585
Crocodile, Orinoco..................  Crocodylus intermedius.  South America--Orinoco   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                R. basin.
Crocodile, Philippine...............  Crocodylus novaeguineae  Philippine Islands.....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       mindorensis.
Crocodile, saltwater................  Crocodylus porosus.....  Southeast Asia,          Entire, except Papua           E   87, 585         NA         NA
                                                                Australia, Papua New     New Guinea and
                                                                Guinea, Islands of the   Australia.
                                                                West Pacific Ocean.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Australia..............        T   87, 585         NA   17.42(c)
Crocodile, Siamese..................  Crocodylus siamensis...  Southeast Asia, Malay    Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Peninsula.
Gavial..............................  Gavialis gangeticus....  Pakistan, Burma,         ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Bangladesh, India,
                                                                Nepal.
Gecko, day..........................  Phelsuma edwardnewtoni.  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gecko, Monito.......................  Sphaerodactylus          U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        E       125   17.95(c)         NA
                                       micropithecus.
Gecko, Round Island day.............  Phelsuma guentheri.....  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Gecko, Serpent Island...............  Cyrtodactylus            ......do...............  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       serpensinsula.
Iguana, Acklins ground..............  Cyclura rileyi nuchalis  West Indies--Bahamas...  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
Iguana, Allen's Cay.................  Cyclura cychlura         ......do...............  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       inornata.
Iguana, Andros Island ground........  Cyclura cychlura         ......do...............  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       cychlura.
Iguana, Anegada ground..............  Cyclura pinguis........  West Indies--British     ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Virgin Islands
                                                                (Anegada Island).
Iguana, Barrington land.............  Conolophus pallidus....  Ecuador (Galapagos       ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Islands).
Iguana, Cayman Brac ground..........  Cyclura nubila           West Indies--Cayman      ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       caymanensis.             Islands.
Iguana, Cuban ground................  Cyclura nubila nubila..  Cuba...................  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
Iguana, Exuma Island................  Cyclura cychlura         West Indies--Bahamas...  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       figginsi.
Iguana, Fiji banded.................  Brachylophus fasciatus.  Pacific--Fiji, Tonga...  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
Iguana, Fiji crested................  Brachylophus vitiensis.  Pacific--Fiji..........  ......do...............        E        88         NA         NA
Iguana, Grand Cayman ground.........  Cyclura nubila lewisi..  West Indies--Cayman      ......do...............        E       129         NA         NA
                                                                Islands.
Iguana, Jamaican....................  Cyclura collei.........  West Indies--Jamaica...  ......do...............        E       129         NA         NA
Iguana, Mayaguana...................  Cyclura carinata         West Indies--Bahamas...  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       bartschi.
Iguana, Mona ground.................  Cyclura stejnegeri.....  U.S.A. (PR--Mona         ......do...............        T        33   17.95(c)         NA
                                                                Island).
Iguana, Turks and Caicos............  Cyclura carinata         West Indies--Turks and   ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                       carinata.                Caicos Islands.
Iguana, Watling Island ground.......  Cyclura rileyi rileyi..  West Indies--Bahamas...  ......do...............        E       129         NA         NA
Iguana, White Cay ground............  Cyclura rileyi cristata  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
Lizard, blunt-nosed leopard.........  Gambelia silus.........  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Lizard, Coachella Valley fringe-toed  Uma inornata...........  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       105   17.95(c)         NA
Lizard, Hierro giant................  Gallotia simonyi         Spain (Canary Islands).  ......do...............        E       144         NA         NA
                                       simonyi.
Lizard, Ibiza wall..................  Podarcis pityusensis...  Spain (Balearic          ......do...............        T       144         NA         NA
                                                                Islands).
Lizard, Island night................  Xantusia riversiana....  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T        26         NA         NA

[[Page 35]]

 
Lizard, Maria Island ground.........  Cnemidophorus vanzoi...  West Indies--St. Lucia   ......do...............        E       443         NA         NA
                                                                (Maria Islands).
Lizard, St. Croix ground............  Ameiva polops..........  U.S.A. (VI)............  ......do...............        E        24   17.95(c)         NA
Monitor, desert.....................  Varanus griseus........  North Africa to Aral     ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Sea, through Central
                                                                Asia to Pakistan,
                                                                Northwest India.
Monitor, Indian (=Bengal)...........  Varanus bengalensis....  Iran, Iraq, India, Sri   ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Lanka, Malaysia,
                                                                Afghanistan, Burma,
                                                                Vietnam, Thailand.
Monitor, Komodo Island..............  Varanus komodoensis....  Indonesia (Komodo,       ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Rintja, Padar, and
                                                                western Flores Island).
Monitor, yellow.....................  Varanus flavescens.....  West Pakistan through    ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                India to Bangladesh.
Python, Indian......................  Python molurus molurus.  Sri Lanka and India....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Rattlesnake, Aruba Island...........  Crotalus unicolor......  Aruba Island             ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
                                                                (Netherland Antilles).
Rattlesnake, New Mexican ridge-nosed  Crotalus willardi        U.S.A. (AZ, NM), Mexico  ......do...............        T        43   17.95(c)         NA
                                       obscurus.
Sea turtle, green...................  Chelonia mydas.........  Circumglobal in          Breeding colony                E        42         NA    224.104
                                                                tropical and temperate   populations in FL and
                                                                seas and oceans.         on Pacific coast of
                                                                                         Mexico.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Wherever found except          T        42    226.208  17.42(b),
                                                                                         where listed as                                        223.205,
                                                                                         endangered.                                            223.206,
                                                                                                                                                 223.207
Sea turtle, hawksbill...............  Eretmochelys imbricata.  Tropical seas..........  Entire.................        E         3  17.95(c),    224.104
                                                                                                                                      226.209
Sea turtle, Kemp's ridley...........  Lepidochelys kempii....  Tropical and temperate   ......do...............        E         4         NA    224.104
                                                                seas in Atlantic
                                                                Basin, incl. Gulf of
                                                                Mexico.
Sea turtle, leatherback.............  Dermochelys coriacea...  Tropical, temperate,     ......do...............        E         3  17.95(c),    224.104
                                                                and subpolar seas.                                                    226.207
Sea turtle, loggerhead..............  Caretta caretta........  Circumglobal in          ......do...............        T        42         NA  17.42(b),
                                                                tropical and temperate                                                          223.205,
                                                                seas and oceans.                                                                223.206,
                                                                                                                                                 223.207
Sea turtle, olive ridley............  Lepidochelys olivacea..  Circumglobal in          Wherever found except          T        42         NA  17.42(b),
                                                                tropical and temperate   where listed as                                        223.205,
                                                                seas.                    endangered below.                                      223.206,
                                                                                                                                                 223.207
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Breeding colony                E        42         NA    224.104
                                                                                         populations on Pacific
                                                                                         coast of Mexico.
Skink, bluetail mole................  Eumeces egregius         U.S.A. (FL)............  Entire.................        T       299         NA   17.42(d)
                                       lividus.
Skink, Round Island.................  Leiolopisma telfairi...  Indian Ocean--Mauritius  ......do...............        T       129         NA         NA
Skink, sand.........................  Neoseps reynoldsi......  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T       299         NA   17.42(d)
Snake, Atlantic salt marsh..........  Nerodia clarkii          ......do...............  ......do...............        T        30         NA         NA
                                       taeniata.
Snake, Concho water.................  Nerodia paucimaculata..  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        T       241   17.95(c)         NA
Snake, copperbelly water............  Nerodia erythrogaster    U.S.A. (IL, IN, KY, MI,  IN north of 40[deg] N.         T       607         NA         NA
                                       neglecta.                OH).                     Lat., MI, OH.
Snake, eastern indigo...............  Drymarchon corais        U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA, MS,  Entire.................        T        32         NA         NA
                                       couperi.                 SC).

[[Page 36]]

 
Snake, giant garter.................  Thamnophis gigas.......  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       522         NA         NA
Snake, Lake Erie water..............  Nerodia sipedon          U.S.A. (OH), Canada      Lake Erie offshore             T       665         NA         NA
                                       insularum.               (Ont.).                  islands and their
                                                                                         adjacent waters
                                                                                         (located more than 1
                                                                                         mile from mainland)--
                                                                                         U.S.A. (OH), Canada
                                                                                         (Ont.).
Snake, Maria Island.................  Liophus ornatus........  West Indies--St. Lucia   Entire.................        E       443         NA         NA
                                                                (Maria Islands).
Snake, San Francisco garter.........  Thamnophis sirtalis      U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       tetrataenia.
Tartaruga...........................  Podocnemis expansa.....  South America--Orinoco   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                R. and Amazon R.
                                                                basins.
Terrapin, river.....................  Batagur baska..........  Malaysia, Bangladesh,    ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Burma, India,
                                                                Indonesia.
Tomistoma...........................  Tomistoma schlegelii...  Malaysia, Indonesia....  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Tortoise, angulated.................  Geochelone yniphora....  Malagasy Republic        ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                (=Madagascar).
Tortoise, Bolson....................  Gopherus                 Mexico.................  ......do...............        E        46         NA         NA
                                       flavomarginatus.
Tortoise, desert....................  Gopherus agassizii.....  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, NV,      Entire, except AZ south        T      103,   17.95(c)         NA
                                                                UT), Mexico.             and east of Colorado                357E,
                                                                                         R., and Mexico.                       378
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  AZ south and east of      T(S/A)       378         NA   17.42(e)
                                                                                         Colorado R., and
                                                                                         Mexico, when found
                                                                                         outside of Mexico or
                                                                                         said range in AZ.
Tortoise, Galapagos.................  Geochelone nigra         Ecuador (Galapagos       Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                       (=elephantopus).         Islands).
Tortoise, gopher....................  Gopherus polyphemus....  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA, LA,  Wherever found west of         T       281         NA         NA
                                                                MS, SC).                 Mobile and Tombigbee
                                                                                         Rivers in AL, MS, and
                                                                                         LA.
Tortoise, Madagascar radiated.......  Geochelone radiata.....  Malagasy Republic        Entire.................        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                (=Madagascar).
Tracaja.............................  Podocnemis unifilis....  South America--Orinoco   ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                R. and Amazon R.
                                                                basins.
Tuatara.............................  Sphenodon punctatus....  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E    3, 630         NA         NA
Tuatara, Brother's Island...........  Sphenodon guntheri.....  New Zealand (N.          ......do...............        E    3, 630         NA         NA
                                                                Brother's Island).
Turtle, Alabama redbelly............  Pseudemys alabamensis..  U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       278         NA         NA
Turtle, aquatic box.................  Terrapene coahuila.....  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Turtle, black softshell.............  Trionyx nigricans......  Bangladesh.............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Turtle, bog (=Muhlenberg)...........  Clemmys muhlenbergii...  U.S.A. (CT, DE, GA, MA,  Entire, except GA, NC,         T       626         NA         NA
                                                                MD, NC, NJ, NY, PA,      SC, TN, VA.
                                                                SC, TN, VA).
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (GA, NC, SC, TN,   T(S/A)       626         NA   17.42(f)
                                                                                         VA).
Turtle, Brazilian sideneck..........  Phrynops hogei.........  Brazil.................  Entire.................        E       443         NA         NA
Turtle, Burmese peacock.............  Morenia ocellata.......  Burma..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Turtle, Cat Island..................  Trachemys terrapen.....  West Indies--Jamaica,    Cat Island in the              E       443         NA         NA
                                                                Bahamas.                 Bahamas.
Turtle, Central American river......  Dermatemys mawii.......  Mexico, Belize,          Entire.................        E       129         NA         NA
                                                                Guatemala.

[[Page 37]]

 
Turtle, Cuatro Cienegas softshell...  Trionyx ater...........  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Turtle, flattened musk..............  Sternotherus depressus.  U.S.A. (AL)............  Black Warrior R. system        T       272         NA         NA
                                                                                         upstream from Bankhead
                                                                                         Dam.
Turtle, geometric...................  Psammobates geometricus  South Africa...........  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
Turtle, Inagua Island...............  Trachemys stejnegeri     West Indies--Bahamas     ......do...............        E       443         NA         NA
                                       malonei.                 (Great Inagua Island).
Turtle, Indian sawback..............  Kachuga tecta tecta....  India..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Turtle, Indian softshell............  Trionyx gangeticus.....  Pakistan, India........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Turtle, peacock softshell...........  Trionyx hurum..........  India, Bangladesh......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Turtle, Plymouth redbelly...........  Pseudemys rubriventris   U.S.A. (MA)............  ......do...............        E        90   17.95(c)         NA
                                       bangsi.
Turtle, ringed map..................  Graptemys oculifera....  U.S.A. (LA, MS)........  ......do...............        T       250         NA         NA
Turtle, short-necked or western       Pseudemydura umbrina...  Australia..............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
 swamp.
Turtle, South American red-lined....  Trachemys scripta        Colombia, Venezuela....  ......do...............        E       443         NA         NA
                                       callirostris.
Turtle, spotted pond................  Geoclemys hamiltonii...  North India, Pakistan..  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Turtle, three-keeled Asian..........  Melanochelys             Central India to         ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       tricarinata.             Bangladesh and Burma.
Turtle, yellow-blotched map.........  Graptemys flavimaculata  U.S.A. (MS)............  ......do...............        T       416         NA         NA
Viper, Lar Valley...................  Vipera latifii.........  Iran...................  ......do...............        E       129         NA         NA
Whipsnake, Alameda (=striped racer).  Masticophis lateralis    U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       628   17.95(c)         NA
                                       euryxanthus.
             Amphibians
Coqui, golden.......................  Eleutherodactylus        U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        T        29   17.95(d)         NA
                                       jasperi.
Frog, California red-legged.........  Rana aurora draytonii..  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        T       583   17.95(d)      17.43
Frog, Chiricahua leopard............  Rana chiricahuensis....  U.S.A. (AZ, NM), Mexico  ......do...............        T       726         NA       Sec.
                                                                                                                                                17.43(b)
Frog, Goliath.......................  Conraua goliath........  Cameroon, Equatorial     ......do...............        T       566         NA         NA
                                                                Guinea, Gabon.
Frog, Israel painted................  Discoglossus             Israel.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       nigriventer.
Frog, Mississippi gopher............  Rana capitol sevosa....  U.S.A. (AL, FL, LA, MS)  Wherever found west of         E       718         NA         NA
                                                                                         Mobile and Tombigbee
                                                                                         Rivers in Al, MS, and
                                                                                         LA.
Frog, mountain yellow-legged          Rana muscosa...........  U.S.A. (California,      U.S.A., southern               E       728   17.95(d)         NA
 (southern California DPS).                                     Nevada).                 California.
Frog, Panamanian golden.............  Atelopus varius zeteki.  Panama.................  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
Frog, Stephen Island................  Leiopelma hamiltoni....  New Zealand............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Guaj[oacute]n.......................  Eleutherodactylus cooki  U.S.A. (PR)............  ......do...............        T       617         NA         NA
Salamander, Barton Springs..........  Eurycea sosorum........  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E       612         NA         NA
Salamander, California tiger........  Ambystoma californiense  U.S.A. (CA)............  U.S.A. (CA--California)        T     667E,   17.95(d)   17.43(c)
                                                                                                                          702, 744
Salamander, Cheat Mountain..........  Plethodon nettingi.....  U.S.A. (WV)............  Entire.................        T       358         NA         NA
Salamander, Chinese giant...........  Andrias davidianus       Western China..........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=davidianus d.).
Salamander, desert slender..........  Batrachoseps aridus....  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Salamander, flatwoods...............  Ambystoma cingulatum...  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA, SC)  ......do...............        T       658         NA         NA
Salamander, Japanese giant..........  Andrias japonicus        Japan..................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       (=davidianus j.).
Salamander, Red Hills...............  Phaeognathus hubrichti.  U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        T        19         NA         NA
Salamander, San Marcos..............  Eurycea nana...........  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        T        98   17.95(d)   17.43(a)
Salamander, Santa Cruz long-toed....  Ambystoma macrodactylum  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       croceum.

[[Page 38]]

 
Salamander, Shenandoah..............  Plethodon shenandoah...  U.S.A. (VA)............  ......do...............        E       358         NA         NA
Salamander, Sonoran tiger...........  Ambystoma tigrinum       U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico....  ......do...............        E       600         NA         NA
                                       stebbinsi.
Salamander, Texas blind.............  Typhlomolge rathbuni...  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Toad, arroyo (=arroyo southwestern).  Bufo californicus......  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        E       568   17.95(d)         NA
Toad, Cameroon......................  Bufo superciliaris.....  Equatorial Africa......  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Toad, Houston.......................  Bufo houstonensis......  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E         2   17.95(d)         NA
Toad, Monte Verde golden............  Bufo periglenes........  Costa Rica.............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Toad, Puerto Rican crested..........  Peltophryne lemur......  U.S.A. (PR), British     ......do...............        T       283         NA         NA
                                                                Virgin Islands.
Toad, Wyoming.......................  Bufo hemiophrys baxteri  U.S.A. (WY)............  ......do...............        E       138         NA         NA
Toads, African viviparous...........  Nectophrynoides spp....  Tanzania, Guinea, Ivory  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Coast, Cameroon,
                                                                Liberia, Ethiopia.
               Fishes
Ala Balik (trout)...................  Salmo platycephalus....  Turkey.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Ayumodoki (loach)...................  Hymenophysa curta......  Japan..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Blindcat, Mexican (catfish).........  Prietella phreatophila.  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Bonytongue, Asian...................  Scleropages formosus...  Thailand, Indonesia,     ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Malaysia.
Catfish.............................  Pangasius sanitwongsei.  Thailand...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Catfish, Thailand giant.............  Pangasianodon gigas....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Catfish, Yaqui......................  Ictalurus pricei.......  U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico....  ......do...............        T       157   17.95(e)   17.44(h)
Cavefish, Alabama...................  Speoplatyrhinus          U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E   28, 328   17.95(e)         NA
                                       poulsoni.
Cavefish, Ozark.....................  Amblyopsis rosae.......  U.S.A. (AR, MO, OK)....  ......do...............        T       164         NA         NA
Chub, bonytail......................  Gila elegans...........  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, CO, NV,  ......do...............        E        92   17.95(e)         NA
                                                                UT, WY).
Chub, Borax Lake....................  Gila boraxobius........  U.S.A. (OR)............  ......do...............        E  94E, 124   17.95(e)         NA
Chub, Chihuahua.....................  Gila nigrescens........  U.S.A. (NM), Mexico      ......do...............        T       132         NA   17.44(g)
                                                                (Chihuahua).
Chub, Gila..........................  Gila intermedia........  U.S.A. (AZ, NM),         ......do...............        E       755   17.95(e)         NA
                                                                Mexico..
Chub, humpback......................  Gila cypha.............  U.S.A. (AZ, CO, UT, WY)  ......do...............        E         1   17.95(e)         NA
Chub, Hutton tui....................  Gila bicolor ssp.......  U.S.A. (OR)............  ......do...............        T       174         NA   17.44(j)
Chub, Mohave tui....................  Gila bicolor mohavensis  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
Chub, Oregon........................  Oregonichthys crameri..  U.S.A. (OR)............  ......do...............        E       520         NA         NA
Chub, Owens tui.....................  Gila bicolor snyderi...  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       195   17.95(e)         NA
Chub, Pahranagat roundtail..........  Gila robusta jordani...  U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
Chub, slender.......................  Erimystax cahni........  U.S.A. (TN, VA)........  ......do...............        T        28   17.95(e)   17.44(c)
Chub, Sonora........................  Gila ditaenia..........  U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico....  ......do...............        T       227   17.95(e)   17.44(o)
Chub, spotfin (=turquoise shiner)...  Erimonax monachus......  U.S.A. (AL, GA, NC, TN,  Entire, except where           T   28, 732   17.95(e)   17.44(c)
                                                                VA).                     listed as an
                                                                                         experimental
                                                                                         population.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Tellico River, from the       XN       732         NA   17.84(m)
                                                                                         backwaters of the
                                                                                         Tellico Reservoir
                                                                                         (about Tellico River
                                                                                         mile 19 (30 km))
                                                                                         upstream to Tellico
                                                                                         River mile 33 (53 km),
                                                                                         in Monroe County, TN.

[[Page 39]]

 
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Shoal Creek (from Shoal       XN       747         NA   17.84(o)
                                                                                         Creek mile 41.7 (66.7
                                                                                         km)) at the mouth of
                                                                                         Long Branch, Lawrence
                                                                                         County, TN, downstream
                                                                                         to the backwaters of
                                                                                         Wilson Reservoir
                                                                                         (Shoal Creek mile 14
                                                                                         (22 km)) at Goose
                                                                                         Shoals, Lauderdale
                                                                                         County, AL, including
                                                                                         the lower 5 miles (8
                                                                                         km) of all tributaries
                                                                                         that enter this reach.
Chub, Virgin River..................  Gila robusta semidnuda.  U.S.A. (AZ, NV, UT)....  Entire.................        E       361   17.95(e)         NA
Chub, Yaqui.........................  Gila purpurea..........  U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico....  ......do...............        E       157   17.95(e)         NA
Cicek (minnow)......................  Acanthorutilus           Turkey.................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                       handlirschi.
Cui-ui..............................  Chasmistes cujus.......  U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Dace, Ash Meadows speckled..........  Rhinichthys osculus      ......do...............  ......do...............        E     117E,   17.95(e)         NA
                                       nevadensis.                                                                           127E,
                                                                                                                               130
Dace, blackside.....................  Phoxinus                 U.S.A. (KY, TN)........  ......do...............        T       273         NA         NA
                                       cumberlandensis.
Dace, Clover Valley speckled........  Rhinichthys osculus      U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        E       370         NA         NA
                                       oligoporus.
Dace, desert........................  Eremichthys acros......  ......do...............  ......do...............        T    1, 2D,   17.95(e)   17.44(m)
                                                                                                                               210
Dace, Foskett speckled..............  Rhinichthys osculus      U.S.A. (OR)............  ......do...............        T       174         NA   17.44(j)
                                       ssp..
Dace, Independence Valley speckled..  Rhinichthys osculus      U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        E  370, 372         NA         NA
                                       lethoporus.
Dace, Kendall Warm Springs..........  Rhinichthys osculus      U.S.A. (WY)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       thermalis.
Dace, Moapa.........................  Moapa coriacea.........  U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Darter, amber.......................  Percina antesella......  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  ......do...............        E       196   17.95(e)         NA
Darter, bayou.......................  Etheostoma rubrum......  U.S.A. (MS)............  ......do...............        T        10         NA   17.44(b)
Darter, bluemask....................  Etheostoma sp..........  U.S.A. (TN)............  ......do...............        E       525         NA         NA
Darter, boulder.....................  Etheostoma wapiti......  U.S.A. (AL, TN)........  Entire, except where           E       322         NA         NA
                                                                                         listed as an
                                                                                         experimental
                                                                                         population.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Shoal Creek (from Shoal       XN       747         NA   17.84(o)
                                                                                         Creek mile 41.7 (66.7
                                                                                         km)) at the mouth of
                                                                                         Long Branch, Lawrence
                                                                                         County, TN, downstream
                                                                                         to the backwaters of
                                                                                         Wilson Reservoir
                                                                                         (Shoal Creek mile 14
                                                                                         (22 km)) at Goose
                                                                                         Shoals, Lauderdale
                                                                                         County, AL, including
                                                                                         the lower 5 miles (8
                                                                                         km) of all tributaries
                                                                                         that enter this reach.
Darter, Cherokee....................  Etheostoma scotti......  U.S.A. (GA)............  Entire.................        T       569         NA         NA
Darter, duskytail...................  Etheostoma percnurum...  U.S.A. (TN, VA)........  Entire, except where           E  502, 732         NA         NA
                                                                                         listed as an
                                                                                         experimental
                                                                                         population.

[[Page 40]]

 
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Tellico River, from the       XN       732         NA   17.84(m)
                                                                                         backwaters of the
                                                                                         Tellico Reservoir
                                                                                         (about Tellico River
                                                                                         mile 19 [30.4 km])
                                                                                         upstream to Tellico
                                                                                         River mile 33 (52.8
                                                                                         km), in Monroe County,
                                                                                         TN.
Darter, Etowah......................  Etheostoma etowahae....  U.S.A. (GA)............  Entire.................        E       569         NA         NA
Darter, fountain....................  Etheostoma fonticola...  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E         2   17.95(e)         NA
Darter, goldline....................  Percina aurolineata....  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  ......do...............        T       462         NA         NA
Darter, leopard.....................  Percina pantherina.....  U.S.A. (AR, OK)........  ......do...............        T        31   17.95(e)   17.44(d)
Darter, Maryland....................  Etheostoma sellare.....  U.S.A. (MD)............  ......do...............        E         1   17.95(e)         NA
Darter, Niangua.....................  Etheostoma nianguae....  U.S.A. (MO)............  ......do...............        T       185   17.95(e)   17.44(k)
Darter, Okaloosa....................  Etheostoma okaloosae...  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E         6         NA         NA
Darter, relict......................  Etheostoma chienense...  U.S.A. (KY)............  ......do...............        E       525         NA         NA
Darter, slackwater..................  Etheostoma boschungi...  U.S.A. (AL, TN)........  ......do...............        T        28   17.95(e)   17.44(c)
Darter, snail.......................  Percina tanasi.........  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  ......do...............        T   12, 150         NA         NA
Darter vermilion....................  Etheostoma chermocki...  U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       715         NA         NA
Darter, watercress..................  Etheostoma nuchale.....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
Gambusia, Big Bend..................  Gambusia gaigei........  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Gambusia, Clear Creek...............  Gambusia heterochir....  ......do...............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Gambusia, Pecos.....................  Gambusia nobilis.......  U.S.A. (NM, TX)........  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
Gambusia, San Marcos................  Gambusia georgei.......  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E        98   17.95(e)         NA
Goby, tidewater.....................  Eucyclogobius newberryi  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       527   17.95(e)         NA
Logperch, Conasauga.................  Percina jenkinsi.......  U.S.A. (GA, TN)........  ......do...............        E       196   17.95(e)         NA
Logperch, Roanoke...................  Percina rex............  U.S.A. (VA)............  ......do...............        E       359         NA         NA
Madtom, Neosho......................  Noturus placidus.......  U.S.A. (KS, MO, OK)....  ......do...............        T       388         NA         NA
Madtom, pygmy.......................  Noturus stanauli.......  U.S.A. (TN)............  ......do...............        E       502         NA         NA
Madtom, Scioto......................  Noturus trautmani......  U.S.A. (OH)............  ......do...............        E        10         NA         NA
Madtom, smoky.......................  Noturus baileyi........  U.S.A. (TN)............  Entire, except where           E  163, 732   17.95(e)         NA
                                                                                         listed as an
                                                                                         experimental
                                                                                         population.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Tellico River, from the       XN       732         NA   17.84(m)
                                                                                         backwaters of the
                                                                                         Tellico Reservoir
                                                                                         (about Tellico River
                                                                                         mile 19 [30.4 km])
                                                                                         upstream to Tellico
                                                                                         River mile 33 (52.8
                                                                                         km), in Monroe County,
                                                                                         TN.
Madtom, yellowfin...................  Noturus flavipinnis....  U.S.A. (TN, VA)........  Entire, except where           T  28, 317,   17.95(e)   17.44(c)
                                                                                         listed as an                          732
                                                                                         experimental
                                                                                         population.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  N. Fork Holston River         XN       317         NA   17.84(e)
                                                                                         Watershed, VA, TN; S.
                                                                                         Fork Holston R., up-
                                                                                         stream to Ft. Patrick
                                                                                         Henry Dam, TN; Holston
                                                                                         R. down-stream to John
                                                                                         Sevier Detention Lake
                                                                                         Dam, TN; and all
                                                                                         tributaries thereto.

[[Page 41]]

 
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Tellico River, from the       XN       732         NA   17.84(e)
                                                                                         backwaters of the
                                                                                         Tellico Reservoir
                                                                                         (about Tellico River
                                                                                         mile 19 [30.4 km])
                                                                                         upstream to Tellico
                                                                                         River mile 33 (52.8
                                                                                         km), in Monroe County,
                                                                                         TN.
Minnow, Devils River................  Dionda diaboli.........  U.S.A. (TX), Mexico....  Entire.................        T       669         NA         NA
Minnow, loach.......................  Rhinichthys cobitis....  U.S.A. (AZ, NM), Mexico  ......do...............        T       247   17.95(e)   17.44(q)
Minnow, Rio Grande silvery..........  Hybognathus amarus.....  U.S.A. (NM, TX), Mexico  ......do...............        E       543   17.95(e)         NA
Nekogigi (catfish)..................  Coreobagrus ichikawai..  Japan..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Pikeminnow (=squawfish), Colorado...  Ptychocheilus lucius...  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, CO, NM,  Entire, except Salt and        E    1, 193   17.95(e)         NA
                                                                NV, UT, WY), Mexico.     Verde R. drainages, AZ.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Salt and Verde R.             XN       193         NA   17.84(b)
                                                                                         drainages, AZ.
Poolfish, Pahrump...................  Empetrichthys latos....  U.S.A. (NV)............  Entire.................        E         1         NA         NA
Pupfish, Ash Meadows Amargosa.......  Cyprinodon nevadensis    ......do...............  ......do...............        E     117E,   17.95(e)         NA
                                       mionectes.                                                                            127E,
                                                                                                                               130
Pupfish, Comanche Springs...........  Cyprinodon elegans.....  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Pupfish, desert.....................  Cyprinodon macularius..  U.S.A. (AZ, CA) Mexico.  ......do...............        E       222   17.95(e)         NA
Pupfish, Devils Hole................  Cyprinodon diabolis....  U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Pupfish, Leon Springs...............  Cyprinodon bovinus.....  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E       102   17.95(e)         NA
Pupfish, Owens......................  Cyprinodon radiosus....  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
Pupfish, Warm Springs...............  Cyprinodon nevadensis    U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        E         2         NA         NA
                                       pectoralis.
Salmon, Atlantic....................  Salmo salar............  U.S.A., Canada,          U.S.A., ME Gulf of             E       705         NA         NA
                                                                Greenland, western       Maine Atlantic Salmon
                                                                Europe.                  Distinct Population
                                                                                         Segment, which
                                                                                         includes all naturally
                                                                                         reproducing wild
                                                                                         populations and those
                                                                                         river-specific
                                                                                         hatchery populations
                                                                                         of Atlantic salmon
                                                                                         having historical,
                                                                                         river-specific
                                                                                         characteristics found
                                                                                         north of and including
                                                                                         tributaries of the
                                                                                         lower Kennebec River
                                                                                         to, but not including,
                                                                                         the mouth of the St.
                                                                                         Croix River at the
                                                                                         U.S.-Canada border. To
                                                                                         date, the Services
                                                                                         have determined that
                                                                                         these populations are
                                                                                         found in the Dennys,
                                                                                         East Machias, Machias,
                                                                                         Pleasant, Narraguagus,
                                                                                         Sheepscot, and
                                                                                         Ducktrap Rivers and in
                                                                                         Cove Brook, Maine..

[[Page 42]]

 
Salmon, chinook.....................  Oncorhynchus (=Salmo)    North America from       Sacramento R. (U.S.A.-         E     383E,    226.204         NA
                                       tshawytscha.             Ventura R. in            CA) winter run,                  407, 534
                                                                California to Point      wherever found.
                                                                Hope, Alaska, and the
                                                                Mackenzie R. area in
                                                                Canada; Northeast Asia
                                                                from Hokkaido, Japan,
                                                                to the Anadyr R.,
                                                                Russia.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Snake R. (U.S.A.--ID,          T      516,    226.205         NA
                                                                                         OR, WA) mainstem and                 557E
                                                                                         the following
                                                                                         subbasins--Tucannon
                                                                                         R., Grande Ronde R.,
                                                                                         Imnaha R., Salmon R,
                                                                                         and Clearwater R.;
                                                                                         fall run, natural
                                                                                         population(s),
                                                                                         wherever found.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Snake R. (U.S.A.--             T      516,    226.205         NA
                                                                                         ID,OR,WA) mainstem and               557E
                                                                                         the following
                                                                                         subbasins--Tucannon
                                                                                         R., Grande Ronde R.,
                                                                                         Imnaha R., and Salmon
                                                                                         R.; spring/summer run,
                                                                                         natural population(s),
                                                                                         wherever found.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A.(OR, WA) all             T       664    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         populations from the
                                                                                         Columbia R. and its
                                                                                         tributaries upstream
                                                                                         from its mouth to a
                                                                                         point east of the Hood
                                                                                         R. and White Salmon R.
                                                                                         to Willamette Falls in
                                                                                         Oregon, excluding the
                                                                                         spring run in the
                                                                                         Clackamas R..
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A.(WA) all                 T       664    226.212         NA
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         populations in the
                                                                                         Columbia R.
                                                                                         tributaries upstream
                                                                                         of Rock Island Dam and
                                                                                         downstream of Chief
                                                                                         Joseph Dam, excluding
                                                                                         the Okanogan R., and
                                                                                         the Columbia R. from a
                                                                                         line between the west
                                                                                         end of Clatsop jetty,
                                                                                         OR, and the west end
                                                                                         of Peacock jetty, WA,
                                                                                         upstream to Chief
                                                                                         Joseph Dam, including
                                                                                         spring-run hatchery
                                                                                         stocks (and their
                                                                                         progeny) in Chiwawa
                                                                                         R., Methow R., Twisp
                                                                                         R., Chewuch R., White
                                                                                         R. and Nason Creek.

[[Page 43]]

 
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A.(CA) from Redwood        T       674    226.212         NA
                                                                                         Creek south to Russian
                                                                                         R., inclusive, all
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         populations in
                                                                                         mainstems and
                                                                                         tributaries.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A.(CA) all                 T       674    226.212         NA
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         spring-run populations
                                                                                         from the Sacramento
                                                                                         San Joaquin R.
                                                                                         mainstem and its
                                                                                         tributaries.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A.(OR) all                 T       664    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         populations in the
                                                                                         Clackamas R. and the
                                                                                         Willamette R. and its
                                                                                         tributaries above
                                                                                         Willamette Falls.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A.(WA) all                 T       664    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         populations from
                                                                                         rivers and streams
                                                                                         flowing into Puget
                                                                                         Sound, including the
                                                                                         Straits of Juan De
                                                                                         Fuca from the Elwha R.
                                                                                         eastward, and Hood
                                                                                         Canal, South Sound,
                                                                                         North Sound and the
                                                                                         Strait of Georgia.
Salmon, chum........................  Oncorhynchus (=Salmo)    North Pacific Rim from   U.S.A. (OR, WA) all            T       664    226.212    223.203
                                       keta.                    Korea and the Japanese   naturally spawned
                                                                Island of Honshu east    populations in the
                                                                to Monterey Bay          Columbia R. and its
                                                                California; Arctic       tributaries.
                                                                Ocean from the Laptev
                                                                Sea in Russia to
                                                                Mackenzie R. in Canada.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (WA) all                T       664    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         summer-run populations
                                                                                         in Hood Canal and its
                                                                                         tributaries and
                                                                                         Olympic Penninsula
                                                                                         rivers between Hood
                                                                                         Canal and Dungeness
                                                                                         Bay.
Salmon, coho........................  Oncorhynchus (=Salmo)    North Pacific Basin      U.S.A. (CA), naturally         T       598         NA         NA
                                       kisutch.                 from U.S.A. (CA to AK)   spawning populations
                                                                to Russia and Japan.     in streams between
                                                                                         Punta Gorda, Humboldt
                                                                                         Co., CA and the San
                                                                                         Lorenzo River, Santa
                                                                                         Cruz, Co., CA.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (natural                T       618    226.212         NA
                                                                                         populations in river
                                                                                         basins between Cape
                                                                                         Blanco in Curry
                                                                                         County, OR and Punta
                                                                                         Gorda in Humboldt Co.,
                                                                                         CA).
Salmon, sockeye.....................  Oncorhynchus (=Salmo)    North Pacific Basin      U.S.A. (Snake River, ID        E       455    226.205         NA
                                       nerka.                   from U.S.A. (CA) to      stock wherever found.).
                                                                Russia.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (WA) all                T       664    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         populations in Ozette
                                                                                         Lake and its tributary
                                                                                         streams.

[[Page 44]]

 
Sawfish, smalltooth.................  Pristis pectinata......  North Atlantic           U.S.A. (Gulf of Mexico         E       748         NA         NA
                                                                (Mediterranean, U.S.     from Texas to Florida
                                                                Atlantic and Gulf of     and along the east
                                                                Mexico) and the          coast from Florida to
                                                                Southwest Atlantic.      Cape Hatteras).
Sculpin, pygmy......................  Cottus pygmaeus........  U.S.A. (AL)............  Entire.................        T       365         NA   17.44(u)
Shiner, Arkansas River..............  Notropis girardi.......  U.S.A. (AR, KS, NM, OK,  Arkansas River Basin           T       653   17.95(e)         NA
                                                                TX).                     (AR, KS, NM, OK, TX.
Shiner, beautiful...................  Cyprinella formosa.....  U.S.A. (AZ, NM), Mexico  Entire.................        T       157   17.95(e)   17.44(h)
Shiner, blue........................  Cyprinella caerulea....  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  ......do...............        T       462         NA         NA
Shiner, Cahaba......................  Notropis cahabae.......  U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       405         NA         NA
Shiner, Cape Fear...................  Notropis mekistocholas.  U.S.A. (NC)............  ......do...............        E       290   17.95(e)         NA
Shiner, palezone....................  Notropis albizonatus...  U.S.A. (AL, KY, TN)....  ......do...............        E       502         NA         NA
Shiner, Pecos bluntnose.............  Notropis simus           U.S.A. (NM)............  ......do...............        T       258   17.95(e)   17.44(r)
                                       pecosensis.
Shiner, Topeka......................  (Notropis topeka =       U.S.A. (IA, KS, MN, MO,  ......do...............        E       654   17.95(e)         NA
                                       tristis).                NE, SD).
Silverside, Waccamaw................  Menidia extensa........  U.S.A. (NC)............  ......do...............        T       265   17.95(e)   17.44(s)
Smelt, delta........................  Hypomesus                U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T       492   17.95(e)         NA
                                       transpacificus.
Spikedace...........................  Meda fulgida...........  U.S.A. (AZ, NM), Mexico  ......do...............        T       236   17.95(e)   17.44(p)
Spinedace, Big Spring...............  Lepidomeda mollispinis   U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        T       173   17.95(e)   17.44(i)
                                       pratensis.
Spinedace, Little Colorado..........  Lepidomeda vittata.....  U.S.A. (AZ)............  ......do...............        T    1, 2D,   17.95(e)   17.44(t)
                                                                                                                               287
Spinedace, White River..............  Lepidomeda albivallis..  U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        E       203   17.95(e)         NA
Springfish, Hiko White River........  Crenichthys baileyi      ......do...............  ......do...............        E       206   17.95(e)         NA
                                       grandis.
Springfish, Railroad Valley.........  Crenichthys nevadae....  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       224   17.95(e)   17.44(n)
Springfish, White River.............  Crenichthys baileyi      ......do...............  ......do...............        E       206   17.95(e)         NA
                                       baileyi.
Steelhead...........................  Oncorhynchus (=Salmo)    North Pacific Ocean      All naturally spawned          E       638    226.212         NA
                                       mykiss.                  from the Kamchatka       populations (and their
                                                                Peninsula in Asia to     progeny) in rivers
                                                                the northern Baja        from the Santa Maria
                                                                Peninsula.               R., San Luis Obispo
                                                                                         County, CA (inclusive)
                                                                                         to Malibu Cr., Los
                                                                                         Angeles County, CA
                                                                                         (inclusive).
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  All naturally spawned          E       638    226.212         NA
                                                                                         populations (and their
                                                                                         progeny) in the Upper
                                                                                         Columbia R. Basin
                                                                                         upstream from the
                                                                                         Yakima R., WA, to the
                                                                                         U.S./Canada border,
                                                                                         and also including the
                                                                                         Wells Hatchery stock.

[[Page 45]]

 
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  All naturally spawned          T       638    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         populations (and their
                                                                                         progeny) in streams
                                                                                         from the Russian R. to
                                                                                         Aptos Cr., Santa Cruz
                                                                                         County, CA
                                                                                         (inclusive), and the
                                                                                         drainages of San
                                                                                         Francisco and San
                                                                                         Pablo Bays eastward to
                                                                                         the Napa R.
                                                                                         (inclusive), Napa
                                                                                         County, CA, excluding
                                                                                         the Sacramento-San
                                                                                         Joaquin R. Basin of
                                                                                         the Central Valley of
                                                                                         CA.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  All naturally spawned          T       638    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         populations (and their
                                                                                         progeny) in streams
                                                                                         from the Pajaro R.
                                                                                         (inclusive) located in
                                                                                         Santa Cruz County, CA,
                                                                                         to (but not including)
                                                                                         the Santa Maria R.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  All naturally spawned          T       638    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         populations (and their
                                                                                         progeny) in streams in
                                                                                         the Snake R. Basin of
                                                                                         southeast WA,
                                                                                         northeast OR, and ID.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  All naturally spawned          T       638    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         populations (and their
                                                                                         progeny) in streams
                                                                                         and tributaries to the
                                                                                         Columbia R. between
                                                                                         the Cowlitz and Wind
                                                                                         Rivers, WA, inclusive,
                                                                                         and the Willamette and
                                                                                         Hood Rivers, OR,
                                                                                         inclusive, excluding
                                                                                         the Upper Willamette
                                                                                         River Basin above
                                                                                         Willamette Falls and
                                                                                         excluding the Little
                                                                                         and Big White Salmon
                                                                                         Rivers in WA.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  All naturally spawned          T       638    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         populations (and their
                                                                                         progeny) in the
                                                                                         Sacramento and San
                                                                                         Joaquin Rivers and
                                                                                         their tributaries,
                                                                                         excluding San
                                                                                         Francisco and San
                                                                                         Pablo Bays and their
                                                                                         tributaries.

[[Page 46]]

 
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (OR, WA) All            T       664    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         populations in streams
                                                                                         above and excluding
                                                                                         the Wind R. in
                                                                                         Washington, and the
                                                                                         Hood R. in Oregon,
                                                                                         upstream to, and
                                                                                         including, the Yakima
                                                                                         R. Excluded are
                                                                                         steelhead from the
                                                                                         Snake R. Basin..
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (OR) All                T       664    226.212    223.203
                                                                                         naturally spawned
                                                                                         winter-run populations
                                                                                         in the Willamette R.
                                                                                         and its tributaries
                                                                                         from Willamette Falls
                                                                                         to the Calapooia R.,
                                                                                         inclusive.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  All naturally spawned          T       701         NA         NA
                                                                                         populations (and their
                                                                                         progeny) in river
                                                                                         basins from Redwood
                                                                                         Creek in Humboldt
                                                                                         County, CA, to the
                                                                                         Gualala River, in
                                                                                         Mendocino County, CA
                                                                                         (inclusive).
Stickleback, unarmored threespine...  Gasterosteus aculeatus   U.S.A. (CA)............  Entire.................        E         2         NA         NA
                                       williamsoni.
Sturgeon, Alabama...................  Scaphirhynchus suttkusi  U.S.A. (AL, MS)........  ......do...............        E       697         NA         NA
Sturgeon, beluga....................  Huso huso..............  Azerbaijan, Bosnia and   ......do...............        T       743         NA  17.44 (y)
                                                                Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
                                                                Croatia, Czech
                                                                Republic, Georgia,
                                                                Hungary, Islamic
                                                                Republic of Iran,
                                                                Italy, Kazakhstan,
                                                                Republic of Moldova,
                                                                Romania, Russian
                                                                Federation, Serbia and
                                                                Montenegro, Turkey,
                                                                Turkmenistan, Ukraine.
Sturgeon, Gulf......................  Acipenser oxyrinchus     U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA, LA,  ......do...............        T       444  17.95(e),   17.44(v)
                                       (=oxyrhynchus) desotoi.  MS).                                                                  226.214
Sturgeon, North America green.......  Acipenser medirostris..  U.S.A. (CA)............  U.S.A. (CA) Southern           T       756         NA         NA
                                                                                         Distinct Population
                                                                                         Segment, which
                                                                                         includes all spawning
                                                                                         populations south of
                                                                                         the Eel River
                                                                                         (exclusive),
                                                                                         principally including
                                                                                         the Sacramento River
                                                                                         spawning population.
Sturgeon, pallid....................  Scaphirhynchus albus...  U.S.A. (AR, IA, IL, KS,  Entire.................        E       399         NA         NA
                                                                KY, LA, MO, MS, MT,
                                                                ND, NE, SD, TN).

[[Page 47]]

 
Sturgeon, shortnose.................  Acipenser brevirostrum.  U.S.A. and Canada        ......do...............        E         1         NA         NA
                                                                (Atlantic Coast).
Sturgeon, white.....................  Acipenser transmontanus  U.S.A. (AK, CA, ID, MT,  U.S.A. (ID, MT), Canada        E       549   17.95(e)         NA
                                                                OR, WA), Canada (BC).    (BC), (Kootenai R.
                                                                                         system).
Sucker, June........................  Chasmistes liorus......  U.S.A. (UT)............  Entire.................        E       223   17.95(e)         NA
Sucker, Lost River..................  Deltistes luxatus......  U.S.A. (CA, OR)........  ......do...............        E       313         NA         NA
Sucker, Modoc.......................  Catostomus microps.....  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       184   17.95(e)         NA
Sucker, razorback...................  Xyrauchen texanus......  U.S.A. (AZ, CA, CO, NM,  ......do...............        E       447   17.95(e)         NA
                                                                NV, UT, WY), Mexico.
Sucker, Santa Ana...................  (Catostomus santaanae).  U.S.A. (CA)............  Los Angeles River              T       694   17.95(e)         NA
                                                                                         basin, San Gabriel
                                                                                         River basin, Santa Ana
                                                                                         River basin.
Sucker, shortnose...................  Chasmistes brevirostris  U.S.A. (CA, OR)........  Entire.................        E       313         NA         NA
Sucker, Warner......................  Catostomus warnerensis.  U.S.A. (OR)............  ......do...............        T       205   17.95(e)   17.44(l)
Tango, Miyako (Tokyo bitterling)....  Tanakia tanago.........  Japan..................  ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
Temoleh, Ikan (minnow)..............  Probarbus jullieni.....  Thailand, Cambodia,      ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                Vietnam, Malaysia,
                                                                Laos.
Topminnow, Gila (incl. Yaqui).......  Poeciliopsis             U.S.A. (AZ, NM), Mexico  U.S.A. only............        E         1         NA         NA
                                       occidentalis.
Totoaba (seatrout or weakfish)......  Cynoscion macdonaldi...  Mexico (Gulf of          Entire.................        E        48         NA         NA
                                                                California).
Trout, Apache.......................  Oncorhynchus apache....  U.S.A. (AZ)............  ......do...............        T      1, 8         NA   17.44(a)
Trout, bull.........................  Salvelinus confluentus.  U.S.A. (AK, Pacific NW   U.S.A, coterminous             T      637,   17.95(e)  17.44(w),
                                                                into CA, ID, NV, MT),    (lower 48 states).                  639E,              17.44(x)
                                                                Canada (NW                                                659, 670
                                                                Territories).
Trout, Gila.........................  Oncorhynchus gilae.....  U.S.A. (AZ, NM)........  Entire.................        T    1, 757         NA   17.44(z)
Trout, greenback cutthroat..........  Oncorhynchus clarki      U.S.A. (CO)............  ......do...............        T     1, 38         NA   17.44(f)
                                       stomias.
Trout, Lahontan cutthroat...........  Oncorhynchus clarki      U.S.A. (CA, NV, OR, UT)  ......do...............        T      2, 8         NA   17.44(a)
                                       henshawi.
Trout, Little Kern golden...........  Oncorhynchus aguabonita  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T        37   17.95(e)   17.44(e)
                                       whitei.
Trout, Paiute cutthroat.............  Oncorhynchus clarki      ......do...............  ......do...............        T      1, 8         NA   17.44(a)
                                       seleniris.
Woundfin............................  Plagopterus              U.S.A. (AZ, NV, UT)....  Entire, except Gila R.         E    2, 193   17.95(e)         NA
                                       argentissimus.                                    drainage, AZ, NM.
 Do.................................  ......do...............  ......do...............  Gila R. drainage, AZ,         XN       193         NA   17.84(b)
                                                                                         NM.
                Clams
Abalone, white......................  Haliotis sorenseni.....  North America (West      NA.....................        E       748         NA         NA
                                                                coast from Point
                                                                Conception, CA,
                                                                U.S.A., to Punta
                                                                Abreojos, Baja
                                                                California, Mexico).
Acornshell, southern................  Epioblasma               U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  NA.....................        E       495  17.95 (f)         NA
                                       othcaloogensis.
Bankclimber, purple (mussel)........  Elliptoideus sloatianus  U.S.A. (AL, GA, FL)....  Entire.................        T       633         NA         NA
Bean, Cumberland (pearlymussel).....  Villosa trabalis.......  U.S.A. (AL, KY, TN, VA)  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Bean, Purple........................  Villosa perpurpurea....  U.S.A. (TN, VA)........  NA.....................        E       602  17.95 (f)         NA

[[Page 48]]

 
Blossom, green (pearlymussel).......  Epioblasma torulosa      ......do...............  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       gubernaculum.
Blossom, tuberoled (pearlmyussel)...  Epioblasma torulosa      U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN, KY,  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       torulosa.                TN, WV).
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Blossom, turgid (pearlymussel)......  Epioblasma turgidula...  U.S.A. (AL, TN)........  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Blossom, yellow (pearlymussel)......  Epioblasma florentina    ......do...............  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       florentina.
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Catspaw, (=purple cat's paw           Epioblasma.............  U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN, KY,  NA.....................        E       394         NA         NA
 pearlymussel).                                                 OH, TN).
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Catspaw, white (pearlymussel).......  Epioblasma obliquata     U.S.A. (IN, MI, OH)....  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       perobliqua.
Clubshell...........................  Pleurobema clava.......  U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN, KY,  NA.....................        E       488         NA         NA
                                                                MI, OH, PA, TN, WV).

[[Page 49]]

 
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Clubshell, black....................  Pleurobema curtum......  U.S.A. (AL, MS)........  Entire.................        E       262         NA         NA
Clubshell, ovate....................  Pleurobema perovatum...  U.S.A. (AL, TN, GA, MS)  NA.....................        E       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Clubshell, southern.................  Pleurobema decisum.....  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Combshell, Cumberlandian............  Epioblasma brevidens...  U.S.A. (AL, KY, MS, TN,  NA.....................        E       602  17.95 (f)         NA
                                                                VA).
Combshell, southern.................  Epioblasma (=Dysnomia)   U.S.A. (AL, MS)........  Entire.................        E       262         NA         NA
                                       penita.
Combshell, upland...................  Epioblasma metastriata.  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  NA.....................        E       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Elktoe, Appalachian.................  Alasmidonta raveneliana  U.S.A. (NC, TN)........  Entire.................        E       563   17.95(f)         NA
Elktoe, Cumberland..................  Alasmidonta              U.S.A. (KY, TN)........  NA.....................        E       602   17.95(f)         NA
                                       atropurpurea.
Fanshell............................  Cyprogenia stegaria      U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN, KY,  Entire.................        E       391         NA         NA
                                       (=irrorata).             OH, PA, TN, VA, WV).
Fatmucket, Arkansas.................  Lampsilis powelli......  U.S.A. (AR)............  ......do...............        T       382         NA         NA
Heelsplitter, Alabama (=inflated)...  Potamilus inflatus.....  U.S.A. (AL, LA, MS)....  ......do...............        T       404         NA         NA
Heelsplitter, Carolina..............  Lasmigona decorata.....  U.S.A. (NC, SC)........  ......do...............        E       505   17.95(f)         NA
Higgins eye (pearlymussel)..........  Lampsilis higginsii....  U.S.A. (IA, IL, MN, MO,  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                NE, WI).
Kidneyshell, triangular.............  Ptychobranchus greenii.  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  NA.....................        E       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Lampmussel, Alabama.................  Lampsilis virescens....  U.S.A. (AL, TN)........  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Lilliput, pale (pearlymussel).......  Toxolasma cylindrellus.  ......do...............  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
Mapleleaf, winged (mussel)..........  Quadrula fragosa.......  U.S.A. (AL, IA, IL, IN,  NA.....................        E       426         NA         NA
                                                                KY, MN, MO, NE, OH,
                                                                OK, TN, WI).
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Moccasinshell, Alabama..............  Medionidus acutissimus.  U.S.A. (AL, GA, MS)....  NA.....................        T       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Moccasinshell, Coosa................  Medionidus parvulus....  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  NA.....................        E       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Moccasinshell, Gulf.................  Medionidus penicillatus  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA)....  Entire.................        E       633         NA         NA
Moccasinshell, Ochlockonee..........  Medionidus simpsonianus  U.S.A. (FL, GA)........  ......do...............        E       633         NA         NA

[[Page 50]]

 
Monkeyface, Appalachian               Quadrula sparsa........  U.S.A. (TN, VA)........  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
 (pearlymussel).
Monkeyface, Cumberland                Quadrula intermedia....  U.S.A. (AL, TN, VA)....  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA
 (pearlymussel).
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Mucket, orange-nacre................  Lampsilis perovalis....  U.S.A. (AL, MS)........  NA.....................        T       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Mucket, pink (pearlymussel).........  Lampsilis abrupta......  U.S.A. (AL, AR, IL, IN,  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                KY, LA, MO, OH, PA,
                                                                TN, VA, WV).
Mussel, oyster......................  Epioblasma capsaeformis  U.S.A. (AL, GA, KY, MS,  NA.....................        E       602   17.95(f)         NA
                                                                NC, TN, VA).
Mussel, scaleshell..................  Leptodea leptodon......  U.S.A. (AL, AR, IA, IL,  NA.....................        E       714         NA         NA
                                                                IN, KY, MN, MO, OH,
                                                                OK, SD, TN, WI).
Pearlshell, Louisiana...............  Margaritifera hembeli..  U.S.A. (LA)............  Entire.................        T  304, 518         NA         NA
Pearlymussel, birdwing..............  Conradilla caelata.....  U.S.A. (AL, TN, VA)....  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Pearlymussel, cracking..............  Hemistena lata.........  U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN, KY,  NA.....................        E       366         NA         NA
                                                                OH, TN, VA).
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Pearlymussel, Curtis................  Epioblasma florentina    U.S.A. (AR, MO)........  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
                                       curtisii.
Pearlymussel, dromedary.............  Dromus dromas..........  U.S.A. (AL, KY, TN, VA)  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA

[[Page 51]]

 
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Pearlymussel, little-wing...........  Pegias fabula..........  U.S.A. (AL, KY, NC, TN,  Entire.................        E       342         NA         NA
                                                                VA).
Pearlymussel, Nicklin's.............  Megalonaias nicklineana  Mexico.................  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
Pearlymussel, Tampico...............  Cyrtonaias tampicoensis  ......do...............  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       tecomatensis.
Pigtoe, Cumberland..................  Pleurobema gibberum....  U.S.A. (TN)............  ......do...............        E       423         NA         NA
Pigtoe, dark........................  Pleurobema furvum......  U.S.A. (AL)............  NA.....................        E       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Pigtoe, fine-rayed..................  Fusconaia cuneolus.....  U.S.A. (AL, TN, VA)....  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Pigtoe, flat........................  Pleurobema marshalli...  U.S.A. (AL, MS)........  Entire.................        E       262         NA         NA
Pigtoe, heavy.......................  Pleurobema taitianum...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       262         NA         NA
Pigtoe, oval........................  Pleurobema pyriforme...  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA)....  ......do...............        E       633         NA         NA
Pigtoe, rough.......................  Pleurobema plenum......  U.S.A. (AL, IN, KY, PA,  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                TN, VA).
Pigtoe, shiny.......................  Fusconaia cor..........  U.S.A. (AL, TN, VA)....  NA.....................        E        15         NA         NA
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Pigtoe, southern....................  Pleurobema georgianum..  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  NA.....................        E       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Pimpleback, orangefoot                Plethobasus cooperianus  U.S.A. (AL, IA, IL, IN,  Entire.................        E        15         NA         NA
 (pearlymussel).                                                KY, OH, PA, TN).
Pocketbook, fat.....................  Potamilus capax........  U.S.A. (AR, IA, IL, IN,  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                                                KY, MO, MS, OH).
Pocketbook, fine-lined..............  Lampsilis altilis......  U.S.A. (AL, GA)........  NA.....................        T       495  17.95 (f)         NA
Rock-pocketbook, Ouachita...........  Arkansia wheeleri......  U.S.A. (AR, OK)........  Entire.................        E       446         NA         NA
Pocketbook, shinyrayed..............  Lampsilis subangulata..  U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA)....  ......do...............        E       633         NA         NA
Pocketbook, speckled................  Lampsilis streckeri....  U.S.A. (AR)............  ......do...............        E       345         NA         NA
Rabbitsfoot, rough..................  Quadrula cylindrica      U.S.A. (TN, VA)........  NA.....................        E       602   17.95(f)         NA
                                       strigillata.

[[Page 52]]

 
Riffleshell, northern...............  Epioblasma torulosa      U.S.A. (IL, IN, KY, MI,  Entire.................        E       488         NA         NA
                                       rangiana.                OH, PA, WV), Canada
                                                                (Ont.).
Riffleshell, tan....................  Epioblasma florentina    U.S.A. (AL, KY, NC, TN,  ......do...............        E        27         NA         NA
                                       walkeri (=E. walkeri).   VA).
Pink, ring (mussel).................  Obovaria retusa........  U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN, KY,  ......do...............        E       369         NA         NA
                                                                OH, PA, TN, WV).
Slabshell, Chipola..................  Elliptio chipolaensis..  U.S.A. (AL, FL)........  ......do...............        T       633         NA         NA
Spinymussel, James..................  Pleurobema collina.....  U.S.A. (VA, WV)........  ......do...............        E       316         NA         NA
Spinymussel, Tar River..............  Elliptio steinstansana.  U.S.A. (NC)............  ......do...............        E       188         NA         NA
Stirrupshell........................  Quadrula stapes........  U.S.A. (AL, MS)........  ......do...............        E       262         NA         NA
Three-ridge, fat (mussel)...........  Amblema neislerii......  U.S.A. (FL, GA)........  ......do...............        E       633         NA         NA
Wartyback, white (pearlymussel).....  Plethobasus              U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN, KY,  ......do...............        E        15         NA         NA
                                       cicatricosus.            TN).
Wedgemussel, dwarf..................  Alasmidonta heterodon..  U.S.A. (CT, DC, DE, MA,  ......do...............        E       377         NA         NA
                                                                MD, NC, NH, NJ, NY,
                                                                PA, VA, VT), Canada
                                                                (N.B.).
               Snails
Ambersnail, Kanab...................  Oxyloma haydeni          U.S.A. (AZ, UT)........  ......do...............        E     431E,         NA         NA
                                       kanabensis.                                                                        459, 477
Campeloma, slender..................  Campeloma decampi......  U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       688         NA         NA
Cavesnail, Tumbling Creek...........  Antrobia culveri.......  U.S.A. (MO)............  NA.....................        E       731         NA         NA
Elimia, lacy (snail)................  Elimia crenatella......  U.S.A.(AL).............  Entire.................        T       651         NA         NA
Limpet, Banbury Springs.............  Lanx sp................  U.S.A. (ID)............  ......do...............        E       485         NA         NA
Lioplax, cylindrical (snail)........  Lioplax                  U.S.A. (AL, GA)........  ......do...............        E       651         NA         NA
                                       cyclostomaformis.
Marstonia (snail), royal............  Pyrgulopsis ogmorhaphe.  U.S.A. (TN)............  ......do...............        E       538         NA         NA
Pebblesnail, flat...................  Lepyrium showalteri....  U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       651         NA         NA
Pecos assiminea.....................  Assiminea pecos........  U.S.A. (NM, TX)........  NA.....................        E  17.95(f)         NA
Riversnail, Anthony's...............  Athearnia anthonyi.....  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)....  NA.....................        E       538         NA         NA
    Do..............................  ......do...............  ......do...............  U.S.A. (AL--The free-         XN       709         NA   17.85(a)
                                                                                         flowing reach of the
                                                                                         Tennessee R. from the
                                                                                         base of Wilson Dam
                                                                                         downstream to the
                                                                                         backwaters of Pickwick
                                                                                         Reservoir [about 12 RM
                                                                                         (19 km)] and the lower
                                                                                         5 RM [8 km] of all
                                                                                         tributaries to this
                                                                                         reach in Colbert and
                                                                                         Lauderdale Cos., see
                                                                                         17.85(a)).
Rocksnail, painted..................  Leptoxis taeniata......  U.S.A. (AL)............  Entire.................        T       651         NA         NA
Rocksnail, plicate..................  Leptoxis plicata.......  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       651         NA         NA
Rocksnail, round....................  Leptoxis ampla.........  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       651         NA         NA
Shagreen, Magazine Mountain.........  Mesodon magazinensis...  U.S.A. (AR)............  ......do...............        T       348         NA         NA
Snail, armored......................  Pyrgulopsis              U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       688         NA         NA
                                       (=Marstonia) pachyta.
Snail, Bliss Rapids.................  Taylorconcha             U.S.A. (ID)............  ......do...............        T       485         NA         NA
                                       serpenticola.
Snail, Chittenango ovate amber......  Succinea                 U.S.A. (NY)............  ......do...............        T        41         NA         NA
                                       chittenangoensis.
Snail, flat-spired three-toothed....  Triodopsis               U.S.A. (WV)............  ......do...............        T        41         NA         NA
                                       platysayoides.
Snail, Iowa Pleistocene.............  Discus macclintocki....  U.S.A. (IA, IL)........  ......do...............        E        41         NA         NA

[[Page 53]]

 
Snail, Manus Island tree............  Papustyla pulcherrima..  Pacific Ocean--          ......do...............        E         3         NA         NA
                                                                Admiralty Is. (Manus
                                                                Is.).
Snail, Morro shoulderband (=Banded    Helminthoglypta          U.S.A. (CA)............  NA.....................        E       567   17.95(f)         NA
 dune).                                walkeriana.
Snail, Newcomb's....................  Erinna newcombi........  U.S.A. (HI)............  Entire.................        T       680   17.95(f)         NA
Snail, noonday......................  Mesodon clarki           U.S.A. (NC)............  ......do...............        T        41         NA         NA
                                       nantahala.
Snail, painted snake coiled forest..  Anguispira picta.......  U.S.A. (TN)............  ......do...............        T        41         NA         NA
Snail, Snake River physa............  Physa natricina........  U.S.A. (ID)............  ......do...............        E       485         NA         NA
Snail, Stock Island tree............  Orthalicus reses (not    U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T        41         NA         NA
                                       incl. nesodryas).
Snail, tulotoma.....................  Tulotoma magnifica.....  U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       412         NA         NA
Snail, Utah valvata.................  Valvata utahensis......  U.S.A. (ID)............  ......do...............        E       485         NA         NA
Snail, Virginia fringed mountain....  Polygyriscus             U.S.A. (VA)............  ......do...............        E        41         NA         NA
                                       virginianus.
Snails, Oahu tree...................  Achatinella spp........  U.S.A. (HI)............  ......do...............        E  108, 112         NA         NA
Springsnail, Alamosa................  Tryonia alamosae.......  U.S.A. (NM)............  ......do...............        E       442         NA         NA
Springsnail, Bruneau Hot............  Pyrgulopsis              U.S.A. (ID)............  ......do...............        E       489         NA         NA
                                       bruneauensis.
Springsnail, Koster's...............  Juturnia kosteria......  U.S.A. (NM)............  NA.....................        E        NA         NA
Springsnail, Roswell................  Pyrgulopsis              ......do...............  NA.....................        E        NA         NA
                                       roswellensis.
Springsnail, Socorro................  Pyrgulopsis neomexicana  ......do...............  Entire.................        E       442         NA         NA
               Insects
Beetle, American burying............  Nicrophorus americanus.  U.S.A. (eastern States   ......do...............        E       351         NA         NA
                                                                south to FL, west to
                                                                SD and TX), eastern
                                                                Canada.
Beetle, Coffin Cave mold............  Batrisodes texanus.....  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E  327, 513         NA         NA
Beetle, Comal Springs dryopid.......  Stygoparnus comalensis.  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       629   17.95(i)         NA
Beetle, Comal Springs riffle........  Heterelmis comalensis..  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       629   17.95(i)         NA
Beetle, delta green ground..........  Elaphrus viridis.......  U.S.A. (CA)............  Entire.................        T       100   17.95(i)         NA
Beetle, Helotes mold................  Batrisodes venyivi.....  U.S.A. (TX)............  NA.....................        E       706   17.95(i)         NA
Beetle, Hungerford's crawling water.  Brychius hungerfordi...  U.S.A. (MI, Canada)....  Entire.................        E       533         NA         NA
Beetle, Kretschmarr Cave mold.......  Texamaurops reddelli...  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E  327, 513         NA         NA
Beetle, Mount Hermon June...........  Polyphylla barbata.....  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       605         NA         NA
Beetle, [no common name]............  Rhadine exilis.........  U.S.A. (TX)............  NA.....................        E       706   17.95(i)         NA
Beetle, [no common name]............  Rhadine infernalis.....  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       706   17.95(i)         NA
Beetle, northeastern beach tiger....  Cicindela dorsalis       U.S.A. (CT, MA, MD, NJ,  Entire.................        T       396         NA         NA
                                       dorsalis.                NY, PA, RI, VA).
Beetle, Ohlone tiger................  Cicindela ohlone (CA)..  U.S.A. (CA)............  NA.....................        E       713         NA         NA
Beetle, Puritan tiger...............  Cicindela puritana.....  U.S.A. (CT, MA, MD, NH,  Entire.................        T       396         NA         NA
                                                                VT).
Beetle, Salt Creek tiger............  Cicindela nevadica       U.S.A. (NE)............  ......do...............        E       754         NA         NA
                                       lincolniana.
Beetle, Tooth Cave ground...........  Rhadine persephone.....  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E       327         NA         NA
Beetle, valley elderberry longhorn..  Desmocerus californicus  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        T        99   17.95(i)         NA
                                       dimorphus.
Butterfly, bay checkerspot..........  Euphydryas editha        ......do...............  ......do...............        T       288   17.95(i)         NA
                                       bayensis.
Butterfly, Behren's silverspot......  Speyeria zerene          ......do...............  ......do...............        E       628         NA         NA
                                       behrensii.
Butterfly, callippe silverspot......  Speyeria callippe        ......do...............  ......do...............        E       628         NA         NA
                                       callippe.
Butterfly, Corsican swallowtail.....  Papilio hospiton.......  Corsica, Sardinia......  ......do...............        E       486         NA         NA
Butterfly, El Segundo blue..........  Euphilotes battoides     U.S.A. (CA)............  Entire.................        E        14         NA         NA
                                       allyni.
Butterfly, Fender's blue............  Icaricia icarioides      U.S.A. (OR)............  NA.....................        E       679   17.95(i)         NA
                                       fenderi.
Butterfly, Homerus swallowtail......  Papilio homerus........  Jamaica................  Entire.................        E       486         NA         NA

[[Page 54]]

 
Butterfly, Karner blue..............  Lycaeides melissa        U.S.A. (IL, IN, MA, MI,  ......do...............        E       484         NA         NA
                                       samuelis.                MN, NH, NY, OH, PA,
                                                                WI), Canada (Ont.).
Butterfly, Lange's metalmark........  Apodemia mormo langei..  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E        14         NA         NA
Butterfly, lotis blue...............  Lycaeides argyrognomon   ......do...............  ......do...............        E        14         NA         NA
                                       lotis.
Butterfly, Luzon peacock swallowtail  Papilio chikae.........  Philippines............  ......do...............        E       486         NA         NA
Butterfly, mission blue.............  Icaricia icarioides      U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E        14         NA         NA
                                       missionensis.
Butterfly, Mitchell's satyr.........  Neonympha mitchellii     U.S.A. (IN, MI, NJ, OH)  ......do...............        E     428E,         NA         NA
                                       mitchellii.                                                                             469
Butterfly, Myrtle's silverspot......  Speyeria zerene          U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       472         NA         NA
                                       myrtleae.
Butterfly, Oregon silverspot........  Speyeria zerene          U.S.A. (CA, OR, WA)....  ......do...............        T        95   17.95(i)         NA
                                       hippolyta.
Butterfly, Palos Verdes blue........  Glaucopsyche lygdamus    U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E        96   17.95(i)         NA
                                       palosverdesensis.
Butterfly, Queen Alexandra's          Troides alexandrae.....  Papua New Guinea.......  ......do...............        E       364         NA         NA
 birdwing.
Butterfly, Quino checkerspot........  Euphydryas edith quino.  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico....  ......do...............        E       604   17.95(i)         NA
Butterfly, Saint Francis' satyr.....  Neonympha mitchellii     U.S.A. (NC)............  ......do...............        E     539E,         NA         NA
                                       francisci.                                                                              574
Butterfly, San Bruno elfin..........  Callophrys mossii        U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E        14         NA         NA
                                       bayensis.
Butterfly, Schaus swallowtail.......  Heraclides aristodemus   U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        E   13, 159         NA         NA
                                       ponceanus.
Butterfly, Smith's blue.............  Euphilotes enoptes       U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E        14         NA         NA
                                       smithi.
Butterfly, Uncompahgre fritillary...  Boloria acrocnema......  U.S.A. (CO)............  ......do...............        E       427         NA         NA
Dragonfly, Hine's emerald...........  Somatochlora hineana...  U.S.A. (IL, IN, OH, WI)  ......do...............        E       573         NA         NA
Fly, Delhi Sands flower-loving......  Rhaphiomidas terminatus  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       517         NA         NA
                                       abdominalis.
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila aglaia......  U.S.A. (HI)............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila differens...  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila hemipeza....  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila heteroneura.  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila montgomeryi.  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila mulli.......  ......do...............  NA.....................        T       756         NA         NA
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila musaphilia..  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila               ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
                                       neoclavisetae.
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila obatai......  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila ochrobasis..  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila               ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
                                       substenoptera.
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing..........  Drosophila               ......do...............  NA.....................        E       756         NA         NA
                                       tarphytrichia.
Grasshopper, Zayante band-winged....  Trimerotropis            U.S.A. (CA)............  NA.....................        E       605   17.95(i)         NA
                                       infantilis.
Moth, Blackburn's sphinx............  Manduca blackburni.....  U.S.A. (HI)............  NA.....................        E       682   17.95(i)         NA
Moth, Kern primrose sphinx..........  Euproserpinus euterpe..  U.S.A. (CA)............  Entire.................        T        91         NA         NA
Naucorid, Ash Meadows...............  Ambrysus amargosus.....  U.S.A. (NV)............  ......do...............        T       181   17.95(i)         NA
Skipper, Carson wandering...........  Pseudocopaeodes eunus    U.S.A. (CA, NV)........  U.S.A., (Lassen County,        E       730         NA         NA
                                       obscurus.                                         CA; Washoe County, NV).

