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co,astal Zone IM715 1nformation, center A Monograph Coastal: RecreatiOn j" "'t" e, @'- Resources in an j- '711 Urbanizing Environment 7 .1 re lJiA . . . . . . . . . . T Cooperative Extension Service GB University of Massachusetts, U.S. Department of Agriculture 459.4 and County Extension Services cooperating S96 with Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sea Grant Program 1976 August 1977 Zone a 0 ]n ti ter YOUR COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE The Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service, financed through federal, state and county sources, provides educational leadership in agriculture and, natural resources, home econom- ics, 4-H and youth and community resource development. A basic goal of the Cooperative Extension Service is to help people identify and solve their problems through the practical application of research findings. This information is made available through varying media such as conferences, workshops, demonstrations and pub- lications as well as the press, radio and TV. At the state level, the University of Massachusetts, a land-grant institution, conducts educa- tional research in many fields. Extension faculty, working with county and regional Exten- sion staff act ascatalysts in assisting individuals, families and communities to utilize available knowledge in making decisions important to them. This publication is one of many reference documents prepared to serve individuals, families and communities in Massachusetts. COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE CONTACTS: State Administration: Dukes County Oak Bluffs 02557 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Essex County Massachusetts 01003 Essex Agricultural and Technical Institute State Specialist Staff in appropriate Hathorne 01937 departments of the University at: Franklin County Greenfield, Court House 01301 Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 Hampden County Suburban Experiment Station West Springfield, 1499 Memorial Ave. 01089 Waltham, Massachusetts 02154 Hampshire County Northampton, -33 King Street 01060 Cranberry Station Middlesex County East Wareham, Massachusetts 02538 Concord, 105 Everett Street 01742 Norfolk County County and Regional Staff: Norfolk County Agricultural High School Walpole, 460 Main Street 02081 Barnstable County Plymouth County Barnstable, Deeds and Probate Bldg. 02630 Hanson, High Street 02341 Berkshire County Suffolk County Pittsfield, 46 Summer Street 01201 University of Mass. Downtown Center Bristol County Boston, 100 Arlington Street 02125 Bristol County Agricultural High School Worcester County Segreganset, 135 Center Street 02773 Worcester, 36 Harvard Street 01608 This monograph is for sale at $3.00. Make checks payable to Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service. Send them to the Bulletin Center, Cottage A, Thatcher Way, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass'. 01003. Available to the public without regard to race, color or national origin. 8177-1500 Issued by the Cooperative Extension Service, Ross S. Whaley, Director, in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914; University of Massachusetts, United States Department of Agriculture and County Extension Services cooperating. i"M "Fli '@112 U'@@` t-@u A Symposium on COASTAL RECREATION RESOURCES IN AN URBANIZING ENVIRONMENT April 12-14,1976 Hyannis, Massachusetts Sponsored by: Cooperative Extension Service, University of Massachusetts in cooperation with: Massac-hus-ett-S, Coastal Zone Management Program Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management Bureau of Recreation Massachusetts Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Recreation Vehicles Division of Fisheries and Wildlife Division of Marine Fisheries Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sea Grant Program National Marine Fisheries Service National Park Service, North Atlantic Region New England Marine Advisory Service \Ij University of Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management Department of Leisure Studies and Services Institute for Man and Environment University of Rhode Island Sea Grant Program :::g Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution *F11 Symposium Committee Co-Chairmen Arnold C. Lane, Regional Community Resource John H. Noyes, Assistaint Director Development Specialist Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service Cape Cod Extension Service University of Massachusetts Barnstable, Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts J. Perry Lane, National Marine Fisheries Service Ervin H. Zube, Director National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Institute for Man and Environment Gloucester, Massachusetts University of Massachusetts, Amherst and recently Director, Coastal Review Center Christos C. Mpelkas, Regional Community Coastal Zone Management Program Resource Development Specialist Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Norfolk County Extension Service Boston, Massachusetts Walpole, Massachusetts Program Committee E.R. Pariser, Advisory Services Officer Gilbert A. Bliss, Chief of Recreation Senior Research Scientist, MIT Sea Grant Program Bureau of Recreation Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management Cambridge, Massachusetts Boston, Massachusetts Thomas F. Quink, Extension Specialist Paul A. Buckley, Regional Chief Scientist Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service National Park Service University of Massachusetts Boston, Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts Arthur B. Clifton, Marine Liaison Officer William E. Randall, Jr., Head MIT Sea Grant Program Department of Leisure Studies and Services Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of Massachusetts Cambridge, Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts Charles F. Cole, Professor of Fisheries Biology Neil W. Ross, Marine Recreation Specialist Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management Marine Advisory Service University of Massachusetts University of Rhode Island, Narrangansett Bay Campus Amherst, Massachusetts Narragansett, Rhode Island Ralph H. Goodno, Regional Community Resource John Ryther, Senior Scientist Development Specialist Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Essex County Extension Service Woods Hole, Massachusetts Hathorne, Massachusetts Michael V. Sikora, Jr., Regional Community Walter J. Gray, Direct 'or Resource Development Specialist Division of Marine Resources Plymouth County Extension Service University of Rhode Island, Narrangansett Bay Campus Hanson, Massachusetts Narragansett, Rhode Island Frank Grice, Director Divison of Marine Fisheries Massachusetts Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and R6creational Vehicles Boston, Massachusetts Contents PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ROLES IN COASTAL RECREATION MANAGEMENT 1 The Federal Role in Coastal Recreation Management 2 Robert W. Knecht Coastal Recreation in Massachusetts 5 Matthew B. Connolly, Jr. Coastal Use Planning 12 David B. Keiffer Community Coastal Recreation Management 15 Walter J. Gray The Marina Operator Today 18 Richard Palmer Striped Bass Research 21 Robert B. Pond Using Coastal Resources; or, Can You Get There from Here? 26 D.W. Bennett UTILIZATION OF LIVING RESOURCES 29 A Description of Recreational Finfishing Along the Atlantic Coast 30 in Relation to the Utilization of Living Marine Resources Bruce L. Freeman Marine Recreational Fisheries-Uses and Values 34 David G. Deuel Conflicts and Management in Marine Recreational Fisheries 38 Allen E. Peterson, Jr. The Importance of Fisheries Research in Understanding Marine Ecosystems 41 John B. Pearce Shellfish-Description, Uses, Values 46 Richard T. Keck Shellfish: Research and Management 53 John M. Hickey Recreational Use of Shellfishes: Issues and Conflicts 56 J.L. McHugh Wildlife: Description, Use and Values 63 Joseph P. Linduska Human Encroachment on Barrier Beaches of the Northeastern U.S. and Its Impact on Coa stal Birds 68 Paul A. Buckley and Francine G. Buckley 77 The Role of Ecological Information in Planning for the Future of Wildlife Resources A. William Palmisano 79 UTILIZATION OF PHYSICAL RESOURCES 80 Preserving and Protecting Natural Resources John T. Scanlon 81 Conflicts in Uses and Misuses of the Tidal Water Zone Lee E. Koppelman and DeWitt Davies 92 Research on Coastal Zone Management George C. Matthiessen 95 Coastal Recreation Aesthetics: Meaning and Measurement E. Glenn Carls 100 Salt Marsh Studies in Rhode Island Stephen Olsen 103 Conflicts Between Research and Recreation Wetlands John Teal 106 Law and Coastal Recreation: Land Use Management and Conflict Resolution David A. Rice 110 Impact of Boating on Shoreline Roy Mann ill Shoreline Conflicts in Coastal Recreation Virginia K. Tippie 113 Recreational Impact on Shorelines Research and Management Paul J. Godfrey 119 Research and Management: The Case of Fire Island National Seashore James A. Schmid 128 Summary and Conclusions on Coastal Recreation William Kornblum iv t 45L Or tN Foreword A broad array of coastal resources and their attendant values The papers included in this monograph examine these re- are the focus of a growing local, state, and national interest source descriptions, with regard to defining uses and values, in preserving the nation's coasts. Many of these resources problems of descriptions, and identifying conflicts, manage- and values are unique and fragile. But they are subject to ment and research needs. ever increasing pressures for use and modification. However, These papers were originally presented and discussed at a once coastal resources are altered or destroyed, the loss is Symposium on Coastal Recreation Resources in an Urbaniz- generally irreparable for coastal communities and the people ing Environment held in Hyannis, Massachusetts in April, who benefit from the resources. 1976. The authors are nationally recognized authorities who This monograph emphasizes coastal resource values and discuss information of value to resource professionals, busi- examines the public and private roles, including special inter- ness interests, planners, conservationists and others con-- est groups, in coastal recreation management; utilization of cerned with a wide range of coastal recreation resources as living resources-finfish, shellfish and wildlife;and utilization they relate to people. of physical resources-tidal water, wetlands and shorelines. John H. Noyes Ervin H. Zube v Public and Private Roles. in Coastal Recreation Management t, 4 - 41? .40 -7 Cape Cod National Seashore The Federal Role in Coastal Recreation Management Robert W. Knecht Assistant Administrator for Coastal Zone Management National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Department of Commerce, Washington, District of Columbia Introduction year it could be necessary to have service facilities for recre- This morning I would like to discuss three aspects of the ational submarines! coastal recreational problem: Although about 130,000,000 Americans live within 100 1) The nature of the problem as I see it; miles of the shoreline, only about two percent of our coasts 2) The role of government, with emphasis on the Federal are in publicly owned recreational areas. Most of the shore- role; and line of the United States is not available for public recrea- 3) Several emerging new factors that will bear watching. tional purposes either because it is privately held, or is un- suitable or inaccessible. In fact, the amount of shoreline po- The Problem tentially available for public recreational purposes is being In my view, the problem can be stated quite simply--we steadily reduced. Considerable portions of shoreline are be- have an ever increasing number of people wanting to use ing walled off by private development. Insensitive industrial and enjoy a fragile and often dwindling natural resource- and commercial development often creates an environment our coastlines. Let's look at the problem in more detail. making beaches unsuitable for recreational 'pursuits, and, The population of U.S. coastal counties is, in general, finally, the high price of coastal real estate often puts the increasing much more rapidly than inland counties. Already acquisition of otherwise suitable area beyond the reach of two-thirds of our population live within a day's drive of the public and their governments. shorelines and this proportion is increasing. People prefer to live on or near the coast for a number of reasons, but prob- The Nature of Coastal Recreation ably most importantly because of the area's recreation po- One of the key elements in the coastal experience is, of tential. It is hard to believe, but one set of statistics indicates course, the water itself. In addition to the ordinary ways wa- that the time spent in recreation along our Great Lakes and ter is used for recreation (swimming, boating, scuba diving, ocean shorelines has risen to 10-days per capita per year. With. etc.) man has always had a fascination for the water's edge a trend towards mo re leisure time, we can expect even great- and the sea itself. It arouses curiosity and images of distant er pressures on our coastal recreational resources. lands. The unbroken horizon with its infinite sweep, pro- Unfortunately, when we go to the beach nowadays we vides rest and relaxation. It is both alluring and enduring and do not go unfettered. And the simple act of getting to the many find the water's edge a spiritually moving place. beach is often now a problem. Automobile congestion on Given the attractiveness and desirability of our shore- highways leading to Cape Cod or mid-Atlantic beaches on I ines, how can we make beaches available to more people and mid-summer weekends is unbelievable. At the end of this maintain the positive attributes of the shoreline? frequently tortuous drive, there must be parking lots, filling There really are two ways to approach this problem, but stations and other accessories to accomodate the needs of we usually consider only one. We can either bring people the automobile. But cars are not the only -problem. Dune to the shore or attempt to bring the shore to the people. buggies, off -road -vehicles, motorcycles, boat trailers, and While many of our most urgent problems involve the first campers now compete for space and attention on and off the situation, that is, bringing more people to the shore, in my beach. A host of new support facilities, such as equipment mind, the possibility of bringing the shore to more people to- pump campers, are now needed. And who knows, next holds considerable promise. 2 First, a quick review of some of the problems caused in to assist in acquiring additional park land and open space. attempting to bring more people to the shore. First, as I The outdoor recreation plans which are d6veloped as a part mentioned earlier, are all the problems associated with in- of this program are also important in the overall coastal rec- creasing automobile congestion. These include satisfying reational context. the growing needs for additional parking facilities, gas sta- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service operates its refuge sys- tions; minimizing pollution and noise; and generally cater- tem which contains more than 32 million acres and receives ing to the scale of the automobile rather than the human. 20 million recreational visits annually. Recreational sites ad- The environmental degradation caused by highway con- ministered by the Corps of Engineers, surprisingly, see over struction and expansion, of course, is also a factor. Clearly, 300 million recreation-days of use per year. Of course, improved public transportation to beaches is an answer in there is a myriad of other federal programs that contribute, certain areas. Additional coastal recreational areas must be in one way or another, to the coastal recreational picture, opened up.and improved public access obtained. but there isn't time to go into detail here. But what are the possibilities of bringing the shore to more people? The New England Aquarium in Boston is-a good ex- Role of Coastal Zone Management ample of what can be done, as are the "marinelands" in The concept of coastal zone management came into being various parts of the country. But it seems to me that much in the late 60's as the result of a nationally important report more could be done, especially in our large, inner cities. Re- authored by a federal commission (the Straten Commission). opening urban waterfronts to public use and enjoyment This Commission recommended to Congress that legislation must be given much higher priority. Steps in this direction be enacted to encourage and provide support for increased are being taken along the Boston and San Francisco water- planning and management of the nation's coastal areas. The fronts. The Gateway National Park projects in the New report emphasized the value of the nation's shorelines and York and San Francisco metropolitan areas also represent the growing loss of be\aches because of poorly planned de- an innovative new approach. As you consider coastal rec- velopment. reation needs, I would encourage you to explore this "re- The federal legislation, the Coastal Zone Management Act, verse" dimension. was passed in October of 1972 after several years of study in the Congress. It authorized the creation of a federal pro- Role of Government gram which would provide financial grants to coastal states It is generally acknowledged that the government plays a for the planning and the administration of coastal manage- major role in providing outdoor recreation. While some pri- ment programs for their shorelines. My office, the Office of vate sector activities exist, given the large amounts of money Coastal Zone Management, was created in the National Oce- needed and the scale of the activity involved, there appears anic and Atmospheric Administration of the Department of to be a general acceptance of the government's role in sup- Commerce to direct the program. porting public beaches. Coastal zone management can be thought of as having There are three aspects of the federal government's in- three parts. The first part is to obtain an understanding of volvement: the functioning of the coastal ecosystem. Obtaining inven- 1 ) to fund and operate large, nationally important sites; tories of the resources present along the shoreline and in the 2) to operate programs that encourage and assist states coastal waters is an important part of this effort. and local governments in their recreational programs; Second, based on this understanding, state policies are ,and pdopted with regard to both the conservation of valuable 3) to encourage and assist states and local governments patural coastal areas and the encouragement of necessary, in the planning and management of their coastal areas, in- water-dependent coastal development. The third element cluding providing assurance that other federal programs will involves adoption of implementing devices to insure that the not frustrate state and local government plans for public coastal policies are carried out. This could include state laws, beaches. permit systems, and the like. Perhaps a few examples of government involvement are All 30 coastal states are currently receiving grants from necessary, but please don't hold me to these statistics. my office to develop coastal management programs. Most The Department of the Interior's National Park Service are completing the second year of what will likely be a three operates about 10 national seashores and four national lake or four year process. Several states, notably Washington, shores. The first national seashore was Cape Hatteras, estab- Oregon, and California, expect to be completing their pro- lished in 1937. Now about 450 miles of the United States grams within a few months and submitting them for federal shoreline are included in this system, the newest of which approval. After the Secretary of Commerce certifies that the are the Gateway and Golden Gate Parks. plans meet the federal requirements contained in the Act, As you know, the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation of the my office is in a position to help fund the administration of Department of the Interior operates the Land and Water Con- these programs. servation Fund through which-several hundred million dol- All of the coastal states are including marine recreation lars a year are made available to state and local governments as an important element of their coastal planning efforts. 3 As a case in point, the California coastal plan has a number of. the continental shelf for research, protection, and recre- of important coastal recreational policies contained within ational purposes. The first national marine sanctuary, desig- it. I urge you to examine this plan in more detail if you are nated last year, is at the site of the sinking of the. U.S.S. interested in the way the recreational dimension will be in- Monitor off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. A second ma- cluded in state coastal programs. rine sanctuary was designated in federal waters adjacent to John Pennecamp Coral Reef State Park in the Florida Keys. Some Emerging New Factors This device can be thought of as the water counterpart of Before closing, I would like to mention two emerging fac- the National Park System and could by very important in tors that could affect the long-term coastal recreational pic- protecting unique marine recreational resources. We intend ture. The first involves new legislation, about to be passed to give this program substantially more visibility and atten- by Congress, which will considerably modify the Coastal tion in the future. Zone Management Act. The second factor pertains to the existing marine sanctuary program also administered by my Summary off ice. In conclusion, I hope my remarks have given you some The legislation currently pending in Congress (which sub- additional perspectives on the coastal recreation problem. sequently was signed into law by President Ford on July 27, Certainly, the federal government has an important role to 1976), will greatly strengthen the basic Coastal Zone Man- play but so do state and local governments, especially in agement Act as wel I as provide for a new program of federal the area of coastal zone planning and management. What is assistance to states and communities about to be impacted really called for, therefore, is a "partnership at the shoreline." by coastal energy activities. The legislation will be important I close with a quote from a book entitled "The Challenge to coastal recreation because it requires states to specifically of Leisure" by Arthur N. Pack. include a planning process for improved public access to "Deprive man of intimate relationship with the soil or public coastlines and, in addition, authorizes the creation of some equivalent, and his bodily powers, as well as his spir- a new financial assistance program to assist in land acquisi- itual and mental fiber, weaken and decay. Surrounded tion which will improve public access. by steel, concrete, asphalt and glass, and doing the same The new Coastal Energy Impact Program will include meaningless, repetitive job day after day, with no feeling funds to prevent, reduce, or ameliorate recreational and en- of creating something in its entirety, the worker becomes vironmental losses suffered in connection with coastal energy ill-adjusted, unhappy, and unstable. activity. A relationship with nature because it envisages the chang- The marine sanctuaries program came into being under ing seasons and nature's moods of friendliness, of beauty Title 3 of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries and creation, it feeds the very soul of Man and raises up Act of 1972, commonly known as the Ocean Dumping Act. his eyes to the infinite possibilities of wider horizons un- This provision allows the federal government to designate til he is no longer a cog of man-created machines but a areas of the ocean from the high tide mark out to the edge living power at one with creation." 4 Coastal Recreation in Massachusetts Matthew B. Connolly, Jr., Director Office of Coastal Zone Management Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, Boston Introduction Although marinas, boatyards, boat and motor sales have en- Americans are participating in outdoor recreation more than joyed high profits compared to other marine industries dur- ever before. The United States Bureau of Outdoor Recrea- ing the pastfew years,6 marina owners say that they are hav- tion found that increases in leisure activities, particularly ing greater difficulties establishing and expanding their busi- water-related recreation, far outstrips population increases. nesses. They cite lack of, or cost of, waterfront land as a For example, from 1960-65, demand for fishing increased primary cause. 7 by 12 percent, swimming by 18 percent, and boating by 15 The immediacy of the recreation dilemma is critical. So- percent, while population grew by only 8 percent. Projec- lutions must be found within the next decade or most re- tions for the 1960-1980 period indicate that swimming will maining opportunities will be lost. Coastal recreation bene- increase by 72 percent while the population is likely to in- fits cannot be narrowly construed: public land acquisition crease by only 29 percent.1 in the coastal zone can complement and help implement In Massachusetts, the State Comprehensive Outdoor Rec- other Coastal Zone Management policies. Acquisition can, reation Plan estimates that the demand for swimming is under proper management, conserve marine ecosystems and highest of all recreation demands and is likely to exceed by prevent property losses in flood damage areas as well as pro- four times all other needs for recreation in the next 25 vide coastal recreational opportunities. Recreation sites and years.2 Because of a simultaneous dwindling of undeveloped activities are good "gateway enterprises," attracting visitors coastal resources, meeting recreation demands is more diffi- who spend money on food, lodging, and tourist facilities.8 cult in coastal areas than in any other Massachusetts region. Recreation can also spur development, and impart high val- The New England River Basins'SENE Study estimates that uses to existing housing stock as well as remaining open approximately 130,000 additional acres are needed in coast- lands.9 al counties to meet all future recreation demands.3 But the However, the detrimental impacts of recreation should amount of coastal town acreage developed for non-recrea- not be overlooked. Recreation activities place high demands tion uses has increased by up to 500 percent over the last on transportation networks and other municipal services. twenty-five years. 4 Some coastal towns, previously consid- Over-utilization and conflicting uses degrade the quality of ered rural, currently have little undeveloped coastal land the recreation experience as well as the surrounding natural 5 remaining. Urban areas, chronically deficient in coastal and man-made environs, and the cost of maintenance and recreational facilities, have few small and inexpensive coastal operation of the recreation facilities quickly approaches the sites left. Thus, options for redistributing recreation oppor- cost of acquisition. tunities are limited. The Massachusetts shoreline as a whole is deficient in rec- The high cost of land is another facet of the recreation reation facilities, particularly in eastern Massachusetts (Bos- dilemma. Traditionally, beacheshave been purchased by the ton Harbor and the North and South Shores) and on Mar- public sector since private enterprise cannot make a reason- tha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Eastern Massachusetts needs able profit on beach recreation given the limited season, the more opportunities for all recreation activities; southeastern high acquisition and operating costs necessary, and low rev- Massachusetts needs more public beaches for swimming; enues. Recently, as the price of coastal land has continued Cape Cod needs more facilities for boating and camping, to escalate, other recreation ventures have begun to founder. but provides ample swimming opportunities, particularly on 5 the National Seashore; and the Islands are deficient in all tration of residents, the need for transportation I inks is more recreation activities. critical. Unfortunately, suitable new sites for recreation are not In Massachusetts, coastal recreation sites, as well as coast- available in all of the regions. Opportunities in eastern Mas- al resources, water quality, and other requisites are not even- sachusetts are the most limited, particularly for large sites ly distributed; transportation links, understandably, were such as state beaches and campgrounds. Acquisition of a not planned to ameliorate the recreation imbalance. The un- few large military sites, however, could alleviate some of even distribution of existing recreation sites and needs is the shortages in this region. Buzzards Bay, Cape Cod and portrayed in Table 1. 10 The table indicates 'that the eastern the Islands offer a greater number of opportunities for de- Massachusetts region, including the North and South Shore veloping large recreation sites. However, these sites are dis- areas and greater Boston Harbor, is most deficient in recre- tant from major population centers, and serious transporta- ation areas@ The State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation tion problems are caused by excessive numbers of people Plan, the Massachusetts Growth Policy and the Coastal Zone driving to recreation sites. Additional investment in sites far Maria 11,ement Public Opinion Survey corroborate this find from population centers can further aggravate congestion ing. Conversely, Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts and other transportation impacts. Therefore, it is essential collectively provide the- greatest supply of major water re- that improvements in public transportation be considered lated activities. Sixty-five percent of Massachusetts's popu- the critical first steps in providing or expanding recreation lation is located in eastern Massachusetts, but only 25 per- opportunities. cent of the public water-related facilities are located there. Transportation improvements should foster greater use Furthermore, the situation is even more acute than the of underutilized or new recreational sites, should reduce the figures indicate, as eastern Massachusetts residents partici- volume of the current transportation impacts of congestion pate more in outdoor recreation than do citizens of the rest and noise, and should be compatible with the capacity of of the state. In order to reach areas where recreation supply recreational sites to accommodate visitors. Appropriate to is more plentiful, week-end recreational ists have established the scale of these sites, jitneys, boat service, and bicycle and a "commuting" pattern, based on the auto, which causes hiking trails should be developed and expanded. Such low severe traffic jams and local congestion. This coastal recre- intensity transportation can provide access without causing ation commuting is serviced primarily by the following traffic impacts. routes: I-M and Route 128 to the North Shore;-Route 1 to Acquisitions must also be sensitive to the scale of poten- the near North Shore; Routes 3 and 3A to the South Shore tial recreation appropriate on the site, as well as the scale of and beyond to Cape Cod and Buzzards Bay; 228 to the near the surrounding community. For this reason, Coastal Zone South Shore; Routes 6, 6A and 28 through Cape Cod; and Management finds that, generally, acquisition of small dis- 1-95, 6 and 25 through Buzzards Bay and Mount Hope Bay. persed sites is preferable to acquisition of very large sites. Some recent improvements in these major transportation Similarly, small scale improvements at existing sites can links have been recreation oriented. For example, a proposed mitigate existing impacts, and add to recreational opportu- extension around Buttermilk Bay to connect with the Bourne nities. Such improvements include expansion, provisions for Bridge may ease congestion; possible double barrelling of multiple use, and improved maintenance. This strategy is Route 6 from Dennis to Orleans could ease traff ic problems particularly appropriate to eastern Massachusetts and other on the lower Cape; and widening of 1-95 will increase use of urbanized areas where there is little undeveloped land and North Shore recreation. Improvements like these, while in- use of existing facilities is intense. creasing access to a broad area, will intensify impact s at the Coastal Zone Management's primary concern is to increase end of the recreational journey, since coastal towns are by and enhance public use of the Massachusetts shoreline while nature geographic dead-ends and bottlenecks.12 improving eAsting facilities and minimizing future conflicts, Some non-auto,alternatives complement or partly substi- over-utilization and environmental impacts. Our plan is to tute for private vehicle transportation. The Boston Metro- improve transportation and access; to acquire new sites politan Region is serviced by public transportation. City in recreation poor areas; to expand suitable existing sites dwellers can take'buses or subways to nearby beaches in through small acquisitions or encouraging multiple uses; Revere, Lynn, South Boston, Dorchester, and Quincy. Re- and to improve maintenance. cently, the southeast Region of the state has formed a tran- sit authority which provides bus service for New Bedford, Access: Distribution and Transportation Fall River, Dartmouth, North Fairhaven, Mattapoisett and Access to recreation is a function of the distribution of and Somerset. Cape Cod has frequent bus service among towns transportation to recreation sites. When recreation opportu- on the Cape and from the Cape to Boston and the South nities are available near concentrations of people, the neces- Shore. Also, boat service from Boston to Provincetown of- sity for long trips becomes less acute: e.g., Boston Harbor fers transportation to recreation, as well as being a unique beaches are within a 15-30 minute transit ride of most met- recreational experience itself. ropolitan area residents. However, where the distribution of, Improvements like these are a necessary part of improv- recreation opportunities is not proportional to the concen- ing recreation access, and the state must take the lead in 6 encouraging their implementation. Transportation must be mastersfeel that their harbors are under-utilized, particularly planned for recreation. Creative alternatives to the automo- in greater Boston and Mount Hope Bay.18 In these areas, bile can be made more attractive. Prepackaged bus trips, well marinas may be needed as facilities which attract people and publicized weekend recreational transportation, increased provide services. Conversely, launching ramps and/or dredg- use of boats to Boston Harbor Islands, to other parts of the ing may be the only feasible alternative in critically crowded Harbor, South and North Shores, and to Cape Cod National harbors. Nonetheless, construction of public access ramps is Seashore are alternatives which can be, instituted now and the least expensive and most efficient-way of meeting boat- as recreation sites are acquired or expanded. ing demand in deficient areas. Swimming and Beach Use Meeting Coastal Recreation Needs: Space and Services Preferred characteristics for swimming include undeveloped The primary alternative to improving transportation to rec- sandy shoreline, safe surf and currents, and parking and ser- reation is to acquire, develop or facilitate recreation devel- vice facilities. Clean water, as defined by public health stan- opment in the most deficient regions. Given unlimited fund- dards, is mandatory. ing, it might be an ideal solution. However, since coastal By far, swimming has higher participation rates than all recreation is dependent upon amenities like clean water, un- other recreation, although its recent growth in participation developed sandy beaches, etc., finding the best sites in the is not as high as boating and fishing.19 Since beach use and needy regions is not always possible. This section identifies swimming provide so many people of all different income the requisites of major water-related activities and interprets levels with inexpensive recreation, advocacy for open beach- from unmet "activity days" (Table 1) the land and water es or public ownership of beaches has been strong. The Co- acreage necessary to satisfy needs. lonial Ordinance granted shoreline owners the land betwee n Boating the mean high and low water lines, but reserved for the pub- Recreational boating requires marine facilities and services, lic the rights to navigate, fish and fowl below the high water ships or moorings in a harbor or similarly protected embay- mark. In 1973, the Massachusetts Legislature asked the ment, or launching ramp access. Ancillary services include State Supreme Court for an opinion on whether these re- Coast Guard and Harbor Master protection and, often, se- tained rights include walking as a lawful public use of the curity police protection. Clean water is desirable but by no foreshore. The Court felt that such an interpretation was a means necessary. Requirements for minimum water depths taking without compensation and was thus unconstitutional. and bottom types become more critical as boat sizes increase. Responding to this decision, the Special Commission Rela- In Massachusetts, approximately 100 recreational harbors tive to the Management, Operation and Accessibility of Pub- hold over 300 marinas whose slips and ramps provide about lic Beaches .stated in its final report: "Acquisition of rightsby 20 percent of the total supply of coastal boating activity express dedication, acq uisition or other such means, is, in ef- days; 30 coastal public access ramps provide another 20 per- fect, the only way in which significant expansion of public cent; while private, town and marina moorings provide 40 beach resources will occur.,,20 percent. Satisfying just the presently unmet coastal boating Table 1 shows that 80 percent of the total demand for demand will require doubling these "access" facilities. shoreline swimming is met but badly distributed, and limited This demand could be met by the construction of 1000- to 250 miles of free or fee charged beaches.21 Furthermore, 1500 additional marinas, similar in size to existing marinas, the absolute numbers still seeking opportunities for coastal at a probable private/public investment of $500 million to swimming is still higher than for any other activity. 