[[Page 55]]

 
Skipper, Laguna Mountains...........  Pyrgus ruralis lagunae.  U.S.A. (CA)............  Entire.................        E       604   17.95(i)         NA
Skipper, Pawnee montane.............  Hesperia leonardus       U.S.A. (CO)............  ......do...............        T       289         NA         NA
                                       montana.
              Arachnids
Harvestman, Bee Creek Cave..........  Texella reddelli.......  U.S.A. (TX)............  ......do...............        E  327, 513         NA         NA
Harvestman, Bone Cave...............  Texella reyesi.........  ......do...............  ......do...............        E  327, 513         NA         NA
Harvestman, Cokendolpher cave.......  Texella cokendolpheri..  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       706   17.95(g)         NA
Meshweaver, Braken Bat Cave.........  Circurina venii........  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       706   17.95(g)         NA
Meshweaver, Government Canyon Bat     Circurina vespera......  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       706         NA         NA
 Cave.
Meshweaver, Madla Cave..............  Cicurina madla.........  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       706   17.95(g)         NA
Meshweaver, Robber Baron Cave.......  Cicurina baronia.......  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       706   17.95(g)         NA
Pseudoscorpion, Tooth Cave..........  Tartarocreagris texana.  ......do...............  Entire.................        E       327         NA         NA
Spider, Government Canyon Bat Cave..  Neoleptoneta microps...  ......do...............  NA.....................        E       706         NA         NA
Spider, Kauai cave wolf.............  Adelocosa anops........  U.S.A. (HI)............  NA.....................        E       676   17.95(g)         NA
Spider, spruce-fir moss.............  Microhexura montivaga..  U.S.A. (NC, TN)........  NA.....................        E       576   17.95(g)         NA
Spider, Tooth Cave..................  Neoleptoneta myopica...  U.S.A. (TX)............  Entire.................        E       327         NA         NA
             Crustaceans
Amphipod, Hay's Spring..............  Stygobromus hayi.......  U.S.A. (DC)............  ......do...............        E       115         NA         NA
Amphipod, Illinois cave.............  Gammarus acherondytes..  U.S.A. (IL)............  ......do...............        E       642         NA         NA
Amphipod, Kauai cave................  Spelaeorchestia koloana  U.S.A. (HI)............  NA.....................        E       676   17.95(h)         NA
Amphipod, Noel's....................  Gammarus desperatus....  U.S.A. (NM)............  NA.....................        E        NA         NA
Amphipod, Peck's cave...............  Stygobromus              U.S.A. (TX)............  NA.....................        E       629   17.95(h)         NA
                                       (=Stygonectes) Pecki.
Crayfish, cave......................  Cambarus aculabrum.....  U.S.A. (AR)............  Entire.................        E       499         NA         NA
 Do.................................  Cambarus zophonastes...  ......do...............  ......do...............        E       263         NA         NA
Crayfish, Nashville.................  Orconectes shoupi......  U.S.A. (TN)............  ......do...............        E       242         NA         NA
Crayfish, Shasta....................  Pacifastacus fortis....  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       337         NA         NA
Fairy shrimp, Conservancy...........  Branchinecta             ......do...............  ......do...............        E       552   17.95(h)         NA
                                       conservatio.
Fairy shrimp, longhorn..............  Branchinecta             ......do...............  ......do...............        E       552   17.95(h)         NA
                                       longiantenna.
Fairy shrimp, Riverside.............  Streptocephalus          ......do...............  ......do...............        E       512   17.95(h)         NA
                                       woottoni.
Fairy shrimp, San Diego.............  Branchinecta             ......do...............  NA.....................        E       608   17.95(h)         NA
                                       sandiegonensis.
Fairy shrimp, vernal pool...........  Branchinecta lynchi....  U.S.A. (CA, OR)........  Entire.................        E       552   17.95(h)         NA
Isopod, Lee County cave.............  Lirceus usdagalun......  U.S.A. (VA)............  ......do...............        E       483         NA         NA
Isopod, Madison Cave................  Antrolana lira.........  ......do...............  ......do...............        T       123         NA   17.46(a)
Isopod, Socorro.....................  Thermosphaeroma          U.S.A. (NM)............  ......do...............        E        36         NA         NA
                                       thermophilus.
Shrimp, Alabama cave................  Palaemonias alabamae...  U.S.A. (AL)............  ......do...............        E       323         NA         NA
Shrimp, California freshwater.......  Syncaris pacifica......  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       340         NA         NA
Shrimp, Kentucky cave...............  Palaemonias ganteri....  U.S.A. (KY)............  ......do...............        E       135   17.95(h)         NA
Shrimp, Squirrel Chimney Cave.......  Palaemonetes cummingi..  U.S.A. (FL)............  ......do...............        T       390         NA         NA
Tadpole shrimp, vernal pool.........  Lepidurus packardi.....  U.S.A. (CA)............  ......do...............        E       552   17.95(h)         NA
               Corals
Coral, elkhorn......................  Acropora palmata.......  U.S.A. (FL, PR, VI,      NA.....................        T       756         NA         NA
                                                                Navassa); and wider
                                                                Caribbean-Belize,
                                                                Colombia, Costa Rica,
                                                                Guatemala, Honduras,
                                                                Mexico, Nicaragua,
                                                                Panama, Venezuela, and
                                                                all the islands of the
                                                                West Indies.

[[Page 56]]

 
Coral, staghorn.....................  Acropora cervicornis...  U.S.A. (FL, PR, VI,      NA.....................        T       756         NA         NA
                                                                Navassa); and wider
                                                                Caribbean-Belize,
                                                                Colombia, Costa Rica,
                                                                Guatemala, Honduras,
                                                                Mexico, Nicaragua,
                                                                Panama, Venezuela, and
                                                                all the islands of the
                                                                West Indies.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Symbols used in the four left columns:
 `` Do...'' or ``......do...''--(Ditto) indicates the entry is the same as the column entry directly above.
Symbols used in the ``When listed'' column:
A--Indicates a correction to the publication with the same ``When listed'' number.
D--Indicates FR where species was Delisted; relisting of the species is indicated by subsequent number(s).
E--Indicated Emergency rule publication (see FR document for effective dates); subsequent number(s) indicate FR final rule, if applicable, under ``When
  listed''.


[[Page 57]]

1--32 FR 4001; March 11, 1967.
2--35 FR 16047; October 13, 1970.
3--35 FR 8495; June 2, 1970.
4--35 FR 18320; December 2, 1970.
5--37 FR 6176; March 28, 1972.
6--38 FR 14678; June 4, 1973.
7--39 FR 44991; December 30, 1974.
8--40 FR 29864; July 16, 1975.
9--40 FR 31736; July 28, 1975.
10--40 FR 44151; September 25, 1975.
11--40 FR 44418; September 26, 1975.
12--40 FR 47506; October 9, 1975.
13--41 FR 17740; April 28, 1976.
14--41 FR 22044; June 1, 1976.
15--41 FR 24064; June 14, 1976.
15A--41 FR 26019; June 24, 1976.
16--41 FR 45993; October 19, 1976.
17--41 FR 51021; November 19, 1976.
18--41 FR 51612; November 23, 1976.
19--41 FR 53034; December 3, 1976.
20--42 FR 2076; January 10, 1977.
21--42 FR 2968; January 14, 1977.
22--42 FR 15971; March 24, 1977.
24--42 FR 28545; June 3, 1977.
25--42 FR 37373; July 21, 1977.
26--42 FR 40685; August 11, 1977.
27--42 FR 42353; August 23, 1977.
28--42 FR 45528; September 9, 1977.
29--42 FR 58757; November 11, 1977.
30--42 FR 60745; November 29, 1977.
31--43 FR 3715; January 27, 1978.
32--43 FR 4028; January 31, 1978.
33--43 FR 4621; February 3, 1978.
34--43 FR 6233; February 14, 1978.
35--43 FR 9612; March 9, 1978.
36--43 FR 12691; March 27, 1978.
37--43 FR 15429; April 13, 1978.
38--43 FR 16345; April 18, 1978.
40--43 FR 20504; May 12, 1978.
41--43 FR 28932; July 3, 1978.
42--43 FR 32808; July 28, 1978.
43--43 FR 34480; August 4, 1978.
45--44 FR 21289; April 10, 1979.
46--44 FR 23064; April 17, 1979.
48--44 FR 29480; May 21, 1979.
50--44 FR 37126; June 25, 1979.
51--44 FR 37132; June 25, 1979.
52--44 FR 42911; July 20, 1979.
54--44 FR 49220; August 21, 1979.
60--44 FR 59084; October 12, 1979.
85--44 FR 69208; November 30, 1979.
86--44 FR 70677; December 7, 1979.
87--44 FR 75076; December 18, 1979.
88--45 FR 18010; March 20, 1980.
90--45 FR 21833; April 2, 1980.
91--45 FR 24090; April 8, 1980.
92--45 FR 27713; April 23, 1980.
93--45 FR 28722; April 30, 1980.
94--45 FR 35823; May 28, 1980.
95--45 FR 44938; July 2, 1980.
96--45 FR 44942; July 2, 1980.
97--45 FR 47353; July 14, 1980.
98--45 FR 47363; July 14, 1980.
99--45 FR 52806; August 8, 1980.
100--45 FR 52810; August 8, 1980.
102--45 FR 54680; August 15, 1980.
103--45 FR 55666; August 20, 1980.
105--45 FR 63820; September 25, 1980.
106--45 FR 65134; October 1, 1980.
108--46 FR 3182; January 13, 1981.
111--46 FR 11665; February 10, 1981.
112--46 FR 40025; August 6, 1981.
113--46 FR 40669; August 10, 1981.
114--47 FR 4211; January 28, 1982.
115--47 FR 5427; February 5, 1982.
117--47 FR 19999; May 10, 1982.
119--47 FR 31672; July 21, 1982.
123--47 FR 43701; October 4, 1982.
124--47 FR 43962; October 5, 1982.
125--47 FR 46093; October 15, 1982.
127--48 FR 612; January 5, 1983.
128--48 FR 1726; January 14, 1983.
129--48 FR 28464; June 22, 1983.
130--48 FR 40184; September 2, 1983.
131--48 FR 43043; September 21, 1983.
132--48 FR 46057; October 11, 1983.
134--48 FR 46336; October 12, 1983.
135--48 FR 46341; October 12, 1983.
136--48 FR 49249; October 25, 1983.
138--49 FR 1994; January 17, 1984.
139--49 FR 2783; January 23, 1984.
142--49 FR 7335; February 28, 1984.
143--49 FR 7394; February 29, 1984.
144--49 FR 7398; February 29, 1984.
145--49 FR 10526; March 20, 1984.
146--49 FR 14356; April 11, 1984.
149--49 FR 22330; May 29, 1984.
150--49 FR 27514; July 5, 1984.
156--49 FR 33885; August 27, 1984.
157--49 FR 34494; August 31, 1984.
159--49 FR 34504; August 31, 1984.
160--49 FR 34510; August 31, 1984.
161--49 FR 35954; September 13, 1984.
163--49 FR 43069; October 26, 1984.
164--49 FR 43969; November 1, 1984.
166--49 FR 45163; November 15, 1984.
168--49 FR 49639; December 21, 1984.
169--50 FR 1056; January 9, 1985.
170--50 FR 4226; January 30, 1985.
171--50 FR 4945; February 4, 1985.
173--50 FR 12302; March 28, 1985.
174--50 FR 12305; March 28, 1985.
181--50 FR 20786; May 20, 1985.
182--50 FR 21792; May 28, 1985.
183--50 FR 23884; June 6, 1985.
184--50 FR 24530; June 11, 1985.
185--50 FR 24653; June 12, 1985.
186--50 FR 25678; June 20, 1985.
188--50 FR 26575; June 27, 1985.
189--50 FR 27002; July 1, 1985.
193--50 FR 30194; July 24, 1985.
195--50 FR 31596; August 5, 1985.
196--50 FR 31603; August 5, 1985.
203--50 FR 37198; September 12, 1985.
205--50 FR 39117; September 27, 1985.
206--50 FR 39123; September 27, 1985.
210--50 FR 50308; December 10, 1985.
211--50 FR 50733; December 11, 1985.
212--50 FR 51252; December 16, 1985.
216--51 FR 6690; February 25, 1986.
222--51 FR 10850; March 31, 1986.
223--51 FR 10857; March 31, 1986.
224--51 FR 10864; March 31, 1986.
227--51 FR 16047; April 30, 1986.

[[Page 58]]

228--51 FR 16482; May 2, 1986.
233--51 FR 17980; May 16, 1986.
236--51 FR 23781; July 1, 1986.
239--51 FR 27495; July 31, 1986.
241--51 FR 31422; September 3, 1986.
242--51 FR 34412; September 26, 1986.
246--51 FR 34425; September 26, 1986.
247--51 FR 39478; October 28, 1986.
248--51 FR 41796; November 19, 1986.
250--51 FR 45910; December 23, 1986.
251--52 FR 28; January 5, 1987.
258--52 FR 5302; February 20, 1987.
262--52 FR 11169; April 7, 1987.
263--52 FR 11172; April 7, 1987.
265--52 FR 11286; April 8, 1987.
267--52 FR 20719; June 3, 1987.
268--52 FR 20999; June 3, 1987.
269--52 FR 21063; June 4, 1987.
272--52 FR 22430; June 11, 1987.
273--52 FR 22585; June 12, 1987.
278--52 FR 22943; June 16, 1987.
279--52 FR 23151; June 17, 1987.
280--52 FR 25232; July 6, 1987.
281--52 FR 25380; July 7, 1987.
282--52 FR 28785; August 3, 1987.
283--52 FR 28831; August 4, 1987.
284--52 FR 29780; August 11, 1987.
287--52 FR 35040; September 16, 1987.
288--52 FR 35378; September 18, 1987.
289--52 FR 36180; September 25, 1987.
290--52 FR 36038; September 25, 1987.
292--52 FR 36779; October 1, 1987.
294--52 FR 37423; October 6, 1987.
296--52 FR 42068; November 2, 1987.
299--52 FR 42662; November 6, 1987.
304--53 FR 3570; February 5, 1988.
312--53 FR 25611; July 8, 1988.
313--53 FR 27134; July 18, 1988.
316--53 FR 27693; July 22, 1988.
317--53 FR 29337; August 4, 1988.
320--53 FR 33992; September 1, 1988.
322--53 FR 33998; September 1, 1988.
323--53 FR 34698; September 7, 1988.
327--53 FR 36033; September 16, 1988.
328--53 FR 37970; September 28, 1988.
334--53 FR 38453; September 30, 1988.
336--53 FR 38460; September 30, 1988.
337--53 FR 38465; September 30, 1988.
338--53 FR 38469; September 30, 1988.
340--53 FR 43889; October 31, 1988.
342--53 FR 45865; November 14, 1988.
345--54 FR 8341; February 28, 1989.
348--54 FR 15208; April 17, 1989.
349--54 FR 20602; May 12, 1989.
350--54 FR 22906; May 30, 1989.
351--54 FR 29655; July 13, 1989.
357--54 FR 32331; August 4, 1989.
358--54 FR 34468; August 18, 1989.
359--54 FR 34472; August 18, 1989.
361--54 FR 35311; August 24, 1989.
364--54 FR 38951; September 21, 1989.
365--54 FR 39849; September 28, 1989.
366--54 FR 39853; September 28, 1989.
369--54 FR 40112; September 29, 1989.
370--54 FR 41453; October 10, 1989.
371--54 FR 43969; October 30, 1989.
372--54 FR 47861; November 17, 1989.
376--55 FR 9136; March 12, 1990.
377--55 FR 9451; March 14, 1990.
378--55 FR 12191; April 2, 1990.
382--55 FR 12801; April 5, 1990.
383--55 FR 12832; April 6, 1990.
384--55 FR 13488; April 10, 1990.
387--55 FR 18845; May 4, 1990.
388--55 FR 21153; May 22, 1990.
390--55 FR 25591; June 21, 1990.
391--55 FR 25595; June 21, 1990.
393--55 FR 26194; June 26, 1990.
394--55 FR 28213; July 10, 1990.
396--55 FR 32094; August 7, 1990.
399--55 FR 36647; September 6, 1990.
400--55 FR 39416; September 27, 1990.
401--55 FR 39860; September 28, 1990.
404--55 FR 39872; September 28, 1990.
405--55 FR 42966; October 25, 1990.
407--55 FR 49623; November 30, 1990.
408--55 FR 50006; December 4, 1990.
410--55 FR 51112; December 12, 1990.
411--55 FR 53160; December 27, 1990.
412--56 FR 800; January 9, 1991.
415--56 FR 1459; January 14, 1991.
416--56 FR 1463; January 14, 1991.
417--56 FR 1463; January 14, 1991.
419--56 FR 13600; April 3, 1991.
421--56 FR 19814; April 30, 1991.
423--56 FR 21087; May 7, 1991.
426--56 FR 28349; June 20, 1991.
427--56 FR 28717; June 24, 1991.
428--56 FR 28828; June 25, 1991.
431--56 FR 37671; August 8, 1991.
432--56 FR 40267; August 14, 1991.
433--56 FR 41488; August 21, 1991.
442--56 FR 49649; September 30, 1991.
443--56 FR 49653; September 30, 1991.
444--56 FR 49658; September 30, 1991.
446--56 FR 54957; October 23, 1991.
447--56 FR 54967; October 23, 1991.
449--56 FR 56333; November 4, 1991.
454--56 FR 64723; December 12, 1991.
455--57 FR 213; January 3, 1992.
456--57 FR 594; January 7, 1992.
459--57 FR 13661; April 17, 1992.
462--57 FR 14790; April 22, 1992.
469--57 FR 21569; May 20, 1992.
472--57 FR 27858; June 22, 1992.
475--57 FR 28024; June 23, 1992.
477--57 FR 44340; September 25, 1992.
479--57 FR 45337; October 1, 1992.
483--57 FR 54726; November 20, 1992.
484--57 FR 59244; December 14, 1992.
485--57 FR 59257; December 14, 1992.
486--58 FR 4359; January 14, 1993.
487--58 FR 5657; January 22, 1993.
488--58 FR 5642; January 22, 1993.
489--58 FR 5946; January 25, 1993.
492--58 FR 12863; March 5, 1993.
493--58 FR 12874; March 5, 1993.
494--58 FR 14271; March 16, 1993.
495--58 FR 14339; March 17, 1993.
496--58 FR 16757; March 30, 1993.
499--58 FR 25746; April 27, 1993.
502--58 FR 25763; April 27, 1993.
503--58 FR 27480; May 10, 1993.
505--58 FR 34931; June 30, 1993.

[[Page 59]]

508--58 FR 40538; July 28, 1993.
512--58 FR 41391; August 3, 1993.
513--58 FR 43819; August 18, 1993.
514--58 FR 49874; September 23, 1993.
516--58 FR 49880; September 23, 1993.
517--58 FR 49887; September 23, 1993.
518--58 FR 49937; September 24, 1993.
520--58 FR 53804; October 18, 1993.
522--58 FR 54065; October 20, 1993.
525--58 FR 68486; December 27, 1993.
526--59 FR 5310; February 3, 1994.
527--59 FR 5498; February 4, 1994.
533--59 FR 10584; March 7, 1994.
534--59 FR 13836; March 23, 1994.
538--59 FR 17998; April 15, 1994.
539--59 FR 18327; April 18, 1994.
540--59 FR 31095; June 16, 1994.
543--59 FR 36995; July 20, 1994.
545--59 FR 42691; August 18, 1994.
546--59 FR 42711; August 18, 1994.
549--59 FR 46002; September 6, 1994.
550--59 FR 46715; September 9, 1994.
552--59 FR 48153; September 19, 1994.
554--59 FR 49764; September 29, 1994.
557--59 FR 54841; November 2, 1994.
561--59 FR 60264; November 22, 1994.
562--59 FR 60279; November 22, 1994.
563--59 FR 60334; November 23, 1994.
566--59 FR 63264; December 8, 1994.
567--59 FR 64623; December 15, 1994.
568--59 FR 64866; December 16, 1994.
569--59 FR 65512; December 20, 1994.
571--60 FR 2903; January 12, 1995.
573--60 FR 5273; January 26, 1995.
574--60 FR 5267; January 26, 1995.
576--60 FR 6974; February 6, 1995.
577--60 FR 10715; February 27, 1995.
579--60 FR 18947; April 13, 1995.
580--60 FR 36010; July 12, 1995.
582--61 FR 11332; March 20, 1996.
583--61 FR 25832; May 23, 1996.
585--61 FR 32366; June 24, 1996.
588--61 FR 48413; September 13, 1996.
597--61 FR 54056; October 16, 1996.
598--61 FR 59028; November 20, 1996.
600--62 FR 689; January 6, 1997.
602--62 FR 1657; January 10, 1997.
604--62 FR 2322; January 16, 1997.
605--62 FR 3628; January 24, 1997.
607--62 FR 4191; January 29, 1997.
608--62 FR 4939; February 3, 1997.
610--62 FR 10746; March 10, 1997.
612--62 FR 23392; April 30, 1997.
614--62 FR 30772; June 5, 1997.
616--62 FR 31757; June 11, 1997.
617--62 FR 31761; June 11, 1997.
618--62 FR 33038; June 18, 1997.
621--62 FR 38939; July 21, 1997.
622--62 FR 39157; July 22, 1997.
626--62 FR 59622; November 4, 1997.
628--62 FR 64320; December 5, 1997.
629--62 FR 66303; December 18, 1997.
630--63 FR 694; January 7, 1998.
631--63 FR 1763; January 12, 1998.
632--63 FR 3843; January 27, 1998.
633--63 FR 12687; March 16, 1998.
634--63 FR 13150; March 18, 1998.
636--63 FR 26530; May 13, 1998.
637--63 FR 31674; June 10, 1998.
638--63 FR 32997; June 17, 1998.
639--63 FR 42762; August 11, 1998.
642--63 FR 46909; September 3, 1998.
645--63 FR 51016; September 24, 1998.
646--63 FR 52837; October 1, 1998.
651--63 FR 57619; October 28, 1998.
653--63 FR 64799; November 23, 1998.
654--63 FR 69021; December 15, 1998.
655--63 FR 70062; December 18, 1998.
656--64 FR 5981; February 8, 1999.
658--64 FR 15704; April 1, 1999.
659--64 FR 17124; April 8, 1999.
660--64 FR 19308; April 20, 1999.
664--64 FR 41836; August 2, 1999.
665--64 FR 47134; August 30, 1999.
669--64 FR 56608; October 20, 1999.
670--64 FR 58932; November 1, 1999.
674--64 FR 72960; December 29, 1999.
675--65 FR 30; January 3, 2000.
676--65 FR 2357; January 14, 2000.
677--65 FR 3109; January 19, 2000.
679--65 FR 3890; January 25, 2000.
680--65 FR 4169; January 26, 2000.
682--65 FR 4779; February 1, 2000.
687--65 FR 8889; February 23, 2000.
688--65 FR 10039; February 25, 2000.
692--65 FR 16085; March 24, 2000.
693--65 FR 17786; April 5, 2000.
694--65 FR 19698; April 12, 2000.
695--65 FR 25879; May 4, 2000.
696--65 FR 20769; April 18, 2000.
697--65 FR 26461; May 5, 2000.
698--65 FR 26771; May 9, 2000.
700--65 FR 46654; July 31, 2000.
701--65 FR 51478; September 7, 2000.
702--65 FR 57264; September 21, 2000.
703--65 FR 60885; October 13, 2000.
705--65 FR 69481; November 17, 2000.
706--65 FR 69637; November 17, 2000.
707--65 FR 81433; December 26, 2000.
709--66 FR 32257; June 14, 2001.
710--66 FR 33915; June 26, 2001.
713--66 FR 50350; October 3, 2001.
714--66 FR 51339; October 9, 2001.
715--66 FR 59373; November 28, 2001.
716--66 FR 59545; November 29, 2001.
718--66 FR 63002; December 4, 2001.
719--66 FR 66811; December 27, 2001.
724--67 FR 37721; May 30, 2002.
725--70 FR 3459; January 24, 2005.
726--67 FR 40811; June 13, 2002.
728--67 FR 44392; July 2, 2002.
729--67 FR 47739; July 22, 2002.
730--67 FR 51129; August 7, 2002.
731--67 FR 52889; August 14, 2002.
732--67 FR 52426; August 12, 2002.
734--68 FR 13520; March 19, 2003.
735--68 FR 15872; April 1, 2003.
738--68 FR 43658; July 24, 2003.
740--69 FR 70190; December 17, 2003.
741--69 FR 3028; January 22, 2004.
742--70 FR 67928; November 9, 2005.
743--70 FR 10485; March 4, 2005.
744--69 FR 47248; August 4, 2004.
745--70 FR 1285; January 6, 2005.

[[Page 60]]

747--70 FR 17916; April 8, 2005.
748--70 FR 69465; Novermber 16, 2005.
754--70 FR 58350; October 6, 2005.
755--70 FR 66706; November 2, 2005.
756--71 FR 26851; May 9, 2006.
757--71 FR 40673; July 18, 2006.
758--71 FR 42314; July 26, 2006.
759--72 FR 14938; March 29, 2007.

    Editorial Note 1: For Federal Register citations affecting the table 
in Sec.  17.11(h), see the listing above.

    Editorial Note 2: For Federal Register citations affecting Sec.  
17.11, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the 
Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO Access.

    Effective Date Note 1: At 72 FR 51136, Sept. 5, 2007, Sec.  17.11 
was amended in the table in paragraph (h), the List of Endangered and 
Threatened Wildlife, by revising the entry for ``Dragonfly, Hine's 
emerald'' under ``INSECTS'', effective Oct. 5, 2007. For the convenience 
of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows:



Sec.  17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

                                * * * * *

    (h) * * *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           Species                                                        Vertebrate
-------------------------------------------------------------                          population where                  When     Critical     Special
                                                                  Historic range        endangered or        Status     listed    habitat       rules
             Common name                  Scientific name                                 threatened
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Insects
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Dragonfly, Hine's emerald...........  Somatochlora hineana..  U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN,     NA...............  E............     573     17.95(i)           NA
                                                               MI, MO, OH, and WI).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Effective Date Note 2: At 72 FR 52446, Sept. 13, 2007, Sec.  17.11 
was amended in the table in paragraph (h), the List of Endangered and 
Threatened Wildlife, as follows:
    a. Under the heading ``FISHES,'' by revising the entries for ``Chub, 
slender''; ``Chub, spotfin''; ``Darter, duskytail''; ``Madtom, pygmy''; 
``Madtom, smoky''; and ``Madtom, yellowfin'' to read as set forth below;
    b. Under the heading ``CLAMS,'' by revising the entries for ``Bean, 
Cumberland (pearlymussel)''; ``Blossom, tubercled (pearlymussel)''; 
``Blossom, turgid (pearlymussel)''; ``Blossom, yellow (pearlymussel)''; 
``Catspaw (purple cat's paw pearlymussel)''; ``Clubshell''; ``Combshell, 
Cumberlandian''; ``Fanshell''; ``Lampmussel, Alabama''; ``Mapleleaf, 
winged (mussel)''; ``Monkeyface, Appalachian (pearlymussel)''; 
``Monkeyface, Cumberland (pearlymussel)''; ``Mussel, oyster''; 
``Pearlymussel, birdwing''; ``Pearlymussel, cracking''; ``Pearlymussel, 
dromedary''; ``Pigtoe, fine-rayed''; ``Pigtoe, rough''; ``Pigtoe, 
shiny''; ``Pimpleback, orangefoot (pearlymussel)''; ``Pink, ring 
(mussel)''; and ``Wartyback, white (pearlymussel)'' to read as set forth 
below; and
    c. Under the heading ``SNAILS,'' by revising the entry for 
``Riversnail, Anthony's'', effective Oct. 15, 2007. For the convenience 
of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows:



Sec.  17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

                                * * * * *

    (h) * * *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          Species                                                  Vertebrate population
-----------------------------------------------------------    Historic  range      where endangered or      Status      When     Critical     Special
            Common name                 Scientific name                                  threatened                     listed    habitat       rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
               Fishes
 

[[Page 61]]

 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Chub, slender......................  Erimystax cahni......  U.S.A. (TN, VA)......  Entire, except where   T                 28     17.95(e)     17.44(c)
                                                                                    listed as an
                                                                                    experimental
                                                                                    population.
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA    17.84(sr)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.84(s)(1)(i)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Chub, spotfin (=turquoise shiner)..  Erimonax monachus....  U.S.A. (AL, GA, NC,    Entire, except where   T                 28     17.95(e)     17.44(c)
                                                             TN, VA).               listed as an
                                                                                    experimental
                                                                                    population.
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN               732           NA     17.84(m)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tellico River; see
                                                                                    17.84(m)(1)(i)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL, TN--       XN               747           NA     17.84(m)
                                                                                    specified portions
                                                                                    of Shoal Creek; see
                                                                                    17.84(m)(1)(ii)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.84(m)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.84(m)(1)(iii)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Darter, duskytail..................  Etheostoma percnurum.  U.S.A. (TN, VA)......  Entire, except where   E                502           NA           NA
                                                                                    listed as an
                                                                                    experimental
                                                                                    population.
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN               732           NA     17.84(q)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tellico River; see
                                                                                    17.84(p)(1)(i)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.84(q)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.84(q)(1)(ii)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Madtom, pygmy......................  Noturus stanauli.....  U.S.A. (TN)..........  Entire, except where   E                502           NA           NA
                                                                                    listed as an
                                                                                    experimental
                                                                                    population.
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.84(t)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.84(t)(1)(i)).
 

[[Page 62]]

 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Madtom, smoky......................  Noturus baileyi......  U.S.A. (TN)..........  Entire, except where   E                163     17.95(e)           NA
                                                                                    listed as an
                                                                                    experimental
                                                                                    population.
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN               732           NA     17.84(r)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tellico River; see
                                                                                    17.84(r)(1)(i)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Madtom, yellowfin..................  Noturus flavipinnis..  U.S.A. (TN, VA)......  Entire, except where   T                 28     17.95(e)     17.44(c)
                                                                                    listed as an
                                                                                    experimental
                                                                                    population.
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN, VA--       XN               317           NA     17.84(e)
                                                                                    specified portions
                                                                                    of the Holston River
                                                                                    and watershed; see
                                                                                    17.84(e)(1)(i)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN               732           NA     17.84(e)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tellico River; see
                                                                                    17.84(e)(1)(ii)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.84(e)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.84(e)(1)(iii)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
               Clams
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Bean, Cumberland (pearlymussel)....  Villosa trabalis.....  U.S.A. (AL, KY, TN,    NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
                                                             VA).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Blossom, tubercled (pearlymussel)..  Epioblasma torulosa    U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN,    NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
                                      torulosa.              KY, TN, WV).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
Blossom, turgid (pearlymussel).....  Epioblasma turgidula.  U.S.A. (AL, TN)......  NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).

[[Page 63]]

 
Blossom, yellow (pearlymussel).....  Epioblasma florentina  ......do.............  NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
                                      florentina.
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
Catspaw, (=purple cat's paw          Epioblasma...........  U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN,    NA...................  E                394           NA           NA
 pearlymussel).                                              KY, OH, TN).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
Clubshell..........................  Pleurobema clava.....  U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN,    NA...................  E                488           NA           NA
                                                             KY, MI, OH, PA, TN,
                                                             WV).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Combshell, Cumberlandian...........  Epioblasma brevidens.  U.S.A. (AL, KY, MS,    NA...................  E                602     17.95(f)           NA
                                                             TN, VA).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Fanshell...........................  Cyprogenia stegaria    U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN,    NA...................  E                391           NA           NA
                                      (=irrorata).           KY, OH, PA, TN, VA,
                                                             WV).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
Lampmussel, Alabama................  Lampsilis virescens..  U.S.A. (AL, TN)......  NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Mapleleaf, winged (mussel).........  Quadrula fragosa.....  U.S.A. (AL, IA, IL,    NA...................  E                426           NA           NA
                                                             IN, KY, MN, MO, NE,
                                                             OH, OK, TN, WI).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 

[[Page 64]]

 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Monkeyface, Appalachian              Quadrula sparsa......  U.S.A. (TN, VA)......  NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
 (pearlymussel).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
Monkeyface, Cumberland               Quadrula intermedia..  U.S.A. (AL, TN, VA)..  NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
 (pearlymussel).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Mussel, oyster.....................  Epioblasma             U.S.A. (AL, GA, KY,    NA...................  E                602     17.95(f)           NA
                                      capsaeformis.          MS, NC, TN, VA).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pearlymussel, birdwing.............  Lemiox rimosus.......  U.S.A. (AL, TN, VA)..  NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
Pearlymussel, cracking.............  Hemistena lata.......  U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN,    NA...................  E                366           NA           NA
                                                             KY, OH, TN, VA).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 

[[Page 65]]

 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pearlymussel, dromedary............  Dromus dromas........  U.S.A. (AL, KY, TN,    NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
                                                             VA).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pigtoe, fine-rayed.................  Fusconaia cuneolus...  U.S.A. (AL, TN, VA)..  NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pigtoe, rough......................  Pleurobema plenum....  U.S.A. (AL, IN, KY,    NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
                                                             PA, TN, VA).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
Pigtoe, shiny......................  Fusconaia cor........  U.S.A. (AL, TN, VA)..  NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pimpleback, orangefoot               Plethobasus            U.S.A. (AL, IA, IL,    NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
 (pearlymussel).                      cooperianus.           IN, KY, OH, PA, TN).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Pink, ring (mussel)................  Obovaria retusa......  U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN,    NA...................  E                369           NA           NA
                                                             KY, OH, PA, TN, WV).

[[Page 66]]

 
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Wartyback, white (pearlymussel)....  Plethobasus            U.S.A. (AL, IL, IN,    NA...................  E                 15           NA           NA
                                      cicatricosus.          KY, TN).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
               Snails
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
Riversnail, Anthony's..............  Athearnia anthonyi...  U.S.A. (AL, GA, TN)..  NA...................  E                538           NA           NA
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (AL--specified  XN               709           NA     17.85(a)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    Tennessee River; see
                                                                                    17.85(a)(1)).
 Do................................  ......do.............  ......do.............  U.S.A. (TN--specified  XN            ......           NA     17.85(b)
                                                                                    portions of the
                                                                                    French Broad and
                                                                                    Holston Rivers; see
                                                                                    17.85(b)(1)).
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Sec.  17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

    (a) The list in this section contains the names of all species of 
plants which have been determined by the Services to be Endangered or 
Threatened. It also contains the names of species of plants treated as 
Endangered or Threatened because they are sufficiently similar in 
appearance to Endangered or Threatened species (see Sec.  17.50 et 
seq.).
    (b) The columns entitled ``Scientific name'' and ``Common name'' 
define the species of plant within the meaning of the Act. Although 
common names are included, they cannot be relied upon for identification 
of any specimen, since they may vary greatly in local usage. The 
Services shall use the most recently accepted scientific name. In cases 
in which confusion might arise, a synonym(s) will be provided in 
parentheses. The Services shall rely to the extent practicable on the 
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
    (c) In the ``Status'' column the following symbols are used: ``E'' 
for Endangered, ``T'' for Threatened, and ``E [or T] (S/A)'' for 
similarity of appearance species.
    (d) The other data in the list are nonregulatory in nature and are 
provided for the information of the reader. In the annual revision and 
compilation of this title, the following information may be amended 
without public notice: the spelling of species' names, historical range, 
footnotes, references to certain other applicable portions of this 
title, synonyms, and more current names. In any of these revised 
entries, neither the species, as defined in paragraph (b) of this 
section, nor its status may be changed without following the procedures 
of part 424 of this title.
    (e) The ``Historic range'' indicates the known general distribution 
of the species or subspecies as reported in the

[[Page 67]]

current scientific literature. The present distribution may be greatly 
reduced from this historic range. This column does not imply any 
limitation on the application of the prohibitions in the Act or 
implementing rules. Such prohibitions apply to all individuals of the 
plant species, wherever found.
    (f)(1) A footnote to the Federal Register publication(s) listing or 
reclassifying a species is indicated under the column ``When listed.'' 
Footnote numbers to Sec. Sec.  17.11 and 17.12 are in the same numerical 
sequence, since plants and animals may be listed in the same Federal 
Register document. That document, at least since 1973, includes a 
statement indicating the basis for the listing, as well as the effective 
date(s) of said listing.
    (2) The ``Special rules'' and ``Critical habitat'' columns provide a 
cross reference to other sections in parts 17, 222, 226, or 227. The 
``Special rules'' column will also be used to cite the special rules 
which describe experimental populations and determine if they are 
essential or nonessential. Separate listings will be made for 
experimental populations, and the status column will include the 
following symbols: ``XE'' for an essential experimental population and 
``XN'' for a nonessential experimental population. The term ``NA'' (not 
applicable) appearing in either of these two columns indicates that 
there are no special rules and/or critical habitat for that particular 
species. However, all other appropriate rules in parts 17, 217 through 
227, and 402 still apply to that species. In addition, there may be 
other rules in this title that relate to such plants, e.g., port-of-
entry requirements. It is not intended that the references in the 
``Special rules'' column list all the regulations of the two Services 
which might apply to the species or to the regulations of other Federal 
agencies or State or local governments.
    (g) The listing of a particular taxon includes all lower taxonomic 
units (see Sec.  17.11(g) for examples).
    (h) The ``List of Endangered and Threatened Plants'' is provided 
below:

[[Page 68]]



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Species
-----------------------------------------------------   Historic range          Family         Status    When          Critical habitat         Special
         Scientific name              Common name                                                       listed                                   rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Flowering Plants
Abronia macrocarpa..............  Large-fruited sand- U.S.A. (TX).......  Nyctaginaceae.....        E       331                            NA         NA
                                   verbena.
Abutilon eremitopetalum.........  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Malvaceae.........        E       435                            NA         NA
Abutilon menziesii..............  Ko`oloa`ula.......  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       243                            NA         NA
Abutilon sandwicense............  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Acaena exigua...................  Liliwai...........  ......do..........  Rosaceae..........        E       467                            NA         NA
Acanthomintha ilicifolia........  San Diego           U.S.A. (CA),        Lamiaceae.........        T       649                            NA         NA
                                   thornmint.          Mexico.
Acanthomintha obovata ssp.        San Mateo           U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       204                            NA         NA
 duttonii.                         thornmint.
Achyranthes mutica..............  None..............  U.S.A (HI)........  Amaranthaceae.....        E       592                      17.99(k)         NA
Achyranthes splendens var.        Round-leaved chaff- ......do..........  ......do..........        E       220                            NA         NA
 rotundata.                        flower.
Aconitum noveboracense..........  Northern wild       U.S.A. (IA, NY,     Ranunculaceae.....        T        39                            NA         NA
                                   monkshood.          OH, WI).
Aeschynomene virginica..........  Sensitive joint-    U.S.A. (DE, MD,     Fabaceae..........        T       470                            NA         NA
                                   vetch.              NC, NJ, PA, VA).
Agalinis acuta..................  Sandplain gerardia  U.S.A. (CT, MA,     Scrophulariaceae..        E       325                            NA         NA
                                                       MD, NY, RI).
Alectryon macrococcus...........  Mahoe.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Sapindaceae.......        E       467    17.99(a)(1),(c),(e)(1),and         NA
                                                                                                                                          (i)
Allium munzii...................  Munz's onion......  U.S.A. (CA).......  Liliaceae-Lily....        E       650                      17.96(a)         NA
Alopecurus aequalis var.          Sonoma alopecurus.  ......do..........  Poaceae...........        E       625                            NA         NA
 sonomensis.
Alsinidendron lychnoides........  Kuawawaenohu......  U.S.A. (HI).......  Caryophyllaceae...        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Alsinidendron obovatum..........  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Alsinidendron trinerve..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Alsinidendron viscosum..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Amaranthus brownii..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  Amaranthaceae.....        E       587                      17.99(g)         NA
Amaranthus pumilus..............  Seabeach amaranth.  U.S.A. (DE, MA,     ......do..........        T       498                            NA         NA
                                                       MD, NC, NJ, NY,
                                                       RI, SC, VA).
Ambrosia cheiranthifolia........  South Texas         U.S.A. (TX).......  Asteraceae........        E       547                            NA         NA
                                   ambrosia.
Ambrosia pumila.................  San Diego ambrosia  U.S.A. (CA) Mexico  ......do..........        E       727                            NA         NA
Amorpha crenulata...............  Crenulate lead-     U.S.A. (FL).......  Fabaceae..........        E       192                            NA         NA
                                   plant.
Amphianthus pusillus............  Little amphianthus  U.S.A. (AL, GA,     Scrophulariaceae..        T       302                            NA         NA
                                                       SC).
Amsinckia grandiflora...........  Large-flowered      U.S.A. (CA).......  Boraginaceae......        E       179                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   fiddleneck.
Amsonia kearneyana..............  Kearney's blue-     U.S.A. (AZ).......  Apocynaceae.......        E       343                            NA         NA
                                   star.
Ancistrocactus tobuschii........  Tobusch fishhook    U.S.A. (TX).......  Cactaceae.........        E        80                            NA         NA
                                   cactus.
Apios priceana..................  Price's potato-     U.S.A. (AL, IL,     Fabaceae..........        T       373                            NA         NA
                                   bean.               KY, MS, TN).
Arabis hoffmannii...............  Hoffmann's rock-    U.S.A. (CA).......  Brassicaceae......        E       623                            NA         NA
                                   cress.
Arabis mcdonaldiana.............  McDonald's rock-    ......do..........  ......do..........        E        44                            NA         NA
                                   cress.
Arabis perstellata..............  Braun's Rock-cress  U.S.A. (KY, TN)...  ......do..........        E       570                      17.96(a)         NA
Arabis serotina.................  Shale barren rock-  U.S.A. (VA, WV)...  ......do..........        E       352                            NA         NA
                                   cress.
Arctomecon humilis..............  Dwarf bear-poppy..  U.S.A. (UT).......  Papaveraceae......        E        78                            NA         NA
Arctostaphylos confertiflora....  Santa Rosa Island   U.S.A. (CA).......  Ericaceae.........        E       623                            NA         NA
                                   manzanita.
Arctostaphylos glandulosa ssp.    Del Mar manzanita.  U.S.A. (CA),        ......do..........        E       589                            NA         NA
 crassifolia.                                          Mexico..

[[Page 69]]

 
Arctostaphylos hookeri var.       Presidio manzanita  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E        65                            NA         NA
 ravenii.
Arctostaphylos morroensis.......  Morro manzanita...  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       567                            NA         NA
Arctostaphylos myrtifolia.......  Ione manzanita....  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       661                            NA         NA
Arctostaphylos pallida..........  Pallid manzanita..  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       635                            NA         NA
Arenaria cumberlandensis........  Cumberland          U.S.A. (KY, TN)...  Caryophyllaceae...        E       311                            NA         NA
                                   sandwort.
Arenaria paludicola.............  Marsh sandwort....  U.S.A. (CA,OR,WA).  ......do..........        E       511                            NA         NA
Arenaria ursina.................  Bear Valley         U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        T       644                            NA         NA
                                   sandwort.
Argemone pleiacantha ssp.         Sacramento prickly- U.S.A. (NM).......  Papaveraceae......        E       360                            NA         NA
 pinnatisecta.                     poppy.
Argyroxiphium kauense...........  Mauna Loa           U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........        E       497                      17.99(k)         NA
                                   silversword.
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp.    `Ahinahina........  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
 macrocephalum.
Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp.    `Ahinahina........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       219                            NA         NA
 sandwicense.
Aristida chaseae................  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Poaceae...........        E       501                            NA         NA
Aristida portoricensis..........  Pelos del diablo..  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       398                            NA         NA
Asclepias meadii................  Mead's milkweed...  U.S.A. (IA, IL,     Asclepiadaceae....        T       321                            NA         NA
                                                       IN, KS, MO, WI).
Asclepias welshii...............  Welsh's milkweed..  U.S.A. (AZ, UT)...  ......do..........        T       295                      17.96(a)         NA
Asimina tetramera...............  Four-petal pawpaw.  U.S.A. (FL).......  Annonaceae........        E       244                            NA         NA
Astragalus albens...............  Cushenbury milk-    U.S.A. (CA).......  Fabaceae..........        E       548                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus ampullarioides.......  Shivwits milk-      U.S.A. (UT).......  ......do..........        E       711                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus applegatei...........  Applegate's milk-   U.S.A. (OR).......  ......do..........        E       510                            NA         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus bibullatus...........  Guthrie's           U.S.A. (TN).......  ......do..........        E       437                            NA         NA
                                   (=Pyne's) ground-
                                   plum.
Astragalus brauntonii...........  Braunton's milk-    U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       606                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus clarianus............  Clara Hunt's milk-  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       625                            NA         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus cremnophylax var.      Sentry milk-vetch.  U.S.A. (AZ).......  ......do..........        E       409                            NA         NA
 cremnophylax.
Astragalus desereticus..........  Deseret milk-vetch  U.S.A. (UT).......  ......do..........        T       668                            NA         NA
Astragalus holmgreniorum........  Holmgren milk-      U.S.A. (UT, AZ)...  ......do..........        E       711                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus humillimus...........  Mancos milk-vetch.  U.S.A. (CO, NM)...  ......do..........        E       187                            NA         NA
Astragalus jaegerianus..........  Lane Mountain milk- U.S.A. (CA).......  Fabaceae--Pea.....        E       647                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus lentiginosus var.      Coachella Valley    ......do..........  Fabaceae..........        E       647            17.96(a) (No areas         NA
 coachellae.                       milk-vetch.                                                                                    designated)
Astragalus lentiginosus var.      Fish Slough milk-   ......do..........  ......do..........        T       647                      17.96(a)         NA
 piscinensis.                      vetch.
Astragalaus magdalenae var.       Peirson's milk-     ......do..........  Fabaceae--Pea.....        T       647                      17.96(a)         NA
 peirsonii.                        vetch.
Astragalus montii...............  Heliotrope milk-    U.S.A. (UT).......  Fabaceae..........        T       298                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus osterhoutii..........  Osterhout milk-     U.S.A. (CO).......  ......do..........        E       353                            NA         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus phoenix..............  Ash Meadows milk-   U.S.A. (NV).......  ......do..........        T       181                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus pycnostachyus var.     Ventura Marsh milk- U.S.A. (CA).......  Fabaceae--Pea             E       708                      17.96(a)         NA
 lanosissimus.                     vetch.                                  Family.
Astragalus robbinsii var. jesupi  Jesup's milk-vetch  U.S.A. (NH, VT)...  Fabaceae..........        E       271                            NA         NA
Astragalus tener var. titi......  Coastal dunes milk- U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       640                            NA         NA
                                   vetch.
Astragalus tricarinatus.........  Triple-ribbed milk- ......do..........  ......do..........        E       647                            NA         NA
                                   vetch.
Astrophytum asterias............  Star cactus.......  U.S.A. (TX),        Cactaceae.........        E       521                            NA         NA
                                                       Mexico.

[[Page 70]]

 
Atriplex coronata var. notatior.  San Jacinto Valley  U.S.A. (CA).......  Chenopodiaceae--Go        E       650           17.96 (a) (No areas         NA
                                   crownscale.                             osefoot Family.                                        designated)
Auerodendron pauciflorum........  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Rhamnaceae........        E       531                            NA         NA
Ayenia limitaris................  Texas ayenia......  U.S.A. (TX),        Sterculiaceae.....        E       547                            NA         NA
                                                       Mexico.
Baccharis vanessae..............  Encinitas           U.S.A. (CA).......  Asteraceae........        T       589                            NA         NA
                                   baccharis.
Banara vanderbiltii.............  Palo de             U.S.A. (PR).......  Flacourtiaceae....        E       255                            NA         NA
                                   Ram[oacute]n.
Baptisia arachnifera............  Hairy rattleweed..  U.S.A. (GA).......  Fabaceae..........        E        39                            NA         NA
Berberis nevinii................  Nevin's barberry..  U.S.A. (CA).......  Berberidaceae.....        E       648                            NA         NA
Berberis pinnata ssp. insularis.  Island barberry...  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       623                            NA         NA
Betula uber.....................  Virginia round-     U.S.A. (VA).......  Betulaceae........        T   39, 560                            NA         NA
                                   leaf birch.
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha.  Kookoolau.........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........        E       467      17.96(b) and 17.99(e)(1)         NA
Bidens wiebkei..................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
Blennosperma bakeri.............  Sonoma sunshine...  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       453                            NA         NA
Boltonia decurrens..............  Decurrent false     U.S.A. (IL, MO)...  ......do..........        T       341                            NA         NA
                                   aster.
Bonamia grandiflora.............  Florida bonamia...  U.S.A. (FL).......  Convolvulaceae....        T       297                            NA         NA
Bonamia menziesii...............  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       559     17.99(a)(1), (e)(1), (i),         NA
                                                                                                                                      and (k)
Brighamia insignis..............  Olulu.............  ......do..........  Campanulaceae.....        E       530        17.99(a)(1) and (a)(2)         NA
Brighamia rockii................  Pua ala...........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480           17.99(c) and (e)(1)         NA
Brodiaea filifolia..............  Thread-leaved       U.S.A. (CA).......  Liliaceae--Lily...        T       650                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   brodiaea.
Brodiaea pallida................  Chinese Camp        ......do..........  Liliaceae.........        T       643                            NA         NA
                                   brodiaea.
Buxus vahlii....................  Vahl's boxwood....  U.S.A. (PR, VI)...  Buxaceae..........        E       197                            NA         NA
Caesalpinia kavaiense...........  Uhiuhi............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Fabaceae..........        E       238                            NA         NA
Callicarpa ampla................  Cap[aacute] rosa..  U.S.A. (PR).......  Verbenaceae.......        E       461                            NA         NA
Callirhoe scabriuscula..........  Texas poppy-mallow  U.S.A. (TX).......  Malvaceae.........        E  109, 112                            NA         NA
Calochortus tiburonensis........  Tiburon mariposa    U.S.A. (CA).......  Liliaceae.........        T       575                            NA         NA
                                   lily.
Calyptranthes thomasiana........  None..............  U.S.A. (PR, VI)     Myrtaceae.........        E       529                            NA         NA
                                                       British VI.
Calyptridium pulchellum.........  Mariposa pussypaws  U.S.A. (CA).......  Portulacaceae.....        T       643                            NA         NA
Calyptronoma rivalis............  Palma de manaca...  U.S.A. (PR).......  Arecaceae.........        T       375                            NA         NA
Calystegia stebbinsii...........  Stebbins' morning-  U.S.A. (CA).......  Convolvulaceae....        E       596                            NA         NA
                                   glory.
Camissonia benitensis...........  San Benito evening- ......do..........  Onagraceae........        T       172                            NA         NA
                                   primrose.
Campanula robinsiae.............  Brooksville         U.S.A. (FL).......  Campanulaceae.....        E       356                            NA         NA
                                   bellflower.
Canavalia molokaiensis..........  Awikiwiki.........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Fabaceae..........        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
Cardamine micranthera...........  Small-anthered      U.S.A. (NC, VA)...  Brassicaceae......        E       363                            NA         NA
                                   bittercress.
Carex albida....................  White sedge.......  U.S.A. (CA).......  Cyperaceae........        E       625                            NA         NA
Carex lutea.....................  Golden sedge......  U.S.A. (NC).......  ......do..........        E       721                            NA         NA
Carex specuicola................  Navajo sedge......  U.S.A. (AZ, UT)...  ......do..........        T       178                      17.96(a)         NA
Castilleja affinis ssp. neglecta  Tiburon paintbrush  U.S.A. (CA).......  Scrophulariaceae..        E       575                            NA         NA
Castilleja campestris ssp.        Fleshy owl's-       ......do..........  ......do..........        T       611                      17.96(a)         NA
 succulenta.                       clover.
Castilleja cinerea..............  Ash-gray Indian     ......do..........  ......do..........        T       643                            NA         NA
                                   paintbrush.
Castilleja grisea...............  San Clemente        ......do..........  ......do..........        E        26                            NA         NA
                                   Island Indian
                                   paintbrush.

[[Page 71]]

 
Castilleja levisecta............  Golden paintbrush.  U.S.A. (OR, WA),    ......do..........        T       615                            NA         NA
                                                       Canada (B.C.).
Castilleja mollis...............  Soft-leaved         U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       623                            NA         NA
                                   paintbrush.
Catesbaea melanocarpa...........  None..............  U.S.A. (PR, VI),    Rubiaceae.........        E       657                      17.96(a)         NA
                                                       Antigua, Barbuda,
                                                       Guadalupe.
Caulanthus californicus.........  California          U.S.A. (CA).......  Brassicaceae......        E       395                            NA         NA
                                   jewelflower.
Ceanothus ferrisae..............  Coyote ceanothus..  ......do..........  Rhamnaceae........        E       575                            NA         NA
Ceanothus ophiochilus...........  Vail Lake           ......do..........  ......do..........        T       648                            NA         NA
                                   ceanothus.
Ceanothus roderickii............  Pine Hill           ......do..........  ......do..........        E       596                            NA         NA
                                   ceanothus.
Cenchrus agrimonioides..........  Kamanomano........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Poaceae...........        E       592           17.99(e)(1) and (i)         NA
Centaurium namophilum...........  Spring-loving       U.S.A. (CA, NV)...  Gentianaceae......        T       181                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   centaury.
Centaurium sebaeoides...........  Awiwi.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       448     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                                                                                                                      and (i)
Cercocarpus traskiae............  Catalina Island     U.S.A. (CA).......  Rosaceae..........        E       624                            NA         NA
                                   mountain-mahogany.
Cereus eriophorus var. fragrans.  Fragrant prickly-   U.S.A. (FL).......  Cactaceae.........        E       208                            NA         NA
                                   apple.
Chamaecrista glandulosa var.      None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Fabaceae..........        E       379                            NA         NA
 mirabilis.
Chamaesyce celastroides var.      Akoko.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Euphorbiaceae.....        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
 kaenana.
Chamaesyce deltoidea ssp.         Deltoid spurge....  U.S.A. (FL).......  ......do..........        E       192                            NA         NA
 deltoidea.
Chamaesyce deppeana.............  Akoko.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       536                      17.99(i)         NA
Chamaesyce garberi..............  Garber's spurge...  U.S.A. (FL).......  ......do..........        T       192                            NA         NA
Chamaesyce halemanui............  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       464                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Chamaesyce herbstii.............  Akoko.............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Chamaesyce hooveri..............  Hoover's spurge...  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        T       611                      17.96(a)         NA
Chamaesyce kuwaleana............  Akoko.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Chamaesyce rockii...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Chamaesyce skottsbergii var.      `Ewa Plains `akoko  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       120                            NA         NA
 kalaeloana.
Chionanthus pygmaeus............  Pygmy fringe-tree.  U.S.A. (FL).......  Oleaceae..........        E       256                            NA         NA
Chlorogalum purpureum...........  Purple amole        U.S.A. (CA).......  Liliaceae--Lily...        T       689                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   (Camatta Canyon
                                   amole).
Chorizanthe howellii............  Howell's            ......do..........  Polygonaceae......        E       472                            NA         NA
                                   spineflower.
Chorizanthe orcuttiana..........  Orcutt's            ......do..........  ......do..........        E       589                            NA         NA
                                   spineflower.
Chorizanthe pungens var.          Ben Lomond          ......do..........  ......do..........        E       528                            NA         NA
 hartwegiana.                      spineflower.
Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens  Monterey            ......do..........  Polygonaceae--Buck        T       528                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   Spineflower.                            wheat.
Chorizanthe robusta var.          Scotts Valley       ......do..........  ......do..........        E       528                      17.96(a)         NA
 hartwegii.                        spineflower.
Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta  Robust Spineflower  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       528                      17.96(b)         NA
Chorizanthe valida..............  Sonoma spineflower  ......do..........  Polygonaceae......        E       472                            NA         NA
Chrysopsis floridana............  Florida golden      U.S.A. (FL).......  Asteraceae........        E       232                            NA         NA
                                   aster.
Cirsium fontinale var. fontinale  Fountain thistle..  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       575                            NA         NA
Cirsium fontinale var.            Chorro Creek bog    ......do..........  ......do..........        E       567                            NA         NA
 obispoense.                       thistle.

[[Page 72]]

 
Cirsium hydrophilum var.          Suisun thistle....  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       627                     17.96 (a)         NA
 hydrophilum.
Cirsium loncholepis.............  La Graciosa         ......do..........  Asteraceae--Sunflo        E       691                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   thistle.                                wer.
Cirsium pitcheri................  Pitcher's thistle.  U.S.A. (IL, IN,     Asteraceae........        T       315                            NA         NA
                                                       MI, WI), Canada
                                                       (Ont.).
Cirsium vinaceum................  Sacramento          U.S.A. (NM).......  ......do..........        T       276                            NA         NA
                                   Mountains thistle.
Clarkia franciscana.............  Presidio clarkia..  U.S.A. (CA).......  Onagraceae........        E       575                            NA         NA
Clarkia imbricata...............  Vine Hill clarkia.  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       625                            NA         NA
Clarkia speciosa ssp. immaculata  Pismo clarkia.....  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       567                            NA         NA
Clarkia springvillensis.........  Springville         ......do..........  ......do..........        T       643                            NA         NA
                                   clarkia.
Clematis morefieldii............  Morefield's         U.S.A. (AL).......  Ranunculaceae.....        E       468                            NA         NA
                                   leather-flower.
Clematis socialis...............  Alabama leather-    ......do..........  ......do..........        E       245                            NA         NA
                                   flower.
Clermontia drepanomorpha........  Oha wai...........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Campanulaceae.....        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Clermontia lindseyana...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532           17.99(e)(1) and (k)         NA
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp.      Oha wai...........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
 brevipes.
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp.      ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
 mauiensis
Clermontia peleana..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532                      17.99(k)         NA
Clermontia pyrularia............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532                      17.99(k)         NA
Clermontia samuelii.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       666                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Clitoria fragrans...............  Pigeon wings......  U.S.A. (FL).......  Fabaceae..........        T       500                            NA         NA
Colubrina oppositifolia.........  Kauila............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rhamnaceae........        E       532     17.99(e)(1), (i), and (k)         NA
Conradina brevifolia............  Short-leaved        U.S.A. (FL).......  Lamiaceae.........        E       507                            NA         NA
                                   rosemary.
Conradina etonia................  Etonia rosemary...  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       507                            NA         NA
Conradina glabra................  Apalachicola        ......do..........  ......do..........        E       507                            NA         NA
                                   rosemary.
Conradina verticillata..........  Cumberland          U.S.A. (KY, TN)...  ......do..........        T       452                            NA         NA
                                   rosemary.
Cordia bellonis.................  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Boraginaceae......        E       601                            NA         NA
Cordylanthus maritimus ssp.       Salt marsh bird's-  U.S.A. (CA),        Scrophulariaceae..        E        44                            NA         NA
 maritimus.                        beak.               Mexico (Baja
                                                       California).
Cordylanthus mollis ssp. mollis.  Soft bird's-beak..  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       627                     17.96 (a)         NA
Cordylanthus palmatus...........  Palmate-bracted     ......do..........  ......do..........        E       235                            NA         NA
                                   bird's-beak.
Cordylanthus tenuis ssp.          Pennell's bird's-   ......do..........  ......do..........        E       575                            NA         NA
 capillaris.                       beak.
Cornutia obovata................  Palo de nigua.....  U.S.A. (PR).......  Verbenaceae.......        E       307                            NA         NA
Coryphantha minima..............  Nellie cory cactus  U.S.A. (TX).......  Cactaceae.........        E        81                            NA         NA
Coryphantha ramillosa...........  Bunched cory        U.S.A. (TX),        ......do..........        T        77                            NA         NA
                                   cactus.             Mexico (Coahuila).
Coryphantha robbinsorum.........  Cochise pincushion  U.S.A. (AZ),        ......do..........        T       214                            NA         NA
                                   cactus.             Mexico (Sonora).
Coryphantha scheeri var.          Pima pineapple      ......do..........  ......do..........        E       515                            NA         NA
 robustispina.                     cactus.
Coryphantha sneedii var. leei...  Lee pincushion      U.S.A. (NM).......  ......do..........        T        61                            NA         NA
                                   cactus.

[[Page 73]]

 
Coryphantha sneedii var. sneedii  Sneed pincushion    U.S.A. (NM, TX)...  ......do..........        E        82                            NA         NA
                                   cactus.
Cranichis ricartii..............  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Orchidaceae.......        E       451                            NA         NA
Crescentia portoricensis........  Higuero de Sierra.  ......do..........  Bignoniaceae......        E       301                            NA         NA
Crotalaria avonensis............  Avon Park           U.S.A. (FL).......  Fabaceae..........        E       500                            NA         NA
                                   harebells.
Cryptantha crassipes............  Terlingua Creek     U.S.A. (TX).......  Boraginaceae......        E       439                            NA         NA
                                   cats-eye.
Cucurbita okeechobeensis ssp.     Okeechobee gourd..  U.S.A. (FL).......  Cucurbitaceae.....        E       507                            NA         NA
 okeechobeensis.
Cyanea acuminata................  HaHa..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Campanulaceae.....        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea asarifolia...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Cyanea copelandii ssp.            ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532                            NA         NA
 copelandii.
Cyanea copelandii ssp.            ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       666                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
 haleakalaensis
Cyanea (=Rollandia) crispa......  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       536                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea dunbarii.................  Haha..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       594                      17.99(c)         NA
Cyanea glabra...................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       666                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Cyanea grimesiana ssp.            ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       592     17.99(c), (e)(1), and (i)         NA
 grimesiana.
Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae...  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       541                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea hamatiflora ssp.           ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532                      17.99(k)         NA
 carlsonii.
Cyanea hamatiflora ssp.           ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       666                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
 hamatiflora
Cyanea humboltiana..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea koolauensis..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea lobata...................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Cyanea longiflora...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       435                            NA         NA
Cyanea mannii...................  Haha..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
Cyanea mceldowneyi..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Cyanea pinnatifida..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea platyphylla..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Cyanea procera..................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
Cyanea recta....................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Cyanea remyi....................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Cyanea shipmanii................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532                      17.99(k)         NA
Cyanea st.-johnii...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea stictophylla.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532                      17.99(k)         NA
Cyanea superba..................  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       434                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea truncata.................  Haha..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       536                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyanea undulata.................  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       436                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii.  Jones cycladenia..  U.S.A. (AZ, UT)...  Apocynaceae.......        T       229                            NA         NA
Cyperus trachysanthos...........  Puukaa............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Cyperaceae........        E       592           17.99(a)(1) and (i)         NA
Cyrtandra crenata...............  Ha`iwale..........  ......do..........  Gesneriaceae......        E       536                            NA         NA
Cyrtandra cyaneoides............  Mapele............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Cyrtandra dentata...............  Haiwale...........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA

[[Page 74]]

 
Cyrtandra giffardii.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532                      17.99(k)         NA
Cyrtandra limahuliensis.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Cyrtandra munroi................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Cyrtandra polyantha.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       536                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyrtandra subumbellata..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Cyrtandra tintinnabula..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532                      17.99(k)         NA
Cyrtandra viridiflora...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Dalea foliosa...................  Leafy prairie-      U.S.A. (AL, IL,     Fabaceae..........        E       422                            NA         NA
                                   clover.             TN).
Daphnopsis hellerana............  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Thymelaeaceae.....        E       309                            NA         NA
Deeringothamnus pulchellus......  Beautiful pawpaw..  U.S.A. (FL).......  Annonaceae........        E       244                            NA         NA
Deeringothamnus rugelii.........  Rugel's pawpaw....  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       244                            NA         NA
Deinandra (=Hemizonia) conjugens  Otay tarplant.....  U.S.A. (CA),        Asteraceae--Sunflo        T       649                      17.96(a)         NA
                                                       Mexico.             wer.
Deinandra increscens ssp.         Gaviota tarplant..  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       691                      17.96(a)         NA
 villosa.
Delissea rhytidosperma..........  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Campanulaceae.....        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Delissea rivularis..............  Oha...............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Delissea subcordata.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Delissea undulata...............  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       593           17.99(a)(1) and (k)         NA
Delphinium bakeri...............  Baker's larkspur..  U.S.A. (CA).......  Ranunculaceae.....        E       681                      17.96(a)         NA
Delphinium luteum...............  Yellow larkspur...  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       681                      17.96(a)         NA
Delphinium variegatum ssp.        San Clemente        ......do..........  ......do..........        E        26                            NA         NA
 kinkiense.                        Island larkspur.
Dicerandra christmanii..........  Garrett's mint....  U.S.A. (FL).......  Lamiaceae.........        E  207, 362                            NA         NA
Dicerandra cornutissima.........  Longspurred mint..  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       207                            NA         NA
Dicerandra frutescens...........  Scrub mint........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E  207, 362                            NA         NA
Dicerandra immaculata...........  Lakela's mint.....  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       180                            NA         NA
Dodecahema leptoceras...........  Slender-horned      U.S.A. (CA).......  Polygonaceae......        E       291                            NA         NA
                                   spineflower.
Dubautia herbstobatae...........  Naenae............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Dubautia latifolia..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       464                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Dubautia pauciflorula...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       436                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Dubautia plantaginea ssp.         ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       666                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
 humilis.
Dudleya abramsii ssp. parva.....  Conejo dudleya....  U.S.A. (CA).......  Crassulaceae......        T       606                            NA         NA
Dudleya cymosa ssp. marcescens..  Marcescent dudleya  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       606                            NA         NA
Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifolia..  Santa Monica        ......do..........  ......do..........        T       606                            NA         NA
                                   Mountains dudleya.
Dudleya nesiotica...............  Santa Cruz Island   ......do..........  ......do..........        T       623                            NA         NA
                                   dudleya.
Dudleya setchellii..............  Santa Clara Valley  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       575                            NA         NA
                                   dudleya.
Dudleya stolonifera.............  Laguna Beach        ......do..........  ......do..........        T       649                            NA         NA
                                   liveforever.
Dudleya traskiae................  Santa Barbara       ......do..........  ......do..........        E        39                            NA         NA
                                   Island
                                   liveforever.
Dudleya verityi.................  Verity's dudleya..  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       606                            NA         NA
Echinacea laevigata.............  Smooth coneflower.  U.S.A. (GA, MD,     Asteraceae........        E       481                            NA         NA
                                                       NC, PA, SC, VA).

[[Page 75]]

 
Echinacea tennesseensis.........  Tennessee purple    U.S.A. (TN).......  ......do..........        E        49                            NA         NA
                                   coneflower.
Echinocactus horizonthalonius     Nichol's Turk's     U.S.A. (AZ).......  Cactaceae.........        E        71                            NA         NA
 var. nicholii.                    head cactus.
Echinocereus chisoensis var.      Chisos Mountain     U.S.A. (TX).......  ......do..........        T       335                            NA         NA
 chisoensis.                       hedgehog cactus.
Echinocereus fendleri var.        Kuenzler hedgehog   U.S.A. (NM).......  ......do..........        E        70                            NA         NA
 kuenzleri.                        cactus.
Echinocereus reichenbachii var.   Black lace cactus.  U.S.A. (TX).......  ......do..........        E        68                            NA         NA
 albertii.
Echinocereus triglochidiatus      Arizona hedgehog    U.S.A. (AZ).......  ......do..........        E        62                            NA         NA
 var. arizonicus.                  cactus.
Echinocereus viridiflorus var.    Davis' green        U.S.A. (TX).......  ......do..........        E        81                            NA         NA
 davisii.                          pitaya.
Echinomastus mariposensis.......  Lloyd's Mariposa    U.S.A. (TX),        ......do..........        T        77                            NA         NA
                                   cactus.             Mexico (Coahuila).
Enceliopsis nudicaulis var.       Ash Meadows sunray  U.S.A. (NV).......  Asteraceae........        T       181                      17.96(a)         NA
 corrugata.
Eragrostis fosbergii............  Fosberg's love      U.S.A. (HI).......  Poaceae...........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
                                   grass.
Eremalche kernensis.............  Kern mallow.......  U.S.A. (CA).......  Malvaceae.........        E       395                            NA         NA
Eriastrum densifolium ssp.        Santa Ana River     ......do..........  Polemoniaceae.....        E       291                            NA         NA
 sanctorum.                        woolly-star.
Erigeron decumbens var.           Willamette daisy..  U.S.A. (OR).......  Asteraceae--Aster         E       679                         17.96         NA
 decumbens.                                                                family.
Erigeron maguirei...............  Maguire daisy.....  U.S.A. (UT).......  Asteraceae........        T  202, 584                            NA         NA
Erigeron parishii...............  Parish's daisy....  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        T       548                      17.96(a)         NA
Erigeron rhizomatus.............  Zuni fleabane.....  U.S.A. (NM).......  ......do..........        T       177                            NA         NA
Eriodictyon altissimum..........  Indian Knob         U.S.A. (CA).......  Hydrophyllaceae...        E       567                            NA         NA
                                   mountain balm.
Eriodictyon capitatum...........  Lompoc yerba santa  ......do..........  Hydrophyllaceae--W        E       691                      17.96(a)         NA
                                                                           aterleaf.
Eriogonum apricum (incl. var.     Ione (incl. Irish   ......do..........  Polygonaceae......        E       661                            NA         NA
 prostratum).                      Hill) buckwheat.
Eriogonum gypsophilum...........  Gypsum wild-        U.S.A. (NM).......  ......do..........        T  110, 112                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   buckwheat.
Eriogonum kennedyi var.           Southern mountain   U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        T       644                            NA         NA
 austromontanum.                   wild-buckwheat.
Eriogonum longifolium var.        Scrub buckwheat...  U.S.A. (FL).......  ......do..........        T       500                            NA         NA
 gnaphalifolium.
Eriogonum ovalifolium var.        Cushenbury          U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       548                      17.96(a)         NA
 vineum.                           buckwheat.
Eriogonum ovalifolium var.        Steamboat           U.S.A. (NV).......  ......do..........        E       237                            NA         NA
 williamsiae.                      buckwheat.
Eriogonum pelinophilum..........  Clay-loving wild-   U.S.A. (CO).......  ......do..........        E       151                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   buckwheat.
Eriophyllum latilobum...........  San Mateo woolly    U.S.A. (CA).......  Asteraceae........        E       575                            NA         NA
                                   sunflower.
Eryngium aristulatum var.         San Diego button-   ......do..........  Apiaceae..........        E       512                            NA         NA
 parishii.                         celery.
Eryngium constancei.............  Loch Lomond coyote- ......do..........  ......do..........        E     194E,                            NA         NA
                                   thistle.                                                                 249
Eryngium cuneifolium............  Snakeroot.........  U.S.A. (FL).......  ......do..........        E       256                            NA         NA
Erysimum capitatum var.           Contra Costa        U.S.A. (CA).......  Brassicaceae......        E        39                      17.96(a)         NA
 angustatum.                       wallflower.