1 billion; ortheconstruction.of 150 additional public access In order to meet unfulfilled demand, roughly 50 miles or ramps, at a probable public investment of $15 to 25 mil- from 100-10,000 acres of additional beach is needed22 (de- lion;14 or dredging for mooring space of 2500-5000 acres of Jpending on whether "lineal" beach or major park beaches harbor bottom, at a probable public cost of $2 billion;15 or are developed). Some demand can also be met by substitut- combinations of the above. ing similar facilities, i.e., inland ponds and public pools in- Clearly, the least costly and most timely public means of stead of urban coastal beaches; although one survey indi- providing boating opportunities is through the public launch- cates that ponds and pools cannot substitute for coastal ing ramp. Also, the ramp provides better access to the water beaches because of the special qualities of wind, waves and for middle income, trailer boat owners whose numbers are visual character of the shoreline.23 increasing relative to other boat owners.16 Marinas, which Along the Massachusetts shoreline, about 100 miles of require as much area as ramps both on land and water, are undeveloped (without abutting residences) non-public sandy becoming increasingly expensive to develop and operate, beach remain for possible addition to public supply.24 Most and thus, the private sector is unlikely to meet demand.17 of this beach is in small sections with about 5-10 sites suita- Also, dredging simply to provide mooring space has become ble for large scale recreation facilities. Usually located away prohibitively expensive. from population areas, these few large sites are on Martha's Certainly, the state could encourage combinations of the Vineyard and Nantucket, in the Buzzards Bay region, and three alternatives which would serve the different regions in Cape Cod. The North and South Shore, and certainly Boston, varying degrees of'efficiency. For example, many harbor have very few undeveloped sandy beaches left. 7 Table I -Recreation supply/demand Demand Needs Currently (Demand not 1975 Supply 1975 Demand Satisfied satisfied) *(Activity Days) (Activity Days) (Percent) (Activity Days) Boating "Eastern Mass. 2,800,000 9,100,000 30 6,300,000 SoEa. Mass. 1,100,000 850,000 130 none Cape Cod 1,800,000 2,800,000 64 1,000,000 Islands r 90,000 1,400,000 6 1,310,000 TOTAL 5,790,000 14,150,000 41 8,360,000 Swimming Eastern Mass. 4,000,000 30,000,000 13 26,100,000 SoEa. Mass. 1,700,000 3,900,000 44 2,200,000 Cape Cod 29,700,000 9,200,000 323 none Islands, 3,500,000 5 500,000 64 2,000,000 TOTAL 38,900,000 48,700,000 80 9,800,000 Camping Eastern Mass. 300,000 900,000 33 600,000 SoEa. Mass. 400,000 100,000 400 none Cape Cod 500,000 1,400,000 36 900,000 Islands 31,000 900,000 3 869,000 TOTAL 1,231,000 3,300,000 37 2,069,000 Salt Water Fishing Eastern Mass. I mpossi bl e to es- 7,600,000 SoEa. Mass. timate, but pre- 900,000 Cape Cod sumed at least as 1,800,000 Islands high as boating 806,000 TOTAL 11,106,000 *Activity days are def ined as the use of a facility for any period of time during a single day. Also known as user days. "Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) regions were used for demand figures and represent broad areas; e.g., Eastern Mass. covers metropolitan Boston, the South Shore and the North Shore and west to about Route 495. However, for supply, Coastal Zone Management figures, calculated for coastal towns only, were substituted. Thus, the table shows inland and coastal demand for the supply of coastal recreation resources. 8 Another alternative to meeting needs is to open "resident ences. For example, the tourist who is able to camp, swim only" beaches to everyone; however, this change would and tour historic houses in the same area experiences more probably lead to crowded conditions. The Special Commis- enjoyment than supply/demand statistics for individual ac- sion concurs, stating that "although the Commission believes tivities illustrate. On the other hand, inappropriate combi- that such restrictions (residents only) are generally not law- nations of activities, such as swimming and surf fishing oc- ful or appropriate, it recognizes that such remedial action curring on the same beach can detract from the value of each (lifting of all restrictions) would prevent or discourage resi- individual activity. Although each conflict must be decided dent recreation, pose difficult municipal finance problems on a site-by-site basis, location, proximity of activities to and, more generally, only spread traffic, parking and other one another, and timing and seasonalness of activities are im- such problems from (other beaches).,,25 portant factors in planning for multiple uses. The following In short, beyond what can be gained through transpor- examples illustrate desirable multiple uses along the Massa- tation improvements, there is not much flexibility in meet- chusetts coast. ing existing beach needs. Small, well distributed sites are Camping, Hiking and the Coastline not only desirable because they pose fewer traffic, social Campers and hikers require large areas for their trailers and and other environmental impacts, but they also offer the tents, water supplies and sanitary facilities; and trails to lead only possible long-term option for meeting beach demand in them from camping areas to interesting destinations. a shoreline as developed as Massachusetts', particularly in A. system of coastal trails and campgrounds for hikers, Boston Harbor, and the North and South Shores. Similarly, bicyclists and equestrians would make more coast accessible expansions of existing facilities can alleviate deficiencies in to more people; could link population centers with recrea- some regions, particularly if transportation to them can be tional facilities; and would allow people to enjoy the scenic improved. Finally, large sites can be purchased on an as- qualities of the coastline. Near-shore coastal campgrounds available basis, e.g., surplus federal properties. could function as origins for recreational ists, and trails would Salt Water Fishing provide links to the swimming, boating and fishing on the Salt water fishing has relatively few requirements that differ shore. from boating and swimming. However, fishing needs can al- The demand for camping is rapidly increasing: 55,000 so be met in more flexible ways than by boat or beach use. more people camped in state campgrounds in July 1975 than People can fish from most piers, bridges or jetties-places in July 1974.29 The unmet demand for camping (Table 1) that might not be suitable for other forms of coastal recre- and the expense of near-shore land make unlikely the expan- ation. Similarly, as mentioned before, Massachusetts law al- sion of shoreside camping areas. However, opportunities for lows beach passage between mean low and high tide for trail developmentare limitless, ranging from bike routes cur- "navigation, fishing and fowling"; thus opportunities are rently being developed by the Massachusetts Department of limited mostly by lack of shore access points.26 Public Works to scenic rivers to utility easements. Since the supply of fishing opportunities is difficult to Tourism and the Coastline estimate it is specious to argue that there are unmet needs. The coastal zone attracts a large number of visitors who However, studiei indicate that salt water fishing participa- come to enjoy the swimming beaches, sailing and boating tion has increased nationally by 45 percent since 1960. The opportunities, and fishing experiences the coast offers. Roll- value.of fish caught by salt water sportsfishermen in Massa- ing dunes, a craggy rock ledge, expanses of blue water, and 27 chusetts is estimated at nearly $20 million. I Additionally, the sights and sounds of a busy fishing harbor are probably Massachusetts has higher amounts of fishing participation some of the first things that come to people's minds when than the combined neighboring states of Maine, New Hamp- they think of the coast. The coast's ability to soothe, to shire, and Rhode Island. Fishermen in those states fish al- humble, to excite, or just to pre-occupy makes it a primary mostas frequently in Massachusetts as they do in their home tourist attraction. 28 states. The state's tourist industry sustains an estimated 74,400 Massachusetts' salt water fishing is an increasing coastal full-time, year-round iobs. Income attributed to tourism is activity which generates substantial 'income, and which estimated at $1.2 billion annually.30 The coast accounts for makes further. demands on coastal access. Alternatives for most of the jobs and much of the state's tourist income. For satisfying fishing demand include beach acquisition and con- example, 56 percent of the state's hotels, motels, trailer stnuction or rehabilitation of usable piers for use by fisher- parks, and campgrounds are located along the coast (exclud- men. Even the -smallest access poin't-s along the coast are use- ing those in Boston).31 Additionally, two of the most obvi- ful for fishermen. Thus highway and bridge projects, utili- ously coastal regions, Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard, at- ties, etc., can provide fishing opportunities at minimal ex- tribute 75 percent and 95 percent of their respective Gross pense. National Products (GNP's) to the tourist industry. , Maintaining a healthy tourist industry, which for some Other Opportunities and Constraints regions is the primary source of income for residents, re- This section explores combinations of coastal uses which quires a continuing effort to provide the recreational fa- together can enhance or degrade basic recreational experi- cilities tourists demand-swimming beaches, fishing and 9 boating -opportunities-and to preserve those aspects of the nance cost problems are serious enough that the Special Leg- coast's visual environment which serve to attract tourists. islative Commission, in recommending legislation to prohibit Other Multiple Uses non-resident discrimination at beaches, consciously exempt- a- - k a - here- Many other coastal uses can also coexist with recreation. For ed pricing differentials " t municip I beaches w the-mu-, example, public utility rights-of-way can be used to pro- nicipality uses tax revenues to maintain and operate the, vide access for shore fishing; institutions can provide access beach facilities, and the fee differential reflects an adjust- for general recreation and tourism; and port operations can ment in charges that effectively equalized resident and non- serve as exciting focal points for sightseeing. The seasonal resident daily use payments."33 differences in Massachusetts also offer creative possibilities . If communities are not allowed to recover tax funded for multiple uses: parking lots at marinas can provide win- maintenance expenses through differential pricing, town resi- ter storage for boats; beaches used by swimmers in the sum-. dents would either be subsidizing out-of-town users, or might mer can be used as campgrounds in the fall; tourist hotels not be able to maintain beaches adequately. Adequate main- can change to winter convention centers. tenance is important because it increases the capability of re- sources to support greater use. Thus, where a differential in Conflicting Uses and Environmental Impacts access fee is necessary to cover maintenance, the well-main- Conflicting uses and environmental impacts stem from inap- tained facility warrants the higher fee. propriate intensity and mixing of incompatible uses. Con- flicts resultfrom physical competition for space, psychologi- Literature Cited cal incompatibility and destruction of resource-related val- Footnotes ues. Conflicts, if allowed to continue unmanaged, may result 1 .U.S. Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Recrea- in reduced health and safety and deterioration of environ- tion Trends. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Print- mental and recreational qualities. Examples of such coastal ing Office, 1967.) pp. 20-24. conflicts include: boating impact (bacterial waste, danger) on 2. Department of Environmental Management, Executive swimming; boating impact (speed, wake, noise) on fishing; Office of Environmental Affairs, State Comprehensive beach use with car impact (noise, visual) on adjacent private Outdoor Recreation Plan. (Boston, Mass., 1976.) Chap- properties. Although there may be many possible conflicts ter VI. under certain conditions, solutions can also be varied. Ex- 3. New England River Basins Commission, Southeastern amples of types of solutions include: New England Study. (Boston, Mass., 1975.) pp.6-4. -Conflicts are between the operational aspects of each ac- 4. W. P. MacConnell, University of Massachusetts, Col- tivity, i.e., where equipment and space needs conflict or lege of Food and Natural Resources, Twenty Years of the speed or intensity of the activities conflict. Such con- Change. (Amherst, Mass., 1973.) flicts may be resolved through mechanical manipulation, 5. MacConnell, Ibid. With special analyses on shoreline e.g., reduction of speed, separation of spaces, etc. land for Massachusetts Coastal Zone Office. (Boston, -Conflicts are in timing, seasonality and sequencing, i.e., Mass., 1975.) where uses are incompatible at different times of the day 6. W. Robert Patterson, The New England Marine Industry,- or season. Solutions may involve separating uses in time A Study of the Marine Manufacturing and Services Com- rather than space. panies. (Boston, Mass.: N.E. Marine Resources Infor- -Conflicts may be resolved through minor management mation Program and New England Aquarium, 1971.) rules, e.g., leashing of dogs or other administrative and page i. policing solutions. 7. John L. Compton and Robert B. Ditton, A Feasibility, Although resolution of some conflicts are only possible Management and Economic Study of Marinas on the through prohibition of a use, many can be resolved by im- Texas Gulf Coast. (Sea Grant, Texas: Department of proved management. Recreation and Parks, Texas A-& M University, 1975.) p. 8. - Maintenance and Pricing 8. Patterson, Op. Cit., pp. 3-7, 3-8. Indicates multiplier Throughout regional Coastal Zone Management public meet- factors of charter fishing and marinas as 3.08 and 2.76 ings, citizens cited maintenance of recreation areas and lack respectively, ranging slightly under fish processing and of facilities as major concerns. higher than other marine manufacturing. While federal or state funds frequently support local acqui- 9. Compton and Ditton, OP. Cit. sitions, once the community acquires an area, its mainte- 10. Table 1 presents information from two sources. De- nance is borne by or charged to the town. This practice partly mand for recreation activities has been extrapolated accounts for why fees are charged to out-of-town residents. from the State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Maintenance expenditures are not small. Last year the De- Plan. Calculated as "activity days," (defined as use of partment of Environmental Management spent $775,000 for a facility period of ti me during a single day), this es- the operation of its beaches (vs. $435,000 in revenue) and timate for dem and has been determined using economic $3.8 million for parks (vs. $992,000 in revenue).32 Mainte- information developed in ORRCC, modified by survey 10 information developed in SCORP. Supply figures, also sachusetts beaches was developed based on previous in- translated into activity days, have been developed from ventories including New England River Basins Commis- a specific CZM recreation inventory, i.e., for sites only sion's SENE, the Special Legislative Commission report, in/near the shoreline. Space requirements for activity as well as field checking and Citizen Advisory Commis- days are subsequently developed in the rest of the text. sions' information and mapping. 11. Massachusetts Office of State Planning, TowardsaState 22. Recreation beaches can be developed, at a minimum, as Growth Policy. (Boston, Mass., 1975.); and Massachu- simple liFY6al access on sandy beaches, or at a maximum setts CZM, "Citizen Survey" (Boston, Mass., IE06.) as major park beaches including parking, associated facil- 12. Special Legislative Commission, "Report Relative to the ities, upland park, picnic tables, etc. Fifty miles of the Management, Operation and Accessibility of Public latter type of recreation beach would require 10,000 Beaches Along the Seacoast." (Boston, Mass., 1975.) acres, assuming 200 acres per mile of beach. p., 31; cites traffic and parking problems stated at pub- 23. National Park Service, "Summary of Outdoor Repreation lic hearings. Activities in Preference of the Population Living in the 13. Calculations were developed from a Massachusetts CZM Region of the Delaware Basin," prepared from report by inventory of all coastal harbors and access ramps. Be- Audience Research Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, January, sides the major public access ramps, there are over 100 1958. The report documents information from a poll additional small ramps which have been included under that indicated that 48 percent of the respondents chose "marina slips and ramps;"-over 60 of these small ramps the New Jersey seashore for the preferable day outing. are located in marinas on Cape Cod. 24. Beach and shoreline inventory, Loc. Cit. 14. Calculations were based on the need for a five-fold in- 25. Special Legislative Commission, Loc. Cit, p. 33. crease in the number of existing marinas or ramps in 26. See Opinion of the Justices, State of Massachusetts, order to double total supply, as each currently provides 313 NE 2nd 561, 1974. - 20 percent of the total boating supply. Assumptions for 27. David G. Deuel, "l 970 Salt Water Angling Sur vey," cur- cost estimates include: $0.5 million for construction, rent fish statistics number 6200, Statistics and Marketing dredging and land acquisition of one marina; $100,000 News Division, National Marine Fisheries Service, Sandy for major ramp construction and land acquisition for Hook, New Jersey. SENE estimated $20 million value, 10 parking spaces. pp. 6-11. Estimate of value of sport fish caught from per- 15. Calculations were based on assumptions that one acre sonal communication with Christopher Mantzaris, Na- of water at a depth of five feet was necessary to safely tional Marine Fisheries Service, Gloucester, Mass. moor 15-20 small boats and dredging costs at approxi- 28. National Marine Fisheries Service, "Participation in Ma- mately $8 per cubic yard. Therefore, dredging one acre rine Recreation F ishing, N. E. US 1973-74," (Washing- to minimum depth would cost $40,000; 5,000 acres ton, D.C.: Department of Commerce, January, 1975.) would cost $2 billion. pp. 4-5. 16. David A. Storey, The Massachusetts Marina Boatyard In- 29. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of En- dustry. (Amherst, Mass.: Massachusetts Agricultural Ex- vironmental Management, Division of Forests and Parks. periment Station, University of Massachusetts, 1972-73.) Based on inventory of tourism statistics. 17. According to the National Association of Engine and 30. Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Travel Adminis- Boat Manufacturers in an article called "Shoreline Rec- tration, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Re- reation Resources of the U.S.," boats purchased nation- search Report, The Economic Impact of Tourism on wide increased from 2,440,000 in 1947 to 8,025,000 in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, prepared for the 1960, or an increase by 220 percent. Marina develop- Massachusetts Department of Commerce and Develop- ment in Massachusetts has not similarly increased. Twen- ment, December, 1974. Part-time or seasonal jobs are ty years (MacConnell, Op. Cit.) of land use change cor- adjusted to full-time, year-round equivalents, e.g., two roborates this finding. full-time six month jobs equal one full-time year round 18. This information is based on an informal Massachusetts job. Income attributed to tourism includes both direct, CZM te lephone survey of harbormasters. Opinions were indirect and induced expenditures. solicited regarding maintenance problems, harbor capa- 31. Of the state's 1308 hotels, motels, trailer parks, and city and conflicting uses. Almost 50 percent of the har- camps,736 (or56 percent)are located in the Counties of bormasters felt that their harbors could sustain more use. Barnstable; Bristol, Dukes, Essex, Plymouth, and Nan- 19. SCORP, Loc. Cit., p. V-61. tucket. U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1972 Census of Se- 20. The Special Legislative Commission Relative to the Man- lected Service Industries, Massachusetts. agement, Operation and Accessibility of Public Beaches, 32. Extrapolated from budget information on parks and "Third Interim Report," Chapter 40 of the Resolves beaches for'the State of Massachusetts, Department of of 1972, prepared by David Rice. (Boston, Mass., Au- - Environmental Management and Metropolitan District gust, 1975.) p. 11. Commission. 21. The amount, ownership, and access information of Mas- 33. Special Legislative Commission, Loc, Cit., p. 13. 11 Coastal Use Planning David B. Keiffer, Director Planning Office, State of Delaware Dover, Delaware Land Use Planning Evolution modify, in a rather significant fashion, the lifestyleof south- Recreation, coastal zone, and land use planning have had a ern Delaware. Chief among these was the acquisition of land long evolutionary process in Delaware that is still continuing. in southern New Castle county, along Delaware Bay, by The State Planning Office was created by an act of the Gen- Shell Oil Company and the rezoning of that land to heavy eral Assembly in 1961. The office has four broad statutory manufacturing by the county in which it was located; the ,responsibilities: 1) the provision of planning assistance to acquisition of approximately 1,100acresof land in southern the governor, the general assembly, and state agencies; 2) plan- Kent county, on Delaware Bay, by the Delaware Bay Trans- ning assistance to local governments; 3) the preparation of portation Company, a consortium of oil companies with an the capital improvements program and budget for the state announced interest in developing a lower bay deepwater government; and 4) the preparation of the Delaware devel- port; and several other proposals for deepwater port facili- opment plan. By executive order we are responsible for a ties in the lower Delaware Bay adjacent to a natural deep variety of other tasks, the most significant of which is re- channel of some 65 feet. view and coordination of federal funds working under the In order to establish a state government response to these general authority of the federal 1968 Intergovernmental Co- initiatives, the governor appointed a task force of marine and operation Act. coastal affairs. The task force worked for approximately a In 1964 the planning office initiated work on the first year before it filed its preliminary report. Based on the pre- statewide development plan. This plan was a traditional re- liminary report, the governor proposed the legislation that gional plan. It was completed and accepted,by the governor ultimately resulted in the Coastal Zone Act, which was after public hearings in 1968. One of the special studies con- signed into law on June 28, 1971. The law categorically pro- ducted as part of the development of that plan was a shore- hibited heavy industry uses in a statutorily defined-coastaf line study and plan, which recommended that certain por- zone. It also prohibited "offshore bulk product transfer fa- tions of the shoreline be held for conservation uses, others cilities." Finally, it established a permit system for new man- be put into recreation, and still others go into urban devel- ufacturing uses and the expansion of nonconforming manu- opment. facturing uses in the coastal zone. The. state planning office The concepts of the shoreline plan were picked up in the was given responsibility forthe administration of the statute. overall development plan and were also incorporated in the It should be noted that the Coastal Zone Act controlled first comprehensive outdoor recreation plan that we did in only industrial and manufacturing activities. Al ,1. other uses compliance with the planning requirements of the National continued to be controlled through the normal zoning pro- Land and Water Conservation Fund Act., cesses of municipalities and counties. I would also point out The state plan was reaffirmed when a new state adminis- that county pianning and zoning, in the two southernmost tration took office in 1969. counties, isa relatively new phenomenon, with enabling iegis- The state planning act, while mandating an overall state lation being passed by the General Assembly only in 1968. development plan, clearly indicates that the state plan is a During this time, the state also established the Beach Pro- policy plan and has no regulatory significance. During the tection Act, which set up a revolving fund for erosion con- late sixties it became apparent that certain industrial devel- trol measures, but perhaps more importantly, established a opments were in the planning stages that could potentially state regulatory process for construction in the beach areas, 12 the objective of which was to keep new construction behind Tomorrow Commission the dune lines. The commission was composed of 31 members, including the state agencies most associated with physical develop- Growing Urban Pressures ment, the county and municipal governments and numer- When the current administration took office in 1973, the ous citizen groups including both traditional conservation pressures of urbanization in the coastal areas was increasing, groups, such as the Sierra Club, and groups oriented toward particularly in the area of condominium development along development, including the state agencies most associated the Atlantic coastline. This was generally a resultof spillover with physical development, the county and municipal gov- from Ocean City, Maryland. The governor proposed a com- ernments and numerous citizen groups including both tradi- prehensive legislative program that included a Coastal Zone tional conservation groups, such as the Sierra Club, and Management Act, which would have brought all urban uses groups oriented toward development, including the state under a state permit process in the statutory coastal zone. Chamber of Commerce and the Building Trades Council. We With the passage,of the National Coastal Zone Manage- recognized that 31 members was about as large as any com- ment Act, the state planning office was given lead responsi- mission could get and still serve as a reasonable forum for bility for the implementation of that act in Delaware. At debate. We also wanted to get as many people involved in about the same time, it became quite obvious that the over- the process as we could. The result of that apparent conflict all state plan needed to be reviewed and updated. The con- was a division of the commission into three committees: land troversy over the state Coastal Zone Act was growing rapidly use and community development, economic development, with the introduction of bills into the General Assembly and cost of public services. We then divided the commission that would remove the heavy industry prohibition from the membership up equally among the three subcommittes and statute. augmented the commission members on the committees In order to bring all of this into focus in as objective a with, generally, an equal number of committee members fashion as possible, the governor created, by executive or- who were not commission members. We also had a techni- der, the Delaware Tomorrow Commission. The charge to cal advisory committee made up of working planners and the commission was as follows: other professionals from state and local governments. Final- "Whereas, it is essential that the state of Delaware devise ly, professional services were rendered to the commission a statewide- development policy on growth in the areas of both by my staff and by representatives of various schools industrial, commercial, and residential development includ- at the University of Delaware, who were working as consul- ing open space, recreation, and transportation; and tants to my off ice for this project. We involved the School "Whereas, the General Assembly has recognized these of Agriculture, the College of Business Economics, and the problems by enacting specific legislation or resolutions, such Divisiog of Urban Affairs. The end result was that we had as Senate Bill 257, House Bill 882 and House Concurrent something like 120 people working with the program on a Resolution 49, dealing with specific areas of this overall gen- continuing basis. eral problem. The commission worked for about a year before it issued "Whereas, in 1971 the state of Delaware enacted into law its first draft report last fall. That report was reviewed and the Coastal Zone Industrial Control Act which regulates in- changed by the commission and published for public distri- dustries in the coastal areas of the state, and in thetwoyears bution, as a second draft, in the early winter. Public hearing's since the passage of this act there has been considerable con- were held in January, 1976, throughout the state, following troversy over it and the states policy on economic growth; which the commission revised the second draft and published and a final report. The final report has been accepted, by the "Whereas, a comprehensive state development policy governor, as an amendment to the state development plan. must be developed for all, but only after considering the in- The commission report is essentially a series of fifty recom- terests of not just government but business, industry, labor, mendations dealing with broad policy issues affecting state environmentalists, and most importantly, the people of Del- growth. One of the recommendations is that a statewide land aware. use plan and regulatory system be developed and that once "Now, therefore, 1, Sherman W. Tribbitt, by the authority such a plan and regulations are in operation, the categorical vested in me as governor of the state of Delaware, do here- heavy industry prohibitions in the existing coastal zone act by declare and order as follows: be repealed. 1. The "Delaware Tomorrow Comm ission" is hereby es- tablished. Other Coastal Preservation Actions 2. The commission is charged with the responsibility to While the Delaware Tomorrow project was going forward, develop a statewide plan for growth. my office, working with a coastal zone management corn- 3. The commission shall investigate development policy mittee that we had established involving state agencies, local of other states as well as hold meetings and seminars governments, and some private groups, was initiating the throughout the state to receive contributions from technical work on the National Coastal Zone Management our citizens." Act. Concurrently, the Department of Natural Resources was 13 beginning development of another outdoor recreation plan. coding system statewide. Several years ago we succeeded in Additionally, New Castle county, our northernmost and getting a supplemental appropriation from the general as- most urban county, along with the cities of Wilmington and sembly, which we used to contract with the Soil Conserva-. Newark, which are located in that county, began work on a tion Service to accelerate the completion of the soil survey 208 water quality management program, and a second 208 statewide. We are working at a standard scale of 2000 feet program was initiated by the Sussex County government equals one inch. We recently obtained statewide soil survey for the eastern portion of that county, which is the area ad- maps from SCS at that scale, as well as air photo reproduci- Jacent to the Atlantic ocean. bles at the same scale from USGS. The result of all of the above is that my off ice has been We have used a significant portion of our coastal zone given the responsibility, by the governor, to begin drafting planning money to finance a variety of contracts from the the statewide land use plan enabling legislation. When that University of Delaware to convert a large amount of basic legislation is drafted, it will be given by the governor to the scientific research into reports that are usable by planners, Delaware Tomorrow Commission, who will consider it fur- engineers, and other government officials. These range from ther and hold hearings on it for revision prior to its intro- studies of the relative value of wetlands; a paper on the duction into the General Assembly. causes of beach erosion; ground water resources, storm tides We have been working diligently to orchestrate the work and flooding (which we are using to cross check the HUD of the two 208 programs, our coastal zone management pro- flood insurance maps. We are also responsible for the HUD gram, and other related planning activities, including the flood insurance program in Delaware, and are working that outdoor recreation plan and the highway and transportation as an adjunct to the coastal zone management program). plans. We achieved one major breakthrough last fall when We are planning to conduct the first summer census of the all of the jurisdictions involved agreed to participate in the Atlantic coast beach communities this summer, development of a standard set of population estimates and projections for the state. This work has been accomplished. Oil and Gas Exploration Problems Those projections have also been adopted, by the governor, We are confronted with the plans of the U.S. Department as an amendment to the state plan. of the Interior to lease OCS lands off Delaware for oil and We have seen very positive benefits from coordinating gas exploration and development. Without getting into the the production schedules on the 208 projects and the coastal multitude of problems associated with that type of endeav- zone management program, since there are significant simi- or, we have run into significant data problems in getting larities between these programs, to the extent that data stratigraphic data from DOI. We were successful in negoti- needs are virtually identical. We are even into one joint ven- ating a contract involving Delaware, some of our adjacent ture contract with one of the 208 projects. In other areas, states and the organization that carried out a deep strati- we have geographically segmented research so that the 208 graphic test off Atlantic City, so that we will get the actual projects pick up part of the work and we pick up the cost data on a proprietary basis. Working through our geological for the work outside of the 208 areas. survey, we found out that some seismicdata is available com- mercially to augment the limited data available from USGS. Recreation Planning In addition to acquiringthat data, using money made avail- In the area of pure recreational planning, specifically in needs able to us from OCZM through the OCS impact fund, we are assessment, the quality of our planning has been weakerthan using additional OCS impact money in cooperation with the in any other area. Other than user datagenerated primarily Maryland Geological Survey and USGS to have some of our f rorn car counts and daily permits sold at state parks, we have own seismic runs made parallel to the Atlantic coast and up no primary recreation user data. Until recently this has been Delaware bay. This run is being made so it can be tied back to largely an academic problem because Delaware's experience holes on land as well as tied to existing seismic runs that have in state parks is relatively new. Until about ten years ago we been made offshore so that we can, in turn, tie itback to the had only two state parks, and one of those only amounted to strat test. As a result, we believe we will wind up with the 37 acres. In the past ten years we have gone from those two first hard data on the basement geology of Delaware. state parks to ten major parks, the end result of which is that our park program has been primarily a real estate operation. Summary We are now shifting over into development and doing so We have been attempting to work the Coastal Zone Manage- at a time when our bonding situation is critical. We are, there- ment Program, the 208 planning, outdoor recreation planning fore, going through a difficult period of trying to ascertain and regulation on a statewide basis. We have been at *tempting what kinds of development should be put into place in order to foster the conversion of huge amounts of essentially aca- to permit people to get onto the parks as soon as possible at demic data into information usable for decision making by a minimal cost to the state government. state and local governments. While it is too early to say that all In other areas of coastal planning, I believe that we have of this has been successful, the process has been underway for been fairly successful, and perhaps even innovative, in our about two years at this time, and my optimism for success- research efforts. We have established a standard land use ful achievement is increasing rather than decreasing. 14 Community Coastal Recreation Management Walter J. Gray, Director Division of Marine Resources University of Rhode Island, Narragansett Bay Campus Local Roles in Coastal Recreation I am speaking here with the perspective of four years as Typically, after you have been informed of the federal gov- a. member of the town council of South Kingstown, R.I., a ernment's role-and then the state's role-in coastal recrea- summer vacation area and the home town of the Univers; ity tion management, you come to the local community's role of Rhode Island. The town's 63 sq. mile area makes it the with some very clear-cut prejudices. largest community in the state geographically, and it issued One prejudice may be that the locals are toodumbortoo the largest number of new building permits in the state dur- oblivious to see the big picture, that is, their inter-relation- ing 1975. ship with man and resource. A 1973 projection indicated South Kingstown could ex- Another may be that the community is concerned too pect a 1990 population of 21,000. More recent estimates much with jealously guarding its autonomy at'the expense suggest we will reach that total this year. I might point out of the public good. that, just a few years ago,,the town was blessed with people Certainly there are other biases we all could add, includ- occupying summer homes between June and September and ing the fact that if wise management of our coastal recrea- then packing up their kids and returning to their year-round tion resources in an urbanizing environment had been under- homes in Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Connecticut. taken long ago at the local level of government, there would They paid their taxes on their summer homes but required be much less reason for many of us to have to address the little or nothing by way of services such as schools, sewers, roles of our state and federal agencies. roads and other amenities. Back in 1971, in the publication The Quiet Revolution in Land Use Control, it was said, and I quote: Fertile Territority "This country is in the midst of a revolution in the Today, our coastal area is fertile territory for year-round way we regulate the use of our land. It is a peaceful homes. Subdivisions of a hundred or 200 houses are now revolution, and its supporters include both conserva- being constructed or planned. The town's tax revenuesfrom tives and liberals. It is a disorganized revolution, with undemanding summer guests is a thing of the past. no central cadre of leaders, but it is a revolution none- South Kingstown has some 5.5 miles-of ocean coastline theless. and an additional 41.5 miles of waterfront. along tidal rivers "The ancient regime being overthrown is the feudal and ponds. Our outdoor recreation inventory lists nearly system Linder which the entire pattern of land devel- 6,000 acres of recreation, conservation and open space, opment has been controlled by thousands of individ- about 10 percent of which is coastal. Of our 606 acres of ual governments, each seeking tomaximize itstaxbase coastal lands, more than 400 are owned by the federal and and minimize its social problems, and caring less what state governments. The town owns two of the 600 acres and happens to all the others. the balance, about 200 acres, is in private ownership. "The tools of the revolution are new laws taking a va- riety of forms but each sharing a common theme-the Coastal Management Conflicts need to provide some degree of state or regional parti- Two recent issues illustrate the conflicts we face in coastal cipation in thre major decisions that affect the use of management. Both involve recreation and an increasingly our increasingly limited supply of land." urbanized environment. 15 The first involves residential development on a barrier guaranteed if laissez-faire advocates prevail in land de- beach at Green Hill, along the south shore of the town. Un- velopment." developed in the past because it was often buffetted by hur- Again, what is the local community's role in coastal rec- ricanes and storms, the barrier beach started sprouting hous- reation management? Zoning land on barrier beaches out es in 1971. In 1972 and 1973, after 15 to 20 houses were of the use for which it was purchased isn't easy on a local up, the newly-formed state Coastal Resources Management legislative body. Then there is the confiscation issue. And Council issued cease and desist orders barring any further then, when a municipality is already pushing its debt limit development. A split town council, after many acrimonious for schools, water and sewers, you have to expect a great meetings and one explosive public hearing, declined to insti- deal of resistance to financial proposals which ask for com- tute a zoning change protiibiting further residential con- munity acquisition or development of coastal recreational struction. Luckily, the state Coastal Resources Management facilities. Council persisted in its cease and desist approach for as long Naturally, the perspective of a person speaking in behalf as it could. Last May, just four days beforethe lasttown elec- of a coastal community differs quite markedly from one tions, the local council adopted a flood danger zone ordi- who speaks for an inland community which wants access nance which forced the matter to its penu-Itimate conclusion to coastal resources. There are many in South Kingstown, which is to say it is now headed for the courts. as there are here on Cape Cod, who move in and then want The high flood danger ordinance prohibits constuction to keep everyone else out. In good faith or bad, there are of any overnight living accomodations on our barrier beaches those who would build the barricades in the name of con- but does allow a limited number of commercial and public servation, preservation of nature, traffic congestion or what- uses such as bathing beaches, beach clubs and cabanas, ma- ever. rinas, boat liveries, yacht clubs and so on. The hitch is that each use requires a special exception from the Zoning Board Environmental Master Plan of Review and an environmental impact statement. Most local communities, unfortunately, end up ad hocing A second current issue involves an application by the State their way to coastal recreation management. Department of Natural Resources, to "upgrade" a rather In my own town, we chose to develop an Environmental quiescent state beach at East Matunuck. When this proposal Master Plan which is an official statement of town policy started off, it called for the re-location of a road, which runs on four specific areas: (1) conservation, (2) recreation, (3) parallel to the dunes, to an area which is contiguous to a open space, and (4) design. salt marsh. It also suggested an increase in the number of Of our ocean shoreline, the Environmental Plan has this parking spots from 350 to about 1800. to say: One of the issues that keeps cropping up in connection The Plan endorses strong zoning measures to restrict with both the Green Hill and the East Matunuck State Beach development along the coastline where a significant de- cases,(but especially Green Hi ll) is thata lot of the demand gre'e of storm damage is likely, or where building would for coastal recreation facilities comes largely from residents increase the storm damage potential of other nearby lands. of Connecticut, a state in which there is little or no coastal Specifically, the following policies are recommended: management. Could you, as a local elected official, respond 1 .Adoption of a flood danger zoning district to prevent to complaints from your fellow citizens by pointing to our undesirable development as noted above; obligation to accomodate our out-of-state neighbors? Es- 2. Prevention of construction of residences on a barrier pecially when the local and state governments to the west beach; have been so derelict? 3. Restriction of uses on barrier beaches which would Listen to these words from the former mayor of Stam- contribute to erosion of dunes; ford, Connecticut: 4. Prevention of development along the immediate ocean- "I submit that a consideration of public-versus-pri- front in non-barrier areas, and the enforcement of a vate interests in controlling,our shoreline bears great simi- building setback line. larity to locking the barn door after the horse has been It is further the policy of the Town to avoid continuous stolen. Private interests have already won out for most or uninterrupted development along the coast, or of such areas of Long Island Sound. development that would contribute to a garish, over-com- "For example, during the past.18 years, New York's mercialized or shoddy appearance. The present commer- Nassau and Suffolk counties on Long Island have lost cial areas should be limited to their present extent, and more than one-quarter of their available marsh and wet- are encouraged to improve properties to the maximum land area. Connecticut has fared worse. Intensive resi- extent possible. The Town should promote and support dential, industrial and commercial development required the preservation of remaining open lands and encourage to support a large growth in population has appropriated the continuation of agricultural uses in flood danger areas. our shorelines. Less than two percent of Connecticut's State holdings at East 'Matunuck Beach may be improved shore is available to the public for recration. This hasn't for public recreation, but the salt marshes in.the area happened yet all over Southern New England, but it's should be preserved to the maximum extent possible. 16 To me, the Environmental Master Plan is our communi- enjoy our coastal environment with restrictions that we ty's statement of its role in coastal recreation management. think are in the public interest. It declares that we recognize coastal utilization that is not The plan is not parochial nor is it exclusionary. Simply harmful or destructive of the resource. stated, it provides for uses and restrictions-right now-which will enable many people to enjoy our coastal area without Summary destroying its,character or vitality. In short, the Environmental Master Plan says that we looked We felt, when the Environmental Master Plan was adopt- at ad hocism in coastal recreation management and decided ed, that it was the fulfillment of a local government's respon- we didn't like what we saw. It expresses further that we have sponsibility which was better accomplished without big examined our environmental conscience in advance of fur- brother's intervention. ther demands on our coastal resources and have, according- Any town can follow the same route if it has the will and ly, adopted goals and legislation which will allow people to the concern. The problem seems to be that not enough have. 17 The Marina Operator Today Richard Palmer, Member, Board of Directors Connecticut Marine Trades Stratford Marina, Stratford, Connecticut The dream of having your avocation become your voca- operator lookstosome other kind of use for his property in- tion is one that many of us have. My dream came true, hap- vestment? pily. I bought my first boat, a 24-foot power boat and then with my accounting background and some resources availa- Ecological Restraints and Other Regulations ble to me, I invested in a going marina as a partner and then Waterfront property has become a "sacred cow." Of course eventually became the sole owner. I've now been in the ma- the extent of thisvariisin each municipality. However, many rina business more than 10 years and have faced most of the of the restrictions are the same from town to town. The ma- problems of any small business over this period of time, such rina operator must, before he can expand or even maintain as increased taxes, insurance, utility costs, rising labor rates, his facility, go through a series of approval steps.. In the town ,and increased material costs. of Stratford, Connecticut, all waterfront property is what In addition to this, the marina operator has faced and is they call "non-conforming," which means that even if a per- faced with other, somewhat unique, considerations as fol- son wants to change a door or window in a building he must lows: go through the procedure of a duly called public hearing be- I - Competition with publicly financed marinas. fore he can obtain a puilding permit. 11 - Ecological restraints and other regulations. That's not so bad when you compare it to the procedure III - Competing uses of waterfront land and the "best use required to expand and/or maintain your water facilities. of land theory". You first must obtain local approval as outlined above, then I will.now try to go into a little more detail on these three apply to the state. This at one time required a scale drawing points. of the marina facilities showing the changes to be made. Now a registered surveyor must make the drawing which Competition with Publicly Financed Marinas could result in an expenditure of thousands of dollars just The demand for dockage and mooring space has been grow- to get a seal on a drawing that probably could have been ing by leaps and bounds over the last 10 to twenty years to done by the individual owner. After this is completed, a the point where municipalities have been installing boating public notice is issued. Following a waiting period another -facilities to accomodate their residents. This is fine. These public hearing is held and then the various state departments facilities are badly needed and as long as the demand ex- must give their blessing to the project. ceeds the supply the threat to the private marina operator is When and if approval comes from the state, then all of the not too great. However, as soon as the scale starts to balance same information must again be submitted to the Army between supply and demand, the marina operator f inds him- Corps of Engineers, but on a different set of forms. Then self in a position where he is in unfair competition with a there is another public notice and possibly another public municipal marina that has a good deal more resources, no hearing. Now, maybe, a year or so later Permission to pro- real estate taxes, no requirement to make a profit and a ceed is granted. How can a marina operator whose operation great deal more influence with the governing bodies that is- is exposed to numerous storms and constant silting problems sue approval and permits. Under these conditions, how long be expected to maintain the marina?. can a private operator stay in business without some kind of I at one time worked for a large corporation as a systems protection or relief? How long will it be before the marina designer and was frustrated by having to sell various levels of 18 management on a new idea that would save considerable For example, there is a man who wants to permanently operating costs. Then I thought to myself, "let me go into moor a ferry in Haddam, Connecticut on the Connecticut my own business where I can make decisions right away." River. The ferry would house a restaurant. However, before If only I had had a crystal baIll he can do this, he must go to 11 different agencies at three levels of government-federal, state and local-for a total of Competing Uses of Waterfront Land and 13 different permits. Obviously, this takes time and money. "The Best Use Theory" And now he faces an additional problem. He has made it Over the past few years I have been approached many times through eight of the agencies, but if the other permits are with proposals to turn my property into condominiums, not received by May 1, he will have to begin the process all hotels, yacht clubs, recreational complexes, and many other over again,because some of the permits he has obtained will exciting facilities. Some of these proposals were not eco- expire. nomically sound. However, others were very economically This is clearly absurd. Marina operators face the same sound and very tempting from a "best use" and a profit type of situation. At the very least, there must be greater co- standpoint. To date I have resisted these opportunities main- ordination and cooperation among regulatory bodies. The ly because I believe that the need for a good marina still ex- Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) ists. However, one of these days, I'm going to stop letting has taken a significant first step by creating a permit infor- my heart run my business and make my land available for mation office. Anyone having to deal with DEP can now its "best use." Believe me though, except for a love of the work with one person regardless of the number of dif- business, this would have happened already. ferent DEP permits he may need. But, more of this needs to be done. As I indicated, many Discussion times a person must go through essentially the same permit There should not be a serious conflict between public and application processes with DEP and the Army Corps of En- private marinas. At the present time, as I mentioned, the gineers. To the extent that the same information is involved, demand for marina facilities exceeds the supply. Further, agencies such as these should work together..Why couldn't as public marinas are developed, they should be d4signed to DEP and the Army Corps hold a joint hearing on pending cater to the more "transient" boat owner. They should op- applications for the same project? erate much as camp grounds operate. Government regulation has its place, but it must not be Secondly, development of public marinas should be allowed to reach the point of placing insurmountable road- planned and conducted with the constant consideration that blocks in the way of the private sector. there may come a time when supply meets demand. Over- development would have one of two effects. Either private Land Use marinas would be forced out of business or the public sec- Some states, including Connecticut, have recognized recent- tor would find itself burdened with facilities that are not ly a problem with farm land similar to that marina operators used to full potential. are beginning to face. The state is now seeking ways to pro- I personally feel, and I think most would agree, that the tect this farm land. It seems to me that the time is fast ap- public sector should not force private businesses out of the proaching for similar efforts to be undertaken with regard market place. Thus, the first effect should be avoided. But to waterfront property. the second effect is no better. Government has too many As I indicated, those of us in the marine industry have responsibilities and demands to meet for it to become bur- all received tempting offers for our property recently. As dened with unneeded facilities. Thus, when developing pub- we face growing pressures on our businesses in terms of prop- lic marinas and other boating facilities, government should erty taxes, and regulations, all of which serve to drive up the seek to construct the facilities in such a way that they can cost to the consumer and/or drive down our already low be easily converted to other uses. profit margins, we will'be more and more tempted to accept these offers. Government Regulations When and if this happens, there will be two results. First Today, we would all agree that environmental considerations and most obviously, there will be a decrease in boating ser- are important. Certainly that is true for those of us involved vices provided by the private sector. This, in turn, will lead with recreational boating. After all, boating is no fun at all to an increase in the demand forthe publicsector to provide on a river that is nothing more than an open sewer, or a lake such services. There are three things to keep in mind at this or other body of water that is merely a cesspool. point. 1) The popularity of boating and related recreational However, as more and more people are recognizing, con- activities is increasing. 2) The public sector, at least in Con- cern for the 'environment must be kept in a proper perspec- necticut, has been somewhat reluctant to provide these ser- tive. The same can be said for government regulation gener- vices. 3) There are already severe pressures on both munici- ally. There is far too much red-tape facing those of us in the pal and state budgets to fund already existing programs. boating business today, or who want to make any use of the Thus, it appears unlikely at this point that the public waterfront. sector could fill this gap. Thus, there would be an additional. 19 imbalance between supply and demand for water'-front rec- example, the Connectl -cutCoastal Area Management officials reational facilities. decided to add 10 "public" members to their board. Imme- The second result, of more importance to this discussion, diately, they ran into the problem of there being many more will be the removal of still more waterfront property from than ten interests wanting to participate. In Connecticut, the pool available for public recreation. Further, to some ex- we have a further confusing factor. People consider local tent, the property presently under private ownership tends autonomy and local control over zoning as "sacred" as to. be that best suited for marina and boat yard use. It is motherhood and apple pie. Any program or any effort that costly enough to,develop a new facility now. That cost will appears to lead to a diminution of"municipal control will increase even more as such facilities are forced to locate in face a hard fight. less desirable areas. It will be more costly to build a facility and provide the necessary access to Long Island Sound, the Summary Connecticut River, Narragansett Bay and other similar bod- We at CMTA are hopeful that Connecticut's Coastal Area ies of water that are well-suited for recreational activity. Management program will be able to overcome many of Further, the environmental problems to be overcome may these problems. We also hope that the program will recog- increase. For example, it may become necessary to do more nize the needs for recreation and the basic fact that certain dredging and remove more material. businesses, whether related to recreation or not, must locate Therefore, the need for coordination and planning of wa- on the water. A marina can@t be located in Pittsfield, Massa- terfront usage is increasing. Efforts will have to be made to chusetts. balance the needs and desires of many interests, among them: Properly developed and implemented, a coastal area man- local communities, recreational activities, private develop- agement program could solve many of the conflicts between ment, present owners of waterfront property, ecology, com- the public and private sectors in a way that best serves the mercial interests requiring waterfront locations, and many interests of all. more. Waterfront land is a relatively scarce resource. If water The Long Island Sound Study was a significant regional related recreation is to have any future, we must begin to act effort to look at this problem and seek some solutions. In to save waterfront land. Hopefully, this conference will be a Connecticut, as in many other states, we now have a coastal meaningful step towards this particular problem and the area management office that is working in this area. general problems of recreational activities in an urbanizing This coordination and planning will not be easy to achieve. environment. There are many factors which can impede the effort. For 20 Striped Bass Research Robert B. Pond Treasurer and Founder, Stripers Unlimited South Attleboro, Massachusetts History of Club form all the 200 mile limit bill does is to give the U.S. the Stripers Unlimited was founded in 1965 as a service organi- chance to extinguish its own flickering fisheries. If, for ex- zation for striped bass fishermen. Its five main goals were: ample, the fishermen continue to permit the massive pollu- 1 -To develop a fraternity of fishermen willing to help tion of -the seas, sludge dumping off New York and other one another. cities, the constant oil spills and tanker rinsings, the con- 2-To stop indiscriminate netting of striped bass. stant heave-ho of nuclear wastes, and the endless procession 3-To develop legislation of benefit to sportf ishermen. of toxic chemicals, metals, and non-biodegradables, then no 4-To curb pollution of striped bass waters. amount' of fish husbandry can replenish the stocks."i 5-To develop more areas of public access. Both groups wished to protect the environment they We hoped these goals reflected the needs of the fishing loved. As Rene Dubos stated inSo HumanAnAnimal, "Deep fraternity. in our hearts we still personalize natural forces and for this We organized fishing tournaments in a three state area. reason feel guilty at their desecration. The manifestations of The purpose was to introduce fishermen to new areas of fish- nature are identified with unchangeable needs of human life, ing. and are charged with primeval emotions because man is of We published an annual guidebook listing our members the earth, earthy."2 and their fishing preferences. The guidebook also contained Yet there were areas of conflict due to a lack of under- articles on fishing areas and techniques. standing of the striped bass themselves. Our first goal was quite easily accomplished since it dealt Daniel Merriman authored an excellent research project with our own membership. The others were much more dif- on The Striped Bass Of The Atlantic Coast for his doctorate ficult since they dealt with legislation. Most legislation is de- in 1936 and 1937. He did a complete profile on the striper. cided in favor of economic impact so we felt any program He observed that "over a long period of time the abundance which aided sportsfishing would have priority. A sportsfish- of striped bass on the Atlantic coast has shown a sharp de- ing survey conducted in 1955 reported a total of 4,557,000 cline." He established from catch records that striped bass saltwater anglers who spent $488,939,000. In setting our were subject to a dominant year class phenomenon 3 which goals we failed to realize that the commercial fishery which had'periodically increased the abundance of stripers only to was worth in excess of $5,855,000,000, provided an income see that year class. decimated within a three year period by 4 for over 125,000 fishermen plus many other people in re. over-fishing. From past records he also reported that "there lated industries. can be little doubt that striped bass in early times entered In fighting pollution we found that the commercial fish- and spawnedin every river of any size where proper condi- ermen were as aware of the problems of pollution as we tions existed along the entire Atlantic coast. As cities were were. built, dams constructed, and pollution mounted in one area Sportsfishermen found the lobster fishermen on their side after another, the number of rivers that were suitable for during legislative hearings on wetlands preservation. Sports spawning-became fewer and fewer."5 He was more con- and commercial fishermen fought side by side for the 200 cerned with the health of the rivers that were still suitable mile limit. From the Maine Times comes this observation for spawning than the number of spawning females. He about the 200 mile limit bill and pollution. "In its present noted "there is no necessary connection between the number 21 of eggs produced in a particular spawning season and the Later in the spring of 1971 Richard Salzburg and I took number of fry thatsurvive. It is apparent that environmental the U. R.I. hatchery truck to the Hudson River and with the factors are most effective in determining the percentage of help of the Hudson River Fishermen's Association, obtained survival. Since the striped bass is an anadromous fish (moves male and female striped bass which we took back to U.R.I. from salt water to fresh to spawn) anything that affects the where' Bruce Rogers, a graduate student at the University's rivers in which the eggs hatch and larvae develop is worthy Experimental Station, had set up a pool for the fish. At this of consideration. "6 time Bruce Rogers suggested we have the eggs analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons since the fry behavior indicated Striped Bass Cycles symptoms of DDT poisoning. DDT was known to damage In 1965 we were experiencing the last of one dominant year nerves and to inhibit the reproduction of fish. cycle which had started in 1958 and had now run its course. .The scarcity of stripers led us to the University of, Rhode Is- Discovery of DDT and PC13 Contamination land where we discussed Dr. Merriman's work and its impli- Dr. Charles Olney of the Agricultural Department at U.R.I. .cations with Dr. Saul Saila, head of the Fisheries Depart- made the analysis. He found high levels of DDT in the eggs ment. His solution to the problem was a suggestion to break of the Hudso n River fish. the cycle by starting new areas of reproduction in rivers that Our,guidebook for 1971-1972 reported our findings and once held spawning populations. This project seemed to be our fears that these chemicals were in sufficient quantity to within our scope and limited budget. . - eventually destroy the striper population. Several important breakthroughs had been accomplished In 1972 we managed to raise a small supply of Maryland in hatching and rearing techniques. Funded by a special fry to fingerling size.We stocked these in the Parker River at striped bass stamp in the Santee-Cooper landlocked striper Plum Island in Massachusetts. We had more analyses of fishery, Dr. Robert Stevens had developed the hormone striped bass eggs done and found that an industrial chemical, treatment of female stripers to ripen the eggs in captivity. polychlorinated biphenyls was present. It had probably been He encouraged us in our work. At Edenton National Fish present from the beginning but a new type of analysis had Hatchery, Nathan Powell had developed rearin g techniques just been perfected in Sweden which was 'able to detect for fry and fingerling striped bass. PCB. PCB is similar to DDT, is much more persistent and is In thespring of 1970 Richard Salzburg, a graduate student much more prevalent in the environment. from the University of Rhode, Island, and I took a U.R.I. In 1973 we co ntinued to observe damage to Maryland hatchery truck and one car and headed for Maryland. With striped bass eggs and fry and we recorded our observations the help of Joseph Boone, a Maryland fisheries biologist, with photography. We recorded on film the.weakening of and the commerical fishermen we were able to get several the egg membrane to a degree where rapid movement,of the ripe males and one ripening female striped bass. We made the eggs caused the weight of the developing larvae to tear the long trip to the Edenton National Fish Hatchery where tissues. Photographs also showed the eggs stretching into an Nathan Powell, hatchery superintendent, was waiting to in- hour glass shape and finally rupturing? in other eggs small ject the fish with hormones. We were very hopeful of success holes appeared in the membranes allowing the yolk material but the eggs failed to survive. to escape. We lost about 85 percent of our eggs during the We managed to acquire some striped bass fry from North first twenty-four hours due to these two causes. Carolina and learned how to rear stripers from larvae to fin- At about thirty hours, while the larvae was still in the gerlings durl,ng that year. early stages of development, the outer corion which protects the small developing cells, ruptured and exposed the immo- Hatchery Operation bile, helpless larvae to the outside elements. The few which In 1971 we set up our first hatchery operation in, Vienna, survived these insults and lived for seven days died when Maryland on the banks of the Nanticoke River. However their swim bladders failed to inflate. This occurred in 99 out these fish behaved differently from the South Carolina fish of 100. Needless to say we were extremely concerned for and failed to ripen properly in captivity. We finally had to the survival of the striper population. rely upon the commercial netters t 'o obtain ripe running fe- males forthe eggs-we needed. The survival rate was very poor Federal Research Projects but we obtained enough surviving fry to take back to our As a result. of our concern, two federal projects were initiat- newly acquired headquarters in South Attleboro, Massachu- ed.