[[Page 76]]

 
Erysimum menziesii..............  Menzies'            ......do..........  ......do..........        E       472                            NA         NA
                                   wallflower.
Erysimum teretifolium...........  Ben Lomond          ......do..........  ......do..........        E       528                            NA         NA
                                   wallflower.
Erythronium propullans..........  Minnesota dwarf     U.S.A. (MN).......  Liliaceae.........        E       221                            NA         NA
                                   trout lily.
Eugenia haematocarpa............  Uvillo............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Myrtaceae.........        E       564                            NA         NA
Eugenia koolauensis.............  Nioi..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       536              17.99(c) and (i)         NA
Eugenia woodburyana.............  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  ......do..........        E       551                            NA         NA
Euphorbia haeleeleana...........  Akoko.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Euphorbiaceae.....        E       592           17.99(a)(1) and (i)         NA
Euphorbia telephioides..........  Telephus spurge...  U.S.A. (FL).......  ......do..........        T       463                            NA         NA
Eutrema penlandii...............  Penland alpine fen  U.S.A. (CO).......  Brassicaceae......        T       509                            NA         NA
                                   mustard.
Exocarpos luteolus..............  Heau..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Santalaceae.......        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Flueggea neowawraea.............  Mehamehame........  ......do..........  Euphorbiaceae.....        E       559     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                                                                                                                  (i) and (k)
Frankenia johnstonii............  Johnston's          U.S.A. (TX),        Frankeniaceae.....        E       155                            NA         NA
                                   frankenia.          Mexico (Nuevo
                                                       Leon).
Fremontodendron californicum      Pine Hill           U.S.A. (CA).......  Sterculiaceae.....        E       596                            NA         NA
 ssp. decumbens.                   flannelbush.
Fremontodendron mexicanum.......  Mexican             U.S.A. (CA),        ......do..........        E       648                            NA         NA
                                   flannelbush.        Mexico.
Fritillaria gentneri............  Gentner's           U.S.A. (OR).......  Liliaceae.........        E       672                            NA         NA
                                   fritillary.
Gahnia lanaiensis...............  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Cyperaceae........        E       435                            NA         NA
Galactia smallii................  Small's milkpea...  U.S.A. (FL).......  Fabaceae..........        E       192                            NA         NA
Galium buxifolium...............  Island bedstraw...  U.S.A. (CA).......  Rubiaceae.........        E       623                            NA         NA
Galium californicum ssp. sierrae  El Dorado bedstraw  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       596                            NA         NA
Gardenia brighamii..............  Hawaiian gardenia   U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       198                            NA         NA
                                   (Na`u).
Gardenia mannii.................  Nanu..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Gaura neomexicana ssp.            Colorado butterfly  U.S.A. (WY, NE,     Onagraceae-Evening        T       704                      17.96(a)         NA
 coloradensis.                     plant.              CO).                Primrose.
Geocarpon minimum...............  None..............  U.S.A. (AR, LA,     Caryophyllaceae...        T       275                            NA         NA
                                                       MO).
Geranium arboreum...............  Hawaiian red-       U.S.A. (HI).......  Geraniaceae.......        E       465                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
                                   flowered geranium.
Geranium multiflorum............  Nohoanu...........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Gesneria pauciflora.............  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Gesneriaceae......        T       578                            NA         NA
Geum radiatum...................  Spreading avens...  U.S.A. (NC, TN)...  Rosaceae..........        E       381                            NA         NA
Gilia tenuiflora ssp. arenaria..  Monterey gilia....  U.S.A. (CA).......  Polemoniaceae.....        E       472                            NA         NA
Gilia tenuiflora ssp. hoffmannii  Hoffmann's slender- ......do..........  ......do..........        E       623                            NA         NA
                                   flowered gilia.
Goetzea elegans.................  Beautiful goetzea   U.S.A. (PR).......  Solanaceae........        E       176                            NA         NA
                                   or matabuey.
Gouania hillebrandii............  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rhamnaceae........        E       165                      17.96(a)         NA
Gouania meyenii.................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448           17.99(a)(1) and (i)         NA
Gouania vitifolia...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       541          17.99(e)(1), and (k)         NA
Grindelia fraxino-pratensis.....  Ash Meadows         U.S.A. (CA, NV)...  Asteraceae........        T       181                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   gumplant.
Hackelia venusta................  Showy stickseed...  U.S.A. (WA).......  Boraginaceae--Bora        E       722                            NA         NA
                                                                           ge.
Halophila johnsonii.............  Johnson's seagrass  U.S.A. (FL).......  Hydrocharitaceae..        T       663                       226.213         NA

[[Page 77]]

 
Haplostachys haplostachya.......  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Lamiaceae.........        E        73                            NA         NA
Harperocallis flava.............  Harper's beauty...  U.S.A. (FL).......  Liliaceae.........        E        57                            NA         NA
Harrisia portoricensis..........  Higo chumbo.......  U.S.A. (PR).......  Cactaceae.........        T       397                            NA         NA
Hedeoma todsenii................  Todsen's            U.S.A. (NM).......  Lamiaceae.........        E  110, 112                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   pennyroyal.
Hedyotis cookiana...............  Awiwi.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rubiaceae.........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Hedyotis coriacea...............  Kioele............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467           17.99(e)(1) and (i)         NA
Hedyotis degeneri...............  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Hedyotis mannii.................  Pilo..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Hedyotis parvula................  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Hedyotis purpurea var. montana..  Roan Mountain       U.S.A. (NC, TN)...  ......do..........        E       381                            NA         NA
                                   bluet.
Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var.  Kopa..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       666                            NA         NA
 remyi.
Hedyotis st.-johnii.............  Na Pali beach       ......do..........  ......do..........        E       441                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
                                   hedyotis.
Helenium virginicum.............  Virginia            U.S.A. (MO, VA)...  Asteraceae........        T       652                            NA         NA
                                   sneezeweed.
Helianthemum greenei............  Island rush-rose..  U.S.A. (CA).......  Cistaceae.........        T       623                            NA         NA
Helianthus paradoxus............  Pecos (=puzzle,     U.S.A. (NM, TX)...  Asteraceae........        T       667                            NA         NA
                                   =paradox)
                                   sunflower.
Helianthus schweinitzii.........  Schweinitz's        U.S.A. (NC, SC)...  ......do..........        E       424                            NA         NA
                                   sunflower.
Helonias bullata................  Swamp pink........  U.S.A. (DE, GA,     Liliaceae.........        T       326                            NA         NA
                                                       MD, NC, NJ, NY,
                                                       SC, VA).
Hesperolinon congestum..........  Marin dwarf-flax..  U.S.A. (CA).......  Linaceae..........        T       575                            NA         NA
Hesperomannia arborescens.......  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........        E       536              17.99(c) and (i)         NA
Hesperomannia arbuscula.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448           17.99(e)(1) and (i)         NA
Hesperomannia lydgatei..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       436                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Hexastylis naniflora............  Dwarf-flowered      U.S.A. (NC, SC)...  Aristolochiaceae..        T       347                            NA         NA
                                   heartleaf.
Hibiscadelphus distans..........  Kauai hau kuahiwi.  U.S.A. (HI).......  Malvaceae.........        E       225                            NA         NA
Hibiscadelphus giffardianus.....  Hau kuahiwi.......  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis....  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Hibiscadelphus woodii...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp.         Kokio keokeo......  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
 immaculatus.
Hibiscus brackenridgei..........  Mao hau hele......  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       559    17.99(c), (e)(1), (i), and         NA
                                                                                                                                          (k)
Hibiscus clayi..................  Clay's hibiscus...  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Hibiscus waimeae ssp. hannerae..  Kokio keokeo......  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Hoffmannseggia tenella..........  Slender rush-pea..  U.S.A. (TX).......  Fabaceae..........        E       209                            NA         NA
Holocarpha macradenia...........  Santa Cruz          U.S.A. (CA).......  Asteraceae--Sunflo        T       690                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   tarplant.                               wer.
Howellia aquatilis..............  Water howellia....  U.S.A. (CA, ID,     Campanulaceae.....        T       542                            NA         NA
                                                       MT, OR, WA).
Hudsonia montana................  Mountain golden     U.S.A. (NC).......  Cistaceae.........        T       107                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   heather.
Hymenoxys herbacea..............  Lakeside daisy....  U.S.A. (IL, MI,     Asteraceae........        T       310                            NA         NA
                                                       OH), Canada
                                                       (Ont.).
Hymenoxys texana................  Texas prairie dawn- U.S.A. (TX).......  ......do..........        E       218                            NA         NA
                                   flower.
Hypericum cumulicola............  Highlands scrub     U.S.A. (FL).......  Hypericaceae......        E       256                            NA         NA
                                   hypericum.
Ilex cookii.....................  Cook's holly......  U.S.A. (PR).......  Aquifoliaceae.....        E       277                            NA         NA
Ilex sintenisii.................  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       461                            NA         NA
Iliamna corei...................  Peter's Mountain    U.S.A. (VA).......  Malvaceae.........        E       230                            NA         NA
                                   mallow.
Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus.......  Holy Ghost          U.S.A. (NM).......  Polemoniaceae.....        E       535                            NA         NA
                                   ipomopsis.
Iris lacustris..................  Dwarf lake iris...  U.S.A. (MI, WI),    Iridaceae.........        T       330                            NA         NA
                                                       Canada (Ont.).

[[Page 78]]

 
Ischaemum byrone................  Hilo ischaemum....  U.S.A. (HI).......  Poaceae...........        E       532     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                                                                                                                      and (k)
Isodendrion hosakae.............  Aupaka............  ......do..........  Violaceae.........        T       414                      17.99(k)         NA
Isodendrion laurifolium.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       592           17.99(a)(1) and (i)         NA
Isodendrion longifolium.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       592           17.99(a)(1) and (i)         NA
Isodendrion pyrifolium..........  Wahine noho kula..  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532     17.99(c), (e)(1), and (i)         NA
Isotria medeoloides.............  Small whorled       U.S.A. (CT, DC,     Orchidaceae.......        T  122, 556                            NA         NA
                                   pogonia.            DE, GA, IL, MA,
                                                       MD, ME, MI, MO,
                                                       NC, NH, NJ, NY,
                                                       PA, RI, SC, TN,
                                                       VA, VT,WV),
                                                       Canada (Ont.).
Ivesia kingii var. eremica......  Ash Meadows ivesia  U.S.A. (NV).......  Rosaceae..........        T       181                      17.96(a)         NA
Jacquemontia reclinata..........  Beach jacquemontia  U.S.A. (FL).......  Convolvulaceae....        E       523                            NA         NA
Jatropha costaricensis..........  Costa Rican         Costa Rica........  Euphorbiaceae.....        E       154                            NA         NA
                                   jatropha.
Juglans jamaicensis.............  Nogal or West       U.S.A. (PR), Cuba,  Juglandaceae......        E       603                            NA         NA
                                   Indian walnut.      Hispaniola.
Justicia cooleyi................  Cooley's water-     U.S.A. (FL).......  Acanthaceae.......        E       356                            NA         NA
                                   willow.
Kanaloa kahoolawensis...........  Kohe malama malama  U.S.A. (HI).......  Fabaceae..........        E       666                   17.99(e)(2)         NA
                                   o kanaloa.
Kokia cookei....................  Cooke's koki`o....  ......do..........  Malvaceae.........        E        74                            NA         NA
Kokia drynarioides..............  Koki`o............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       167                      17.96(a)         NA
Kokia kauaiensis................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Labordia cyrtandrae.............  Kamakahala........  ......do..........  Loganiaceae.......        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Labordia lydgatei...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       436                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Labordia tinifolia var.           ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       666                            NA         NA
 lanaiensis.
Labordia tinifolia var.           ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
 wahiawaensis.
Labordia triflora...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       666                      17.99(c)         NA
Lasthenia burkei................  Burke's goldfields  U.S.A. (CA).......  Asteraceae........        E       453                            NA         NA
Lasthenia conjugens.............  Contra Costa        ......do..........  ......do..........        E       619                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   goldfields.
Layia carnosa...................  Beach layia.......  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       472                            NA         NA
Lembertia congdonii.............  San Joaquin wooly-  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       395                            NA         NA
                                   threads.
Lepanthes eltoroensis...........  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Orchidaceae.......        E       451                            NA         NA
Lepidium arbuscula..............  Anaunau...........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Brassicaceae......        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Lepidium barnebyanum............  Barneby ridge-      U.S.A. (UT).......  ......do..........        E       402                            NA         NA
                                   cress.
Leptocereus grantianus..........  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Cactaceae.........        E       491                            NA         NA
Lespedeza leptostachya..........  Prairie bush-       U.S.A. (IA, IL,     Fabaceae..........        T       254                            NA         NA
                                   clover.             MN, WI).
Lesquerella congesta............  Dudley Bluffs       U.S.A. (CO).......  Brassicaceae......        T       374                            NA         NA
                                   bladderpod.
Lesquerella filiformis..........  Missouri            U.S.A. (AR, MO)...  ......do..........        T  253, 739                            NA         NA
                                   bladderpod.
Lesquerella kingii ssp.           San Bernardino      U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       548                      17.96(a)         NA
 bernardina.                       Mountains
                                   bladderpod.
Lesquerella lyrata..............  Lyrate bladderpod.  U.S.A. (AL).......  ......do..........        T       403                            NA         NA
Lesquerella pallida.............  White bladderpod..  U.S.A. (TX).......  ......do..........        E       260                            NA         NA
Lesquerella perforata...........  Spring Creek        U.S.A. (TN).......  ......do..........        E       599                            NA         NA
                                   bladderpod.
Lesquerella thamnophila.........  Zapata bladderpod.  U.S.A. (TX),        ......do..........        E       671                      17.96(a)         NA
                                                       Mexico.
Lesquerella tumulosa............  Kodachrome          U.S.A. (UT).......  ......do..........        E       519                            NA         NA
                                   bladderpod.

[[Page 79]]

 
Lessingia germanorum (=L. g.      San Francisco       U.S.A. (CA).......  Asteraceae........        E       620                            NA         NA
 var. germanorum).                 lessingia.
Liatris helleri.................  Heller's            U.S.A. (NC).......  ......do..........        T       300                            NA         NA
                                   blazingstar.
Liatris ohlingerae..............  Scrub blazingstar.  U.S.A. (FL).......  ......do..........        E       356                            NA         NA
Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var.     Huachuca water-     U.S.A. (AZ),        Apiaceae..........        E       600                      17.96(a)         NA
 recurva.                          umbel.              Mexico.
Lilium occidentale..............  Western lily......  U.S.A. (OR, CA)...  Liliaceae.........        E       544                            NA         NA
Lilium pardalinum ssp.            Pitkin Marsh lily.  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       625                            NA         NA
 pitkinense.
Limnanthes floccosa ssp.          Butte County        ......do..........  Limnanthaceae.....        E       471                      17.96(a)         NA
 californica.                      meadowfoam.
Limnanthes floccosa ssp.          large-flowered      U.S.A. (OR).......  ......do..........        E       733                            NA         NA
 grandiflora.                      woolly meadowfoam.
Limnanthes vinculans............  Sebastopol          U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       453                            NA         NA
                                   meadowfoam.
Lindera melissifolia............  Pondberry.........  U.S.A. (AL, AR,     Lauraceae.........        E       240                            NA         NA
                                                       FL, GA, LA, MO,
                                                       MS, NC, SC).
Lipochaeta fauriei..............  Nehe..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Lipochaeta kamolensis...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Lipochaeta lobata var.            ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
 leptophylla.
Lipochaeta micrantha............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Lipochaeta tenuifolia...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Lipochaeta venosa...............  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E        73                            NA         NA
Lipochaeta waimeaensis..........  Nehe..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Lithophragma maximum............  San Clemente        U.S.A. (CA).......  Saxifragaceae.....        E       624                            NA         NA
                                   Island woodland-
                                   star.
Lobelia gaudichaudii ssp.         None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Campanulaceae.....        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
 koolauensis.
Lobelia monostachya.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Lobelia niihauensis.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Lobelia oahuensis...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       536                      17.99(i)         NA
Lomatium bradshawii.............  Bradshaw's desert-  U.S.A. (OR,WA)....  Apiaceae..........        E       333                            NA         NA
                                   parsley.
Lomatium cookii.................  Cook's lomatium...  U.S.A. (OR).......  ......do..........        E       733                            NA         NA
Lotus dendroideus ssp. traskiae.  San Clemente        U.S.A. (CA).......  Fabaceae..........        E        26                            NA         NA
                                   Island broom.
Lupinus aridorum................  Scrub lupine......  U.S.A. (FL).......  ......do..........        E       264                            NA         NA
Lupinus nipomensis..............  Nipomo Mesa lupine  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       691                            NA         NA
Lupinus sulphureus ssp.           Kincaid's lupine..  U.S.A (OR, WA)....  Fabaceae--Pea             T       679                         17.96         NA
 kincaidii.                                                                family.
Lupinus tidestromii.............  Clover lupine.....  U.S.A. (CA).......  Fabaceae..........        E       472                            NA         NA
Lyonia truncata var. proctorii..  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Ericaceae.........        E       501                            NA         NA
Lysimachia asperulaefolia.......  Rough-leaved        U.S.A. (NC, SC)...  Primulaceae.......        E       274                            NA         NA
                                   loosestrife.
Lysimachia filifolia............  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       530           17.99(a)(1) and (i)         NA
Lysimachia lydgatei.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Lysimachia maxima...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       594                      17.99(c)         NA
Macbridea alba..................  White birds-in-a-   U.S.A. (FL).......  Lamiaceae.........        T       463                            NA         NA
                                   nest.
Malacothamnus clementinus.......  San Clemente        U.S.A. (CA).......  Malvaceae.........        E        26                            NA         NA
                                   Island bush-
                                   mallow.
Malacothamnus fasciculatus var.   Santa Cruz Island   ......do..........  ......do..........        E       623                            NA         NA
 nesioticus.                       bushmallow.

[[Page 80]]

 
Malacothrix indecora............  Santa Cruz Island   ......do..........  Asteraceae........        E       623                            NA         NA
                                   malocothrix.
Malacothrix squalida............  Island malacothrix  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       623                            NA         NA
Manihot walkerae................  Walker's manioc...  U.S.A. (TX),        Euphorbiaceae.....        E       445                            NA         NA
                                                       Mexico.
Mariscus fauriei................  None..............  U.S.A (HI)........  Cyperaceae........        E       532              17.99(c) and (k)         NA
Mariscus pennatiformis..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       559     17.99(a)(1), (e)(1), (g),         NA
                                                                                                                                      and (i)
Marshallia mohrii...............  Mohr's Barbara's    U.S.A. (AL, GA)...  Asteraceae........        T       324                            NA         NA
                                   buttons.
Melicope adscendens.............  Alani.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Rutaceae..........        E       565                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Melicope balloui................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       565                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Melicope haupuensis.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Melicope knudsenii..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530        17.99(a)(1) and (e)(1)         NA
Melicope lydgatei...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       536                      17.99(i)         NA
Melicope mucronulata............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467           17.99(c) and (e)(1)         NA
Melicope munroi.................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       666                            NA         NA
Melicope ovalis.................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       565                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Melicope pallida................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530           17.99(a)(1) and (i)         NA
Melicope quadrangularis.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                            NA         NA
Melicope reflexa................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
Melicope saint-johnii...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Melicope zahlbruckneri..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Mentzelia leucophylla...........  Ash Meadows         U.S.A. (NV).......  Loasaceae.........        T       181                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   blazing-star.
Mimulus glabratus var.            Michigan monkey-    U.S.A. (MI).......  Scrophulariaceae..        E       392                            NA         NA
 michiganensis.                    flower.
Mirabilis macfarlanei...........  MacFarlane's four-  U.S.A. (ID, OR)...  Nyctaginaceae.....        T   66, 581                            NA         NA
                                   o'clock.
Mitracarpus maxwelliae..........  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Rubiaceae.........        E       551                            NA         NA
Mitracarpus polycladus..........  ......do..........  U.S.A. (PR), Saba.  ......do..........        E       551                            NA         NA
Monardella linoides ssp.viminea.  Willowy monardella  U.S.A. (CA),        Lamiaceae.........        E       649                      17.96(a)         NA
                                                       Mexico.
Munroidendron racemosum.........  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Araliaceae........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Myrcia paganii..................  ......do..........  U.S.A. (PR).......  Myrtaceae.........        E       529                            NA         NA
Myrsine juddii..................  Kolea.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Myrsinaceae.......        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Myrsine linearifolia............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Navarretia fossalis.............  Spreading           U.S.A. (CA),        Polemoniaceae.....        T       650                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   navarretia.         Mexico (Baja
                                                       California).
Navarretia leucocephala ssp.      Few-flowered        U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       619                            NA         NA
 pauciflora (=N. pauciflora).      navarretia.
Navarretia leucocephala ssp.      Many-flowered       ......do..........  ......do..........        E       619                            NA         NA
 plieantha.                        navarretia.
Neostapfia colusana.............  Colusa grass......  ......do..........  Poaceae...........        T       611                      17.96(a)         NA
Neraudia angulata...............  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Urticaceae........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Neraudia ovata..................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Neraudia sericea................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       559           17.99(c) and (e)(1)         NA
Nesogenes rotensis..............  None..............  Western Pacific     Verbenaceae--Verbe        E       742                            NA         NA
                                                       Ocean--U.S.A.       na family.
                                                       (Commonwealth of
                                                       the Northern
                                                       Mariana Islands).

[[Page 81]]

 
Nitrophila mohavensis...........  Amargosa niterwort  U.S.A. (CA, NV)...  Chenopodiaceae....        E       181                      17.96(a)         NA
Nolina brittoniana..............  Britton's           U.S.A. (FL).......  Agavaceae.........        E       500                            NA         NA
                                   beargrass.
Nothocestrum breviflorum........  Aiea..............  U.S.A (HI)........  Solanaceae........        E       532                      17.99(k)         NA
Nothocestrum peltatum...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Nototrichium humile.............  Kului.............  ......do..........  Amaranthaceae.....        E       448           17.99(e)(1) and (i)         NA
Ochrosia kilaueaensis...........  Holei.............  ......do..........  Apocynaceae.......        E       532                            NA         NA
Oenothera avita ssp. eurekensis.  Eureka Valley       U.S.A. (CA).......  Onagraceae........        E        39                            NA         NA
                                   evening-primrose.
Oenothera deltoides ssp.          Antioch Dunes       ......do..........  ......do..........        E        39                      17.96(a)         NA
 howellii.                         evening-primrose.
Opuntia treleasei...............  Bakersfield cactus  ......do..........  Cactaceae.........        E       395                            NA         NA
Orcuttia californica............  California Orcutt   ......do..........  Poaceae...........        E       512                            NA         NA
                                   grass.
Orcuttia inaequalis.............  San Joaquin Valley  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       611                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   Orcutt grass.
Orcuttia pilosa.................  Hairy Orcutt grass  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       611                      17.96(a)         NA
Orcuttia tenuis.................  Slender Orcutt      ......do..........  ......do..........        T       611                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   grass.
Orcuttia viscida................  Sacramento Orcutt   ......do..........  ......do..........        T       611                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   grass.
Osmoxylon mariannense...........  None..............  Western Pacific     Araliaceae--Ginsen        E       742                            NA         NA
                                                       Ocean--U.S.A.       g family.
                                                       (Commonwealth of
                                                       the Northern
                                                       Mariana Islands).
Ottoschulzia rhodoxylon.........  Palo de rosa......  U.S.A. (PR),        Icacinaceae.......        E       385                            NA         NA
                                                       Dominican
                                                       Republic.
Oxypolis canbyi.................  Canby's dropwort..  U.S.A. (DE, GA,     Apiaceae..........        E       217                            NA         NA
                                                       MD, NC, SC).
Oxytheca parishii var.            Cushenbury          U.S.A. (CA).......  Polygonaceae......        E       548                      17.96(a)         NA
 goodmaniana.                      oxytheca.
Oxytropis campestris var.         Fassett's locoweed  U.S.A. (WI).......  Fabaceae..........        T       329                            NA         NA
 chartacea.
Panicum fauriei var. carteri....  Carter's            U.S.A. (HI).......  Poaceae...........        E       133                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   panicgrass.
Panicum niihauense..............  Lau ehu...........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       592                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Paronychia chartacea............  Papery whitlow-     U.S.A. (FL).......  Caryophyllaceae...        T       256                            NA         NA
                                   wort.
Parvisedum leiocarpum...........  Lake County         U.S.A. (CA).......  Crassulaceae......        E       619                            NA         NA
                                   stonecrop.
Pedicularis furbishiae..........  Furbish lousewort.  U.S.A. (ME),        Scrophulariaceae..        E        39                            NA         NA
                                                       Canada (N.B.).
Pediocactus bradyi..............  Brady pincushion    U.S.A. (AZ).......  Cactaceae.........        E        63                            NA         NA
                                   cactus.
Pediocactus despainii...........  San Rafael cactus.  U.S.A. (UT).......  ......do..........        E       286                            NA         NA
Pediocactus knowltonii..........  Knowlton cactus...  U.S.A. (CO, NM)...  ......do..........        E        72                            NA         NA
Pediocactus peeblesianus var.     Peebles Navajo      U.S.A. (AZ).......  ......do..........        E        69                            NA         NA
 peeblesianus.                     cactus.
Pediocactus sileri..............  Siler pincushion    U.S.A. (AZ, UT)...  ......do..........        T   64, 524                            NA         NA
                                   cactus.
Pediocactus winkleri............  Winkler cactus....  U.S.A. (UT).......  ......do..........        T       641                            NA         NA
Penstemon haydenii..............  Blowout penstemon.  U.S.A. (NE).......  Scrophulariaceae..        E       285                            NA         NA
Penstemon penlandii.............  Penland             U.S.A. (CO).......  ......do..........        E       353                            NA         NA
                                   beardtongue.
Pentachaeta bellidiflora........  White-rayed         U.S.A. (CA).......  Asteraceae........        E       575                            NA         NA
                                   pentachaeta.
Pentachaeta lyonii..............  Lyon's pentachaeta  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       606                      17.96(a)         NA
Peperomia wheeleri..............  Wheeler's           U.S.A. (PR).......  Piperaceae........        E       255                            NA         NA
                                   peperomia.
Peucedanum sandwicense..........  Makou.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Apiaceae..........        T       530     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                                                                                                                      and (i)
Phacelia argillacea.............  Clay phacelia.....  U.S.A. (UT).......  Hydrophyllaceae...        E        44                            NA         NA
Phacelia formosula..............  North Park          U.S.A. (CO).......  ......do..........        E       121                            NA         NA
                                   phacelia.

[[Page 82]]

 
Phacelia insularis ssp.           Island phacelia...  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       623                            NA         NA
 insularis.
Phlox hirsuta...................  Yreka phlox.......  ......do..........  Polemoniaceae.....        E       683                            NA         NA
Phlox nivalis ssp. texensis.....  Texas trailing      U.S.A. (TX).......  ......do..........        E       440                            NA         NA
                                   phlox.
Phyllostegia glabra var.          None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Lamiaceae.........        E       435                            NA         NA
 lanaiensis.
Phyllostegia hirsuta............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Phyllostegia kaalaensis.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Phyllostegia knudsenii..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Phyllostegia mannii.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480           17.99(c) and (e)(1)         NA
Phyllostegia mollis.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448           17.99(e)(1) and (i)         NA
Phyllostegia parviflora.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       592                      17.99(i)         NA
Phyllostegia racemosa...........  Kiponapona........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Phyllostegia velutina...........  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Phyllostegia waimeae............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Phyllostegia warshaueri.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Phyllostegia wawrana............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E      59 0                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Physaria obcordata..............  Dudley Bluffs       U.S.A. (CO).......  Brassicaceae......        T       374                            NA         NA
                                   twinpod.
Pilosocereus robinii............  Key tree-cactus...  U.S.A. (FL), Cuba.  Cactaceae.........        E       153                            NA         NA
Pinguicula ionantha.............  Godfrey's           U.S.A. (FL).......  Lentibulariaceae..        T       507                            NA         NA
                                   butterwort.
Piperia yadonii.................  Yadon's piperia...  U.S.A. (CA).......  Orchidaceae.......        E       640                            NA         NA
Pityopsis ruthii................  Ruth's golden       U.S.A. (TN).......  Asteraceae........        E       191                            NA         NA
                                   aster.
Plagiobothrys hirtus............  Rough               U.S.A. (OR).......  Boraginaceae......        E       678                            NA         NA
                                   popcornflower.
Plagiobothrys strictus..........  Calistoga           U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       625                            NA         NA
                                   allocarya.
Plantago hawaienis..............  Laukahi kuahiwi...  U.S.A (HI)........  Plantaginaceae....        E       532                      17.99(k)         NA
Plantago princeps...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       559     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                                                                                                                      and (i)
Platanthera holochila...........  None..............  ......do..........  Orchidaceae.......        E       592  17.99(a)(1), (e)(1), and (i)         NA
Platanthera leucophaea..........  Eastern prairie     U.S.A. (AR, IA,     ......do..........        T       368                            NA         NA
                                   fringed orchid.     IL, IN, ME, MI,
                                                       MO, NE, NJ, NY,
                                                       OH, OK, PA, VA,
                                                       WI), Canada
                                                       (Ont., N.B.).
Platanthera praeclara...........  Western prairie     U.S.A. (IA, KS,     ......do..........        T       368                            NA         NA
                                   fringed orchid.     MN, MO, ND, NE,
                                                       OK, SD), Canada
                                                       (Man.).
Pleodendron macranthum..........  Chupacallos.......  U.S.A. (PR).......  Canellaceae.......        E       564                            NA         NA
Pleomele hawaiiensis............  Hala pepe.........  U.S.A (HI)........  Liliaceae.........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Poa atropurpurea................  San Bernardino      U.S.A. (CA).......  Poaceae...........        E       644                            NA         NA
                                   bluegrass.
Poa mannii......................  Mann's bluegrass..  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       558                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Poa napensis....................  Napa bluegrass....  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       625                            NA         NA
Poa sandvicensis................  Hawaiian bluegrass  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       464                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Poa siphonoglossa...............  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       464                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Pogogyne abramsii...............  San Diego mesa      U.S.A. (CA).......  Lamiaceae.........        E        44                            NA         NA
                                   mint.
Pogogyne nudiuscula.............  Otay mesa mint....  U.S.A. (CA),        ......do..........        E       512                            NA         NA
                                                       Mexico (Baja
                                                       California).
Polygala lewtonii...............  Lewton's polygala.  U.S.A. (FL).......  Polygalaceae......        E       500                            NA         NA
Polygala smallii................  Tiny polygala.....  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       192                            NA         NA

[[Page 83]]

 
Polygonella basiramia...........  Wireweed..........  ......do..........  Polygonaceae......        E       256                            NA         NA
Polygonella myriophylla.........  Sandlace..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       500                            NA         NA
Polygonum hickmanii.............  Scotts Valley       U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       736                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   polygonum.
Portulaca sclerocarpa...........  Poe...............  U.S.A (HI)........  Portulacaceae.....        E       532         17.96(b) and 17.99(k)         NA
Potamogeton clystocarpus........  Little Aguja        U.S.A. (TX).......  Potamogetonaceae..        E       450                            NA         NA
                                   pondweed.
Potentilla hickmanii............  Hickman's           U.S.A. (CA).......  Rosaceae..........        E       640                            NA         NA
                                   potentilla.
Primula maguirei................  Maguire primrose..  U.S.A. (UT).......  Primulaceae.......        T       199                            NA         NA
Pritchardia affinis.............  Loulu.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Arecaceae.........        E       532                            NA         NA
Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii...  Wahane............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       586                            NA         NA
Pritchardia kaalae..............  Loulu.............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                            NA         NA
Pritchardia munroi..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                            NA         NA
Pritchardia napaliensis.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                            NA         NA
Pritchardia remota..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       587                      17.99(g)         NA
Pritchardia schattaueri.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       595                            NA         NA
Pritchardia viscosa.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                            NA         NA
Prunus geniculata...............  Scrub plum........  U.S.A. (FL).......  Rosaceae..........        E       256                            NA         NA
Pseudobahia bahiifolia..........  Hartweg's golden    U.S.A. (CA).......  Asteraceae........        E       609                            NA         NA
                                   sunburst.
Pseudobahia.....................  San Joaquin adobe   ......do..........  ......do..........        T       609                            NA         NA
                                   sunburst.
Pteralyxia kauaiensis...........  Kaulu.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Apocynaceae.......        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Ptilimnium nodosum..............  Harperella........  U.S.A. (AL, AR,     Apiaceae..........        E       332                            NA         NA
                                                       GA, MD, NC, SC,
                                                       WV).
Purshia subintegra..............  Arizona cliffrose.  U.S.A. (AZ).......  Rosaceae..........        E       148                            NA         NA
Quercus hinckleyi...............  Hinckley's oak....  U.S.A. (TX).......  Fagaceae..........        T       318                            NA         NA
Ranunculus acriformis var.        Autumn buttercup..  U.S.A. (UT).......  Ranunculaceae.....        E       355                            NA         NA
 aestivalis.
Remya kauaiensis................  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........        E       413                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Remya mauiensis.................  Maui remya........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       413                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Remya montgomeryi...............  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       413                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Rhododendron chapmanii..........  Chapman             U.S.A. (FL).......  Ericaceae.........        E        47                            NA         NA
                                   rhododendron.
Rhus michauxii..................  Michaux's sumac...  U.S.A. (GA, NC,     Anacardiaceae.....        E       367                            NA         NA
                                                       SC, VA).
Rhynchospora knieskernii........  Knieskern's beaked- U.S.A. (DE, NJ)...  Cyperaceae........        T       429                            NA         NA
                                   rush.
Ribes echinellum................  Miccosukee          U.S.A. (FL, SC)...  Saxifragaceae.....        T       190                            NA         NA
                                   gooseberry.
Rorippa gambellii...............  Gambel's            U.S.A. (CA).......  Brassicaceae......        E       511                            NA         NA
                                   watercress.
Sagittaria fasciculata..........  Bunched arrowhead.  U.S.A. (NC, SC)...  Alismataceae......        E        53                            NA         NA
Sagittaria secundifolia.........  Kral's water-       U.S.A. (AL, GA)...  ......do..........        T       386                            NA         NA
                                   plantain.
Sanicula mariversa..............  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Apiaceae..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Sanicula purpurea...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       592           17.99(e)(1) and (i)         NA
Santalum freycinetianum var.      Lanai sandalwood    ......do..........  Santalaceae.......        E       215                            NA         NA
 lanaiense.                        (=`iliahi).
Sarracenia oreophila............  Green pitcher-      U.S.A. (AL, GA,     Sarraceniaceae....        E    56, 89                            NA         NA
                                   plant.              NC, TN).
Sarracenia rubra ssp.             Alabama canebrake   U.S.A. (AL).......  ......do..........        E       346                            NA         NA
 alabamensis.                      pitcher-plant.
Sarracenia rubra ssp. jonesii...  Mountain sweet      U.S.A. (NC, SC)...  ......do..........        E       339                            NA         NA
                                   pitcher-plant.
Scaevola coriacea...............  Dwarf naupaka.....  U.S.A. (HI).......  Goodeniaceae......        E       231                            NA         NA
Schiedea adamantis..............  Diamond Head        ......do..........  Caryophyllaceae...        E       141                            NA         NA
                                   schiedea.
Schiedea apokremnos.............  Maolioli..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       441                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Schiedea haleakalensis..........  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Schiedea helleri................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA

[[Page 84]]

 
Schiedea hookeri................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       592                      17.99(i)         NA
Schiedea kaalae.................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Schiedea kauaiensis.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       592                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Schiedea kealiae................  Maolioli..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Schiedea lydgatei...............  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
Schiedea membranacea............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Schiedea nuttallii..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       592     17.99(a)(1), (c), and (i)         NA
Schiedea sarmentosa.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       594                      17.99(c)         NA
Schiedea spergulina var.          ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
 leiopoda.
Schiedea spergulina var.          ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
 spergulina.
Schiedea stellarioides..........  Laulihilihi         ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
                                   (=Maolioli).
Schiedea verticillata...........  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       587                      17.99(g)         NA
Schoenocrambe argillacea........  Clay reed-mustard.  U.S.A. (UT).......  Brassicaceae......        T       457                            NA         NA
Schoenocrambe barnebyi..........  Barneby reed-       ......do..........  ......do..........        E       457                            NA         NA
                                   mustard.
Schoenocrambe suffrutescens.....  Shrubby reed-       ......do..........  ......do..........        E       293                            NA         NA
                                   mustard.
Schoepfia arenaria..............  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Olacaceae.........        T       420                            NA         NA
Schwalbea americana.............  American chaffseed  U.S.A. (AL, CT,     Scrophulariaceae..        E       478                            NA         NA
                                                       DE, FL, GA, LA,
                                                       MA, MD, MI, MS,
                                                       NC, NJ, NY, SC,
                                                       TN, VA).
Scirpus ancistrochaetus.........  Northeastern        U.S.A. (MA, MD,     Cyperaceae........        E       425                            NA         NA
                                   bulrush.            NH, NY, PA, VA,
                                                       VT, WV).
Sclerocactus glaucus............  Uinta Basin         U.S.A. (CO, UT)...  Cactaceae.........        T        59                            NA         NA
                                   hookless cactus.
Sclerocactus mesae-verdae.......  Mesa Verde cactus.  U.S.A. (CO, NM)...  ......do..........        T        75                            NA         NA
Sclerocactus wrightiae..........  Wright fishhook     U.S.A. (UT).......  ......do..........        E        58                            NA         NA
                                   cactus.
Scutellaria floridana...........  Florida skullcap..  U.S.A. (FL).......  Lamiaceae.........        T       463                            NA         NA
Scutellaria montana.............  Large-flowered      U.S.A. (GA, TN)...  ......do..........        T  234, 720                            NA         NA
                                   skullcap.
Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi.  Leedy's roseroot..  U.S.A. (MN, NY)...  Crassulaceae......        T       460                            NA         NA
Senecio franciscanus............  San Francisco       U.S.A. (AZ).......  Asteraceae........        T       137                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   Peaks groundsel.
Senecio layneae.................  Layne's butterweed  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        T       596                            NA         NA
Serianthes nelsonii.............  Hayun lagu (Guam),  Western Pacific     Fabaceae..........        E  257, 259                            NA         NA
                                   Tronkon guafi       Ocean-U.S.A. (GU,
                                   (Rota).             MP-Rota).
Sesbania tomentosa..............  Ohai..............  U.S.A (HI)........  ......do..........        E       559     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                                                                                                            (g), (i), and (k)
Sibara filifolia................  Santa Cruz Island   U.S.A. (CA).......  Brassicaceae......        E       624                            NA         NA
                                   rock-cress.
Sicyos alba.....................  Anunu.............  U.S.A (HI)........  Cucurbitaceae.....        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
Sidalcea keckii.................  Keck's              U.S.A. (CA).......  Malvaceae--Mallow.        E       685                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   checkermallow.
Sidalcea nelsoniana.............  Nelson's checker-   U.S.A. (OR, WA)...  Malvaceae.........        T       490                            NA         NA
                                   mallow.
Sidalcea oregana var. calva.....  Wenatchee           U.S.A. (WA).......  Malvaceae--Mallow.        E       673                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   Mountains checker-
                                   mallow.

[[Page 85]]

 
Sidalcea oregana ssp. valida....  Kenwood Marsh       U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       625                            NA         NA
                                   checker-mallow.
Sidalcea pedata.................  Pedate checker-     ......do..........  ......do..........        E       158                            NA         NA
                                   mallow.
Silene alexandri................  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Caryophyllaceae...        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
Silene hawaiiensis..............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       532                      17.99(k)         NA
Silene lanceolata...............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480              17.99(c) and (i)         NA
Silene perlmanii................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Silene polypetala...............  Fringed campion...  U.S.A. (FL, GA)...  ......do..........        E       418                            NA         NA
Silene spaldingii...............  Spalding's          U.S.A. (OR, ID,     ......do..........        T       712                            NA         NA
                                   catchfly.           MT, WA), Canada
                                                       (B.C.).
Sisyrinchium dichotomum.........  White irisette....  U.S.A. (NC).......  Iridaceae.........        E       438                            NA         NA
Solanum drymophilum.............  Erubia............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Solanaceae........        E       319                            NA         NA
Solanum incompletum.............  Popolo ku mai.....  U.S.A (HI)........  ......do..........        E       559                      17.99(k)         NA
Solanum sandwicense.............  Aiakeakua, popolo.  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530           17.99(a)(1) and (i)         NA
Solidago albopilosa.............  White-haired        U.S.A. (KY).......  Asteraceae........        T       308                            NA         NA
                                   goldenrod.
Solidago houghtonii.............  Houghton's          U.S.A. (MI),        ......do..........        T       314                            NA         NA
                                   goldenrod.          Canada (Ont.).
Solidago shortii................  Short's goldenrod.  U.S.A. (KY).......  ......do..........        E       201                            NA         NA
Solidago spithamaea.............  Blue Ridge          U.S.A. (NC, TN)...  ......do..........        T       175                            NA         NA
                                   goldenrod.
Spermolepis hawaiiensis.........  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Apiaceae..........        E       559     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                                                                                                                      and (i)
Spigelia gentianoides...........  Gentian pinkroot..  U.S.A. (AL, FL)...  Loganiaceae.......        E       406                            NA         NA
Spiraea virginiana..............  Virginia spiraea..  U.S.A. (GA, KY,     Rosaceae..........        T       389                            NA         NA
                                                       NC, OH, PA, TN,
                                                       VA, WV).
Spiranthes delitescens..........  Canelo Hills        U.S.A. (AZ).......  Orchidaceae.......        E       600                            NA         NA
                                   ladies'-tresses.
Spiranthes diluvialis...........  Ute ladies'-        U.S.A. (CO, ID,     ......do..........        T       458                            NA         NA
                                   tresses.            MT, NE, NV, UT,
                                                       WA, WY).
Spiranthes parksii..............  Navasota ladies'-   U.S.A. (TX).......  ......do..........        E       116                            NA         NA
                                   tresses.
Stahlia monosperma..............  C[oacute]bana       U.S.A. (PR),        Fabaceae..........        T       380                            NA         NA
                                   negra.              Dominican
                                                       Republic.
Stenogyne angustifolia var.       None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Lamiaceae.........        E        73                            NA         NA
 angustifolia.
Stenogyne bifida................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       480                      17.99(c)         NA
Stenogyne campanulata...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       464                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Stenogyne kanehoana.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       466                      17.99(i)         NA
Stephanomeria malheurensis......  Malheur wire-       U.S.A. (OR).......  Asteraceae........        E       126                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   lettuce.
Streptanthus albidus ssp.         Metcalf Canyon      U.S.A. (CA).......  Brassicaceae......        E       575                            NA         NA
 albidus.                          jewelflower.
Streptanthus niger..............  Tiburon             ......do..........  ......do..........        E       575                            NA         NA
                                   jewelflower.
Styrax portoricensis............  Palo de jazmfn....  U.S.A. (PR).......  Styracaceae.......        E       461                            NA         NA
Styrax texanus..................  Texas snowbells...  U.S.A. (TX).......  ......do..........        E       162                            NA         NA
Suaeda californica..............  Seablite,           U.S.A. (CA).......  Chenopodiaceae....        E       567                            NA         NA
                                   California.
Swallenia alexandrae............  Eureka Dune grass.  ......do..........  Poaceae...........        E        39                            NA         NA
Taraxacum californicum..........  California          ......do..........  Asteraceae........        E       644                            NA         NA
                                   taraxacum.
Ternstroemia luquillensis.......  Palo colorado.....  U.S.A. (PR).......  Theaceae..........        E       461                            NA         NA
Ternstroemia subsessilis........  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       461                            NA         NA
Tetramolopium arenarium.........  ......do..........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........        E       532                            NA         NA
Tetramolopium capillare.........  Pamakani..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       555                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
Tetramolopium filiforme.........  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp.      ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
 lepidotum.
Tetramolopium remyi.............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       435      17.96(b) and 17.99(e)(1)         NA

[[Page 86]]

 
Tetramolopium rockii............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       480                      17.99(c)         NA
Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa.......  Oheohe............  ......do..........  Araliaceae........        E       536                      17.99(i)         NA
Thalictrum cooleyi..............  Cooley's meadowrue  U.S.A. (FL, NC)...  Ranunculaceae.....        E       344                            NA         NA
Thelypodium howellii ssp.         Howell's            U.S.A. (OR).......  Brassicaceae......        T       662                            NA         NA
 spectabilis.                      spectacular
                                   thelypody.
Thelypodium stenopetalum........  Slender-petaled     U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       158                            NA         NA
                                   mustard.
Thlaspi californicum............  Kneeland Prairie    ......do..........  Brassicaceae--....        E       684                      17.96(a)         NA
                                   penny-cress.                           Mustard...........
Thymophylla tephroleuca.........  Ashy dogweed......  U.S.A. (TX).......  Asteraceae........        E       152                            NA         NA
Thysanocarpus conchuliferus.....  Santa Cruz Island   U.S.A. (CA).......  Brassicaceae......        E       623                            NA         NA
                                   fringepod.
Townsendia aprica...............  Last Chance         U.S.A. (UT).......  Asteraceae........        T       200                            NA         NA
                                   townsendia.
Trematolobelia singularis.......  None..............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Campanulaceae.....        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Trichilia triacantha............  Bariaco...........  U.S.A. (PR).......  Meliaceae.........        E       303                            NA         NA
Trichostema austromontanum ssp.   Hidden Lake         U.S.A. (CA).......  Lamiaceae.........        T       644                            NA         NA
 compactum.                        bluecurls.
Trifolium amoenum...............  Showy Indian        ......do..........  Fabaceae..........        E       625                            NA         NA
                                   clover.
Trifolium stoloniferum..........  Running buffalo     U.S.A. (AR, IL,     ......do..........        E       270                            NA         NA
                                   clover.             IN, KS, KY, MO,
                                                       OH, WV).
Trifolium trichocalyx...........  Monterey clover...  U.S.A. (CA).......  ......do..........        E       640                            NA         NA
Trillium persistens.............  Persistent          U.S.A. (GA, SC)...  Liliaceae.........        E        39                            NA         NA
                                   trillium.
Trillium reliquum...............  Relict trillium...  U.S.A. (AL, GA,     ......do..........        E       306                            NA         NA
                                                       SC).
Tuctoria greenei................  Greene's tuctoria.  U.S.A. (CA).......  Poaceae...........        T       611                      17.96(a)         NA
Tuctoria mucronata..............  Solano grass......  ......do..........  ......do..........        T        44                      17.96(a)         NA
Urera kaalae....................  Opuhe.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Urticaceae........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Verbena californica.............  Red Hills vervain.  U.S.A. (CA).......  Verbenaceae.......        T       644                            NA         NA
Verbesina dissita...............  Big-leaved          U.S.A. (CA),        Asteraceae........        T       589                            NA         NA
                                   crownbeard.         Mexico..
Vernonia proctorii..............  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  ......do..........        E       501                            NA         NA
Vicia menziesii.................  Hawaiian vetch....  U.S.A. (HI).......  Fabaceae..........        E        39                            NA         NA
Vigna o-wahuensis...............  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       559     17.99(e)(1), (i), and (k)         NA
Viola chamissoniana ssp.          Pamakani..........  ......do..........  Violaceae.........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
 chamissoniana.
Viola helenae...................  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       436                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Viola kauaiensis var.             Nani waialeale....  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       590                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
 wahiawaensis.
Viola lanaiensis................  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       435                            NA         NA
Viola oahuensis.................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       591                      17.99(i)         NA
Warea amplexifolia..............  Wide-leaf warea...  U.S.A. (FL).......  Brassicaceae......        E       266                            NA         NA
Warea carteri...................  Carter's mustard..  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       256                            NA         NA
Wilkesia hobdyi.................  Dwarfiliau........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Asteraceae........        E       473                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Xylosma crenatum................  None..............  ......do..........  Flacourtiaceae....        E       464                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Xyris tennesseensis.............  Tennessee yellow-   U.S.A. (AL, GA,     Xyridaceae........        E       430                            NA         NA
                                   eyed grass.         TN).
Yermo xanthocephalus............  Desert yellowhead.  U.S.A. (WY).......  Asteraceae--Sunflo        T       723                      17.96(a)         NA
                                                                           wer.
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var.        Ae................  U.S.A (HI)........  Rutaceae..........        E       595                      17.99(k)         NA
 tomentosum.

[[Page 87]]

 
Zanthoxylum hawaiiense..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       532  17.99(a)(1), (c), and (e)(1)         NA
Zanthoxylum thomasianum.........  St. Thomas prickly- U.S.A. (PR, VI)...  ......do..........        E       213                            NA         NA
                                   ash.
Zizania texana..................  Texas wild-rice...  U.S.A. (TX).......  Poaceae...........        E        39                      17.96(a)         NA
Ziziphus celata.................  Florida ziziphus..  U.S.A. (FL).......  Rhamnaceae........        E       356                            NA         NA
 
            Conifers
 
Abies guatemalensis.............  Guatemalan fir      Mexico, Guatemala,  Pinaceae..........        T        84                            NA         NA
                                   (=pinabete).        Honduras, El
                                                       Salvador.
Cupressus abramsiana............  Santa Cruz cypress  U.S.A. (CA).......  Cupressaceae......        E       252                            NA         NA
Cupressus goveniana ssp.          Gowen cypress.....  ......do..........  ......do..........        T       640                            NA         NA
 goveniana.
Fitzroya cupressoides...........  Alerce or Chilean   Chile, Argentina..  ......do..........        T        79                            NA         NA
                                   false larch.
Torreya taxifolia...............  Florida torreya...  U.S.A. (FL, GA)...  Taxaceae..........        E       140                            NA         NA
 
        Ferns and Allies
 
Adenophorus periens.............  Pendent kihi fern.  U.S.A (HI)........  Grammitidaceae....        E       559    17.99(a)(1), (c), (i), and         NA
                                                                                                                                          (k)
Adiantum vivesii................  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  Adiantaceae.......        E       504                            NA         NA
Asplenium fragile var. insulare.  ......do..........  U.S.A (HI)........  Aspleniaceae......        E       553           17.99(e)(1) and (k)         NA
Asplenium scolopendrium var.      American hart's-    U.S.A. (AL, MI,     ......do..........        T       354                            NA         NA
 americanum.                       tongue fern.        NY, TN), Canada
                                                       (Ont.).
Ctenitis squamigera.............  Pauoa.............  U.S.A. (HI).......  ......do..........        E       553     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                                                                                                                      and (i)
Cyathea dryopteroides...........  Elfin tree fern...  U.S.A. (PR).......  Cyatheaceae.......        E       277                            NA         NA
Diellia erecta..................  Asplenium-leaved    U.S.A (HI)........  Aspleniaceae......        E       559     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                   diellia.                                                                                      (i), and (k)
Diellia falcata.................  None..............  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       448                      17.99(i)         NA
Diellia pallida.................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       530                   17.99(a)(1)         NA
Diellia unisora.................  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       541                      17.99(i)         NA
Diplazium molokaiense...........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       553     17.99(a)(1), (c), (e)(1),         NA
                                                                                                                                      and (i)
Elaphoglossum serpens...........  ......do..........  U.S.A. (PR).......  Lomariopsidaceae..        E       504                            NA         NA
Huperzia (=Phlegmariurus,         Wawae`iole........  U.S.A. (HI).......  Lycopodiaceae.....        E       467                            NA         NA
 =Lycopodium) mannii.
Isoetes louisianensis...........  Louisiana           U.S.A. (LA, MS)...  Isoetaceae........        E       482                            NA         NA
                                   quillwort.
Isoetes melanospora.............  Black-spored        U.S.A. (GA, SC)...  ......do..........        E       302                            NA         NA
                                   quillwort.
Isoetes tegetiformans...........  Mat-forming         U.S.A. (GA).......  ......do..........        E       302                            NA         NA
                                   quillwort.
Marsilea villosa................  Ihiihi............  U.S.A. (HI).......  Marsileaceae......        E       474                      17.99(i)         NA
Phlegmariurus                     Wawaeiole.........  ......do..........  Lycopodiaceae.....        E       467                   17.99(e)(1)         NA
 (=Lycopodium,=Huperzia) mannii.
Phlegmariurus nutans............  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       536           17.99(a)(1) and (i)         NA
Polystichum aleuticum...........  Aleutian shield-    U.S.A. (AK).......  Dryopteridaceae...        E       305                            NA         NA
                                   fern.
Polystichum calderonense........  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  ......do..........        E       504                            NA         NA
Pteris lidgatei.................  None..............  ......do..........  Adiantaceae.......        E       553     17.99(c), (e)(1), and (i)         NA
Tectaria estremerana............  ......do..........  ......do..........  Dryopteridaceae...        E       504                            NA         NA
Thelypteris inabonensis.........  ......do..........  ......do..........  Thelypteridaceae..        E       506                            NA         NA
Thelypteris pilosa var.           Alabama streak-     U.S.A. (AL).......  ......do..........        T       476                            NA         NA
 alabamensis.                      sorus fern.
Thelypteris verecunda...........  None..............  U.S.A. (PR).......  ......do..........        E       506                            NA         NA
Thelypteris yaucoensis..........  ......do..........  ......do..........  ......do..........        E       506                            NA         NA
 

[[Page 88]]

 
             Lichens
 
Cladonia perforata..............  Florida perforate   U.S.A. (FL).......  Cladoniaceae......        E       500                            NA         NA
                                   cladonia.
Gymnoderma lineare..............  Rock gnome lichen.  U.S.A. (NC,TN)....  ......do..........        E       572                            NA         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Symbols used in the ``when listed'' column:
D--Indicates FR where species was Delisted; relisting of the species is indicated by subsequent number(s).
E--Indicates Emergency rule publication (see FR document for effective dates); subsequent number(s) indicate FR final rule, if applicable, under ``When
  listed''.


[[Page 89]]

26--42 FR 40685; August 11, 1977.
39--43 FR 17916; April 26, 1978.
44--43 FR 44811; September 28, 1978.
47--44 FR 24250; April 24, 1979.
49--44 FR 32605; June 6, 1979.
53--44 FR 43701; July 25, 1979.
56--44 FR 54923; September 21, 1979.
57--44 FR 56863; October 2, 1979.
58--44 FR 58868; October 11, 1979.
59--44 FR 58870; October 11, 1979.
61--44 FR 61556; October 25, 1979.
62--44 FR 61558; October 25, 1979.
63--44 FR 61786; October 26, 1979.
64--44 FR 61788; October 26, 1979.
65--44 FR 61911; October 26, 1979.
66--44 FR 61913; October 26, 1979.
67--44 FR 61917; October 26, 1979.
68--44 FR 61920; October 26, 1979.
69--44 FR 61924; October 26, 1979.
70--44 FR 61927; October 26, 1979.
71--44 FR 61929; October 26, 1979.
72--44 FR 62246; October 29, 1979.
73--44 FR 62469; October 30, 1979.
74--44 FR 62471; October 30, 1979.
75--44 FR 62474; October 30, 1979.
76--44 FR 64247; November 6, 1979.
77--44 FR 64250; November 6, 1979.
78--44 FR 64252; November 6, 1979.
79--44 FR 64733; November 7, 1979.
80--44 FR 64738; November 7, 1979.
81--44 FR 64740; November 7, 1979.
82--44 FR 64734; November 7, 1979.
83--44 FR 64746; November 7, 1979.
84--44 FR 65005; November 8, 1979.
89--45 FR 18929; March 24, 1980.
101--45 FR 53969; August 13, 1980.
104--45 FR 61947; September 17, 1980.
107--45 FR 69362; October 20, 1980.
109--46 FR 3186; January 13, 1981.
110--46 FR 5733; January 19, 1981.
112--46 FR 40025; August 6, 1981.
116--47 FR 19542; May 6, 1982.
118--47 FR 30443; July 13, 1982.
120--47 FR 36849; August 24, 1982.
121--47 FR 38540; September 1, 1982.
122--47 FR 38927; September 9, 1982.
126--47 FR 50885; November 10, 1982.
133--48 FR 46331; October 12, 1983.
137--48 FR 52747; November 22, 1983.
140--49 FR 2786; January 23, 1984.
141--49 FR 6102; February 17, 1984.
147--49 FR 21058; May 18, 1984.
148--49 FR 22329; May 29, 1984.
151--49 FR 28565; July 13, 1984.
152--49 FR 29234; July 19, 1984.
153--49 FR 29237; July 19, 1984.
154--49 FR 30201; July 27, 1984.
155--49 FR 31421; August 7, 1984.
158--49 FR 34500; August 31, 1984.
162--49 FR 40038; October 12, 1984.
165--49 FR 44756; November 9, 1984.
167--49 FR 47400; December 4, 1984.
172--50 FR 5758; February 12, 1985.
175--50 FR 12309; March 28, 1985.
176--50 FR 15567; April 19, 1985.
177--50 FR 16682; April 26, 1985.
178--50 FR 19373; May 8, 1985.
179--50 FR 19377; May 8, 1985.
180--50 FR 20214; May 15, 1985.
181--50 FR 20786; May 20, 1985.
187--50 FR 26572; June 27, 1985.
190--50 FR 29341; July 18, 1985.
191--50 FR 29344; July 18, 1985.
192--50 FR 29349; July 18, 1985.
194--50 FR 31190; August 1, 1985.
197--50 FR 32575; August 13, 1985.
198--50 FR 33731; August 21, 1985.
199--50 FR 33734; August 21, 1985.
200--50 FR 33737; August 21, 1985.
201--50 FR 36089; September 5, 1985.
202--50 FR 36091; September 5, 1985.
204--50 FR 37863; September 18, 1985.
207--50 FR 45624; November 1, 1985.
208--50 FR 45621; November 1, 1985.
209--50 FR 45624; November 1, 1985.
213--50 FR 51870; December 20, 1985.
214--51 FR 956; January 9, 1986.
215--51 FR 3185; January 24, 1986.
217--51 FR 6693; February 25, 1986.
218--51 FR 8683; March 13, 1986.
219--51 FR 9820; March 21, 1986.
220--51 FR 10521; March 26, 1986.
221--51 FR 10523; March 26, 1986.
225--51 FR 15906; April 29, 1986.
226--51 FR 15911; April 29, 1986.
229--51 FR 16530; May 5, 1986.
230--51 FR 17346; May 12, 1986.
231--51 FR 17974; May 16, 1986.
232--51 FR 17977; May 16, 1986.
234--51 FR 22524; June 20, 1986.
235--51 FR 23769; July 1, 1986.
237--51 FR 24672; July 8, 1986.
238--51 FR 24675; July 8, 1986.
240--51 FR 27500; July 31, 1986.
243--51 FR 34415; September 26, 1986.
244--51 FR 34419; September 26, 1986.
245--51 FR 34422; September 26, 1986.
249--51 FR 45907; December 23, 1986.
252--52 FR 679; January 8, 1987.
253--52 FR 682; January 8, 1987.
254--52 FR 784; January 9, 1987.
255--52 FR 1462; January 14, 1987.
256--52 FR 2234; January 21, 1987.
257--52 FR 4910; February 18, 1987.
259--52 FR 6651; March 4, 1987.
260--52 FR 7426; March 11, 1987.
264--52 FR 11175; April 7, 1987.
266--52 FR 15505; April 29, 1987.
270--52 FR 21480; June 5, 1987.
271--52 FR 21484; June 5, 1987.
274--52 FR 22589; June 12, 1987.
275--52 FR 22933; June 16, 1987.
276--52 FR 22936; June 16, 1987.
277--52 FR 22939; June 16, 1987.
285--52 FR 32929; September 1, 1987.
286--52 FR 34917; September 16, 1987.
291--52 FR 36270; September 28, 1987.
293--52 FR 37420; October 6, 1987.
295--52 FR 41440; October 28, 1987.
297--52 FR 42071; November 2, 1987.
298--52 FR 42657; November 6, 1987.
300--52 FR 44401; November 19, 1987.
301--52 FR 46087; December 4, 1987.
302--53 FR 3565; February 5, 1988.

[[Page 90]]

303--53 FR 3567; February 5, 1988.
305--53 FR 4629; February 17, 1988.
306--53 FR 10884; April 4, 1988.
307--53 FR 11612; April 7, 1988.
308--53 FR 11615; April 7, 1988.
309--53 FR 23742; June 23, 1988.
310--53 FR 23745; June 23, 1988.
311--53 FR 23748; June 23, 1988.
314--53 FR 27137; July 18, 1988.
315--53 FR 27141; July 18, 1988.
318--53 FR 32827; August 26, 1988.
319--53 FR 32830; August 26, 1988.
321--53 FR 33996; September 1, 1988.
324--53 FR 34701; September 7, 1988.
325--53 FR 34705; September 7, 1988.
326--53 FR 35080; September 9, 1988.
329--53 FR 37972; September 28, 1988.
330--53 FR 37975; September 28, 1988.
331--53 FR 37978; September 28, 1988.
332--53 FR 37982; September 28, 1988.
333--53 FR 38451; September 30, 1988.
335--53 FR 38456; September 30, 1988.
339--53 FR 38474; September 30, 1988.
341--53 FR 45861; November 14, 1988.
343--54 FR 2134; January 19, 1989.
344--54 FR 5938; February 7, 1989.
346--54 FR 10154; March 10, 1989.
347--54 FR 14967; April 14, 1989.
352--54 FR 29658; July 13, 1989.
353--54 FR 29663; July 13, 1989.
354--54 FR 29730; July 14, 1989.
355--54 FR 30554; July 21, 1989.
356--54 FR 31196; July 27, 1989.
360--54 FR 35305; August 24, 1989.
362--54 FR 38947; September 21, 1989.
363--54 FR 38950; September 21, 1989.
367--54 FR 39857; September 28, 1989.
368--54 FR 39863; September 28, 1989.
373--55 FR 433; January 5, 1990.
374--55 FR 4157; February 6, 1990.
375--55 FR 4159; February 6, 1990.
379--55 FR 12790; April 5, 1990.
380--55 FR 12793; April 5, 1990.
381--55 FR 12797; April 5, 1990.
385--55 FR 13491; April 10, 1990.
386--55 FR 13911; April 13, 1990.
389--55 FR 24246; June 15, 1990.
392--55 FR 25599; June 21, 1990.
395--55 FR 29370; July 19, 1990.
397--55 FR 32255; August 8, 1990.
398--55 FR 32257; August 8, 1990.
402--55 FR 39864; September 28, 1990.
403--55 FR 39867; September 28, 1990.
406--55 FR 49050; November 26, 1990.
409--55 FR 50187; December 5, 1990.
413--56 FR 1454; January 14, 1991.
414--56 FR 1457; January 14, 1991.
418--56 FR 1936; January 18, 1991.
420--56 FR 16024; April 19, 1991.
422--56 FR 19959; May 1, 1991.
424--56 FR 21091; May 7, 1991.
425--56 FR 21096; May 7, 1991.
429--56 FR 32983; July 18, 1991.
430--56 FR 34154; July 26, 1991.
434--56 FR 46239; September 11, 1991.
435--56 FR 47694; September 20, 1991.
436--56 FR 47699; September 20, 1991.
437--56 FR 48751; September 26, 1991.
438--56 FR 48755; September 26, 1991.
439--56 FR 49636; September 30, 1991.
440--56 FR 49639; September 30, 1991.
441--56 FR 49643; September 30, 1991.
445--56 FR 49853; October 2, 1991.
448--56 FR 55785; October 29, 1991.
450--56 FR 57849; November 14, 1991.
451--56 FR 60937; November 29, 1991.
452--56 FR 60940; November 29, 1991.
453--56 FR 61182; December 2, 1991.
457--57 FR 1403; January 14, 1992.
458--57 FR 2053; January 17, 1992.
460--57 FR 14653; April 22, 1992.
461--57 FR 14785; April 22, 1992.
463--57 FR 19819; May 8, 1992.
464--57 FR 20588; May 13, 1992.
465--57 FR 20592; May 13, 1992.
466--57 FR 20595; May 13, 1992.
467--57 FR 20787; May 15, 1992.
468--57 FR 21564; May 20, 1992.
470--57 FR 21574; May 20, 1992.
471--57 FR 24199; June 8, 1992.
472--57 FR 27858; June 22, 1992.
473--57 FR 27863; June 22, 1992.
474--57 FR 27867; June 22, 1992.
476--57 FR 30168; July 8, 1992.
478--57 FR 44708; September 29, 1992.
480--57 FR 46339; October 8, 1992.
481--57 FR 46344; October 8, 1992.
482--57 FR 48747; October 28, 1992.
490--58 FR 8242; February 12, 1993.
491--58 FR 11552; February 26, 1993.
497--58 FR 18035; April 7, 1993.
498--58 FR 18041; April 7, 1993.
500--58 FR 25754; April 27, 1993.
501--58 FR 25758; April 27, 1993.
504--58 FR 32311; June 9, 1993.
506--58 FR 35891; July 2, 1993.
507--58 FR 37443; July 12, 1993.
509--58 FR 40547; July 28, 1993.
510--58 FR 40551; July 28, 1993.
511--58 FR 41383; August 3, 1993.
512--58 FR 41391; August 3, 1993.
515--58 FR 49879; September 23, 1993.
519--58 FR 52030; October 6, 1993.
521--58 FR 53807; October 18, 1993.
523--58 FR 62050; November 24, 1993.
524--58 FR 68480; December 27, 1993.
528--59 FR 5510; February 4, 1994.
529--59 FR 8141; February 18, 1994.
530--59 FR 9327; February 25, 1994.
531--59 FR 9937; March 2, 1994.
532--59 FR 10324; March 4, 1994.
535--59 FR 13840; March 23, 1994.
536--59 FR 14493; March 28, 1994.
541--59 FR 32937; June 27, 1994.
542--59 FR 35864; July 14, 1994.
544--59 FR 42176; August 17, 1994.
547--59 FR 43652; August 24, 1994.
548--59 FR 43664; August 24, 1994.
551--59 FR 46718; September 9, 1994.
553--59 FR 49031; September 26, 1994.
555--59 FR 49863; September 30, 1994.
556--59 FR 50857; October 6, 1994.
558--59 FR 56333; November 10, 1994.
559--59 FR 56350; November 10, 1994.

[[Page 91]]

560--59 FR 59177; November 16, 1994.
564--59 FR 60568; November 25, 1994.
565--59 FR 62352; December 05, 1994.
567--59 FR 64623; December 15, 1994.
570--60 FR 61; January 3, 1995.
572--60 FR 3562; January 18, 1995.
575--60 FR 6684; February 3, 1995.
578--60 FR 12486; March 7, 1995.
581--61 FR 10697; March 15, 1996.
584--61 FR 31058; June 19, 1996.
586--61 FR 41023; August 7, 1996.
587--61 FR 43184; August 21, 1996.
589--61 FR 52384; October 7, 1996.
590--61 FR 53088; October 10, 1996.
591--61 FR 53107; October 10, 1996.
592--61 FR 53123; October 10, 1996.
593--61 FR 53130; October 10, 1996.
594--61 FR 53137; October 10, 1996.
595--61 FR 53152; October 10, 1996.
596--61 FR 54358; October 18, 1996.
599--61 FR 67497; December 23, 1996.
600--62 FR 689; January 6, 1997.
601--62 FR 1647; January 10, 1997.
603--62 FR 1694; January 13, 1997.
606--62 FR 4182; January 29, 1997.
609--62 FR 5551; February 6, 1997.
611--62 FR 14351; March 26, 1997.
615--62 FR 31748; June 11, 1997.
619--62 FR 33037; June 18, 1997.
620--62 FR 33373; June 19, 1997.
623--62 FR 40973; July 31, 1997.
624--62 FR 42702; August 8, 1997.
625--62 FR 54807; October 22, 1997.
627--62 FR 61925; November 20, 1997.
635--63 FR 19849; April 22, 1998.
640--63 FR 43115; August 12, 1998.
641--63 FR 44594; August 20, 1998.
643--63 FR 49034; September 14, 1998.
644--63 FR 49021; September 14, 1998.
647--63 FR 53615; October 6, 1998.
648--63 FR 54970; October 13, 1998.
649--63 FR 54956; October 13, 1998.
650--63 FR 54994; October 13, 1998.
652--63 FR 59244; November 3, 1998.
657--64 FR 13120; March 17, 1999.
661--64 FR 28412; May 26, 1999.
662--64 FR 28403; May 26, 1999.
663--64 FR 28392; May 26, 1999.
666--64 FR 48323; September 3, 1999.
667--64 FR 56590; October 20, 1999.
668--64 FR 56596; October 20, 1999.
671--64 FR 63752; November 22, 1999.
672--64 FR 69203; December 10, 1999.
673--64 FR 71687; December 22, 1999.
678--65 FR 3875; January 25, 2000.
679--65 FR 3890; January 25, 2000.
681--65 FR 4162; January 26, 2000.
683--65 FR 5275; February 3, 2000.
684--65 FR 6338; February 9, 2000.
685--65 FR 7764; February 16, 2000.
689--65 FR 14887; March 20, 2000.
690--65 FR 14909; March 20, 2000.
691--65 FR 14897; March 20, 2000.
704--65 FR 62310; October 18, 2000.
708--66 FR 27908; May 21, 2001.
711--66 FR 49567; September 28, 2001.
712--66 FR 51606; October 10, 2001.
720--67 FR 1668; January 14, 2002.
721--67 FR 3125; January 23, 2002.
722--67 FR 5525; February 6, 2002.
723--67 FR 11449; March 14, 2002.
727--67 FR 44382; July 2, 2002.
733--67 FR 68015; November 7, 2002.
736--68 FR 16988; April 8, 2003.
739--68 FR 59344; October 15, 2003.
742--69 FR 18506, April 8, 2004.

    Editorial Note 1: For Federal Register citations affecting the table 
in Sec.  17.12(h), see the listing above.

    Editorial Note 2: For Federal Register citations affecting Sec.  
17.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the 
Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO Access.

    Effective Date Note: At 72 FR 55006, Sept. 27, 2007, Sec.  17.12 was 
amended in the table in paragraph (h) by revising the entry for 
``Ceanothus ophiochilus'' and the entry for ``Fremontodendron 
mexicanum'' under ``FLOWERING PLANTS'', effective Oct. 29, 2007. For the 
convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows:



Sec.  17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

                                * * * * *

    (h) * * *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                          Species
------------------------------------------------------------     Historic range              Family           Status       When     Critical    Special
          Scientific name                  Common name                                                                    listed    habitat      rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FLOWERING PLANTS
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
    Ceanothus ophiochilus..........  Vail Lake ceanothus...  U.S.A. (CA)...........  Rhamnaceae...........          T         648   17.96(a)         NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
    Fremontodendron mexicanum......  Mexican flannelbush...  U.S.A. (CA), Mexico...  Sterculiaceae........          E         648   17.96(a)         NA
 
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 92]]



                      Subpart C_Endangered Wildlife



Sec.  17.21  Prohibitions.

    (a) Except as provided in subpart A of this part, or under permits 
issued pursuant to Sec.  17.22 or Sec.  17.23, it is unlawful for any 
person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to commit, to 
attempt to commit, to solicit another to commit or to cause to be 
committed, any of the acts described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of 
this section in regard to any endangered wildlife.
    (b) Import or export. It is unlawful to import or to export any 
endangered wildlife. Any shipment in transit through the United States 
is an importation and an exportation, whether or not it has entered the 
country for customs purposes.
    (c) Take. (1) It is unlawful to take endangered wildlife within the 
United States, within the territorial sea of the United States, or upon 
the high seas. The high seas shall be all waters seaward of the 
territorial sea of the United States, except waters officially 
recognized by the United States as the territorial sea of another 
country, under international law.
    (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any person may 
take endangered wildlife in defense of his own life or the lives of 
others.
    (3) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any employee 
or agent of the Service, any other Federal land management agency, the 
National Marine Fisheries Service, or a State conservation agency, who 
is designated by his agency for such purposes, may, when acting in the 
course of his official duties, take endangered wildlife without a permit 
if such action is necessary to:
    (i) Aid a sick, injured or orphaned specimen; or
    (ii) Dispose of a dead specimen; or
    (iii) Salvage a dead specimen which may be useful for scientific 
study; or
    (iv) Remove specimens which constitute a demonstrable but 
nonimmediate threat to human safety, provided that the taking is done in 
a humane manner; the taking may involve killing or injuring only if it 
has not been reasonably possible to eliminate such threat by live-
capturing and releasing the specimen unharmed, in a remote area.
    (4) Any taking under paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) of this section must 
be reported in writing to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of 
Law Enforcement, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, LE-3000, Arlington, VA 22203, 
within five days. The specimen may only be retained, disposed of, or 
salvaged under directions from the Office of Law Enforcement.
    (5) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any qualified 
employee or agent of a State Conservation Agency which is a party to a 
Cooperative Agreement with the Service in accordance with section 6(c) 
of the Act, who is designated by his agency for such purposes, may, when 
acting in the course of his official duties take those endangered 
species which are covered by an approved cooperative agreement for 
conservation programs in accordance with the Cooperative Agreement, 
provided that such taking is not reasonably anticipated to result in:
    (i) The death or permanent disabling of the specimen;
    (ii) The removal of the specimen from the State where the taking 
occurred;
    (iii) The introduction of the specimen so taken, or of any progeny 
derived from such a specimen, into an area beyond the historical range 
of the species; or
    (iv) The holding of the specimen in captivity for a period of more 
than 45 consecutive days.
    (6) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any person 
acting under a valid migratory bird rehabilitation permit issued 
pursuant to Sec.  21.31 of this subchapter may take endangered migratory 
birds without an endangered species permit if such action is necessary 
to aid a sick, injured, or orphaned endangered migratory bird, provided 
the permittee:
    (i) Notifies the issuing Migratory Bird Permit Office immediately 
upon receipt of such bird (contact information for your issuing office 
is listed on your permit and on the Internet at http://offices.fws.gov); 
and

[[Page 93]]

    (ii) Disposes of or transfers such birds, or their parts or 
feathers, as directed by the Migratory Bird Permit Office.
    (7) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, persons exempt 
from the permit requirements of Sec.  21.12(c) and (d) of this 
subchapter may take sick and injured endangered migratory birds without 
an endangered species permit in performing the activities authorized 
under Sec.  21.12(c) and (d).
    (d) Possession and other acts with unlawfully taken wildlife. (1) It 
is unlawful to possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, or ship, by any 
means whatsoever, any endangered wildlife which was taken in violation 
of paragraph (c) of this section.