*The first was a monitoring program conducted by the setts. We were able to raise a few and watch them develop. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. Certain odd behavior patterns became evident. The fry be- They analyzed.the eggs of spawning stripers from Florida to came lethargic, started to spiral in the tanks and failed to Maryland for chemical contamination. They found 'extreme- develop a visible swim bladder. We took samples to the Uni- ly high levels of contamination in all of the Maryland eggs versity of Rhode Island to Dr. Richard Wolke, who sent them tested. The second project was conducted at the Gulf Breeze on to Cornell University for further study. No results were Laboratory in Florida. Its purpose was to establish levels of obtained. PCBs toxic to fish larvae. They established a level of 7ppm 22 as toxic to the flathead minnow. Since the levels in-'striped tential for producing mutagenic changes, have produced an bass eggs were as high as thirty parts per million this increased increased concern for the impact on the genetic makeup of our concern for the striper. We expected others to share this a highly industrialized society."7 They quoted the March of concern. However the state of Maryland considered every- Dimes as follows. "Birth defects are the foremost child health thing to be normal. Perhaps their seeming lack of concern problem in the United States."8 Their'thoughts on mental stemmed from the fact that mortality in the hatchery could retardation, "if the malformation induced by thalidomide have been caused by human error, such as poor oxygen sup- were a mental retardation of 10 percent of the I.Q., instead ply or poor handling techniques. of a highly characteristic and unusual deformation of the It wasn't until 1975 that the trouble we had observed in limbs in an equal number of subjects, we would be unaware our hatchery began to appear in the commercial striper fish- of it to this day."9 Quoting Dr. Epstein they remarked, ery. The 1970 dominant year hatch which had influenced "there is a growing realization that much human disease is the fishery since 1973 had outgrown pan rock size. The lack environmentally caused. We are talking about real major of these three and four year old fish was a most telling blow health problems, such as preventable cancer and birth de- to the commercial fishery. Later, during the summer, the fects and not esoteric problems of interest to the extremist sports catch indicated an absence of two year old fish and few."10 the danger to striped bass became obvious. This indicated When applying for the threatened species classification that since 1971 very few stripers had survived to reach the for striped bass we were also concerned with possible effects yearl i ng stage. The most f rustrati ng th ing was that ou r grou p on humans by low level chemical contamination. The Con- seemed to be the only ones concerned enough to take action. gressional Research Service in their report enlarged their In our 1975 guidebook we wrote a fictional story about concept of the Endangered Species Act to include the fol- the plight of the striper and the possible effects of chemical lowing. "in regards to endangered species in fish and wild- contamination on humans who ate the fish. We had reviewed life and the ecosystem, one has several concerns; 1) wheth- the very limited information available on the effects of chlo- er the effects on individual organisms are symptoms of pos- rinated hydrocarbons on humans as documented in Silent sible human hazards; 2) whether economically valuable spe- Spring and reports on Yusho disease in Japan. cies are being adversely affected and; 3) whether a species is threatened with extinction. Thus the problem in viewing Threatened Species ecological impact of low level environmental insults is in de- On October 8,1975 we applied for a threatened species clas- termining when the adverse effects either threaten the spe- sification for striped bass under the Endangered Species Act. cies or indicates a threat to human health and welfare."i 1 Frankly, at this point, we felt we should apply for a threat- ened species classification for man as well, but lacked direct DDT and PCBs Subtle Effects evidence that he was in as dire straits as the striped bass. Dr. George Harvey pu bl ished a paper on Observations on the Our application was rejected with no mention made of Distribution of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in'the Atlantic the points we had documented such as the high levels of chlo- Ocean Organisms in which he made the following observa- rinated hydrocarbons in the eggs, the damaged eggs and fry tions. "Since both DDT and PCBs are known to operate in and the lack of recruitment into the fishery. The National subtle ways, producing susceptibility to disease, impairment Marine Fisheries Service concluded their statement of rejec- of instincts, reduction of reproduction potential, such ef- tion "the striped bass population of Chesapeake Bay and the fects might easily require several generations to becomeevi- Hudson River are not now threatened with extinction and dent in population reduction. However the concentrations are unlikely to become so in the forseeable future." of PCBs that we found to prevail in the Atlantic Ocean or- During the time our application was being considered ganisms during 1970-1972 are within the range that could however, the state of New York determined that the flesh of prod uce ef fects. " 12 the Hudson River striped bass had levels of PCBs high enough We have observed such effects in our work with Maryland to render them unfit for human consumption. About the striped bass eggs and fry. Our observations of fingerling be- same time Kepone, another chlorinated hydrocarbon, was havior have convinced us that extreme nerve damage exists disccovered to be in high levels in the James River in Virgina. in Maryland fish when compared to the North Carolina Because of these findings both the Hudson and the James striped bass. Their feeding instincts appear to be impaired. Rivers had been closed to commercial harvest of striped They have become bottom feeders refusing to take food as bas s. it drifts down through the water. In nature we are now ob- In November of 1975 the Congressional Research Service serving fewer striped bass feeding on the surface. Almost of the Library of Congress published for the Committee on all striped bass caught by sports anglers are now caught on Science and Technology a report on "The Effects of Chronic bottom rigs, on live bait or on deep trolled lures. Compared Exposure to Low Level Pollutants in the Environment". to ten years ago this feeding behavior in the wild indicates a Among the observations of this report were the following dramatic change from their former habits when surface lures statements. "The advent of radiation from a number of accounted for much of the striped bass harvest. sources as well as chemicals in large quantities with the po- Recently, while. fishing in the ocean off Martha's Vineyard, 23 we encountered stripers with eggs only hours away from effects on the population of radiation and chemicals in iso- ripeness. They were far from their spawning rivers. A biolo- lation from each other." He suggests that an Environmental gist from Montauk, New York found similar ripe fish in the Genetics Hazards Commission might eventually be necessary ocean and was able to strip the eggs from the fish, hatch the in order to consider environmental genetics damage in a eggs and raise the fry in his laboratory. comprehensive fashion.14 Any one of these instinct changes alone should be enough The frustration of Stripers Unlimited in seeking to find to warrant high level concern for the striped bass but we someone qualified to tackle the problem we saw developing have been unable to getany responsible government scientist in the striper fishery before it reached its present crisis stage, to take an interest in studying these rather obvious changes. makes us feel that the time for such a move is right now: Possibly they feel that there is little hope in trying to do Stripers Unlimited has broadened its outlook over the anything about the problem. past ten years. From a 'narrow-th inking, self-interested or- ganization of fishermen it has grown into an association of Possible Hurnan Hazard people concerned with all aspects of the environment, es- However, if what we are observing indicates a "symptom of pecially the mindless destruction of -our finite resources. possible human hazard" then something must be done about Dr. Merriman's work in 1936 indicated a need to protect it. From our observations so far it would seem that these small striped bass. Minimum lengths were established which poisons cannot be handled by the reproductive system. Rene increased the weight of the fish landings by two or three Dubos in So Human An Animal states this about geneticdis- times. This increase was reflected in the commercial landings turbances. "As a general rule the processes essential for sur- statistics as he predicted, reaching a peak in Maryland in vival and reproduction are buffered against environmental 1961. and genetic disturbances; in other words, they are not readily In Chesapeake Bay, since 1969, commercial landings in- affected by the environment. Two eyes, a- four chambered dicate a marked decrease in several species of fish. Striped heart, the ability to maintain an approximately stable body bass are down 45 percent. The white perch and yellow perch temperature, the suckling instinct in an infant, the sex drive have decreased 75 percent. Two anadromous fish, the ale- in an adult, the capacity to think symbolically, and to learn wife and shad, are down 82 percent and 84 percent respec- a symbolic language are characteristics that develop in almost tively.16 every human being irrespective of the environment in which Between 80 percent and 90 percent of the aquatic vege- he lives."13 The buffer in striped bass does not seem to be tation is gone from the bay. Swans, geese, and ducks that working, and observing the increased number of hyperactive depend on this vegetation are now forced to feed in farm and learning disabled children that teachers report coming fields surrounding the bay. into the school systems, I wonder if it is working in humans. Beautiful, unique Chesapeake Bay, once touted as being Stripers Unlimited sees the plight of fish and wildlife as the most studied and carefully guarded estuarine zone in symbolic of the plight of mankind. the world by the scientific community, is being allowed to @ In our 1972-1973 guidebook we reported the story of die in the name of progress. PCBs and the threat they pose. We are well aware that the Dredge spoil from the C and D Canal has loosed great manufacturers of these chemicals had no desire to poison quantities of silt to float in the bay. Dumps containing such the environment. The problem was not even recognized by chemicals as. PCBs still..Ie.ach into the marshes. Waste treat- the chemists who developed them. It was only later after the ment plants using chlorine continue to do their damage to damage had already become apparent in Wildlife that the the rivers feeding the bay. Power plants are now operating offending chemicals -were identified and their pathways or are planned for siting on prime striped bass spawning traced. grounds. There has been a toxic substances bill before Congress for the last five years that would force pretesting of toxic Summary materials, and it still has not been passed. The bill is already The urbanized society inhabiting our coast exists much like fifty years too late. In our insane desire for growth we are its tree-top neighbor, the squirrel, storing food in cans and using this planet as if we were the last generation to inhabit packages on supermarket shelves, as a squirrel stores nuts. it. The bureaucratic tarbaby called government seems to be We have become far removed from nature. We have become unable to deal with the problems created by our technolog- as unconcerned as the animals with ourfuturesource of food, ical society. from the sea. We have allowed the sea to become polluted One of the big frustrations in trying to focus attention to such an extent that itcan no longer beconsidered thesafe, on the problem of the striper is that there is no expertise in clean, inexhaustible source of food man needsso desperately. any established agency to deal with the contaminants already Man must now, for his own survival, begin to consider loose in the environment. In The EffectsofChronk Exposure himself to be more than an animal. We were given dominion to Low Level Pollutants in the Environment A. B. Bridges is over the land and sea. Dominion is defined to be "a wise quoted as stating: "A final recommendation is that, at this rul "er" not a destroyer. As Rene Dubos so aptly put it, "all point in knowledge, it is dangerous to consider mutagenic successful individual lives and all successful civilizations have 24 been supported by an orderly system of relationships linking tants in the Environment," C ongressional Research Ser- man to nature and society." vice. (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1975), "The rape of nature, therefore, is not the only thing at p. 63. stake, but the very survival of mankind."15 B. Ibid., p. 63. 9. Ibid., p. 153. Literature Cited 10. Ibid., p. 79. Footnotes 11. Ibid., p. 178. 1. Maine Times Newspaper, 1976. 12. George Harvey, "The Effects of Chlorinated Hydro- 2. Rene Dubos, So Human an Animal (New York: Charles carbons in Atlantic Ocean Organisms," Journal of Ma- Scribner and Sons, 1968.) rine Research, vol. 32, May 15, 1974, p. 116. 3. Daniel Merriman, "Studies on the Striped Bass of the 13. Dubos, So Human an Animal, p. 65. Atlantic Coast," Fisheries Bulletin, 35 (1941): 8. 14. "Effects of Chronic Exposure," p. 151. 4. Ibid., p. 15. 15. Dubos, So Human an Animal, p. 184. 5. Ibid., p. 16. 16. Current Fisheries Statistics, Maryland Landings. (Wash- 6. Ibid., p. 14. ington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, National 7. "The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low Level Pollu- Marine Fisheries Service, 1969-1975). 25 Using Coastal Resources,; or, Can You Get There from Here.? D. W. Bennett, Conservation Director American Littoral Society Highlands, New Jersey The American Littoral Society is a public interest, non- still does, the protection of coastal zone marine habitat, profit organization of some 5000 members interest ed in the especially the estuaries and salt marshes which are so valu- study and, conservation of marine life in the coastal zone. able as spawning and nursery grounds for many game fish Half our membership lives in the urban swath from Boston and as year-round habitat for shellfish, waterfowl, and shore- to Washington, D.C., nearly all of them within an hour'sdrive birds. This means that the Society came out against and has of the shore, many within walking distance. While many of campaigned to stop dredge-and-f ill operations in salt marsh our members use the coastal area for recreation, others are and radical modification of estuaries which destroy habitat commercial fishermen and to them the ocean is their liveli- and disrupt normal water circulation patterns. We estimated hood. that our most important single function was to prevent dam- The two major problems I see about Coastal Recreation aging permanent land modification -once you fill marsh it's Resources in the Coastal Zone, the title of this conference, gone, along with its natural productivity. are (1) the resource-the environment-is in trouble, and (2). Our secondary concern along the coast has been water there are too many people too close*to it. Of course,thetwo pollution, secondary only because we believe that water pol- problems are related in that the environmental stresses are lution in many cases is temporary, that its processes can be brought about by people. In fact, the most direct solution reversed. We have been active in support of the Federal Water to this stress or overuse of the resource would be to have Quality Act and state regional sewage plans. We support pas- fewer people. It is probably best to dismiss that solution sage of a federal law deal i ng wit'h the discharge of toxic sub- immediately, for while the population of the northeast stances intowaterways. One of our special publications deals is growing less rapidly than in the so-called sunbelt of the specifically with power plant siting in the coastal zone, doc- country, there are no indications that we can turn the clock umenting the case against once-through cooling. in coastal back a century or so and free the coast from massive human waters. We are a member of a coalition arguing for much pressures. People and their pollutants will remain with us; tighter controls on outer continental shelf oil drilling, But we must rty to cope with them. there is nothing novel in our stand on water pollution. We But things can be done-some that the Littoral Society are against it. Who isn't? has been doing-to improve the coastal environment and So, one side of our effort is to protect the natural re- thus its usefulness as a recreational resource. Everything I sources of the coast, to protect wildlife and its habitat in suggest relates to one issue, protecting coastal resources and the coastal zone. Let us agree for this discussion that there getting people to use them carefully and well. is wildlife there and some habitat. There are birds to see, What we as a "special interest," or what I prefer to call a beaches to walk, and fish to catch. public interest," group have been doing is trying to protect The other side of our effort is to make sure that people and upgrade the marine environment on the one hand and -can- get to the resource, that there is -public access. We as- helping provide better-cheaper, freer-access to the shore- sume that the marine waters of this country below mean line for recreation. high tide are public waters, held in trust by the-States for all people toshare equally. While this right comes from com- The Marine Environment mon lawand has been applied to fisheries and navigation, re- The Society's first major environmental action involved, and cent court decisions have held that these rights extend to 26 other users of the sea-of tidal waters-including recreation. Fishing Piers and Jetties This right of access can be broken down into several cate- All such structures out into coastal waters should be thought gories, which I would like to list and talk about. of as possible fishing platforms. Jetties can be capped to provide safe fishing accesses. Piers might be built where suit- Beach Access able. Abandoned bridges and city docks can be used for fish- The public, especially in the Northeast, is having trouble get- ing. ting to beaches easily and inexpensively. This is most true for typical beach users, those who come for the day to swim Marinas and lie in the sun, but it is also true for other beach users: -Marinas are, at once, a natural, normal use of coastal land surfers, fishermen, divers, beachcombers, and even joggers. and, in all too many cases, polluters of the coastal marine (A Society member was escorted from a beach for jogging environment. Our stand is that until a solution to the sewage off-season last winter. Another was asked to leave a beach problem caused by large boats in large marinas is solved, no on Christmas Day-the beach was "closed for thp season.") new marina construction or expansion of existing marinas Parts of the shoreline are closed to the public because the should be permitted. I bear little sympathy for a system that adjacent uplands are privately owned. Some beaches them- encourages the dockage of thirty-to-fifty-foot boats whose selves are privately owned. Sometimes passage parallel to owners are permitted to spill and dump at will. Both EPA the waterline, even below mean high tide, is blocked by and boating associations have gone back and forth on the fences. issue of overboard discharge versus holding tanks. While It is our belief that a major effort must be launched, prob- there is no easy solution to the problem, neither side has ably in the federal government, to open more beaches to been particularly impressive in its attack on the issue. the public, either through the provision of access across up- lands to the beach or by the outright purchase of sections Stocking of shoreline that have passed into private hands. In general,. we take a dim view of programs to stock fish to increase angling success in marine waters. A better approach Boat Launching Facilities is to protect habitat and adopt regulations regarding existing The same holds true for launching ramps, too little access stocks, and let nature do the builk of the work. However, to tidal waters. In many cases, local towns will bar out-of- salmon in New England waters might add impetus to the drive towners from municipal ramps or will charge higher fees for to clean up the rivers and remove migration-blocking dams. non-residents. Because ramps lead to public trust (riparian) These are some of the issues that the Society acts on as tidal bay and river bottoms, states and the federal govern- a certain kind of "community." We have published our po- ment have a handle on licensing ramps and should assure sitions on other issues: the 200-mile limit, deepwater ports, that reasonable non-discriminatory fees are charged. LNG plants, oil refinery location, and commercial versus sport fishing squabbles. Our conservation committee helps Bridge Fishing decide what we do and our members return questionnaires We need to redefine what bridges are, especially in coastal which seek their environmental concerns. waters. Rather than considering them structures to carry We see our role as one of calling agencies' attention to cars across water, they should be considered structures which things we believe should be changed. We have a point of can both carry cars and cater to fishermen. This can be done view and like any "special interest" group we use any means by building hanging platforms from bridges for fishermen. available to get that view out and about. But the phrase "spe- A bill in the New Jersey legislature would force the Depart- cial interest" group is a questionable label. I prefer to think ment of Transportation to design fishing platforms into all of environmental groups like the American Littoral Society new bridges crossing suitable waters. Florida has had such a as representing the public's interst, in issues that affect the program for years. This is an especially valuable arrangement public's environment. Our interest is not "special;" it is in urban areas. Many city and town bridges can serve fisher- universal. men. 27 Utilization of Living Resou.rces i 4 A, rwmw jE MIX -7;a 29 A Description of Recreational Finfi.shing A.long the Atlantic Coast in Relation to the Utilization of Living Marine Resources Bruce L. Freeman, Fisheries Biologist Sandy Hook Marine Laboratory Highlands, New Jersey Recreational vs. Commercial Fishes 5- It is popular today to speak of recreational fishes or com- mercial fishes. But there isreally nosuch division of species- :Z 4- there are only fishes. It is true that recreational fishermen TOTAL U.S. may spend a considerable amount of time and money and 2 0 COMAERCIAL travel a long distance to catch a special kind of fish which LL 3- U.S.* 0 RECREATIONAL FOUGN haslittleorno value to the commercial fishermen. Neverthe- C/) NATIONALS less, very few species of fish are caught wholly,by one group Z 0 or the other. Zi We persist, however, in thinking of some species as being FXi purely of recreational or of commercial value. Tarpon, a large, bony, herring-like species, besides being highly sought 0 by anglers as an excellent game fish, is sometimes canned and 1955 19k 19@5 19@0 19,7519130 marketed. Also, its large scales are sold as curios. Menhaden, while one of our most important commercial species, is Figure 1. Graph showing the catch of marine food finfishes, sought by anglers who frequently set out to foulhook these from off the United States by various fishing groups. plankton feeders to use as bait for larger carnivorous fishes, such as striped bass. And east coast anglers would be in dire of our estuarine area, and the breadth of our continental straits if they did not have menhaden chum for bluefishing. shelves. If, however, we add to the commercial catch the Still, we have been so accustomed to thinking of either our amount caught by anglers, we see that the effective catch commercial fisheries or our recreational fisheries that we nearly doubles (Figure 1) and that the average yearly increase -usually see them as separate entities and often even antago- is at about two percent, a rate very close to that for the rest nists. But our fisheries should not and cannot be thought of of the world. as being separate if we are ever fully to utilize fishes as an It is not to say, however, that there are no differences be- important living resource of the sea. tween these two groups of fishermen. Anglers catch and keep many more kinds of fishes than do commercial fishermen. Unhealthy Sign? Of the more than 1,000 species of fishes off our Atlantic For years now in speeches, reports and articles we hear again coast, nearly half are caught at some place and at some time and again that the annual United States commercial catch of by anglers. In addition, nearly 100 of the remaining species,. food fishes has remained at about 2 billion pounds for over especially the forage fishes, are used by anglers for bait, ei- two decades.' Economists view this sustained level as an un- ther whole or ground into chum. Compared to what anglers healthy sign, considering theextentof our coastline, the size catch, less than 100 species of fishes are commercially im- portant. And of these, the most important, as judged by 'Within the last ten years or so foreign nationals have been numbers, are forage fishes. For example, along the Atlantic catching nearly a billion pounds of food finfishes annually coast during 1970 there were 28 categories of fishes which off United States shores. yielded to anglers more than ten million pounds (Figure 2). 30 MILLIONS OF POUNDS 20 40 60 so 100 120 140 160 BLUEFISH STRIPED BASS __j ATLANTIC MACKEREL WINTER FLOUNDER RECREATIONAL CATCH ATL COD KING MACKEREL JACKS SPOT PUFFERS PORGIES SUMMER FLOUNDER DOLPHIN 19700 SNAPPERS 1960 GRUNTS SPOTTED SEATROUT GROUPERS SEA CATFISH KINGFISH BLACK COMMERCIAL CATCH SEA BASS SNOOK STRIPED BASS TAUTOG 17- HADDOCK GRAY SEA' TROUT ALEWIVES SP I PAN SH SILVER MACKEREL r HAKE BLACK DRUM ATL COD OCEAN RED DRUM M,141.4 PERCH SEA BILLIFISH M15& HERRING WHITE & SILVER FLOUNDERS PERCH 628 TUNA NHADENI 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 MILLIONS OF POUNDS %F1 Figure 2. Graph showing finfishes of the Atlantic coast yielding 10 million pounds or more to recreational and commercial fishermen in 1960 and 1970. 31 There were only nine categories that yielded that amount best fits its particular requirements. Once a species finds an to commercial fishermen. area where the temperature is suitable, its movements be- While both commercial fishermen and anglers strive to come dominated by other factors, such as the location and catch fish, commercial men must catch substantial quanti- availability of food or suitable spawning grounds. ties in order to stay in business. As a result, they have con- centrated on two major groups of fishes. One group consists Temperature Structures of pelagic fishes which live mainly in the upper levels of the Along the Atlantic coast there are complicated temperature sea and which form dense schools, such as the menhaden, structures of the water which permit a remarkable diversity herrings, tunas and mackerels. The other group consists of of fishes to gather during the course of a year, or even during dernersal fishes which congregate on or close to the bottom, a single season. This phenomena is perhaps best seen in the including species such as the flounders, cod, haddock, hali- Middle Atlantic Bight, that is, the area extending from Cape but and hakes. Anglers, on the other hand, are fishing for Cod, Massachusetts, to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and recreation as well as for food, thus they can justify spending including the entire continental shelf between these two long hours and considerable amounts of money to catch capes. During spring as the nearshore and surface water be- fish, even if they often come home empty-handed or with gins to warm, schools of Atlantic mackerel migrate from only a single specimen. As usually happens, the catch of an offshore and southerly areas. At the same time, and even individual angler is rather small for each trip he makes. throughout the summer, a large cell of cold winter water Nevertheless, these individual catches add up to a sub- persists along the bottom. stantial amount because there are so many anglers-there Cold-water species, such as Atlantic cod and pollock that were over nine million of them in 1970 and their numbers had migrated down from the north during the winter return have been increasing at a rate of 300,000 a year. They fish in the spring, though some remain in this cold cell. With heat- the year-round at all hours of the day and night along the ing of the surface water during the summer, warm-water mi- coast and offshore wherever people have access to the water grants move in, for example bluefi$h, seabass and summer and whenever the weather permits. They fish at the water's flounder. As the water warms even more during the summer, edge; from the beach or shore, docks, bridges,piers, wharves, many oceanicand pelagic fishes arrive-skipjack tuna, Atlan- bulkheads and jetties; and onvesselsof all sizes ranging from tic bonito, little t6nny. From mid-summer to early fall when small dories to ocean-going boats measuring more than 120 the temperatures of nearshore and surface water are warmest, feet in length and sailing more than 100 miles offshore. there are tropical fishes, such as snappers, groupers, and trig- gerfishes. As the water cools in the fall, the warm-water mi- Fish Migrations grants return southward or offshore to spend the winter. The availability of particular species determines to a great About the same time the cold-water migrants move in from extent what fishes an angler will catch. And the availability the north to spend the winter. Thus, from spring to fall, an- is determined in large part by the changing patterns of fish glers have a wide range of species at their disposal-cold- migrations. Along our.Atiantic coast all but a very few of the water, temperate-water, tropical and oceanic groups. In win- species are migratory and those that don't migrate are usual- ter, though the last three groups have left, anglers still have ly small and of little direct use to anglers. Some species, such many cold-water species. as the tunas and swordfish travel thousands of miles during a single season, crossing into waters claimed by several coun- Fishing "Whims" tries. Others, the tautog for example, which usually occur In addition to the patterns of fish migration, the species of within several miles of the coast, carry on limited migrations, fishes caught are determined in part by the whims of the moving into somewhat deeper offshore water during the angler as to the choice of species he will seek, where he will cold of winter and into shallower inshore water during the fish, and what bait he will use. These choices change con- warmth of summer. tinually over the years, sometimesvery quickly. For example, Most species of fishes in this hemisphere tend to move just this last year we have seen a tremendous interest in an- northward and shoreward during spring and southward and gling for sharks. People who a short time ago would never offshore during fall and winter, their movements being cor- dream of wasting their time fishing for them, are now sailing related to a considerable degree, though imperfectly, with offshore almost daily and spending large sums of money to water temperature. This is true of bottom -dwel I ers, such as catch one. Tilefish is another example. In 1970, within a few cod and flounders, as well as those which are characteristi- months after the accidental rod and reel catch of tilefish off cally active swimmers and more or less independent of the New Jersey, some twenty large party, charter and private bottom, such as Atlantic mackerel and bluefish. The fishes boats began making the necessary 200 mile round-trip to move along the coast as temperatures change progressively catch thissplendid fish. It lives only along the bottom in the f rom less favorable to more favorable levels. In doing so they deep water at the edge of the continental shelf off our east have the annoying habit, at least to fishery managers, of not and gulf coasts. paying any attention to political boundariesand continually Some fifty years ago giant bluefin tuna, weighing from cross one after the other with little difficulty. Each species 300 to over 1,000 pounds, were looked upon as being a nui- concentrates within areas where the prevailing temperature sance, not only to be avoided but to be killed by any means. 32 These large fish are now the basis of an important fishery to the estuary and kill the shrimp and crabs as well. This loss and are so eagerly sought by both anglers and commercial of food could greatly reduce the growth rate of tarpon as fishermen that allocation regulations have recently been well asotherspecies of fishes that the tarpon would also eat. placed on fishingforthem. Early in the 1900'sasmall angling Suppose an angler pol ing a boat along the shallow expanse fraternity started for summer flounder fishing. People be- of a pristine estuary finds in fishing tarpon great excitement came interested in this species partly because of its fine fla- and pleasure. He enjoys the fishing and tranquillity of the vor and partly because of the scarcity of other popular spe- estuary so much he decides to buy some of the marshland cies at that time. Today summer flounder rank among the to build a vacation home. Thus, he will be close to his favor- most important of our fishes. ite fishing area and be able to fish it more often. He dredges the shallow water to provide a suitable harbor for his boat Interdependency of Marine Species and fills the marsh wherehishouse will be. Other anglers fish- If we looked closely at a particular species that is sought ing in this estuary do the same. The filling of land with ma- almost exclusively by anglers, say tarpon, and examined terial dredged from the bottom eliminates the plants along some of the various factors that contribute to its survival the shore as well as the bottom vegetation which provides and well-being-its rate of reproduction, growth, longevity, nursery areas and shelter for the considerable assemblage of food, predators, diseases and so forth-we would very soon young fishes and invertebrate animals including shrimps, see its interdependency on many other fishes as well as other crabs, pompano and other commercially valuable species as marine organisms. For example, to speculate a little, suppose well asyoungtarpon. Gradually, but inevitably, the once ex- the growth during the first six months of a tarpon's life de- cellent fishing falls off and may in time cease altogether. pends on the abundanceof a larval stage of ballyhoo, a small baitfish. The number of surviving larvae may depend on Summary the amount of spawn produced by mature ballyhoo, which What we must learn is that we cannot deal effectively with young tarpon eat. Ballyhoo, being in demand by anglers for any single species of fish without considering all of the spe- baitwhich they rig for billfishes and other large oceanic fish- cies as well as the other marine organisms, for they are all es, could be extensively fished to supply anglers, so much interdependent to a greater or lesser degree and they affect so as to be overfished. Conceivably the total spawn might each other in various ways. Nor can we disturb the habitat be reduced enough to affect the tarpon. of one species without affecting the lives of many others. Suppose that the number of tarpon reaching maturity de- Recreational fishing involves many people of diverse inter- pends on the rate of predation by the bull shark. Bull sharks ests; indeed, many times more than the nine million that being'in demand for their skin which is used to make fine fish each year. We. must learn that we @cannot treat recrea- leather, may be so heavily fished by commercial men as to tional fishing intelligently without considering all of the reduce their numbers, thus acting to increase the likelihood biological, economic and social demands placed on it by all of tarpon reaching maturity. of the various groups that use the marine environment. Only Or suppose late in the tarpon's life, shrimp and small when this is done can we ever have wise management of our crabs form a very important food item. A pesticide sprayed fishery resources. over a nearby marsh to kill m6squ-1tos may quickly wash in- 33 Marine Recreational Fisheries Uses and Values David G. Deuel, Fishery Biologist Division of Statistics and Market News National Marine Fisheries Service-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Northeast Fisheries Center-Narragansett Laboratory Narragansett, Rhode Island In 1970, the responsibility for federal activities related to attributed to various factors including an increase in the pop- marine game fish was transferred from the Bureau of Sport ulation, in real income per capita, in improved travel facili- Fisheries, and Wildlife in the Department of the Interior ties and total travel per capita. to the newly created National Marine Fisheries Service in However, the major contributor is very likely the increascl the Department of Commerce. Included in this responsibili- amount of leisure time since 1955, with increased participa- ty isthe collection and dissemination of statistics on com- tion in various outdoor activities, including saltwater fishing. mercial and sport fishing, as cited in the Fish and Wildlife Recreation days spent saltwater fishing in 1955 totaled 58 Act of 1956 (public law 84-1024), and on migratory marine million and in 1970 increased to 114 million, an average of fish species and the effect of fishing on them, as cited in the 12 days annually per angler. Anglers made 95 million trips Migratory MarineGame Fish Actof 1959 (public law 86-359). during 1970 traveling 2.6 billion miles. Marine recreational These activities also include economic and biological studies, fishermen spent $489 million in 1955. Expenditures in 1970 and management programs for recreational fishery resources. totaled $1.2 billion, an average annual expenditure of $129 A combination of all these activities are necessary for sound per angler or $11 a day per angler while on a trip. Five cate- management and conservation of the resources to achieve gories accounted for over 80 percent of total expenditures maximum benefits to the public. Economic and social sta- in 1970; equipment 38 percent, food and lodging 14 percent, tistics are necessary to determine the extent of the benefits bait 12 percent, transportation 10 percent, and party and to society from our activities on marine recreational fish- charter boat fees 7 percent. Nearly 60 percent of equipment eries, and how best to achieve maximum benefits. Catch and expenditures were boat related and 20 percent was for fish- effort statistics, coupled with biological studies, are needed ing equipment. to develop plans to effectively manage the fishery resources. I would like to first discuss the growth of the marine recre- Catch Statistics ational fisheries in the United States. The term recreational Systematic collection of statistics on the catch of marine fisheries should be taken to include essentially all non-com- recreational fish over large geographical areas has been at- mercial fishing. tempted only in recent years, largely because collecting such statistics is difficult and expensive. Anglers are dis- Marine Recreational Fisheries persed along the coast fishing from boats, piers, jetties, National surveys of fishingand huntinghave been conducted docks, and from shore. They may fish day or night, several for the Department of Interior by the Bureau of Census at days a week throughout the year. Both field sampling and 5-year intervals since 1955 to estimate, for broad geographi- indirect, sampling methods, such as mail questionnaires and cal areas, participation and expenditure data on all fishing household interviews, have been used to collect catch statis- and hunting activities in the United States. In 1955, accord- tics. Both approaches are expensive and have serious limita- ing to this survey, 4.6 million saltwater anglers fished in the tions, particularly on a national basis. Most states do not United States, and the number more than doubled in 15 have a saltwater fishing license, which would provide a par- years, with 9.5 million anglers in 1970. This increase in par- tial sampling frame. Several states have occasionally and ir- ticipation, at an annual rate of 5 percent per year, may be regularly collected catch statistics, although only the Pacific 34 states collect catch data continuously, but they do so for Commercial Fishing Statistics only part of their recreational fishery. Most species of marine fish are now harvested by both sport Until 1960, no catch statistics were available on marine and commercial fishermen. In 1970, United States commer- recreational fisheries for the nation as a whole. Each 5 years cial fishermen landed 4.0 billion pounds of menhaden, a since 1960, the Bureau of Census has conducted salt-water species not taken by anglers. Now if you exclude the catch angling surveys as a supplement to the national surveys of of menhaden as well as the catch in Hawaii, the Great Lakes fishing and hunting. Those persons identified as saltwater and the Mississippi River, the commercial finfish catch in anglers in the national survey were asked to report the num- 1970 was 2.01 billion pounds. The catch by sportsmen in ber and average weight of fish caught, by species, during the 1970 was 1.58 billion pounds, or 44 percent -of the total year for seven geographical regions of the United States, ex- U.S. finfish landings of 3.59 billion pounds. cluding Hawaii. Only anglers 12 years.of age and older, clas- Combining the recreational and commercial catches in sified as substantial participants by having fished during the United States by species, it is evident that with some ex- parts of at least 3 days or spent at least $7.50 on the sport ceptions, there is little direct competition for the same during the year, were included. species in some fisheries. For example, 95 percent of the Results of the 1960 survey showed the 6.2 million anglers tuna, 93 percent of the salmon and 91 percent of the had- in the United States caught an estimated 633 million fish dock were taken by commercial fishermen. Sportsmen weighing 1.4 billion pounds. The catch increased in 1965 caught 95 percent of the bluefish, 90 percent of the croak- and again in 1970, when 9.4 million anglers caught 817 mil- ers, and 88 percent of the striped bass. However, in local lion fish weighing 1.6 billion pounds. areas, there is certainly some direct competition, both sea- The spotted seatrout was the most abundant single spe- sonally and geographically, for these or other species. cies in the U.S. recreational catch in 1970, with anglers tak- I would like to now discuss the Marine Recreational Fish- ing 67 million fish, or 8.2 percent of the total number of eries Statistics Program of the National Marine Fisheries Ser- fish caught. Atlantic mackerel, spot and bluefish accounted vice. The data available to date have been collected at 5- for 6.4, 5.5., and 4.5 percent of the total number caught re- year intervals using household surveys to interview anglers spectively. By species groups, the seatrouts were 13.1 per- throughout the country. These surveys covered broad geo- cent of the catch followed by mackerels, croakers, and flat- graphical areas, require a 1-yea@ recall by respondents, and fishes. These four species accounted for over one-third of are based on a small sample size of anglers. The National the total number of fish caught. Marine Fisheries Service recognizes the need for the col- Bluefish ranked first in the recreational catch in total lection of catch and effort statistics and has been devising pounds landed for a single species, 120 million pounds or improved survey techniques for an operational approach to 7.7 percent of the total catch. Spotted seatrout, striped the continuous collection of data on recreational fisheries. bass and Atlantic mackerel accounted for 6.7, 5.3, and 4.5 percent of the total weight caught respectively. By species Pilot Survey groups, the mackerels ranked first in pounds landed, 157 In 1974, the National Marine Fisheries Service funded a million pounds, or 9.9 percent of the catch, followed by combination mail-telephone household pilot survey to col- seatrouts, bluefish, and drums. These four species groups lect recreational catch and effort information in the District made up one-third of the total weight of the catch. of Columbia and the states of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Sixty percent of the weight caught by recreational an- Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New glers in the United States was made up by 10 species or spe- York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and cies groups; mackerels, drums, seatrouts, bluefish, flatfishes, West Virginia. striped bass, croakers, catfishes, porgies, and snappers. This regional survey was in two phases. During Phase 1, In 1970, Atlantic coast anglers totaled 5.0 million, while the population was screened by telephone to obtain infor- 2.3 million anglers fished on the Gulf Coast, and 2.2 million mation on participation in saltwater recreational activities on the Pacific Coast. Based on both the number of fish and during the previous 12 months and to provide a sampling the weight of fish caught, the most important species on frame for the second part of the survey. During Phase 11, the Atlantic coast were mackerels, bluefish, flatfishes, and households indicating participation in saltwater recreational striped bass. Gulf coast anglers found seatrouts, drums, cat- finfishing and shellfishing were sent mail questionnaires to fishes, and croakers most important, while the salmons, Pa- obtain data on participation, catch of species, fishing effort, cifid basses, rockfishes, and bonito were predominant on and expenditures for the first 6 months of 1974. A tele- the Pacific coast. phone foliowup questionnaire was administered to a sample Anglers fishing in the ocean caught 43 percent by num- of the nonrespondents to the mail questionnaire. Similar ber and 53 percent by weight of the total catch with the re- information was collected for the rest of 1974 in three bi- mainder from sounds, rivers and bays. Boat anglers took 67 monthly periods. percent by number and 75 percent by weight of the total. Re*sults of P.hase I estimated 1 10.8 million marine recrea- All shore fishing accounted for 33 percent of the total by tional anglers in 4.9 million households in the aforemen- number and 25 percent of the total by weight. tioned states fished in 1973-74. These participants included 35 recreational shel If i she rmen as well as finfishermen of al I ages, United States Water* Resources Counci I and others. The value without regard to frequency of participation or level of ex- within this range would depend on the type of recreational penditure. By comparison, the 1970 salt-water angling sur- activity. Our economists have estimated that a day of marine vey estimated 3.4 million anglers, classified as substantial recreational fishing has a net economic value of about $13. participants 12 years of age'and older, finfished from Maine Thus, multiplying $13 by the 114 million days fished during to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. 1970, the primary economic benefit of the marine recrea- The data from Phase I I are now being prepared for publi- tional fishery would be about $1.5 billion. cation and will include catch, effort, and expenditure esti- The secondary economic benefits of the fishery, in the mates. A similar pilot regional survey was just completed for form of income and employment, result from the total 1975 in the eight southeastern and Gulf states, from North expenditures of anglers, or the cost of participation in the Carolina to Texas. fishery. These secondary benefits might, in a sense, be a measure of the maximum loss that a local economy might Value of Marine Recreational Fisheries suffer if the fishery were to disappear from the area. The I would like to now discuss the value of the marine recrea- actual loss to the local area would then depend on what tional fisheries. The resource manager is frequently called alternative attractions it has or could develop, and the pro- upon to determine the value of a fishery for various reasons, portion of expenditures going to the local area. Total ex- including conflicting uses of the coastal zone, allocation of penditures in 1970 by saltwater anglers were $1.2 billion, a fishery resource between user groups or for allocation of which represents the secondary economic value of the fish- public funds. Various techniques have been proposed to ery. Thus, adding the primary and secondary benefits, the assess the value of recreational fishing as well as other recre- gross value of the marine recreational fishery in the United ational activities. Evaluation of a recreational activity is dif- States is estimated to be $2.7 billion. This estimate does ficult, since the intangible values do not fit well into con- not include recreational shelifishing, which, for some areas, ventional market mechanisms. We might ask what is the out- would add a substantial amount to the gross value of the put of the marine recreational fishery? The fish caught are fishery. certainly important, although the value of the entire recre- ational experience must be considered. Thus, the output is Domestic Commercial Fisheries really fishing. Estimates of value are available for U.S. domestic commer- When we think of fishing, it is usually the on-site activi- cial fisheries at exvessel or dockside, wholesale and retail ty that comes to mind, although this is only a part of the levels. However, the retail value of the commercial fisheries entire experience. First, there is the planning of the trip, does not represent the total economic value of the fisheries then the travel to the site, the on-site activity, and the re- to the economy. One method of estimating the gross value, turn trip home. The last and important part of the experi- based on a report by Gruen, Gruen and Associates, adds the ence is the recollection; the memory value, if you will. If primary economic value, estimated as one-half of the dock- all the satisfactions outweigh all the costs of the trip, we side value, to the secondary economic value, estimated as 3.2 then plan another trip. The total satisfaction, total bene- times the dockside value. For 1970, estimated values of all fits, are, therefore, a function of the entire experience. Thus, U.S. domestic commercial fisheries, including shellfish, were although the actual catching of fish is part of the value of $613 million dockside, $1.33 billion wholesale, and $1.85 the trip, the chance to get away from the work-a-day world, billion retail. The computed estimate of gross value is $2.27 to have peace and quiet, or the companionship of others may billion. be much more important as measures of the value of the Excluding the catch of freshwater fish, shellfish, and men- fishing experience. In a sense, we are asking, how much haden, the previously mentioned 2.01 billion pounds of would an angler be willing to pay to use the resource above commercially caught marine finfish had an estimated dock- what it costs to participate in fishing? side value of $272 million representing a gross estimated A part of the National Marine Fisheries Service effort in value of $1.01 billion. The estimated gross value of the ma- the sport fisheries program is to develop data in order to rine recreational finfisheries in 1970 was $2.7 billion, or evaluate the benefits society gets from recreational fisheries about 2.7 times that for the commercial finfisheries. resources. Another effort is to develop standardized proce- dures which will help assess these values. Given the limita- Summary tions of data and methods available, and the apparent lack As I indicated earlier, the collection of statistics is a costly of agreement on how to determine the value of recreational and difficult task for both individual states and the federal fishing, some value estimates have been prepared by Nation- government. However, data on marine recreational fisheries al Marine Fisheries Service economists. These estimates re- are needed. Projections indicate that by the year 2000 there suit from adding estimates of the primary and secondary will be 29 million substantial participants in marine recrea- benefits of the marine recreational fisheries. The primary or tional fisheries in this country, or three anglers for each one net economic value that should be assigned to a recreational today. The future demands that will be placed on thefishery day has been estimated between 75 cents and $25, by the resources by these recreational anglers and commercial fish- 36 ermen require the development of rational fishery manage- mental considerations such as species preferences, size pref- ment plans. erences, the relationship between success and participation, A basic data element necessary for formulating these plans availability of facilities, access, and detailed studies of the is ad equate catch and effort statistics on the recreational economics of the fisheries. A knowledge of these factors fisheries. However, we must consider the goal of recreation- coupled with catch and effort statistics and the goals of the al resource management as providing maximum benefits to commercial fisheries are vital for the optimum utilization the user. Thus, determining the factors that provide anglers and allocation of fishery resources between and among user with a quality fishing experience i s certainly important. I n- groups. cluded in these factors are social, economic, and environ- 37 Conflicts and Manag ernent in Marine Recreational Fisheries Allen E. Peterson, Jr. Assistant Director for Sport Fisheries Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries Boston, Massachusetts Introduction nism has, made it all but impossible to effectively manage Over the years many words have been spoken and a good our important marine fisheries. Of course, this is of conse- number of papers have been written about management in quence to all users of the resource; not just marine recrea- Marine Recreational Fisheries. Unfortunately, that's about tional fishermen. However, the problernfor recreational fish- all that's happened, lots of talk and paper wasted, but little ermen is aggravated by parochial interests of many state re- effort expended to solve the problemsor implement manage- source management agencies and a traditional bias at all ment programs directed at marine recreational fishermen. levels of government favoring commercial fisheries. When I was first asked to participate in this conference, I Knowledge. Another critical problem confronting marine thought, "here we go again." However, recent events have recreational fishermen is our lack of knowledge about the caused me to be more optimistic. Congress has passed the resources and the socioeconomic structure of the recreation- "Stu dds-M agn Lison," Fishery Conservation and Management al fisheries. Bill, and President F&d is expected to sign the bill into law Earlier, we heard two excellent presentations about the at the very time we are assembled here. This so-called "200 who, what, where, when, why and how much of marine an- mile limW` will greatly affect future fisheries management gling. However, I think both Mr. Freeman and Mr. Deuel and its impact on marine recreational fisheries could be sub- would agree thatwhile the information wehave issignificant, stantial. it is not of sufficient detail to make sound, objective manage- But before examining some of the provisions of the new ment decisions. law, I would like to review some of the conflicts or problems I suspect our next speaker will give us a further insight that presently confront marine recreational fisheries. about the need for more information on the resources. Representation. In order for the interests and needs of marine recreational fishermen to receive proper considera- Conflicts tion in the management process, they must have input, or In my opinion, the conflicts or problems can be grouped representation in that management process. I can assure you into a few basic categories. this is easier said than done. Common Property. Undoubtedly, the most pervasive Marine recreational fishermen are relatively unorganized problem affecting marine recreational fisheries is the com- and have not achieved an effective common voice, or .if you mon property value of the target resource, the fish we seek will, lobbying power for their special intersts. There are sev- to catch. Common property, simply means the resource does eral reasons for this, but none are so substantial that they not belong to anyone 'until it has been taken into possession. cannot be overcome. In fact, there are several activitiesun- With very few exceptions, there are no special entitlements derway at the present time to correct this situation. I sus- that set aside a resource for the exclusive use of recreational pectthe "200 mile bill" will be the catalyst for their success. fishermen. The other part of the representation problem lies in the The common property concept causes most of the con- failure of the resource management agencies (institutional flicts and controversies in marine fisheries. As long as two problems aside) to develop mechanisms for user reoresenta- individuals have the right to seek the same resource, human tion. Here again, the situation is changing and I think the interaction cannot be avoided. problem will be corrected in the near future. Institutional. The lack of an adequate regulatory mecha- I would like to point out that Massachusetts, and my 38 agency in particular, has led the way in this area. Back in ther, the Secretary has the authority to pre-empt state au- the early 1960's, the Marine Fisheries Advisory Commission thority in territorial waters if the state does not act in con- was formed to guide the Division of Marine Fisheries in car- cert with the management plan. The significance of this pro- rying out its management responsibilities. Since its incep- vision cannot be over-emphasized. For the first time, juris- tion, that Commission has always had equitable representa- dictional problems affecting most marine fisheries can be tion of marine resource users. As a consequence, user con- overcome and it should be possible to manage a fisheries flicts and confrontation have not been numerous or severe on a resource basis rather than the parochial desires of the and when they have occurred,. we have generally had a high states or their constituents. degree of success in resolving them. Optimum Sustained Yield. Of further significance to ma- Access. The ever increasing demand on our coastal zone rine recreational fishermen are provisions in the law that by different interests, both public and private, coupled with spell out an optimum sustained yield (OSY) concept as the an increase in the number and mobility of marine recrea- basis of management. In the past most marine fisheries man- tional fishermen, is making it increasingly difficult for the agement attempts have been directed toward maximum sus- fishermen to reach and utilize the resource. tained yeild (MSY), a concept that considers little, other Although the access problem is common to all users of than the effects of harvesting on the population. In contrast, the coastal zone, the problem is more acute for fishermen OSY addresses the socioeconomic impact of management as because of their numbers and the specialized nature of the well as biological considerations. Thisapproach will strength- activity. While several thousand bathers may easily be ac- en the position of recreational interests in management de- commodated on a mile of beach, a hundred or more anglers cisions. would be cause for concern. Representation on Councils. The law sets the size of the Money. Being an official of the Commonwealth of Mas- council and mandates a procedure for selecting council mem- sachusetts, I could not close my discussion about problems bers. Basically, it provides that the heads of the state and without raising the issue of money-or more precisely, the federal resource agencies shall be members and approximately lack of it. twice as many members will be selected by the.Secretary Good intentions, be they on the part of the public or from lists of'nominees, having interests in marine fisheries, government, cannot resolve the problems confronting marine submitted by the governors of each state in the region. There recreational fishermen without money. It is not my inten- are no set criteria for membership relating to commercial tion to get into a debate about where the money should representation, recreational representation, etc. In view of come from or how much. That argument has been going on the fact that the commercial fishing industry and other spe-. for more years than I've b 'een in the business, and I don't cial interest groups are organized and politically active, it is think we could end it here today, so I'll close the subject incumbent upon recreational fishermen to work in concert for now with one thought, the basic principle of consumer- to insure they are adequately represented on the councils. ism-"you.get what you pay for." I submit that marine rec- The mechanism has been established. It's upto the fishermen reational fishermen have paid little and have received about now. the same in return. Other Changes. I am convinced that the successful appli- cation of the Fishery Conservation and Management law will Resolving the Conflicts bring about many other changes in marine fisheries manage- In my opening remarks, I stated that I thought the new ment that will benefit marine recreational fishermen. Fishery Conservation and Management law would provide In order to carry out their duties, the Regional Fishery ways to address the problems confronting marine recrea- Management Councils will need up to date, factual infor- tional fisheries. Let's examine some of the provisions of the mation. This data in turn could be made available to the law and see how they might work. states for the management of their territorial fisheries or I think -it's safe to say most people envision the "200 mile such activities as coastal zone planning, wetlands preser- limit" as a tool to "kick the foreigners out" and a way to help vation, access development, etc. Also, successful manage- our commercial fishermen. However, the law does neither ment applications will tend to highlight poor management, of these things directly. What it does do is set up a process practices and place these programs under public scrutiny, for rational management of our marine fisheries resources. hopefully causing them to be changed. What happens to foreigners, our commerical fishermen, and marine recreational anglers, is going to depend on the out- Management put of the Regional Fishery Management Councils. Having looked atsome of the problems affecting marine rec- Council Powers. The strength of the management process reational fisheries and having