    Example. A person captures a whooping crane in Texas and gives it to 
a second person, who puts it in a closed van and drives thirty miles, to 
another location in Texas. The second person then gives the whooping 
crane to a third person, who is apprehended with the bird in his 
possession. All three have violated the law--the first by illegally 
taking the whooping crane; the second by transporting an illegally taken 
whooping crane; and the third by possessing an illegally taken whooping 
crane.

    (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(1) of this section, Federal and 
State law enforcement officers may possess, deliver, carry, transport or 
ship any endangered wildlife taken in violation of the Act as necessary 
in performing their official duties.
    (3) Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(1) of this section, any person 
acting under a valid migratory bird rehabilitation permit issued 
pursuant to Sec.  21.31 of this subchapter may possess and transport 
endangered migratory birds without an endangered species permit when 
such action is necessary to aid a sick, injured, or orphaned endangered 
migratory bird, provided the permittee:
    (i) Notifies the issuing Migratory Bird Permit Office immediately 
upon receipt of such bird (contact information for your issuing office 
is listed on your permit and on the Internet at http://offices.fws.gov); 
and
    (ii) Disposes of or transfers such birds, or their parts or 
feathers, as directed by the Migratory Bird Permit Office.
    (4) Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(1) of this section, persons exempt 
from the permit requirements of Sec.  21.12(c) and (d) of this 
subchapter may possess and transport sick and injured endangered 
migratory bird species without an endangered species permit in 
performing the activities authorized under Sec.  21.12(c) and (d).
    (e) Interstate or foreign commerce. It is unlawful to deliver, 
receive, carry transport, or ship in interstate or foreign commerce, by 
any means whatsoever, and in the course of a commercial activity, any 
endangered wildlife.
    (f) Sale or offer for sale. (1) It is unlawful to sell or to offer 
for sale in interstate or foreign commerce any endangered wildlife.
    (2) An advertisement for the sale of endangered wildlife which 
carries a warning to the effect that no sale may be consummated until a 
permit has been obtained from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service shall 
not be considered an offer for sale within the meaning of this section.
    (g) Captive-bred wildlife. (1) Notwithstanding paragraphs (b), (c), 
(e) and (f) of this section, any person may take; export or re-import; 
deliver, receive, carry, transport or ship in interstate or foreign 
commerce, in the course of a commercial activity; or sell or offer for 
sale in interstate or foreign commerce any endangered wildlife that is 
bred in captivity in the United States provided either that the wildlife 
is of a taxon listed in paragraph (g)(6) of this section, or that the 
following conditions are met:
    (i) The wildlife is of a species having a natural geographic 
distribution not including any part of the United States, or the 
wildlife is of a species that the Director has determined to be eligible 
in accordance with paragraph (g)(5) of this section;
    (ii) The purpose of such activity is to enhance the propagation or 
survival of the affected species;
    (iii) Such activity does not involve interstate or foreign commerce, 
in the course of a commercial activity, with respect to non-living 
wildlife;
    (iv) Each specimen of wildlife to be re-imported is uniquely 
identified by a band, tattoo or other means that was reported in writing 
to an official of the Service at a port of export prior to export from 
the United States; and

[[Page 94]]

    (v) Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who 
engages in any of the activities authorized by this paragraph does so in 
accordance with paragraphs (g) (2), (3) and (4) of this section, and 
with all other applicable regulations in this Subchapter B.
    (2) Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
seeking to engage in any of the activities authorized by this paragraph 
must first register with the Service (Office of Management Authority, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Arlington, 
Virginia 22203). Requests for registration must be submitted on an 
official application form (Form 3-200-41) provided by the Service, and 
must include the following information:
    (i) The types of wildlife sought to be covered by the registration, 
identified by common and scientific name to the taxonomic level of 
family, genus or species;
    (ii) A description of the applicant's experience in maintaining and 
propagating the types of wildlife sought to be covered by the 
registration, and when appropriate, in conducting research directly 
related to maintaining and propagating such wildlife;
    (iii) Photograph(s) or other evidence clearly depicting the 
facilities where such wildlife will be maintained; and
    (iv) a copy of the applicant's license or registration, if any, 
under the animal welfare regulations of the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture (9 CFR part 2).
    (3) Upon receiving a complete application, the Director will decide 
whether or not the registration will be approved. In making this 
decision, the Director will consider, in addition to the general 
criteria in Sec.  13.21(b) of this subchapter, whether the expertise, 
facilities or other resources available to the applicant appear adequate 
to enhance the propagation or survival of the affected wildlife. Public 
education activities may not be the sole basis to justify issuance of a 
registration or to otherwise establish eligibility for the exception 
granted in paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Each person so registered 
must maintain accurate written records of activities conducted under the 
registration, and allow reasonable access to Service agents for 
inspection purposes as set forth in Sec. Sec.  13.46 and 13.47. Each 
person registered must submit to the Director an individual written 
annual report of activities, including all births, deaths and transfers 
of any type.
    (4) Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
seeking to export or conduct foreign commerce in captive-bred endangered 
wildlife that will not remain under the care of that person must first 
obtain approval by providing written evidence to satisfy the Director 
that the proposed recipient of the wildlife has expertise, facilities or 
other resources adequate to enhance the propagation or survival of such 
wildlife and that the proposed recipient will use such wildlife for 
purposes of enhancing the propagation or survival of the affected 
species.
    (5)(i) The Director will use the following criteria to determine if 
wildlife of any species having a natural geographic distribution that 
includes any part of the United States is eligible for the provisions of 
this paragraph:
    (A) Whether there is a low demand for taking of the species from 
wild populations, either because of the success of captive breeding or 
because of other reasons, and
    (B) Whether the wild populations of the species are effectively 
protected from unauthorized taking as a result of the inaccessibility of 
their habitat to humans or as a result of the effectiveness of law 
enforcement.
    (ii) The Director will follow the procedures set forth in the Act 
and in the regulations thereunder with respect to petitions and 
notification of the public and governors of affected States when 
determining the eligibility of species for purposes of this paragraph.
    (iii) In accordance with the criteria in paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this 
section, the Director has determined the following species to be 
eligible for the provisions of this paragraph:

Laysan duck (Anas laysanensis).

    (6) Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
seeking to engage in any of the activities authorized by paragraph 
(g)(1) of this section may do so without first registering with the 
Service with respect to the bar-tailed pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae), 
Elliot's

[[Page 95]]

pheasant (S. ellioti), Mikado pheasant (S. mikado), brown eared pheasant 
(Crossoptilon mantchuricum), white eared pheasant (C. crossoptilon), 
cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichii), Edward's pheasant (Lophura 
edwardsi), Swinhoe's pheasant (L. swinhoii), Chinese monal (Lophophorus 
lhuysii), and Palawan peacock pheasant (Polyplectron emphanum); 
parakeets of the species Neophema pulchella and N. splendida; the Laysan 
duck (Anas laysanensis); the white-winged wood duck (Cairina scutulata); 
and the inter-subspecific crossed or ``generic'' tiger (Panthera tigris) 
(i e., specimens not identified or identifiable as members of the 
Bengal, Sumatran, Siberian or Indochinese subspecies (Panthera tigris 
tigris, P.t. sumatrae, P.t. altaica and P.t. corbetti, respectively) 
provided:
    (i) The purpose of such activity is to enhance the propagation or 
survival of the affected exempted species;
    (ii) Such activity does not involve interstate or foreign commerce, 
in the course of a commercial activity, with respect to non-living 
wildlife;
    (iii) Each specimen to be re-imported is uniquely identified by a 
band, tattoo or other means that was reported in writing to an official 
of the Service at a port of export prior to export of the specimen from 
the United States;
    (iv) No specimens of the taxa in this paragraph (g)(6) of this 
section that were taken from the wild may be imported for breeding 
purposes absent a definitive showing that the need for new bloodlines 
can only be met by wild specimens, that suitable foreign-bred, captive 
individuals are unavailable, and that wild populations can sustain 
limited taking, and an import permit is issued under Sec.  17.22;
    (v) Any permanent exports of such specimens meet the requirements of 
paragraph (g)(4) of this section; and
    (vi) Each person claiming the benefit of the exception in paragraph 
(g)(1) of this section must maintain accurate written records of 
activities, including births, deaths and transfers of specimens, and 
make those records accessible to Service agents for inspection at 
reasonable hours as set forth in Sec. Sec.  13.46 and 13.47.
    (h) U.S. captive-bred scimitar-horned oryx, addax, and dama gazelle. 
Notwithstanding paragraphs (b), (c), (e), and (f) of this section, any 
person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States may take; export 
or re-import; deliver, receive, carry, transport or ship in interstate 
or foreign commerce, in the course of a commercial activity; or sell or 
offer for sale in interstate or foreign commerce live wildlife, 
including embryos and gametes, and sport-hunted trophies of scimitar-
horned oryx (Oryx dammah), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), and dama gazelle 
(Gazella dama) provided:
    (1) The purpose of such activity is associated with the management 
or transfer of live wildlife, including embryos and gametes, or sport 
hunting in a manner that contributes to increasing or sustaining captive 
numbers or to potential reintroduction to range countries;
    (2) The specimen was captive-bred, in accordance with Sec.  17.3, 
within the United States;
    (3) All live specimens of that species held by the captive-breeding 
operation are managed in a manner that prevents hybridization of the 
species or subspecies.
    (4) All live specimens of that species held by the captive-breeding 
operation are managed in a manner that maintains genetic diversity.
    (5) Any export of or foreign commerce in a specimen meets the 
requirements of paragraph (g)(4) of this section, as well as parts 13, 
14, and 23 of this chapter;
    (6) Each specimen to be re-imported is uniquely identified by a 
tattoo or other means that is reported on the documentation required 
under paragraph (h)(5) of this section; and
    (7) Each person claiming the benefit of the exception of this 
paragraph (h) must maintain accurate written records of activities, 
including births, deaths, and transfers of specimens, and make those 
records accessible to Service officials for inspection at reasonable 
hours set forth in Sec. Sec.  13.46 and 13.47 of this chapter.
    (8) The sport-hunted trophy consists of raw or tanned parts, such as 
bones, hair, head, hide, hooves, horns, meat, skull, rug, taxidermied 
head, shoulder, or full body mount, of a specimen that was taken by the 
hunter during a sport

[[Page 96]]

hunt for personal use. It does not include articles made from a trophy, 
such as worked, manufactured, or handicraft items for use as clothing, 
curios, ornamentation, jewelry, or other utilitarian items for 
commercial purposes.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 40 FR 53400, Nov. 18, 1975; 
41 FR 19226, May 11, 1976; 44 FR 31580, May 31, 1979; 44 FR 54007, Sept. 
17, 1979; 58 FR 68325, Dec. 27, 1993; 63 FR 48640, Sept. 11, 1998; 68 FR 
2919, Jan. 22, 2003; 68 FR 61136, Oct. 27, 2003; 70 FR 52318, Sept. 2, 
2005]



Sec.  17.22  Permits for scientific purposes, enhancement of propagation or 

survival, or for incidental taking.

    Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited by Sec.  17.21, in 
accordance with the issuance criteria of this section, for scientific 
purposes, for enhancing the propagation or survival, or for the 
incidental taking of endangered wildlife. Such permits may authorize a 
single transaction, a series of transactions, or a number of activities 
over a specific period of time. (See Sec.  17.32 for permits for 
threatened species.) The Director shall publish notice in the Federal 
Register of each application for a permit that is made under this 
section. Each notice shall invite the submission from interested 
parties, within 30 days after the date of the notice, of written data, 
views, or arguments with respect to the application. The 30-day period 
may be waived by the Director in an emergency situation where the life 
or health of an endangered animal is threatened and no reasonable 
alternative is available to the applicant. Notice of any such waiver 
shall be published in the Federal Register within 10 days following 
issuance of the permit.
    (a)(1) Application requirements for permits for scientific purposes 
or for the enhancement of propagation or survival. A person wishing to 
get a permit for an activity prohibited by Sec.  17.21 submits an 
application for activities under this paragraph. The Service provides 
Form 3-200 for the application to which all of the following must be 
attained:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the species sought to the 
covered by the permit, as well as the number, age, and sex of such 
species, and the activity sought to be authorized (such as taking, 
exporting, selling in interstate commerce);
    (ii) A statement as to whether, at the time of application, the 
wildlife sought to be covered by the permit (A) is still in the wild, 
(B) has already been removed from the wild, or (C) was born in 
captivity;
    (iii) A resume of the applicant's attempts to obtain the wildlife 
sought to be covered by the permit in a manner which would not cause the 
death or removal from the wild of such wildlife;
    (iv) If the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit has already 
been removed from the wild, the country and place where such removal 
occurred; if the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit was born in 
captivity, the country and place where such wildlife was born;
    (v) A complete description and address of the institution or other 
facility where the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit will be 
used, displayed, or maintained;
    (vi) If the applicant seeks to have live wildlife covered by the 
permit, a complete description, including photographs or diagrams, of 
the facilities to house and/or care for the wildlife and a resume of the 
experience of those person who will be caring for the wildlife;
    (vii) A full statement of the reasons why the applicant is justified 
in obtaining a permit including the details of the activities sought to 
be authorized by the permit;
    (viii) If the application is for the purpose of enhancement of 
propagation, a statement of the applicant's willingness to participate 
in a cooperative breeding program and to maintain or contribute data to 
a studbook;
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not a permit should be issued. In making this 
decision, the Director shall consider, in addition to the general 
criteria in Sec.  13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:

[[Page 97]]

    (i) Whether the purpose for which the permit is required is adequate 
to justify removing from the wild or otherwise changing the status of 
the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit;
    (ii) The probable direct and indirect effect which issuing the 
permit would have on the wild populations of the wildlife sought to be 
covered by the permit;
    (iii) Whether the permit, if issued, would in any way, directly or 
indirectly, conflict with any known program intended to enhance the 
survival probabilities of the population from which the wildlife sought 
to be covered by the permit was or would be removed;
    (iv) Whether the purpose for which the permit is required would be 
likely to reduce the threat of extinction facing the species of wildlife 
sought to be covered by the permit;
    (v) The opinions or views of scientists or other persons or 
organizations having expertise concerning the wildlife or other matters 
germane to the application; and
    (vi) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate to successfully accomplish the 
objectives stated in the application.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
paragraph shall be subject to the special condition that the escape of 
living wildlife covered by the permit shall be immediately reported to 
the Service office designated in the permit.
    (4) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph shall be designated on the face of the permit.
    (b)(1) Application requirements for permits for incidental taking. A 
person wishing to get a permit for an activity prohibited by Sec.  
17.21(c) submits an application for activities under this paragraph. The 
Service provides Form 3-200 for the application to which all of the 
following must be attached:
    (i) A complete description of the activity sought to be authorized;
    (ii) The common and scientific names of the species sought to be 
covered by the permit, as well as the number, age, and sex of such 
species, if known;
    (iii) A conservation plan that specifies:
    (A) The impact that will likely result from such taking;
    (B) What steps the applicant will take to monitor, minimize, and 
mitigate such impacts, the funding that will be available to implement 
such steps, and the procedures to be used to deal with unforeseen 
circumstances;
    (C) What alternative actions to such taking the applicant considered 
and the reasons why such alternatives are not proposed to be utilized; 
and
    (D) Such other measures that the Director may require as being 
necessary or appropriate for purposes of the plan;
    (2) Issuance criteria. (i) Upon receiving an application completed 
in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not a permit should be issued. The Director shall 
consider the general issuance criteria in Sec.  13.21(b) of this 
subchapter, except for Sec.  13.21(b)(4), and shall issue the permit if 
he or she finds that:
    (A) The taking will be incidental;
    (B) The applicant will, to the maximum extent practicable, minimize 
and mitigate the impacts of such takings;
    (C) The applicant will ensure that adequate funding for the 
conservation plan and procedures to deal with unforeseen circumstances 
will be provided;
    (D) The taking will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of the 
survival and recovery of the species in the wild;
    (E) The measures, if any, required under paragraph (b)(1)(iii)(D) of 
this section will be met; and
    (F) He or she has received such other assurances as he or she may 
require that the plan will be implemented.
    (ii) In making his or her decision, the Director shall also consider 
the anticipated duration and geographic scope of the applicant's planned 
activities, including the amount of listed species habitat that is 
involved and the degree to which listed species and their habitats are 
affected.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
paragraph shall contain such terms and conditions as the

[[Page 98]]

Director deems necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the 
permit and the conservation plan including, but not limited to, 
monitoring and reporting requirements deemed necessary for determining 
whether such terms and conditions are being complied with. The Director 
shall rely upon existing reporting requirements to the maximum extent 
practicable.
    (4) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph shall be sufficient to provide adequate assurances to the 
permittee to commit funding necessary for the activities authorized by 
the permit, including conservation activities and land use restrictions. 
In determining the duration of a permit, the Director shall consider the 
duration of the planned activities, as well as the possible positive and 
negative effects associated with permits of the proposed duration on 
listed species, including the extent to which the conservation plan will 
enhance the habitat of listed species and increase the long-term 
survivability of such species.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee in case of changed or 
unforeseen circumstances. The assurances in this paragraph (b)(5) apply 
only to incidental take permits issued in accordance with paragraph 
(b)(2) of this section where the conservation plan is being properly 
implemented, and apply only with respect to species adequately covered 
by the conservation plan. These assurances cannot be provided to Federal 
agencies. This rule does not apply to incidental take permits issued 
prior to March 25, 1998. The assurances provided in incidental take 
permits issued prior to March 25, 1998 remain in effect, and those 
permits will not be revised as a result of this rulemaking.
    (i) Changed circumstances provided for in the plan. If additional 
conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to respond to 
changed circumstances and were provided for in the plan's operating 
conservation program, the permittee will implement the measures 
specified in the plan.
    (ii) Changed circumstances not provided for in the plan. If 
additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to 
respond to changed circumstances and such measures were not provided for 
in the plan's operating conservation program, the Director will not 
require any conservation and mitigation measures in addition to those 
provided for in the plan without the consent of the permittee, provided 
the plan is being properly implemented.
    (iii) Unforeseen circumstances. (A) In negotiating unforeseen 
circumstances, the Director will not require the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
beyond the level otherwise agreed upon for the species covered by the 
conservation plan without the consent of the permittee.
    (B) If additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed 
necessary to respond to unforeseen circumstances, the Director may 
require additional measures of the permittee where the conservation plan 
is being properly implemented, but only if such measures are limited to 
modifications within conserved habitat areas, if any, or to the 
conservation plan's operating conservation program for the affected 
species, and maintain the original terms of the conservation plan to the 
maximum extent possible. Additional conservation and mitigation measures 
will not involve the commitment of additional land, water or financial 
compensation or additional restrictions on the use of land, water, or 
other natural resources otherwise available for development or use under 
the original terms of the conservation plan without the consent of the 
permittee.
    (C) The Director will have the burden of demonstrating that 
unforeseen circumstances exist, using the best scientific and commercial 
data available. These findings must be clearly documented and based upon 
reliable technical information regarding the status and habitat 
requirements of the affected species. The Director will consider, but 
not be limited to, the following factors:
    (1) Size of the current range of the affected species;
    (2) Percentage of range adversely affected by the conservation plan;
    (3) Percentage of range conserved by the conservation plan;

[[Page 99]]

    (4) Ecological significance of that portion of the range affected by 
the conservation plan;
    (5) Level of knowledge about the affected species and the degree of 
specificity of the species' conservation program under the conservation 
plan; and
    (6) Whether failure to adopt additional conservation measures would 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery of the 
affected species in the wild.
    (6) Nothing in this rule will be construed to limit or constrain the 
Director, any Federal, State, local, or Tribal government agency, or a 
private entity, from taking additional actions at its own expense to 
protect or conserve a species included in a conservation plan.
    (7) Discontinuance of permit activity. Notwithstanding the 
provisions of Sec.  13.26 of this subchapter, a permittee under this 
paragraph (b) remains responsible for any outstanding minimization and 
mitigation measures required under the terms of the permit for take that 
occurs prior to surrender of the permit and such minimization and 
mitigation measures as may be required pursuant to the termination 
provisions of an implementing agreement, habitat conservation plan, or 
permit even after surrendering the permit to the Service pursuant to 
Sec.  13.26 of this subchapter. The permit shall be deemed canceled only 
upon a determination by the Service that such minimization and 
mitigation measures have been implemented. Upon surrender of the permit, 
no further take shall be authorized under the terms of the surrendered 
permit.
    (8) Criteria for revocation. A permit issued under paragraph (b) of 
this section may not be revoked for any reason except those set forth in 
Sec.  13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter or unless continuation 
of the permitted activity would be inconsistent with the criterion set 
forth in 16 U.S.C. 1539(a)(2)(B)(iv) and the inconsistency has not been 
remedied.
    (c)(1) Application requirements for permits for the enhancement of 
survival through Safe Harbor Agreements. The applicant must submit an 
application for a permit under this paragraph (c) to the appropriate 
Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for the Region where 
the applicant resides or where the proposed activity is to occur (for 
appropriate addresses, see 50 CFR 10.22), if the applicant wishes to 
engage in any activity prohibited by Sec.  17.21. The applicant must 
submit an official Service application form (3-200.54) that includes the 
following information:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the listed species for which 
the applicant requests incidental take authorization;
    (ii) A description of how incidental take of the listed species 
pursuant to the Safe Harbor Agreement is likely to occur, both as a 
result of management activities and as a result of the return to 
baseline; and
    (iii) A Safe Harbor Agreement that complies with the requirements of 
the Safe Harbor policy available from the Service.
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not to issue a permit. The Director shall consider the 
general issuance criteria in Sec.  13.21(b) of this subchapter, except 
for Sec.  13.21(b)(4), and may issue the permit if he or she finds:
    (i) The take will be incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and 
will be in accordance with the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement;
    (ii) The implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement is 
reasonably expected to provide a net conservation benefit to the 
affected listed species by contributing to the recovery of listed 
species included in the permit, and the Safe Harbor Agreement otherwise 
complies with the Safe Harbor policy available from the Service;
    (iii) The probable direct and indirect effects of any authorized 
take will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery 
in the wild of any listed species;
    (iv) Implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement is 
consistent with applicable Federal, State, and Tribal laws and 
regulations;
    (v) Implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement will 
not be in conflict with any ongoing conservation or recovery programs 
for listed species covered by the permit; and

[[Page 100]]

    (vi) The applicant has shown capability for and commitment to 
implementing all of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to any applicable general permit 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued 
under this paragraph (c) is subject to the following special conditions:
    (i) A requirement for the participating property owner to notify the 
Service of any transfer of lands subject to a Safe Harbor Agreement;
    (ii) When appropriate, a requirement for the permittee to give the 
Service reasonable advance notice (generally at least 30 days) of when 
he or she expects to incidentally take any listed species covered under 
the permit. Such notification will provide the Service with an 
opportunity to relocate affected individuals of the species, if possible 
and appropriate; and
    (iii) Any additional requirements or conditions the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
Safe Harbor Agreement.
    (4) Permit effective date. Permits issued under this paragraph (c) 
become effective the day of issuance for species covered by the Safe 
Harbor Agreement.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee. (i) The assurances in 
paragraph (c)(5) (ii) of this section (c)(5) apply only to Safe Harbor 
permits issued in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section where 
the Safe Harbor Agreement is being properly implemented, and apply only 
with respect to species covered by the Agreement and permit. These 
assurances cannot be provided to Federal agencies. The assurances 
provided in this section apply only to Safe Harbor permits issued after 
July 19, 1999.
    (ii) The Director and the permittee may agree to revise or modify 
the management measures set forth in a Safe Harbor Agreement if the 
Director determines that such revisions or modifications do not change 
the Director's prior determination that the Safe Harbor Agreement is 
reasonably expected to provide a net conservation benefit to the listed 
species. However, the Director may not require additional or different 
management activities to be undertaken by a permittee without the 
consent of the permittee.
    (6) Additional actions. Nothing in this rule will be construed to 
limit or constrain the Director, any Federal, State, local or Tribal 
government agency, or a private entity, from taking additional actions 
at its own expense to protect or conserve a species included in a Safe 
Harbor Agreement.
    (7) Criteria for revocation. The Director may not revoke a permit 
issued under paragraph (c) of this section except as provided in this 
paragraph. The Director may revoke a permit for any reason set forth in 
Sec.  13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter. The Director may 
revoke a permit if continuation of the permitted activity would either 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery in the wild 
of any listed species or directly or indirectly alter designated 
critical habitat such that it appreciably diminishes the value of that 
critical habitat for both the survival and recovery of a listed species. 
Before revoking a permit for either of the latter two reasons, the 
Director, with the consent of the permittee, will pursue all appropriate 
options to avoid permit revocation. These options may include, but are 
not limited to: extending or modifying the existing permit, capturing 
and relocating the species, compensating the landowner to forgo the 
activity, purchasing an easement or fee simple interest in the property, 
or arranging for a third-party acquisition of an interest in the 
property.
    (8) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph (c) must be sufficient to provide a net conservation benefit 
to species covered in the enhancement of survival permit. In determining 
the duration of a permit, the Director will consider the duration of the 
planned activities, as well as the positive and negative effects 
associated with permits of the proposed duration on covered species, 
including the extent to which the conservation activities included in 
the Safe Harbor Agreement will enhance the survival and contribute to 
the recovery of listed species included in the permit.
    (d)(1) Application requirements for permits for the enhancement of 
survival

[[Page 101]]

through Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances. The applicant 
must submit an application for a permit under this paragraph (d) to the 
appropriate Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for the 
Region where the applicant resides or where the proposed activity is to 
occur (for appropriate addresses, see 50 CFR 10.22). When a species 
covered by a Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances is listed 
as endangered and the applicant wishes to engage in activities 
identified in the Agreement and otherwise prohibited by Sec.  17.31, the 
applicant must apply for an enhancement of survival permit for species 
covered by the Agreement. The permit will become valid if and when 
covered proposed, candidate or other unlisted species is listed as an 
endangered species. The applicant must submit an official Service 
application form (3-200.54) that includes the following information:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the species for which the 
applicant requests incidental take authorization;
    (ii) A description of the land use or water management activity for 
which the applicant requests incidental take authorization; and
    (iii) A Candidate Conservation Agreement that complies with the 
requirements of the Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances 
policy available from the Service.
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not to issue a permit. The Director shall consider the 
general issuance criteria in Sec.  13.21(b) of this subchapter, except 
for Sec.  13.21(b)(4), and may issue the permit if he or she finds:
    (i) The take will be incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and 
will be in accordance with the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement;
    (ii) The Candidate Conservation Agreement complies with the 
requirements of the Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances 
policy available from the Service;
    (iii) The probable direct and indirect effects of any authorized 
take will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery 
in the wild of any species;
    (iv) Implementation of the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement is consistent with applicable Federal, State, and Tribal laws 
and regulations;
    (v) Implementation of the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement will not be in conflict with any ongoing conservation programs 
for species covered by the permit; and
    (vi) The applicant has shown capability for and commitment to 
implementing all of the terms of the Candidate Conservation Agreement.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to any applicable general permit 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued 
under this paragraph (d) is subject to the following special conditions:
    (i) A requirement for the property owner to notify the Service of 
any transfer of lands subject to a Candidate Conservation Agreement;
    (ii) When appropriate, a requirement for the permittee to give the 
Service reasonable advance notice (generally at least 30 days) of when 
he or she expects to incidentally take any listed species covered under 
the permit. Such notification will provide the Service with an 
opportunity to relocate affected individuals of the species, if possible 
and appropriate; and
    (iii) Any additional requirements or conditions the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
Candidate Conservation Agreement.
    (4) Permit effective date. Permits issued under this paragraph (d) 
become effective for a species covered by a Candidate Conservation 
Agreement on the effective date of a final rule that lists a covered 
species as endangered.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee in case of changed or 
unforeseen circumstances. The assurances in this paragraph (d)(5) apply 
only to permits issued in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) where the 
Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement is being properly 
implemented, and apply only with respect to species adequately covered 
by the Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement. These 
assurances cannot be provided to Federal agencies.

[[Page 102]]

    (i) Changed circumstances provided for in the Agreement. If the 
Director determines that additional conservation measures are necessary 
to respond to changed circumstances and these measures were set forth in 
the Agreement, the permittee will implement the measures specified in 
the Agreement.
    (ii) Changed circumstances not provided for in the Agreement. If the 
Director determines that additional conservation measures not provided 
for in the Agreement are necessary to respond to changed circumstances, 
the Director will not require any conservation measures in addition to 
those provided for in the Agreement without the consent of the 
permittee, provided the Agreement is being properly implemented.
    (iii) Unforeseen circumstances. (A) In negotiating unforeseen 
circumstances, the Director will not require the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
beyond the level otherwise agreed upon for the species covered by the 
Agreement without the consent of the permittee.
    (B) If the Director determines additional conservation measures are 
necessary to respond to unforeseen circumstances, the Director may 
require additional measures of the permittee where the Agreement is 
being properly implemented, but only if such measures maintain the 
original terms of the Agreement to the maximum extent possible. 
Additional conservation measures will not involve the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
otherwise available for development or use under the original terms of 
the Agreement without the consent of the permittee.
    (C) The Director will have the burden of demonstrating that 
unforeseen circumstances exist, using the best scientific and commercial 
data available. These findings must be clearly documented and based upon 
reliable technical information regarding the status and habitat 
requirements of the affected species. The Director will consider, but 
not be limited to, the following factors:
    (1) Size of the current range of the affected species;
    (2) Percentage of range adversely affected by the Agreement;
    (3) Percentage of range conserved by the Agreement;
    (4) Ecological significance of that portion of the range affected by 
the Agreement;
    (5) Level of knowledge about the affected species and the degree of 
specificity of the species' conservation program under the Agreement; 
and
    (6) Whether failure to adopt additional conservation measures would 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery of the 
affected species in the wild.
    (6) Additional actions. Nothing in this rule will be construed to 
limit or constrain the Director, any Federal, State, local or Tribal 
government agency, or a private entity, from taking additional actions 
at its own expense to protect or conserve a species included in a 
Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement.
    (7) Criteria for revocation. The Director may not revoke a permit 
issued under paragraph (d) of this section except as provided in this 
paragraph. The Director may revoke a permit for any reason set forth in 
Sec.  13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter. The Director may 
revoke a permit if continuation of the permitted activity would either 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery in the wild 
of any listed species or directly or indirectly alter designated 
critical habitat such that it appreciably diminishes the value of that 
critical habitat for both the survival and recovery of a listed species. 
Before revoking a permit for either of the latter two reasons, the 
Director, with the consent of the permittee, will pursue all appropriate 
options to avoid permit revocation. These options may include, but are 
not limited to: extending or modifying the existing permit, capturing 
and relocating the species, compensating the landowner to forgo the 
activity, purchasing an easement or fee simple interest in the property, 
or arranging for a third-party acquisition of an interest in the 
property.

[[Page 103]]

    (8) Duration of the Candidate Conservation Agreement. The duration 
of a Candidate Conservation Agreement covered by a permit issued under 
this paragraph (d) must be sufficient to enable the Director to 
determine that the benefits of the conservation measures in the 
Agreement, when combined with those benefits that would be achieved if 
it is assumed that the conservation measures would also be implemented 
on other necessary properties, would preclude or remove any need to list 
the species covered by the Agreement.
    (e) Objection to permit issuance. (1) In regard to any notice of a 
permit application published in the Federal Register, any interested 
party that objects to the issuance of a permit, in whole or in part, 
may, during the comment period specified in the notice, request 
notification of the final action to be taken on the application. A 
separate written request shall be made for each permit application. Such 
a request shall specify the Service's permit application number and 
state the reasons why that party believes the applicant does not meet 
the issuance criteria contained in Sec. Sec.  13.21 and 17.22 of this 
subchapter or other reasons why the permit should not be issued.
    (2) If the Service decides to issue a permit contrary to objections 
received pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section, then the Service 
shall, at least ten days prior to issuance of the permit, make 
reasonable efforts to contact by telephone or other expedient means, any 
party who has made a request pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section and inform that party of the issuance of the permit. However, 
the Service may reduce the time period or dispense with such notice if 
it determines that time is of the essence and that delay in issuance of 
the permit would: (i) Harm the specimen or population involved; or (ii) 
unduly hinder the actions authorized under the permit.
    (3) The Service will notify any party filing an objection and 
request for notice under paragraph (c)(1) of this section of the final 
action taken on the application, in writing. If the Service has reduced 
or dispensed with the notice period referred to in paragraph (c)(2) of 
this section, it will include its reasons therefore in such written 
notice.

[50 FR 39687, Sept. 30, 1985, as amended at 63 FR 8871, Feb. 23, 1998; 
63 FR 52635, Oct. 1, 1998; 64 FR 32711, June 17, 1999; 64 FR 52676, 
Sept. 30, 1999; 69 FR 24092, May 3, 2004; 69 FR 29670, May 25, 2004; 69 
FR 71731, Dec. 10, 2004]



Sec.  17.23  Economic hardship permits.

    Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited by Sec.  17.21, in 
accordance with the issuance criteria of this section in order to 
prevent undue economic hardship. The Director shall publish notice in 
the Federal Register of each application for a permit that is made under 
this section. Each notice shall invite the submission from interested 
parties, within 30 days after the date of the notice, of written data, 
views, or arguments with respect to the application. The 30-day period 
may be waived by the Director in an emergency situation where the life 
or health of an endangered animal is threatened and no reasonable 
alternative is available to the applicant. Notice of any such waiver 
shall be published in the Federal Register within 10 days following 
issuance of the permit.
    (a) Application requirements. Applications for permits under this 
section must be submitted to the Director by the person allegedly 
suffering undue economic hardship because his desired activity is 
prohibited by Sec.  17.21. Each application must be submitted on an 
official application form (Form 3-200) provided by the Service, and must 
include, as an attachment, all of the information required in Sec.  
17.22 plus the following additional information:
    (1) The possible legal, economic or subsistence alternatives to the 
activity sought to be authorized by the permit;
    (2) A full statement, accompanied by copies of all relevant 
contracts and correspondence, showing the appli- cant's involvement with 
the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit (as well as his 
involvement with similar wildlife), including, where applicable, that 
portion of applicant's income derived from the taking of such wildlife, 
or the subsistence use of such wildlife, during the calendar year 
immediately

[[Page 104]]

preceding either the notice in the Federal Register of review of the 
status of the species or of the proposal to list such wildlife as 
endangered, whichever is earliest;
    (3) Where applicable, proof of a contract or other binding legal 
obligation which:
    (i) Deals specifically with the wildlife sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) Became binding prior to the date when the notice of a review of 
the status of the species or the notice of proposed rulemaking proposing 
to list such wildlife as endangered was published in the Federal 
Register, whichever is earlier; and
    (iii) Will cause monetary loss of a given dollar amount if the 
permit sought under this section is not granted.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued under any of the three 
categories of economic hardship, as defined in section 10(b)(2) of the 
Act. In making his decisions, the Director shall consider, in addition 
to the general criteria in Sec.  13.21(b) of this subchapter, the 
following factors:
    (1) Whether the purpose for which the permit is being requested is 
adequate to justify removing from the wild or otherwise changing the 
status of the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit;
    (2) The probable direct and indirect effect which issuing the permit 
would have on the wild populations of the wildlife sought to be covered 
by the permit;
    (3) The economic, legal, subsistence, or other alternatives or 
relief available to the applicant;
    (4) The amount of evidence that the applicant was in fact party to a 
contract or other binding legal obligation which;
    (i) Deals specifically with the wildlife sought to be covered by the 
permit; and
    (ii) Became binding prior to the date when the notice of a review of 
the status of the species or the notice of proposed rulemaking proposing 
to list such wildlife as endangered was published in the Federal 
Register, whichever is earlier.
    (5) The severity of economic hardship which the contract or other 
binding legal obligation referred to in paragraph (b)(4) of this section 
would cause if the permit were denied;
    (6) Where applicable, the portion of the applicant's income which 
would be lost if the permit were denied, and the relationship of that 
portion to the balance of his income;
    (7) Where applicable, the nature and extent of subsistence taking 
generally by the applicant; and
    (8) The likelihood that applicant can reasonably carry out his 
desired activity within one year from the date a notice is published in 
the Federal Register to review status of such wildlife, or to list such 
wildlife as endangered, whichever is earlier.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to the following special conditions:
    (1) In addition to any reporting requirements contained in the 
permit itself, the permittee shall also submit to the Director a written 
report of his activities pursuant to the permit. Such report must be 
postmarked or actually delivered no later than 10 days after completion 
of the activity.
    (2) The death or escape of all living wildlife covered by the permit 
shall be immediately reported to the Service's office designated in the 
permit.
    (d) Duration of permits issued under this section shall be 
designated on the face of the permit. No permit issued under this 
section, however, shall be valid for more than one year from the date a 
notice is published in the Federal Register to review status of such 
wildlife, or to list such wildlife as endangered, whichever is earlier.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 40 FR 53400, Nov. 18, 1975; 
40 FR 58307, Dec. 16, 1975; 50 FR 39688, Sept. 30, 1985]



                      Subpart D_Threatened Wildlife



Sec.  17.31  Prohibitions.

    (a) Except as provided in subpart A of this part, or in a permit 
issued under this subpart, all of the provisions in

[[Page 105]]

Sec.  17.21 shall apply to threatened wildlife, except Sec.  
17.21(c)(5).
    (b) In addition to any other provisions of this part 17, any 
employee or agent of the Service, of the National Marine Fisheries 
Service, or of a State conservation agency which is operating a 
conservation program pursuant to the terms of a Cooperative Agreement 
with the Service in accordance with section 6(c) of the Act, who is 
designated by his agency for such purposes, may, when acting in the 
course of his official duties, take those threatened species of wildlife 
which are covered by an approved cooperative agreement to carry out 
conservation programs.
    (c) Whenever a special rule in Sec. Sec.  17.40 to 17.48 applies to 
a threatened species, none of the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) 
of this section will apply. The special rule will contain all the 
applicable prohibitions and exceptions.

[43 FR 18181, Apr. 28, 1978, as amended at 44 FR 31580, May 31, 1979; 70 
FR 10503, Mar. 4, 2005]



Sec.  17.32  Permits--general.

    Upon receipt of a complete application the Director may issue a 
permit for any activity otherwise prohibited with regard to threatened 
wildlife. Such permit shall be governed by the provisions of this 
section unless a special rule applicable to the wildlife, appearing in 
Sec. Sec.  17.40 to 17.48, of this part provides otherwise. Permits 
issued under this section must be for one of the following purposes: 
Scientific purposes, or the enhancement of propagation or survival, or 
economic hardship, or zoological exhibition, or educational purposes, or 
incidental taking, or special purposes consistent with the purposes of 
the Act. Such permits may authorize a single transaction, a series of 
transactions, or a number of activities over a specific period of time.
    (a)(1) Application requirements for permits for scientific purposes, 
or the enhancement of propagation or survival, or economic hardship, or 
zoological exhibition, or educational purposes, or special purposes 
consistent with the purposes of the Act. A person wishing to get a 
permit for an activity prohibited by Sec.  17.31 submits an application 
for activities under this paragraph. The Service provides Form 3-200 for 
the application to which as much of the following information relating 
to the purpose of the permit must be attached:
    (i) The Common and scientific names of the species sought to be 
covered by the permit, as well as the number, age, and sex of such 
species, and the activity sought to be authorized (such as taking, 
exporting, selling in interstate commerce);
    (ii) A statement as to whether, at the time of application, the 
wildlife sought to be covered by the permit (A) is still in the wild, 
(B) has already been removed from the wild, or (C) was born in 
captivity;
    (iii) A resume of the applicant's attempts to obtain the wildlife 
sought to be covered by the permit in a manner which would not cause the 
death or removal from the wild of such wildlife;
    (iv) If the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit has already 
been removed from the wild, the country and place where such removal 
occurred; if the wildlife sought to be covered by permit was born in 
captivity, the country and place where such wildlife was born;
    (v) A complete description and address of the institution or other 
facility where the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit will be 
used, displayed, or maintained;
    (vi) If the applicant seeks to have live wildlife covered by the 
permit, a complete description, including photographs or diagrams, of 
the facilities to house and/or care for the wildlife and a resume of the 
experience of those persons who will be caring for the wildlife;
    (vii) A full statement of the reasons why the applicant is justified 
in obtaining a permit including the details of the activities sought to 
be authorized by the permit;
    (viii) If the application is for the purpose of enhancement of 
propagation, a statement of the applicant's willingness to participate 
in a cooperative breeding program and to maintain or contribute data to 
a studbook;
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not a permit should be issued. In making

[[Page 106]]

this decision, the Director shall consider, in addition to the general 
criteria in Sec.  13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (i) Whether the purpose for which the permit is required is adequate 
to justify removing from the wild or otherwise changing the status of 
the wildlife sought to be covered by the permit;
    (ii) The probable direct and indirect effect which issuing the 
permit would have on the wild populations of the wildlife sought to be 
covered by the permit;
    (iii) Whether the permit, if issued, would in any way, directly or 
indirectly, conflict with any known program intended to enhance the 
survival probabilities of the population from which the wildlife sought 
to be covered by the permit was or would be removed;
    (iv) Whether the purpose for which the permit is required would be 
likely to reduce the threat of extinction facing the species of wildlife 
sought to be covered by the permit;
    (v) The opinions or views of scientists or other persons or 
organizations having expertise concerning the wildlife or other matters 
germane to the application; and
    (vi) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate to successfully accomplish the 
objectives stated in the application.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
paragraph shall be subject to the special condition that the escape of 
living wildlife covered by the permit shall be immediately reported to 
the Service office designated in the permit.
    (4) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph shall be designated on the face of the permit.
    (b)(1) Application requirements for permits for incidental taking. 
(i) A person wishing to get a permit for an activity prohibited by Sec.  
17.31 submits an application for activities under this paragraph.
    (ii) The director shall publish notice in the Federal Register of 
each application for a permit that is made under this section. Each 
notice shall invite the submission from interested parties, within 30 
days after the date of the notice, of written data, views, or arguments 
with respect to the application.
    (iii) Each application must be submitted on an official application 
(Form 3-200) provided by the Service, and must include as an attachment, 
all of the following information:
    (A) A complete description of the activity sought to be authorized;
    (B) The common and scientific names of the species sought to be 
covered by the permit, as well as the number, age, and sex of such 
species, if known;
    (C) A conservation plan that specifies:
    (1) The impact that will likely result from such taking;
    (2) What steps the applicant will take to monitor, minimize, and 
mitigate such impacts, the funding that will be available to implement 
such steps, and the procedures to be used to deal with unforeseen 
circumstances;
    (3) What alternative actions to such taking the applicant considered 
and the reasons why such alternatives are not proposed to be utilized; 
and
    (4) Such other measures that the Director may require as being 
necessary or appropriate for purposes of the plan.
    (2) Issuance criteria. (i) Upon receiving an application completed 
in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not a permit should be issued. The Director shall 
consider the general issuance criteria in 13.21(b) of this subchapter, 
except for 13.21(b)(4), and shall issue the permit if he or she finds 
that:
    (A) The taking will be incidental;
    (B) The applicant will, to the maximum extent practicable, minimize 
and mitigate the impacts of such takings;
    (C) The applicant will ensure that adequate funding for the 
conservation plan and procedures to deal with unforeseen circumstances 
will be provided;
    (D) The taking will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of the 
survival and recovery of the species in the wild;
    (E) The measures, if any, required under paragraph (b)(1)(iii)(D) of 
this section will be met; and

[[Page 107]]

    (F) He or she has received such other assurances as he or she may 
require that the plan will be implemented.
    (ii) In making his or her decision, the Director shall also consider 
the anticipated duration and geographic scope of the applicant's planned 
activities, including the amount of listed species habitat that is 
involved and the degree to which listed species and their habitats are 
affected.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
paragraph shall contain such terms and conditions as the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
conservation plan including, but not limited to, monitoring and 
reporting requirements deemed necessary for determining whether such 
terms and conditions are being complied with. The Director shall rely 
upon existing reporting requirements to the maximum extent practicable.
    (4) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph shall be sufficient to provide adequate assurances to the 
permittee to commit funding necessary for the activities authorized by 
the permit, including conservation activities and land use restrictions. 
In determining the duration of a permit, the Director shall consider the 
duration of the planned activities, as well as the possible positive and 
negative effects associated with permits of the proposed duration on 
listed species, including the extent to which the conservation plan will 
enhance the habitat of listed species and increase the long-term 
survivability of such species.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee in case of changed or 
unforeseen circumstances. The assurances in this paragraph (b)(5) apply 
only to incidental take permits issued in accordance with paragraph 
(b)(2) of this section where the conservation plan is being properly 
implemented, and apply only with respect to species adequately covered 
by the conservation plan. These assurances cannot be provided to Federal 
agencies. This rule does not apply to incidental take permits issued 
prior to March 25, 1998. The assurances provided in incidental take 
permits issued prior to March 25, 1998 remain in effect, and those 
permits will not be revised as a result of this rulemaking.
    (i) Changed circumstances provided for in the plan. If additional 
conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to respond to 
changed circumstances and were provided for in the plan's operating 
conservation program, the permittee will implement the measures 
specified in the plan.
    (ii) Changed circumstances not provided for in the plan. If 
additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed necessary to 
respond to changed circumstances and such measures were not provided for 
in the plan's operating conservation program, the Director will not 
require any conservation and mitigation measures in addition to those 
provided for in the plan without the consent of the permittee, provided 
the plan is being properly implemented.
    (iii) Unforeseen circumstances. (A) In negotiating unforeseen 
circumstances, the Director will not require the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
beyond the level otherwise agreed upon for the species covered by the 
conservation plan without the consent of the permittee.
    (B) If additional conservation and mitigation measures are deemed 
necessary to respond to unforeseen circumstances, the Director may 
require additional measures of the permittee where the conservation plan 
is being properly implemented, but only if such measures are limited to 
modifications within conserved habitat areas, if any, or to the 
conservation plan's operating conservation program for the affected 
species, and maintain the original terms of the conservation plan to the 
maximum extent possible. Additional conservation and mitigation measures 
will not involve the commitment of additional land, water or financial 
compensation or additional restrictions on the use of land, water, or 
other natural resources otherwise available for development or use under 
the original terms of the conservation plan without the consent of the 
permittee.
    (C) The Director will have the burden of demonstrating that such 
unforeseen

[[Page 108]]

circumstances exist, using the best scientific and commercial data 
available. These findings must be clearly documented and based upon 
reliable technical information regarding the status and habitat 
requirements of the affected species. The Director will consider, but 
not be limited to, the following factors:
    (1) Size of the current range of the affected species;
    (2) Percentage of range adversely affected by the conservation plan;
    (3) Percentage of range conserved by the conservation plan;
    (4) Ecological significance of that portion of the range affected by 
the conservation plan;
    (5) Level of knowledge about the affected species and the degree of 
specificity of the species' conservation program under the conservation 
plan; and
    (6) Whether failure to adopt additional conservation measures would 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery of the 
affected species in the wild.
    (6) Nothing in this rule will be construed to limit or constrain the 
Director, any Federal, State, local, or Tribal government agency, or a 
private entity, from taking additional actions at its own expense to 
protect or conserve a species included in a conservation plan.
    (7) Discontinuance of permit activity. Notwithstanding the 
provisions of Sec.  13.26 of this subchapter, a permittee under this 
paragraph (b) remains responsible for any outstanding minimization and 
mitigation measures required under the terms of the permit for take that 
occurs prior to surrender of the permit and such minimization and 
mitigation measures as may be required pursuant to the termination 
provisions of an implementing agreement, habitat conservation plan, or 
permit even after surrendering the permit to the Service pursuant to 
Sec.  13.26 of this subchapter. The permit shall be deemed canceled only 
upon a determination by the Service that such minimization and 
mitigation measures have been implemented. Upon surrender of the permit, 
no further take shall be authorized under the terms of the surrendered 
permit.
    (8) Criteria for revocation. A permit issued under paragraph (b) of 
this section may not be revoked for any reason except those set forth in 
Sec.  13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter or unless continuation 
of the permitted activity would be inconsistent with the criterion set 
forth in 16 U.S.C. 1539(a)(2)(B)(iv) and the inconsistency has not been 
remedied.
    (c)(1) Application requirements for permits for the enhancement of 
survival through Safe Harbor Agreements. The applicant must submit an 
application for a permit under this paragraph (c) to the appropriate 
Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for the Region where 
the applicant resides or where the proposed action is to occur (for 
appropriate addresses, see 50 CFR 10.22), if the applicant wishes to 
engage in any activity prohibited by Sec.  17.31. The applicant must 
submit an official Service application form (3-200.54) that includes the 
following information:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the listed species for which 
the applicant requests incidental take authorization;
    (ii) A description of how incidental take of the covered species 
pursuant to the Safe Harbor Agreement is likely to occur, both as a 
result of management activities and as a result of the return to 
baseline;
    (iii) A Safe Harbor Agreement that complies with the requirements of 
the Safe Harbor policy available from the Service; and
    (iv) The Director must publish notice in the Federal Register of 
each application for a permit that is made under this paragraph (c). 
Each notice must invite the submission from interested parties within 30 
days after the date of the notice of written data, views, or arguments 
with respect to the application. The procedures included in Sec.  
17.22(e) for permit objection apply to any notice published by the 
Director under this paragraph (c).
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not to issue a permit. The Director shall consider the 
general issuance criteria in Sec.  13.21(b) of this subchapter, except

[[Page 109]]

for Sec.  13.21(b)(4), and may issue the permit if he or she finds:
    (i) The take will be incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and 
will be in accordance with the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement;
    (ii) The implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement is 
reasonably expected to provide a net conservation benefit to the 
affected listed species by contributing to the recovery of listed 
species included in the permit, and the Safe Harbor Agreement otherwise 
complies with the Safe Harbor policy available from the Service;
    (iii) The probable direct and indirect effects of any authorized 
take will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery 
in the wild of any listed species;
    (iv) Implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement is 
consistent with applicable Federal, State, and Tribal laws and 
regulations;
    (v) Implementation of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement will 
not be in conflict with any ongoing conservation or recovery programs 
for listed species covered by the permit; and
    (vi) The applicant has shown capability for and commitment to 
implementing all of the terms of the Safe Harbor Agreement.
    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to any applicable general permit 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued 
under this paragraph (c) is subject to the following special conditions:
    (i) A requirement for the participating property owner to notify the 
Service of any transfer of lands subject to a Safe Harbor Agreement;
    (ii) When appropriate, a requirement for the permittee to give the 
Service reasonable advance notice (generally at least 30 days) of when 
he or she expects to incidentally take any listed species covered under 
the permit. Such notification will provide the Service with an 
opportunity to relocate affected individuals of the species, if possible 
and appropriate; and
    (iii) Any additional requirements or conditions the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
Safe Harbor Agreement.
    (4) Permit effective date. Permits issued under this paragraph (c) 
become effective the day of issuance for species covered by the Safe 
Harbor Agreement.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee. (i) The assurances in 
subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph (c)(5) apply only to Safe Harbor 
permits issued in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section where 
the Safe Harbor Agreement is being properly implemented, and apply only 
with respect to species covered by the Agreement and permit. These 
assurances cannot be provided to Federal agencies. The assurances 
provided in this section apply only to Safe Harbor permits issued after 
July 19, 1999.
    (ii) The Director and the permittee may agree to revise or modify 
the management measures set forth in a Safe Harbor Agreement if the 
Director determines that such revisions or modifications do not change 
the Director's prior determination that the Safe Harbor Agreement is 
reasonably expected to provide a net conservation benefit to the listed 
species. However, the Director may not require additional or different 
management activities to be undertaken by a permittee without the 
consent of the permittee.
    (6) Additional actions. Nothing in this rule will be construed to 
limit or constrain the Director, any Federal, State, local or Tribal 
government agency, or a private entity, from taking additional actions 
at its own expense to protect or conserve a species included in a Safe 
Harbor Agreement.
    (7) Criteria for revocation. The Director may not revoke a permit 
issued under paragraph (c) of this section except as provided in this 
paragraph. The Director may revoke a permit for any reason set forth in 
Sec.  13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter. The Director may 
revoke a permit if continuation of the permitted activity would either 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery in the wild 
of any listed species or directly or indirectly alter designated 
critical habitat such that it appreciably diminishes the value of that 
critical habitat for both the survival and recovery of a listed species. 
Before revoking a permit for

[[Page 110]]

either of the latter two reasons, the Director, with the consent of the 
permittee, will pursue all appropriate options to avoid permit 
revocation. These options may include, but are not limited to: extending 
or modifying the existing permit, capturing and relocating the species, 
compensating the landowner to forgo the activity, purchasing an easement 
or fee simple interest in the property, or arranging for a third-party 
acquisition of an interest in the property.
    (8) Duration of permits. The duration of permits issued under this 
paragraph (c) must be sufficient to provide a net conservation benefit 
to species covered in the enhancement of survival permit. In determining 
the duration of a permit, the Director will consider the duration of the 
planned activities, as well as the positive and negative effects 
associated with permits of the proposed duration on covered species, 
including the extent to which the conservation activities included in 
the Safe Harbor Agreement will enhance the survival and contribute to 
the recovery of listed species included in the permit.
    (d)(1) Application requirements for permits for the enhancement of 
survival through Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances. The 
applicant must submit an application for a permit under this paragraph 
(d) to the appropriate Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, for the Region where the applicant resides or where the 
proposed activity is to occur (for appropriate addresses, see 50 CFR 
10.22). When a species covered by a Candidate Conservation Agreement 
with Assurances is listed as threatened and the applicant wishes to 
engage in activities identified in the Agreement and otherwise 
prohibited by Sec.  17.31, the applicant must apply for an enhancement 
of survival permit for species covered by the Agreement. The permit will 
become valid if and when covered proposed, candidate or other unlisted 
species is listed as a threatened species. The applicant must submit an 
official Service application form (3-200.54) that includes the following 
information:
    (i) The common and scientific names of the species for which the 
applicant requests incidental take authorization;
    (ii) A description of the land use or water management activity for 
which the applicant requests incidental take authorization; and
    (iii) A Candidate Conservation Agreement that complies with the 
requirements of the Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances 
policy available from the Service.
    (iv) The Director must publish notice in the Federal Register of 
each application for a permit that is made under this paragraph (d). 
Each notice must invite the submission from interested parties within 30 
days after the date of the notice of written data, views, or arguments 
with respect to the application. The procedures included in Sec.  
17.22(e) for permit objection apply to any notice published by the 
Director under this paragraph (d).
    (2) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the Director will 
decide whether or not to issue a permit. The Director shall consider the 
general issuance criteria in Sec.  13.21(b) of this subchapter, except 
for Sec.  13.21(b)(4), and may issue the permit if he or she finds:
    (i) The take will be incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and 
will be in accordance with the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement;
    (ii) The Candidate Conservation Agreement complies with the 
requirements of the Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances 
policy available from the Service;
    (iii) The probable direct and indirect effects of any authorized 
take will not appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery 
in the wild of any species;
    (iv) Implementation of the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement is consistent with applicable Federal, State, and Tribal laws 
and regulations;
    (v) Implementation of the terms of the Candidate Conservation 
Agreement will not be in conflict with any ongoing conservation programs 
for species covered by the permit; and
    (vi) The applicant has shown capability for and commitment to 
implementing all of the terms of the Candidate Conservation Agreement.

[[Page 111]]

    (3) Permit conditions. In addition to any applicable general permit 
conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued 
under this paragraph (d) is subject to the following special conditions:
    (i) A requirement for the property owner to notify the Service of 
any transfer of lands subject to a Candidate Conservation Agreement;
    (ii) When appropriate, a requirement for the permittee to give the 
Service reasonable advance notice (generally at least 30 days) of when 
he or she expects to incidentally take any listed species covered under 
the permit. Such notification will provide the Service with an 
opportunity to relocate affected individuals of the species, if possible 
and appropriate; and
    (iii) Any additional requirements or conditions the Director deems 
necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the permit and the 
Candidate Conservation Agreement.
    (4) Permit effective date. Permits issued under this paragraph (d) 
become effective for a species covered by a Candidate Conservation 
Agreement on the effective date of a final rule that lists a covered 
species as threatened.
    (5) Assurances provided to permittee in case of changed or 
unforeseen circumstances. The assurances in this paragraph (d)(5) apply 
only to permits issued in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) where the 
Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement is being properly 
implemented, and apply only with respect to species adequately covered 
by the Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement. These 
assurances cannot be provided to Federal agencies.
    (i) Changed circumstances provided for in the Agreement. If the 
Director determines that additional conservation measures are necessary 
to respond to changed circumstances and these measures were set forth in 
the Agreement, the permittee will implement the measures specified in 
the Agreement.
    (ii) Changed circumstances not provided for in the Agreement. If the 
Director determines that additional conservation measures not provided 
for in the Agreement are necessary to respond to changed circumstances, 
the Director will not require any conservation measures in addition to 
those provided for in the Agreement without the consent of the 
permittee, provided the Agreement is being properly implemented.
    (iii) Unforeseen circumstances. (A) In negotiating unforeseen 
circumstances, the Director will not require the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
beyond the level otherwise agreed upon for the species covered by the 
Agreement without the consent of the permittee.
    (B) If the Director determines additional conservation measures are 
necessary to respond to unforeseen circumstances, the Director may 
require additional measures of the permittee where the Agreement is 
being properly implemented, but only if such measures maintain the 
original terms of the Agreement to the maximum extent possible. 
Additional conservation measures will not involve the commitment of 
additional land, water, or financial compensation or additional 
restrictions on the use of land, water, or other natural resources 
otherwise available for development or use under the original terms of 
the Agreement without the consent of the permittee.
    (C) The Director will have the burden of demonstrating that 
unforeseen circumstances exist, using the best scientific and commercial 
data available. These findings must be clearly documented and based upon 
reliable technical information regarding the status and habitat 
requirements of the affected species. The Director will consider, but 
not be limited to, the following factors:
    (1) Size of the current range of the affected species;
    (2) Percentage of range adversely affected by the Agreement;
    (3) Percentage of range conserved by the Agreement;
    (4) Ecological significance of that portion of the range affected by 
the Agreement;
    (5) Level of knowledge about the affected species and the degree of 
specificity of the species' conservation program under the Agreement; 
and

[[Page 112]]

    (6) Whether failure to adopt additional conservation measures would 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery of the 
affected species in the wild.
    (6) Additional actions. Nothing in this rule will be construed to 
limit or constrain the Director, any Federal, State, local or Tribal 
government agency, or a private entity, from taking additional actions 
at its own expense to protect or conserve a species included in a 
Candidate Conservation with Assurances Agreement.
    (7) Criteria for revocation. The Director may not revoke a permit 
issued under paragraph (d) of this section except as provided in this 
paragraph. The Director may revoke a permit for any reason set forth in 
Sec.  13.28(a)(1) through (4) of this subchapter. The Director may 
revoke a permit if continuation of the permitted activity would either 
appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival and recovery in the wild 
of any listed species or directly or indirectly alter designated 
critical habitat such that it appreciably diminishes the value of that 
critical habitat for both the survival and recovery of a listed species. 
Before revoking a permit for either of the latter two reasons, the 
Director, with the consent of the permittee, will pursue all appropriate 
options to avoid permit revocation. These options may include, but are 
not limited to: extending or modifying the existing permit, capturing 
and relocating the species, compensating the landowner to forgo the 
activity, purchasing an easement or fee simple interest in the property, 
or arranging for a third-party acquisition of an interest in the 
property.
    (8) Duration of the Candidate Conservation Agreement. The duration 
of a Candidate Conservation Agreement covered by a permit issued under 
this paragraph (d) must be sufficient to enable the Director to 
determine that the benefits of the conservation measures in the 
Agreement, when combined with those benefits that would be achieved if 
it is assumed that the conservation measures would also be implemented 
on other necessary properties, would preclude or remove any need to list 
the species covered by the Agreement.

[50 FR 39689, Sept. 30, 1985, as amended at 63 FR 8871, Feb. 23, 1998; 
63 FR 52635, Oct. 1, 1998; 64 FR 32714, June 17, 1999; 64 FR 52676, 
Sept. 30, 1999; 69 FR 24093, May 3, 2004; 69 FR 29670, May 25, 2004; 69 
FR 71731, Dec. 10, 2004]



Sec.  17.40  Special rules--mammals.

    (a) [Reserved]
    (b) Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos)--(1) Prohibitions. The following 
prohibitions apply to the grizzly bear:
    (i) Taking. (A) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(i)(B) 
through (F) of this section, no person shall take any grizzly bear in 
the 48 conterminous states of the United States.
    (B) Grizzly bears may be taken in self-defense or in defense of 
others, but such taking shall be reported, within 5 days of occurrence, 
to the Assistant Regional Director, Division of Law Enforcement, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal Center, 
Denver, Colorado 80225 (303/236-7540 or FTS 776-7540), if occurring in 
Montana or Wyoming, or to the Assistant Regional Director, Division of 
Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lloyd 500 Building, 
Suite 1490, 500 Northeast Multnomah Street, Portland, Oregon 97232 (503/
231-6125 or FTS 429-6125), if occurring in Idaho or Washington, and to 
appropriate State and Indian Reservation Tribal authorities. Grizzly 
bears or their parts taken in self-defense or in defense of others shall 
not be possessed, delivered, carried, transported, shipped, exported, 
received, or sold, except by Federal, State, or Tribal authorities.
    (C) Removal of nuisance bears. A grizzly bear consituting a 
demonstrable but non immediate threat to human safety or committing 
significant depredations to lawfully present livestock, crops, or 
beehives may be taken, but only if:
    (1) It has not been reasonably possible to eliminate such threat or 
depredation by live-capturing and releasing unharmed in a remote area 
the grizzly bear involved; and
    (2) The taking is done in a humane manner by authorized Federal, 
State,

[[Page 113]]

or Tribal authorities, and in accordance with current interagency 
guidelines covering the taking of such nuisance bears; and
    (3) The taking is reported within 5 days of occurrence to the 
appropriate Assistant Regional Director, Division of Law Enforcement, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as indicated in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B) 
of this section, and to appropriate State and Tribal authorities.
    (D) Federal, State, or Tribal scientific or research activities. 
Federal, State, or Tribal authorities may take grizzly bears for 
scientific or research purposes, but only if such taking does not result 
in death or permanent injury to the bears involved. Such taking must be 
reported within 5 days of occurrence to the appropriate Assistant 
Regional Director, Division of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, as indicated in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B) of this section, and to 
appropriate State and Tribal authorities.
    (E) [Reserved]
    (F) National Parks. The regulations of the National Park Service 
shall govern all taking of grizzly bears in National Parks.
    (ii) Unlawfully taken grizzly bears. (A) Except as provided in 
paragraphs (b)(1)(ii)(B) and (iv) of this section, no person shall 
possess, deliver, carry, transport, ship, export, receive, or sell any 
unlawfully taken grizzly bear. Any unlawful taking of a grizzly bear 
shall be reported within 5 days of occurrence to the appropriate 
Assistant Regional Director, Division of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, as indicated in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B) of this 
section, and to appropriate State and Tribal authorities.
    (B) Authorized Federal, State, or Tribal employees, when acting in 
the course of their official duties, may, for scientific or research 
purposes, possess, deliver, carry, transport, ship, export, or receive 
unlawfully taken grizzly bears.
    (iii) Import or export. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) 
(A) and (B) and (iv) of this section, no person shall import any grizzly 
bear into the United States.
    (A) Federal, State, or Tribal scientific or research activities. 
Federal, State, or Tribal authorities may import grizzly bears into the 
United States for scientific or research purposes.
    (B) Public zoological institution. Public zoological institutions 
(see 50 CFR 10.12) may import grizzly bears into the United States.
    (iv) Commercial transactions. (A) Except as provided in paragraph 
(b)(1)(iv)(B) of this section, no person shall, in the course of 
commercial activity, deliver, receive, carry, transport, or ship in 
interstate or foreign commerce any grizzly bear.
    (B) A public zoological institution (see 50 CFR 10.12) dealing with 
other public zoological institutions may sell grizzly bears or offer 
them for sale in interstate or foreign commerce, and may, in the course 
of commercial activity, deliver, receive, carry, transport, or ship 
grizzly bears in interstate or foreign commerce.
    (v) Other violations. No person shall attempt to commit, cause to be 
committed, or solicit another to commit any act prohibited by paragraph 
(b)(1) of this section.
    (2) Definitions. As used in paragraph (b) of this section:
    Grizzly bear means any member of the species Ursus arctos of the 48 
conterminous States of the United States, including any part, offspring, 
dead body, part of a dead body, or product of such species.
    Grizzly bear accompanied by young means any grizzly bear having 
offspring, including one or more cubs, yearlings, or 2-year-olds, in its 
immediate vicinity.
    Identified means permanently marked or documented so as to be 
identifiable by law enforcement officials at a subsequent date.
    State, Federal or Tribal authority means an employee of State, 
Federal, or Indian Tribal government who, as part of his/her official 
duties, normally handles grizzly bears.
    Young grizzly bear means a cub, yearling, or 2-year-old grizzly 
bear.

[[Page 114]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01JN91.000

    (c) Primates. (1) Except as noted in paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) of 
this section, all provisions of Sec.  17.31 shall apply to the lesser 
slow loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus; Philippine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta; 
white-footed tamarin, Saguinus leucopus; black howler monkey, Alouatta 
pigra; stump-tailed macaque, Macaca arctoides; gelada baboon, 
Theropithecus gelada; Formosan rock macaque, Macaca cyclopis; Japanese 
macaque, Macaca fuscata; Toque macaque, Macaca sinica; long-tailed 
langur, Presbytis potenziani; purple-faced langur, Presbytis senex; 
Tonkin snub-nosed langur, Pygathrix (Rhinopithecus) avunculus; and, in 
captivity only, chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes.
    (2) The prohibitions referred to above do not apply to any live 
member of such species held in captivity in the United States on the 
effective date of the final rulemaking, or to the progeny of such 
animals, or to the progeny of animals legally imported into the United 
States after the effective date of the final rulemaking, Provided, That 
the person wishing to engage in any activity which would otherwise be 
prohibited must be able to show satisfactory documentary or other 
evidence as to the captive status of the particular member of the 
species on the effective date of this rulemaking or that the particular 
member of the species was born in captivity in the United States after 
the effective date of this rulemaking. Identification of the particular 
member to a record in the International Species Inventory System (ISIS), 
or to a Federal, State or local government permit, shall be deemed to be 
satisfactory evidence. Records in the form of studbooks or inventories, 
kept in the normal course of business, shall be acceptable as evidence, 
provided that a notarized statement is inserted in such record to the 
effect that:
    (i) The records were kept in the normal course of business prior to 
November 18, 1976, and accurately identify (by use of markers, tags, or 
other acceptable marking devices) individual animals; or
    (ii) That the individual animal identified by the records was born 
in captivity on --------(Date).

The notarized statement in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, shall be 
acceptable only if the notarization is dated on or before January 3, 
1977. The notarized statement in paragraph (c)(2)(ii), of this section, 
shall be acceptable only if the notarization is dated within 15 days of 
the date of birth of the animal.
    (3) The provisions of Sec. Sec.  17.21, 17.22, and 17.23 shall apply 
to any individual chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the historic range 
of the species, regardless of whether in the wild or captivity, and also 
shall apply to any individual chimpanzee not within this range, but 
which has originated within this range after the effective date of these 
regulations, and also shall apply to the progeny of any such chimpanzee, 
other than to the progeny of animals legally imported into the United 
States after the effective date of these regulations. For the purposes 
of this paragraph, the historic range of the chimpanzee shall consist of 
the following countries: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, 
Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, 
Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, 
Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zaire.
    (d) [Reserved]

[[Page 115]]

    (e) African elephant (Loxodonta africana)--(1) Definitions. For the 
purposes of this paragraph (e):
    (i) African elephant shall mean any member of the species Loxodonta 
africana, whether live or dead, and any part or product thereof.
    (ii) Raw ivory means any African elephant tusk, and any piece 
thereof, the surface of which, polished or unpolished, is unaltered or 
minimally carved.
    (iii) Worked ivory means any African elephant tusk, and any piece 
thereof, which is not raw ivory.
    (iv) Lip mark area means that area of a whole African elephant tusk 
where the tusk emerges from the skull and which is usually denoted by a 
prominent ring of staining on the tusk in its natural state.
    (2) Prohibitions. Except as provided in the exceptions in paragraph 
(e)(3) of this section, it shall be unlawful for any person to:
    (i) Import or export any African elephant,
    (ii) Possess, sell or offer for sale, receive, deliver, transport 
ship, or export any African elephant which was illegally imported into 
the United States,
    (iii) Sell or offer for sale any sport-hunted trophy imported into 
the United States in violation of permit conditions.
    (3) Exceptions. (i) African elephants, other than sport-hunted 
trophies and raw and worked ivory, may be imported or exported provided 
all permit requirements of 50 CFR parts 13 and 23 have been complied 
with.
    (ii) Ivory. (A) Raw or worked ivory (other than sport-hunted 
trophies) may be imported only if:
    (1) It is a bona fide antique of greater than 100 years of age on 
the day of import, or
    (2) It was exported from the United States after being registered 
with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
    (B) Worked ivory may be exported in accordance with the permit 
requirements of 50 CFR parts 13 and 23.
    (C) Raw ivory may not be exported from the United States for 
commercial purposes under any circumstances.
    (iii) Sport-hunted trophies may be imported into the United States 
provided:
    (A) The trophy originates in a country for which the Service has 
received notice of that country's African elephant ivory quota for the 
year of export;
    (B) All of the permit requirements of 50 CFR parts 13 and 23 have 
been complied with;
    (C) A determination is made that the killing of the animal whose 
trophy is intended for import would enhance survival of the species; and
    (D) The trophy is legibly marked by means of punch-dies, under a 
marking and registration system established by the country of origin, 
that includes the following information: Country of origin represented 
by the two-letter code established by the International Organization for 
Standardization (see appendix A to chapter I) followed by the 
registration number assigned to the last two digits of the year of 
registration and the weight of raw ivory to the nearest kilogram. Any 
mark must be placed on the lip mark area and indicated by a flash of 
color which serves as a background for such mark.
    (f) Leopard. (1) Except as noted in paragraph (f)(2) of this 
section, all prohibitions of Sec.  17.31 of this part and exemptions of 
Sec.  17.32 of this part shall apply to the leopard populations 
occurring in southern Africa to the south of a line running along the 
borders of the following countries: Gabon/Rio Muni; Gabon/Cameroon; 
Congo/Cameroon; Congo/Central African Republic; Zaire/Central African 
Republic; Zaire/Sudan; Uganda/Sudan; Kenya/Sudan; Kenya/Ethiopia; Kenya/
Somalia.
    (2) A sport-hunted leopard trophy legally taken after the effective 
date of this rulemaking, from the area south of the line delineated 
above, may be imported into the United States without a Threatened 
Species permit pursuant to Sec.  17.32 of this part, provided that the 
applicable provisions of 50 CFR part 23 have been met.
    (g) Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens). (1) Except as noted in 
paragraph (g)(2) of this section, all prohibitions of 50 CFR 17.31 (a) 
and (b), and exemptions of 50 CFR 17.32 shall apply to the Utah prairie 
dog.
    (2) A Utah prairie dog may be taken on private land throughout its 
range

[[Page 116]]

under a permit issued by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, in 
accordance with the laws of the State of Utah, provided that such taking 
does not exceed 6,000 animals annually and that such taking is confined 
to the period from June 1 to December 31. Records on permitted take 
maintained by the State shall be made available to the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service on request.
    (3) If the Service receives substantive evidence that takings 
pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section are having an effect that 
is inconsistent with the conservation of the Utah prairie dog, the 
Service may immediately prohibit or restrict such taking as appropriate 
for the conservation of the species.
    (h) Mountain lion (Felis concolor). (1) Except as allowed in 
paragraphs (h)(2), (h)(3), and (h)(4) of this section, no person shall 
take any free-living mountain lion (Felis concolor) in Florida.
    (2) A mountain lion (Felis concolor) may be taken in this area under 
a valid threatened species permit issued pursuant to 50 CFR 17.52.
    (3) A mountain lion (Felis concolor) may be taken in Florida by an 
employee or designated agent of the Service or the Florida Game and 
Fresh Water Fish Commission for taxonomic identification or other 
reasons consistent with the conservation of the endangered Florida 
panther (Felis concolor coryi). When it has been established by the 
Service, in consultation with the State, that an animal in question is 
not a Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) or an eastern cougar (Felis 
concolor couguar), such animals may be removed from the wild. The 
disposition of animals so taken shall be at the discretion of the 
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, with the concurrence of 
the Fish and Wildlife Service.
    (4) Take for reasons of human safety is allowed as specified under 
50 CFR 17.21(c)(2) and 17.21(c)(3)(iv).
    (5) Any take pursuant to paragraph (h)(4) of this section must be 
reported in writing to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of 
Law Enforcement, P.O. Box 3247, Arlington, Virginia 22203, within 5 
days. The specimen may only be retained, disposed of, or salvaged in 
accordance with directions from the Service.
    (i) Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus). (1) Except as 
noted in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, all prohibitions of Sec.  
17.31 and exemptions of Sec.  17.32 shall apply to any black bear within 
the historic range of the Louisiana black bear (Texas, Louisiana and 
Mississippi).
    (2) Subsection 17.40(i)(1) and Sec.  17.31 shall not prohibit 
effects incidental to normal forest management activities within the 
historic range of the Louisiana black bear except for activities causing 
damage to or loss of den trees, den tree sites or candidate den trees. 
For purposes of this exemption, normal forest management activities are 
defined as those activities that support a sustained yield of timber 
products and wildlife habitats, thereby maintaining forestland 
conditions in occupied habitat. For purposes of this special rule, 
candidate den trees are considered to be bald cypress and tupelo gum 
with visible cavities, having a minimum diameter at breast height (DBH) 
of 36 inches, and occurring in or along rivers, lakes, streams, bayous, 
sloughs, or other water bodies.
    (3) This express exemption for normal forest management activities 
provided by this special rule is subject to modification or withdrawal 
if the Service determines that this provision fails to further the 
conservation of the Louisiana black bear.
    (j) Argali (Ovis ammon) in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan--(1) 
Except as noted in paragraph (j)(2) of this section, all prohibitions of 
Sec.  17.31 of this part and exemptions of Sec.  17.32 of this part 
shall apply to this species in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan

    (Note. In all other parts of its range the argali is classified as 
endangered and covered by Sec.  17.21).

    (2) Upon receiving from the governments of Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and 
Tajikistan properly documented and verifiable certification that (i) 
argali populations in those countries are sufficiently large to sustain 
sport hunting, (ii) regulating authorities have the capacity to obtain 
sound data on these populations, (iii) regulating authorities

[[Page 117]]

recognize these populations as a valuable resource and have the legal 
and practical capacity to manage them as such, (iv) the habitat of these 
populations is secure, (v) regulating authorities can ensure that the 
involved trophies have in fact been legally taken from the specified 
populations, and (vi) funds derived from the involved sport hunting are 
applied primarily to argali conservation, the Director may, consistent 
with the purposes of the Act, authorize by publication of a notice in 
the Federal Register the importation of personal sport-hunted argali 
trophies, taken legally in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan after 
the date of such notice, without a Threatened Species permit pursuant to 
Sec.  17.32 of this part, provided that the applicable provisions of 50 
CFR part 23 have been met.
    (k) Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis). (1) What lynx does this special 
rule apply to? The regulations in this paragraph (k) apply to all wild 
and captive lynx in the contiguous United States.
    (2) What activities are prohibited for wild lynx? All prohibitions 
and provisions of 50 CFR 17.31 and 17.32 apply to wild lynx found in the 
contiguous United States.
    (3) What is considered a captive lynx? (i) For purposes of this 
paragraph (k), captive lynx means lynx, whether alive or dead, and any 
part or product, if the specimen was in captivity at the time of the 
listing, born in captivity, or lawfully imported or transported into the 
contiguous United States.
    (ii) Lynx that were either born or held in captivity and then 
released into the wild are considered wild.
    (4) What activities are allowed for captive lynx? (i) Take. You may 
take lawfully obtained captive lynx without a permit.
    (ii) Import and export. You may export captive live lynx, parts or 
products of captive lynx provided the specimens are tagged with 
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna 
and Flora (CITES) export tags and/or accompanied by a valid CITES export 
permit. You may import lawfully obtained lynx that originated outside 
the United States when you follow the requirements of CITES.
    (iii) Interstate commerce. You may deliver, receive, carry, 
transport, ship, sell, offer to sell, purchase, or offer to purchase in 
interstate commerce captive lynx and captive lynx parts and products in 
accordance with State or tribal laws and regulations. In addition, lynx 
pelts that are properly tagged with valid CITES export tags also qualify 
for this exemption on interstate commerce.
    (5) Are any activities not allowed or restricted for captive lynx? 
You must comply with all applicable State and tribal laws and 
regulations. Violation of State or tribal law will also be a violation 
of the Act.
    (l) Preble's meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei). (1) 
What is the definition of take? To harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, 
wound, trap, kill, or collect; or attempt to engage in any such conduct. 
Incidental take is that which occurs when it is incidental to and not 
the purpose of an otherwise lawful activity. Any take that is not 
authorized by permit provided through section 7 or section 10 of the Act 
or that is not covered by the exemptions described below is considered 
illegal take.
    (2) When is take of Preble's meadow jumping mice allowed? Take of 
Preble's meadow jumping mice resulting from the following legally 
conducted activities, in certain circumstances as described below, is 
allowed:
    (i) Take under permits. Any person with a valid permit issued by the 
Service under Sec.  17.32 may take Preble's meadow jumping mice pursuant 
to the terms of the permit.
    (ii) Rodent control. Preble's meadow jumping mice may be taken 
incidental to rodent control undertaken within 10 feet of or inside any 
structure. ``Rodent control'' includes control of mice and rats by 
trapping, capturing, or otherwise physically capturing or killing, or 
poisoning by any substance registered with the Environmental Protection 
Agency as required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and 
Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136) and applied consistent with its labeling. 
``Structure'' includes but is not limited to any building, stable, grain 
silo, corral, barn, shed, water or sewage treatment equipment or 
facility, enclosed parking

[[Page 118]]

structure, shelter, gazebo, bandshell, or restroom complex.
    (iii) Established, ongoing agricultural activities. Preble's meadow 
jumping mice may be taken incidental to agricultural activities, 
including grazing, plowing, seeding, cultivating, minor drainage, 
burning, mowing, and harvesting, as long as these activities are 
established, ongoing activities and do not increase impacts to or 
further encroach upon the Preble's meadow jumping mouse or its habitat. 
New agricultural activities or those that expand the footprint or 
intensity of the activity are not considered to be established, ongoing 
activities.
    (iv) Maintenance and replacement of existing landscaping. Preble's 
meadow jumping mice may be taken incidental to the maintenance and 
replacement of any landscaping and related structures and improvements, 
as long as they are currently in place and no increase in impervious 
surfaces would result from their maintenance and improvement. 
Construction of new structures or improvements or expansion of the 
landscaping in a manner that increases impervious surfaces would not be 
considered maintenance and replacement of existing landscaping.
    (v) Existing uses of water. Preble's meadow jumping mice may be 
taken incidentally as a result of existing uses of water associated with 
the exercise of perfected water rights pursuant to State law and 
interstate compacts and decrees. (A ``perfected water right'' is a right 
that has been put to beneficial use and has been permitted, decreed, or 
adjudicated pursuant to State law.) Increasing the use or altering the 
location of use of an existing water right would not be considered an 
existing use of water.
    (vi) Noxious weed control. Preble's meadow jumping mice may be taken 
incidental to noxious weed control that is conducted in accordance with:
    (A) Federal law, including Environmental Protection Agency label 
restrictions;
    (B) Applicable State laws for noxious weed control;
    (C) Applicable county bulletins;
    (D) Herbicide application guidelines as prescribed by herbicide 
manufacturers; and
    (E) Any future revisions to the authorities listed in paragraphs 
(l)(2)(vi)(A) through (D) of this section that apply to the herbicides 
proposed for use within the species' range.
    (vii) Ditch maintenance activities. Preble's meadow jumping mice may 
be taken incidental to normal and customary ditch maintenance activities 
only if the activities:
    (A) Result in the annual loss of no more than \1/4\ mile of riparian 
shrub habitat per linear mile of ditch, including burning of ditches 
that results in the annual loss of no more than \1/4\ mile of riparian 
shrub habitat per linear mile of ditch.
    (B) Are performed within the historic footprint of the surface 
disturbance associated with ditches and related infrastructure, and
    (C) Follow the Best Management Practices described in paragraphs 
(l)(2)(vii)(C)(1) through (3) of this section.
    (1) Persons engaged in ditch maintenance activities shall avoid, to 
the maximum extent practicable, impacts to shrub vegetation. For 
example, if accessing the ditch for maintenance or repair activities 
from an area containing no shrubs is possible, then damage to adjacent 
shrub vegetation shall be avoided.
    (2) Persons engaged in placement or sidecasting of silt and debris 
removed during ditch cleaning, vegetation or mulch from mowing or 
cutting, and other material from ditch maintenance shall, to the maximum 
extent practicable, avoid shrub habitat and at no time disturb more than 
\1/4\ mile of riparian shrub habitat per linear mile of ditch within any 
calendar year.
    (3) To the maximum extent practicable, all ditch maintenance 
activities should be carried out during the Preble's hibernation season, 
November through April.
    (D) All ditch maintenance activities carried out during the Preble's 
active season, May through October, should be conducted during daylight 
hours only.
    (E) Ditch maintenance activities that would result in permanent or 
long-term loss of potential habitat that would not be considered normal 
or customary include replacement of existing

[[Page 119]]

infrastructure with components of substantially different materials and 
design, such as replacement of open ditches with pipeline or concrete-
lined ditches, replacement of an existing gravel access road with a 
permanently paved road, or replacement of an earthen diversion structure 
with a rip-rap and concrete structure, and construction of new 
infrastructure or the movement of existing infrastructure to new 
locations, such as realignment of a ditch, building a new access road, 
or installation of new diversion works where none previously existed.
    (3) When is take of Preble's not allowed? (i) Any manner of take not 
described under paragraph (l)(2) of this section.
    (ii) No person may import or export, ship in interstate commerce in 
the course of commercial activity, or sell or offer for sale in 
interstate or foreign commerce any Preble's meadow jumping mice.
    (iii) No person, except for an authorized person, may possess, sell, 
deliver, carry, transport, or ship any Preble's meadow jumping mice that 
have been taken illegally.
    (4) Where does this rule apply? The take exemptions provided by this 
rule are applicable within the entire range of the Preble's meadow 
jumping mouse.
    (m) Vicu[ntilde]a. This paragraph (m) applies to the threatened 
vicu[ntilde]a (Vicugna vicugna).
    (1) What activities involving vicu[ntilde]a are prohibited by this 
rule? (i) Appendix I populations. All provisions of Sec.  17.31 (a) and 
(b) and Sec.  17.32 apply to vicu[ntilde]a and vicu[ntilde]a parts and 
products originating from populations currently listed in Appendix I of 
the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Fauna and Flora (CITES).
    (ii) Import, export, and re-export. Except as provided in paragraph 
(m)(2) of this section, you must not import, export, or re-export, or 
present for export or re-export without valid CITES permits 
vicu[ntilde]a or vicu[ntilde]a parts and products originating from 
populations listed in Appendix II of CITES.
    (iii) Commercial activity. Except as provided in paragraph (m)(2) of 
this section, you must not sell or offer for sale, deliver, receive, 
carry, transport, or ship in interstate or foreign commerce in the 
course of a commercial activity vicu[ntilde]a or vicu[ntilde]a parts and 
products from populations listed in Appendix II of CITES.
    (iv) It is unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction of 
the United States to commit, attempt to commit, solicit to commit, or 
cause to be committed any acts described in paragraphs (m)(1)(ii)-(iii) 
of this section.
    (2) What activities involving vicu[ntilde]a are allowed by this 
rule? You may import, export, or re-export, or place in interstate or 
foreign commerce, vicu[ntilde]a products, consisting of either raw fiber 
or items and cloth made, or partially made, from vicu[ntilde]a fiber, 
without a threatened species permit issued according to Sec.  17.32 only 
when the provisions in parts 13, 14, and 23 of this chapter and the 
requirements of the applicable subparagraphs of this paragraph (m)(2) 
have been met:
    (i) Import, export, or re-export. You may import, export, or re-
export into or from the United States vicu[ntilde]a products, consisting 
of either raw fiber or items and cloth made, or partially made, from 
vicu[ntilde]a fiber originating in a country authorized under paragraph 
(m)(4) of this section, provided the following conditions are met:
    (A) The vicu[ntilde]a product must comply with all CITES product 
annotations as given in the CITES Secretariat's official list of the 
CITES Appendices, and all imports, exports, and re-exports of 
vicu[ntilde]a products (including raw fiber re-exported from, or 
products manufactured in, intermediary countries) must be identified as 
follows:
    (1) Cloth, cloth products, and other finished products (including 
luxury handicrafts and knitted articles not produced in the country of 
origin): The reverse side of cloth, cloth products, and other finished 
products (including luxury handicrafts and knitted articles not produced 
in the country of origin), and samples of any of these items, must bear 
the logo adopted by countries signatory to the ``Convenio para la 
Conservaci[oacute]n y Manejo de la Vicu[ntilde]a'' and the words 
``VICU[Ntilde]A--(Country of Origin),'' where country of origin is the 
name of the country where the vicu[ntilde]a fiber in the products 
originated, either Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, or Peru. The logo and 
words may be woven into the

[[Page 120]]

item, or may be on a label sewn into the item.
    (2) Luxury handicrafts and knitted articles produced in the country 
of origin: The luxury handicraft or knitted article must bear the logo 
adopted by countries signatory to the ``Convenio para la 
Conservaci[oacute]n y Manejo de la Vicu[ntilde]a'' and the words 
``VICU[Ntilde]A--(Country of Origin)--ARTESANIA,'' where country of 
origin is the name of the country where the vicu[ntilde]a fiber in the 
products, and the products themselves, originated, either Argentina, 
Bolivia, Chile, or Peru. The logo and words may be woven into the item, 
or may be on a label sewn into the item.
    (3) Bulk shipments of raw fiber: The bulk shipment of raw fiber must 
be sealed with a tamper-proof seal and have the following:
    (i) An identification tag with a code identifying the country of 
origin of the vicu[ntilde]a fiber and the CITES export permit number; 
and
    (ii) The logo adopted by countries signatory to the ``Convenio para 
la Conservaci[oacute]n y Manejo de la Vicu[ntilde]a'' and the words 
``VICU[Ntilde]A--(Country of Origin),'' where country of origin is the 
name of the original exporting country where the vicu[ntilde]a fiber in 
the products originated, either Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, or Peru.
    (B) The shipment must be accompanied by a CITES permit or 
certificate that contains the following information:
    (1) The country of origin, its export permit number, and date of 
issuance.
    (2) If re-export, the country of re-export, its certificate number, 
and date of issuance.
    (3) If applicable, the country of last re-export, its certificate 
number, and date of issuance.
    (C) At the time of import, for each shipment covered by this 
exception, the country of origin and each country of re-export involved 
in the trade of a particular shipment must have designated both a CITES 
Management Authority and Scientific Authority, and have not been 
identified by the CITES Conference of the Parties, the CITES Standing 
Committee, or in a Notification from the CITES Secretariat as a country 
from which Parties should not accept permits. A listing of all countries 
that have not designated both a Management Authority and Scientific 
Authority, or that have been identified as a country from which Parties 
should not accept permits is available by writing: The Division of 
Management Authority, ARLSQ Room 700, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Arlington, VA 22203. The list is also on our 
website (http://international.fws.gov).
    (ii) Noncommercial accompanying baggage. The conditions described in 
paragraph (m)(2)(i) of this section also apply to noncommercial personal 
effects in accompanying baggage or household effects from Appendix II 
populations. Such items are treated the same as Appendix II commercial 
shipments, and must comply with the same documentary requirements. All 
other noncommercial personal effects in accompanying baggage or 
household effects require both a CITES Appendix I permit and a permit as 
described in Sec.  17.32.
    (iii) Embryos, gametes, blood, other tissue samples, and live 
animals. This special rule does not apply to embryos, gametes, blood, or 
other tissue samples of vicu[ntilde]a, or to live vicu[ntilde]a. Import 
of such specimens requires an import permit as described in Sec.  17.32 
in addition to CITES Appendix I import and export permits, and will be 
issued only for bona fide scientific research contributing to 
conservation of the species in the wild.
    (3) When and how will the Service inform the public of additional 
restrictions in trade of vicu[ntilde]a? Except in rare cases involving 
extenuating circumstances that do not adversely affect the conservation 
of the species, we will issue an information notice that identifies a 
restriction on trade in specimens of vicu[ntilde]a addressed in this 
paragraph (m) if any of the following criteria are met:
    (i) The country is listed in a Notification to the Parties by the 
CITES Secretariat as lacking a designated Management or Scientific 
Authority that issues CITES documents or their equivalent.
    (ii) The country is identified in any action adopted by the 
Conference of the Parties to the Convention, the Convention's Standing 
Committee, or in a

[[Page 121]]

Notification issued by the CITES Secretariat, whereby Parties are asked 
not to accept shipments of specimens of any CITES-listed species from 
the country in question.
    (iii) The Service's Division of Scientific Authority 
administratively determines that the conservation or management status 
of threatened vicu[ntilde]a populations in a range country has changed, 
such that continued recovery of the vicu[ntilde]a population in that 
country may be compromised, as a result of one or more of the following 
factors:
    (A) A change in range country laws or regulations that lessens 
protection for vicu[ntilde]a;
    (B) A change in range country management programs that lessens 
protection for vicu[ntilde]a;
    (C) A documented decline in wild vicu[ntilde]a population numbers;
    (D) A documented increase in poaching of vicu[ntilde]a;
    (E) A documented decline in vicu[ntilde]a habitat quality or 
quantity; or
    (F) Other natural or man-made factors affecting the species' 
recovery.
    (iv) A listing of all countries that have not designated both a 
Management Authority and Scientific Authority, or that have been 
identified as a country from which Parties should not accept permits is 
available by writing: The Division of Management Authority, ARLSQ Room 
700, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, 
VA 22203. The list is also on our website (http://
international.fws.gov).
    (4) What must vicu[ntilde]a range countries do in order to be 
authorized under the special rule to export to the United States?--(i) 
Annual Report. Range country governments (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and 
Peru) wishing to export specimens of vicu[ntilde]a to the United States 
will need to provide an annual report containing the most recent 
information available on the status of the species, following the 
information guidelines specified below. The first submission of a status 
report will be required as of July 1, 2003, and every year thereafter on 
the anniversary of that date. For each range country, the following 
information should be provided in the annual report:
    (A) A description of any revisions to the management program, 
especially any changes in management approaches or emphasis;
    (B) New information obtained in the last year on vicu[ntilde]a 
distribution, population status, or population trends, for the country 
as a whole or for specific protected areas, and a detailed description 
of the methodology used to obtain such information;
    (C) Results of any research projects concluded in the last year on 
the biology of vicu[ntilde]a in the wild, particularly its population 
biology, habitat use, and genetics, and a description of any new 
research projects undertaken on the biology of vicu[ntilde]a in the 
wild, particularly its population biology, habitat use, and genetics;
    (D) A description of any changes to national and/or provincial laws 
and programs relating to vicu[ntilde]a conservation, in particular those 
laws and regulations related to harvest and use of the vicu[ntilde]a, 
and export of vicu[ntilde]a parts and products;
    (E) A description of any changes in the number or size of natural 
reserves or national parks that provide protected habitat for the 
vicu[ntilde]a;
    (F) A summary of law enforcement activities undertaken in the last 
year, and a description of any changes in programs to prevent poaching, 
smuggling, and illegal commercialization of the vicu[ntilde]a;
    (G) A description of the current management and harvest (or 
``sustainable use'') programs for wild populations of the vicu[ntilde]a, 
including: any changes in the location and population size of wild 
populations being managed for sustainable use; any changes in the 
harvest management practices being used for each population; any changes 
in current harvest quotas for wild populations, if any; any changes in 
protocols for translocations undertaken as part of the use program; a 
summary of the specific financial costs of and revenues generated by the 
sustainable use program over the last year; and a summary of documented 
conservation benefits resulting from the sustainable use program over 
the last year;
    (H) A description of current management and harvest (or 
``sustainable use'') programs for captive and so-

[[Page 122]]

called ``semi-captive'' populations of the vicu[ntilde]a, including: any 
changes in the number and location of all captive and ``semi-captive'' 
populations; any changes in the size (ha) of each captive enclosure and 
the number of vicu[ntilde]a maintained therein; any changes in protocols 
for translocations undertaken as part of the use program; a summary of 
the financial costs of and revenues generated by the sustainable use 
program over the last year; and documented conservation benefits 
resulting from the sustainable use program over the last year 
(information on captive and ``semi-captive'' populations must be 
separate from that provided for wild populations); and
    (I) Export data for the last year.
    (ii) The Service's Division of Scientific Authority will conduct a 
review every 2 years, using information in the annual reports, to 
determine whether range country management programs are effectively 
achieving conservation benefits for the vicu[ntilde]a. Failure to submit 
an annual report could result in a restriction on trade in specimens of 
vicu[ntilde]a as addressed in paragraph (m)(3) of this section. Based on 
information contained in the annual reports and any other pertinent 
information it has available, the Service may restrict trade from a 
range country, as addressed in paragraph (m)(3) of this section, if it 
determines that the conservation or management status of threatened 
vicu[ntilde]a populations in a range country has changed, such that 
continued recovery of the vicu[ntilde]a population in that country may 
be compromised. Trade restrictions may result from one or more of the 
following factors:
    (A) A change in range country laws or regulations that lessens 
protection for vicu[ntilde]a;
    (B) A change in range country management programs that lessens 
protection for vicu[ntilde]a;
    (C) A documented decline in wild vicu[ntilde]a population numbers;
    (D) A documented increase in poaching of vicu[ntilde]a;
    (E) A documented decline in vicu[ntilde]a habitat quality or 
quantity; or
    (F) Other natural or man-made factors affecting the species' 
recovery.
    (n)-(o) [Reserved]
    (p) Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).
    (1) To what population of sea otter does this special rule apply? 
The regulations in paragraph (p) of this section apply to the southwest 
Alaska distinct population segment (DPS) of the northern sea otter as 
set forth at Sec.  17.11(h) of this part.
    (2) What provisions apply to this DPS? Except as noted in paragraph 
(p)(3) of this section, all prohibitions and provisions of Sec. Sec.  
17.31 and 17.32 of this part apply to the southwest Alaska DPS of the 
northern sea otter.
    (3) What additional activities are allowed for this DPS? In addition 
to the activities authorized under paragraph (p)(2) of this section, you 
may conduct any activity authorized or exempted under the Marine Mammal 
Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) with a part or product of a 
southwest Alaska DPS northern sea otter, provided that:
    (i) The product qualifies as an authentic native article of 
handicrafts or clothing as defined in Sec.  17.3 of this part; and
    (A) It was created by an Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo who is an Alaskan
    Native, and
    (B) It is not being exported or imported for commercial purposes; or
    (ii) The part or product is owned by an Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo who 
is an Alaskan Native and resides in Alaska, or by a Native inhabitant of 
Russia, Canada, or Greenland, and is part of a cultural exchange; or
    (iii) The product is owned by a Native inhabitant of Russia, Canada, 
or Greenland, and is in conjunction with travel for noncommercial 
purposes; or
    (iv) The part or product has been received or acquired by a person 
registered as an agent or tannery under Sec.  18.23 of this subchapter.
    (4) What other wildlife regulations may apply? All applicable 
provisions of 50 CFR parts 14, 18, and 23 must be met.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Sec.  
17.40, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the 
Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO Access.



Sec.  17.41  Special rules--birds.

    (a) [Reserved]

[[Page 123]]

    (b) Coastal California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica 
californica). (1) Except as noted in paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this 
section, all prohibitions of Sec.  17.31(a) and (b) shall apply to the 
coastal California gnatcatcher.
    (2) Incidental take of the coastal California gnatcatcher will not 
be considered a violation of section 9 of the Endangered Species Act of 
1973, as amended (Act), if it results from activities conducted pursuant 
to the State of California's Natural Community Conservation Planning Act 
of 1991 (NCCP), and in accordance with a NCCP plan for the protection of 
coastal sage scrub habitat, prepared consistent with the State's NCCP 
Conservation and Process Guidelines, provided that:
    (i) The NCCP plan has been prepared, approved, and implemented 
pursuant to California Fish and Game Code sections 2800-2840; and
    (ii) The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has issued written 
concurrence that the NCCP plan meets the standards set forth in 50 CFR 
17.32(b)(2). The Service shall issue its concurrence pursuant to the 
provisions of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), dated December 4, 
1991, between the California Department of Fish and Game and the Service 
regarding coastal sage scrub natural community conservation planning in 
southern California. (Copies of the State's NCCP Conservation and 
Process Guidelines and the MOU are available from the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Carlsbad Field Office, 2730 Loker Avenue West, 
Carlsbad, CA 92008.) The Service shall monitor the implementation of the 
NCCP plan and may revoke its concurrence under this paragraph (b)(2)(ii) 
if the NCCP plan, as implemented, fails to adhere to the standards set 
forth in 50 CFR 17.32(b)(2).
    (3) During the period that a NCCP plan referred to in paragraph 
(b)(2) of this section is being prepared, incidental take of the coastal 
California gnatcatcher will not be a violation of section 9 of the Act 
if such take occurs within an area under the jurisdiction of a local 
government agency that is enrolled and actively engaged in the 
preparation of such a plan and such take results from activities 
conducted in accordance with the NCCP Conservation Guidelines and 
Process Guidelines.
    (4) The Service will monitor the implementation of the NCCP 
Conservation and Process Guidelines as a whole, and will conduct a 
review every 6 months to determine whether the guidelines, as 
implemented, are effective in progressing toward or meeting regional and 
subregional conservation objectives during the interim planning period. 
If the Service determines that the guidelines are not effecting adequate 
progress toward or meeting regional and subregional conservation 
objectives, the Service will consult with the California Department of 
Fish and Game pursuant to the MOU to seek appropriate modification of 
the guidelines or their application as defined therein. If appropriate 
modification of the guidelines or their application as defined therein 
does not occur, the Service may revoke the interim take provisions of 
this special rule on a subregional or subarea basis. The Service will 
publish the findings for revocation in the Federal Register and provide 
for a 30-day public comment period prior to the effective date for 
revoking the provisions of the special rule in a particular area. 
Revocation would result in the reinstatement of the take prohibitions 
set forth under 50 CFR 17.31(a) and (b) in the affected NCCP area.

[43 FR 6233, Feb. 14, 1978, as amended at 58 FR 65095, Dec. 10, 1993; 60 
FR 36010, July 12, 1995; 72 FR 37372, July 9, 2007]



Sec.  17.42  Special rules--reptiles.

    (a) American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)--(1) 
Definitions. For purposes of this paragraph (a) the following 
definitions apply:
    (i) American alligator means any specimen of the species Alligator 
mississippiensis, whether alive or dead, including any skin, part, 
product, egg, or offspring thereof held in captivity or from the wild.
    (ii) The definitions of crocodilian skins and crocodilian parts in 
Sec.  23.70(b) of this subchapter apply to this paragraph (a).
    (2) Taking. No person may take any American alligator, except:

[[Page 124]]

    (i) Any employee or agent of the Service, any other Federal land 
management agency, or a State conservation agency, who is designated by 
the agency for such purposes, may, when acting in the course of official 
duties, take an American alligator.
    (ii) Any person may take an American alligator in the wild, or one 
which was born in captivity or lawfully placed in captivity, and may 
deliver, receive, carry, transport, ship, sell, offer to sell, purchase, 
or offer to purchase such alligator in interstate or foreign commerce, 
by any means whatsoever and in the course of a commercial activity in 
accordance with the laws and regulations of the State of taking subject 
to the following conditions:
    (A) Any skin of an American alligator may be sold or otherwise 
transferred only if the State or Tribe of taking requires skins to be 
tagged by State or tribal officials or under State or tribal supervision 
with a Service-approved tag in accordance with the requirements in part 
23 of this subchapter; and
    (B) Any American alligator specimen may be sold or otherwise 
transferred only in accordance with the laws and regulations of the 
State or Tribe in which the taking occurs and the State or Tribe in 
which the sale or transfer occurs.
    (3) Import and export. Any person may import or export an American 
alligator specimen provided that it is in accordance with part 23 of 
this subchapter.
    (4) Recordkeeping. (i) Any person not holding an import/export 
license issued by the Service under part 14 of this subchapter and who 
imports, exports, or obtains permits under part 23 of this subchapter 
for the import or export of American alligator shall keep such records 
as are otherwise required to be maintained by all import/export 
licensees under part 14 of this subchapter. Such records shall be 
maintained as in the normal course of business, reproducible in the 
English language, and retained for 5 years from the date of each 
transaction.
    (ii) Subject to applicable limitations of law, duly authorized 
officers at all reasonable times shall, upon notice, be afforded access 
to examine such records required to be kept under paragraph (a)(4)(i) of 
this section, and an opportunity to copy such records.
    (b) Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead sea turtle 
(Caretta caretta), olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) 
(these do not include the populations listed as endangered in Sec.  
17.11).
    (1) Prohibitions. Subject to the permits allowable under the 
following paragraph (b)(2) of this section, all of the provisions set 
forth in Sec.  17.31 (which incorporate portions of Sec.  17.21) shall 
apply to this wildlife with the following exceptions:
    (i) Section 17.21(c)(2) (self-defense) is not applicable.
    (ii) In Sec.  17.21(c)(3)(i), the word ``orphaned'' is replaced by 
the word ``stranded.''
    (iii) Delete Sec.  17.21(c)(3)(iv) (Wildlife threatening human 
safety).
    (iv) [Reserved]
    (v) The prohibition against taking shall not apply to incidental 
catches, as specified in 50 CFR 227.72(e).
    (vi) The prohibition against taking within the United States or the 
territorial sea of the United States shall not apply to subsistence 
taking, as specified in 50 CFR 227.72(f).
    (2) Permits. (i) For those activities which come under the 
jurisdiction of the Service, only permits for scientific purposes, 
enhancement of propagation or survival, zoological exhibition or 
educational purposes, are available under Sec.  17.32. Procedures for 
issuance of permits are found in Sec.  17.32 and, for those activities 
which come under the jurisdiction of the National Marine Fisheries 
Service, subpart E of part 220. All the provisions of Sec.  17.32 apply 
to permits issued by the Service.
    (c) Threatened crocodilians--(1) What are the definitions of terms 
used in this paragraph (c)?
    (i) Threatened crocodilian means any live or dead specimen of the 
following species: yacare caiman (Caiman yacare), common caiman (Caiman 
crocodilus crocodilus), brown caiman (Caiman crocodilus fuscus, 
including Caiman crocodilus chiapasius), saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus 
porosus) originating in Australia (also referred to as Australian 
saltwater crocodile), and Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus).

[[Page 125]]

    (ii) The definitions of crocodilian skins and crocodilian parts in 
Sec.  23.70(b) and re-export in Sec.  23.5 of this subchapter apply to 
this paragraph (c).
    (2) What activities involving threatened crocodilians are prohibited 
by this rule?
    (i) All provisions of Sec. Sec.  17.31 and 17.32 apply to live 
specimens, including viable eggs, of all threatened crocodilians and to 
any specimen of the Appendix-I Nile crocodile.
    (ii) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, the 
following prohibitions apply to threatened crocodilians.
    (A) Import, export, and re-export. Except as provided in paragraph 
(c)(3) of this section, it is unlawful to import, export, or re-export, 
or attempt to import, export, or re-export without valid permits as 
required under parts 17 and 23 of this subchapter any threatened 
crocodilians, including their skins, parts, and products.
    (B) Commercial activity. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3) of 
this section, it is unlawful, in the course of a commercial activity, to 
sell or offer for sale, deliver, receive, carry, transport, or ship in 
interstate or foreign commerce any threatened crocodilians, including 
their skins, parts, and products.
    (C) It is unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction of the 
United States to commit, attempt to commit, solicit to commit, or cause 
to be committed any acts described in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and 
(c)(2)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section.
    (3) What activities involving threatened crocodilians are allowed by 
this rule? Except as provided in (c)(2)(i), you may import, export, or 
re-export, or sell or offer for sale, deliver, receive, carry, 
transport, or ship in interstate or foreign commerce and in the course 
of a commercial activity, threatened crocodilian skins, parts, and 
products without a threatened species permit otherwise required under 
Sec. 17.32 provided the requirements of parts 13, 14, and 23 of this 
subchapter and the requirements of paragraphs (c)(3) and (4) of this 
section have been met.
    (i) Skins and parts. Except as provided in (c)(3)(ii) of this 
section, the import, export, or re-export of threatened crocodilian 
skins and crocodilian parts is allowed provided the following conditions 
are met:
    (A) Each crocodilian skin and crocodilian part imported, exported, 
or re-exported must be tagged or labeled in accordance with Sec.  23.70 
of this subchapter.
    (B) Any countries re-exporting crocodilian skins or parts must have 
implemented an administrative system for the effective matching of 
imports and re-exports.
    (C) If a shipment contains more than 25 percent replacement tags, 
the U.S. Management Authority will consult with the Management Authority 
of the re-exporting country before clearing the shipment. Such shipments 
may be seized if we determine that the requirements of the Convention 
have not been met.
    (D) The country of origin and any intermediary country(s) must be 
effectively implementing the Convention. If we receive persuasive 
information from the CITES Secretariat or other reliable sources that a 
specific country is not effectively implementing the Convention, we will 
prohibit or restrict imports from such country(s) as appropriate for the 
conservation of the species.
    (ii) Meat, skulls, scientific specimens, products, and noncommercial 
personal or household effects. The tagging requirements in paragraph 
(c)(3)(i) of this section for skins and parts do not apply to the 
import, export, or re-export of threatened crocodilian meat, skulls, 
scientific specimens, or products or to the noncommercial import, 
export, or re-export of personal effects in accompanying baggage or 
household effects.
    (4) When and how will the Service inform the public of additional 
restrictions in trade of threatened crocodilians? Except in rare cases 
involving extenuating circumstances that do not adversely affect the 
conservation of the species, the Service will issue an information 
bulletin (posted on our websites, http://www.fws.gov/le and http://
www.fws.gov/international) announcing additional restrictions on trade 
of specimens of threatened crocodilians if any of the following criteria 
are met:

[[Page 126]]

    (i) The country is listed in a Notification to the Parties by the 
CITES Secretariat as not having designated Management and Scientific 
Authorities.
    (ii) The country is identified in any action adopted by the 
Conference of the Parties to the Convention, the Standing Committee, or 
in a Notification issued by the CITES Secretariat, whereby Parties are 
asked not to accept shipments of specimens of any CITES species from the 
country in question or of any crocodilian species listed in the CITES 
Appendices.
    (iii) We determine, based on information from the CITES Secretariat 
or other reliable sources, that the country is not effectively 
implementing the provisions of the Convention.
    (5) Reporting requirements for yacare caiman range countries.
    (i) Biennial reports. Range countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, 
and Paraguay) wishing to export specimens of yacare caiman to the United 
States for commercial purposes must provide a biennial report containing 
the most recent information available on the status of the species. The 
first submission of a status report will be required as of December 31, 
2001, and every 2 years thereafter on the anniversary of that date. For 
each range country, all of the following information must be included in 
the report.
    (A) Recent distribution and population data, and a description of 
the methodology used to obtain such estimates.
    (B) Description of research projects currently being conducted 
related to the biology of the species in the wild, particularly 
reproductive biology (for example, age or size when animals become 
sexually mature, number of clutches per season, number of eggs per 
clutch, survival of eggs, survival of hatchlings).
    (C) Description of laws and programs regulating harvest, including 
approximate acreage of land set aside as natural reserves or national 
parks that provide protected habitat for yacare caiman.
    (D) Description of current sustainable harvest programs, including 
ranching (captive rearing of specimens collected from the wild as eggs 
or juveniles) and farming (captive-breeding) programs.
    (E) Current harvest quotas for wild populations.
    (F) Export data for the last 2 years. Information should be 
organized according to the source of specimens such as wild-caught, 
captive-reared, or captive-bred.
    (ii) Review and restrictions. The U.S. Scientific Authority will 
conduct a review every 2 years, using information in the biennial 
reports and other available information, to determine whether range 
country management programs are effectively achieving conservation 
benefits for the yacare caiman. Based on the best available information, 
we may restrict trade from a range country if we determine that the 
conservation or management status of threatened yacare caiman 
populations has changed, such that continued recovery of the population 
in that country may be compromised. Trade restrictions, as addressed in 
paragraph (c)(4) of this section, may be implemented based on one or 
more of the following factors:
    (A) Failure to submit the reports described above, or failure to 
respond to requests for additional information.
    (B) A change in range country laws or regulations that lessens 
protection for yacare caiman.
    (C) A change in range country management programs that lessens 
protection for the species.
    (D) A documented decline in wild population numbers.
    (E) A documented increase in poaching.
    (F) A documented decline in habitat quality or quantity.
    (G) Other natural or manmade factors affecting the species' 
recovery.
    (d) Blue-tailed mole skink (Eumeces egregius lividus) and sand skink 
(Neoseps reynoldsi). (1) No person shall take these species, except in 
accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws and 
regulations for educational purposes, scientific purposes, the 
enhancement or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to taking of

[[Page 127]]

these species is also a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatever, any such species taken in 
violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws or 
regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraph (c) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (5) Taking of these species for purposes other than those described 
in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, including taking incidental to 
carrying out otherwise lawful activities, is prohibited except when 
permitted under Sec. Sec.  17.23 and 17.32.
    (e) Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)--(1) Definition. For the 
purposes of this paragraph (e) ``desert tortoise'' shall mean any member 
of the species Gopherus agassizii, whether alive or dead, and any part, 
product, egg, or offspring thereof, found outside of Arizona (south and 
east of the Colorado River) and Mexico, regardless of natal origin or 
place of removal from the wild.
    (2) Applicable provisions. The provisions of Sec.  17.31-17.32 shall 
apply to any desert tortoise subject to this paragraph (e).
    (f) Bog turtle (Clemmys muhlenbergii), southern population--(1) 
Definitions of terms. For the purposes of this paragraph (f): Bog turtle 
of the southern population means any member of the species Clemmys 
muhlenbergii, within Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee 
and Virginia, regardless of whether in the wild or captivity, and also 
applies to the progeny of any such turtle.
    (2) Prohibitions. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(3) of this 
section, the provisions of Sec. 17.31 (a) and (b) of this part applies 
to bog turtles of the southern population (see also 50 CFR part 23).
    (3) Take. Incidental take, that is, take that results from, but is 
not the purpose of, carrying out an otherwise lawful activity, does not 
apply to bog turtles of the southern population.
    (g) [Reserved]

[42 FR 2076, Jan. 10, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 32809, July 28, 1978; 44 
FR 59084, Oct. 12, 1979; 45 FR 17589, Mar. 19, 1980; 45 FR 78154, Nov. 
25, 1980; 48 FR 46336, Oct. 12, 1983; 50 FR 25678, June 20, 1985; 50 FR 
45409, Oct. 31, 1985; 52 FR 21063, June 4, 1987; 52 FR 42662, Nov. 6, 
1987; 55 FR 12191, Apr. 2, 1990; 61 FR 32366, June 24, 1996; 62 FR 
59622, Nov. 4, 1997; 65 FR 25879, May 4, 2000; 72 FR 48446, Aug. 23, 
2007]



Sec.  17.43  Special rules--amphibians.

    (a) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana). (1) All provisions of 
Sec.  17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be taken in 
accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (b) Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis).
    (1) What activities are prohibited? Except as noted in paragraph 
(b)(2) of this section, all prohibitions of Sec.  17.31 will apply to 
the Chiricahua leopard frog.
    (2) What activities are allowed on private, State, or Tribal land? 
Incidental take of the Chiricahua leopard frog will not be considered a 
violation of section 9 of the Act, if the take results from livestock 
use at or maintenance activities of livestock tanks located on private, 
State, or Tribal lands. A livestock tank is defined as an existing or 
future impoundment in an ephemeral drainage or upland site constructed 
primarily as a watering site for livestock.
    (c) California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense).
    (1) Which populations of the California tiger salamander are covered 
by this special rule? This rule covers the California tiger salamander 
(Ambystoma californiense) rangewide.
    (2) What activities are prohibited? Except as noted in paragraph 
(c)(3) of this section, all prohibitions of Sec.  17.31 will apply to 
the California tiger salamander.
    (3) What activities are allowed on private or Tribal land? 
Incidental take of the California tiger salamander will not be a 
violation of section 9 of the Act, if the incidental take results from 
routine ranching activities located on private or Tribal lands. Routine 
ranching activities include, but are not limited to, the following:

[[Page 128]]

    (i) Livestock grazing according to normally acceptable and 
established levels of intensity in terms of the number of head of 
livestock per acre of rangeland;
    (ii) Control of ground-burrowing rodents using poisonous grain 
according to the labeled directions and local, State, and Federal 
regulations and guidelines (The use of toxic or suffocating gases is not 
exempt from the prohibitions due to their nontarget-specific mode of 
action.);
    (iii) Control and management of burrow complexes using discing and 
grading to destroy burrows and fill openings;
    (iv) Routine management and maintenance of stock ponds and berms to 
maintain livestock water supplies (This exemption does not include the 
intentional introduction of species into a stock pond that may prey on 
California tiger salamander adults, larvae, or eggs.);
    (v) Routine maintenance or construction of fences for grazing 
management;
    (vi) Planting, harvest, or rotation of unirrigated forage crops as 
part of a rangeland livestock operation;
    (vii) Maintenance and construction of livestock management 
facilities such as corrals, sheds, and other ranch outbuildings;
    (viii) Repair and maintenance of unimproved ranch roads (This 
exemption does not include improvement, upgrade, or construction of new 
roads.);
    (ix) Discing of fencelines or perimeter areas for fire prevention 
control;
    (x) Placement of mineral supplements; and
    (xi) Control and management of noxious weeds.
    (d) California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii). (1) Which 
populations of the California red-legged frog are covered by this 
special rule? This rule covers the California red-legged frog (Rana 
aurora draytonii) rangewide.
    (2) What activities are prohibited? Except as noted in paragraph 
(d)(3) of this section, all prohibitions of Sec.  17.31 will apply to 
the California red-legged frog.
    (3) What activities are allowed on private or Tribal land? 
Incidental take of the California red-legged frog will not be a 
violation of section 9 of the Act, if the incidental take results from 
routine ranching activities located on private or Tribal lands. Routine 
ranching activities include, but are not limited to, the following:
    (i) Livestock grazing according to normally acceptable and 
established levels of intensity in terms of the number of head of 
livestock per acre of rangeland;
    (ii) Control of ground-burrowing rodents using poisonous grain 
according to the labeled directions and local, State, and Federal 
regulations and guidelines (In areas where California red-legged frogs 
and California tiger salamanders coexist, the use of toxic or 
suffocating gases is not exempt from the prohibitions due to their 
nontarget-specific mode of action.);
    (iii) Control and management of burrow complexes using discing and 
grading to destroy burrows and fill openings (This exemption does not 
apply to areas within 0.7 mi (1.2 km) of known or potential California 
red-legged frog breeding ponds.);
    (iv) Routine management and maintenance of stock ponds and berms to 
maintain livestock water supplies (This exemption does not include the 
intentional introduction of species into a stock pond (including non-
native fish and bullfrogs) that may prey on California red-legged frog 
adults, larvae, or eggs.);
    (v) Routine maintenance or construction of fences for grazing 
management;
    (vi) Planting, harvest, or rotation of unirrigated forage crops as 
part of a rangeland livestock operation;
    (vii) Maintenance and construction of livestock management 
facilities such as corrals, sheds, and other ranch outbuildings;
    (viii) Repair and maintenance of unimproved ranch roads (This 
exemption does not include improvement, upgrade, or construction of new 
roads.);
    (ix) Discing of fencelines or perimeter areas for fire prevention 
control;
    (x) Placement of mineral supplements; and
    (xi) Control and management of noxious weeds.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975, as amended at 45 FR 47363, July 14, 1980; 
67 FR 40811, June 13, 2002; 69 FR 47248, Aug. 4, 2004; 71 FR 19293, Apr. 
13, 2006]

[[Page 129]]



Sec.  17.44  Special rules--fishes.

    (a) Lahontan cutthroat trout, Paiute cutthroat trout, and Arizona 
trout (Salmo clarki henshawi, Salmo clarki seleniris, and Salmo apache). 
(1) All the provisions of Sec.  17.31 apply to these species, except 
that they may be taken in accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (b) Bayou darter (Etheostoma rubrum). (1) All the provisions of 
Sec.  17.31 apply to this species, except that they may be taken in 
accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (c) Slender chub (Hybopsis cahni), spotfin chub (Erimonax monachus), 
slackwater darter (Etheostoma boschungi), and yellowfin madtom (Noturus 
flavipinnis). (1) All the provisions of Sec.  17.31 apply to these 
species, except that they may be taken in accordance with applicable 
State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (d) Leopard darter (Percina pantherina). (1) All provisions of Sec.  
17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be taken in accordance 
with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (e) Little Kern golden trout (Salmo aguabonita whitei). (1) All 
provisions of Sec.  17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be 
taken in accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (f) Greenback cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki stomias). (1) All 
provisions of Sec.  17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be 
taken in accordance with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the Act.
    (g) Chihuahua chub, Gila nigrescens. (1) All provisions of Sec.  
17.31 apply to this species, except that it may be taken in accordance 
with applicable State law.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the 
Endangered Species Act.
    (h) Yaqui catfish (Ictalurus pricei) and beautiful shiner (Notropis 
formosus). (1) All provisions of Sec.  17.31 apply to these species, 
except that they may be taken for educational, scientific, or 
conservation purposes in accordance with applicable Arizona State laws 
and regulations.
    (2) Any violation of State law will also be a violation of the 
Endangered Species Act.
    (i) Big Spring spinedace, Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis. (1) All 
the provisions of Sec.  17.31 apply to this species, except that it may 
be taken in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances: 
educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to this species will also be a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (j) Hutton tui chub (Gila bicolor subspecies) and Foskett speckled 
dace (Rhinichthys osculus subspecies). (1) No person shall take these 
species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances: for 
educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of these species will 
also be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (j) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (k) Niangua Darter, Etheostoma nianguae. (1) No person shall take 
the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the

[[Page 130]]

following instances: educational purposes, scientific purposes, the 
enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, zoological 
exhibition, and other conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (k) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (l) Warner sucker (Catostomus warnerensis). (1) No person shall take 
the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act;
    (ii) Incidental to State-permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that the individual fish taken is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (l) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (m) Desert Dace (Eremichthys acros). (1) No person shall take the 
species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances: For 
educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws or 
regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (m) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (n) Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae). (1) No person 
shall take the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following 
instances: for educational purposes, scientific purposes, the 
enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, zoological 
exhibition, and other conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (n) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (o) Sonora chub, Gila ditaenia. (1) No person shall take the 
species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of

[[Page 131]]

propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or,
    (ii) Incidental to State-permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that the individual fish taken is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (o) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (p) Spikedace, Meda fulgida. (1) No person shall take the species, 
except in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations in the following instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or,
    (ii) Incidental to State permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that the individual fish taken is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (p) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (q) Loach minnow, Rhinicthys (=Tiaroga) cobitis (1) No person shall 
take the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following instances: 
(i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act or, (ii) incidental to 
State permitted recreational fishing activities, provided that the 
individual fish taken is immediately returned to its habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (q) (1) through (3) of this paragraph.
    (r) Pecos bluntnose shiner, Notropis simus pecosensis (1) No person 
shall take the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following 
instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or,
    (ii) Incidental to State permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that the individual fish taken is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to taking of this species will also be 
a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.

[[Page 132]]

    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (r) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (s) Waccamaw Silverside (Menidia extensa). (1) No person shall take 
the species, except in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species will also 
be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (s) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (t) Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata). (1) No person 
shall take this species, except in accordance with applicable State Fish 
and Wildlife conservation laws and regulations in the following 
instances: for educational purposes, scientific purposes, the 
enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, zoological 
exhibition, and other conservation purposes consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws or regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (t) (1) through (3) of this section.
    (u) Pygmy sculpin (Cottus pygmaeus). The City of Anniston Water 
Works and Sewer Board will continue to use Coldwater Spring as a 
municipal water supply. Pumpage may remove all spring flow in excess of 
3 cubic feet per second (1,938,000 gallons per day).
    (v) Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi). (1) No person 
shall take this species, except in accordance with applicable State fish 
and wildlife conservation laws and regulations for educational purposes, 
scientific purposes, the enhancement of propagation or survival of the 
species, zoological exhibition, or other conservation purposes 
consistent with the Act.
    (2) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatever, any of this species taken in 
violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws or 
regulations.
    (4) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (v)(1) through (3) of this section.
    (5) Taking of this species for purposes other than those described 
in paragraph (v)(1) of this section, including taking incidental to 
otherwise lawful activities, is prohibited except when permitted under 
50 CFR 17.32.
    (w) What species are covered by this special rule? Bull trout 
(Salvelinus confluentus), wherever found in the coterminous lower 48 
States, except in the Jarbidge River Basin in Nevada and Idaho (see 50 
CFR 17.44(x)).
    (1) What activities do we prohibit? Except as noted in paragraph 
(w)(2) of this section, all prohibitions of 50 CFR 17.31 and exemptions 
of 50 CFR 17.32 shall apply to the bull trout in the coterminous United 
States as defined in paragraph (w) of this section.
    (i) No person may possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of this section or in violation of applicable State, National 
Park Service, and Native American Tribal fish and conservation laws and 
regulations.
    (ii) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to

[[Page 133]]

commit, or cause to be committed, any offense listed in this special 
rule.
    (2) What activities do we allow? In the following instances you may 
take this species in accordance with applicable State, National Park 
Service, and Native American Tribal fish and wildlife conservation laws 
and regulations, as constituted in all respects relevant to protection 
of bull trout in effect on November 1, 1999:
    (i) Educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or
    (ii) Fishing activities authorized under State, National Park 
Service, or Native American Tribal laws and regulations;
    (3) How does this rule relate to State protective regulations? Any 
violation of applicable State, National Park Service, or Native American 
Tribal fish and wildlife conservation laws or regulations with respect 
to the taking of this species is also a violation of the Endangered 
Species Act.
    (x) Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), Jarbidge River population 
segment.
    (1) Prohibitions. Except as noted in paragraph (x)(2) of this 
section, all prohibitions of 50 CFR 17.31 and exemptions of 50 CFR 17.32 
apply to the bull trout in the Jarbidge River population segment within 
the United States.
    (2) Exceptions. No person may take this species, except in the 
following instances in accordance with applicable State fish and 
wildlife conservation laws and regulations relevant to protection of 
bull trout in effect on April 8, 1999.
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act;
    (ii) Incidental to State-permitted recreational fishing activities, 
provided that any bull trout caught are immediately returned to the 
stream.
    (iii) The exceptions in paragraphs (x)(2) (i) and (ii) of this 
section will be in effect until April 9, 2001. At that time, all take 
prohibitions of the Act will be reinstated for the Jarbidge River 
population segment unless exceptions to take prohibitions are otherwise 
provided through a subsequent special rule.
    (3) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (4) No person may possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of this section or in violation of applicable State fish and 
conservation laws and regulations.
    (5) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (x)(2) through (4) of this section.
    (y) Beluga sturgeon. This paragraph applies to the threatened beluga 
sturgeon (Huso huso).
    (1) How are various terms defined in this special rule? In addition 
to the definitions specified in Sec.  10.12 of subchapter B of this 
chapter, we define certain terms that specifically apply to beluga 
sturgeon trade and this special rule as follows:
    Aquacultured beluga sturgeon products. Eggs, larvae, fingerlings, or 
other products derived from Huso huso captive-bred or grown in captivity 
for commercial purposes starting at least at the F1 generation in 
captivity (i.e., captive-bred for at least one generation).
    Beluga caviar. Processed unfertilized eggs from female Huso huso 
intended for human consumption, including products containing such eggs 
(e.g., cosmetics).
    Beluga meat. Excised muscle tissue of Huso huso destined for human 
consumption.
    Black Sea. The contiguous waters of the Black Sea and the Sea of 
Azov.
    CITES. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species 
of Wild Fauna and Flora.
    Export. The transport of a beluga sturgeon specimen out of its 
country of origin.
    Hatchery-origin beluga sturgeon. Specimens of Huso huso captive-bred 
solely in the littoral states, primarily for reintroduction and stock 
enhancement purposes. Such specimens can occur in

[[Page 134]]

the natural marine environment of the littoral states.
    Live or living beluga sturgeon. Any living specimen of Huso huso, 
including viable unfertilized or fertilized eggs, larvae, fingerlings, 
juveniles, and adults.
    Littoral states. Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Islamic Republic of 
Iran, Kazakhstan, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, 
Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine.
    Re-export. Export of beluga sturgeon specimens that were previously 
imported.
    Wild beluga sturgeon. Specimens of Huso huso born and reared in the 
natural marine environment within the current or former geographic range 
of the species.
    (2) What activities involving beluga sturgeon are affected by this 
rule? (i) International trade in beluga sturgeon. Except as provided in 
paragraphs (y)(3) and (y)(5) of this section, all prohibitions and 
provisions of Sec. Sec.  17.31(a) and 17.32 apply to the international 
trade in beluga sturgeon, including its parts and derivatives. Live 
beluga sturgeon remain subject to all the prohibitions and provisions of 
Sec. Sec.  17.31(a) and 17.32.
    (ii) Trade without CITES documents. Except as provided in paragraph 
(y)(3) of this section, you may not import, export, or re-export, or 
present for export or re-export, beluga sturgeon or beluga sturgeon 
products without valid CITES permits and other permits and licenses 
issued under parts 13, 17, and 23 of this chapter.
    (iii) Commercial activity. Except as provided in paragraphs (y)(3) 
and (5) of this section and Sec.  17.32, you may not sell or offer for 
sale, deliver, receive, carry, transport, or ship in interstate or 
foreign commerce in the course of a commercial activity any beluga 
sturgeon or beluga sturgeon products.
    (iv) It is unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction of 
the United States to commit, attempt to commit, solicit to commit, or 
cause to be committed any acts described in paragraphs (y)(2)(ii) and 
(iii) of this section.
    (3) What activities are exempted from threatened species permits by 
this rule? (i) Import, export or re-export, and interstate and foreign 
commerce involving certain caviar and meat obtained from beluga 
sturgeon. You may import, export or re-export, or conduct interstate or 
foreign commerce in beluga sturgeon caviar and meat without a threatened 
species permit issued according to Sec.  17.32 only if the caviar and 
meat are derived from wild or hatchery-origin beluga sturgeon that were 
caught and processed in the littoral states, or the caviar and meat are 
exempt from permits because they originate from qualifying aquaculture 
facilities outside of littoral states (see paragraph (y)(5) of this 
section). Also, the provisions in parts 13, 14, and 23 of this chapter 
and the following requirements must be met:
    (A) Except for caviar contained in cosmetics, any beluga caviar must 
comply with all CITES labeling requirements, as defined in relevant 
Resolutions or Decisions of the Conference of the Parties, including 
beluga caviar in interstate commerce in the United States. All 
individuals or businesses in the United States wishing to engage in 
domestic interstate commerce of beluga sturgeon caviar must follow the 
CITES caviar-labeling requirements.
    (B) The shipment must be accompanied by a valid CITES permit or 
certificate upon import, export, or re-export.
    (C) For each shipment covered by this exemption, the country of 
origin and each country of re-export, and the country of import involved 
in the trade of a particular shipment, must have designated both a CITES 
Management Authority and Scientific Authority, and have not been 
identified by the CITES Conference of the Parties, the CITES Standing 
Committee, or in a Notification from the CITES Secretariat as a country 
from which Parties should not accept permits for beluga sturgeon or all 
CITES-listed species in general.
    (D) The littoral state from which the beluga sturgeon caviar or meat 
originated has complied with all of the requirements shown in paragraph 
(y)(4) of this section, and none of the exporting, importing, or re-
exporting countries involved in the commercial activity has been subject 
to an administrative trade restriction or suspension as outlined in 
paragraphs (y)(6) and (7) of this section.

[[Page 135]]

    (E) Any relevant aquaculture facility located outside of a littoral 
state has complied with all of the requirements shown in paragraph 
(y)(5) of this section.
    (ii) Import and re-export of non-commercial personal or household 
effects. You may import, export or re-export, or conduct interstate or 
foreign commerce in beluga sturgeon personal or household effects 
without a threatened species permit issued according to Sec.  17.32. 
Also, for CITES permits, Article VII.3. of CITES recognizes a limited 
exemption for the international movement of personal and household 
effects, including specimens of beluga sturgeon.
    (A) Stricter national measures. The exemption for personal and 
household effects does not apply if a country prohibits or restricts the 
import, export, or re-export of the item.
    (1) You or your shipment must be accompanied by any document 
required by a country under its stricter national measures.
    (2) In the United States, you must obtain any permission needed 
under other regulations in this subchapter.
    (B) Required CITES documents. You must obtain a CITES document for 
personal or household effects and meet the requirements of this part if 
one of the following applies:
    (1) The Management Authority of the importing, exporting, or re-
exporting country requires a CITES document.
    (2) You or your shipment does not meet all of the conditions for an 
exemption as provided in paragraphs (y)(3)(ii)(C) and (D) of this 
section.
    (3) The personal or household effect exceeds 250 grams of beluga 
caviar. To import, export, or re-export more than 250 grams, you must 
have a valid CITES document for the entire quantity.
    (C) Personal effects. You do not need a CITES document to import, 
export, or re-export any part, product, derivative, or manufactured 
article of a legally acquired beluga sturgeon specimen to or from the 
United States if all of the following conditions are met:
    (1) No living beluga sturgeon is included.
    (2) You personally own and possess the item for non-commercial 
purposes, including any item intended as a personal gift.
    (3) The item and quantity of items are reasonably necessary or 
appropriate for the nature of your trip or stay.
    (4) You are either wearing the item as clothing or an accessory or 
taking it as part of your personal baggage, which is being carried by 
you or checked as baggage on the same plane, boat, car, or train as you.
    (5) The item was not mailed or shipped separately.
    (D) Household effects. You do not need a CITES document to import, 
export, or re-export any part, product, derivative, or manufactured 
article of a legally acquired beluga sturgeon specimen that is part of a 
shipment of your household effects when moving your residence to or from 
the United States, if all of the following conditions are met:
    (1) No living beluga sturgeon is included.
    (2) You personally own the item and are moving it for non-commercial 
purposes.
    (3) The item and quantity of items are reasonably necessary or 
appropriate for household use.
    (4) You import, export, or re-export your household effects within 1 
year of changing your residence from one country to another.
    (5) The shipment, or shipments if you cannot move all of your 
household effects at one time, contains only items purchased, inherited, 
or otherwise acquired before you moved your residence.
    (E) Trade restrictions. Regardless of the provisions above for 
personal and household effects, any trade suspension or trade 
restriction administratively imposed by the Service under paragraphs 
(y)(6) or (7) of this section could also apply to personal and household 
effects of beluga caviar.
    (4) What must beluga sturgeon littoral states do to be authorized 
under the special rule to export to the United States? The following 
requirements apply to the littoral states wishing to export beluga 
caviar or beluga meat to the United States without the need for a 
threatened species permit issued under Sec.  17.32. These requirements 
apply to all

[[Page 136]]

shipments of beluga caviar and beluga meat that originate in the 
littoral states, even if the shipments are re-exported to the United 
States via an intermediary country. (See paragraph (y)(7) of this 
section for more information on the Service's biennial reviews under the 
special rule.)
    (i) Basin-wide beluga sturgeon management plans. By September 6, 
2005, each littoral state wishing to export beluga caviar or beluga meat 
to the United States without the need for a threatened species permit 
issued under Sec.  17.32 must submit to the Service's Division of 
Scientific Authority a copy of a cooperative management plan for its 
respective basin (i.e., Black Sea or Caspian Sea) that addresses Huso 
huso conservation. Each of these two basin-wide management plans must be 
agreed to by all of the littoral states (not just exporting nations) in 
the Black Sea or the Caspian Sea, as appropriate. Upon receipt, the 
Division of Scientific Authority will review these basin-wide management 
plans within 90 days for completeness and clarity. If any elements of 
the management plans are missing or unclear, we will ask the appropriate 
littoral states to provide additional information within 60 days of the 
date we contact them. If the littoral states fail to respond or fail to 
submit basin-wide management plans by the specified deadline, or if we 
are unable to confirm that all littoral states are signatories to those 
plans, we will immediately suspend trade with all littoral states in the 
given basin (Caspian Sea or Black Sea) until we are satisfied that such 
management plans exist. Submission of documents in English may help 
expedite the Service's review. These cooperative management plans must 
contain the following elements:
    (A) A clear statement of the recovery and management objectives of 
the plan, including a specification of the stock(s) concerned, a 
definition of what constitutes over-fishing for that stock, and a 
rebuilding objective and schedule for that stock;
    (B) A statement of standard regulations and habitat improvement 
strategies (e.g., size limits, target harvest rates, quotas, seasons, 
fishing gear, effort caps, fish passage improvement, water quality 
controls) to be utilized by the nations involved;
    (C) A complete statement of the specific regulatory, monitoring, and 
research requirements that each cooperating nation must implement to be 
in compliance with the management plan;
    (D) A complete description of how stock survey data and fisheries 
data are used to establish annual catch and export quotas, including a 
full explanation of any models used and the assumptions underlying those 
models;
    (E) Procedures under which the nations may implement and enforce 
alternative management measures that achieve the same conservation 
benefits for beluga sturgeon as the standards mentioned in paragraph 
(y)(4)(i)(B) of this section; and
    (F) A complete schedule by which nations must take particular 
actions to be in compliance with the plan.
    (ii) National regulations. By September 6, 2005, each littoral state 
wishing to export beluga caviar or beluga meat to the United States 
under this special rule must provide the Service's Division of 
Scientific Authority with copies of national legislation and regulations 
that implement the basin-wide cooperative management plan described in 
paragraph (y)(4)(i) of this section, including regulations pertaining to 
the harvest, trade, aquaculture, restocking, and processing of beluga 
sturgeon. Upon receipt, the Division of Scientific Authority will review 
these national laws and regulations within 90 days for completeness and 
clarity. If any elements of the national legislation or national fishery 
regulations are missing or unclear, we will ask the appropriate littoral 
states to provide additional information within 60 days of the date we 
contact them. If the littoral states fail to respond or fail to submit 
copies of national laws and regulations by the specified deadline, we 
will immediately suspend trade with the given littoral states until we 
are satisfied that such laws and regulations are in effect. Submission 
of documents in English may help expedite the Service's review.
    (iii) Caviar labeling. All caviar shipments imported into the United 
States must follow the CITES caviar-labeling

[[Page 137]]

requirements as agreed to in the relevant Resolutions and Decisions of 
the CITES Parties. Current labeling requirements can be obtained by 
contacting the Division of Management Authority, Branch of Permits--
International, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, 
Room 700, Arlington, VA 22203.
    (iv) CITES compliance. Except as provided in paragraph (y)(3)(ii) of 
this section, all shipments of beluga sturgeon specimens, including 
those exempted from threatened species permits under this special rule, 
will require accompanying valid CITES permits and certificates upon 
import, export, or re-export.
    (v) Initial reporting period. Until September 6, 2005, no threatened 
species permits will be required for the import, export, re-export, or 
interstate or foreign commerce of beluga sturgeon caviar and meat that 
originated in the littoral states, in order to provide the littoral 
states time to submit the required documentation. After this 6-month 
period, the exemption from threatened species permits will continue only 
while the Service reviews littoral state compliance with paragraphs 
(y)(4)(i) through (iv) of this section. If this review demonstrates that 
the provisions of this special rule are not met, the Service will 
announce and institute trade restrictions or suspensions in beluga 
sturgeon caviar or meat with one or more littoral states as per 
paragraph (y)(7) of this section.
    (vi) Biennial reports. Littoral state governments wishing to export 
specimens of beluga sturgeon caviar or meat to the United States under 
this special rule must provide to the Service's Division of Scientific 
Authority reports containing the most recent information available on 
the status of the species, following the information guidelines 
specified below. The Service must receive the first report no later than 
December 1, 2005, and every 2 years thereafter on the anniversary of 
that date. Starting in December 2005, and thereafter on a biennial 
basis, the Service will review the national reports within 90 days of 
receiving them and any other pertinent information on wild beluga 
sturgeon conservation. If any elements of the biennial reports are 
missing or unclear, the Service will ask the appropriate littoral states 
to provide additional information within 60 days of the date we contact 
them. If the littoral states fail to respond or fail to submit biennial 
reports by the specified deadline, we will immediately suspend trade 
with the given littoral states (see paragraph (y)(7) of this section for 
details on how such a suspension would be instituted and announced). 
Submission of documents in English may help expedite the Service's 
review. We propose to use these reviews to determine whether littoral 
state management programs are leading to recovery of wild beluga 
sturgeon stocks. For each littoral state, the following information must 
be provided in the biennial reports:
    (A) A description of the specific fishery regulations that affect 
the harvest of Huso huso in the respective littoral state, with any 
changes from the previous report highlighted;
    (B) A description of any revisions to the cooperative management 
program mentioned in paragraph (y)(4)(i) of this section, including any 
new models, assumptions, or equations used to set harvest and export 
quotas;
    (C) New information obtained in the last 2 years on beluga sturgeon 
distribution, stock size, models used for quota-setting, spawning 
activity, habitat use, hatchery programs and results, or other relevant 
subjects;
    (D) A summary of law enforcement activities undertaken in the last 2 
years, and a description of any changes in programs to prevent poaching 
and smuggling, including indicators of their effectiveness;
    (E) A summary of the revenues generated by the commercial 
exploitation of beluga sturgeon in the respective littoral state, and a 
summary of any documented conservation benefits resulting from the 
commercial harvest program in that country (e.g., revenues allocated to 
hatchery and restocking programs or research programs); and
    (F) Export data for the previous two calendar years.
    (5) Can aquacultured beluga sturgeon products be exempt from 
threatened species permits if the products originate outside the 
littoral states? We will consider exemptions from threatened species

[[Page 138]]

permits for beluga caviar and meat obtained from aquaculture facilities 
outside the littoral states. These exemptions will be for individual 
facilities, and would allow aquacultured beluga caviar and meat 
originating from these facilities to be imported, exported, re-exported, 
or traded in interstate and foreign commerce without threatened species 
permits issued under Section 10 of the Act. Aquaculture facilities 
within the United States could also be exempt from prohibitions against 
take for purposes of harvesting caviar or meat (i.e., killing of beluga 
sturgeon), or for conducting activities involving research to enhance 
the survival or propagation of the species. Facilities outside the 
littoral states wishing to obtain such exemptions must submit a written 
request to the Division of Management Authority, Branch of Permits--
International, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, 
Room 700, Arlington, VA 22203, and provide to the Service's Division of 
Scientific Authority, in Room 750 at the same address, information that 
shows, at a minimum, all of the following:
    (i) The facility in question is using best management practices to 
prevent the escape of beluga sturgeon and disease pathogens into local 
ecosystems, as certified by the relevant regulatory agency. In the case 
of the United States, the relevant regulatory authority will be the 
state agency with jurisdiction over aquaculture. In the case of foreign 
aquaculture facilities outside the littoral states, the relevant 
regulatory agency will be the designated CITES Management Authority with 
jurisdiction over sturgeon. Best management practices that affect the 
applicant's facility must be part of the application and available for 
Service review.
    (ii) The facility in question has entered into a formal agreement 
with one or more littoral states to study, protect, or otherwise enhance 
the survival of wild beluga sturgeon. Copies of such agreements must be 
provided.
    (iii) The facility in question does not rely on wild beluga sturgeon 
for broodstock. Proof of broodstock origin, including relevant CITES 
permits that accompanied broodstock specimens upon import into the 
United States, must be part of the application.
    (iv) Exemptions granted under paragraph (y)(5) of this section shall 
not apply to trade (import, export, re-export, or interstate and foreign 
commerce) in live beluga sturgeon, and may be revoked at any time if the 
Service determines that any of the criteria shown in paragraphs 
(y)(5)(i) through (iii) of this section are not met by the facility. 
Applicants will be required to submit biennial reports on their 
compliance with paragraphs (y)(5)(i) through (iii) of this section, 
starting on the second anniversary of any programmatic exemption granted 
to the applicants. These biennial reports must show that exempted 
facilities have actively cooperated with one or more littoral states in 
a meaningful way to support beluga sturgeon conservation. Any beluga 
caviar originating from aquaculture facilities outside the littoral 
states must comply with CITES caviar-labeling requirements, even in 
interstate commerce within the United States. We will publish an 
information notice if the Service grants a programmatic exemption to any 
aquaculture facility outside the littoral states, and announce such 
actions through our website and posting notices at our wildlife ports of 
entry. We will follow the provisions of paragraph (y)(7) of this section 
to announce restrictions or revocations of such programmatic exemptions, 
based on our review of facilities' biennial reports.
    (6) How will the Service inform the public of CITES restrictions on 
trade in beluga sturgeon? We will issue an information bulletin that 
identifies a restriction or suspension of trade in specimens of beluga 
sturgeon and post it on our websites (http://le.fws.gov and http://
international.fws.gov) and at our staffed wildlife ports of entry if any 
criterion in paragraphs (y)(6)(i) or (ii) of this section is met:
    (i) The country is lacking a designated Management Authority or 
Scientific Authority for the issuance of valid CITES documents or their 
equivalent for beluga sturgeon.
    (ii) The country is identified in any action adopted by the CITES 
Conference of the Parties, the CITES

[[Page 139]]

Standing Committee, or in a Notification to the Parties issued by the 
CITES Secretariat as a country from which Parties are asked not to 
accept shipments of specimens of beluga sturgeon or all CITES-listed 
species.
    Note to paragraph (y)(6): A listing of all countries that have not 
designated either a Management Authority or Scientific Authority, or 
that have been identified as countries from which Parties should not 
accept permits, is available by writing to: Division of Management 
Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 
700, Arlington, Virginia 22203.
    (7) How will the Service set trade restrictions or prohibitions 
under the special rule? The Service's Division of Scientific Authority 
will conduct a biennial review of beluga sturgeon conservation based on 
information in the cooperative basin-wide management plans, national 
regulations and laws, and biennial reports (submitted as per paragraph 
(y)(4) of this section, and, for aquaculture facilities, as per 
paragraph (y)(5)(iv) of this section). We will combine that review with 
a review of other relevant information (e.g., scientific literature, law 
enforcement data, government-to-government consultations) to determine 
whether littoral state management programs and aquaculture operations 
are effectively achieving conservation benefits for beluga sturgeon. 
Based on this information, or the failure to obtain it, the Service may 
restrict or prohibit trade from a littoral state, a re-exporting 
intermediary country, or an entire basin (i.e., the Caspian Sea or Black 
Sea) or a specific aquaculture facility outside the littoral states if 
we determine that the conservation or management status of beluga 
sturgeon has been adversely affected and the continued recovery of 
beluga sturgeon may be compromised. The decision to restrict or prohibit 
trade in beluga sturgeon products on a national, basin, or region-wide 
scale will depend on the scope of the problem observed, the magnitude of 
the threat to wild beluga sturgeon, and whether remedial action is 
necessary at a national, basin, or region-wide scale.
    (i) Trade restrictions or suspensions will result basin-wide, for 
specific littoral states, or for non-littoral state aquaculture 
facilities under one or more of the following scenarios:
    (A) Failure to submit any of the reports, legislation, and 
management plans described in paragraph (y)(4) of this section, or 
failure to respond to requests for additional information;
    (B) A change in regional cooperative management that threatens the 
recovery of wild beluga sturgeon;
    (C) A change in littoral state laws or regulations that compromises 
beluga sturgeon recovery or survival in the wild;
    (D) Adoption of scientifically unsound hatchery practices or 
restocking programs for beluga sturgeon;
    (E) A decline in wild Huso huso populations, as documented in 
national reports outlined above or the scientific literature, that goes 
unaddressed by regional or national management programs;
    (F) Failure to address poaching or smuggling in beluga sturgeon, 
their parts, or products in the littoral states or re-exporting 
countries, as documented in national reports described above or other 
law enforcement sources;
    (G) Failure of the littoral states to address the loss of beluga 
sturgeon habitat quality or quantity;
    (H) Failure of the littoral states or re-exporting countries to 
follow the caviar-labeling recommendations of the CITES Parties 
(currently embodied in Resolution Conf. 12.7);
    (I) Recommendations from the CITES Standing Committee to suspend 
trade in beluga sturgeon from one or more countries; or
    (J) An aquaculture facility outside the littoral states has been 
issued a programmatic exemption from threatened species permits under 
paragraph (y)(5) of this section, but is not abiding by the provisions 
of paragraphs (y)(5)(i) through (iii) of this section, or, based on the 
biennial reports required under paragraph (y)(5) of this section, has 
not actively cooperated with one or more littoral states in a meaningful 
way to support beluga sturgeon conservation.
    (K) Any other natural or human-induced phenomenon that threatens the 
survival or recovery of beluga sturgeon.