reviewed a process for over- lies in the Regional Fishery Management Councils. These - coming these problems, I would like to close my discussion councils will have the power to devise mangement plans that with a quick summary of what I perceive to be broad objec- will be implemented at the federal level by the Secretary of tives of a marine recreational fisheries management program. Commerce. The councils are empowered to act on fisheries Rational Management. First and foremost, we must occurring outside the territorial waters of the states. Fur- have rational management on a resource basis, utilizing the 39 Optimum St4stained Yield concept, and including recognition steadily reduces the value of these areas as spawning and nur- of recreational angling as a legitimate use of -the resource and sery habitats and alters the basic nutrient flow that is needed an important source of protein in the national diet. to support marine life. Our environmental protection stan- The management process should consider all possible op- dards must be enforced and we must make even greater at- tions that will tend to reduce conflict and provide a measure tempts to ensure protection of these valuable areas-either of quality to the fishing experience. through legislation or direct purchase. Speaking in support Licensing of Participants, Again, I do notwant to precipi- of these concepts to this audience is like talking about the tate a major discussion on the pros and cons of a saltwater virtues of motherhood, but I think we need reminding, par- angling license. However, I believe most reasonable people, ticularly at times when the economy causes short term ac- interested and concerned abo ut the future of saltwater an- tions to take precedent over hard-fought-for long term prin- gi ing (I count myself among them), are convinced that some ciples. form of licensing of saltwater fishermen is needed. It is in- Resource Enhancement. Fishery managers have the abili- teresting to note that the saltwater fishermen's inland coun- ty to materially improve some of our fishery resources. Hatch- terpart has recognized and supported a similar need for many eries, various forms of artificial propagation, and sea farm- decades. The last "free resource" gives way very slowly. ing, can substantially increase the number of fish available Obviously, licenses would be an important source of rev- for harvest by the angler. Other enhancement activities, like enue to support management, research 'and enforcement habitat improvement and the construction of fish passage programs. But in its own right, the license is also the best facilities for anadromous fish, also should be undertaken by source of information and statistics to be used in manage- the resource management agencies. ment. Service Programs. Another management activity that di- I also have a personal view about the value of a saltwater rectly, benefits the marine recreational fisherman is "Infor- angling license. It relates to the "you get what you pay for" mation/Education" (I&E). I&E work should include the principle cited earlier. Once a person has to pay for a license publication of species informational leaflets, fishing guides to fish in the saltwater, his right becomes a privilege. As such, and maps and could provide up to date fishing information he may become much more concerned about what's affect- through a hot-line setup or the news media. Other service ing his privilege and may become an important force in the provided through an I&E program could aid the management management process. process. Technical publications and management informa- Provide Access. One of the best ways to provide direct tion could be prepared in lay terms and distributed to the tangible benefits to marine fishermen and resolve one of the users. major conflicts, is through the development of access facili- ties. Purchase of coastal property and the constructing of Conclusion parking lots, boat ramps, fishing piers and jetty improve- Although the problems confronting marine recreation fisher- ments are expensive, but with proper planning, development men are many, at no time has the opportunity to overcome of these facilities could relieve pressure on othersites, reduce these problems been so great. The Fishery Conservation and conflicts over the use of limited facilities, and provide for a Management Act of 1976 provides a vehicle to solve many better distribution of fishing pressure. of these problems. But the law alone is not the answer. The Habitat Protection. Maintenance of habitat is of utmost fishermen must.get involved in the process. Whether we suc- importanceto the maintenance of adequate fishery resources. ceed or fail in resolving these issues is now up to us. Continued encroachment by development of coastal areas 40 The Importance of Fisheries Research in Understanding Marine Ecosystems John B. Pearce, Off icer-in -Charge National Marine Fisheries Service-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Middle Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Center-Sandy Hook Laboratory Highlands, New Jersey Oceanography produce about half the world's supply of fish. The remain- During the three decades following World War 11 the various ing half of the harvestable fish come from coastal waters and academic fields comprising oceanography in the broadest very few areas of offshore waters. sense have caught the public's interest as have no other tech- In' recent decades much of the fishing effort has been nical and scientific endeavors save the aerospace program. concentrated in the limited coastal areas known to pro- Television regularly brought to every household the exploits duce significant yields of commercially important finfish and of "Flipper" and the drama of underwater activities. In more shellfish. Fisheries and biologists have attempted to quanti- recent years the general public has been enthralled by Jacques fy the productivity of certain species on the Atlantic and Cousteau and his exploration of the ocean depths. Pacific continental shelfs of North America. Their calcula- During the same period it became quite fashionable for tions lead some scientists to conclude that more fish are be- authoritative marine scientists to talk of feeding the world's ing landed than are produced on a continuing basis in certain ever growing human population on the basis of the harvest areas of the Atlantic continental shelf, and in fact there has from the sea. Indeed, with the development of new fishing been a substantial decline in landings of especially valuable gear and larger vessels it seemed almost possible to produce species such as the cod and haddock. In other instances re- continually increasing amounts of protein and.other nutri- search data has enabled a more efficient management of spe- ents from the marine and certain freshwater fisheries. For- cies such as tuna and salmon on the Pacific coast of North eign fishing vessels roamed the world's oceans harvesting fis@ America. of all types for human consumption. Many species of fish Unfortunately, this decline in landing$ of finfish has oc- were taken, not for direct human consumption, but for con- curred at a time in history when the world citizenry has had version into nutritious feeds which could be fed to chickens to look to other than the traditional sources of nutrients, and other domesticated animals. These animals were in turn especially proteins. Economists and fishery biologists are secondarily ingested by humans as a source of protein. Un- now aware that unless the marine fisheries are better man- fortunately, in the process of converting fish into chicken aged, and environmental deterioration halted, many of the tissue a substantial portion of the nutrients originating in the most valuable commercial and recreational species will be- sea -is lo. st. come generally unavailable. Biological Productivity Fisheries Research In the mid 1060's numerous scientists began to turn their Thus the average citizen, albeit he is a recreational or non- attention tothe problems inherent in attempts to feed grow- fisherman, now has a real stake in fisheries research. The ing populations by utilizing the sea's biological productivity. well-known fishery biologist, Dr. J. L. McHugh, has noted Dr. John Ryther of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institu- that mismanagement, overfishing (both domestic and for- tion, in an article in a 1969 issue of $cience entitled, "Pho- eign) and environmental deterioration are the root causes tosynthesis and Fish Production in the Sea," pointed out for the failure of several of the most important contempo- that 90 percent of the world's oceans are essentially biologi- rary fisheries. If the collective living resources of the sea are cal, deserts. He further noted that the upwelling regions of to be wisely managed, a far greater understanding of their the oceans (a total area about half the size of California) individual life histories, migratory pathways and functions 41 within the food chain will be necessary. Granted.that over- ton species-the single-celled plants of the sea-are affected fishing is a problem, research will be required to produce by petroleum-derived chemicals. In some instances it has data upon which resource managers can base catch limita- been demonstrated that contaminants such as DDT and tions and quotas. Finally, growing volumesof pollutantsand PCB, and other insecticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons, new categories of chemical contaminants that enter aquatic are taken up by the phytoplankton and later concentrated ecosystems require additional research oriented towards un- in the tissues of finfish and other animals which feed upon derstanding the potential and actual impacts of these mate- the planktonic forms. This phenomenon is called "biological rials on living marine resources and fishery products. magnification" and has been shown to culminate in increased Recognizing that recently identified problems require amounts of contaminants in the marine life which graze on innovative research for 'their solution, many fisheries agen- plankton-the so-called herbivores. Examples of particular cies have initiated entirely new programs or have assigned importance to fisheries biologists include forms such as the new priorities to existing projects and investigations. Where- recreationally important tuna, swordfish and other bill fish as less than a decade ago a particular fisheries or ichthyolog- as well as menhaden or mossbunker and the carnivorous fin- ical laboratory might be staffed solely by scientists trained fish which in turn feed upon them. in fisheries biology, today almost all such laboratories have staffs consisting of ecologists, plankton biologists, chemists, Mercury Contamination microbiologists and the other disciplines required in today's In recent years fishery biologists have become particularly fishery research programs. While a scientist may be desig- concerned about the problem of mercury in fish tissues; this nated as a fishery biologist, he may well be solely concerned problem is probably the epitome of biological magnification. with the ecosystem in which the fish exists. It is also only In some manner, not yet completely understood, compounds recently that marine gamefish have been intensively studied. of mercury enter aquaticfood chains which terminate in large The Sandy Hook Laboratory was dedicated to the investiga- predacious fish such as tuna, swordfish and certain sharks. tion of marine sportfish in 1961. Considerable alarm was generated when it was reported that toxic mercuric substances were present in processed fish Pollution Effects products available for human consumption. The. natural con- It is most interesting that some of the first observations con- cern of the consumer market resulted in temporarily de- cerned with the effects of petroleum products and other creased seafood consumption and a serious adverse effect on pollutants on estuarine and oceanic organisms were made certain segments of the fishing industry. by fishery biologists. Well before the turn of the century the Considerable research is underway, both in this country early fishery biologist G. B. Goode noted tNt the original and abroad, to determine the degree of contamination of oil refineries located on Newark Bay, New jersey, had pro- fishery products by mercury and other heavy metals as well duced effluents which demonstrably affected the quality of as a wide variety of organic compounds. Results to date in- finfish and shellfish indigenous to the bay. Later, about the dicate that the vast maj ority of seafood products and recre- time of World War 1, the noted shellfish biologist, Julius Nel- ational or gamefish are wWesome and-free of harmful con- so@, observed that certain industrial effluents entering the taminants, probably more so than most foodstuffs available waterways of the lower Hudson River estuary had begun to to, man. Many fishery biologists are, however, continuing impinge adversely upon the commercially important oyster to monitor the living aquatic resources from the field, as populations of Raritan Bay. As the nation was then entering well as processed seafoods, to determine how the products a period of great industrial expansion and technological rev- of man's industrial society .impact upon his harvest from the olution, little heed was given to the warnings sounded by sea. Goode, Nelson and other farsighted individuals who warned of the impact of urbanization and industrialization on the N atu ral Toxic Substances living resources of the coastal zone. Marine scientists have long been interested in certain natural Today, marine and fishery biologists are in the forefront phenomena which result in production of toxic substances of the environmental movement concernedwith the impact known to cause adverse effects in marine life which, in turn, of man on his environment. It is well-known that aquatic may affect mankind. For instance, tropical fisheries have organisms, and in particular certain marine species, are es- throughout history been limited because of a phenomenon pecially sensitive to environmental perturbations. Scientists called ciguatera poisoning. This is considered to be a result working at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution hav e of fish grazing upon microscopic life which inhabit coral recently found that small, shrimp-like organisms called am- reefs. Current thinking is that the microorganisms contain phipods are particularly sensitive to petroleum and petro- a toxic substance which is concentrated in the tissues of the leum-derived chemicals. The numerous species of amphi- fish. If these herbivorous fish are in turn fed upon by larger pods are not only good indicators of certain forms of pol- predators, the toxic substances, having their origins in the lution they are also one of the principal sources of food for microorganisms, are further concentrated in the bodies of many sport and commercial fish, particularly juveniles. the predator fish thus jeopardizing their use by human be- Other marine scientists have discovered that phytoplank- ings. 42 Some fishery biologists and marine scientists believe that (rapid increases) in which the dominant organisms are pig- the possibility of ciguatera poisoning has increased in recent mented so that when they reproduce themselves in unusually years, in part, at least, because of man's activities. During large numbers the waters are discolored. The causative or- World War 11 the construction of defense installations on ganisms may be in some cases the same or similar to those tropical atolls resulted in the filling of natural channels con- which result in paralytic shellfish poisoning, i.e. species of necting the atoll lagoons with the open sea. The consequent clinoflagellates. Plankton blooms which cause "red tides" reduction in circulation within the lagoons may have resulted are common along portions of the Florida coastline. In these in conditions which foster the growth of microorganisms southern waters "red tides" have often resulted in massive known to be involved in the ciguatera phenomenon. More fish kills in which dead fish literally cover the beaches for research on this problem is needed to increase substantially several miles in a stretch. The consequences of such kills the yield of tropical fisheries, particularly those small scale are of obvious concern to the citizenry, the sport and com- native activities peculiar to certain islands or archipelagos as mercial fisherman, as well as the fishery biologist. Sprays re- well as the recreational gamefish sougk by tourists in trop- sulting from heavy surfs during "red tide" blooms have been ical and semitropical waters. reported to be particularly irritating to persons sensitive to the toxins produced by certain of the clinoflagellates. The Paralytic Shellfish "red tide" episodes in Florida apparently are the result of Another problem known to man long before the advent of certain natural phenomena in which the various factors in- industrial pollution is paralytic shellfish or mussel poison- fluencing blooms occur simultaneously and lead to unusual- ing. Again, this is a problem seemingly restricted to certain ly large populations of the causative organisms. portions of the world's seas, especially cool temperate wa- In recent years "red tides" have become more numerous ters. In North America it is a phenomenon of the Pacific and extensive in the marine waters of the New York metro- coastline; on the Atlantic seaboard it has generally been not- politan area. Although these blooms were noted in the early ed to the north of Cape Cod. Again, this problem arises from history of this region, in recent years they have caused far the ingestion of a microorganism-in this case a planktonic more concern. Research has been underway at the Middle dinoflagellate-by certain marine animals capable of concen- Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Center of the National Marine Fish- trating the toxin present in the microorganism. The common eries Service which seems to indicate that extensive pollu- blue or edible mussel, found on both coasts as well as in tion of the waterways furnished essential nutrients which northern European waters, is particularly efficient in con- produce and sustain these blooms. Numerous swimmers, centrating this microorganism and hence the name "mussel fishermen and other persons using the waters for recreation- poisoning." al purposes claim to have been made ill by contact with There are, however, a variety of bivalve mollusks which "red tide" infested waters and surf spray. No massive fish do ingest plankton, including the toxic clinoflagellates, and kills have been observed inshore although numerous scuba thus may also be rendered toxic. Many of these bivalves pro- divers have observed inexplicable kills on natural and artifi- vide recreation for clam diggers. Fortunately, the rapid in- cial reefs. These events were noted during the same months creases in numbers of dinoflagellates which may result in when plankton blooms involving "red tide" organisms were contaminated shellfish are usually seasonal. The admonish- seen to occur. When these blooms occur, the State of New ment, "eat mussel's taken only during months having an R Jersey and public health officials have usually closed the in their spelling" is well-heeded both by recreational and affected beaches to swimming, surfing and other contact commercial shellfishermen as well as the consuming public. sports or activities. Again, this results in substantial losses in During 1972 and 1974 occurrences of toxic shellfish were the recreational and tourist oriented businesses. Recently reported further south in New England coastal waters than red tides" have resulted in extensive closures of shellfish is regarded normal. One or two occurrences of human pois- beds in New England and the loss of large numbers of valua- oning occurred following consumption of bivalve shellfish. ble gamefish in Gulf states. Again, considerable public consternation resulted in a rapid While fisheries research may not directly ameliorate the drop in consumption of shellfish, particularly in New Eng- problems involved with "red tides" and "mussel poisoning" land. Fishery biologists now monitor plankton blooms likely it will provide data useful in understanding the precursor to consist of species which could cause harm. Some biolo- conditions which lead to unusual plankton blooms and gists attributed the toxic plankton blooms in New England should enable eventual prediction of blooms. to the effects of dredging. This has not, however, been veri- fied and a more likely explanation is that abnormal currents Other Experimental Studies and/or weather conditions resulted in the troublesome While many fishery biologists are concerned with field blooms. Both state and federal fishery agencies now under- programs involving population dynamics, resource assess- stand that such blooms must be predicted and understood if ment and deterioration of the environment, other investiga- the public confidence in shellfish products is to be main- tors working in fishery laboratories are concerned with ex- tained. perimental studies which have far reaching implications of The so-called "red tides" are actually plankton blooms importance to the general citizenry and industry. In recent 43 years the behavioral sciences have become extremely impor- chromosomes are often highly aberrant in the eggs of coastal tant to the understanding of how marine organisms at vari- finfish species. Some biologists are concerned that anoma- ous levels of organization respond to each other and to the I ies in genetic mechanisms and subsequent growth and devel- environment. For instance, the results of behavioral studies opment may be the result of pollution and toxic contami- of the schooling, migration and feeding of bluefish in rela- nants. tion to temperature and light have been cited in popular books written for the recreational fisherman. These investi- Heavy Metals Research gations have, however, also resulted in data of considerable In a similar vein, fishery biologists are engaged in research value in the sitingof nuclear electric power plants and indus- to determine how heavy metals affect the all-important en- trial facilities which discharge heated effluents. Other inves- zyme systems of various marine species. Preliminary data tigations of fish behavior have produced information on gen- suggest that certain metals have far more deleterious effects eralized patterns of behavior in the lower vertebrates and in- than do others. Perhaps more important, some species of ani- vertebrates. These results are of great importance to scientists mals are much more sensitive to these metals than are other, and sociologists interested in the evolution of behavior pat- closely related forms. This suggests that it is unwise to gen- terns and their modification in the so-called higher verte- eralize or make conclusions based on research conducted brates, including man. with a single species of organism or type of contaminant. . For centuries certain tribes and societies have reared and Since a variety of enzyme systems are involved in transmit- farmed the edges of the sea for aquatic organisms to provide ting the "information" contained in the chromosomes into nutritious food for human consumption. In recent decades the effective mechanisms involved in the growth and devel- the culturing of pearl oysters and other economically impor- opment of the individual-be it a lobster or flounder-the tant organisms has developed into 6 substantial industry. importance of the various interrelationships between genet- These activities often involve husbandry of aquatic organ- ics and enzymology are obvious. Such research, while direct- isms suggestive of agricultural practices in which animals and ly applicable to fisheries problems; is also basic and adds to plants are bred and reared under semicontrolled conditions our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underly- rather than hunted or gathered from their natural environ- ing all life. ment. Much of the successful efforts in such aquacultureen- Finally, much fisheries research is directly useful to the deavors,have centered in the Far East. aquarium hobbyist. As the problems inherent in dog and cat ownership in cities have increased, large numbers of peo- Aquaculture ple have turned to rearing saltwater fish for "pets." The de- In recent years it has become more widely recognized that velopment of new aquarium systems designed originally for the creatures of the sea which@ can be hunted are becoming fisheries research has resulted in methodologies which can be limited and if man is to increase the yield of the seas it will used to breed, rear and hold delicate tropical fish. At the be done through such activities as aquaculture and utiliza- same time many dedicated hobbyists will make observations tion of unexploited resources. In addition, certain freshwa- important to certain elements of fisheries biology and man- ter species are hatchery reared for release to the natural en- agement. vironment to provide increased recreational stocks. It should be noted that in recentyears increased emphasis Starting in prehistory, man first domesticated wild ani- has been placed on cooperation between fishery biolo-gists mals. Later he selectively bred these forms to provide strains and the physically oriented marine scie*ntis-ts. For instance, that were more useful to him; docility and increased yield in order to understand the effects of ocean disposal of solid of food and labor were the usual traits emphasized. Today wastes on living resources the fishery biologist must know fishery biologists are attempting to increase the size of fish the directions and rates of movements of contaminants en- and shellfish, the rate at which they grow to a harvestable trained in the water column. The biologist also requires maturity and even improve their appearance or aesthetic knowledge of how the physical and chemical nature of sed,i- qualities. Using modern genetic research, but still including ments is altered by various wastes. Some of these changes empirically evaluated results of test breeding, fishery biolo- can be measured by the biologist but in many instances the gists are trying to develop new strains of trout and salmon, biologist must have the cooperation of the physical oceanog- oysters, lobsters and other shellfish. rapher, geochemist and sedimentologist to make the fullest Throughout the world scientists are now investigating use of his data. the genetics of species traditionally used in aquaculture en- Conversely, the present day geologist interested in under- deavors as well as new species which might later lend them- standing past geological events must have the cooperation. of selves to commercially viable projects. Because so little is the fishery and marine biologists. Sediment reworking, Le. known about the specific mechanisms involved in the gene- burrowing by worms and other bottom dwelling animals, can tics of marine organisms, such investigations are opening up markedly alter geological events or records. Thus the f ind- - entirely new opportunities for study. Fishery biologists ings of biologists interested in benthic organisms have con- working with the chromosome structure of marine species siderable relevance to the geological oceanographer and the of finfish have made preliminary findings indicating thatthe historical geologist. 44 Similarly, the studies of the fishery plankton biologists presently focusn on the various problems in the New York are of interest to the chemical oceanographer; the plankton Bight, that part of the Atlantic off New Jersey and Long Is- is known to alter markedly the chemical constituency of land and one of the most intensively used bodies of marine seawater both by the uptake of chemicals in the water as water in the world. well as by the production of metabolites which significantly change the milieu inwhich they dwell. Withoutthe assistance Summary of the plankton physiologist-biochemist the seawater chem- It should now be obvious that the field of fishery biology ist may have diff igulty in analyzing or even accurately meas- serves a greatly expanded audience. No longer is the infor- uring certain seawater constituents. mation acquired by fishery research agencies solely oriented Bringing the results of fishery research and oceanography towards the commercial and recreational fishermen and in- to the attention of the various user and interest groups has dustries. Fishery data is increasingly being utilized by a spec- become a major activity of the fishery oriented agencies. trum of user groups including industries of a wide range, en- Numerous states working within the NOAA Sea Grant pro- vironmental agencies and conservation groups, local govern- gram distribute periodic newsletters, brochures and papers ments and the general citizen, interested only in the aesthet- which serve to inform the public and industry of the latest ics or recreational attributes of the coastal and marine en- developments and findings provided by fisheries research., vironments. This new role of fishery research has been ac- In other instances new programs have been initiated which cepted by most agencies and future research should enable foster cooperative studies involving fishery biologists and marine fishery scientists to add to the future well-being of. physical scientists. The.new NOAA Marine Ecosystems Anal- the world's citizenry. ysis (MESA) Program is one such endeavor; this program 45 Shellfish- Description, Uses, Values Richard T. Keck, Resident Biologist College of Marine Studies University of Delaware Lewes, Delaware Introduction on the outside edges of themeanders co mmonly found on Shellfish consist of benthic invertebrates in two major tidal rivers. groups, the molluscs and decapod crustaceans. In partic- In addition the gregarious setting behavior displayed by ular the bivalve molluscs, consisting of such families as various bivalves results in the formation of well defined the oysters, scallops, clams, and mussels; and the decapod communities called beds, bars, or reefs., The gregarious set- crustaceans, represented by such groups as the crabs, lob- ting phenomena is controlled by pheromone release and has sters, shrimps and crayfish are important both-commer- been documented for oysters (Hidu et al. 1969) and clams cially and recreationally. Most shellfish are used as food (Keck et al. 1974). items, and their popularity as recreational resources is large- The shellfish communities support a wide variety of ly due to their exposure as commercial products. For this species (Wells 1961) and (Maurer and Watling, 1973), such reason, the following discussion will be limited to shellfish as xanthid crabs, grass shrimp, gastropods, and fowling which are important in both commercial and recreational organisms. Because of their high biological productivity, fisheries. these shellfish grounds are often areas which attract game- The biology of molluscan bivalves is remarkably similar. fish. The distribution and abundance of these shellfish are limited by certain positive and negative environmental factors (Galt- Negative Influences on Shellfish soff 1 1964). Among the positive factors are bottom sediment, Two negative factors affecting distribution are predation movement of water masses, salinity ranges, appropriate food, and pollution. Juvenile bivalve molluscs are especially sus- and water temperature. Negative factors include sedimenta- ceptible to predation by xanthid and portunid crabs (Ropes tion, disease, competition, predation, and pollution. 