[[Page 140]]

    (ii) We will publish an information notice in the Federal Register, 
as well as on our Web site and at our wildlife ports of entry, if the 
Service's Division of Scientific Authority administratively suspends or 
restricts trade in beluga sturgeon products after determining that wild 
beluga sturgeon stock status worsens or threats to the species increase. 
This information notice will provide:
    (A) The problem(s) identified in the biennial reports or other 
salient documents.
    (B) The scope of the problem and the number of nations involved.
    (C) The scope of the trade restriction or suspension we are 
imposing, including products covered, duration of the restriction or 
suspension, and criteria for lifting it and reinstating any exemption to 
threatened species permits.
    (D) How the public can provide input, make comments, and recommend 
remedial action to withdraw the trade measures imposed.
    (z) Gila trout (Oncorhynchus gilae).
    (1) Except as noted in paragraph (z)(2) of this section, all 
prohibitions of 50 CFR 17.31 and exemptions of 50 CFR 17.32 apply to the 
Gila trout.
    (i) No person may possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of this section or in violation of applicable fish and 
conservation laws and regulations promulgated by the States of New 
Mexico or Arizona.
    (ii) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed any offense listed in 
paragraph (z)(1)(i) of this section.
    (2) In the following instances you may take Gila trout in accordance 
with applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws and 
regulations to protect this species in the States of New Mexico or 
Arizona:
    (i) Fishing activities authorized under New Mexico or Arizona laws 
and regulations; and
    (ii) Educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Endangered Species Act.
    (3) The four relict populations of Gila trout (Main Diamond Creek, 
South Diamond Creek, Spruce Creek, and Whiskey Creek) will not be opened 
to fishing.
    (4) Any changes to State recreational fishing regulations will be 
made by the States in collaboration with the Service.
    (5) Any violation of State applicable fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species is also a 
violation of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended.

[40 FR 44415, Sept. 26, 1975]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations to Sec.  17.44, see 
the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids 
section of the printed volume and on GPO Access.



Sec.  17.45  Special rules--snails and clams. [Reserved]



Sec.  17.46  Special rules--crustaceans.

    (a) Madison Cave isopod (Antrolana lira). (1) All provisions of 
Sec.  17.31 (a) and (b) apply to this species except that it may be 
taken for scientific purposes without Federal permits issued pursuant to 
these regulations: Provided, that all other Federal, State, or local 
laws, regulations, ordinances or other restrictions or limitations have 
been complied with.
    (b) [Reserved]

[47 FR 43701, Oct. 4, 1982]



Sec.  17.47  [Reserved]



Sec.  17.48  Special rules--common sponges and other forms. [Reserved]



                   Subpart E_Similarity of Appearance

    Source: 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977, unless otherwise noted.



Sec.  17.50  General.

    (a) Whenever a species which is not Endangered or Threatened closely 
resembles an Endangered or Threatened species, such species may be 
treated as either Endangered or Threatened if the director makes such 
determination in accordance with section 4(e) of the Act and the 
criteria of paragraph (b) of this

[[Page 141]]

section. After the Director has made such determination in accordance 
with the notification procedures specified in the Act, such species 
shall appear in the list in Sec.  17.11 (Wildlife) or Sec.  17.12 
(Plants) with the notation ``(S/A)'' (similarity of appearance) in the 
``Status'' column, following either a letter ``E'' or a letter ``T'' to 
indicate whether the species is being treated as Endangered or 
Threatened.
    (b) In determining whether to treat a species as Endangered or 
Threatened due to similarity of appearance, the Director shall consider 
the criteria in section 4(e) of the Act, as indicated below:
    (1) The degree of difficulty enforcement personnel would have in 
distinguishing the species, at the point in question, from an Endangered 
or Threatened species (including those cases where the criteria for 
recognition of a species are based on geographical boundaries);
    (2) The additional threat posed to the Endangered or Threatened 
species by the loss of control occasioned because of the similarity of 
appearance; and
    (3) The probability that so designating a similar species will 
substantially facilitate enforcement and further the purposes and policy 
of the Act.

    Example 1. The ABC sparrow is Endangered wildlife. The ABD sparrow 
is a subspecies that is so similar to the ABC sparrow that when found 
outside their normal habitat, the two cannot readily be distinguished by 
law enforcement personnel. The ABD sparrow is listed in Sec.  17.11, 
after following the proper procedures as follows:

                                                                    Species and Range
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                           Portion of range
            Common name                Scientific name           Population         Known distribution    where endangered or   Status    When   Special
                                                                                                              threatened                 listed   rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ABC sparrow.......................  ABCus................  NA...................  North America........  Entire..............        E        7       NA
ABD sparrow.......................  ABDus................  NA...................  ......do.............  NA..................   E(S/A)        7       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Example 2. Suppose the ABC sparrow is listed as Endangered in only a 
portion of its range. Within the meaning of the Act, the ABC sparrow as 
defined by geographic boundaries is a species. The ABC sparrow which 
occurs beyond those boundaries is a different species, even though it is 
identical, except in location, to the listed species. If the criteria of 
this section were met, the two species would be listed as follows:

                                                                    Species and Range
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                           Portion of range
            Common name                Scientific name           Population         Known distribution    where endangered or   Status    When   Special
                                                                                                              threatened                 listed   rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ABC sparrow.......................  ABCus................  Idaho................  Idaho................  Entire..............        E        7       NA
 Do...............................  ......do.............  NA...................  United States........  NA..................   E(S/A)        7       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Example 3. The XY cactus has been determined to be an Endangered 
species. The XZ cactus so closely resembles the XY cactus that 
enforcement personnel cannot distinguish between the two. The Endangered 
XY cactus could be illegally sold as the non-endangered XZ species, thus 
posing an additional threat to the Endangered species. After following 
the proper procedures, the XZ cactus would be placed on the list and 
treated as though it was an Endangered species. This entry would appear 
as follows:

                                                                    Species and Range
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                           Portion of range
            Common name                Scientific name           Population         Known distribution    where endangered or   Status    When   Special
                                                                                                              threatened                 listed   rules
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
XYum..............................  XY cactus............  Arizona..............  Entire...............  ....................        E        7       NA
XZum..............................  ......do.............  Arizona and Mexico...  NA...................  ....................   E(S/A)        8       NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 142]]



Sec.  17.51  Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    (a) Any species listed in Sec.  17.11 or Sec.  17.12, pursuant to 
Sec.  17.50, shall be treated as Endangered or Threatened, as indicated 
in the ``Status'' column.
    (b) All of the provisions of subparts C (Endangered Wildlife), D 
(Threatened Wildlife), F (Endangered Plants) or G (Threatened Plants), 
as appropriate, shall apply to any such species.



Sec.  17.52  Permits--similarity of appearance.

    Upon receipt of a complete application and unless otherwise 
indicated in a special rule, the Director may issue permits for any 
activity otherwise prohibited with a species designated as Endangered or 
Threatened due to its similarity of appearance. Such a permit may 
authorize a single transaction, a series of transactions, or a number of 
activities over a specified period of time.
    (a) Application requirements. An application for a permit under this 
section must be submitted to the Director by the person who wishes to 
engage in the prohibited activity. The permit for activities involving 
interstate commerce of plants must be obtained by the seller; in the 
case of wildlife, the permit must be obtained by the buyer. The 
application must be submitted on an official application form (Form 3-
200) provided by the Service, or must contain the general information 
and certification required by Sec.  13.12(a) of this subchapter. It must 
include, as an attachment, all of the following information: Documentary 
evidence, sworn affidavits, or other information to show species 
identification and the origin of the wildlife or plant in question. This 
information may be in the form of hunting licenses, hide seals, official 
stamps, export documents, bills of sales, certification, expert opinion, 
or other appropriate information.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making his decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria, in Sec.  
13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the information submitted by the applicant appears 
reliable;
    (2) Whether the information submitted by the applicant adequately 
identifies the wildlife or plant in question so as to distinguish it 
from any Endangered or Threatened wildlife or plant.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to the following special conditions:
    (1) If indicated in the permit, a special mark, to be specified in 
the permit, must be applied to the wildlife or plant, and remain for the 
time designated in the permit;
    (2) A copy of the permit or an identification label, which includes 
the scientific name and the permit number, must accompany the wildlife 
or plant or its container during the course of any activity subject to 
these regulations.
    (d) Duration of permits. The duration of a permit issued under this 
section shall be designated on the face of the permit.



                       Subpart F_Endangered Plants



Sec.  17.61  Prohibitions.

    (a) Except as provided in a permit issued pursuant to Sec.  17.62 or 
Sec.  17.63, it is unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction 
of the United States to commit, to attempt to commit, to solicit another 
to commit, or to cause to be committed, any of the acts described in 
paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section in regard to any Endangered 
plant.
    (b) Import or export. It is unlawful to import or to export any 
Endangered plant. Any shipment in transit through the United States is 
an importation and an exportation, whether or not it has entered the 
country for customs purposes.
    (c) Remove and reduce to possession. (1) It is unlawful to remove 
and reduce to possession any endangered plant from an area under Federal 
jurisdiction.
    (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any employee 
or agent of the Service, any other Federal land

[[Page 143]]

management agency, or a State conservation agency, who is designated by 
that agency for such purposes, may, when acting in the course of 
official duties, remove and reduce to possession endangered plants from 
areas under Federal jurisdiction without a permit if such action is 
necessary to:
    (i) Care for a damaged or diseased specimen;
    (ii) Dispose of a dead specimen; or
    (iii) Salvage a dead specimen which may be useful for scientific 
study.
    (3) Any removal and reduction to possession pursuant to paragraph 
(c)(2) of this section must be reported in writing to the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Division of Law Enforcement, P.O. Box 28006, 
Washington, DC 20005, within 5 days. The specimen may only be retained, 
disposed of, or salvaged in accordance with written directions from the 
Service.
    (4) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, any qualified 
employee or agent of a State conservation agency which is a party to a 
Cooperative Agreement with the Service in accordance with section 6(c) 
of the Act, who is designated by that agency for such purposes, may, 
when acting in the course of official duties, remove and reduce to 
possession from areas under Federal jurisdiction those endangered plants 
which are covered by an approved cooperative agreement for conservation 
programs in accordance with the Cooperative Agreement, provided that 
such removal is not reasonably anticipated to result in:
    (i) The death or permanent damage of the specimens;
    (ii) The removal of the specimen from the State where the removal 
occurred; or
    (iii) The introduction of the specimen so removed, or of any 
propagules derived from such a specimen, into an area beyond the 
historical range of the species.
    (d) Interstate or foreign commerce. It is unlawful to deliver, 
receive, carry, transport, or ship in interstate or foreign commerce, by 
any means whatsoever, and in the course of a commercial activity, an 
endangered plant.
    (e) Sale or offer for sale. (1) It is unlawful to sell or to offer 
for sale in interstate or foreign commerce any endangered plant.
    (2) An advertisement for the sale of any endangered plant which 
carries a warning to the effect that no sale may be consummated until a 
permit has been obtained from the Service, shall not be considered an 
offer for sale within the meaning of this paragraph.

[44 FR 54060, Sept. 18, 1979, as amended at 50 FR 39690, Sept. 30, 1985]



Sec.  17.62  Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of 

propagation or survival.

    Upon receipt of a complete application the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited by Sec.  17.61, in 
accordance with the issuance criteria of this section, for scientific 
purposes or for enhancing the propagation or survival of endangered 
plants. (See Sec.  17.72 for permits for threatened plants.) Such a 
permit may authorize a single transaction, a series of transactions, or 
a number of activities over a specified period of time.
    (a) Application requirements. A person wishing to get a permit for 
an activity prohibited by Sec.  17.61 submits an application to conduct 
activities under this paragraph. For interstate commerce activities the 
seller gets the permit for plants coming from cultivated stock and the 
buyer gets the permit if the plants are taken from the wild. The Service 
provides application Form 3-200, or you may submit the general 
information and certification required by Sec.  13.12(a) of this 
subchapter. Application requirements differ for permits issued for 
plants taken from the wild (excluding seeds), seeds and cultivated 
plants, or herbarium specimens. You must attach the following 
information and any other information requested by the Director.
    (1) For activities involving plants obtained from the wild 
(excluding seeds), provide the following information:
    (i) The scientific names of the plants sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) The estimated number of specimens sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (iii) The year, country, and approximate place where taking occurred 
or will occur;

[[Page 144]]

    (iv) If the activities would involve removal and reduction to 
possession of a plant from an area under Federal jurisdiction, the year, 
State, county, or any other description such as place name, township, 
and range designation that will precisely place the location where the 
proposed removal and reduction to possession will occur, the name of the 
Federal entity having jurisdiction over the area, and the name, title, 
address, and phone number of the person in charge of the area.
    (v) The name and address of the institution or other facility where 
the plant sought to be covered by the permit will be used or maintained;
    (vi) A brief description of the applicant's expertise and facilities 
as related to the proposed activity;
    (vii) A statement of the applicant's willingness to participate in a 
cooperative propagation program, and to maintain or contribute data 
relating to such efforts; and
    (viii) A statement of the reasons why the applicant is justified in 
obtaining the permit, including:
    (A) The activities sought to be authorized by the permit and the 
relationship of such activities to scientific purposes or enhancing the 
propagation or survival of the species; and
    (B) The planned disposition of such plant upon termination of the 
activities sought to be authorized.
    (2) For activities involving seeds and cultivated plants, provide 
the following information:
    (i) The scientific names of the plants sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) A statement of the applicant's willingness to participate in a 
cooperative propagation program, and to maintain or contribute data 
relating to the success of such efforts;
    (iii) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes or enhancing the propagation or survival of the species; and
    (iv) If the activities would involve seeds obtained from the wild, 
additional information to evaluate the effects of such taking upon the 
reproductive potential of the species where the taking will occur.
    (v) If the activities would involve removal and reduction to 
possession of seeds from an area under Federal jurisdiction, the year, 
State, county or any other description such as place name, township, and 
range designation that will precisely place the location where the 
proposed removal and reduction to possession will occur, the name of the 
Federal entity having jurisdiction over the area and the name, title, 
address, and phone number of the person in charge of the area.
    (3) For importation or exportation involving the non-commercial 
loan, exchange, or donation of herbarium or other preserved, dried, or 
embedded museum specimens of any endangered species between scientists 
or scientific institutions, provide the following information:
    (i) The name and address of the institution or other facility where 
the plants sought to be covered by the permit will be used or 
maintained; and
    (ii) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes or enhancing the propagation or survival of the species.
    (4) When the activity applied for involves a species also regulated 
by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Fauna and Flora, additional requirements of Sec.  23.15(c) of this 
subchapter must be met. For your convenience, Sec.  23.15(c) is repeated 
here.

    Application requirements for permits or certificates to import, 
export or re-export wildlife or plants listed in appendix I, II or III 
that are not subject to the regulations in part 17 or part 18 of this 
subchapter. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
who wishes to get such a permit or certificate submits an application 
under this section to the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
(Attention: Office of Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 
700, Arlington, VA 22203. The Service provides Form 3-200 for the 
application to which as much of the following information relating to 
the purpose of the permit or certificate must be attached.
    (1) The scientific and common names of the species (or taxa to the 
rank listed in Appendix I, II, or III) sought to be covered by the 
permit. the number of wildlife or plants, and the activity sought to be 
authorized (such as importing, exporting, re-exporting, etc.);

[[Page 145]]

    (2) A statement as to whether the wildlife or plant, at the time of 
application, (i) is living in the wild, (ii) is living, but not in the 
wild, or (iii) is dead;
    (3) A description of the wildlife or plant, including (i) size, (ii) 
sex (if known), and (iii) type of goods, if it is a part or derivative;
    (4) In the case of living wildlife or plants, (i) a description of 
the type, size, and construction of any container the wildlife or plant 
will be placed in during transportation, and (ii) the arrangements for 
watering and otherwise caring for the wildlife or plant during 
transportation;
    (5) The name and address of the person in a foreign country to whom 
the wildlife or plant is to be exported from the United States, or from 
whom the wildlife or plant is to be imported into the United States;
    (6) The country and place where the wildlife or plant was or is to 
be taken from the wild;
    (7) In the case of wildlife or plants listed in Appendix I to be 
imported into the United States, (i) a statement of the purposes and 
details of the activities for which the wildlife or plant is to be 
imported; (ii) a brief resume of the technical expertise of the 
applicant or other persons who will care for the wildlife or plant; 
(iii) the name, address, and description, including diagrams or 
photographs, of the facility where the wildlife or plant will be 
maintained; and (iv) a description of all mortalities, in the two years 
preceding the date of this application, including any wildlife species 
covered in the application (or any species of the same genus or family) 
held by the applicant, including the causes and steps taken to avoid 
such mortalities; and
    (8) Copies of documents, sworn affidavits, or other evidence showing 
that either (i) the wildlife or plant was acquired prior to the date the 
Convention applied to it, or (ii) the wildlife or plant was bred in 
captivity, or artificially propagated, or was part of or derived 
therefrom, or (iii) the wildlife or plant is an herbarium specimen, or 
live plant material to be imported, exported, or re-exported as a 
noncommercial loan, donation, or exchange between scientists or 
scientific institutions.

    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making his decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in Sec.  
13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
enhance the survival of the species in the wild;
    (2) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
enhance the propagation of the species;
    (3) The opinions or views of scientists or other persons or 
organizations having expertise concerning the plant or other matters 
germane to the application; and
    (4) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate to successfully accomplish the 
objectives stated in the application.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to the following special conditions:
    (1) If requested, the permittee shall submit to the Director a 
written report of the activities authorized by the permit. Such report 
must be postmarked by the date specified in the permit or otherwise 
requested by the Director.
    (2) A copy of the permit or an identification label, which includes 
the scientific name, the permit number, and a statement that the plant 
is of ``wild origin'' or ``cultivated origin'' must accompany the plant 
or its container during the course of any activity subject to these 
regulations, unless the specimens meet the special conditions referred 
to in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
    (3) In the case of plants that are herbarium specimens, or other 
preserved, dried or embedded museum specimens to be imported or exported 
as a noncommercial loan, exchange or donation between scientists or 
scientific institutions, the names and addresses of the consignor and 
consignee must be on each package or container. A description such as 
``herbarium specimens'' and the code letters assigned by the Service to 
the scientists or scientific institution must be entered on the Customs 
declaration form affixed to each package or container. If the specimens 
are of taxa also regulated by the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the letters ``CITES'' 
(acronym for the Convention) also must be entered on the Customs 
declaration form, as indicated in Sec.  23.15(e)(3) of this subchapter.

[[Page 146]]

    (d) Duration of permit. The duration of a permit issued under this 
section shall be designated on the face of the permit.

[44 FR 54060, Sept. 18, 1979, as amended at 50 FR 39690, Sept. 30, 1985; 
63 FR 52635, Oct. 1, 1998]



Sec.  17.63  Economic hardship permits.

    Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited by Sec.  17.61, in 
accordance with Section 10(b) of the Act and the issuance criteria of 
this section, in order to prevent undue economic hardship. No such 
exemption may be granted for the importation or exportation of a species 
also listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in 
endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, if the specimen would be 
used in a commercial activity.
    (a) Application requirements. An application for a permit under this 
section must be submitted to the Director by the person allegedly 
suffering undue economic hardship because his desired activity is 
prohibited. The application must be submitted on an official application 
form (Form 3-200) provided by the Service, or must contain the general 
information and certification required by Sec.  13.12(a) of this 
subchapter. It must include, as an attachment, all of the information 
required in Sec.  17.62 plus the following additional information.
    (1) The possible legal or economic alternatives to the activity 
sought to be authorized by the permit.
    (2) A full statement, accompanied by copies of all relevant 
correspondence, showing the applicant's involvement with the plant 
sought to be covered by the permit (as well as his involvement with 
similar plants). The applicant should include information on that 
portion of his income derived from activities involving such plants in 
relation to the balance of his income during the calendar year 
immediately preceding either the Federal Register notice of review of 
the status of the species or proposed rulemaking to list the species as 
Endangered, whichever is earlier.
    (3) Where applicable, proof of a contract or other binding legal 
obligation which:
    (i) Deals specifically with the plant sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) Became binding prior to the date of the Federal Register notice 
of review of the status of the species or proposed rulemaking to list 
the species as endangered, whichever is earlier; and
    (iii) Will cause monetary loss of a given dollar amount if the 
permit sought under this section is not granted.
    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued for economic hardship, as 
defined in section 10(b) of the Act. In making his decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in Sec.  
13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
significantly affect the survival of the species in the wild;
    (2) The economic, legal, or other alternatives or relief available 
to the applicant;
    (3) The amount of evidence that the applicant was in fact party to a 
contract or other binding legal obligation which:
    (i) Deals specifically with the plant sought to be covered by the 
permit; and
    (ii) Became binding prior to the date of the Federal Register notice 
of review of the status of the species or proposed rulemaking to list 
the species as endangered, whichever is earlier;
    (4) The severity of economic hardship which the contract or other 
binding legal obligation referred to in paragraph (b)(3) of this section 
would cause if the permit were denied;
    (5) Where applicable, the portion of the applicant's income which 
would be lost if the permit were denied, and the relationship of that 
portion to the balance of his income.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section may be subject to any of the following special conditions:
    (1) If requested, the permittee shall submit to the Director a 
written report

[[Page 147]]

of the activities authorized by the permit. Such report must be 
postmarked by the date specified in the permit or otherwise requested by 
the Director.
    (2) If requested, the permittee shall report to the Service's office 
designated in the permit the death, destruction or loss of all living 
plants covered by the permit. Such report must be postmarked by the date 
specified in the permit or otherwise requested by the Director.
    (d) Duration of permit. The duration of a permit issued under this 
section shall be designated on the face of the permit. No permit issued 
under this section shall be valid for more than one year from the date 
of a Federal Register notice of review of the status of the species or 
proposed rulemaking to list the species as endangered, whichever is 
earlier.

[44 FR 54060, Sept. 18, 1979]



                       Subpart G_Threatened Plants



Sec.  17.71  Prohibitions.

    (a) Except as provided in subpart A of this part, or in a permit 
issued under this subpart, all of the provisions in Sec.  17.61 shall 
apply to threatened plants, with the following exception. Seeds of 
cultivated specimens of species treated as threatened shall be exempt 
from all the provisions of Sec.  17.61, provided that a statement that 
the seeds are of ``cultivated origin'' accompanies the seeds or their 
container during the course of any activity otherwise subject to these 
regulations.
    (b) In addition to any provisions of this part 17, any employee or 
agent of the Service or of a State Conservation Agency which is 
operating a conservation program pursuant to the terms of a Cooperative 
Agreement with the Service in accordance with section 6(c) of the Act, 
who is designated by that agency for such purposes, may, when acting in 
the course of official duties, remove and reduce to possession from 
areas under Federal jurisdiction those threatened species of plants 
which are covered by an approved Cooperative Agreement to carry out 
conservation programs.
    (c) Whenever a special rule in Sec. Sec.  17.73 to 17.78 applies to 
a threatened species, none of the provisions of paragraph (a) of this 
section will apply. The special rule will contain all the applicable 
prohibitions and exceptions. If indicated by special rule, the exception 
for seeds in paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to the 
threatened species.

[42 FR 32380, June 24, 1977, as amended at 50 FR 39691, Sept. 30, 1985]



Sec.  17.72  Permits--general.

    Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director may issue a 
permit authorizing any activity otherwise prohibited with regard to 
threatened plants. The permit shall be governed by the provisions of 
this section unless a special rule applicable to the plant is provided 
in Sec. Sec.  17.73 to 17.78. A permit issued under this section must be 
for one of the following: scientific purposes, the enhancement of the 
propagation or survival of threatened species, economic hardship, 
botanical or horticultural exhibition, educational purposes, or other 
activities consistent with the purposes and policy of the Act. Such a 
permit may authorize a single transaction, a series of transactions, or 
a number of activities over a specified period of time.
    (a) Application requirements. A person wishing to get a permit for 
an activity prohibited by Sec.  17.71 submits an application to conduct 
activities under this paragraph. For interstate commerce activities the 
seller gets the permit for plants coming from cultivated stock and the 
buyer gets the permit if the plants are taken from the wild. The Service 
provides Form 3-200 for the application or you may submit the general 
information and certification required by Sec.  13.12(a) of this 
subchapter. Application requirements differ for permits issued for 
plants taken from the wild (excluding seeds), seeds and cultivated 
plants, or herbarium specimens. You must attach the following 
information and any other information requested by the Director.
    (1) For activities involving plants obtained from the wild 
(excluding seeds), provide the following information:
    (i) The scientific names of the plants sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) The estimated number of specimens sought to be covered by the 
permit;

[[Page 148]]

    (iii) The year, country, and approximate place where taking occurred 
or will occur;
    (iv) If the activities would involve removal and reduction to 
possession of a plant from an area under Federal jurisdiction, the year, 
State, county or any other description such as place name, township, and 
range designation that will precisely place the location where the 
proposed removal and reduction to possession will occur, the name of the 
Federal entity having jurisdiction over the area and the name, title, 
address, and phone number of the person in charge of the area.
    (v) A brief description of the applicant's expertise and facilities 
as related to the proposed activity;
    (vi) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes, enhancing the propagation or survival of the species, or other 
objectives consistent with the purposes and policy of the Act; and
    (vii) A statement of the applicant's willingness to participate in a 
cooperative propagation program, and to maintain or contribute data 
relating to such efforts.
    (2) For activities involving seeds obtained from the wild and 
cultivated plants, provide the following information:
    (i) The scientific names of the plants sought to be covered by the 
permit;
    (ii) A statement of the applicant's willingness to participate in a 
cooperative propagation program, and to maintain or contribute data 
relating to the success of such efforts; and
    (iii) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes, enhancing the propagation or survival of the species, or other 
objectives consistent with the purposes and policy of the Act.
    (iv) If the activities would involve removal and reduction to 
possession of seeds from an area under Federal jurisdiction, the year, 
State, county, or any other description such as place name, township, 
and range designation that will precisely place the location where the 
proposed removal and reduction to possession will occur, the name of the 
Federal entity having jurisdiction over the area and the name, title, 
address, and phone number of the person in charge of the area.
    (3) For importation or exportation involving the non-commercial 
loan, exchange or donation of herbarium or other preserved, dried or 
embedded museum specimens of all threatened species between scientists 
or scientific institutions, provide the following information:
    (i) The name and address of the institution or other facility where 
the plants sought to be covered by the permit will be used or 
maintained; and
    (ii) A justification of the activities sought to be authorized by 
the permit and the relationship of such activities to scientific 
purposes, enhancing the propagation or survival of the species, or other 
objectives consistent with the purposes and policy of the Act.
    (4) When the activity applied for involves a species also regulated 
by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild 
Fauna and Flora, additional requirements of Sec.  23.15(c) of this 
subchapter must be met. For your convenience, Sec.  23.15(c) is repeated 
here.

    Application requirements for permits or certificates to import, 
export or re-export wildlife or plants listed in Appendix I, II or III 
that are not subject to the regulations in part 17 or part 18 of this 
subchapter. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States 
who wishes to get such a permit or certificate submits an application 
under this section to the Director, Fish and Wildlife Service 
(Attention: Office of Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 
700, Arlington, VA 22203. The Service provides Form 3-200 for the 
application to which as much of the following information relating to 
the purpose of the permit or certificate must be attached:
    (1) The scientific and common names of the species (or taxa to the 
rank listed in Appendix I, II, or III) sought to be covered by the 
permit, the number of wildlife or plants, and the activity sought to be 
authorized (such as importing, exporting, re-exporting, etc.);
    (2) A statement as to whether the wildlife or plant, at the time of 
application, (i) is living in the wild, (ii) is living, but not in the 
wild, or (iii) is dead;
    (3) A description of the wildlife or plant, including (i) size, (ii) 
sex (if known), and (iii) type of goods, if it is a part or derivative;

[[Page 149]]

    (4) In the case of living wildlife or plants, (i) a description of 
the type, size, and construction of any container the wildlife or plant 
will be placed in during transportation, and (ii) the arrangements for 
watering and otherwise caring for the wildlife or plant during 
transportation;
    (5) The name and address of the person in a foreign country to whom 
the wildlife or plant is to be exported from the United States, or from 
whom the wildlife or plant is to be imported into the United States;
    (6) The country and place where the wildlife or plant was or is to 
be taken from the wild;
    (7) In the case of wildlife or plants listed in Appendix I to be 
imported into the United States, (i) a statement of the purposes and 
details of the activities for which the wildlife or plant is to be 
imported; (ii) a brief resume of the technical expertise of the 
applicant or other persons who will care for the wildlife or plant; 
(iii) the name, address, and description, including diagrams or 
photographs, of the facility where the wildlife or plant will be 
maintained; and (iv) a description of all mortalities, in the two years 
preceding the date of this application, including any wildlife species 
covered in the application (or any species of the same genus or family) 
held by the applicant, including the causes and steps taken to avoid 
such mortalities; and
    (8) Copies of documents, sworn affidavits, or other evidence showing 
that either (i) the wildlife or plant was acquired prior to the date the 
Convention applied to it, or (ii) the wildlife or plant was bred in 
captivity, or artificially propagated, or was part of or derived 
therefrom, or (iii) the wildlife or plant is an herbarium specimen, or 
live plant material to be imported, exported, or re-exported as a 
noncommercial loan, donation, or exchange between scientists or 
scientific institutions.

    (b) Issuance criteria. Upon receiving an application completed in 
accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, the Director will decide 
whether or not a permit should be issued. In making his decision, the 
Director shall consider, in addition to the general criteria in Sec.  
13.21(b) of this subchapter, the following factors:
    (1) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
enhance the survival of the species in the wild;
    (2) Whether the purpose for which the permit is requested will 
enhance the propagation of the species;
    (3) The opinions or views of scientists or other persons or 
organizations having expertise concerning the plant or other matters 
germane to the application; and
    (4) Whether the expertise, facilities, or other resources available 
to the applicant appear adequate to successfully accomplish the 
objectives stated in the application.
    (c) Permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set 
forth in part 13 of this subchapter, every permit issued under this 
section shall be subject to the following special conditions:
    (1) If requested, the permittee shall submit to the Director a 
written report of the activities authorized by the permit. Such report 
must be postmarked by the date specified in the permit or otherwise 
requested by the Director.
    (2) A copy of the permit or an identification label, which includes 
the scientific name, the permit number, and a statement that the plant 
is of ``wild orgin'' or ``cultivated origin'' must accompany the plant 
or its container during the course of any activity subject to these 
regulations, unless the specimens meet the special conditions referred 
to in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
    (3) In the case of plants that are herbarium specimens, or other 
preserved, dried, or embedded museum specimens to be imported or 
exported as a noncommercial loan exchange or donation between scientists 
or scientific institutions, the names and addresses of the consignor and 
consignee must be on each package or container. A description such as 
``herbarium specimens'' and the code letters assigned by the Service to 
the scientist or scientific institution must be entered on the Customs 
declaration form affixed to each package or container. If the specimens 
are of taxa also regulated by the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the letters ``CITES'' 
(acronym for the convention) also must be entered on the Customs 
declaration form as indicated in Sec.  23.15(e)(3) of this subchapter.
    (d) Duration of permit. The duration of a permit issued under this 
section shall be designated on the face of the permit.

[42 FR 32380, June 24, 1977, as amended at 50 FR 39691, Sept. 30, 1985; 
63 FR 52636, Oct. 1, 1998]

[[Page 150]]



Sec. Sec.  17.73-17.78  [Reserved]



                   Subpart H_Experimental Populations

    Source: 49 FR 33893, Aug. 27, 1984, unless otherwise noted.



Sec.  17.80  Definitions.

    (a) The term experimental population means an introduced and/or 
designated population (including any off-spring arising solely 
therefrom) that has been so designated in accordance with the procedures 
of this subpart but only when, and at such times as the population is 
wholly separate geographically from nonexperimental populations of the 
same species. Where part of an experimental population overlaps with 
natural populations of the same species on a particular occasion, but is 
wholly separate at other times, specimens of the experimental population 
will not be recognized as such while in the area of overlap. That is, 
experimental status will only be recognized outside the areas of 
overlap. Thus, such a population shall be treated as experimental only 
when the times of geographic separation are reasonably predictable; 
e.g., fixed migration patterns, natural or man-made barriers. A 
population is not treated as experimental if total separation will occur 
solely as a result of random and unpredictable events.
    (b) The term essential experimental population means an experimental 
population whose loss would be likely to appreciably reduce the 
likelihood of the survival of the species in the wild. All other 
experimental populations are to be classified as nonessential.



Sec.  17.81  Listing.

    (a) The Secretary may designate as an experimental population a 
population of endangered or threatened species that has been or will be 
released into suitable natural habitat outside the species' current 
natural range (but within its probable historic range, absent a finding 
by the Director in the extreme case that the primary habitat of the 
species has been unsuitably and irreversibly altered or destroyed), 
subject to the further conditions specified in this section; provided, 
that all designations of experimental populations must proceed by 
regulation adopted in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and the requirements 
of this subpart.
    (b) Before authorizing the release as an experimental population of 
any population (including eggs, propagules, or individuals) of an 
endangered or threatened species, and before authorizing any necessary 
transportation to conduct the release, the Secretary must find by 
regulation that such release will further the conservation of the 
species. In making such a finding the Secretary shall utilize the best 
scientific and commercial data available to consider:
    (1) Any possible adverse effects on extant populations of a species 
as a result of removal of individuals, eggs, or propagules for 
introduction elsewhere;
    (2) The likelihood that any such experimental population will become 
established and survive in the foreseeable future;
    (3) The relative effects that establishment of an experimental 
population will have on the recovery of the species; and
    (4) The extent to which the introduced population may be affected by 
existing or anticipated Federal or State actions or private activities 
within or adjacent to the experimental population area.

The Secretary may issue a permit under section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Act, 
if appropriate under the standards set out in subsections 10(d) and (j) 
of the Act, to allow acts necessary for the establishment and 
maintenance of an experimental population.
    (c) Any regulation promulgated under paragraph (a) of this section 
shall provide:
    (1) Appropriate means to identify the experimental population, 
including, but not limited to, its actual or proposed location, actual 
or anticipated migration, number of specimens released or to be 
released, and other criteria appropriate to identify the experimental 
population(s);
    (2) A finding, based solely on the best scientific and commercial 
data available, and the supporting factual basis,

[[Page 151]]

on whether the experimental population is, or is not, essential to the 
continued existence of the species in the wild;
    (3) Management restrictions, protective measures, or other special 
management concerns of that population, which may include but are not 
limited to, measures to isolate and/or contain the experimental 
population designated in the regulation from natural populations; and
    (4) A process for periodic review and evaluation of the success or 
failure of the release and the effect of the release on the conservation 
and recovery of the species.
    (d) The Fish and Wildlife Service shall consult with appropriate 
State fish and wildlife agencies, local governmental entities, affected 
Federal agencies, and affected private landowners in developing and 
implementing experimental population rules. When appropriate, a public 
meeting will be conducted with interested members of the public. Any 
regulation promulgated pursuant to this section shall, to the maximum 
extent practicable, represent an agreement between the Fish and Wildlife 
Service, the affected State and Federal agencies and persons holding any 
interest in land which may be affected by the establishment of an 
experimental population.
    (e) Any population of an endangered species or a threatened species 
determined by the Secretary to be an experimental population in 
accordance with this subpart shall be identified by special rule in 
Sec. Sec.  17.84-17.86 as appropriate and separately listed in Sec.  
17.11(h) (wildlife) or Sec.  17.12(h) (plants) as appropriate.
    (f) The Secretary may designate critical habitat as defined in 
section (3)(5)(A) of the Act for an essential experimental population as 
determined pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Any designation 
of critical habitat for an essential experimental population will be 
made in accordance with section 4 of the Act. No designation of critical 
habitat will be made for nonessential populations. In those situations 
where a portion or all of an essential experimental population overlaps 
with a natural population of the species during certain periods of the 
year, no critical habitat shall be designated for the area of overlap 
unless implemented as a revision to critical habitat of the natural 
population for reasons unrelated to the overlap itself.



Sec.  17.82  Prohibitions.

    Any population determined by the Secretary to be an experimental 
population shall be treated as if it were listed as a threatened species 
for purposes of establishing protective regulations under section 4(d) 
of the Act with respect to such population. The Special rules 
(protective regulations) adopted for an experimental population under 
Sec.  17.81 will contain applicable prohibitions, as appropriate, and 
exceptions for that population.



Sec.  17.83  Interagency cooperation.

    (a) Any experimental population designated for a listed species (1) 
determined pursuant to Sec.  17.81(c)(2) of this subpart not to be 
essential to the survival of that species and (2) not occurring within 
the National Park System or the National Wildlife Refuge System, shall 
be treated for purposes of section 7 (other than subsection (a)(1) 
thereof) as a species proposed to be listed under the Act as a 
threatened species.
    (b) Any experimental population designated for a listed species that 
either (1) has been determined pursuant to Sec.  17.81(c)(2) of this 
subpart to be essential to the survival of that species, of (2) occurs 
within the National Park System or the National Wildlife Refuge System 
as now or hereafter constituted, shall be treated for purposes of 
section 7 of the Act as a threatened species. Notwithstanding the 
foregoing, any biological opinion prepared pursuant to section 7(b) of 
the Act and any agency determination made pursuant to section 7(a) of 
the Act shall consider any experimental and nonexperimental populations 
to constitute a single listed species for the purposes of conducting the 
analyses under such sections.



Sec.  17.84  Special rules--vertebrates.

    (a) Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus). (1) 
The Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel population identified in paragraph 
(a)(6) of

[[Page 152]]

this section is a nonessential experimental population.
    (2) No person shall take this species, except:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act and in accordance 
with applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws and 
regulations; or
    (ii) Incidental to recreational activities.
    (3) Any violation of applicable State fish and wildlife conservation 
laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this species (other 
than incidental taking as described in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this 
section) will also be a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
    (4) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife laws or regulations or the Endangered Species Act.
    (5) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraph (a)(2) or (4) of this section.
    (6) The site for reintroduction of Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel 
is totally isolated from existing populations of this species. The 
nearest extant population is in the Chincoteague National Wildlife 
Refuge approximately 50 miles from the reintroduction site. The 
reintroduction site is within the historic range of this species and is 
located at the Assawoman Wildlife Area, Sussex County, Delaware. 
Observation of previous releases have shown that fox squirrels have not 
traveled more than 2 or 3 miles from release sites, therefore, the 
possibility of this population contacting extant wild populations is 
unlikely.
    (7) The reintroduced population will be checked periodically to 
determine its condition and the success of the reintroduction. Of 
special concern will be the establishment of breeding pairs and the 
reproductive success of the population. The movement patterns of the 
released individuals and the overall health of the population will also 
be observed.
    (b) Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius) and woundfin 
(Plagopterus argentissimus). (1) The Colorado squawfish and woundfin 
populations identified in paragraph (b)(6) of this section, are 
experimental, nonessential populations.
    (2) No person shall take the species, except in accordance with 
applicable State or Tribal fish and wildlife conservation laws and 
regulations in the following instances:
    (i) For educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement 
of propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or
    (ii) Incidental to otherwise lawful activities, provided that the 
individual fish taken, if still alive, is immediately returned to its 
habitat.
    (3) Any violation of applicable State or Tribal fish and wildlife 
conservation laws or regulations with respect to the taking of this 
species (other than incidental taking as described in paragraph 
(b)(2)(ii) of this section) will also be a violation of the Endangered 
Species Act.
    (4) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export, by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State or 
Tribal fish and wildlife laws or regulations.
    (5) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (b) (2) through (4) of this section.
    (6) All of the sites for reintroduction of Colorado squawfish and 
woundfin are totally isolated from existing populations of these 
species. The nearest population of Colorado squawfish is above Lake 
Powell in the Green and Colorado Rivers, an upstream distance of at 
least 800 miles including 6 mainstream dams, and 200 miles of dry 
riverbed. Woundfin are similarly isolated (450 miles distant, 200 miles 
of dry streambed and 5 mainstream dams). All reintroduction sites are 
within the probable historic range of these species and are as follows:


[[Page 153]]



                           Colorado Squawfish

    (i) Arizona: Gila County. Salt River from Roosevelt Dam upstream to 
U.S Highway 60 bridge.
    (ii) Arizona: Gila and Yavapai Counties. Verde River from Horseshoe 
Dam upstream to Perkinsville.
    The lower segments of large streams which flow into these two 
sections of river may, from time to time, be inhabited by Colorado 
squawfish. Downstream movement of squawfish in these areas will be 
restricted by dams and upstream movement is limited by lack of suitable 
habitat.

                                Woundfin

    (i) Arizona: Gila and Yavapai Counties. Verde River from backwaters 
of Horseshoe Reservoir upstream to Perkinsville.
    (ii) Arizona: Graham and Greenlee Counties. Gila River from 
backwaters of San Carlos Reservoir upstream to Arizona/New Mexico State 
line.
    (iii) Arizona: Greenlee County. San Francisco River from its 
junction with the Gila River upstream to the Arizona/New Mexico State 
line.
    (iv) Arizona: Gila County. Tonto Creek, from Punkin Center upstream 
to Gisela.
    (v) Arizona: Yavapai County. Hassayampa River, from Red Cliff 
upstream to Wagoner.
    The movement of woundfin beyond these areas will be limited to the 
lower portion of larger tributaries where suitable habitat exists. 
Downstream movement is limited by dams, reservoirs, and dry streambed. 
Upstream movement from these areas is restricted due to the absence of 
habitat. Upstream areas are too cold and the gradient is too steep to 
support populations of woundfin.

    (7) The reintroduced populations will be checked annually to 
determine their condition. A seining survey will be used to determine 
population expansion or contraction, reproduction success, and general 
health condition of the fish.
    (c) Red wolf (Canis rufus). (1) The red wolf populations identified 
in paragraphs (c)(9)(i) and (c)(9)(ii) of this section are nonessential 
experimental populations.
    (2) No person may take this species, except as provided in 
paragraphs (c)(3) through (5) and (10) of this section.
    (3) Any person with a valid permit issued by the Service under Sec.  
17.32 may take red wolves for educational purposes, scientific purposes, 
the enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, zoological 
exhibition, and other conservation purposes consistent with the Act and 
in accordance with applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws 
and regulations;
    (4)(i) Any person may take red wolves found on private land in the 
areas defined in paragraphs (c)(9) (i) and (ii) of this section, 
Provided that such taking is not intentional or willful, or is in 
defense of that person's own life or the lives of others; and that such 
taking is reported within 24 hours to the refuge manager (for the red 
wolf population defined in paragraph (c)(9)(i) of this section), the 
Park superintendent (for the red wolf population defined in paragraph 
(c)(9)(ii) of this section), or the State wildlife enforcement officer 
for investigation.
    (ii) Any person may take red wolves found on lands owned or managed 
by Federal, State, or local government agencies in the areas defined in 
paragraphs (c)(9) (i) and (ii) of this section, Provided that such 
taking is incidental to lawful activities, is unavoidable, 
unintentional, and not exhibiting a lack of reasonable due care, or is 
in defense of that person's own life or the lives of others, and that 
such taking is reported within 24 hours to the refuge manager (for the 
red wolf population defined in paragraph (c)(9)(i) of this section), the 
Park superintendent (for the red wolf population defined in paragraph 
(c)(9)(ii) of this section), or the State wildlife enforcement officer 
for investigation.
    (iii) Any private landowner, or any other individual having his or 
her permission, may take red wolves found on his or her property in the 
areas defined in paragraphs (c)(9) (i) and (ii) of this section when the 
wolves are in the act of killing livestock or pets, Provided that 
freshly wounded or killed livestock or pets are evident and that all 
such taking shall be reported within 24 hours to the refuge manager (for 
the red wolf population defined in paragraph (c)(9)(i) of this section), 
the Park superintendent (for the red wolf population defined in 
paragraph (c)(9)(ii) of this section), or the State wildlife enforcement 
officer for investigation.
    (iv) Any private landowner, or any other individual having his or 
her permission, may harass red wolves found on his or her property in 
the areas defined in paragraphs (c)(9) (i) and (ii) of

[[Page 154]]

this section, Provided that all such harassment is by methods that are 
not lethal or physically injurious to the red wolf and is reported 
within 24 hours to the refuge manager (for the red wolf population 
defined in paragraph (c)(9)(i) of this section), the Park superintendent 
(for the red wolf population defined in paragraph (c)(9)(ii) of this 
section), or the State wildlife enforcement officer, as noted in 
paragraph (c)(6) of this section for investigation.
    (v) Any private landowner may take red wolves found on his or her 
property in the areas defined in paragraphs (c)(9) (i) and (ii) of this 
section after efforts by project personnel to capture such animals have 
been abandoned, Provided that the Service project leader or biologist 
has approved such actions in writing and all such taking shall be 
reported within 24 hours to the Service project leader or biologist, the 
refuge manager (for the red wolf population defined in paragraph 
(c)(9)(i) of this section), the Park superintendent (for the red wolf 
population defined in paragraph (c)(9)(ii) of this section), or the 
State wildlife enforcement officer for investigation.
    (vi) The provisions of paragraphs (4) (i) through (v) of this 
section apply to red wolves found in areas outside the areas defined in 
paragraphs (c)(9) (i) and (ii) of this section, with the exception that 
reporting of taking or harassment to the refuge manager, Park 
superintendent, or State wildlife enforcement officer, while encouraged, 
is not required.
    (5) Any employee or agent of the Service or State conservation 
agency who is designated for such purposes, when acting in the course of 
official duties, may take a red wolf if such action is necessary to:
    (i) Aid a sick, injured, or orphaned specimen;
    (ii) Dispose of a dead specimen, or salvage a dead specimen which 
may be useful for scientific study;
    (iii) Take an animal that constitutes a demonstrable but non-
immediate threat to human safety or that is responsible for depredations 
to lawfully present domestic animals or other personal property, if it 
has not been possible to otherwise eliminate such depredation or loss of 
personal property, Provided That such taking must be done in a humane 
manner, and may involve killing or injuring the animal only if it has 
not been possible to eliminate such threat by live capturing and 
releasing the specimen unharmed on the refuge or Park;
    (iv) Move an animal for genetic purposes.
    (6) Any taking pursuant to paragraphs (c) (3) through (5) of this 
section must be immediately reported to either the Refuge Manager, 
Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Manteo, North Carolina, 
telephone 919/473-1131, or the Superintendent, Great Smoky Mountains 
National Park, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, telephone 615/436-1294. Either of 
these persons will determine disposition of any live or dead specimens.
    (7) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable State fish 
and wildlife laws or regulations or the Endangered Species Act.
    (8) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (c) (2) through (7) of this section.
    (9)(i) The Alligator River reintroduction site is within the 
historic range of the species in North Carolina, in Dare, Hyde, Tyrrell, 
and Washington Counties; because of its proximity and potential 
conservation value, Beaufort County is also included in the experimental 
population designation.
    (ii) The red wolf also historically occurred on lands that now 
comprise the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The Park encompasses 
properties within Haywood and Swain Counties in North Carolina, and 
Blount, Cocke, and Sevier Counties in Tennessee. Graham, Jackson, and 
Madison Counties in North Carolina, and Monroe County in Tennessee, are 
also included in the experimental designation because of the close 
proximity of these counties to the Park boundary.
    (iii) Except for the three island propagation projects and these 
small reintroduced populations, the red wolf is extirpated from the 
wild. Therefore,

[[Page 155]]

there are no other extant populations with which the refuge or Park 
experimental populations could come into contact.
    (10) The reintroduced populations will be monitored closely for the 
duration of the project, generally using radio telemetry as appropriate. 
All animals released or captured will be vaccinated against diseases 
prevalent in canids prior to release. Any animal that is determined to 
be in need of special care or that moves onto lands where the landowner 
requests their removal will be recaptured, if possible, by Service and/
or Park Service and/or designated State wildlife agency personnel and 
will be given appropriate care. Such animals will be released back into 
the wild as soon as possible, unless physical or behavioral problems 
make it necessary to return the animals to a captive-breeding facility.
    (11) The status of the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge 
project will be reevaluated by October 1, 1992, to determine future 
management status and needs. This review will take into account the 
reproductive success of the mated pairs, movement patterns of individual 
animals, food habits, and overall health of the population. The duration 
of the first phase of the Park project is estimated to be 10 to 12 
months. After that period, an assessment of the reintroduction potential 
of the Park for red wolves will be made. If a second phase of 
reintroduction is attempted, the duration of that phase will be better 
defined during the assessment. However, it is presently thought that a 
second phase would last for 3 years, after which time the red wolf would 
be treated as a resident species within the Park. Throughout these 
periods, the experimental and nonessential designation of the animals 
will remain in effect.
    (d) Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). (1) Definitions. The 
definitions set out in Sec.  17.3 apply to this paragraph (d). For 
purposes of this paragraph--
    (i) The term defense-related agency action means an agency action 
proposed to be carried out directly by a military department, which does 
not have as its intended purpose the taking of southern sea otters. For 
purposes of this definition, the United States Coast Guard is not a 
military department.
    (ii) The term management zone means that area delineated in 
paragraph (d)(5)(i) of this section which surrounds the translocation 
zone and separates the translocation zone from the existing range of the 
parent population and adjacent range where expansion of the parent 
population is necessary for the recovery of southern sea otters.
    (iii) The term member of the experimental population of southern sea 
otters includes any southern sea otter, alive or dead, found within the 
translocation zone or the management zone, and any part or product of 
any such southern sea otter.
    (iv) The term parent population means the population of southern sea 
otters existing along the central California coast north of the 
management zone.
    (v) The term translocation zone means the area delineated in 
paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section within which an experimental 
population of southern sea otters is released and contained.
    (vi) The term established experimental population of southern sea 
otters means a translocated population that meets the following 
criteria: An estimated combined minimum of 150 healthy male and female 
sea otters residing within the translocation zone, little or no 
emigration into the management zone occurring, and a minimum annual 
recruitment to the experimental population in the translocation zone of 
20 sea otters for at least 3 years of the latest 5-year period, or 
replacement yield sufficient to maintain the experimental population at 
or near carrying capacity during the post-establishment and growth phase 
or carrying capacity phase of the experimental population.
    (vii) The term stabilized population is a population of sea otters 
within the translocation zone at the conclusion of the movement of 
animals from the parent population, except for purposes of genetic 
enhancement, which (A) is equal to or greater than the number of otters 
that were released from the holding pens alive and healthy, or 70 
otters, whichever is less, and (B) is exhibiting growth. A stabilized 
population would represent the point at which the experimental 
population shifts from the transplant stage to the

[[Page 156]]

initial growth and reestablishment stage.
    (viii) The term carrying capacity means the ecological state in 
which the numbers of sea otters within the translocation zone remain 
relatively constant and in balance with the available food supply.
    (2) Description of experimental population. The experimental 
population of southern sea otters shall include all southern sea otters 
found within the translocation zone or the management zone. The Service 
will translocate no more than 70 southern sea otters during the first 
year, supplemented as necessary with up to 70 otters per year in 
subsequent years from the parent population to the translocation zone. 
Although a maximum of 250 southern sea otters may be moved from the 
parent population in order to establish the experimental population in 
the translocation zone, it is not likely that supplemental translocation 
after the initial 70 will involve more than small numbers of southern 
sea otters, although under this plan a maximum of 70 could be moved if 
needed in each year up to a total of 250. The majority of animals 
translocated each year will be weaned, immature sea otters with a sex 
ratio of about 4 to 1, females to males. Of the adult sea otters 
selected for translocation, approximately 3 out of every 4 animals will 
be female.
    (3) Translocation process--(i) Capture. Capture locations will be 
selected primarily from the southern third of the range of the parent 
population. Sea otters will be captured using diver-held devices, dip 
nets, surface entangling nets, or other methods which may be proven to 
be safe and effective in the future. All captured otters will be tagged 
and examined by a veterinarian experienced in treating marine mammals.
    (ii) Transport. All animals to be translocated will be transported 
directly to the translocation zone or held in specially constructed 
holding facilities prior to their movement to the translocation zone. 
Access to and care of animals will be restricted to Federal and State 
personnel and designated agents directly involved with the 
translocation. Each captured animal will be placed in a carrying cage 
and transported by truck to the local airport, from which point they 
will be flown to the translocation zone. From there they will be trucked 
to the release site.
    (iii) Release. The animals will be released directly into the wild 
from their transport cages, or held for up to 5 days in secured floating 
pens at the release site. No more than 10 individuals will be held in 
any pen, and adult males will be held separately. When held in floating 
pens the animals will be released passively by opening the floating pens 
and allowing animals to leave at will.
    (iv) Monitoring. Monitoring will be conducted on both the parent 
population and the experimental population by State and Federal 
biologists and their designated agents. Monitoring the parent population 
will be done to determine the effects of removal of otters on the growth 
and range expansion or recession of the parent population. Monitoring of 
the parent population will continue at least through the translocation 
period and into the foreseeable future. Monitoring of the experimental 
population will begin with the first release of translocated otters and 
will continue at least until either the new population reaches the 
carrying capacity of the habitat and establishes an equilibrium density 
or the translocation is determined to have failed. Monitoring will 
include intensive studies of changes in key components of the nearshore 
ecosystem of the translocation zone including benthic organisms, kelp 
and finfish. Monitoring, using ground and aerial observations, will also 
include intensive observation and documentation of the movements, 
distribution, foraging and reproductive behavior, dispersal tendencies, 
growth and reproductive rates, prey selection, and social interactions 
of sea otters in the experimental population. Results of monitoring the 
experimental population and the parent population will also be compared 
and evaluated.
    (v) Protection. At least two law enforcement officers will be 
specifically assigned, at least for the initial three- to five-year 
period after the actual translocation of animals, to conduct patrols and 
prevent illegal taking of

[[Page 157]]

southern sea otters in the translocation zone. Cooperative enforcement 
arrangements will be developed with other agencies having law 
enforcement activities in the area such as the U.S. Coast Guard, 
National Marine Fisheries Service, California Department of Fish and 
Game, U.S. Navy, and National Park Service to assist with protecting the 
experimental population.
    (4) Translocation zone. (i) There is established a translocation 
zone for southern sea otters comprised of San Nicolas Island, Begg Rock, 
and the surrounding waters within the following coordinates:

                        N. Latitude/W. Longitude

33[deg]27.8[min]/119[deg]34.3[min]
33[deg]20.5[min]/119[deg]15.5[min]
33[deg]13.5[min]/119[deg]11.8[min]
33[deg]06.5[min]/119[deg]15.3[min]
33[deg]02.8[min]/119[deg]26.8[min]
33[deg]08.8[min]/119[deg]46.3[min]
33[deg]17.2[min]/119[deg]56.9[min]
33[deg]30.9[min]/119[deg]54.2[min]

    (ii) A map depicting the translocation zone is set forth below:
    [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01JN91.002
    
    (iii) Prohibitions. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(4)(iv), all 
of the provisions in Sec.  17.21 (a) through (f) shall

[[Page 158]]

apply to any member of the experimental population of southern sea 
otters within the translocation zone.
    (iv) Exceptions. The prohibitions of paragraph (d)(4)(iii) shall not 
apply to:
    (A) Any act by the Service, the California Department of Fish and 
Game, or an authorized agent of the Service or the California Department 
of Fish and Game that is necessary to effect the relocation or 
management of any southern sea otter under the provisions of this 
paragraph;
    (B) Any taking of a member of the experimental population of 
southern sea otters that is incidental to, and not the purpose of, the 
carrying out of a defense-related agency action as defined in paragraph 
(d)(1)(i) of this section; or
    (C) Any act authorized by a permit issued under Sec.  17.32.
    (5) Management zone. (i) There is established a management zone for 
southern sea otters comprised of all waters, islands, islets, and land 
areas seaward of mean high tide subject to the jurisdiction of the 
United States located south of Point Conception, California 
(34[deg]26.9[min] N. Latitude), except for any area within the 
translocation zone delineated in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section.
    (ii) A map depicting the management zone is set forth in paragraph 
(d)(4)(ii) of this section.
    (iii) Prohibitions. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(5)(iv), all 
of the provisions in Sec.  17.21 (a) through (f) shall apply to any 
member of the experimental population of southern sea otters within the 
management zone.
    (iv) Exceptions. The prohibitions of paragraph (d)(5)(iii) shall not 
apply to:
    (A) Any act by the Service, the California Department of Fish and 
Game, or an authorized agent of the Service or the California Department 
of Fish and Game that is necessary to effect the relocation or 
management of any southern sea otter under the provisions of this 
paragraph;
    (B) Any taking of a member of the experimental population of 
southern sea otters that is incidental to, and not the purpose of, the 
carrying out of an otherwise lawful activity within the management zone 
delineated in paragraph (d)(5)(i) of this section; or
    (C) Any act authorized by a permit issued under Sec.  17.32.
    (6) Containment. The following containment measures, listed in order 
of preference, will be employed to prevent significant emigration of 
southern sea otters from San Nicolas Island and occupation of habitat 
within the management zone:
    (i) Capture of animals within the management zone for return to the 
experimental population or to the range of the parent population using 
non-lethal means. If verified sightings of one or more sea otters are 
made at any location within the management zone, field crews will be 
mobilized as soon as weather and sea conditions permit, to capture and 
remove the otter(s) from the zone. Capture will be done by experienced 
State and/or Federal personnel or other designated agents, using one or 
more of the same techniques used in the translocation effort, such as 
diver-held devices; surface entangling nets; dip nets; or other 
effective methods which may be developed for capturing sea otters in the 
future. Animals either will be flown or moved by air-conditioned van to 
the release site.
    (ii) Artificial reduction of fecundity for some sea otters within 
the experimental population. [Reserved]
    (iii) Selective or random, non-lethal removal of members of the 
experimental population within the translocation zone. [Reserved]

Containment measures will be administered by the Fish and Wildlife 
Service's Office of Sea Otter Management and Coordination (OSOMC), in 
consultation and cooperation with the California Department of Fish and 
Game. The OSOMC will work closely with State biologists to remove otters 
from the management zone. Federal funding received through the normal 
appropriations process will be used for research, protection, and 
containment of the experimental population. Grants to the State of 
California under 16 U.S.C. 1535, may be employed to facilitate the 
measures outlined above. Public donations for management and containment 
of the experimental population will be accepted with assistance from the 
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

[[Page 159]]

    (7) Effects of translocation on recovery and interagency 
cooperation--(i) Background. The Recovery Plan specifically describes 
the importance of translocation to the delisting of the southern sea 
otter under the Endangered Species Act. The Plan states:

    Sea otter translocation, if properly designed and implemented, 
should provide the necessary foundation for ultimately obtaining the 
Recovery Plan's objective and restoring the southern sea otter to a non-
threatened status and maintaining OSP by: (i) Establishing a second 
colony (or colonies) sufficiently distant from the present population 
such that a smaller portion of southern sea otters will be jeopardized 
in the event of a large-scale oil spill, and (ii) establishing a data 
base for identifying the optimal sustainable population level for the 
sea otter.

Thus the translocation, and establishment of a population of sea otters 
has been identified by the Recovery Plan as a critical action necessary 
for the recovery and delisting of the species. With regard to the 
relationship of a successful translocation to the initiation of a 
delisting action under the Endangered Species Act. The Plan states:

    Delisting should be considered when the southern sea otter 
population is stable or increasing at sustainable rates in a large 
enough area of their original habitat that only a small proportion of 
the population would be decimated by any single natural or man-caused 
catastrophe. To reach this point: (1) At least one additional population 
of sea otters must be established outside the current population range, 
(2) the existing population of sea otters and its habitat must be 
protected, and (3) the threat from oil spills or other major 
environmental changes must be minimized.

The successful establishment of the experimental population to be 
carried out pursuant to this rule should fully satisfy the first 
criterion specified above from the Recovery Plan, provided that the 
parent population is showing sustained growth and expanding its range 
from its present size and distribution. However, if such growth and 
expansion is not occurring, the establishment of a single new population 
may not be sufficient to satisfy the broader criterion that the 
population must be increasing at a sustainable rate in a large enough 
area of their original habitat that only a small proportion of the 
population would be decimated by any single natural or man-caused 
catastrophe.
    (ii) Effect on recovery. The translocation will not influence the 
legal status of the species until such time as the Service determines 
that the experimental population is established. Once established, other 
factors such as the status of the parent population and completion of 
other recovery tasks will be considered. If the experimental population 
becomes established and the other recovery tasks identified in the 
recovery plan for the southern sea otter are attained, the southern sea 
otter will be eligible for consideration for delisting in accordance 
with the requirements of 50 CFR 424.11(d). If a catastrophic event were 
to significantly diminish the parent population, the size of the 
experimental population would be a factor in determining whether or not 
the southern sea otter should remain listed as ``threatened'' or 
reclassified as ``endangered,'' or if relisting should be considered if 
a delisting action had been completed.
    (iii) Effect on interagency cooperation. In determining the 
likelihood of jeopardy or non-jeopardy opinions for proposed Federal 
actions that ``may affect'' southern sea otters, the probability of 
jeopardy determinations will decrease proportionally for comparable 
projects with comparable types of impacts as the experimental population 
grows from the point of being established toward the maximum number that 
its habitat can support, i.e., carrying capacity. Thus, there is an 
inverse relationship between the size of the experimental population 
(after being determined to be established) and the probability of 
jeopardy determinations associated with section 7 consultations under 
the Endangered Species Act for projects affecting either the parent or 
the experimental population. However, the status of the experimental 
population is not the only factor to be considered in section 7 
evaluations. The status of the parent population, as well as the 
cumulative impacts, baseline level of threats, and effects of the action 
on either population, will also be taken into account. In addition to 
considering the size of

[[Page 160]]

the experimental population, the contribution that such population could 
make toward helping restore a damaged parent population will also be a 
factor that will be considered during section 7 evaluations. For section 
7 purposes, once the translocated otters become stabilized and enter 
into the initial growth and reestablishment stage, but before meeting 
the criteria for an established population, the experimental population 
will have an existence value that will be taken into consideration both 
quantitatively and qualitatively. Its numbers will be added to those of 
the parent population for purposes of analyzing the impacts of a Federal 
action on the southern sea otter population. Moreover, during the 
initial growth and reestablishment stage, as part of the analysis of the 
impacts on the population as a whole, the impacts of proposed Federal 
actions will be analyzed to clearly determine the relative risk to each 
of the two populations (parent population and the experimental 
population).
    (8) Determination of a failed translocation. The translocation would 
generally be considered to have failed if one or more of the following 
conditions exists:
    (i) If, after the first year following initiation of translocation 
or any subsequent year, no translocated otters remain within the 
translocation zone and the reasons for emigration or mortality cannot be 
identified and/or remedied;
    (ii) If, within three years from the initial transplant, fewer than 
25 otters remain in the translocation zone and the reason for emigration 
or mortality cannot be identified and/or remedied;
    (iii) If, after two years following the completion of the transplant 
phase, the experimental population is declining at a significant rate 
and the translocated otters are not showing signs of successful 
reproduction (i.e., no pupping is observed); however, termination of the 
project under this and the previous criterion may be delayed if 
reproduction is occurring and the degree of dispersal into the 
management zone is small enough that the efforts to continue to remove 
otters from the management zone are acceptable to the Service and 
California Department of Fish and Game;
    (iv) If the Service determines, in consultation with the affected 
State and Marine Mammal Commission, that otters are dispersing from the 
translocation zone and becoming established within the management zone 
in sufficient numbers to demonstrate that containment cannot be 
successfully accomplished. This standard is not intended to apply to 
situations in which individuals or small numbers of otters are sighted 
within the management zone or temporarily manage to elude capture. 
Instead, it is meant to be applied when it becomes apparent that, over 
time, otters are relocating from the translocation zone to the 
management zone in such numbers that: (A) An independent breeding colony 
is likely to become established within the management zone, or (B) they 
could cause economic damage to fishery resources within the management 
zone. It is expected that the Service could make this determination 
within a year provided sufficient information is available;
    (v) If the health and well-being of the experimental population 
should become threatened to the point that the colony's continued 
survival is unlikely, despite the protections given to it by the 
Service, State, and applicable laws and regulations. An example would be 
if an overriding military action for national security was proposed that 
would threaten to devastate the colony and removal of the otters was 
determined to be the only viable way of preventing the loss of the 
individuals.
    (vi) If, based on any one of these criteria, the Service concludes, 
after consultation with the affected State and Marine Mammal Commission, 
that the translocation has failed to produce a viable, contained 
experimental population, this rulemaking will be amended to terminate 
the experimental population, and all otters remaining within the 
translocation zone will be captured and all healthy otters will be 
placed back into the range of the parent population. Efforts to maintain 
the management zone free of otters will be curtailed after all 
reasonable efforts have been made to remove all otters that are still 
within the management zone

[[Page 161]]

at the time of the decision to terminate the translocated population. A 
joint State-Service consultation will determine when all reasonable 
efforts have been made and additional efforts would be futile.
    (vii) Prior to declaring the translocation a failure, a full 
evaluation will be conducted into the probable causes of the failure. If 
the causes could be determined, and legal and reasonable remedial 
measures identified and implemented, consideration will be given to 
continuing to maintain the translocated population. If such reasonable 
measures cannot be identified and implemented, the results of the 
evaluation will be published in the Federal Register with a proposed 
rulemaking to terminate the experimental population.
    (e) Yellowfin madtom (Noturus flavipinnis). (1) Where is the 
yellowfin madtom designated as a nonessential experimental population 
(NEP)? We have designated two populations of this species as NEPs: the 
North Fork Holston River Watershed NEP and the Tellico River NEP.
    (i) The North Fork Holston River Watershed NEP area is within the 
species' historic range and is defined as follows: The North Fork 
Holston River watershed, Washington, Smyth, and Scott Counties, 
Virginia; South Fork Holston River watershed upstream to Ft. Patrick 
Henry Dam, Sullivan County, Tennessee; and the Holston River from the 
confluence of the North and South Forks downstream to the John Sevier 
Detention Lake Dam, Hawkins County, Tennessee. This site is totally 
isolated from existing populations of this species by large Tennessee 
River tributaries and reservoirs. As the species is not known to inhabit 
reservoirs and because individuals of the species are not likely to move 
100 river miles through these large reservoirs, the possibility that 
this population could come in contact with extant wild populations is 
unlikely.
    (ii) The Tellico River NEP area is within the species' historic 
range and is defined as follows: The Tellico River, between the 
backwaters of the Tellico Reservoir (approximately Tellico River mile 19 
(30.4 kilometers) and Tellico River mile 33 (52.8 kilometers), near the 
Tellico Ranger Station, Monroe County, Tennessee. This species is not 
currently known to exist in the Tellico River or its tributaries. Based 
on its habitat requirements, we do not expect this species to become 
established outside this NEP area. However, if individuals of this 
population move upstream or downstream or into tributaries outside the 
designated NEP area, we would presume that they came from the 
reintroduced population. We would then amend this rule and enlarge the 
boundaries of the NEP area to include the entire range of the expanded 
population.
    (2) We do not intend to change the NEP designations to ``essential 
experimental,'' ``threatened,'' or ``endangered'' within the NEP areas. 
Additionally, we will not designate critical habitat for these NEPs, as 
provided by 16 U.S.C. 1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (3) What activities are not allowed in the NEP areas?
    (i) Except as expressly allowed in paragraph (e)(4) of this section, 
all the prohibitions of Sec.  17.31 (a) and (b) apply to the fishes 
identified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.
    (ii) Any manner of take not described under paragraph (e)(4) of this 
section is prohibited in the NEP area. We may refer unauthorized take of 
these fishes to the appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (iii) You may not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever any of the identified fishes, 
or parts thereof, that are taken or possessed in violation of paragraph 
(e)(3) of this section or in violation of the applicable State fish and 
wildlife laws or regulations or the Act.
    (iv) You may not attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or 
cause to be committed any offense defined in paragraph (e)(3) of this 
section.
    (4) What take is allowed in the NEP area? Take of this species that 
is incidental to an otherwise legal activity, such as recreation (e.g., 
fishing, boating, wading, trapping, or swimming), forestry, agriculture, 
and other activities that are in accordance with Federal, State, and 
local laws and regulations, is allowed.
    (5) How will the effectiveness of these reintroductions be 
monitored? We will

[[Page 162]]

prepare periodic progress reports and fully evaluate these 
reintroduction efforts after 5 and 10 years to determine whether to 
continue or terminate the reintroduction efforts.
    (6) Note: Map of the NEP area for the yellowfin madtom in the 
Tellico River, Tennessee, appears immediately following paragraph (m)(5) 
of this section.
    (f) Guam Rail (Rallus owstoni). (1) The Guam rail population 
identified in paragraph (f)(7) of this section is a nonessential 
experimental population.
    (2) No person shall take this species, except:
    (i) In accordance with a valid permit issued by the Service under 
Sec.  17.32 for educational purposes, scientific purposes, the 
enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, zoological 
exhibition, and other conservation purposes consistent with the Act; or
    (ii) As authorized by the laws and regulations of the Commonwealth 
of the Northern Mariana Islands, after the Service has made the 
determination that the experimental population has become well 
established and occupies all suitable habitat island-wide.
    (3) Any employee of the Service, the Commonwealth of the Northern 
Mariana Islands Division of Fish and Wildlife, or the Guam Division of 
Aquatic and Wildlife Resources who is designated for such purposes, may, 
when acting in the course of official duties, take a Guam rail without a 
permit if such action is necessary to:
    (i) Aid a sick, injured, or orphaned specimen;
    (ii) Dispose of a dead specimen;
    (iii) Salvage a dead specimen that may be useful for scientific 
study; or
    (iv) Take an animal that is responsible for depredations to personal 
property if it has not been possible to otherwise eliminate such 
depredations and/or loss of personal property, provided that such taking 
must be done in a humane manner and may involve injuring or killing the 
bird only if it has not been possible to eliminate depredations by live 
capturing and releasing the specimen unharmed in other suitable 
habitats.
    (4) Any violation of applicable commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
Islands fish and wildlife conservation laws or regulations with respect 
to the taking of this species (other than taking as described in 
paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section) will also be a violation of the 
Endangered Species Act.
    (5) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations or in violation of applicable 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands fish and wildlife laws or 
regulations or the Endangered Species Act.
    (6) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (f) (2) through (5) of this section.
    (7) The sites for introduction of Guam rails on Rota, Commonwealth 
of the Northern Mariana Islands, are on an island separated from Guam by 
50 kilometers of ocean. The last known observation of an individual of 
this species occurred near the northern tip of Guam, which is closest to 
the island of Rota. No intermingling of these populations will occur 
since this species has been extirpated in the wild on Guam. The Rota 
release sites are of necessity outside the historic range of the Guam 
rail, as described in this regulation, because its primary range has 
been unsuitably and irreversibly destroyed by the brown tree snake.
    (8) The nonessential experimental population on Rota will be checked 
periodically by staff of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
Islands Division of Fish and Wildlife and cooperating staff from the 
University of Tennessee to determine dispersal patterns, mortality, and 
reproductive success. The overall success of the releases and general 
health of the population will also be assessed.
    (g) Black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). (1) The black-footed 
ferret populations identified in paragraph (g)(9)(i) through (vii) of 
this section are nonessential experimental populations. We will manage 
each of these populations in accordance with their respective management 
plans.
    (2) No person may take this species in the wild in the experimental 
population area, except as provided in paragraphs (g)(3), (4), (5), and 
(10) of this section.

[[Page 163]]

    (3) Any person with a valid permit issued by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service (Service) under section 17.32 may take black-footed 
ferrets in the wild in the experimental population areas.
    (4) Any employee or agent of the Service or appropriate State 
wildlife agency designated for such purposes, acting in the course of 
official duties, may take a black-footed ferret in the wild in the 
experimental population areas if such action is necessary:
    (i) For scientific purposes;
    (ii) To relocate a ferret to avoid conflict with human activities;
    (iii) To relocate a ferret that has moved outside the Little Snake 
Black-footed Ferret Management Area/Coyote Basin Primary Management Zone 
or the Rosebud Sioux Reservation Experimental Population Area when that 
relocation is necessary to protect the ferret or is requested by an 
affected landowner or land manager, or whose removal is requested 
pursuant to paragraph (g)(12) of this section.
    (iv) To relocate ferrets within the experimental population area to 
improve ferret survival and recovery prospects;
    (v) To relocate ferrets from the experimental population areas into 
other ferret reintroduction areas or captivity;
    (vi) To aid a sick, injured, or orphaned animal; or
    (vii) To salvage a dead specimen for scientific purposes.
    (5) A person may take a ferret in the wild within the experimental 
population areas, provided such take is incidental to and not the 
purpose of, the carrying out of an otherwise lawful activity and if such 
ferret injury or mortality was unavoidable, unintentional, and did not 
result from negligent conduct. Such conduct is not considered 
intentional or ``knowing take'' for the purposes of this regulation, and 
the Service will not take legal action for such conduct. However, we 
will refer cases of knowing take to the appropriate authorities for 
prosecution.
    (6) You must report any taking pursuant to paragraphs (g)(3), 
(4)(vi) and (vii), and (5) of this section to the appropriate Service 
Field Supervisor, who will determine the disposition of any live or dead 
specimens.
    (i) Report such taking in the Shirley Basin/Medicine Bow 
experimental population area to the Field Supervisor, Ecological 
Services, Fish and Wildlife Service, Cheyenne, Wyoming (telephone: 307/
772-2374).
    (ii) Report such taking in the Conata Basin/Badlands experimental 
population area to the Field Supervisor, Ecological Services, Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Pierre, South Dakota (telephone: 605/224-8693).
    (iii) Report such taking in the northcentral Montana experimental 
population area to the Field Supervisor, Ecological Services, Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Helena, Montana (telephone: 406/449-5225).
    (iv) Report such taking in the Aubrey Valley experimental population 
area to the Field Supervisor, Ecological Services, Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Phoenix, Arizona (telephone: 602/640-2720).
    (v) Report such taking in the northwestern Colorado/northeastern 
Utah experimental population area to the appropriate Field Supervisor, 
Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lakewood, Colorado 
(telephone: 303/275-2370), or Salt Lake City, Utah (telephone: 801/524-
5001).
    (vi) Report such taking in the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe 
Experimental Population Area to the Field Supervisor, Ecological 
Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pierre, South Dakota 
(telephone 605/224-8693).
    (vii) Report such taking in the Rosebud Sioux Reservation 
Experimental Population Area to the Field Supervisor, Ecological 
Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pierre, South Dakota 
(telephone 605/224-8693).
    (7) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any ferret or part thereof 
from the experimental populations taken in violation of these 
regulations or in violation of applicable State fish and wildlife laws 
or regulations or the Endangered Species Act.
    (8) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to commit, any offense defined in paragraphs 
(g)(2) and (7) of this section.

[[Page 164]]

    (9) The sites for reintroduction of black-footed ferrets are within 
the historical range of the species.
    (i) We consider the Shirley Basin/Medicine Bow Management Area on 
the attached map of Wyoming to be the core recovery area for this 
species in southeastern Wyoming. The boundaries of the nonessential 
experimental population are that part of Wyoming south and east of the 
North Platte River within Natrona, Carbon, and Albany Counties (see 
Wyoming map). All marked ferrets found in the wild within these 
boundaries prior to the first breeding season following the first year 
of releases constituted the nonessential experimental population during 
this period. All ferrets found in the wild within these boundaries 
during and after the first breeding season following the first year of 
releases comprise the nonessential experimental population, thereafter.
    (ii) We consider the Conata Basin/Badlands Reintroduction Area on 
the attached map for South Dakota to be the core recovery area for this 
species in southwestern South Dakota. The boundaries of the nonessential 
experimental population area occur north of State Highway 44 and BIA 
Highway 2 east of the Cheyenne River and BIA Highway 41, south of I-90, 
and west of State Highway 73 within Pennington, Shannon, and Jackson 
Counties, South Dakota. Any black-footed ferret found in the wild within 
these boundaries is part of the nonessential experimental population 
after the first breeding season following the first year of releases of 
black-footed ferret in the Reintroduction Area. A black-footed ferret 
occurring outside the experimental population area in South Dakota is 
considered as endangered but may be captured for genetic testing. We 
will dispose of the captured animal in one of the following ways if 
necessary:
    (A) We may return an animal genetically related to the experimental 
population to the Reintroduction Area or to a captive facility.
    (B) Under an existing contingency plan, we will use up to nine 
black-footed ferrets genetically unrelated to the experimental 
population in the captive-breeding program. If a landowner outside the 
experimental population area wishes to retain black-footed ferrets on 
his property, we will develop a conservation agreement or easement with 
the landowner.
    (iii) We consider the Northcentral Montana Reintroduction Area shown 
on the attached map for Montana to be the core recovery area for this 
species in northcentral Montana. The boundaries of the nonessential 
experimental population are those parts of Phillips and Blaine Counties, 
Montana, described as the area bounded on the north beginning at the 
northwest corner of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation on the Milk 
River; east following the Milk River to the east Phillips County line; 
then south along said line to the Missouri River; then west along the 
Missouri River to the west boundary of Phillips County; then north along 
said county line to the west boundary of Fort Belknap Indian 
Reservation; then further north along said boundary to the point of 
origin at the Milk River. All marked ferrets found in the wild within 
these boundaries prior to the first breeding season following the first 
year of releases constituted the nonessential experimental population 
during this period. All ferrets found in the wild within these 
boundaries during and after the first breeding season following the 
first year of releases comprise the nonessential experimental population 
thereafter. A black-footed ferret occurring outside the experimental 
area in Montana is initially considered as endangered but may be 
captured for genetic testing. We will dispose of the captured animal in 
one of the following ways if necessary:
    (A) We may return an animal genetically related to the experimental 
population to the reintroduction area or to a captive facility.
    (B) Under an existing contingency plan, we will use up to nine 
black-footed ferrets genetically unrelated to the experimental 
population in the captive-breeding program. If a landowner outside the 
experimental population area wishes to retain black-footed ferrets on 
his property, we will develop a conservation agreement or easement with 
the landowner.
    (iv) We consider the Aubrey Valley Experimental Population Area 
shown

[[Page 165]]

on the attached map for Arizona to be the core recovery area for this 
species in northwestern Arizona. The boundary of the nonessential 
experimental population area is those parts of Coconino, Mohave, and 
Yavapai Counties that include the Aubrey Valley west of the Aubrey 
Cliffs, starting from Chino Point, north along the crest of the Aubrey 
cliffs to the Supai Road (State Route 18), southwest along the Supai 
Road to Township 26 North, then west to Range 11 West, then south to the 
Hualapai Indian Reservation boundary, then east and northeast along the 
Hualapai Indian Reservation boundary to U.S. Highway Route 66; then 
southeast along Route 66 for approximately 6 km (2.3 miles) to a point 
intercepting the east boundary of section 27, Township 25 North, Range 9 
West; then south along a line to where the Atchison-Topeka Railroad 
enters Yampa Divide Canyon; then southeast along the Atchison-Topeka 
Railroad alignment to the intersection of the Range 9 West/Range 8 West 
boundary; then south to the SE corner of section 12, Township 24 North, 
Range 9 West; then southeast to SE corner section 20, Township 24 West, 
Range 8 West; then south to the SE corner section 29, Township 24 North, 
Range 8 West; then southeast to the half section point on the east 
boundary line of section 33, Township 24 North, Range 8 West; then 
northeast to the SE corner of section 27, Township 24 North, Range 8 
West; then southeast to the SE corner Section 35, Township 24 North, 
Range 8 West; then southeast to the half section point on the east 
boundary line of section 12, Township 23 North, Range 8 West; then 
southeast to the SE corner of section 8, Township 23 North, Range 7 
West; then southeast to the SE corner of section 16, Township 23 North, 
Range 7 West; then east to the half section point of the north boundary 
line of section 14, Township 23 North, Range 7 West; then south to the 
half section point on the north boundary line of section 26, Township 23 
North, Range 7 West; then east along section line to route 66; then 
southeast along route 66 to the point of origin at Chino Point. Any 
black-footed ferrets found in the wild within these boundaries is part 
of the nonessential experimental population after the first breeding 
season following the first year of releases of ferrets into the 
reintroduction area. A black-footed ferret occurring outside the 
experimental area in Arizona is initially considered as endangered but 
may be captured for genetic testing. We will dispose of the captured 
animal in one of the following ways if necessary:
    (A) We may return an animal genetically related to the experimental 
population to the reintroduction area or to a captive facility. If a 
landowner outside the experimental population area wishes to retain 
black-footed ferrets on his property, we will develop a conservation 
agreement or easement with the landowner.
    (B) Under an existing contingency plan, we will use up to nine 
black-footed ferrets genetically unrelated to the experimental 
population in the captive-breeding program. If a landowner outside the 
experimental population area wishes to retain black-footed ferrets on 
his property, we will develop a conservation agreement or easement with 
the landowner.
    (v) We consider the Little Snake Black-footed Ferret Management Area 
in Colorado and the Coyote Basin Black-footed Ferret Primary Management 
Zone in Utah as the initial recovery sites for this species within the 
Northwestern Colorado/Northeastern Utah Experimental Population Area 
(see Colorado/Utah map). The boundaries of the nonessential Experimental 
Population Area will be all of Moffat and Rio Blanco Counties in 
Colorado west of Colorado State Highway 13; all of Uintah and Duchesne 
Counties in Utah; and in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, the line between 
Range 96 and 97 West (eastern edge), Range 102 and 103 West (western 
edge), and Township 14 and 15 North (northern edge). All marked ferrets 
found in the wild within these boundaries prior to the first breeding 
season following the first year of release will constitute the 
nonessential experimental population during this period. All ferrets 
found in the wild within these boundaries during and after the first 
breeding season following the first year of releases of ferrets into the 
reintroduction area will comprise the nonessential experimental 
population thereafter. A black-

[[Page 166]]

footed ferret occurring outside the Experimental Population Area is 
initially considered as endangered but may be captured for genetic 
testing. We will dispose of the captured animal in one of the following 
ways if necessary:
    (A) We may return an animal genetically related to the experimental 
population to the Reintroduction Area or to a captive facility.
    (B) Under an existing contingency plan, we will use up to nine 
black-footed ferrets genetically unrelated to the experimental 
population in the captive-breeding program. If a landowner outside the 
experimental population area wishes to retain black-footed ferrets on 
his property, we will develop a conservation agreement or easement with 
the landowner.
    (vi) The Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Reintroduction Area is shown on 
the map of north-central South Dakota at the end of paragraph (g) of 
this section. The boundaries of the nonessential experimental population 
area are the exterior boundaries of the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation 
which includes all of Dewey and Ziebach Counties, South Dakota. Any 
black-footed ferret found in the wild within these counties will be 
considered part of the nonessential experimental population after the 
first breeding season following the first year of black-footed ferret 
release. A black-footed ferret occurring outside the Experimental 
Population Area in north-central South Dakota would initially be 
considered as endangered but may be captured for genetic testing. When a 
ferret is found outside the Experimental Population Area, the following 
may occur:
    (A) If an animal is genetically determined to have originated from 
the experimental population, we may return it to the reintroduction area 
or to a captive-breeding facility.
    (B) If an animal is determined to be genetically unrelated to the 
experimental population, we will place it in captivity under an existing 
contingency plan. Up to nine black-footed ferrets may be taken for use 
in the captive-breeding program.
    (vii) The Rosebud Sioux Reservation Experimental Population Area is 
shown on the map of south-central South Dakota at the end of paragraph 
(g) of this section. The boundaries of the nonessential experimental 
population area include all of Gregory, Mellette, Todd, and Tripp 
Counties in South Dakota. Any black-footed ferret found within these 
four counties will be considered part of the nonessential experimental 
population after the first breeding season following the first year of 
black-footed ferret release. A black-footed ferret occurring outside the 
nonessential experimental population area in south-central South Dakota 
will initially be considered as endangered but may be captured for 
genetic testing. If necessary, disposition of the captured animal may 
occur in the following ways:
    (A) If an animal is genetically determined to have originated from 
the experimental population, we may return it to the reintroduction area 
or to a captive-breeding facility.
    (B) If an animal is determined to be genetically unrelated to the 
experimental population, we will place it in captivity under an existing 
contingency plan. Up to nine black-footed ferrets may be taken for use 
in the captive-breeding program.
    (10) Monitoring the reintroduced populations will occur continually 
during the life of the project, including the use of radio telemetry and 
other remote sensing devices, as appropriate. Vaccination of all 
released animals will occur prior to release, as appropriate, to prevent 
diseases prevalent in mustelids. Any animal that is sick, injured, or 
otherwise in need of special care may be captured by authorized 
personnel of the Service or appropriate State wildlife agency or their 
agents and given appropriate care. Such an animal may be released back 
to its appropriate reintroduction area or another authorized site as 
soon as possible, unless physical or behavioral problems make it 
necessary to return the animal to captivity.
    (11) We will reevaluate the status of the experimental population 
within the first five years after the first year of release of black-
footed ferrets to determine future management needs. This review will 
take into account the reproductive success and movement patterns of the 
individuals released into the area, as well as the overall health

[[Page 167]]

of the experimental population and the prairie dog ecosystem in the 
above described areas. We will propose reclassification of the black-
footed ferret when we meet the appropriate recovery objectives for the 
species.
    (12) We will not include a reevaluation of the ``nonessential 
experimental'' designation for these populations during our review of 
the initial five year reintroduction program. We do not foresee any 
likely situation justifying alteration of the nonessential experimental 
status of these populations. Should any such alteration prove necessary 
and it results in a substantial modification to black-footed ferret 
management on non-Federal lands, any private landowner who consented to 
the introduction of black-footed ferrets on their lands may rescind 
their consent, and at their request, we will relocate the ferrets 
pursuant to paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section.
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    (h) Whooping crane (Grus americana). (1) The whooping crane 
populations identified in paragraphs (h)(9)(i) through (iii) of this 
section are nonessential experimental populations.

[[Page 174]]

    (2) No person may take this species in the wild in the experimental 
population areas except when such take is accidental and incidental to 
an otherwise lawful activity, or as provided in paragraphs (h)(3) and 
(4) of this section. Examples of otherwise lawful activities include, 
but are not limited to, agricultural practices, pesticide application, 
water management, construction, recreation, trapping, or hunting, when 
such activities are in full compliance with all applicable laws and 
regulations.
    (3) Any person with a valid permit issued by the Fish and Wildlife 
Service (Service) under Sec.  17.32 may take whooping cranes in the wild 
in the experimental population area for educational purposes, scientific 
purposes, the enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, and 
other conservation purposes consistent with the Act and in accordance 
with applicable State fish and wildlife conservation laws and 
regulations.
    (4) Any employee or agent of the Service or State wildlife agency 
who is designated for such purposes, when acting in the course of 
official duties, may take a whooping crane in the wild in the 
experimental population area if such action is necessary to:
    (i) Relocate a whooping crane to avoid conflict with human 
activities;
    (ii) Relocate a whooping crane that has moved outside the eastern 
U.S. population area identified in paragraph (h)(9)(iii) of this 
section, or the Kissimmee Prairie or Rocky Mountain range of the 
experimental populations, when removal is necessary or requested and is 
authorized by a valid permit under Sec.  17.22;
    (iii) Relocate whooping cranes within the experimental population 
areas to improve survival and recovery prospects;
    (iv) Relocate whooping cranes from the experimental population areas 
into captivity;
    (v) Aid a sick, injured, or orphaned specimen; or
    (vi) Dispose of a dead specimen, or salvage a dead specimen which 
may be useful for scientific study.
    (5) Any taking pursuant to paragraphs (h)(3) and (4) of this section 
must be immediately reported to the National Whooping Crane Coordinator, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 100, Austwell, Texas 77950 
(Phone: 361-286-3559), who, in conjunction with his counterpart in the 
Canadian Wildlife Service, will determine the disposition of any live or 
dead specimens.
    (6) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any such species from the 
experimental populations taken in violation of these regulations or in 
violation of applicable State fish and wildlife laws or regulations or 
the Endangered Species Act.
    (7) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (h) (2) through (6) of this section.
    (8) The Service will not mandate any closure of areas, including 
National Wildlife Refuges, during hunting or conservation order seasons 
or closure or modification of hunting or conservation order seasons in 
the following situations:
    (i) For the purpose of avoiding take of the nonessential 
experimental population identified in paragraph (h)(9)(iii) of this 
section;
    (ii) If a clearly marked whooping crane from the nonessential 
experimental population identified in (h)(9)(iii) wanders outside the 
designated NEP area. In these situations, the Service will attempt to 
capture the stray bird and return it to the appropriate area if removal 
is requested by the State.
    (9) All whooping cranes found in the wild within the boundaries 
listed in paragraphs (h)(9)(i) through (iii) of this section will be 
considered nonessential experimental animals. Geographic areas the 
nonessential experimental populations may inhabit include the 
following--
    (i) The entire State of Florida. The reintroduction site is the 
Kissimmee Prairie portions of Polk, Osceola, Highlands, and Okeechobee 
Counties. Current information indicates that the Kissimmee Prairie is 
within the historic range of the whooping crane in Florida.
    (A) No other natural populations of whooping cranes are likely to 
come into contact with the experimental

[[Page 175]]

population at Kissimmee Prairie. The only natural extant population, 
known as the Aransas/Wood Buffalo National Park population occurs well 
west of the Mississippi River. This population nests in the Northwest 
Territories and adjacent areas of Alberta, Canada, primarily within the 
boundaries of the Wood Buffalo National Park, and winters along the 
Central Texas Gulf of Mexico coast at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. 
The only other extant eastern U.S. population is the nonessential 
experimental population described in paragraph (h)(9)(iii) of this 
section. Remnant individuals of the Rocky Mountain nonessential 
experimental population occur in the western United States as described 
in paragraph (h)(9)(ii) of this section.
    (B) Whooping cranes adhere to ancestral breeding grounds, leaving 
little possibility that individuals from the extant Aransas/Wood Buffalo 
National Park population will stray into Florida or the Rocky Mountain 
Population. Studies of whooping cranes have shown that migration is a 
learned rather than an innate behavior. The experimental population 
released at Kissimmee Prairie is expected to remain mostly within the 
prairie region of central Florida.
    (ii) The States of Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Utah, and the 
western half of Wyoming. Wooping cranes in this area do not come in 
contact with whooping cranes of the Aransas/Wood Buffalo Population; and
    (iii) That portion of the eastern contiguous United States which 
includes the States of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, 
Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, 
Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, 
West Virginia, and Wisconsin. (See map following paragraph (h)(11) of 
this section). Whooping cranes within this population are expected to 
occur mostly within the States of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Florida, which is within the historic 
range of the whooping crane in the United States. The additional States 
included within the experimental population area are those expected to 
receive occasional use by the cranes, or which may be used as breeding 
or wintering areas in the event of future population expansion. Whooping 
cranes in this population are not expected to come in contact with 
whooping cranes of the Aransas/Wood Buffalo National Park Population.
    (10) The reintroduced populations will be monitored during the 
duration of the projects by the use of radio telemetry and other 
appropriate measures. Any animal that is determined to be sick, injured, 
or otherwise in need of special care will be recaptured to the extent 
possible by Service and/or State wildlife personnel or their designated 
agent and given appropriate care. Such animals will be released back to 
the wild as soon as possible, unless physical or behavioral problems 
make it necessary to return them to a captive breeding facility.
    (11) The status of the experimental populations will be reevaluated 
periodically to determine future management needs. This review will take 
into account the reproductive success and movement patterns of the 
individuals released within the experimental population areas.

[[Page 176]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR26JN01.031

    (i) Gray wolf (Canis lupus). (1) The gray wolves (wolf) identified 
in paragraph (i)(7) of this section are nonessential experimental. These 
wolves will be managed in accordance with the respective provisions of 
this section.
    (2) The Service finds that reintroduction of nonessential 
experimental gray wolves, as defined in (i)(7) of this section, will 
further the conservation of the species.
    (3) No person may take this species in the wild in an experimental 
population area except as provided in paragraphs (i)(3), (7), and (8) of 
this section.
    (i) Landowners on their private land and livestock producers (i.e., 
producers of cattle, sheep, horses, and mules or as defined in State and 
tribal wolf management plans as approved by the Service) that are 
legally using public land (Federal land and any other public lands 
designated in State and tribal wolf management plans as approved by the 
Service) may harass any wolf in an opportunistic (the wolf cannot be 
purposely attracted, tracked, waited for, or searched out, then 
harassed) and noninjurious (no temporary or permanent physical damage 
may result) manner at any time, Provided that such harassment is non-
lethal or is not physically injurious to the gray wolf and is reported 
within 7 days to the Service project leader for wolf reintroduction or 
agency representative designated by the Service.
    (ii) Any livestock producers on their private land may take 
(including to kill or injure) a wolf in the act of killing, wounding, or 
biting livestock (cattle, sheep, horses, and mules or as defined in 
State and tribal wolf management plans as approved by the Service), 
Provided that such incidents are to be immediately reported within 24 
hours to the Service project leader for wolf reintroduction or agency 
representative designated by the Service, and livestock freshly (less 
than 24 hours) wounded (torn flesh and bleeding) or killed by wolves 
must be evident. Service or other Service authorized agencies will 
confirm if livestock were wounded or killed by wolves. The taking of any 
wolf without such evidence may be referred to the appropriate 
authorities for prosecution.

[[Page 177]]

    (iii) Any livestock producer or permittee with livestock grazing 
allotments on public land may receive a written permit, valid for up to 
45 days, from the Service or other agencies designated by the Service, 
to take (including to kill or injure) a wolf that is in the act of 
killing, wounding, or biting livestock (cattle, sheep, horses, and mules 
or as defined in State and tribal wolf management plans as approved by 
the Service), Provided that six or more breeding pairs of wolves have 
been documented in the experimental population area and the Service or 
other agencies authorized by the Service has confirmed that the 
livestock losses were caused by wolves and have completed agency efforts 
to resolve the problem. Such take must be reported immediately within 24 
hours to the Service project leader for wolf reintroduction or agency 
representative designated by the Service. There must be evidence of 
freshly wounded or killed livestock by wolves. Service or other Service 
authorized agencies will investigate and determine if the livestock were 
wounded or killed by wolves. The taking of any wolf without such 
evidence may be referred to the appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (iv) Potentially affected States and tribes may capture and 
translocate wolves to other areas within an experimental population area 
as described in paragraph (i)(7), Provided the level of wolf predation 
is negatively impacting localized ungulate populations at an 
unacceptable level. Such translocations cannot inhibit wolf population 
recovery. The States and tribes will define such unacceptable impacts, 
how they would be measured, and identify other possible mitigation in 
their State or tribal wolf management plans. These plans must be 
approved by the Service before such movement of wolves may be conducted.
    (v) The Service, or agencies authorized by the Service, may promptly 
remove (place in captivity or kill) any wolf the Service or agency 
authorized by the Service determines to present a threat to human life 
or safety.
    (vi) Any person may harass or take (kill or injure) a wolf in self 
defense or in defense of others, Provided that such take is reported 
immediately (within 24 hours) to the Service reintroduction project 
leader or Service designated agent. The taking of a wolf without an 
immediate and direct threat to human life may be referred to the 
appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (vii) The Service or agencies designated by the Service may take 
wolves that are determined to be ``problem'' wolves. Problem wolves are 
defined as wolves that in a calendar year attack livestock (cattle, 
sheep, horses, and mules) or as defined by State and tribal wolf 
management plans approved by the Service or wolves that twice in a 
calendar year attack domestic animals (all domestic animals other than 
livestock). Authorized take includes, but is not limited to non-lethal 
measures such as: aversive conditioning, nonlethal control, and/or 
translocating wolves. Such taking may be done when five or fewer 
breeding pairs are established in an experimental population area. If 
the take results in a wolf mortality, then evidence that the mortality 
was nondeliberate, accidental, nonnegligent, and unavoidable must be 
provided. When six or more breeding pairs are established in the 
experimental population area, lethal control of problem wolves or 
permanent placement in captivity will be authorized but only after other 
methods to resolve livestock depredations have been exhausted. 
Depredations occurring on Federal lands or other public lands identified 
in State or tribal wolf management plans and prior to six breeding pairs 
becoming established in an experimental population area may result in 
capture and release of the female wolf with pups, and her pups at or 
near the site of capture prior to October 1. All wolves on private land, 
including female wolves with pups, may be relocated or moved to other 
areas within the experimental population area if continued depredation 
occurs. Wolves attacking domestic animals other than livestock, 
including pets on private land, two or more times in a calendar year 
will be relocated. All chronic problem wolves (wolves that depredate on 
domestic animals after being moved once for previous domestic animal 
depredations) will be removed from the wild (killed or placed

[[Page 178]]

in captivity). The following three criteria will be used in determining 
the status of problem wolves within the nonessential experimental 
population area:
    (A) There must be evidence of wounded livestock or partial remains 
of a livestock carcass that clearly shows that the injury or death was 
caused by wolves. Such evidence is essential since wolves may feed on 
carrion which they found and did not kill. There must be reason to 
believe that additional livestock losses would occur if no control 
action is taken.
    (B) There must be no evidence of artificial or intentional feeding 
of wolves. Improperly disposed of livestock carcasses in the area of 
depredation will be considered attractants. Livestock carrion or 
carcasses on public land, not being used as bait under an agency 
authorized control action, must be removed or otherwise disposed so that 
it will not attract wolves.
    (C) On public lands, animal husbandry practices previously 
identified in existing approved allotment plans and annual operating 
plans for allotments must have been followed.
    (viii) Any person may take a gray wolf found in an area defined in 
paragraph (i)(7), Provided that the take is incidental to an otherwise 
lawful activity, accidental, unavoidable, unintentional, not resulting 
from negligent conduct lacking reasonable due care, and due care was 
exercised to avoid taking a gray wolf. Such taking is to be reported 
within 24 hours to a Service or Service-designated authority. Take that 
does not conform with such provisions may be referred to the appropriate 
authorities for prosecution.
    (ix) Service or other Federal, State, or tribal personnel may 
receive written authorization from the Service to take animals under 
special circumstances. Wolves may be live captured and translocated to 
resolve demonstrated conflicts with ungulate populations or with other 
species listed under the Act, or when they are found outside of the 
designated experimental population area. Take procedures in such 
instances would involve live capture and release to a remote area or 
placement in a captive facility, if the animal is clearly unfit to 
remain in the wild. Killing of wolves will be a last resort and is only 
authorized when live capture attempts have failed or there is clear 
endangerment to human life.
    (x) Any person with a valid permit issued by the Service under Sec.  
17.32 may take wolves in the wild in the experimental population area, 
pursuant to terms of the permit.
    (xi) Any employee or agent of the Service or appropriate Federal, 
State, or tribal agency, who is designated in writing for such purposes 
by the Service, when acting in the course of official duties, may take a 
wolf from the wild within the experimental population area, if such 
action is for:
    (A) Scientific purposes;
    (B) To relocate wolves to avoid conflict with human activities;
    (C) To relocate wolves within the experimental population areas to 
improve wolf survival and recovery prospects;
    (D) To relocate wolves that have moved outside the experimental 
population area back into the experimental population area;
    (E) To aid or euthanize sick, injured, or orphaned wolves;
    (F) To salvage a dead specimen which may be used for scientific 
study; or
    (G) To aid in law enforcement investigations involving wolves.
    (xii) Any taking pursuant to this section must be reported 
immediately (within 24 hours) to the appropriate Service or Service-
designated agency, which will determine the disposition of any live or 
dead specimens.
    (4) Human access to areas with facilities where wolves are confined 
may be restricted at the discretion of Federal, State, and tribal land 
management agencies. When five or fewer breeding pairs are in an 
experimental population area, land-use restrictions may also be employed 
on an as-needed basis, at the discretion of Federal land management and 
natural resources agencies to control intrusive human disturbance around 
active wolf den sites. Such temporary restrictions on human access, when 
five or fewer breeding pairs are established in an experimental 
population area, may be required between April 1 and June 30, within 1 
mile of active wolf den or rendezvous sites and would only apply to 
public lands or

[[Page 179]]

other such lands designated in State and tribal wolf management plans. 
When six or more breeding pairs are established in an experimental 
population area, no land-use restrictions may be employed outside of 
national parks or national wildlife refuges, unless wolf populations 
fail to maintain positive growth rates toward population recovery levels 
for 2 consecutive years. If such a situation arose, State and tribal 
agencies would identify, recommend, and implement corrective management 
actions within 1 year, possibly including appropriate land-use 
restrictions to promote growth of the wolf population.
    (5) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any wolf or part thereof from 
the experimental populations taken in violation of the regulations in 
paragraph (i) of this section or in violation of applicable State or 
tribal fish and wildlife laws or regulations or the Endangered Species 
Act.
    (6) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed any offense defined in this 
section.
    (7) The site for reintroduction is within the historic range of the 
species:
    (i) The central Idaho area is shown on the following map. The 
boundaries of the nonessential experimental population area will be 
those portions of Idaho that are south of Interstate Highway 90 and west 
of Interstate 15, and those portions of Montana south of Interstate 90, 
Highway 93 and 12 from Missoula, Montana west of Interstate 15.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01JN91.007

    (ii) The Yellowstone Management Area is shown on the following map. 
The boundaries of the nonessential experimental population area will be 
that portion of Idaho that is east of Interstate Highway 15; that 
portion of Montana that is east of Interstate Highway 15 and south of 
the Missouri River from Great Falls, Montana, to the eastern Montana 
border; and all of Wyoming.
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01JN91.008

    (iii) All wolves found in the wild within the boundaries of this 
paragraph (i)(7) after the first releases will be considered 
nonessential experimental animals. In the conterminous United States, a 
wolf that is outside an

[[Page 180]]

experimental area (as defined in paragraph (i)(7) of this section) would 
be considered as endangered (or threatened if in Minnesota) unless it is 
marked or otherwise known to be an experimental animal; such a wolf may 
be captured for examination and genetic testing by the Service or 
Service-designated agency. Disposition of the captured animal may take 
any of the following courses:
    (A) If the animal was not involved in conflicts with humans and is 
determined likely to be an experimental wolf, it will be returned to the 
reintroduction area.
    (B) If the animal is determined likely to be an experimental wolf 
and was involved in conflicts with humans as identified in the 
management plan for the closest experimental area, it may be relocated, 
placed in captivity, or killed.
    (C) If the animal is determined not likely to be an experimental 
animal, it will be managed according to any Service approved plans for 
that area or will be marked and released near its point of capture.
    (D) If the animal is determined not to be a wild gray wolf or if the 
Service or agencies designated by the Service determine the animal shows 
physical or behavioral evidence of hybridization with other canids, such 
as domestic dogs or coyotes, or of being an animal raised in captivity, 
it will be returned to captivity or killed.
    (8) The reintroduced wolves will be monitored during the life of the 
project, including by the use of radio telemetry and other remote 
sensing devices as appropriate. All released animals will be vaccinated 
against diseases and parasites prevalent in canids, as appropriate, 
prior to release and during subsequent handling. Any animal that is 
sick, injured, or otherwise in need of special care may be captured by 
authorized personnel of the Service or Service-designated agencies and 
given appropriate care. Such an animal will be released back into its 
respective reintroduction area as soon as possible, unless physical or 
behavioral problems make it necessary to return the animal to captivity 
or euthanize it.
    (9) The status of the experimental population will be reevaluated 
within the first 3 years, after the first year of releases of wolves, to 
determine future management needs and if further reintroductions are 
required. This review will take into account the reproductive success 
and movement patterns of the individuals released in the area, as well 
as the overall health and fate of the experimental wolves. Once recovery 
goals are met for downlisting or delisting the species, a rule will be 
proposed to address downlisting or delisting.
    (10) The Service does not intend to reevaluate the ``nonessential 
experimental'' designation. The Service does not foresee any likely 
situation which would result in changing the nonessential experimental 
status until the gray wolf is recovered and delisted in the northern 
Rocky Mountains according to provisions outlined in the Act. However, if 
the wolf population does not demonstrate positive growth toward recovery 
goals for 2 consecutive years, the affected States and tribes, in 
cooperation with the Service, would, within 1 year, identify and 
initiate wolf management strategies, including appropriate public review 
and comment, to ensure continued wolf population growth toward recovery 
levels. All reintroduced wolves designated as nonessential experimental 
will be removed from the wild and the experimental population status and 
regulations revoked when (i) legal actions or lawsuits change the wolves 
status to endangered under the Act or (ii) within 90 days of the initial 
release date, naturally occurring wolves, consisting of two breeding 
pairs that for 2 consecutive years have each successfully raised two 
offspring, are discovered in the experimental population area. The 
naturally occurring wolves would be managed and protected as endangered 
species under the Act.
    (j) California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). (1) The California 
condor (Gymnogyps californianus) population identified in paragraph 
(j)(8) of this section is a nonessential experimental population, and 
the release of such population will further the conservation of the 
species.
    (2) You must not take any California condor in the wild in the 
experimental population area except as provided by this rule:

[[Page 181]]

    (i) Throughout the entire California condor experimental population 
area, you will not be in violation of the Endangered Species Act (Act) 
if you unavoidably and unintentionally take (including killing or 
injuring) a California condor, provided such take is non-negligent and 
incidental to a lawful activity, such as hunting, driving, or 
recreational activities, and you report the take as soon as possible as 
provided under paragraph 5 below.
    (ii) [Reserved]
    (3) If you have a valid permit issued by the Service under Sec.  
17.32, you may take California condors in the wild in the experimental 
population area, pursuant to the terms of the permit.
    (4) Any employee or agent of the Fish and Wildlife Service 
(Service), Bureau of Land Management or appropriate State wildlife 
agency, who is designated for such purposes, when acting in the course 
of official duties, may take a California condor from the wild in the 
experimental population area and vicinity if such action is necessary:
    (i) For scientific purposes;
    (ii) To relocate California condors within the experimental 
population area to improve condor survival, and to address conflicts 
with ongoing or proposed activities, or with private landowners, when 
removal is necessary to protect the condor, or is requested by an 
adversely affected landowner or land manager, or other adversely 
affected party. Adverse effects and requests for condor relocation will 
be documented, reported and resolved in as an expedient manner as 
appropriate to the specific situation to protect condors and avoid 
conflicts. Prior to any efforts to relocate condors, the Service will 
obtain permission from the appropriate landowner(s);
    (iii) To relocate California condors that have moved outside the 
experimental population area, by returning the condor to the 
experimental population area or moving it to a captive breeding 
facility. All captures and relocations from outside the experimental 
population area will be coordinated with Service Cooperators, and 
conducted with the permission of the landowner(s) or appropriate land 
management agency(s).
    (iv) To aid a sick, injured, or orphaned California condor;
    (v) To salvage a dead specimen that may be useful for scientific 
study; or
    (vi) To dispose of a dead specimen.
    (5) Any taking pursuant to paragraphs (j)(2), (j)(4)(iv), (j)(4)(v), 
and (j)(4)(vi), of this section must be reported as soon as possible to 
the Field Supervisor, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological 
Services, Arizona Field Office, Phoenix, 2321 W. Royal Palm Road, Suite 
103, Arizona (telephone 602/640-2720) who will determine the disposition 
of any live or dead specimens.
    (6) You must not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any California condor or part 
thereof from the experimental population taken in violation of this 
paragraph (j) or in violation of applicable State or Tribal laws or 
regulations or the Act.
    (7) It is unlawful for you to attempt to commit, solicit another to 
commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in paragraphs 
(j)(2) and (j)(6) of this section.
    (8) The designated experimental population area of the California 
condor includes portions of three states--Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. The 
southern boundary is Interstate Highway 40 in Arizona from its junction 
with Highway 191 west across Arizona to Kingman; the western boundary 
starts at Kingman, goes northwest on Highway 93 to Interstate Highway 
15, continues northeasterly on Interstate Highway 15 in Nevada and Utah, 
to Interstate Highway 70 in Utah; where the northern boundary starts and 
goes across Utah to Highway 191; where the eastern boundary starts and 
goes south through Utah until Highway 191 meets Interstate Highway 40 in 
Arizona (See map at end of this paragraph (j)).
    (i) All California condors released into the experimental population 
area, and their offspring, are to be marked and visually identifiable by 
colored and coded patagial wing markers.
    (ii) The Service has designated the experimental population area to 
accommodate the potential future movements of a wild population of 
condors. All released condors and their progeny

[[Page 182]]

are expected to remain in the experimental area due to the geographic 
extent of the designation.
    (9) The nonessential experimental population area includes the 
entire highway rights-of-way of the highways in paragraph (j)(8) of this 
section that constitute the perimeter boundary. All California condors 
found in the wild within these boundaries will comprise the experimental 
population.
    (i) The experimental population is to be monitored during the 
reintroduction project. All California condors are to be given physical 
examinations before being released.
    (ii) If there is any evidence that the condor is in poor health or 
diseased, it will not be released to the wild.
    (iii) Any condor that displays signs of illness, is injured, or 
otherwise needs special care may be captured by authorized personnel of 
the Service, Bureau of Land Management, or appropriate State wildlife 
agency or their agents, and given the appropriate care. These condors 
are to be re-released into the reintroduction area as soon as possible, 
unless physical or behavioral problems make it necessary to keep them in 
captivity for an extended period of time, or permanently.
    (10) The status of the reintroduction project is to receive an 
informal review on an annual basis and a formal evaluation within the 
first 5 years after the initial release, and every 5 years thereafter. 
This evaluation will include, but not be limited to: a review of 
management issues; compliance with agreements; assessment of available 
carrion; dependence of older condors on supplemental food sources; post 
release behavior; causes and rates of mortality; alternative release 
sites; project costs; public acceptance; and accomplishment of recovery 
tasks prescribed in California Condor Recovery Plan. The number of 
variables that could affect this reintroduction project make it 
difficult to develop criteria for success or failure after 5 years. 
However, if after 5 years the project is experiencing a 40 percent or 
greater mortality rate or released condors are not finding food on their 
own, serious consideration will be given to terminating the project.
    (11) The Service does not intend to pursue a change in the 
nonessential experimental population designation to experimental 
essential, threatened, or endangered, or modify the experimental 
population area boundaries without consulting with and obtaining the 
full cooperation of affected parties located within the experimental 
population area, the reintroduction program cooperators identified in 
the memorandum of understanding (MOU) for this program, and the 
cooperators identified in the agreement for this program.
    (i) The Service does not intend to change the status of this 
nonessential population until the California condor is recovered and 
delisted in accordance with the Act or if the reintroduction is not 
successful and the rule is revoked. No designation of critical habitat 
will be made for nonessential populations (16 U.S.C. Sec.  
1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (ii) Legal actions or other circumstances may compel a change in 
this nonessential experimental population's legal status to essential, 
threatened, or endangered, or compel the Service to designate critical 
habitat for the California condors within the experimental population 
area defined in this rule. If this happens, all California condors will 
be removed from the area and this experimental population rule will be 
revoked, unless the parties to the MOU and agreement existing at that 
time agree that the birds should remain in the wild. Changes in the 
legal status and/or removal of this population of California condors 
will be made in compliance with any applicable Federal rulemaking and 
other procedures.

[[Page 183]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR16OC96.000

    (k) Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi). (1) The Mexican gray 
wolf (Mexican wolf) populations reestablished in the Blue Range Wolf 
Recovery Area and in the White Sands Wolf Recovery Area, if used, within 
the Mexican Wolf Experimental Population Area, identified in paragraph 
(k)(9) of

[[Page 184]]

this section, are one nonessential experimental population. This 
nonessential experimental population will be managed according to the 
following provisions.
    (2) Based on the best available information, the Service finds that 
reintroduction of an experimental population of Mexican wolves into the 
subspecies' probable historic range will further the conservation of the 
Mexican wolf subspecies and of the gray wolf species; that the 
experimental population is not ``essential,'' under 50 CFR 17.81(c)(2); 
that the experimental population is wholly separate geographically from 
any other wild gray wolf population or individual wild gray wolves; that 
no wild Mexican wolves are known to exist in the experimental population 
area or anywhere else; and that future migration of wild Mexican wolves 
into the experimental population area is not possible.
    (3) No person, agency, or organization may ``take'' [see definition 
in paragraph (k)(15) of this section] any wolf in the wild within the 
Mexican Wolf Experimental Population Area, except as provided in this 
rule. The Service may investigate each take of a Mexican wolf and may 
refer the take of a wolf contrary to this rule to the appropriate 
authorities for prosecution.
    (i) Throughout the Mexican Wolf Experimental Population Area, you 
will not be in violation of the Act or this rule for ``unavoidable and 
unintentional take'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this 
section] of a wolf. Such take must be non-negligent and incidental to a 
legal activity, such as military training and testing, trapping, 
driving, or recreational activities. You must report the take within 24 
hours to the Service's Mexican Wolf Recovery Coordinator or to a 
designated representative of the Service.
    (ii) Throughout the Mexican Wolf Experimental Population Area, you 
may ``harass'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section ] 
wolves that are within 500 yards of people, buildings, facilities, pets, 
``livestock'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section], or 
other domestic animals in an opportunistic, noninjurious manner [see 
definition of ``opportunistic, noninjurious harassment'' in paragraph 
(k)(15) of this section] at any time--provided that wolves cannot be 
purposely attracted, tracked, searched out, or chased and then harassed. 
You must report harassment of wolves within 7 days to the Service's 
Mexican Wolf Recovery Coordinator or to a designated representative of 
the Service.
    (iii) Throughout the Mexican Wolf Experimental Population Area, 
excluding areas within the national park system and national wildlife 
refuge system, no Federal agency or their contractors will be in 
violation of the Act or this rule for unavoidable or unintentional take 
of a wolf resulting from any action authorized by that Federal agency or 
by the Service, including, but not limited to, military training and 
testing. This provision does not exempt agencies and their contractors 
from complying with sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(4) of the Act, the latter 
of which requires a conference with the Service if they propose an 
action that is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of the 
Mexican wolf.
    (iv) In areas within the national park system and national wildlife 
refuge system, Federal agencies must treat Mexican wolves as a 
threatened species for purposes of complying with section 7 of the Act.
    (v) On private land anywhere within the Mexican Wolf Experimental 
Population Area, livestock owners or their agents may take (including 
kill or injure) any wolf actually ``engaged in the act of killing, 
wounding, or biting livestock'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of 
this section]; provided that evidence of livestock freshly wounded or 
killed by wolves is present; and further provided that the take is 
reported to the Service's Mexican Wolf Recovery Coordinator or a 
designated representative of the Service within 24 hours.
    (vi) On tribal reservation land anywhere within the Mexican Wolf 
Experimental Population Area, livestock owners or their agents may take 
(including kill or injure) any wolf actually engaged in the act of 
killing, wounding, or biting livestock; provided that evidence of 
livestock freshly wounded or killed by wolves is present; and further 
provided that the take is reported to the Service's Mexican Wolf

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Recovery Coordinator or a designated representative of the Service 
within 24 hours.
    (vii) On ``public lands'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of 
this section] allotted for grazing anywhere within the Mexican Wolf 
Experimental Population Area, including within the designated ``wolf 
recovery areas'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section], 
livestock owners or their agents may be issued a permit under the Act to 
take wolves actually engaged in the act of killing, wounding, or biting 
``livestock'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section]. 
Before such a permit is issued, the following conditions must be met--
livestock must be legally present on the grazing allotment; six or more 
``breeding pairs'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section] 
of Mexican wolves must be present in the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area; 
previous loss or injury of livestock on the grazing allotment, caused by 
wolves, must be documented by the Service or our authorized agent; and 
agency efforts to resolve the problem must be completed. Permits issued 
under this provision will be valid for 45 days or less and will specify 
the maximum number of wolves you are allowed to take. If you take a wolf 
under this provision, evidence of livestock freshly wounded or killed by 
wolves must be present. You must report the take to the Service's 
Mexican Wolf Recovery Coordinator or a designated representative of the 
Service within 24 hours.
    (viii) Throughout the Mexican Wolf Experimental Population Area, 
take of Mexican wolves by livestock guarding dogs, when used in the 
traditional manner to protect livestock on public, tribal, and private 
lands, is permitted. If you become aware that such take by your guard 
dog has occurred, you must report the take to the Service's Mexican Wolf 
Recovery Coordinator or a designated representative of the Service 
within 24 hours.
    (ix) Personnel authorized by the Service may take any Mexican wolf 
in the nonessential experimental population in a manner consistent with 
a Service-approved management plan, special management measure, or a 
valid permit issued by the Service under Sec.  17.32. This may include, 
but is not limited to, capture and translocation of wolves that--prey on 
livestock; attack pets or domestic animals other than livestock on 
private or tribal land; ``impact game populations in ways which may 
inhibit further wolf recovery'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of 
this section]; prey on members of the desert bighorn sheep herd found on 
the White Sands Missile Range and San Andres National Wildlife Refuge so 
long as the State of New Mexico lists it as a species to be protected; 
are considered ``problem wolves'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) 
of this section]; are a nuisance; endanger themselves by their presence 
in a military impact area; need aid or veterinary care; or are necessary 
for authorized scientific, research, or management purposes. Lethal 
methods of take may be used when reasonable attempts to capture wolves 
alive fail and when the Service determines that immediate removal of a 
particular wolf or wolves from the wild is necessary. Authorized 
personnel may use leg-hold traps and any other effective device or 
method for capturing or controlling wolves to carry out any measure that 
is a part of a Service-approved management plan, notwithstanding any 
conflicts in State or local law. The disposition of all wolves (live or 
dead) or their parts taken as part of a Service-authorized management 
activity must follow provisions in Service-approved management plans or 
interagency agreements or procedures approved by the Service on a case-
by-case basis.
    (x) As determined by the Service to be appropriate, the Service or 
any agent so authorized by the Service may capture, kill, subject to 
genetic testing, place in captivity, euthanize, or return to the wild 
(if found to be a pure Mexican wolf) any feral wolf-like animal, feral 
wolf hybrid, or feral dog found within the Mexican Wolf Experimental 
Population Area that shows physical or behavioral evidence of 
hybridization with other canids, such as domestic dogs or coyotes; being 
an animal raised in captivity, other than as part of a Service-approved 
wolf recovery program; or being socialized or habituated to humans.

[[Page 186]]

    (xi) The United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant 
Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (WS) division will 
discontinue use of M-44's and choking-type snares in ``occupied Mexican 
wolf range'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section]. The 
WS division may restrict or modify other predator control activities 
pursuant to a cooperative management agreement or a conference between 
the Service and the WS division.
    (xii) You may harass or take a Mexican wolf in self defense or 
defense of the lives of others, provided that you report the harassment 
or take within 24 hours to the Service's Mexican Wolf Recovery 
Coordinator or a designated representative of the Service. If the 
Service or an authorized agency determines that a wolf presents a threat 
to human life or safety, the Service or the authorized agency may kill 
it, capture and euthanize it, or place it in captivity.
    (xiii) Intentional taking of any wolf in the Mexican Wolf 
Experimental Population Area, except as described above, is prohibited. 
The Service encourages those authorized to take wolves to use nonlethal 
means when practicable and appropriate.
    (4) You must not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any wolf or wolf part from 
the experimental population except as authorized in this rule or by a 
valid permit issued by the Service under Sec.  17.32. If you kill or 
injure a wolf or find a dead or injured wolf or wolf parts, you must not 
disturb them (unless instructed to do so by an authorized agent of the 
Service), you must minimize your disturbance of the area around them, 
and you must report the incident to the Service's Mexican Wolf Recovery 
Coordinator or a designated representative of the Service within 24 
hours.
    (5) You must not attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or 
cause to be committed, any offense defined in this rule.
    (6) No land use restrictions will be imposed on private lands for 
Mexican wolf recovery without the concurrence of the landowner.
    (7) No land use restrictions will be imposed on tribal reservation 
lands for Mexican wolf recovery without the concurrence of the tribal 
government.
    (8) On public lands, the Service and cooperating agencies may 
temporarily restrict human access and ``disturbance-causing land use 
activities'' [see definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section] 
within a 1-mile radius around release pens when wolves are in them, 
around active dens between March 1 and June 30, and around active wolf 
``rendezvous sites'' [see definition in paragraph 17.84(k)(15) of this 
section] between June 1 and September 30, as necessary.
    (9) The two designated wolf recovery areas and the experimental 
population area for Mexican wolves classified as a nonessential 
experimental population by this rule are described in the following 
subsections. Both designated wolf recovery areas are within the 
subspecies' probable historic range and are wholly separate 
geographically from the current range of any known Mexican wolves or 
other gray wolves.
    (i) The Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area includes all of the Apache 
National Forest and all of the Gila National Forest in east-central 
Arizona and west-central New Mexico (Figure 1). Initial releases of 
captive-raised Mexican wolves will take place, generally as described in 
our Preferred Alternative in the FEIS on Mexican wolf reintroduction, 
within the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area ``primary recovery zone'' [see 
definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section]. This is the area 
within the Apache National Forest bounded on the north by the Apache-
Greenlee County line; on the east by the Arizona-New Mexico state line; 
on the south by the San Francisco River (eastern half) and the southern 
boundary of the Apache National Forest (western half); and on the west 
by the Greenlee-Graham County line (San Carlos Apache Reservation 
boundary). The Service will allow the wolf population to expand into the 
Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area ``secondary recovery zone'' [see 
definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section], which is the remainder 
of the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area not in the primary recovery zone.

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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR12JA98.002

    (ii) The White Sands Wolf Recovery Area in south-central New Mexico 
includes all of the White Sands Missile Range; the White Sands National 
Monument; the San Andres National Wildlife Refuge; and the area adjacent 
and to the west of the Missile Range bounded on the south by the 
southerly

[[Page 188]]

boundary of the USDA Jornada Experimental Range and the northern 
boundary of the New Mexico State University Animal Science Ranch, on the 
west by the New Mexico Principal Meridian, on the north by the Pedro 
Armendaris Grant boundary and the Sierra-Socorro County line, and on the 
east by the western boundary of the Missile Range (Figure 2). This is 
the back-up reintroduction area, to be used only if later determined to 
be both necessary and feasible in accordance with the Preferred 
Alternative as set forth in the FEIS on Mexican wolf reintroduction. If 
this area is used, initial releases of captive-raised wolves would take 
place within the White Sands Wolf Recovery Area primary recovery zone. 
This is the area within the White Sands Missile Range bounded on the 
north by the road from the former Cain Ranch Head quarters to Range Road 
16, Range Road 16 to its intersection with Range Road 13, Range Road 13 
to its intersection with Range Road 7; on the east by Range Road 7; on 
the south by Highway 70; and on the west by the Missile Range boundary. 
The Service would allow the wolf population to expand into the White 
Sands Wolf Recovery Area secondary recovery zone, which is the remainder 
of the White Sands Wolf Recovery Area not in the primary recovery zone.

[[Page 189]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR12JA98.003

    (iii) The boundaries of the Mexican Wolf Experimental Population 
Area are the portion of Arizona lying north of Interstate Highway 10 and 
south of Interstate Highway 40; the portion of New Mexico lying north of 
Interstate Highway 10 in the west, north of the New Mexico-Texas 
boundary in the

[[Page 190]]

east, and south of Interstate Highway 40; and the portion of Texas lying 
north of United States Highway 62/180 and south of the Texas-New Mexico 
boundary (Figure 3). The Service is not proposing wolf reestablishment 
throughout this area, but only within the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area, 
and possibly later in the White Sands Wolf Recovery Area, respectively 
described in paragraphs (k)(9) (i) and (ii) of this section. If a member 
of the nonessential experimental population is captured inside the 
Mexican Wolf Experimental Population Area, but outside the designated 
wolf recovery areas, it will be re-released within the recovery area, 
put into the captive population, or otherwise managed according to 
provisions of a Service-approved management plan or action. If a wolf is 
found in the United States outside the boundaries of the Mexican Wolf 
Experimental Population Area (and not within any other wolf experimental 
population area) the Service will presume it to be of wild origin with 
full endangered status (or threatened in Minnesota) under the Act, 
unless evidence, such as a radio collar, identification mark, or 
physical or behavioral traits (see paragraph (k)(3)(x) of this section), 
establishes otherwise. If such evidence exists, the Service or an 
authorized agency will attempt to promptly capture the wolf and re-
release it within the recovery area, put it into the captive population, 
or carry out any other management measure authorized by this rule or a 
Service-approved management plan. Such a wolf is otherwise not subject 
to this rule outside the designated Mexican Wolf Experimental Population 
Area.

[[Page 191]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR12JA98.004

    (10) If Mexican wolves of the experimental population occur on 
public lands outside the designated wolf recovery area(s), but within 
the Mexican Wolf Experimental Population Area, the Service or an 
authorized agency will attempt to capture any radio-collared lone wolf 
and any lone wolf or

[[Page 192]]

member of an established pack causing livestock ``depredations'' [see 
definition in paragraph (k)(15) of this section]. The agencies will not 
routinely capture and return pack members that make occasional forays 
onto public land outside the designated wolf recovery area(s) and 
uncollared lone wolves on public land. However, the Service will capture 
and return to a recovery area or to captivity packs from the 
nonessential experimental population that establish territories on 
public land wholly outside the designated wolf recovery area(s).
    (11) If any wolves move onto private land outside the designated 
recovery area(s), but within the Mexican Wolf Experimental Population 
Area, the Service or an authorized agency will develop management 
actions in cooperation with the landowner including capture and removal 
of the wolf or wolves if requested by the landowner.
    (12) If any wolves move onto tribal reservation land outside the 
designated recovery area(s), but within the Mexican Wolf Experimental 
Population Area, the Service or an authorized agency will develop 
management actions in cooperation with the tribal government including 
capture and removal of the wolf or wolves if requested by the tribal 
government.
    (13) The Service will evaluate Mexican wolf reintroduction progress 
and prepare periodic progress reports, detailed annual reports, and full 
evaluations after 3 and 5 years that recommend continuation, 
modification, or termination of the reintroduction effort.
    (14) The Service does not intend to change the ``nonessential 
experimental'' designation to ``essential experimental,'' 
``threatened,'' or ``endangered'' and foresees no likely situation which 
would result in such changes. Critical habitat cannot be designated 
under the nonessential experimental classification, 16 U.S.C. 
1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (15) Definitions. Key terms used in this rule have the following 
definitions.
    Breeding pair means an adult male and an adult female wolf that have 
produced at least two pups during the previous breeding season that 
survived until December 31 of the year of their birth.
    Depredation means the confirmed killing or wounding of lawfully 
present domestic livestock by one or more wolves. The Service, WS, or 
other Service-authorized agencies will confirm cases of wolf depredation 
on domestic livestock.
    Disturbance-causing land use activity means any land use activity 
that the Service determines could adversely affect reproductive success, 
natural behavior, or survival of Mexican wolves. These activities may be 
temporarily restricted within a 1-mile radius of release pens, active 
dens, and rendezvous sites. Such activities may include, but are not 
limited to--timber or wood harvesting, management-ignited fire, mining 
or mine development, camping outside designated campgrounds, livestock 
drives, off-road vehicle use, hunting, and any other use or activity 
with the potential to disturb wolves. The following activities are 
specifically excluded from this definition--
    (1) Legally permitted livestock grazing and use of water sources by 
livestock;
    (2) Livestock drives if no reasonable alternative route or timing 
exists;
    (3) Vehicle access over established roads to private property and to 
areas on public land where legally permitted activities are ongoing if 
no reasonable alternative route exists;
    (4) Use of lands within the national park or national wildlife 
refuge systems as safety buffer zones for military activities;
    (5) Prescribed natural fire except in the vicinity of release pens; 
and
    (6) Any authorized, specific land use that was active and ongoing at 
the time wolves chose to locate a den or rendezvous site nearby.
    Engaged in the act of killing, wounding, or biting livestock means 
to be engaged in the pursuit and grasping, biting, attacking, wounding, 
or feeding upon livestock that are alive. If wolves are observed feeding 
on a livestock carcass, you cannot assume that wolves killed the 
livestock because livestock can die from many causes and wolves will 
feed on carrion.
    Harass means ``intentional or negligent act or omission which 
creates the likelihood of injury to the wildlife by annoying it to such 
an extent as to

[[Page 193]]

significantly disrupt normal behavioral patterns which include, but are 
not limited to, breeding, feeding, or sheltering'' (50 CFR 17.3). This 
experimental population rule permits only ``opportunistic, noninjurious 
harassment'' (see definition below).
    Impact on game populations in ways which may inhibit further wolf 
recovery. The Service encourages states and tribes to define 
unacceptable impacts from wolf predation on game populations in Service-
approved management plans. Until such time the term will mean the 
following--2 consecutive years with a cumulative 35 percent decrease in 
population or hunter harvest estimates for a particular species of 
ungulate in a game management unit or distinct herd segment compared to 
the pre-wolf 5-year average (unit or herd must contain average of 
greater than 100 animals). If wolf predation is shown to be a primary 
cause of ungulate population declines (greater than 50 percent of 
documented adult or young mortality), then wolves may be moved to reduce 
ungulate mortality rates and assist in herd recovery, but only in 
conjunction with application of other common, professionally acceptable, 
wildlife management techniques.
    Livestock means cattle, sheep, horses, mules, and burros or other 
domestic animals defined as livestock in State and Tribal wolf 
management plans approved by the Service.
    Occupied Mexican wolf range means an area of confirmed presence of 
resident breeding packs or pairs of wolves or area consistently used by 
at least one resident wolf over a period of at least one month. The 
Service must confirm or corroborate wolf presence. Exact delineation of 
the area will be described by:
    (1) 5-mile (8 km) radius around all locations of wolves and wolf 
sign confirmed as described above (nonradio-monitored);
    (2) 5-mile (8 km) radius around radio locations of resident wolves 
when fewer than 20 radio locations are available (for radio-monitored 
wolves only); or
    (3) 3-mile (4.8 km) radius around the convex polygon developed from 
more than 20 radio locations of a pack, pair, or single wolf acquired 
over a period of at least 6 months (for radio-monitored wolves).
    This definition applies only within the Mexican Wolf Experimental 
Population Area.
    Opportunistic, noninjurious harassment (see ``harass'') means as the 
wolf presents itself (for example, the wolf travels onto and is observed 
on private land or near livestock). This is the only type of harassment 
permitted by this rule. You cannot track, attract, search out, or chase 
a wolf and then harass it. Any harassment must not cause bodily injury 
or death to the wolf. The basic intent of harassment permitted by this 
rule is to scare wolves away from the immediate area. It is limited to 
approaching wolves and discharging firearms or other projectile 
launching devices in proximity to but not in the direction of wolves; 
throwing objects in the general direction of but not at wolves; or 
making any loud noise in proximity to wolves.
    Primary recovery zone means an area where the Service--
    (1) Will release captive-raised Mexican wolves,
    (2) May return and re-release previously released Mexican wolves,
    (3) May release translocated wild-born Mexican wolves, and
    (4) Will actively support recovery of the reintroduced population.
    Problem wolves means wolves that--
    (1) Have depredated lawfully present domestic livestock,
    (2) Are members of a group or pack (including adults, yearlings, and 
young-of-the-year) that were directly involved in livestock 
depredations,
    (3) Were fed by or are dependent upon adults involved with livestock 
depredations (because young animals will likely acquire the pack's 
livestock depredation habits),
    (4) Have depredated domestic animals other than livestock on private 
or tribal lands, two times in an area within one year, or
    (5) Are habituated to humans, human residences, or other facilities.
    Public land means land under administration of Federal agencies 
including, but not limited to the National Park Service, Bureau of Land 
Management,

[[Page 194]]

Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, Department of Energy, and 
Department of Defense; and State-owned lands within the boundary of a 
designated wolf recovery area. All State-owned lands within the boundary 
of the experimental population area, but outside designated wolf 
recovery areas, will be subject to the provisions of this rule that 
apply to private lands.
    Rendezvous site means a gathering and activity area regularly used 
by a litter of young wolf pups after they have emerged from the den. 
Typically, the site is used for a period ranging from about one week to 
one month in the summer. Several sites may be used in succession.
    Secondary recovery zone means an area adjacent to a primary recovery 
zone in which the Service allows released wolves to disperse, where 
wolves captured in the wild for authorized management purposes may be 
translocated and released, and where managers will actively support 
recovery of the reintroduced population.
    Take means``to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, 
capture, or collect, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct'' (16 
U.S.C. 1532(19)). Also, see definitions of ``harass'', ``opportunistic, 
noninjurious harassment'', and ``unavoidable and unintentional take.''
    Unavoidable and unintentional take means accidental, unintentional 
take (see definition of ``Take'') which occurs despite reasonable care, 
is incidental to an otherwise lawful activity, and is not done on 
purpose. Examples would be striking a wolf with an automobile and 
catching a wolf in a trap outside of known occupied wolf range. Taking a 
wolf with a trap, snare, or other type of capture device within occupied 
wolf range (except as authorized in paragraph (k)(3)(ix) and (x) of this 
section) will not be considered unavoidable, accidental, or 
unintentional take, unless due care was exercised to avoid taking a 
wolf. Taking a wolf by shooting will not be considered unavoidable, 
accidental, or unintentional take. Shooters have the responsibility to 
be sure of their targets.
    Wolf recovery area means a designated area where managers will 
actively support reestablishment of Mexican wolf populations.
    (l) Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos). (1) Where does this special rule 
apply? The special rule in this paragraph (l) applies to the designated 
Bitterroot Grizzly Bear Experimental Population Area (Experimental 
Population Area), which is found within the species' historic range and 
is defined as follows:

    The boundaries of the Experimental Population Area are delineated by 
U.S. 93 from its junction with the Bitterroot River near Missoula, 
Montana, to Challis, Idaho; Idaho 75 from Challis to Stanley, Idaho; 
Idaho 21 from Stanley to Lowman, Idaho; State Highway 17 from Lowman to 
Banks, Idaho; Idaho 55 from Banks to New Meadows, Idaho; U.S. 95 from 
New Meadows to Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; Interstate 90 from Coeur d'Alene, 
Idaho, to its junction with the Clark Fork River near St. Regis, 
Montana; the Clark Fork River from its junction with Interstate 90 near 
St. Regis to its confluence with the Bitterroot River near Missoula, 
Montana; and the Bitterroot River from its confluence with the Clark 
Fork River to its junction with U.S. Highway 93, near Missoula, Montana 
(See map at the end of this paragraph (l)).