1968 and Walne & Dean 1972) and carnivororus gastropods The reproductive cycle of bivalves is primarily tempera- such as the oyster drill (Carriker, 1961). Pollution in the form ture controlled. Gametogenesis occurs -in the spring with of domestic sewage, heavy -metals and pesticides have ren- spawning being stimulated by rapid temperature increases dered many valuable shellfish resources useless. Clem (1971) which occur during the summer. Fertilization occurs exter- reports that approximately 1/5 of our 10 million shellfish nally and the presence of male sperm in the water chemical- supporting acres have been closed due to pollution. All of ly triggers further mass spawning.The resultant veliger larvae Delaware's oyster producing rivers have been closed due to spend a two week developmental period as zooplankton, be- pollution since the early 1950's. These rivers represent a po- fore undergoing metamorphosis and settling to the bottom. -tential loss of approximately 55,000 bushels of seed oys- Settling areas are usually well defined, because larvae are de- ters/year to an industry that is strugglingto survivethe MSX pendent on tides and entrainment in water masses for reten- epidemic of 1957 (Maurer et al. 1970). Andrews (1974) re- tion in the estuary. Pritchard (1951) described estuarine.cir- ports that there is considerable circumstantial evidence that culation and how residual -landward drift of bottom masses the Delaware Bay epizootic; MSX, wasa result of general en- distributes larvae in the estuary. Tidal stream morphology vironmental degradation,* and salinity changes caused-by un- is an important factor in limiting abundance of oysters usually dry weather. (Keck et al. 1973). Oysters are found in greatest numbers Bivalve shellfish may feed by filtering surrounding water 46 through their gills. Because shellfish.are highly efficient bio- small clams are called st 'earners orcherrystones;and thesmal- logical filters, they are indicators of water quality. This eco- lest legal size clams are known as littlenecks. logical relatio nship has been well documented for bacterial Field surveys have shown that clams prefer-to set in coars- and viral types (Geldrich et al. 1962, Cook, 1969, and Liu er sediments (Wells 1951) especially with large shell frag- et al. 1967). Many shellfish recipes require only superficial ments (Pratt & Campbell 1956). The fact that juvenile clams cooking and oysters and clams'are often eaten raw. For these are often found in old shell deposits has been exploited by reasons it is even more important that shellfish growing areas several scientists (Castagna 1970, Keck et al. 1975). be free of contamination. Unfortunately, in many cases areas Clams can be caught in a variety of ways. Wading or tread- most readily accessible to the recreational shellfisherman ing clams is an old technique. Bathers simply probe the bot- are the areas most likely to be effected by pollution. In ad- tom for clams with their feet. When the bather feels a clam dition, there have been occasional outbreaks of paralytic he submerges and picks it up. shellfish poisoning, which occurs when the bivalves feed on Hand rakes or scratch rakes are used while wading in shal- a small marine organism, Gonyaulax, that produces a toxin. low water. The rake has long teeth to dig up the clam and a As a precaution all persons interested in recreational shell- basket to lift the clam to the surface. fishing should obtain information on regulations and ap- The Bull rake is a large boat operated rake, that is highly proved shellfish areas from local enforcement agencies. efficient. The rake may be 2 to 4 ft. in width and is capable The decapod crustaceans are highly mobile when com- of catching 20 to 30 clams per drift. Clarnmers will let the pared to the sedentary bivalves. Estuarine areas are com- tide or wind push the boat while working the rake into the monly used as nursery grounds with adults migrating be- bottom. tween more offshore waters and the estuary. The crabs and lobsters are largely carnivorous scavengers, while the smaller Cultivating Clams shrimp feed heavily on detrital material. Reproduction is The University of Delaware is currently involved in a clam temperature related; however, it is also closely tied to the planting project that has both commercial and recreational molting cycle. Mating occurs while the female is in a soft value. Clam transplants and planting of juvenile stocks have condition. The eggs are retained and brooded on the abdom- been successful in many areas. A common factor in the suc- inal region until they hatch. The larvae go through a complex cess of the plantings was the protection of the clams from a metamorphosis that lasts as long as a month. Crab larvae are variety of crabs, the principal predators of small bivalves. commonly referred to as zoeal and megalops stages. Walne & Dean 0 972) and Ropes (1968) report that the green crab, Carcinus maenas is a particularly vicious predator. Keck Oysters and Maurer (unpublished data) showed that the blue crab, The American oyster, Crassostrea virginica is the principal Callinectes sapidus may consume as many as 40 small clams edible -oyster of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The oyster a day. The crabs are particularly adept at finding their prey typically inhabits the littorall and intertidal zones of the estu- in fine silt sediments. arine habitat. Oysters survive in salinities between 5P/oo and Godwin (1964) and Menzel and Sims (1964) used fences 300/oo; however, they are most commonly found in areas to successfully protect clams from crab predation. However, where salinities range between 150/oo and 256/oo. The oys- Haven and Loesch (1972) had little success with netting as ter can be caught by several methods. When found intertid- it is susceptible to storm damage. The prohibitive cost of ally the oyster can simply be picked off the bottom during fencing large areas and its limitation to use in shallow water periods of low tide. Unfortunately, due to severe winter requires that other means of protection be developed. temperatures in the north, most intertidal oyster beds are Castagna (1970) has protected juvenile clams with a found south of North Carolina. crushed aggregate. The aggregate method is useful in that it The most productive method for the recreational oyster- allows clams to be planted at extremely small sizes. By plant- man is.to obtain a small handscrape or dredge of about 1/2 ing at small sizes hatchery feeding and holding costs are sub- to 1 bushel in capacity. This size dredge can be easily han- stantially reduced. dled by one person. At the University of Delaware clams were grown in a A second and more difficult method is tonging which closed system mariculture facility asdescribed by Loosanoff utilizes a large scissors-like tool with long wooden handles and Davis (1963) and Pruder et al. (1973). The larvae and and attached baskets at the bottom. The tonger works from recently set juveniles were batch fed algae (Hartman et al. a small boat, opening and closing the handles to gather oys- 1973) and grown in recirculating tanks. In this manner 2.6- ters between the two baskets. million clams were reared to planting size of about 3 mm. A one acre plotwas planted with a crushed shell aggregate. Hard Clams Baffles made of vexar screening sewn on iron frames were The hard clam or quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria, is com- set around the plot to reduce current flow, allowing the mon to shallow intertidal areas from the Gulf of Maine to clams to burrow under the shell without being washed from Florida. Depending on size the hard clam has several collo- the plot. quial names; large clams are called chowders; medium to Several small experimental plots have produced 50% 47 survival rates after one year. Assuming 50% survival each and rounded. Mature males attain a carapace width of 6 to year for the 3 years necessary for the clams to reach legal 7 inches. The adult females are generally smaller. The cara- size the plot should produce 250,000 1 ittleneck clams worth pace is a bluish-green andthe chelipeds (claws) of the mature approximately $17,500. With the recent advances in mari- male are usually blue, hence the name "blue claw" or blue culture technology, put and tak6 management programs crab. could become a reality for recreational and commercial Blue crabs have a life spa6 of two to four years. Commer- shellfisheries. cial size is reached in 12 months in Florida (Tagatz 1968). At least 18 months is required to attain commercial size Soft Clams north of the Chesapeake (Van Engle, 1958). Mya arenaria, the soft clam is widely distributed from Lab- The female crabs mate in the soft stage of their final molt. rador to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The Chesapeake Bay Males mate several times and protect the females while they and New England coastal areas appear to be centers of abun- are in the soft condition. The terminology "doubler" or dance. Locally the soft clam is often called @'manninose." "buck and rider" are used to describe mating pairs. The sper- The soft clam was originally used as bait by cod fisherman. matazoa is carried in the female's seminal receptacle and is However, today the soft clam has become a popular food viable for at least a year. item, particularly in its fried form. The female moves to more saline waters to spawn. The The soft clam is found in bays, coves and other protected eggs are fertilized as they are extruded through the seminal areas. It is usually found in a muddy sand bottom (Hanks receptacle. As many as 2 million eggs may be produced Qa- 1966). The clam lives deeply buried with its distinctive long worski 1972) which are attached to the female's abdomen. siphon extending to the surface. In the New England area Crabs carrying eggs are called "sponge" crabs. the majority of the clam beds are found intertidally. For this After the eggs hatch the larvae go through several zoeal reason the soft clam is quite important as a recreational re- and megalops states, The larval period may last as long as source in New England. In the Chesapeake region the clams 40 days. During the larval period the young crabs move up are found subtidally and require special hydraulic dredges estuary where tidal marshes are used extensively as nurseries. - for harvesting, The blue crab is an omnivorous scavenger and predator In intertidal areas, the soft clam is hand harvested using of small molluscs. Darnell, (1958) reports that bivalve mol- a clam hoe, which is a short-handled, fork-like tool with four luscs constitute as much as 63% of the adult crab's diet. to six flattened tines. Harvesting is accomplished during pe- The Blue crab can be caught in many ways; however, the riods of low tide. The presence of the rounded siphon hole simplest method employs the use of bait, hand lines and dip on the surface indicates clams are below. Care must be taken nets. Crabbing can be done from shore or a boat, which when digging the clams to prevent crushing the fragile make the resource readily available. It is often better to crab shell. the headwaters of tidal creeks, as the catch will be primarily the large "Jimmy" crabs, Small hand traps which close on Blue Mussels the crab as it is pulled to the surface are also highly effici- The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is an under-utilized shell- ent. Many states allow recreational fishermen to use a lim- fish resource. The common mussel is one of the more abun- ited number of commercial crab pots. The commercial pot dant shellfish found from Maine to North Carolina. Mussels is quite productive, but the costs of over $10.00 are prohi- are most abundant in colder waters that remain below 250C bitive for the recreational fisherman. during the summer (Wells & Gray 1660). Mussels commonly grow in large clumps held together by well developed byssal Lobsters threads. Mussels are found interticlally and are readily avail- The range of the American or Maine lobster Homarus amer- able to the recreational shellfisherman. Although mussels are icanus extends from Labrador to North Carolina. The great- considered gourmet items in Europe, their use in the United est number of lobsters are taken in the northern portion of States has been limited. Public education as to the uses of its range, and abundance decreases in the South. Lobsters mussels should improve its popularity and use as a recrea- were thought to be generally nearshore organisms; however, tional resource. populations of lobsters have been found offshore on Georges Bank and near the Canyon areas off the New Jersey and Del Blue Crabs aware coasts. Cooper and Uzmann (1970) conducted a tag- The blue crab, Calfinectessapidus is a swimming crab in the ging study with lobsters on the Georges Bank. The recoveries family Portunidae (jaworski, 1972). The last pair of walking demonstrated a shoreward migration in spring and summer legs have developed into well formed paddles. The Blue crab and a retur .n to deeper water in fall and winter. The authors is a common inhabitant of the East'and Gulf coast ranging also concluded that the growth rates of offshore lobsters from Nova Scotia to Uruguay (Williams 1965). The male or are more rapid than that of inshore stocks. "Jimmy" crab is distinguished by the inverted T shaped ab- Reproduction of the lobster is very similar to that of the dominal apron. The immature female's apron is triangular, Blue crab. Mating takes place when the female is soft. Sperm while on the mature female or "sook" the apron is broad is held in the seminal receptacle and eggs are fertilized as 48 they are laid. The eggs are a greenish-black color when first clams are widely used as bait for bottom foraging fish such laid. The eggs are brooded for about ten to eleven months. as Drum, Seabass, and Cod. Peeler crab segments are highly Prior to hatching the eggs become a translucent orange color. touted baits for weakfish and tautog. The smaller grass and The eye of the larval lobster is clearly visible in ripe eggs. sand shrimps such as Crangon are often used as bait for spot Spawning usually begins in May and reaches a peak in June and croakers. or July when water temperatures are above 200C (Hughes Finally, beachcombing and shell collecting has become a and Mattheissen 1962). Depending on size a female lobster popular pastime for tourists visiting the shore. The calcari- may lay between 6,000 and 90,000 eggs (Goggins & Fortier ous shells of bivalve and gastropod molluscs are often highly 1964). The newly hatched larvae are about 1/3 inch long colored and structurally ornate. Tropical and subtropical and resemble small mysid shrimp.-After five molts the lar- species tend to produce shells, which are most valued by vae resemble adults and settle to the bottom. It is estimated shell collectors (Abbott 1968). Thegenera most highly prized that a one pound 3-3/16 inch lobster is between 4 & 10 years by shell collectors include Conus, Spondylus, Oliva, Murex, old. Lobsters can reach weights in excess of 40 lbs. and may Busycon, Scapbella and Strombus. be fifty to one hundred years old (Goggins & Fortier 1964). Table 1 lists a group of over 100 shellfish that are used The lobster like the blue crab is basically a carnivorous scav- recreationally on the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts. This Table enger. The lobster is nocturnal and spends the majority of was compiled through the efforts of Dr. J. L. McHugh, State its time hiding in burrows and crevices of its rocky bottom University of New York, Stony Brook, New York. habitat. Scuba techniques can be used to catch lobsters. Most suc- Economic Impact cessful dives are during the night due to the lobsters' noc- The following assessment of the economic impact of recre- turnal behavior. During the day, rag mops can be used to ational shellfishing was made in the Lewes, Rehoboth area extricate the lobster from his burrow. When threatened with of Delaware. Although the information concerns a limited the mop the lobster attacks and will hangron while being area, the data will probably reflect the recreational impact pulled from the burrow. More efficient means employ the in other areas. use of the standard wood slat lobster pot. The Lewes-Rehoboth resort area. is located adjacent to the Delaware Bay and Atlantic Ocean. The coastal zone is Recreational to Commercial characterized by sandy beaches, tidal wetland, and two small As one progressively improves the technique used for har- bays, Indian River Bay (9,064 acres) and Rehoboth Bay vesting shellfish and subsequently spends more money and (9,312 acres). The towns are popular as a resort for people time eng .aged in shellfishing, there is a tendency'to leave the from Washington, Baltimore, Wilmington and Philadelphia realm of pure recreational fishing and become semi-profes- metropolitan areas. Although the year-round population is sional. A good example was the growth of a small lobster less than 6,000 people, weekend influx results in a popula- fishery in Lewes, Delaware. The Harbor of Refuge Break- tion that ranges between 50 and 100 thousand people. water located at the mouth of Delaware Bay is an ideal hab- Aerial surveys conducted by the Delaware Department itat for the American lobster. The University of Delaware of Natural Resources and Environmental Control indicated proceeded to survey the population (Winget et al. 1970). As that approximately 52,000 man-hours were spent on recre- a result a May through September season was established. ational clamming during the 3 month summer season. Ex- The first open year was a success with some people landing trapolation of the effort figures with catch data results in an as high as 1,000 lbs. during the summer. Since that time the estimate of 700,000 to 1,300,000 clams harvested recrea- fishery evolved from a recreational situation, where many tionally each summer. The market value is dependent on people fished a few pots to a commercial fishery where a size and ranges between $25,000 and $45,000. Although few people fished a large number of pots. the market value of this fishery is considerable, in compari- son with the money spent by to@urists for lodging, food, and Uses purchase of recreational equipmentthe value is insignificant. As mentioned earlier those species which are important A survey of local bait and tackle dealers was conducted commercially are the species most prized by the recreational to ascertain the impactof shellfishingon business. Two types shellfisherman. The primary use of shellfish are as food of businessmen were interviewed: 1) those who deal strictly items. In fact, most shellfsih are considered gourmet items in bait and tackle and, 2) those who have general purpose and demand high market values. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife stores and deal in bait and tackle as a seasonal extra. Bait Service has published a Kitchen Test Series covering a wide and tackle store owners estimated that between 25 percent variety of species and recipes. Instructions are detailed and and 35 percent of their total business was dependent on provide information on buying, storing, shucking, cleaning, shellfishing gear. The general store owners' estimates were and preparation of fish and shellfish dishes. The series can considerably lower, ranging from 1 percent to 15 percent of be purchased for $2.55 from the Superintendent of.Docu- their total sales. Table 2 lists the ranges in actual equipment ments, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. sold," with average figures based on the reports of 10 local A wide variety of shellfish are used as bait. Shucked bait and tackle dealers. Assigning current market values to 49 Table 1 -Molluscan and crustacean shellfish Source in recreational or subsistence catches in the United States Common names Scientific names and use Source Hermit crabs Pagurus pollicaris A - bait Common names Scientific names and use Pagurus spp. A, P - bait Pelagic red crab Pleuroncodes planives P - bait Crustaceans: shrimps Sand crab Emerita analcga P - bait Ghost shrimp Callianassa califomienses P - bait Sand crab Ovalipes ocellatus A - bait C. gigas, C. affinis - bait Horseshoe crab Limuluspolyphemus A - bait Mudshrimp Upogebia pugettensis P - bait Fiddler crabs Uca spp. A,G,P - bait Spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros P_ Shore crab Hemigrapsus oregonensis P - bait Coonstripe shrimp P. hypsinotus P Mollusks: gastropods Northern pink P. borealis P Northern or Haliotis kamtschatkana P shrimp pinto balone Ocean pink shrimp A jordani P Black abalone H. cracherodii P Dock shrimp P. danae P Green abalone H. fulgens P Northern shrimp P. bbrealis A Pink abalone H. corrugata P Humpy shrimp P. goniurus P Red abalone H. ruiescens P Side stripe shrimp Pandalopsis dispar P White abalone H. sorenseni P Grass shrimp Palaempnetes vulgaris A - bait Channeled conch Busycon canaliculatum A Sand shrimp Crangon septemspinosus A - bait or whelk Little gray or Crago, spp. P Knobbed conch B. carica A bay shrimp or whelk Little green shrimp Hippolyte, clarki P Conch Strombus spp. Brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus A G Slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata A Pink shrimp P. duorarum A, G Periwinkle Littorina littorea White shrimp P. setiferus A, G Moon snail Polinices lewisii P Red-banded Spirontocaris picta P P. duplicatus A transparent Luna da heros A Transparent shrimp S. paludicola, P Limpet Acmaea digitalis Rock shrimp Sicyonia spp. Clams: Seabob Xiphopenaeus kroyeri G Cockle Cardium corbis P Ridgeback prawn Eusicyonia ingentus P Heart cockle Clinocardium nuttafli P River shrimp Macrobrachium spp. A, G Geoduck Panope generosa P Crustacea: lobsters Horse clams Tresus capax P and crabs T. nuttalli P American lobster Homarus americanus A, P Butter clam Saxidomus gigan teus P Spiny lobster Panulirus argus A, G Hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria A, P P. interruptus P M. campechiensis G Slipper lobster Paribaccus antarcticus Native littleneck Venerupis staminea P Mud crabs Family Xanthiclae A,G,P - bait clam Blue crab Caffinectes sapidus A, G Manila littleneck V. semidecussata P Stone crab Meniope mercenaria A, G V. japonica P Rock crab Cancer irroratus A Razor clam Ensis directus A Red rock crab C. productus P Siliua patula P Jonah crab C. borealis A Soft clam Mya arenaria A,P Dungeness crab C. magister P Sunray venus Macrocallista nimbosa A, G Red crab C. antennarius P Surf clam Spisula solidissima A Green crab Carcinus maenas A - bait Piddock Zirfaea pilsbryi P King crab Paralithodes P Penitella penita P camtaschatica Bentnose clam Macoma nasu ta P P. platypus Macoma spp. (2) P Lithodes acuispina Sand clam M. secta P Tanner crab, Chionoecetes tanneri P Bodega clam Tellina bodegensis P snow crab Pismo clam Tivela stultorum P 50 Source Source Common names Scientific names and use Common names Scientific names and use California Tagelus califomianus P Octopus Octopus vulgarus A jackknife clam 0. dofleini P Purple clam Sanguinolaria nuttalli P Polypus spp. P Abalone jingle Pododesmus cepio P Squid Loligo opalescens P Rangia Rangia cuneata A Long finned squid L. pealei A California mussel Mytilus californianus P Genera most highly prized by shell collectors: Blue or bay mussel M. edulis A, P Conusspp. Ribbed mussel Modfolus demissus A Spondylus spp. American oyster Crassostrea virginica A, G, P Oliva spp. Pacific oyster C_ gigas P Murex spp. Western oyster Ostrea lurida P Busycon spp. Bay scallop Aequipecten irradians A, G Scaphella spp. Rock scallop Hinnites multirugosus P Strombus spp. Pink scallop -Chlamys spp. P the average sale figures, approximately $5,000 annual profit Castagna, M. 1970. Aggregate method for planting of ju- is realized on the sale of shellfishing equipment. venile hard clams. VIMSAdvisory Bull., Gloucester Point, Virginia: Virginia Inst. of Marine Science. Table 2-Annual shellfishing equipment sales Clem, J. D. 1971. Shellfish sanitation: Keeping a step ahead. reported by ten local bait and tackle dealers FDA Papers, 15-29. Cook, D. W. 1969. A study of coliform bacteria and E. coli Min. Max. Ave. in polluted and unpolluted oyster bottoms of Mississippi and a study of depuration by rebedding. Ocean Springs, Hand crab traps 288 3,000 330 Miss.: Gulf Coast Research Laboratory. Commercial crab pots 50 600 288 Cooper, R. A., and Llzmann, J.R., 1970. Migrations and Dip nets 100 1,000 315 growth of deep-sea lobsters. Science, 171:288-290. Bait (chicken backs) 5001b. 4,000 1 b. 1,500 1 b. Darnell, R. M. 1958. Food habits of fishes and larger in- Hand clam rakes 30 360 150 vertebrates of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, an estu- arine community. Publ. Inst. Marine Science, Univ. Tex- Thus, the sale of these items has a highly significant impact as, 5:353-416. on the local tourist industry. Galtsoff, 0 . S. 1964. The American oyster. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Fishery Bull., 64:480 pp. Human Values Geldreich, E. E.; Bordner, R. H.; Huff, C. B.; Clark, H. F.; Most people visit the coastal zone because they enjoy the and Kabler, P. W. 1962. Type distribution of coliform sun, beaches, and water. The scenic beauty is aesthetically bacteria in the feces of warm blooded animals.Jour. Water pleasing to the tourist. Man has been and still is a "hunter". Pollution Control Federation 34:295 There is a certain pride associated with providing one's own Godwin, V. F. 1968. The growth and survival of planted dinner. Recreational shellfishing provides the opportunity clams, Mercenariamercenaria, on the Georgia Coast. Con- for mixing physical exercise, aesthetic awareness, and self- tribution Series No. 9. Brunswick, Georgia: Marine Fish- reliant, psychological values into a unique experience. eries Div. Goggins, P. L., and Fortier, A. J. 1964. The Maine Lobster LITERATURE CITED (Homarus americans) Part I-Biology of the lobster. Au - Bibliography gusta, Maine: Fisheries Education Series, Maine Depart- Abbott, R. T. 1968. A Guide to Field Identification-Sea- ment of Sea and Shore Fisheries. shells of North America. New York: Golden Press. Hanks, R. W. 1966. The soft-shell clam. Fish and Wildlife Andrews, J. D. 1974. The Epizootiology of Minchinia Service, BCF cir6ular No. 162. in Chesapeake Bay. Jour. Invert. Pathol. Hartman, M.; Epifanio, C. E.; Bruder, G.; and Srna, R. 1973. Carriker, M. R. 1961. Interrelation of functional morphol- Farming the artificial sea, growth of clams in recirculat- ogy, behavior, and autecology in early stages of the bi- ing seawater systems. Proc. Gulf and Caribbean Fish Inst, valve, Mercenaria mercenaria. Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. 59-74. Soc., 77:168-241. Haven, D. S. and Loesch, J. G. 1972. An investigation into 51 commercial aspects of the hard clam fishery and develop- Shellfish Assoc., 53:103-109. ment of commercial gear for the harvest of molluscs. Pratt, D. M., and Campbell, D. A., 1956. Environmental fac- Annual Rept. toNMFS, ViMS. Gloucester Point, Virginia. tors affecting growth in Venus mercenaria. Limnology Hidu, H. 1969. Gregarious setting in the American oyster and Oceanography, 1: 2-17. Crassostrea virginica (Gmel in). Chesapeake Sci. 10:85-92; Pritchard, D. W. 1951. The physical hydrography of estuaries Hughes, J. T. and Matthiessen, G. C. 1962. Observations,on and some applications to biological problems. Trans. 16th the biology of the American lobster, Homarusamericanus. North American Wildlife Conference, 368-376. Limnology and Oceanography, 7 (3) 414-42 1. Pruder, G. D.; Epif anio, C.; and Malouf, R. 1973. The Design Jaworski, E. 1972. The Blue Crab Fishery, Barataria Estuary, and Construction of the University of Delaware Maricul- Louisiana. Baton Rouge, La.: Center forWetland Resourc- ture Laboratory@ Newark, Del.: Del-SG-7-73, Univ. Dela- es, Louisiana State University, LSU-SG-72-01. ware, CMS. Keck, R.; Maurer, D.; and Watling, L. 1973. Tidal stream de- Ropes, J. W. 1968. The feeding habits of the green crab, velopment and its effect on the distribution of the Amer- Carcinus maenas (L.) U. S. Fishery Bull., 67(2):183-203. ican oyster. Hydrobiblogia, 4 (4) 369-379. Tagatz, M. E. 1968. Biology of the blue crab, Callinectes Keck, R.; Maurer, D.; and Malouf, R. 1974. Factors influ- sapidus Ratburn, in the St. Johns River, Florida. Fish and encing the setting behavior of larval hard clams, Mercen- Wildlife Service Fishery Bull,, 67(l):17-33. aria mercenaria. Proc. Natt. Shellfish. Assoc. 64:59-67. Van Engel, W. A. 1958. The blue crab and its fishery in Keck, R.; Heess, R. C.;Tinsman,J. C.;,and M aurer, D. 1975. Chesapeake Bay. Part 1. Reproduction,' early develop- Test planting of juvenile hard clams.Annual Rept. forSea ment, growth, and migration. Commercial Fisheries Re- Grant Project All-2. Newark, Del.: Univ. Delaware, view. 20(6):617. CMS. Walne, P. R., and Dean, G. J. 1972. Experiments on predation Liu, 0.; Seraichekas, H. R.; and Murphy, B. L. 196 7. Viral by the shore crab, Carcinus maenas (L.) on Mytilus and pollution and self cleansing mechanism of hard clams. Mercenaria. Jour. Cons. Int, Explor. Mer., 34(2):190-199. Contr. No. 17 Northeast Shellfish Sanitation Center. In: Wells, H. W. 1961. The fauna of oyster beds, with special Transmission of V(rusesby the Water Route, ed. G. Berg. reference to the salinity factor. Ecological Monographs, New York: Interscience Publishers. 31:239-266. Loosanoff, V. L and Davis, H. 1963. Rearing of bivalve Wells, H. W., and Gray, 1. E. 1960. The seasonal occurrence molluscs. In: F. S. Russell 1963. Advances in Marine Bi- of Mytilusedulis on the Carolina Coastas a result of trans- ology, 1 .2-80. port around Cape Hatteras. Bio. Bull., 119(3):550-559. Maurer, D., Watling, L., and Keck, R. 1970. The Delaware Williams, A. B. 1965. Marine Decapod crustaceans of the oyster industry: a reality? Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 100(l): Carolinas. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fishery Bull., 65 100-111. (1):1-298.1 Maurer, D., and Watling, L. 1973. The Biology of the oyster Winget, R.; Maurer, D.;Watling, L.; and Keck, R. 1970. Ma- community and its associated fauna in Delaware Bay. rine invertebrate resources. Annual Rept. to Dept. Nat Delaware Bay Report Series, Vol. 6, Newark, Del.: Univ. Resources & Environmental Control. Newark, Del.: Delaware, CMS. Univ. Delaware, CMS. Menzel, R. W., and Sims, H. W. 1964. Experimental farming of hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria, in Florida. Nat. 52 Shellfish: Research and Management John M. Hickey, Marine Fisheries Biologist Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries Sandwich, Massachusetts Overview in the local area and other state residents or non-resi- In the last thirty years, the population mobility and lei- dents. sure time of the American people have increased greatly re- 3. No areas are set aside at all and non-resident shellfish- sulting in a growing influx of people to our coastal areas. ing is prohibited. Along with other activities, many of these people are at- 4. Non-resident shellfishing is encouraged as a tourist at- tracted by the recreational shellfishery.1 It is very difficult traction but at the possible expense of commercial to put a dollar value on this fishery either directly, with re- fishermen. gard to the value of the shellfish landed because of inade- Massachusetts has approximately 1,200 miles of coastline quate catch reports, or indirectly, taking into consideration interspersed with estuarine systems, salt ponds and protected spin off such as, money spent in travelling to and from the bays, many of which producea variety of shellfish. However, shore. 935 miles are privately owned, 90 miles federally owned and However, coastal communities have been forced to strike only 175 miles are publicly owned. (Reynolds, et al 1976). a balance between the local commercial shellfisherman and It is quickly 'apparent that access to the shellfish resources recreational interests, both resident and non-resident, in al- in some areas is severely limited. Also, not all of the publicly lowing the usage of the already depleted available shellfish owned shoreline is adjacent to shellfish producing areas, stock. This has resulted in greatly reduced recreational har- since much of it is bathing beaches on open coast. Better vesting in some areas as compared to almost no commercial than one-half of Cape Cod shores are inaccessible to the harvesting in other areas, depending on the best interests of general public. the cities and towns involved. Besides access, other factors tend to limit the availability In Massachusetts, the shellfish resource in non-contami- of shellfish to the recreational digger. Of the 800,425 acres nated areas is under local control as set out in the broad lim- of coastal water area within the Commonwealth only 43 its of the state law which regulates legal size, seasons and percent contain harvestable shellfish and much of this area maximum commercial limits. And, although most fisheries is of marginal value. Pollution (mostly domestic sewerage) laws and regulations traditionally favor or deal with com- has resulted in the closure of 29,000 acres of these produc- mercial enterprises, Massachusetts has protected the right tive shellfish beds thereby rendering these inaccessible to the of the individual to take shellfish since 1647.2 According recreational digger and leaving only 310,881 acres (EPA, to law (Chapter 130, Section 20A and 52; Mass. G.L.) any 1975) of so-called clean productive shellfish area for all pur- resident of the Commonwealth is entitled to take, in ac- poses. The bulk of the closed productive area which is classi- cordance with local regulations, shellfish from the waturs fied as grossly contaminated is found in and around Boston of the Commonwealth, and each coastal community is ob- Harbor and along the North Shore. In terms of an untapped figated to set aside areas for this purpose, i.e. areas where resource, it is estimated that there are approximately 150,000 commercial shellfishing is prohibited. This law may be, and bushels of legal sized soft-shelled clams (Chesmore, et al, in the past has been abused in several ways in some commu- 1970) within this area which cannot now be harvested. It nities: should be emphasized that not all of this resource would be 1. Areas set aside contain virtually no shellfish. available for recreational purposes even if the area were open. 2. Different areas are set aside for state residents living In 1971 an opinion poll was conducted by the Division of 53 Marine Fisheries, Shellfish Technical Assistance Project, to past four years with regard to the number of non-resident gain knowledge about attitudes and trends relating to the de- permits being issued. Although all residents of the Common- mand and management of the shellfish resources in Massa- wealth have the right to shellfish, the coastal communities chusetts from the shellfish constables, who are directly in- may charge more to non-residents of the town for a license. volved in management of the resource on the local level. In Many of the towns have used this method to limit or reduce the questionnaire, the shellfish constables were asked to list fishing pressure in their waters by charging excessively high the relative importance of each type of shellfishing (family- prices for non-resident licenses and some allow no out-of- recreational, wild-commercial, private grants). Interestingly, state licenses. Of the fifteen towns on Cape Cod, the fees the order of importance mostaccepted throughoutthe Com- for non-residents in 1975 were as follows: 4 towns charged monwealth was that recreational fishing is considered most $25.00; 5 towns charged $15.00; 4 towns charged $10.00; important, wild-commercial fishing next, and private grants 1 town charged $5.00; 1 town issued no non-resident licens- last. This opinion was especially prevalent north of Cape Cod es; 1 town issued no out-of-state licenses. and in the Buzzards Bay area. These two areas are the most At the same time, the fees for residents in these towns highly urbanized in Massachusetts. Cape Cod and the Islands ranged from $1.00 to $5.00. In 1969, 34,588 resident per- also favored this order with wild commercial fishing placing mits were issued compared to 10,084 non-resident permits. a close second in those two regions. In 1972, 22,651 non-resident permits were issued while in Species most sought after by recreational shellfishermen 1973, 21,789 resident permits were issued and only 3,662 in order of importance on a state-wide basis were Mya are- non-resident permits were issued. This is a difference or re- naria, soft-shelled clams; Mercenaria mercenaria, quahogs; duction of 18,989 non-resident permits in a five-year period and Argopecten irradians, bay scallop. Of least importance between 1969-1973. This reduction is due in part to the in order were Ostrea virginica, oysters; and Mytilus edulis, cost of the permits and a general decline in the abundance blue mussels. Some regional differences in preference did of shellfish. occur mainly due to species availability. Recreational fishery produced one-fourth to one-third of The number of people engaged in recreational fishery the annual harvest in the years 1971-1974as reported bythe varies widely from year to year without apparent reason. local shellfish wardens: However, a sharp downward trend has been noted in the 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 Family 91,919* 88,322 61,664 46,323 59,866 Commercial 308,151 341,149 172,969 102,457 158,311 Total 400,070 429,471 234,633 148,780 218,711 reported in bushels Species reported: ,Quahog; Soft shell clam; Oyster; Bay scallop; Ocean quahog; Razor clam; Mussell; Sea clam Management mental shellfish growth and survival studies as a guide to It is apparent that the major factors contributing to the de- transplant projects; local information and education pro- cline of the shellfisheries in general have been: increased de- grams and enforcement of local and state shellfish regula- mand, overfishing, pollution, habitat destruction; and public tions. access. Responsibility for managing the Commonwealth's These duties would require someone to work full time shellfish resources is essentially in the hands of the coastal who is knowledgeable in shellf isheries management and the communities who by law have control and jurisdiction over local waters, and is provided with the necessary equipment them. The management effort should and must consider to undertake surveys, experiments and law enforcement. both the recreational and commercial fisheries. The towns Local control, however, does not absolve the Common- will have to evolve a management plan based on long and wealth from its responsibility to the shellfisheries. Town short range goals for each species and area in order to be management efforts will need guidance and coordination, effective. particularly on a regional level where two or more towns Basically it is the town shellfish officers who are the share a common body of water. The local shel If ish managers managers of the shellfish resources. Their program should will need more advisory and technical guidance from pro- include periodic inventories of local shellfish areas on a ro- fessional fisheries biologists. This service is now being pro- tational basis to insure continual availability of shellfish and vided through the Shellfish Technical Assistance Program, adequate parent stock; control of shellfish predators; experi- however, vast improvements are necessary. 