    (2) What is the legal status of the grizzly bear? (i) The grizzly 
bear is listed as ``threatened'' in Sec.  17.11 (h) and protected under 
this part. However, the grizzly bear population to which this paragraph 
(l) applies is considered a nonessential experimental population in 
accordance with section 10(j) of the Act.
    (ii) We have determined that, as of December 18, 2000, no grizzly 
bear population exists in the Experimental Population Area. We find, in 
accordance with Sec.  17.81 (b), that the reintroduction of grizzly 
bears as a nonessential experimental population, as defined in Sec.  
17.81 (b), will further the conservation of the species and will be 
consistent with provisions of section 10(j) of the Act, which requires 
that an experimental population be geographically separate from other 
nonexperimental populations of the same species. We also find, in 
accordance with Sec.  17.81 (c)(2), that the experimental population of 
grizzly bears in the Experimental Population Area is not essential to 
the survival of the species in the wild.
    (iii) Grizzly bears within the Experimental Population Area and the 
Recovery Area will be accommodated

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through management provisions provided for in this paragraph (l) and 
through management plans and policies developed by the Citizen 
Management Committee (Committee; see paragraph (l)(6) of this section). 
After reintroduction, every grizzly bear found within the Experimental 
Population Area will be considered a member of the nonessential 
experimental population.
    (iv) In the conterminous United States, a grizzly bear that is 
outside the Experimental Population Area identified in paragraph (l)(1) 
of this section will be considered as threatened.
    (3) Where will grizzly bears be released, and where will recovery be 
emphasized? The Bitterroot Grizzly Bear Recovery Area identifies the 
area of recovery emphasis within the Experimental Population Area. The 
Recovery Area consists of the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness and the Frank 
Church-River of No Return Wilderness (See map at the end of paragraph 
(l) of this section). All reintroductions will take place in the Selway-
Bitterroot Wilderness unless it is later determined that reintroduction 
in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness is appropriate. If, in 
the future, new wilderness areas are designated adjacent to the Recovery 
Area, the Committee may recommend to the Secretary their addition to the 
Recovery Area. The Secretary would have to amend this paragraph (l) to 
change the definition of the Recovery Area.
    (4) What activities are prohibited in the Experimental Population 
Area? (i) You may not take (see definition in Sec.  10.12 of this 
subchapter) any grizzly bear in the Experimental Population Area, except 
as provided in this paragraph (l). We may refer unauthorized take of 
grizzly bears to the appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (ii) You may not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever any grizzly bear or parts 
thereof that are taken from the Experimental Population Area or 
possessed in violation of the regulations in this paragraph (l) or in 
violation of applicable State wildlife conservation laws or regulations 
or the Act.
    (iii) You may not attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or 
cause to be committed, any offense defined in this paragraph (l).
    (5) What activities are allowed in the Experimental Population Area? 
(i) For purposes of this paragraph (l), except for persons engaged in 
hunting or shooting activities, you will not be in violation of the Act 
for ``unavoidable and unintentional take'' (see definition in paragraph 
(l)(16) of this section) of grizzly bears within the Experimental 
Population Area when such take is incidental to a legal activity and is 
not a result of negligent conduct lacking reasonable due care, and when 
due care was exercised to avoid the taking. Any taking must be reported 
within 24 hours to appropriate authorities as listed in paragraph 
(l)(5)(iii) of this section. Persons lawfully engaged in hunting or 
shooting activities must correctly identify their target before shooting 
in order to avoid illegally shooting a grizzly bear. Shooting a grizzly 
bear as a result of mistaking it for another species is considered a 
lack of reasonable due care. The act of taking a grizzly bear that is 
wrongly identified as another species may be referred to appropriate 
authorities for prosecution.
    (ii) Any person with a valid permit issued by us may take grizzly 
bears in the Experimental Population Area for scientific purposes, the 
enhancement of propagation or survival of the species, zoological 
exhibition, and other conservation purposes. Such permits must be 
consistent with the Act, with management plans adopted for the 
nonessential experimental population, and with applicable State wildlife 
conservation laws and regulations.
    (iii) You may take grizzly bears in the Experimental Population Area 
in self-defense or in defense of the lives of others. Such taking must 
be reported within 24 hours as to date, exact location, and 
circumstances to the Grizzly Bear Recovery Coordinator, University Hall, 
Room 309, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812 (406-243-4903); 
or the Assistant Regional Director for Law Enforcement, Eastside Federal 
Complex, 911 NE 11th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232-4181 (503-231-6125); 
or the Assistant Regional Director for

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Law Enforcement, P.O. Box 25486, DFC, Denver, Colorado 80225 (303-236-
7540); and either the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, P.O. Box 25, 
Boise Idaho 83707 (208-334-3700); or the Montana Department of Fish, 
Wildlife and Parks, 1420 E. Sixth Avenue, Helena, Montana 59620 (406-
444-2535); and Nez Perce Tribal authorities (208-843-2253) (as 
appropriate).
    (iv) Livestock owners may obtain a permit from the Service, and the 
Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Montana Department of Fish, 
Wildlife and Parks, or appropriate Tribal authorities to harass (see 
definition in Sec.  17.3) grizzly bears found in the Experimental 
Population Area that are actually pursuing or killing livestock (to 
include permitting the use of livestock guard dogs around livestock to 
harass such grizzly bears). Prior to issuance of such a permit, 
authorized State, Federal, or Tribal officials must document pursuit or 
killing of livestock. All such harassment must be accomplished by an 
opportunistic, noninjurious method (see definition of ``opportunistic, 
noninjurious harassment'' in paragraph (l)(16) of this section) to the 
grizzly bear, and such harassment must be reported within 24 hours as to 
date, exact location, and circumstances to the authorities listed under 
paragraph (l)(5)(iii) of this section.
    (v) Livestock owners may obtain a permit from the Service, and the 
Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Montana Department of Fish, 
Wildlife and Parks or appropriate Tribal authorities to take grizzly 
bears on private lands found in the Experimental Population Area in a 
manner other than harassment as defined in this paragraph (l), in order 
to protect livestock actually pursued or being killed on private 
property. Prior to issuance of such a permit, authorized State, Federal, 
or Tribal officials must document pursuit or killing of livestock. Any 
response protocol established by the Committee must have been satisfied 
and efforts to capture depredating grizzly bears by Service or State or 
Tribal wildlife agency personnel must have proven unsuccessful. All such 
taking must be reported as to date, exact location, and circumstances 
within 24 hours to the authorities listed under paragraph (l)(5)(iii) of 
this section.
    (vi) Any authorized employee or agent of the Service or appropriate 
State wildlife agency or Nez Perce Tribe who is lawfully designated for 
such purposes, when acting in the course of official duties, may take a 
grizzly bear from the wild in the Experimental Population Area if such 
action is necessary to:
    (A) Aid a sick, injured, or orphaned grizzly bear;
    (B) Dispose of a dead grizzly bear, or salvage a dead grizzly bear 
that may be useful for scientific study;
    (C) Take a grizzly bear that constitutes a demonstrable but 
nonimmediate threat to human safety or that is responsible for 
depredations to lawfully present domestic animals or other personal 
property, if otherwise eliminating such depredation or loss of personal 
property has not been possible, and after eliminating such threat by 
live-capturing and releasing the grizzly bear unharmed in the area 
defined in paragraph (l)(2) of this section or other areas approved by 
the Committee has been demonstrated not to be possible;
    (D) Move a grizzly bear for genetic management purposes;
    (E) Relocate grizzly bears within the Experimental Population Area 
to improve grizzly bear survival and recovery prospects; or (F) Relocate 
a grizzly bear to avoid conflict with human activities. However, grizzly 
bears in the Experimental Population Area will not be disturbed unless 
they demonstrate a real and imminent threat to human safety, livestock, 
or bees. Unless the Committee determines otherwise, this rule provides 
that on private lands outside the national forest boundary in the 
Bitterroot Valley, Montana (exclusion area), any human/grizzly conflicts 
will be considered unacceptable. Grizzly bear occupancy will be 
discouraged in the exclusion area, and grizzly bears found there will be 
captured and returned to the Recovery Area, or placed in captivity, or 
destroyed, depending on the history of each bear. If a grizzly bear 
enters the exclusion area, State and Federal wildlife management 
agencies will attempt to capture it immediately and notify the public of 
its presence as soon as possible. The public

[[Page 197]]

will be kept updated until the bear is caught. Further, any grizzly bear 
that occupies inhabited human settlement areas on private land within 
the Experimental Population Area that, in the judgment of the management 
agencies or Committee, presents a clear threat to human safety or whose 
behavior indicates that it may become habituated to humans, will be 
relocated or destroyed by management agencies.
    (6) How will local citizens be involved in the management of the 
Bitterroot nonessential experimental grizzly bear population? (i) The 
Secretary will establish a Citizen Management Committee for the 
Bitterroot grizzly bear experimental population and will authorize 
management implementation responsibility as described in paragraph 
(l)(9) of this section, in consultation with the Governors of Idaho and 
Montana. As soon as possible after the effective date of this rule, the 
Secretary will organize the Committee by requesting nominations of 
citizen members from the Governors of Idaho and Montana and the Nez 
Perce Tribe and nominations of agency members by represented agencies.
    (ii) The Committee will be composed of 15 members serving 6-year 
terms. Appointments may initially be of lesser terms to ensure staggered 
replacement.
    (A) Membership will consist of seven individuals appointed by the 
Secretary based upon the recommendations of the Governor of Idaho, five 
members appointed by the Secretary based upon the recommendations of the 
Governor of Montana, one member representing the Nez Perce Tribe 
appointed by the Secretary based on the recommendation of the Nez Perce 
Tribe, one member representing the Forest Service appointed by the 
Secretary of Agriculture, and one member representing the Fish and 
Wildlife Service appointed by the Secretary. Members recommended by the 
Governors of Idaho and Montana will be based on the recommendations of 
interested parties and will include at least one representative each 
from the appropriate State wildlife agencies. If either Governor or the 
Tribe fails to make recommendations within 60 days, the Secretary (or 
his/her designee) will accept recommendations from interested parties, 
and will make the appointments.
    (B) The Committee will consist of a cross-section of interests 
reflecting a balance of viewpoints, and members are to be selected for 
their diversity of knowledge and experience in natural resource issues, 
and for their commitment to collaborative decision-making. In their 
recommendations to the Secretary, the Governors of Idaho and Montana 
will attach written documentation of the qualifications of those 
nominated relating to their knowledge of, and experience in, natural 
resource issues and their commitment to collaborative decision-making.
    (C) Except for the representatives from Federal agencies, the 
Committee will be selected from communities within and adjacent to the 
Recovery and Experimental Population Areas.
    (D) The Secretary will fill vacancies as they occur with the 
appropriate members based on the recommendation of the appropriate 
Governor, the Nez Perce Tribe, or agency.
    (7) Will independent scientific information be readily available to 
the Committee? The Secretary will appoint two scientific advisors to the 
Committee as nonvoting members to attend all meetings of the Committee 
and to provide scientific expertise to the Committee. These scientific 
advisors will not be employed by Federal agencies involved in grizzly 
bear recovery. The Secretary will contact the Wildlife Society Chapters 
in Idaho and Montana and the Universities of Idaho and Montana for 
nominations and will select one wildlife scientist representing each 
State and appoint them as advisors to the Committee.
    (8) What is the overall mission of the Committee, and how will it 
operate? (i) The mission of the Committee is to facilitate recovery of 
the grizzly bear in the Bitterroot ecosystem by assisting in 
implementing the Bitterroot ecosystem chapter of the recovery plan 
(Bitterroot Ecosystem Recovery Plan Chapter--Supplement to the Grizzly 
Bear Recovery Plan, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Missoula, Montana, 
1996). The Committee will make recommendations to land and wildlife 
management agencies that it believes will lead to recovery of the 
grizzly

[[Page 198]]

bear. Decisions on, and implementation of, these recommendations are the 
responsibility of the land and wildlife management agencies.
    (ii) The Committee will meet a minimum of two times per year. These 
meetings will be open to the public. Additionally, the committee will 
provide reasonable public notice of meetings, produce and provide 
written minutes of meetings to interested persons, and involve the 
public in its decision-making process. This public participation process 
will allow members of the public and/or special interest groups to have 
input to Committee decisions and management actions.
    (9) What authority will the Committee have, and what will be its 
primary tasks? The Committee will have the authority and the 
responsibility to carry out the following functions:
    (i) Developing a process for obtaining the best biological, social, 
and economic data. This process will include an explicit mechanism for 
soliciting peer-reviewed, scientific articles on grizzly bears and their 
management, and holding periodic public meetings not less than every 2 
years, in which qualified scientists may submit comments to and be 
questioned by the Committee. The two scientific advisors will lead this 
process. The Committee will base its decisions upon the best scientific 
and commercial data available. All decisions of the Committee, including 
components of its management plans, must lead toward recovery of the 
grizzly bear in the Bitterroot ecosystem and minimize social and 
economic impacts to the extent practicable within the context of the 
existing recovery goals for the species.
    (ii) Soliciting technical advice and guidance from outside experts. 
The scientific advisors will lead the development of an ongoing process 
to provide the Committee with the best scientific and commercial data 
available. The scientific advisors will provide this information in the 
form of peer-reviewed scientific articles on grizzly bears and their 
management, Committee meetings with presentations by scientific experts, 
and requests to State and Federal management agencies and the private 
sector for scientific expertise and advice.
    (iii) Implementing the Bitterroot Ecosystem Chapter of the Grizzly 
Bear Recovery Plan consistent with this paragraph (l). The Committee 
will develop recommendations on existing management plans and policies 
of land and wildlife management agencies, as necessary, for the 
management of grizzly bears in the Experimental Population Area. The 
Committee will make recommendations to land and wildlife management 
agencies regarding changes to plans and policies, but the final decision 
on implementation of those recommendations will be made by those 
agencies. If Committee recommendations require significant changes to 
existing plans and policy, and the agencies tentatively agree to accept 
those recommendations, then the requirements of the National 
Environmental Policy Act may apply. Such management plans and policies 
will be in accordance with applicable State and Federal laws. The 
Committee will give full consideration to Service comments and opinions 
and those of the Forest Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the 
Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, and the Nez Perce Tribe.
    (iv) Providing means by which the public may participate in, review, 
and comment on the decisions of the Committee. The Committee must 
thoroughly consider and respond to public input prior to making 
decisions.
    (v) Developing its internal processes, where appropriate, such as 
governance, decision-making, quorum, terms of members, officers, meeting 
schedules and location, public notice of meetings, and minutes.
    (vi) Requesting staff support from the Service, the Idaho Department 
of Fish and Game, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Forest 
Service, other affected Federal agencies, and the Nez Perce Tribe, when 
necessary to perform administrative functions, and requesting 
reimbursement from us for non-Federal Committee members for costs 
associated with travel, lodging, and incidentals.
    (vii) Reviewing existing grizzly bear standards and guidelines used 
by the Forest Service and other agencies and landowners. The Committee 
will perform an annual review of grizzly bear

[[Page 199]]

mortalities and the number and location of bear/human conflicts. This 
review will be the primary mechanism to assess the adequacy of existing 
management techniques and standards. If the Committee deems such 
standards and guidelines inadequate for recovery of grizzly bears, the 
Committee may recommend changes to the Forest Service and other agencies 
and landowners.
    (viii) Developing grizzly bear guidance for proper camping and 
sanitation within the Experimental Population Area and making 
recommendations to land management agencies for adoption of such 
guidelines. Existing camping and sanitation procedures developed in 
other ecosystems with grizzly bears will serve as a basis for such 
guidelines.
    (ix) Developing a protocol for responding to grizzly/human 
encounters, livestock depredations, damage to lawfully present property, 
and other grizzly/human conflicts within the Experimental Population 
Area. Any response protocol developed by the Committee will have to 
undergo public comment and be revised as appropriate based on comments 
received. Any conflicts or mortalities associated with these activities 
will result in review by the Committee to determine what the Committee 
may do to help prevent future conflicts or mortalities. The Committee 
will recommend, as necessary, policy changes on trail restrictions for 
human safety to appropriate wildlife and land management agencies.
    (x) Recommending to the Service changes to recovery criteria, 
including mortality limits, population determinations, and other 
criteria for recovery as appropriate.
    (xi) Reviewing all human-caused grizzly bear mortalities to 
determine whether new measures for avoiding future occurrences are 
required and make recommendations on such measures to appropriate land 
and wildlife management agencies. If grizzly bear mortalities occur as a 
result of black bear hunting, the Committee will work with the State 
Fish and Game Departments in both Idaho and Montana to develop solutions 
to minimize the effects on grizzly bears of black bear hunting.
    (xii) Developing strategies to emphasize recovery inside the 
Recovery Area and to accommodate grizzly bears inside other areas of the 
Experimental Population Area.
    (A) Grizzly bears may range outside the Recovery Area because 
grizzly bear habitat exists throughout the Experimental Population Area. 
The Committee will not recommend that bears be disturbed or moved unless 
conflicts are both significant and cannot be corrected as determined by 
the Committee. This provision includes conflicts associated with 
livestock, for which the Committee will develop strategies to discourage 
grizzly bear occupancy in portions of the Experimental Population Area 
outside of the Recovery Area.
    (B) Unless the Committee determines otherwise, this rule provides 
that private land outside the national forest boundary in the Bitterroot 
Valley, Montana (exclusion area), is an area where any human/grizzly 
conflicts will be considered unacceptable. Grizzly bear occupancy will 
be discouraged in these areas, and grizzly bears will be captured and 
returned to the Recovery Area. If a grizzly bear enters the exclusion 
area, State and Federal wildlife management agencies will attempt to 
capture it immediately and notify the public of its presence as soon as 
possible. The public will be kept updated until the bear is caught. 
Further, any grizzly bear that occupies the exclusion area or other 
inhabited human settlement areas on private land within the Experimental 
Population Area that, in the judgment of the management agencies or 
Committee, presents a clear threat to human safety or whose behavior 
indicates that it may become habituated to humans, will be relocated or 
destroyed by management agencies.
    (xiii) Establishing standards for determining whether the 
experimental reintroduction has been successful and making 
recommendations on the inclusion of such standards in the Grizzly Bear 
Recovery Plan. These standards will be based on the best scientific and 
commercial information available and will reflect that, absent 
extraordinary circumstances, the success or failure of the program 
cannot be measured in

[[Page 200]]

fewer than 20 years. General guidelines for the standards by which 
failure will be measured include, but are not limited to, one or more of 
the following conditions:
    (A) If, within the number of years established by the Committee 
following initial reintroduction, no relocated grizzly bear remains 
within the Experimental Population Area and the reasons for emigration 
or mortality cannot be identified and/or remedied; or
    (B) If, within the number of years established by the Committee 
following initial reintroduction, no cubs of the year or yearlings exist 
and the relocated bears are not showing signs of successful reproduction 
as evidenced by no cubs of the year or yearlings.
    (xiv) Developing procedures for the expeditious issuance of permits 
described in paragraphs (l)(5)(iv) and (l)(5)(v) of this section, and 
making recommendations on such procedures to appropriate agencies.
    (xv) Developing 2-year work plans for the recovery effort for 
submittal to the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (l)(11)(i) of this 
section.
    (xvi) Establishing, based on the best available science, a refined 
interim recovery goal for the Bitterroot Ecosystem Chapter of the 
Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan and a final recovery goal when sufficient 
information is available and after grizzly bears are reintroduced and 
occupy suitable habitats in the Experimental Population Area. As this 
information becomes available, the Committee may recommend the recovery 
goal to the Secretary along with procedures for determining how this 
goal will be measured. The recovery goal for the Bitterroot grizzly bear 
population will be consistent with the habitat available within the 
Recovery Area. Additional adjacent areas of public land can be 
considered for contribution of suitable habitat when setting the 
recovery goal if additional land is shown to be necessary by the best 
scientific and commercial data available. Any recommendations for 
revised recovery goals developed by the Committee will require public 
review and our approval as appropriate prior to revision of any recovery 
plan. Grizzly bears outside the Recovery Area and within the 
Experimental Population Area can contribute to meeting the recovery goal 
if their long-term occupancy in such habitats outside the Recovery Area 
is reasonably certain.
    (10) What agencies will be responsible for day-to-day management 
activities? The Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Montana 
Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the 
Forest Service, in coordination with us, will exercise day-to-day 
management responsibility within the Experimental Population Area in 
accordance with this paragaraph (l). The Service and these cooperating 
agencies will share management responsibility as per agreements with, 
and in consideration of, recommendations from the Committee.
    (11) How will progress of the Committee be monitored; and what 
process will be followed by the Secretary to resolve disputes over 
whether Committee actions are leading to recovery? (i) The Secretary or 
our representative on the Committee will review the Committee's 2-year 
work plans (see paragraph (l)(9)(xv) of this section). If the Secretary 
determines, through our representative on the Committee, that the 
Committee's decisions, work plans, or the implementation of those plans 
are not leading to the recovery of the grizzly bear within the 
Experimental Population Area or are not in compliance with this 
paragraph (l), our representative will ask the Committee to determine 
whether such a decision, plan, or implementation of a plan is leading to 
recovery and is in compliance with this paragraph (l). The Secretary, 
who retains final responsibility and authority for implementation of the 
Act, will review the Committee's determination, as provided in 
paragraphs (l)(11)(ii) through (iv) of this section, and then make a 
final determination. Should the Secretary find that a decision, work 
plan, or implementation of a plan by the Committee is inadequate for 
recovery of the grizzly bear or is not in compliance with this paragraph 
(l), the Secretary may assume lead management responsibility.
    (ii) The Service representative will consider Committee input before 
making any determination that Committee actions are not leading to 
recovery or

[[Page 201]]

are not in compliance with this paragraph (l). In the event that our 
representative on the Committee determines that the actions of the 
Committee are not leading to recovery of the Bitterroot grizzly bear 
population or are not in compliance with this paragraph (l), he or she 
will recommend to the Committee, based on the best scientific and 
commercial data available, alternative or corrective actions and provide 
6 months for the Committee to accomplish those actions. Should the 
Committee reject these corrective actions, our representative will 
convene a Scientific Review Panel of three and will submit to the panel 
for review those Committee actions or decisions that he or she has 
determined are not leading to recovery or are not in compliance with 
this paragrpah (l). The Service representative will consider the views 
of all Committee members prior to convening a Scientific Review Panel.
    (iii) Members of the Scientific Review Panel will be professional 
scientists who have had no involvement with the Committee and are not 
employed by Federal agencies responsible for grizzly bear recovery 
efforts. The Secretary will select one member of the panel, and the 
Governors of Idaho and Montana in consultation with the Universities of 
Idaho and Montana (respectively), will select one panel member each. The 
Scientific Review Panel will review Committee actions or decisions, 
solicit additional information if necessary and, using the best 
scientific and commercial data available, make timely recommendations to 
the Committee as to whether Committee actions will lead to recovery of 
the grizzly bear in the Bitterroot ecosystem and are in compliance with 
paragraph (l). Examples of Committee actions, decisions, or lack of 
actions that can be submitted to the Scientific Review Panel include, 
but are not limited to, the following: sufficiency of public involvement 
in Committee activities; decisions involving sanitation and outreach 
activities; management of nuisance bears; adequacy of recommendations to 
land and wildlife management agencies; adequacy of Committee actions in 
addressing issues such as excessive human-caused grizzly bear mortality; 
and other actions important to recovery of the grizzly bear in the 
Bitterroot ecosystem. Committee compliance with paragraph (l) provides 
the basis for the recommendations of the Scientific Review Panel.
    (iv) If, after timely review, the Committee rejects the 
recommendations of the Scientific Review Panel, and our representative 
determines that Committee actions are not leading to recovery of the 
Bitterroot population, he or she will notify the Secretary. The 
Secretary will review the Panel's recommendations and determine the 
disposition of the Committee.
    (A) If the Secretary determines that the Committee should maintain 
lead management responsibility, the Committee will continue to operate 
according to the provisions of this paragraph (l) until the recovery 
objectives under paragraph (l)(9)(xvi) of this section or the Bitterroot 
Ecosystem Chapter of the Recovery Plan have been met and the Secretary 
has completed delisting.
    (B) If the Secretary decides to assume lead management 
responsibility, the Secretary will consult with the Governors of Idaho 
and Montana regarding that decision and further attempt to resolve the 
disagreement. If, after such consultation, the Secretary assumes lead 
management responsibility, the Secretary will publish a notice in the 
Federal Register explaining the rationale for the determination and 
notify the Governors of Idaho and Montana. The Committee will disband, 
and all requirements identified in this paragraph (l) regarding the 
Committee will be nullified.
    (12) How will the Bitterroot grizzly bear population be monitored? 
The reintroduced population will be monitored closely by Federal and 
State agencies in cooperation with the Committee for the duration of the 
recovery process, generally by use of radio telemetry as appropriate.
    (13) How will success or failure of the project be evaluated? The 
status of Bitterroot grizzly bear recovery will be reevaluated 
separately by the Committee and by the Secretary at 5-year intervals. 
This review will take into account the reproductive success of the 
grizzly bears released, human-caused

[[Page 202]]

mortality, movement patterns of individual bears, food habits, and 
overall health of the population and will recommend changes and 
improvements in the recovery program. Evaluating these parameters will 
assist in determining success or failure of the restoration.
    (14) What process will be followed if the Secretary determines the 
project has failed? (i) If, based on the criteria established by the 
Committee, the Secretary, after consultation with the Committee, the 
Governors of Idaho and Montana, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, 
the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, and the Nez Perce 
Tribe, determines that the reintroduction has failed to produce a self-
sustaining population, this paragraph (l) will not be used to 
reintroduce additional bears. Any remaining bears will retain their 
experimental status.
    (ii) Prior to declaring the experimental reintroduction a failure, 
we will investigate the probable causes of the failure. If the causes 
can be determined, and legal and reasonable remedial measures identified 
and implemented, we will consider continuing the recovery effort and 
maintaining the relocated population. If such reasonable measures cannot 
be identified and implemented, we will publish the results of our 
evaluation in the Federal Register in a proposed rulemaking to terminate 
the authority for additional experimental grizzly bear reintroductions 
in the Bitterroot ecosystem.
    (15) Will the legal status of grizzly bears in the Experimental 
Population Area change? We do not intend to change the ``nonessential 
experimental'' designation to ``essential experimental,'' 
``threatened,'' or ``endangered'' and foresee no likely situation that 
would result in such changes. Critical habitat cannot be designated 
under the nonessential experimental classification, 16 U.S.C. 
1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (16) What are the definitions of key terms used in the special rule 
in this paragraph (l)? In addition to terms defined in Sec.  10.12 and 
17.3 of this subchapter, the following terms apply to this paragraph 
(l):
    Accommodate means allowing grizzly bears that move outside the 
Recovery Area onto public land in the Experimental Population Area to 
remain undisturbed unless they demonstrate a real and imminent threat to 
human safety or livestock.
    Citizen Management Committee (Committee) means that Committee 
described in paragraph (l)(6) of this section.
    Current range means the area inside or within 10 miles of the 
recovery zone line of currently occupied grizzly bear recovery zones or 
any area where there is a grizzly bear population, as defined in this 
paragraph (l)(16).
    Exclusion area (Bitterroot Valley) means those private lands in 
Montana lying within the Bitterroot Experimental Population Area in the 
Bitterroot Valley outside the Bitterroot National Forest boundary south 
of U.S. Highway 12 to Lost Trail Pass and west of Highway 93.
    Experimental Population Area (Bitterroot Grizzly Bear Experimental 
Population Area) means that area delineated in paragraph (l)(1) of this 
section within which management plans developed as part of the Committee 
described in paragraph (l)(9) of this section will be in effect. This 
area includes the Recovery Area. The Experimental Population Area is 
within the historic range of the grizzly bear, but geographically 
separate from the current range of the grizzly bear.
    Geographically separate means separated by more than 10 miles. The 
term refers to ``wholly separate geographically'' in section 10(j)(2) of 
the Act. The Experimental Population Area and the recovery zone boundary 
of any existing grizzly bear population must be geographically separate.
    Grizzly bear population is defined by verified evidence within the 
previous 6 years which consists of photos within the area, verified 
tracks, or sightings by reputable scientists or agency personnel of at 
least two different female grizzly bears with young or one female with 
different litters in 2 different years in an area geographically 
separate from other grizzly bear populations. Verifiable evidence of 
females with young, to be geographically separate, would have to occur 
greater than

[[Page 203]]

10 miles from the nearest nonexperimental grizzly bear population 
recovery zone boundary.
    Opportunistic, noninjurious harassment means harassment (see 
definition of ``harass'' in Sec.  17.3) that occurs when the grizzly 
bear presents itself (for example, the bear travels onto and is observed 
on private land or near livestock). This paragraph (l) permits only this 
type of harassment. You cannot track, attract, search out, or chase a 
grizzly bear and then harass it. Any harassment must not cause bodily 
injury or death to the grizzly bear. The intent of harassment permitted 
by this definitioin is to scare bears away from the immediate area.
    Recovery Area (Bitterroot Grizzly Bear Recovery Area) means the area 
of recovery emphasis within the Experimental Population Area, and is 
delineated in paragraph (l)(2) of this section. This area consists of 
the Selway-Bitterroot and Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness 
areas. The Recovery Area is within the historic range of the species.
    Recovery emphasis means grizzly bear management decisions in the 
Recovery Area will favor bear recovery so that this area can serve as 
core habitat for survival, reproduction, and dispersal of the recovering 
population. Reintroduction of grizzly bears is planned to occur within 
the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness portion of the Recovery Area unless it 
is later determined that reintroduction in the Frank Church-River of No 
Return Wilderness is appropriate.
    Unavoidable and unintentional take means accidental, unintentional 
take (see definition of take in Sec.  10.12 of this subchapter) that 
occurs despite reasonable care, is incidental to an otherwise lawful 
activity, and is not done on purpose. An example would be striking a 
grizzly bear with an automobile. Taking a grizzly bear by shooting will 
not be considered unavoidable and unintentional take. Shooters have the 
responsibility to be sure of their targets.

[[Page 204]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR17NO00.008

    (m) Spotfin chub (=turquoise shiner) (Erimonax monachus), duskytail 
darter (Etheostoma percnurum), smoky madtom (Noturus baileyi). (1) Where 
are populations of these fishes designated as nonessential experimental 
populations (NEPs)? (i) The NEP area for these three fishes is within 
the species' probable historic ranges and is defined as follows: The 
Tellico River, between the backwaters of the Tellico Reservoir 
(approximately Tellico River mile 19 (30.4 kilometers) and Tellico River 
mile 33 (52.8 kilometers), near the Tellico Ranger Station, Monroe 
County, Tennessee.
    (ii) None of the fishes named in paragraph (m) of this section are 
currently

[[Page 205]]

known to exist in the Tellico River or its tributaries. Based on the 
habitat requirements of these fishes, we do not expect them to become 
established outside the NEP area. However, if any individuals of any of 
the species move upstream or downstream or into tributaries outside the 
designated NEP area, we would presume that they came from the 
reintroduced populations. We would then amend paragraph (m)(1)(i) of 
this section and enlarge the boundaries of the NEP area to include the 
entire range of the expanded population.
    (iii) We do not intend to change the NEP designations to ``essential 
experimental,'' ``threatened,'' or ``endangered'' within the NEP area. 
Additionally, we will not designate critical habitat for these NEPs, as 
provided by 16 U.S.C. 1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (2) What activities are not allowed in the NEP area? (i) Except as 
expressly allowed in paragraph (m)(3) of this section, all the 
prohibitions of Sec.  17.31 (a) and (b) apply to the fishes identified 
in paragraph (m)(1) of this section.
    (ii) Any manner of take not described under paragraph (m)(3) of this 
section is prohibited in the NEP area. We may refer unauthorized take of 
these species to the appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (iii) You may not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever any of the identified fishes, 
or parts thereof, that are taken or possessed in violation of paragraph 
(m)(2) of this section or in violation of the applicable State fish and 
wildlife laws or regulations or the Act.
    (iv) You may not attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or 
cause to be committed any offense defined in paragraph (m)(2) of this 
section.
    (3) What take is allowed in the NEP area? Take of this species that 
is incidental to an otherwise legal activity, such as recreation (e.g., 
fishing, boating, wading, trapping, or swimming), forestry, agriculture, 
and other activities that are in accordance with Federal, State, and 
local laws and regulations, is allowed.
    (4) How will the effectiveness of these reintroductions be 
monitored? We will prepare periodic progress reports and fully evaluate 
these reintroduction efforts after 5 and 10 years to determine whether 
to continue or terminate the reintroduction efforts.
    (5) Note: Map of the NEP area for spotfin chub, duskytail darter, 
smoky madtom, and yellowfin madtom (see paragraph (e) of this section) 
in Tennessee follows:


[[Page 206]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR08AP05.002

    (n) Gray wolf (Canis lupus). (1) The gray wolves (wolf) identified 
in paragraphs (n)(9)(i) and (ii) of this section are nonessential 
experimental populations. These wolves will be managed in accordance 
with the respective provisions of this paragraph (n) in the boundaries 
of the nonessential experimental population (NEP) areas within any State 
or Tribal reservation that has a wolf management plan that has been 
approved by the Service, as further provided in this paragraph (n). 
Furthermore, any State or Tribe that has a wolf management plan approved

[[Page 207]]

by the Service can petition the Secretary of the Department of the 
Interior (DOI) to assume the lead authority for wolf management under 
this rule within the borders of the NEP areas in their respective State 
or reservation.
    (2) The Service finds that management of nonessential experimental 
gray wolves, as defined in this paragraph (n), will further the 
conservation of the species.
    (3) Definitions of terms used in paragraph (n) of this section 
follow:
    Active den site--A den or a specific above-ground site that is being 
used on a daily basis by wolves to raise newborn pups during the period 
April 1 to June 30.
    Breeding pair--An adult male and an adult female wolf that, during 
the previous breeding season, produced at least two pups that survived 
until December 31 of the year of their birth.
    Designated agent--Includes Federal agencies authorized or directed 
by the Service, and States or Tribes with a wolf management plan 
approved by the Director of the Service and with established cooperative 
agreements with us or Memoranda of Agreement (MOAs) approved by the 
Secretary of the DOI. Federal agencies, States, or Tribes may become 
``designated agents'' through cooperative agreements with the Service 
whereby they agree to assist the Service to implement some portions of 
this rule. If a State or Tribe becomes a ``designated agent'' through a 
cooperative agreement, the Service will help coordinate their activities 
and retain authority for program direction, oversight, and guidance. 
States and Tribes with approved plans also may become ``designated 
agents'' by submitting a petition to the Secretary to establish an MOA 
under this rule. Once accepted by the Secretary, the MOA may allow the 
State or Tribe to assume lead authority for wolf management and to 
implement the portions of their State or Tribal plans that are 
consistent with this rule. The Service oversight (aside from Service law 
enforcement investigations) under an MOA is limited to monitoring 
compliance with this rule, issuing written authorizations for wolf take 
on reservations without approved wolf management plans, and an annual 
review of the State or Tribal program to ensure the wolf population is 
being maintained above recovery levels.
    Domestic animals--Animals that have been selectively bred over many 
generations to enhance specific traits for their use by humans, 
including use as pets. This includes livestock (as defined below) and 
dogs.
    Intentional harassment--The deliberate and pre-planned harassment of 
wolves, including by less-than-lethal munitions (such as 12-gauge 
shotgun rubber-bullets and bean-bag shells), that are designed to cause 
physical discomfort and temporary physical injury but not death. The 
wolf may have been tracked, waited for, chased, or searched out and then 
harassed.
    In the act of attacking--The actual biting, wounding, grasping, or 
killing of livestock or dogs, or chasing, molesting, or harassing by 
wolves that would indicate to a reasonable person that such biting, 
wounding, grasping, or killing of livestock or dogs is likely to occur 
at any moment.
    Landowner--An owner of private land, or his/her immediate family 
members, or the owner's employees who are currently employed to actively 
work on that private land. In addition, the owner(s) (or his/her 
employees) of livestock that are currently and legally grazed on that 
private land and other lease-holders on that private land (such as 
outfitters or guides who lease hunting rights from private landowners), 
are considered landowners on that private land for the purposes of this 
regulation. Private land, under this regulation, also includes all non-
Federal land and land within Tribal reservations. Individuals legally 
using Tribal lands in States with approved plans are considered 
landowners for the purposes of this rule. ``Landowner'' in this 
regulation includes legal grazing permittees or their current employees 
on State, county, or city public or Tribal grazing lands.
    Livestock--Cattle, sheep, horses, mules, goats, domestic bison, and 
herding and guarding animals (llamas, donkeys, and certain breeds of 
dogs commonly used for herding or guarding livestock). Livestock 
excludes dogs that are not being used for livestock guarding or herding.

[[Page 208]]

    Non injurious--Does not cause either temporary or permanent physical 
damage or death.
    Opportunistic harassment--Harassment without the conduct of prior 
purposeful actions to attract, track, wait for, or search out the wolf.
    Private land--All land other than that under Federal Government 
ownership and administration and including Tribal reservations.
    Problem wolves--Wolves that have been confirmed by the Service or 
our designated agent(s) to have attacked or been in the act of attacking 
livestock or dogs on private land or livestock on public land within the 
past 45 days. Wolves that we or our designated agent(s) confirm to have 
attacked any other domestic animals on private land twice within a 
calendar year are considered problem wolves for purposes of agency wolf 
control actions.
    Public land--Federal land such as that administered by the National 
Park Service, Service, Bureau of Land Management, USDA Forest Service, 
Bureau of Reclamation, Department of Defense, or other agencies with the 
Federal Government.
    Public land permittee--A person or that person's employee who has an 
active, valid Federal land-use permit to use specific Federal lands to 
graze livestock, or operate an outfitter or guiding business that uses 
livestock. This definition does not include private individuals or 
organizations who have Federal permits for other activities on public 
land such as collecting firewood, mushrooms, antlers, Christmas trees, 
or logging, mining, oil or gas development, or other uses that do not 
require livestock. In recognition of the special and unique authorities 
of Tribes and their relationship with the U.S. Government, for the 
purposes of this rule, the definition includes Tribal members who 
legally graze their livestock on ceded public lands under recognized 
Tribal treaty rights.
    Remove--Place in captivity, relocate to another location, or kill.
    Research--Scientific studies resulting in data that will lend to 
enhancement of the survival of the gray wolf.
    Rule--Federal regulations--``This rule'' or ``this regulation'' 
refers to this final NEP regulation; ``1994 rules'' refers to the 1994 
NEP rules (50 CFR 17.84(i)); and ``4(d) rule'' refers to the 2003 
special 4(d) regulations for threatened wolves in the Western DPS (50 
CFR 17.40(n)), outside of the experimental population areas.
    Unacceptable impact--State or Tribally-determined decline in a wild 
ungulate population or herd, primarily caused by wolf predation, so that 
the population or herd is not meeting established State or Tribal 
management goals. The State or Tribal determination must be peer-
reviewed and reviewed and commented on by the public, prior to a final 
determination by the Service that an unacceptable impact has occurred, 
and that wolf removal is not likely to impede wolf recovery.
    Wounded--Exhibiting scraped or torn hide or flesh, bleeding, or 
other evidence of physical damage caused by a wolf bite.
    (4) Allowable forms of take of gray wolves. The following 
activities, only in the specific circumstances described under this 
paragraph (n)(4), are allowed: opportunistic harassment; intentional 
harassment; take on private land; take on public land; take in response 
to impacts on wild ungulate populations; take in defense of human life; 
take to protect human safety; take by designated agents to remove 
problem wolves; incidental take; take under permits; take per 
authorizations for employees of designated agents; and take for research 
purposes. Other than as expressly provided in this rule, all other forms 
of take are considered a violation of section 9 of the Act. Any wolf or 
wolf part taken legally must be turned over to the Service unless 
otherwise specified in this paragraph (n). Any take of wolves must be 
reported as outlined in paragraph (n)(6) of this section.
    (i) Opportunistic harassment. Anyone may conduct opportunistic 
harassment of any gray wolf in a non-injurious manner at any time. 
Opportunistic harassment must be reported to the Service or our 
designated agent(s) within 7 days as outlined in paragraph (n)(6) of 
this section.
    (ii) Intentional harassment. After we or our designated agent(s) 
have confirmed wolf activity on private land, on

[[Page 209]]

a public land grazing allotment, or on a Tribal reservation, we or our 
designated agent(s) may issue written take authorization valid for not 
longer than 1 year, with appropriate conditions, to any landowner or 
public land permittee to intentionally harass wolves. The harassment 
must occur in the area and under the conditions as specifically 
identified in the written take authorization.
    (iii) Take by landowners on their private land. Landowners may take 
wolves on their private land in the following two additional 
circumstances:
    (A) Any landowner may immediately take a gray wolf in the act of 
attacking livestock or dogs on their private land, provided the 
landowner provides evidence of livestock or dogs recently (less than 24 
hours) wounded, harassed, molested, or killed by wolves, and we or our 
designated agent(s) are able to confirm that the livestock or dogs were 
wounded, harassed, molested, or killed by wolves. The carcass of any 
wolf taken and the area surrounding it should not be disturbed in order 
to preserve physical evidence that the take was conducted according to 
this rule. The take of any wolf without such evidence of a direct and 
immediate threat may be referred to the appropriate authorities for 
prosecution.
    (B) A landowner may take wolves on his/her private land if we or our 
designated agent issued a ``shoot-on-sight'' written take authorization 
of limited duration (45 days or less), and if:
    (1) This landowner's property has had at least one depredation by 
wolves on livestock or dogs that has been confirmed by us or our 
designated agent(s) within the past 30 days; and
    (2) We or our designated agent(s) have determined that problem 
wolves are routinely present on that private property and present a 
significant risk to the health and safety of other livestock or dogs; 
and
    (3) We or our designated agent(s) have authorized agency lethal 
removal of problem wolves from that same property. The landowner must 
conduct the take in compliance with the written take authorization 
issued by the Service or our designated agent(s).
    (iv) Take on public land. Any livestock producer and public land 
permittee (see definitions in paragraph (n)(3) of this section) who is 
legally using public land under a valid Federal land-use permit may 
immediately take a gray wolf in the act of attacking his/her livestock 
on his/her allotment or other area authorized for his/her use without 
prior written authorization, provided that producer or permittee 
provides evidence of livestock recently (less than 24 hours) wounded, 
harassed, molested, or killed by wolves, and we or our designated 
agent(s) are able to confirm that the livestock were wounded, harassed, 
molested, or killed by wolves. The carcass of any wolf taken and the 
area surrounding it should not be disturbed, in order to preserve 
physical evidence that the take was conducted according to this rule. 
The take of any wolf without such evidence may be referred to the 
appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (A) At our or our designated agent(s)' discretion, we or our 
designated agent(s) also may issue a shoot-on-sight written take 
authorization of limited duration (45 days or less) to a public land 
grazing permittee to take problem wolves on that permittee's active 
livestock grazing allotment if:
    (1) The grazing allotment has had at least one depredation by wolves 
on livestock that has been confirmed by us or our designated agent(s) 
within the past 30 days; and
    (2) We or our designated agent(s) have determined that problem 
wolves are routinely present on that allotment and present a significant 
risk to the health and safety of livestock; and
    (3) We or our designated agent(s) have authorized agency lethal 
removal of problem wolves from that same allotment.
    (B) The permittee must conduct the take in compliance with the 
written take authorization issued by the Service or our designated 
agent(s).
    (v) Take in response to wild ungulate impacts. If wolf predation is 
having an unacceptable impact on wild ungulate populations (deer, elk, 
moose, bighorn sheep, mountain goats, antelope, or bison) as determined 
by the respective State or Tribe, a State or Tribe may lethally remove 
the wolves in question.

[[Page 210]]

    (A) In order for this provision to apply, the States or Tribes must 
prepare a science-based document that:
    (1) Describes what data indicate that ungulate herd is below 
management objectives, what data indicate the impact by wolf predation 
on the ungulate population, why wolf removal is a warranted solution to 
help restore the ungulate herd to State or Tribal management objectives, 
the level and duration of wolf removal being proposed, and how ungulate 
population response to wolf removal will be measured;
    (2) Identifies possible remedies or conservation measures in 
addition to wolf removal; and
    (3) Provides an opportunity for peer review and public comment on 
their proposal prior to submitting it to the Service for written 
concurrence.
    (B) We must determine that such actions are scientifically-based and 
will not reduce the wolf population below recovery levels before we 
authorize lethal wolf removal.
    (vi) Take in defense of human life. Any person may take a gray wolf 
in defense of the individual's life or the life of another person. The 
unauthorized taking of a wolf without demonstration of an immediate and 
direct threat to human life may be referred to the appropriate 
authorities for prosecution.
    (vii) Take to protect human safety. We or our designated agent(s) 
may promptly remove any wolf that we or our designated agent(s) 
determines to be a threat to human life or safety.
    (viii) Take of problem wolves by Service personnel or our designated 
agent(s). We or our designated agent(s) may carry out harassment, non 
lethal control measures, relocation, placement in captivity, or lethal 
control of problem wolves. To determine the presence of problem wolves, 
we or our designated agent(s) will consider all of the following:
    (A) Evidence of wounded livestock, dogs, or other domestic animals, 
or remains of livestock, dogs, or domestic animals that show that the 
injury or death was caused by wolves, or evidence that wolves were in 
the act of attacking livestock, dogs, or domestic animals;
    (B) The likelihood that additional wolf-caused losses or attacks may 
occur if no control action is taken;
    (C) Evidence of unusual attractants or artificial or intentional 
feeding of wolves; and
    (D) Evidence that animal husbandry practices recommended in approved 
allotment plans and annual operating plans were followed.
    (ix) Incidental take. Take of a gray wolf is allowed if the take is 
accidental and incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and if 
reasonable due care was practiced to avoid such take, and such take is 
reported within 24 hours. Incidental take is not allowed if the take is 
not accidental or if reasonable due care was not practiced to avoid such 
take, or it was not reported within 24 hours (we may allow additional 
time if access to the site of the take is limited), and we may refer 
such taking to the appropriate authorities for prosecution. Shooters 
have the responsibility to identify their target before shooting. 
Shooting a wolf as a result of mistaking it for another species is not 
considered accidental and may be referred to the appropriate authorities 
for prosecution.
    (x) Take under permits. Any person with a valid permit issued by the 
Service under Sec.  17.32, or our designated agent(s), may take wolves 
in the wild, pursuant to terms of the permit.
    (xi) Additional take authorization for agency employees. When acting 
in the course of official duties, any employee of the Service or our 
designated agent(s) may take a wolf or wolf-like canid for the following 
purposes:
    (A) Scientific purposes;
    (B) To avoid conflict with human activities;
    (C) To further wolf survival and recovery;
    (D) To aid or euthanize sick, injured, or orphaned wolves;
    (E) To dispose of a dead specimen;
    (F) To salvage a dead specimen that may be used for scientific 
study;
    (G) To aid in law enforcement investigations involving wolves; or
    (H) To prevent wolves or wolf-like canids with abnormal physical or 
behavioral characteristics, as determined by the Service or our 
designated

[[Page 211]]

agent(s), from passing on or teaching those traits to other wolves.
    (I) Such take must be reported to the Service within 7 days as 
outlined in paragraph (n)(6) of this section, and specimens are to be 
retained or disposed of only in accordance with directions from the 
Service.
    (xii) Take for research purposes. We may issue permits under Sec.  
17.32, or our designated agent(s) may issue written authorization, for 
individuals to take wolves in the wild pursuant to approved scientific 
study proposals. Scientific studies should be reasonably expected to 
result in data that will lend to development of sound management of the 
gray wolf, and lend to enhancement of its survival as a species.
    (5) Federal land use. Restrictions on the use of any Federal lands 
may be put in place to prevent the take of wolves at active den sites 
between April 1 and June 30. Otherwise, no additional land-use 
restrictions on Federal lands, except for National Parks or National 
Wildlife Refuges, may be necessary to reduce or prevent take of wolves 
solely to benefit gray wolf recovery under the Act. This prohibition 
does not preclude restricting land use when necessary to reduce negative 
impacts of wolf restoration efforts on other endangered or threatened 
species.
    (6) Reporting requirements. Except as otherwise specified in 
paragraph (n) of this section or in a permit, any take of a gray wolf 
must be reported to the Service or our designated agent(s) within 24 
hours. We will allow additional reasonable time if access to the site is 
limited. Report any take of wolves, including opportunistic harassment, 
to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Gray Wolf Recovery 
Coordinator (100 North Park, Suite 320, Helena, Montana 59601, 406-449-
5225 extension 204; facsimile 406-449-5339), or a Service-designated 
agent of another Federal, State, or Tribal agency. Unless otherwise 
specified in paragraph (n) of this section, any wolf or wolf part taken 
legally must be turned over to the Service, which will determine the 
disposition of any live or dead wolves.
    (7) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any wolf or part thereof from 
the experimental populations taken in violation of the regulations in 
paragraph (n) of this section or in violation of applicable State or 
Tribal fish and wildlife laws or regulations or the Act.
    (8) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed any offense defined in this 
section.
    (9) The sites for these experimental populations are within the 
historic range of the species as designated in Sec.  17.84(i)(7):
    (i) The central Idaho NEP area is shown on Map 1. The boundaries of 
the NEP area are those portions of Idaho that are south of Interstate 
Highway 90 and west of Interstate 15, and those portions of Montana 
south of Interstate 90, Highways 93 and 12 from Missoula, Montana, west 
of Interstate 15.

[[Page 212]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR06JA05.000

    (ii) The Yellowstone NEP is shown on Map 2. The boundaries of the 
NEP area are that portion of Idaho that is east of Interstate Highway 
15; that portion of Montana that is east of Interstate Highway 15 and 
south of the Missouri River from Great Falls, Montana, to the eastern 
Montana border; and all of Wyoming.

[[Page 213]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR06JA05.001

    (iii) All wolves found in the wild within the boundaries of these 
experimental areas are considered nonessential experimental animals. In 
the Western Gray Wolf Distinct Population Segment (Washington, Oregon, 
California, Nevada, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah and Colorado north 
of Highway 50 and Interstate 70), any wolf that is outside an 
experimental area is considered threatened. Disposition of wolves 
outside the NEP areas may take any of the following courses:
    (A) Any wolf dispersing from the experimental population areas into 
other

[[Page 214]]

parts of the Western DPS will be managed under the special 4(d) rule for 
threatened wolves in the Western DPS (50 CFR 17.40(n)).
    (B) Any wolf originating from the experimental population areas and 
dispersing beyond the borders of the Western DPS may be managed by the 
wolf management regulations established for that area, or may be 
returned to the experimental population areas if it has not been 
involved in conflicts with people, or may be removed if it has been 
involved with conflicts with people.
    (10) Wolves in the experimental population areas will be monitored 
by radio-telemetry or other standard wolf population monitoring 
techniques as appropriate. Any animal that is sick, injured, or 
otherwise in need of special care may be captured by authorized 
personnel of the Service or our designated agent(s) and given 
appropriate care. Such an animal will be released back into its 
respective area as soon as possible, unless physical or behavioral 
problems make it necessary to return the animal to captivity or 
euthanize it.
    (11) Memoranda of Agreement (MOAs). Any State or Tribe with gray 
wolves, subject to the terms of this paragraph (n), may petition the 
Secretary for an MOA to take over lead management responsibility and 
authority to implement this rule by managing the nonessential 
experimental gray wolves in that State or on that Tribal reservation, 
and implement all parts of their approved State or Tribal plan that are 
consistent with this rule, provided that the State or Tribe has a wolf 
management plan approved by the Secretary.
    (i) A State or Tribal petition for wolf management under an MOA must 
show:
    (A) That authority and management capability resides in the State or 
Tribe to conserve the gray wolf throughout the geographical range of all 
experimental populations within the State or within the Tribal 
reservation.
    (B) That the State or Tribe has an acceptable conservation program 
for the gray wolf, throughout all of the NEP areas within the State or 
Tribal reservation, including the requisite authority and capacity to 
carry out that conservation program.
    (C) A description of exactly what parts of the approved State or 
Tribal plan the State or Tribe intends to implement within the framework 
of this rule.
    (D) A description of the State or Tribal management progress will be 
reported to the Service on at least an annual basis so the Service can 
determine if State or Tribal management has maintained the wolf 
population above recovery levels and was conducted in full compliance 
with this rule.
    (ii) The Secretary will approve such a petition upon a finding that 
the applicable criteria are met and that approval is not likely to 
jeopardize the continued existence of the gray wolf in the Western DPS, 
as defined in Sec.  17.11(h).
    (iii) If the Secretary approves the petition, the Secretary will 
enter into an MOA with the Governor of that State or appropriate Tribal 
representative.
    (iv) An MOA for State or Tribal management as provided in this 
section may allow a State or Tribe to become designated agents and lead 
management of nonessential experimental gray wolf populations within the 
borders of their jurisdictions in accordance with the State's or Tribe's 
wolf management plan approved by the Service, except that:
    (A) The MOA may not provide for any form of management inconsistent 
with the protection provided to the species under this rule, without 
further opportunity for appropriate public comment and review and 
amendment of this rule;
    (B) The MOA cannot vest the State or Tribe with any authority over 
matters concerning section 4 of the Act (determining whether a species 
warrants listing);
    (C) The MOA may not provide for public hunting or trapping absent a 
finding by the Secretary of an extraordinary case where population 
pressures within a given ecosystem cannot be otherwise relieved; and
    (D) In the absence of a Tribal wolf management plan or cooperative 
agreement, the MOA cannot vest a State

[[Page 215]]

with the authority to issue written authorizations for wolf take on 
reservations. The Service will retain the authority to issue these 
written authorizations until a Tribal wolf management plan is approved.
    (v) The MOA for State or Tribal wolf management must provide for 
joint law enforcement responsibilities to ensure that the Service also 
has the authority to enforce the State or Tribal management program 
prohibitions on take.
    (vi) The MOA may not authorize wolf take beyond that stated in the 
experimental population rules but may be more restrictive.
    (vii) The MOA will expressly provide that the results of 
implementing the MOA may be the basis upon which State or Tribal 
regulatory measures will be judged for delisting purposes.
    (viii) The authority for the MOA will be the Act, the Fish and 
Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-742j), and the Fish and Wildlife 
Coordination Act (16 U.S.C. 661-667e), and any applicable treaty.
    (ix) In order for the MOA to remain in effect, the Secretary must 
find, on an annual basis, that the management under the MOA is not 
jeopardizing the continued existence of the gray wolf in the Western 
DPS. The Secretary or State or Tribe may terminate the MOA upon 90 days 
notice if:
    (A) Management under the MOA is likely to jeopardize the continued 
existence of the gray wolf in the Western DPS; or
    (B) The State or Tribe has failed materially to comply with this 
rule, the MOA, or any relevant provision of the State or Tribal wolf 
management plan; or
    (C) The Service determines that biological circumstances within the 
range of the gray wolf indicate that delisting the species is not 
warranted; or
    (D) The States or Tribes determine that they no longer want the wolf 
management authority vested in them by the Secretary in the MOA.
    (o) Spotfin chub (=turquoise shiner) (Erimonax monachus), boulder 
darter (Etheostoma wapiti).
    (1) Where are populations of these fishes designated as nonessential 
experimental populations (NEP)? (i) The NEP area for the boulder darter 
and the spotfin chub is within the species' historic ranges and is 
defined as follows: Shoal Creek (from Shoal Creek mile 41.7 (66.7 km)) 
at the mouth of Long Branch, Lawrence County, TN, downstream to the 
backwaters of Wilson Reservoir (Shoal Creek mile 14 (22 km)) at Goose 
Shoals, Lauderdale County, AL, including the lower 5 miles (8 km) of all 
tributaries that enter this reach.
    (ii) None of the fishes named in paragraph (o) of this section are 
currently known to exist in Shoal Creek or its tributaries. Based on the 
habitat requirements of these fishes, we do not expect them to become 
established outside the NEP area. However, if any individuals of either 
of the species move upstream or downstream or into tributaries outside 
the designated NEP area, we would presume that they came from the 
reintroduced populations.
    (iii) We do not intend to change the NEP designations to ``essential 
experimental,'' ``threatened,'' or ``endangered'' within the NEP area. 
Additionally, we will not designate critical habitat for these NEPs, as 
provided by 16 U.S.C. 1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (2) What take is allowed in the NEP area? Take of these species that 
is accidental and incidental to an otherwise legal activity, such as 
recreation (e.g., fishing, boating, wading, trapping, or swimming), 
forestry, agriculture, and other activities that are in accordance with 
Federal, State, and local laws and regulations, is allowed.
    (3) What take of these species is not allowed in the NEP area? (i) 
Except as expressly allowed in paragraph (o)(2) of this section, all the 
provisions of Sec.  17.31(a) and (b) apply to the fishes identified in 
paragraph (o)(1) of this section.
    (ii) Any manner of take not described under paragraph (o)(2) of this 
section is prohibited in the NEP area. We may refer unauthorized take of 
these species to the appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (iii) You may not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever any of the identified fishes, 
or parts thereof, that are taken or possessed in violation of paragraph 
(o)(3) of this section or in violation of the applicable State fish

[[Page 216]]

and wildlife laws or regulations or the Act.
    (iv) You may not attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or 
cause to be committed any offense defined in paragraph (o)(3) of this 
section.
    (4) How will the effectiveness of these reintroductions be 
monitored? After the initial stocking of these two fish, we will monitor 
annually their presence or absence and document any spawning behavior or 
young-of-the-year fish that might be present. This monitoring will be 
conducted primarily by snorkeling or seining and will be accomplished by 
contracting with the appropriate species experts. We will produce annual 
reports detailing the stocking rates and monitoring activities that took 
place during the previous year. We will also fully evaluate these 
reintroduction efforts after 5 and 10 years to determine whether to 
continue or terminate the reintroduction efforts.
    (5) Note: Map of the NEP area for spotfin chub and boulder darter in 
Tennessee and Alabama follows:

[[Page 217]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR08AP05.003

    (p) Northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis). (1) 
The northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) (falcon) 
population identified in paragraph (p)(9)(i) of this section is a 
nonessential experimental population (NEP).
    (2) No person may take this species, except as provided in 
paragraphs (p)(3) through (5) and (p)(10) of this section.

[[Page 218]]

    (3) Any person with a valid permit issued by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service (Service) under Sec.  17.32 may take falcons for 
educational purposes, scientific purposes, the enhancement of 
propagation or survival of the species, zoological exhibition, and other 
conservation purposes consistent with the Endangered Species Act (Act);
    (4) A falcon may be taken within the NEP area, provided that such 
take is not willful, knowing, or due to negligence, or is incidental to 
and not the purpose of the carrying out of an otherwise lawful activity; 
and that such taking is reported within 24 hours, as provided under 
paragraph (p)(6) of this section.
    (5) Any employee of the Service, New Mexico Department of Game and 
Fish, or Arizona Game and Fish Department, who is designated for such 
purpose, or any person with a valid permit issued by the Service under 
50 CFR 17.32, may, when acting in the course of official duties, take a 
falcon if such action is necessary to:
    (i) Aid a sick, injured, or orphaned specimen;
    (ii) Dispose of a dead specimen, or salvage a dead specimen that may 
be useful for scientific study;
    (iii) Move a bird within the NEP area for genetic purposes or to 
improve the health of the population;
    (iv) Relocate falcons that have moved outside the NEP area, by 
returning the falcon to the NEP area or moving it to a captive breeding 
facility. All captures and relocations from outside the NEP area will be 
conducted with the permission of the landowner(s) or appropriate land 
management agencies; or
    (v) Collect nesting data or band individuals.
    (6) Any taking pursuant to paragraphs (p)(3) through (5) of this 
section must be reported within 24 hours by contacting the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, New Mexico Ecological Services Field Office, 2105 
Osuna NE, Albuquerque, NM 87113; (505) 346-2525. Upon contact, a 
determination will be made as to the disposition of any live or dead 
specimens.
    (7) No person shall possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever, any such species taken in 
violation of these regulations.
    (8) It is unlawful for any person to attempt to commit, solicit 
another to commit, or cause to be committed, any offense defined in 
paragraphs (p)(2) and (p)(7) of this section.
    (9)(i) The boundaries of the designated NEP area are based on county 
borders and include the entire States of New Mexico and Arizona. The 
reintroduction area is within the historical range of the species in New 
Mexico.
    (ii) All falcons found in the wild within the boundaries of the NEP 
area after the first releases will be considered members of the NEP. A 
falcon occurring outside of the NEP area is considered endangered under 
the Act unless it is marked or otherwise known to be a member of the 
NEP.
    (iii) The Service has designated the NEP area to accommodate the 
potential future movements of a wild population of falcons. All released 
birds and their progeny are expected to remain in the NEP area due to 
the geographic extent of the designation.
    (10) The NEP will be monitored closely for the duration of the 
reintroduction program. Any bird that is determined to be sick, injured, 
or otherwise in need of special care will be recaptured to the extent 
possible by Service and/or State or permitted Tribal wildlife personnel 
and given appropriate care. Such birds will be released back to the wild 
as soon as possible, unless physical or behavioral problems make it 
necessary to return them to a captive-breeding facility or they are 
euthanized if treatment would be unlikely to be effective.
    (11) The Service plans to evaluate the status of the NEP every 5 
years to determine future management status and needs, with the first 
evaluation expected to be not more than 5 years after the first release 
of birds into the NEP area. All reviews will take into account the 
reproductive success and movement patterns of individuals released, food 
habits, and overall health of the population. This evaluation will 
include a progress report.

[49 FR 35954, Sept. 13, 1984; 50 FR 30194, July 24, 1985]

    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Sec.  
17.84, see the List of CFR

[[Page 219]]

Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the 
printed volume and on GPO Access.

    Effective Date Note: At 72 FR 52452, Sept. 13, 2007, Sec.  17.84 was 
amended by revising paragraphs (e), (m), and (o) and by ading new 
paragraphs (q), (r), (s), and (t), effective Oct. 15, 2007. For the 
convenience of the user, the added and revised text is set forth as 
follows:



Sec.  17.84  Special rules--vertebrates.

                                * * * * *

    (e) Yellowfin madtom (Noturus flavipinnis). (1) Where is the 
yellowfin madtom designated as a nonessential experimental population 
(NEP)? We have designated three populations of this species as NEPs: the 
North Fork Holston River Watershed NEP, the Tellico River NEP, and the 
French Broad River and Holston River NEP.
    (i) The North Fork Holston River Watershed NEP area is within the 
species' historic range and is defined as follows: The North Fork 
Holston River watershed, Washington, Smyth, and Scott Counties, 
Virginia; South Fork Holston River watershed upstream to Ft. Patrick 
Henry Dam, Sullivan County, Tennessee; and the Holston River from the 
confluence of the North and South Forks downstream to the John Sevier 
Detention Lake Dam, Hawkins County, Tennessee. This site is totally 
isolated from existing populations of this species by large Tennessee 
River tributaries and reservoirs. As the species is not known to inhabit 
reservoirs and because individuals of the species are not likely to move 
100 river miles through these large reservoirs, the possibility that 
this population could come in contact with extant wild populations is 
unlikely.
    (ii) The Tellico River NEP area is within the species' historic 
range and is defined as follows: The Tellico River, between the 
backwaters of the Tellico Reservoir (approximately Tellico River mile 19 
(30.4 kilometers) and Tellico River mile 33 (52.8 kilometers), near the 
Tellico Ranger Station, Monroe County, Tennessee. This species is not 
currently known to exist in the Tellico River or its tributaries. Based 
on its habitat requirements, we do not expect this species to become 
established outside this NEP area. However, if individuals of this 
population move upstream or downstream or into tributaries outside the 
designated NEP area, we would presume that they came from the 
reintroduced population. We would then amend this regulation to enlarge 
the boundaries of the NEP area to include the entire range of the 
expanded population.
    (iii) The French Broad River and Holston River NEP area is within 
the species' historic range and is defined as follows: the French Broad 
River, Knox and Sevier Counties, Tennessee, from the base of Douglas Dam 
(river mile (RM) 32.3 (51.7 km)) downstream to the confluence with the 
Holston River; then up the Holston River, Knox, Grainger, and Jefferson 
Counties, Tennessee, to the base of Cherokee Dam (RM 52.3 (83.7 km)); 
and the lower 5 RM (8 km) of all tributaries that enter these river 
reaches. This species is not known to exist in any of the tributaries to 
the free-flowing reaches of the French Broad River below Douglas Dam, 
Knox and Sevier Counties, Tennessee, or of the Holston River below the 
Cherokee Dam, Knox, Grainger, and Jefferson Counties, Tennessee. Based 
on its habitat requirements, we do not expect this species to become 
established outside this NEP area. However, if individuals of this 
population move upstream or downstream or into tributaries outside the 
designated NEP area, we would presume that they came from the 
reintroduced population. We would then amend this regulation to enlarge 
the boundaries of the NEP area to include the entire range of the 
expanded population.
    (iv) We do not intend to change the NEP designations to ``essential 
experimental,'' ``threatened,'' or ``endangered'' within the NEP areas. 
Additionally, we will not designate critical habitat for these NEPs, as 
provided by 16 U.S.C. 1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (2) What activities are not allowed in the NEP areas? (i) Except as 
expressly allowed in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, all the 
prohibitions of Sec.  17.31(a) and (b) apply to the yellowfin madtom.
    (ii) Any manner of take not described under paragraph (e)(3) of this 
section is prohibited in the NEP area. We may refer unauthorized take of 
this species to the appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (iii) You may not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever any of the identified fishes, 
or parts thereof, that are taken or possessed in violation of paragraph 
(e)(2) of this section or in violation of the applicable State fish and 
wildlife laws or regulations or the Act.
    (iv) You may not attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or 
cause to be committed any offense defined in paragraph (e)(2) of this 
section.
    (3) What take is allowed in the NEP area? Take of this species that 
is accidental and incidental to an otherwise legal activity, such as 
recreation (e.g., fishing, boating, wading, trapping, or swimming), 
forestry, agriculture, and other activities that are in accordance with 
Federal, State, and local laws and regulations, is allowed.
    (4) How will the effectiveness of these reintroductions be 
monitored? We will prepare periodic progress reports and fully evaluate 
these reintroduction efforts after 5 and 10 years to determine whether 
to continue or terminate the reintroduction efforts.

[[Page 220]]

    (5) Note: Map of the NEP area for the yellowfin madtom in the 
Tellico River, Tennessee, appears immediately following paragraph (m)(5) 
of this section.
    (6) Note: Map of the NEP area for the yellowfin madtom in the French 
Broad River and Holston River, Tennessee, appears immediately following 
paragraph (m)(7) of this section.

                                * * * * *

    (m) Spotfin chub (=turquoise shiner) (Erimonax monachus). (1) Where 
is the spotfin chub designated as a nonessential experimental population 
(NEP)? We have designated three populations of this species as NEPs: the 
Tellico River NEP, the Shoal Creek NEP, and the French Broad River and 
Holston River NEP. This species is not currently known to exist in the 
Tellico River or its tributaries, the Shoal Creek or its tributaries, or 
any of the tributaries to the free-flowing reaches of the French Broad 
River below Douglas Dam, Knox and Sevier Counties, Tennessee, or of the 
Holston River below the Cherokee Dam, Knox, Grainger, and Jefferson 
Counties, Tennessee. Based on its habitat requirements, we do not expect 
this species to become established outside the NEP areas. However, if 
individuals move upstream or downstream or into tributaries outside any 
of the designated NEP areas, we would presume that those individuals 
came from the closest reintroduced population. We would then amend this 
regulation and enlarge the boundaries of the NEP area to include the 
entire range of the expanded population.
    (i) The Tellico River NEP area is within the species' probable 
historic range and is defined as follows: The Tellico River, between the 
backwaters of the Tellico Reservoir (approximately Tellico River mile 19 
(30.4 kilometers (km)) and Tellico River mile 33 (52.8 km), near the 
Tellico Ranger Station, Monroe County, Tennessee.
    (ii) The Shoal Creek NEP area is within the species' historic range 
and is defined as follows: Shoal Creek (from Shoal Creek mile 41.7 (66.7 
km)) at the mouth of Long Branch, Lawrence County, TN, downstream to the 
backwaters of Wilson Reservoir (Shoal Creek mile 14 (22 km)) at Goose 
Shoals, Lauderdale County, AL, including the lower 5 miles (8 km) of all 
tributaries that enter this reach.
    (iii) The French Broad River and Holston River NEP area is within 
the species' historic range and is defined as follows: the French Broad 
River, Knox and Sevier Counties, Tennessee, from the base of Douglas Dam 
(river mile (RM) 32.3 (51.7 km)) downstream to the confluence with the 
Holston River; then up the Holston River, Knox, Grainger, and Jefferson 
Counties, Tennessee, to the base of Cherokee Dam (RM 52.3 (83.7 km)); 
and the lower 5 RM (8 km) of all tributaries that enter these river 
reaches.
    (iv) We do not intend to change the NEP designations to ``essential 
experimental,'' ``threatened,'' or ``endangered'' within the NEP area. 
Additionally, we will not designate critical habitat for these NEPs, as 
provided by 16 U.S.C. 1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (2) What activities are not allowed in the NEP area? (i) Except as 
expressly allowed in paragraph (m)(3) of this section, all the 
provisions of Sec.  17.31(a) and (b) apply to the spotfin chub.
    (ii) Any manner of take not described under paragraph (m)(3) of this 
section is prohibited in the NEP area. We may refer unauthorized take of 
this species to the appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (iii) You may not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever any of the identified fishes, 
or parts thereof, that are taken or possessed in violation of paragraph 
(m)(2) of this section or in violation of the applicable State fish and 
wildlife laws or regulations or the Act.
    (iv) You may not attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or 
cause to be committed any offense defined in paragraph (m)(2) of this 
section.
    (3) What take is allowed in the NEP area? Take of this species that 
is accidental and incidental to an otherwise legal activity, such as 
recreation (e.g., fishing, boating, wading, trapping, or swimming), 
forestry, agriculture, and other activities that are in accordance with 
Federal, State, and local laws and regulations, is allowed.
    (4) How will the effectiveness of these reintroductions be 
monitored? (i) In the Tellico River NEP area, we will prepare periodic 
progress reports and fully evaluate these reintroduction efforts after 5 
and 10 years to determine whether to continue or terminate the 
reintroduction efforts.
    (ii) In the Shoal Creek NEP area, after the initial stocking of 
fish, we will monitor annually their presence or absence and document 
any spawning behavior or young-of-the-year fish that might be present. 
This monitoring will be conducted primarily by snorkeling or seining and 
will be accomplished by contracting with the appropriate species 
experts. We will produce annual reports detailing the stocking rates and 
monitoring activities that took place during the previous year. We will 
also fully evaluate these reintroduction efforts after 5 and 10 years to 
determine whether to continue or terminate the reintroduction efforts.
    (iii) In the Lower French Broad and Lower Holston Rivers NEP area, 
after the initial stocking of these species, we will monitor annually 
their presence or absence and document any spawning behavior or young-
of-

[[Page 221]]

the-year that might be present. This monitoring will be conducted 
primarily by snorkeling or seining and will be accomplished by 
contracting with the appropriate species experts. Annual reports will be 
produced detailing the stocking rates and monitoring activities that 
took place during the previous year. We will also fully evaluate these 
reintroduction efforts after 5 and 10 years to determine whether to 
continue or terminate the reintroduction efforts.
    (5) Note: Map of the Tellico River NEP area for spotfin chub, dusky 
darter, smoky madtom, and yellowfin madtom in Tennessee follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13SE07.000


[[Page 222]]


    (6) Note: Map of the Shoal Creek NEP area for spotfin chub and 
boulder darter in Tennessee and Alabama follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13SE07.001

    (7) Note: Map of the French Broad River and Holston River NEP area 
for spotfin chub, slender chub, duskytail darter, pygmy madtom, and 
yellowtail madtom in Tennessee follows:

[[Page 223]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13SE07.002

                                * * * * *

    (o) Boulder darter (Etheostoma wapiti).
    (1) Where is the boulder darter designated as a nonessential 
experimental population (NEP)? (i) The NEP area for the boulder darter 
is within the species' historic range and is defined as follows: Shoal 
Creek (from Shoal Creek mile 41.7 (66.7 km)) at the mouth of Long 
Branch, Lawrence County, TN, downstream to the backwaters of Wilson 
Reservoir (Shoal Creek mile 14 (22 km)) at Goose Shoals, Lauderdale 
County, AL, including

[[Page 224]]

the lower 5 miles (8 km) of all tributaries that enter this reach.
    (ii) The boulder darter is not currently known to exist in Shoal 
Creek or its tributaries. Based on the habitat requirements of this 
fish, we do not expect it to become established outside the NEP area. 
However, if any individuals of the species move upstream or downstream 
or into tributaries outside the designated NEP area, we would presume 
that they came from the reintroduced population. We would then amend 
this rule through our normal rulemaking process in order to enlarge the 
boundaries of the NEP area to include the entire range of the expanded 
population.
    (iii) We do not intend to change the NEP designations to ``essential 
experimental,'' ``threatened,'' or ``endangered'' within the NEP area. 
Additionally, we will not designate critical habitat for these NEPs, as 
provided by 16 U.S.C. 1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (2) What activities are not allowed in the NEP area? (i) Except as 
expressly allowed in paragraph (o)(3) of this section, all the 
provisions of Sec.  17.31(a) and (b) apply to the boulder darter.
    (ii) Any manner of take not described under paragraph (o)(3) of this 
section is prohibited in the NEP area. We may refer unauthorized take of 
these species to the appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (iii) You may not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever any of the identified fishes, 
or parts thereof, that are taken or possessed in violation of paragraph 
(o)(2) of this section or in violation of the applicable State fish and 
wildlife laws or regulations or the Act.
    (iv) You may not attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or 
cause to be committed any offense defined in paragraph (o)(2) of this 
section.
    (3) What take is allowed in the NEP area? Take of this species that 
is accidental and incidental to an otherwise legal activity, such as 
recreation (e.g., fishing, boating, wading, trapping, or swimming), 
forestry, agriculture, and other activities that are in accordance with 
Federal, State, and local laws and regulations, is allowed.
    (4) How will the effectiveness of these reintroductions be 
monitored? After the initial stocking of fish, we will monitor annually 
their presence or absence and document any spawning behavior or young-
of-the-year fish that might be present. This monitoring will be 
conducted primarily by snorkeling or seining and will be accomplished by 
contracting with the appropriate species experts. We will produce annual 
reports detailing the stocking rates and monitoring activities that took 
place during the previous year. We will also fully evaluate these 
reintroduction efforts after 5 and 10 years to determine whether to 
continue or terminate the reintroduction efforts.
    (5) Note: Map of the NEP area for the boulder darter in the Shoal 
Creek, Tennessee and Alabama, appears immediately following paragraph 
(m)(6) of this section.

                                * * * * *

    (q) Duskytail darter (Etheostoma percnurum). (1) Where is the 
duskytail darter designated as a nonessential experimental population 
(NEP)? We have designated two populations of this species as NEPs: The 
Tellico River NEP and the French Broad River and Holston River NEP. This 
species is not currently known to exist in the Tellico River or its 
tributaries or in any of the tributaries to the free-flowing reaches of 
the French Broad River below Douglas Dam, Knox and Sevier Counties, 
Tennessee, or of the Holston River below the Cherokee Dam, Knox, 
Grainger, and Jefferson Counties, Tennessee. Based on its habitat 
requirements, we do not expect this species to become established 
outside these NEP areas. However, if individuals move upstream or 
downstream or into tributaries outside either of the designated NEP 
areas, we would presume that these individuals came from the 
reintroduced population. We would then amend this rule and enlarge the 
boundaries of the NEP area to include the entire range of the expanded 
population.
    (i) The Tellico River NEP area is within the species' historic range 
and is defined as follows: The Tellico River, between the backwaters of 
the Tellico Reservoir (approximately Tellico River mile 19 (30.4 
kilometers) and Tellico River mile 33 (52.8 kilometers), near the 
Tellico Ranger Station, Monroe County, Tennessee.
    (ii) The French Broad River and Holston River NEP area is within the 
species' historic range and is defined as follows: the French Broad 
River, Knox and Sevier Counties, Tennessee, from the base of Douglas Dam 
(river mile (RM) 32.3 (51.7 km)) downstream to the confluence with the 
Holston River; then up the Holston River, Knox, Grainger, and Jefferson 
Counties, Tennessee, to the base of Cherokee Dam (RM 52.3 (83.7 km)); 
and the lower 5 RM (8 km) of all tributaries that enter these river 
reaches.
    (iii) We do not intend to change the NEP designations to ``essential 
experimental,'' ``threatened,'' or ``endangered'' within the NEP area. 
Additionally, we will not designate critical habitat for these NEPs, as 
provided by 16 U.S.C. 1539(j)(2)(C)(ii).
    (2) What activities are not allowed in the NEP area? (i) Except as 
expressly allowed in paragraph (q)(3) of this section, all the 
prohibitions of Sec.  17.31(a) and (b) apply to the duskytail darter.

[[Page 225]]

    (ii) Any manner of take not described under paragraph (q)(3) of this 
section is prohibited in the NEP area. We may refer unauthorized take of 
this species to the appropriate authorities for prosecution.
    (iii) You may not possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, ship, 
import, or export by any means whatsoever any of the identified fishes, 
or parts thereof, that are taken or possessed in violation of paragraph 
(q)(2) of this section or in violation of the applicable State fish and 
wildlife laws or regulations or the Act.
    (iv) You may not attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or 
cause to be committed any offense defined in paragraph (q)(2) of this 
section.
    (3) What take is allowed in the NEP area? Take of this species that 
is accidental and incidental to an otherwise legal activity, such as 
recreation (e.g., fishing, boating, wading, trapping, or swimming), 
forestry, agriculture, and other activities that are in accordance with 
Federal, State, and local laws and regulations, is allowed.
    (4) How will the effectiveness of these reintroductions be 
monitored? We will prepare periodic progress reports and fully evaluate 
these reintroduction efforts after 5 and 10 years to determine whether 
to continue or terminate the reintroduction efforts.
    (5) Note: Map of the NEP area for the duskytail darter in the 
Tellico River, Tennessee, appears immediately following paragraph (m)(5) 
of this section.
    (6) Note: Map of the NEP area for the duskytail darter in the French 
Broad River and Holston River, Tennessee,