54 Recommendations and Research Needs sued in order to better understand shellfish popula- Recognizing the need for pollution abatement, wise manage- tions and eventually manipulate the organisms and ment of the remaining resources, reclamation of lost re- their environment. sources, and an overall desire to increase shellfish produc- 6. Increased utilization of contaminated shellfish stocks. tion and harvest, the following recommendations are made The "relaying" of contaminated shellfish to clean areas regarding management and research needs: for natural depuration and use as parent and seed stock for reseeding should be explored thoroughly as 1 .Shellfish management programs. Under Chapter 130, a means of increasing shellfish harvest in the state. The section 20A of the General Law, the coastal cities and present minimum program should be expanded and towns will receive up to 50 percent reimbursement legal obstacles corrected by legislation. Cost analysis, for any monies spent in the shellfish programs. It is transplant survival and estimates of benefit should be agreed that this will be beneficial but, two changes are made for each specie. A comprehensive survey of the needed. One is an amendment requiring some form of contaminated growing areas should be made to de- prior State (Division of Marine Fisheries) approved termine available stocks, best harvest methods and management program to assure that the funds will be best use. used in the best interest of shellfish management. Not 7. Private aquaculture. Private shellfish grants should be all cities and towns have the expertise necessary for encouraged especially in "marginal" shellfish produc- wise management of shellfish programs and they ing areas both on a large and small scale. Increased should avail themselves of the advice of shellfish ex- production on "private grants" can only serve to en- perts within the Division of Marine Fisheries. The other hance surrounding public grounds through increased is that funds should be provided to the Division for spawning and setting of larval shellfish. appropriate management and administration of this 8. Reclamation of contaminated areas. In order to re- program. claim productive areas lost to utilization by contami- 2. Development of underutilized species. The harvesting nation, it is urged that sewerage treatment programs of shellfish such as blue mussels, surf clams and ocean with at least secondary treatment be encouraged and quahogs should be considered in an effort to alleviate implemented as soon as possible. pressure on other species. Concurrently, regulation and management plans for these less popular species should Literature Cited be formulated. Footnotes 3. Harvest data. Develop a standard system of obtaining 1 .Shellfish-in this paper refers only to mollusks, not to accurate catch data, particularly with regard to the crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters or shrimp. recreational shellfishery and with additional considera- 2. Colony Ordinance of 1641-47, made an historic change tion to reporting catch by area. in the common law in respect to the seashore. Chap- 4. License fees. Evolve an equitable system of recreation- ter LXI 11, Sec. 2. "Every inhabitant who is an house- al license fees predicated upon increasing resident fees holder shall have free fishing or fowling in any great which are unrealistically lowand reducing non-resident ponds, bays, coves and rivers, so far as the sea ebbs fees; particularly in view of the state shellfisheries fi- and flows..." nancial reimbursement program. Bibliography 5. Research. Research on shellfish aquaculture tech- National Shellfish Register of Classified Estuarine Waters. niques and their possible application in local manage- 1974. Denver: EPA. ment programs should be continued and expanded on Carr, 1971. Newsletter. Boston, Mass.: Mass Division Marine the state and local level in order to enhance both the Fisheries. commercial and recreational fisheries. Research and Chesmore, Peterson. 1970. Mass. Estuarine Res. & Protec- evaluation should include hatchery techniques, raft tion Programs. culture, grow out techniques, predator contro I and Trans. 34 N.A. Wildlife and N.R. Conference, Wildlife Man- economic feasibility studies. Multi-disciplined studies, ment Institute, Wash i ngton,. D.C. in conjunction with suitable research institutions, re- Reynolds, M.O., and Kaufman, M., 1976. Living by the Sea. garding all aspects of shellfish ecology should be pur- Boston, Mass.: Mass. Office Coastal Zone Management. 55 Recreational Use of: Shellfishes: Issues and Conflicts J. L. McHugh, Professor of Marine Resources Marine Sciences Research Center State University of New York Stony Brook, New York Introduction crab was at a low point in abundance in the New York Bight Less than a year ago, in this same town, a National Confer- area, if commercial landings are a valid index (McHugh, ence on Effective Management of Marine Fisheries convened. 1976). The purpose was to discuss model state marine fishery legis- I see this subject of issues and conflicts as a broad one, lation drawn up by a committee of the Council of State Gov- touching on all aspects of shellfish research and management. ernments. References to special problems of the marine rec- Therefore, I cannot avoid venturing into the topics assigned reational fisheries and the conflicts between recreational to the other two speakers in this session, and must say some- and commercial users of the living resources appear through- thing about the resources, research, and management. otit the published proceedings (11975). One speaker (Carlton, 1975) addressed his remarks specifically to conflicts and Some Dimensions cooperation between the two major user groups and to ways Most people agree that recreational catches of invertebrates in which such difficulties might be resolved. Nothing I can in coastal waters of the United States are large. Nobody say here would add much to that excellent summary of the knows exactly how large, because no state conducts a com- subject. plete and continuing survey of all aspects of marine recrea- Fortunately, this session today deals with shellfishes, a tional fishing, and, the recent federal survey has been pub- much neglected recreational,resource, which was not includ- lished only in brief as yet (Ridgely and Deuel, 1975). How- ed in the paper by Carlton (1975). This is not to say that ever, the importance of invertebrates might be inferred from mollusks and crustaceans have been neglected by recreation- the published national surveys (loc. cit.). For example, in al fishermen. Anyone familiar with our coastal fisheries 1970 it was estimated that recreational fishermen in the knows intuitively that large quantities are taken by recrea- Unit ed States took nearly 1.6 billion pounds of marine.fin- tional and subsistence fishermen for food and bait. fishes (Deu6l, 1973). In the same year the reported commer- The neglect has been by those who have been trying to cial marine food finfish catch, excluding Hawaii, was nearly assessthe marinesport fisheries. Most studies have estimated 1.7 billion (Wheeland, 1973),*almost identical with thesport catches of finfishes only, and very few have attempted to catch. Allowing for the fact that recreational catches prob- include invertebrates. The three published surveys of salt- ably are exaggerated (Deuel, 1973) and commercial catches water angling (Clark, 1962; Deuel and Clark, 1968; Deuel, underreported (Keck et al., 1973; Adkins, 1972; A.F. Chest- 1973) did not include invertebrates, but that deficiency has nut, personal communication) this is still an impressive com- been remedied in the current survey (Ridgely and Deuel, parison. 1975). When estimates of invertebrate sport catches have Assuming that commercial and recreational shellfish been made the results have suggested that these are indeed catches also were about equal gives an estimated recreational major recreational resources. In one small area of New York, catch in 1970 of about 862 million pounds. This does not for example, Levenson (1971) found that blue crab (Calli- include shells of mollusks, which, if included, would raise nectes sapidus) ranked fifth in numbers caught by recrea- the total weight to about 2 billion pounds. Whether this es- tional fishermen in Hempstead Bay, Long Island. Only win- timate is correct is impossible to determine at this stage. ter and summer flounders (Pseudopleuronectes americanus and Parafichthys dentatus), bluefish (Pomatomussaltatrix), *Total 1970commercial landings, less invertebrates, industrial fishes, and northern puffer (Sphoeroides maculatus) were taken in and landings from fresh waters. Hawaii was omitted because it was greater numbers, and this was at a time (1966-68) when blue not included in the survey of saltwater sport fisheries. 56 However, the preliminary report on the most recent survey (Ridgely and Deuel, 1975) suggests that only about a third Species or Weight as many people participate in recreational shellfishing as in State species group Numbers in pounds Remarks recreational finfishing. On that basis a closer estimate of the national catch of shellfishes by recreational fishermen might FL 12 species No informa- be about 670 million pounds live weight, still an impressive or groups tion. Also large figure. The detailed results of the 1973-1974 survey will be catch of many awaited with interest. species by sh el I To discover whether some of the individual states had at- collectors. tempted estimates of recreational shellfish catches I wrote to LA Oyster No informa- appropriate agencies in nine coastal states, mostly on the tion. Limit two west coast and the Gulf of Mexico. All have replied. Three sacks per boat- had no information, the others reported partial informa- day on public tion, i.e. for one or a few species* ' or for only a small area, reef. or for only part of a year. The replies are summarized in Crustaceans No informa- Table 1. tion. Shrimp sport f isher- Table 1 -Estimates of recreational catches of shellfish men number per year for selected states 40,000. NC 5 species or No informa- Catch per year groups tion. 0 R 20 species 3,430,000 In 8 months in Species or Weight or groups 1971. State species group Numbers in pounds Remarks TX Mollusks No informa- tion. Almost AK Razor clam 1,000,000 Cook inlet entirely oyster. only. Shrimp 900,823 In 1972. AL Shrimp 257,400 Average for (3 species) (3 species) 1972-74 in- Blue crab 99,375 33,125 In 9 months clusive. in 1968. CA Market crab Catch impor- WA Razor clam 9,700,000 tant. Clams 2,100,000 Puget Sound Rock crab Catch impor- only. tant. Oysters 1,600,000 Puget Sound Spiny lobster 250;000 Extremely im- only. portant, equals Shrimp 18,000 Puget Sound commercial only. catch. Interticlal 42,000 Puget Sound Abalone 2,500,000 Somewhat less crabs only. (4 species) than commer- Crabs 200,000 In pots. Puget cial catch. Sound only. Gaper clam I mportant, probably great- Some of the numbers are surprisingly large. For example, er than com- in one relatively small part of the Alaskan coast, Cook Inlet, mercial catch. a million razor clams were taken by recreational diggers, Littleneck clam 10,000 about three clams for every resident of the state. Assuming (2 species) that 400 of this medium sized species make up a bushel this Pismo clam Maximum sus- would be an annual catch of 2,500 bushels. This is much tainable yield larger than the reported annual commercial catch of razor about four mil- clams in Alaska. lion clams per In California it is estimated that about 2.5 million pounds year. of abalone are taken per year. InOregon,of some20species Razor clam 171,000 One beach only or species groups of shellfish, nearly 3.5 million individual Washington Greater than animals were taken for recreation in less than a year. In clam commercial Washington nearly 10 million razor clams per year were re- catch. ported, and in Puget Sound more than two million pounds 57 of clams of all species were taken. ational quota to individual fishermen as a bag I imit. The so- A surprisingly large number of crustacean and molluscan cial-political feasibility of arriving at this series of decisions species is taken by recreational fishermen. Lists of species or will depend heavily upon the size of that bag limit and hence species groups received from correspondents on the Pacific its acceptability. Another problem will arise if the numbers and Gulf of Mexico coasts, and personal knowledge of other of sport fishermen continue to increase, as they probably species taken along the Atlantic coast of the United States will. The only possible solutions then would be either to gave a total of more than 100 recreational species or species increase the recreational share of the total allowable catch groups (Table 2). or to reduce individual bag limits, both very difficult things This is probably a conservative figure. It also was pointed to accomplish. out (Charles R. Futch, personal communication) that live Particularly in molluscan shellfishing areas water quality mollusks of many genera are taken by shell collectors. The is an important issue. Many grounds around the coasts of most highly prized, and therefore particularly sought after, the United States are closed to shellfishing because water include the ge nera Conus, Spondylus, Oliva, M@rex, Busy- quality does not meet established standards. In New York, con, Scaphella and Strombus. for example, about 139,000 acres are closed (MacMillan, 1975). Many of these areas have substantially larger shell- Bait Fisheries fish populations, especially hard clam-, than do the harvest- The importance of bait fisheries to the recreational fish- ed grounds, thus the temptation is great to take clams il- eries should not be ignored. Bait fishing may be a commer- legally. Areas in which water pollution is heaviest often are cial operation, or it may be conducted by individual recre- the most heavily populated, another factor that favors ational fishermen to provide their own bait. A single ex- poaching. ample will serve to illustrate the magnitude of the commer- Other species, like oysters, less resistant to pollution, cial bait industry. On the west coast of Florida in 1956 may be wiped out. Collapse of the oyster industry in Rari- (Woodburn et al., 1957), the retail value of shrimp (Penaeus tan Bay and adjacent waters in New Jersey and New York duorarum) caught for bait was about $2,000,000. Shellfish has been attributed to water pollution (Wallace, 1971; Dew- taken for bait do not necessarily appear in statistics of com- ling et al., 1972). mercial fish landings from all regions of the United States Where hardy species, like hard clam, are abundant in pol- coast. luted areas, it is possible that these areas serve as sanctuaries to replenish the supply on harvested grounds. In New York Issues and other states it is the custom to transplant shellfish from The principal issue, from a management point of view, raised closed areas to waters certified for harvesting, allowing a by recreational harvesting of mollusks and crustaceans is reasonable time after transplanting for the mollusks to that unless the harvest is known with reasonable accuracy cleanse themselves. Such projects have two principal pur- and unless it can be controlled as necessary to maintain the poses, to reduce abundance in closed areas, thus reduci-hg resource in healthy condition, attempts to manage the com- the temptation to poach, and to make shellfish available to mercial fishery will be pointless. The importance of this the industry. Usually it is not known what role the stocks problem is not generally appreciated either by commercial in polluted waters play in the dynamics of the resource as or by recreational fishermen. A large and uncontrolled rec- a whole. It would be especially important to understand reational fishery can nullify a management program and the contribution made by these restricted stocks, so as to contribute to overfishing of the resource. take full advantage of such serendipitous sanctuaries. Recognition is growing that to be of maximum economic benefit to commercial fishermen a management program Conflicts should include some form of control over entry of capital With some outstanding exceptions, conflicts between recre- and labor. Recreational fishermen, unless they happen to ational and commercial users of invertebrate resources have sell some or all of their catch, have no economic incentive. been fewer and less violent than conflicts over some finfish Rather, they probably are interested in getting the maximum resources. The most emotional conflicts over finfishes on catch, or some finite anticipated catch, in the shortest pos- the Atlantic coast concern striped bass, bluefish, and men- sible time. Even if it were desirable and possible to limit the haden. American and spiny lobster users in various places numbers of commercial fishermen, it might be neither de- along the coast have entered into equally emotional and sirable nor possible to control recreational fishing in the violent controversies, but as far as I am aware thi 's has hap- the same way. Nevertheless, both groups must be equally pened with few other crustacean and mollusk resources. In subject to control if management is to succeed. California several mollusks have been reserved as recreation- The only feasible way to control the recreational segment al resources. Pismo clam and razor clam have been declared of a fishery by conventional methods probably would be to recreational resources in that state. The so-called littleneck take the following steps: 1) determine the total allowable clams also are important recreational resources in California, catch; 2) subdivide the total allowable catch into a commer- but limited commercial fisheries are permitted to harvest cial and a recreational segment; and 3) allocate the recre- them, with a bag limit of 50 clams per day (E.C. Greenhood, 58 Table 2-Crustacean and molluscan shellfish Source in recreational or subsistence catches in the United States Common names Scientific names and use (A = Atlantic, P = Pacific, G = Gulf of Mexico) Red crab C. antennarius P Source Mud crabs Family Xanthidae A G P-bait Common names Scientific names and use Stone crab Meniope mercenaria A G Shore crab Hemigrapsus oregonensis P-bait Brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus A G Fiddler crabs Uca spp. A G P-bait Pink shrimp P. duorarum A G Horseshoe crab Limuluspolyphemus A-bait White shrimp P. setiterus A G Limpet Acmaea digitalis P Seabob Xiphopenaeus kroyeri G Northern or Haliotis karntschatkana P Grass shrimp Palaemonetes vulgaris A-bait pinto, abalone Little green shrimp Hippolyte clarki P Black abalone H. cracherodii P Red-banded trans- Spirontocaris picta P Green abalone H. fulgens P parent shrimp Pink abalone H. corrugata P Transparent shrimp S. paludicola P Red abalone H. rutescens P Spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros P White abalone H.sorenseni P Coonstripe shrimp P. hypsinotus P Slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata A Northern pink P. borealis P Moon snail Polinices lewisii P shrimp P. dupficatus A Ocean pink shrimp Ajordani P P. heros A Dock shrimp P. danae P Periwinkle Littorina littorea A Northern shrimp P. borealis A Channeled conch Busycon canaliculaturn A Humpy shrimp P. gonlurus P or whelk Side stripe shrimp Pandalopsis dispar P Knobbed conch B. carica A Sand shrimp Crangon septernspinosus A-bait or whelk Little gray or Crago spp. P Conch Strombus spp. P bay shrimp Abalone jingle Pododesmus cepio P Rock shrimp Sicyonia s pp. California mussel Mytilus californianus P Ridgeback prawn Eusicyonia ingentus P Blue or bay mussel M. edulis A P River shrimp Macrobrachium spp. A G Ribbed mussel Modiolus demissus A American lobster Homarus amencanus A P Western oyster Ostrea lurida P Spiny lobster Panufirus argus A G American oyster Crassostrea virginica A G P P. interruptus P Pacific oyster C. gigas P Ghost shrimp Callianassa californiensis P-bait Bay scallop Argopecten irradians A G C. gigas, C. affinis P-bait Rock scallop Hinnites multirugosus P Mudshrimp Upogebia pugettensis P-bait Pink scallop Chlamys spp. P Sand crab Emerita analoga P-bait Bodega clam Tellina bodegensis P Hermit crabs Pagurus polficaris A-bait Bentnose clam Macoma nasuta P Pagurus spp. A P-bait Macoma spp. P Pelagic red crab Pleuroncodes planipes P-bait Sand clam M. secta P King crab Paralithodes P Surf clam Spisula solidissirna A camtschatica Pismo clam Tivela stultorurn P P. platypus P Hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria A P Lith odes auispina P M. campechiensis G Tanner crab, Chionoecetes tanneri P Native little- Venerupis staminea P snow crab neck clam Green crab Carcinus maenas A-bait Manila littleneck V. semidecussata P Blue crab Callinectes sapidus A G V. japonica P Sand crab Ovalipes ocellatus A-bait Butter clam Saxidomusgiganteus P Rock crab Cancer irroratus A Washington clam Saxidomus nuttalli P Red rock crab C. productus P Sunray venus Macrocallista nimbosa A G Jonah crab C. borealis A Purple clam Sanguinolaria nuttalli P Dungeness crab C. magister P Cockle Cardium corbis P Heart cockle Clinocardiurn nuttalli P *When not taken directly for recreation. 59 commercial fishermen are likely to be about. how to share Table 2 (Continued) the total allowable catch. As in the finfisheries, the extreme situation is one in which it is argued that the resource should Source be reserved entirely for recreational use. As already men- Common names Scientific names and use tioned, the powerful sport fishing lobby in California has succeeded in applying this extreme concept to several spe- Soft clam Mya arenaria A P cies of bivalve mollusk. Justification for such regulations is Razor clam Ensis directus A almost always that commercial fishing is destructive, and Sfliqua patula P that therefore to ban commercial fishing is good conserva- California jack- Tagelus califomianus P tion. knife clam Actually, division of the catch, by itself, has nothing to Piddock Zirtaea pilsbryi P do with conservation. Behind the argument lies the belief Penitella penita P that commercial fishermen take large quantities of the Geoduck Panope generosa P resource while recreational fishermen take insignificant Horse clams, Tresus capax P amounts. This usually is a paradox, based upon only a part Gaper clam T. nuttalli P of the issue, the individual catch. All comprehensive studies Rangia Rangia cuneata A have shown that for many species it must be recognized that Octopus Octopus vulgaris A the numbers of fishermen in the two groups are un .equal. 0. dofleini P It is clear that the sum of small catches by large numbers of Po/ypus spp. P recreational fishermen may exceed the sum of large catches Squid Loligo opalescens P by relatively few commercial operators. Long finned squid L. pealei A A striking example can be developed f rom f igures present- ly available. According to R idgely and Deuel (1975) 388,000 personal communication). In Massachusetts conflicts have households in New York participated in recreational shell- been resolved by setting aside certain beaches for recreation- fishing in 1973-74. The number of participants per house- al shellfishing (John M. Hickey, personal communication). hold in New York was about 2.2. Thus, about 853,600 peo- It is surprising that there have not been more conflicts. ple in New York State took shellfish for recreation. The One of the principal reasons for the strong feelings about number of commercial shellfishing licenses issued in 1973 fisheries for striped bass, bluefish, and menhaden in New and 1974 were 6,462 and 8,027 respectively (MacMillan, York is the high visibility of commercial fishing for these 1975). If all recreational shellfishermen took some hard species, which leads to accusations of destruction. Yet in clams, there would be about 100 times as many recreational the New York hard clam fishery, conducted in shallow wa- ascommercial clarrifishermen in New York State in the early ters nearshore,no major conflicts have arisen, although fish- 1970s. ing effort is obviously intense by both groups and there is Non-commercial clammers are allowed to have in their some concern about the capacity of the resource to with- possession at any one time not more than half a bushel of stand this continuing pressure. One possible reason may be legal-size clams. Using a conservative estimate, that each rec- that people do not become emotionally attached to clams reational clam digger took an average of only half a bushel in the same way that a dedicated striped bass angler identi- per year, the total annual catch would be about 426,800 fies.. himself with his quarry, or as most of the population bushels. Some recreational clammers may take less than the of the United States has become attached to marine mam- limii and may go clamming only once in a year, but that mals. Baymen who make a I iving harvesting hard clam in Great probably is the exception. Reported commercial landings in South Bay, Long Island, for example, show no resentment 1973 and 1974 were about 7.2 million and 8.0 million of recreational and subsistence clammers, provided that they pounds of hard clam meats respectively, an annual average observe the laws and do not sell their catches. Recreational of about 633,000 bushels. Thus, although the estimated users of the resource do not claim priority. The principal is- commercial catch is probably too low, the estimated recrea- sue, the difficulty of establishing a complete management tional catch may be conservative also. As a first approxima- program in the absence of knowledge of the size of the rec- tion it is possible to say that the recreational take of hard reational catch and its effect on the capacity of the resource clam in New York waters may equal the commercial catch, to renew itself, is scarcely recognized. Conflicts that do exist, or possibly exceed it. and they are bitter at times, are between commercial clam- An experienced full-time commercial clarnmer takes an mers who obey regulations and those who do not, and be- average of about three bushels a day and works about 200 tween individuals who work the public grounds and firms days a year. Thus, the average total annual catch may be which have private control over bottom. Publicground shell- about 600 bushels. Relatively few commercial shellfish li- fish harvesters generally are opposed to private leasing of cense holders, perhaps not more than 10 percent, are full- bottom. time professionals. If 10 percent is correct, in 1974 in New Conflicts between recreational invertebrate fishermen and York about 800 clarnmers worked a full year. If the working 60 assumptions are correct, their total catch would be about ing method used in Massachusetts. 480,000 bushels. It is probably conservative to estimate that the remaining 90 percent took an additional 480,000 Summary bushels. Prospects for managing shellfish fisheries of shallow waters, Therefore, if these assumptions are at all close to reality, when recreational catches are large, do not look promising. the total commercial hard clam catch in New York is about In addition to all the complicated aspects of decision mak- one million bushels. Many residents of Long Island frequent- ing and control, only a few of which have been touched on ly take clams for recreation or subsistence. If 10 percent of here, are many difficult social-political considerations. In the recreational shellfishermen take half a bushel twice a most places where important inshore shellfisheries exist pub- month, their annual catch would be about one million bush- lic attitudes are not conducive to effective management, els. This suggests that the recreational catch may be consi- partly because public understanding is deficient. An impor- derably larger than the commercial. However, these estimates tant element for successful management will be public edu- are based on so many untested assumptions that they should cation, for a clearer understanding of the -issues and Wide ac- be used with great caution. The important point is that care- ceptance of the need for controls. ful estimates of the recreational and the commercial catch This research was sponsored by the New York Sea Grant should be made as soon as possible. Institute under a grant from the Office of Sea Grant, Na- tional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Management U.S. Department of Commerce. At the minimum, five pieces of information are necessary as a basis for managing a fishery (McHugh, 1975). These are: 1) s anding'crop; 2) growth; 3) recruitment; 4) natural mor- Acknowledgements tality; and 5) fishing mortality. All five must be measured Louis Bandirola, Deputy Director, Sport Fish Division, Alas- frequently, because all vary with time. Most molluscan ka Departmentof Fish and Game, Juneau, Alaska 99801. shellfish stocks should yield such information fairly readily Dr. A. F. Chestnut, Director, Institute of Marine Sciences, because they are non-migratory at the harvestable stage. But University of North Carolina, Morehead City, North Caro- mollusks in shallow waters are so readily accessible to com- lina 28557. mercial and recreational fishermen, and the harvesting seg- Charles R. Futch, Assistant Chief, Bureau of Marine Science ment of the industry is usually so loosely organized, that it and Technology, Florida Department of Natural Resourc- .is difficult, if not impossible, to get the necessary informa- es, Tallahassee, Florida 32304. tion by the usual method, e.g. in the form of accurate catch Edward C. Greenhood, Chief, Marine Resources Branch, Cali- and effort data provided by fishermen's logbooks. The rela- fornia Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, Cali- tively costly alternative is to make planned scientif ic surveys. fornia 95814. If total allowable catch can be determined, the next step John M. Hickey, Biologist, Division of Marine Fisheries, is to decide how to allocate the total catch among users, Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Recreational Vehi- and todeterminehow quotas can be monitored and enforced. cles, Sandwich, Massachusetts 02563. This is perhaps the most difficult set of decisions, and it is Gerry Johnson, Librarian, Marine Research Laboratory, made more diff icult if the resource fluctuates widely in abun- Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, dance, as most shellfish populations do. Florida 32304. Limited or controlled entry .is presently an appealing solu- Terrance R. Leary, Director, Shellfish Program, Texas Parks tion to the problem of managing commercial fisheries, be- and Wildlife Department, Austin, Texas 78701. cause it has attractiv.e eco.nomi .c as well as conservation fea- Cedric E. Lindsay, Assistant Director, Washi ington Depart- tures. Controlled entry does not appear to be a solution t 'o ment of Fisheries, Olympia, Washington 98504. management of a recreational fishery, however, for among Lyle S. St. Amant, Assistant Director, Louisiana Wildlife and other things, it probably would be considered unconstitu- Fisheries Commission, 2100 Royal Street, New brleans, tional. Thus, under a limited entry system the recreational Louisiana 70130. catch probably would have to be controlled by an overall Major Lewis W. Shelfer, Jr., Florida Marine Patrol, Talla- quota and individual bag limits. The system presently in use hassee, Florida 32304. in many'states, placing limits on amounts of shellfish in pos- Hugh A. Swingle, Chief, Marine Biologists, Alabama Depart- session at any one time, would not be adequate. It is likely ment of Conservation and Natural Resources, Dauphin that resistance would be strong to more stringent regulation. Island, Alabama 36528. To return to the hard clam example, in New York, the Robert N. Thompson, Chief, Fish Division, Oregon Depart- annual individual bag limit might be between half a bushel ment of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, Oregon 97208. and one bushel per year, or perhaps might have to be less. This would be greater than some recretional clammers pres- ently take, but much less than others. The various alterna- Literature Cited tives to this approach appear to be very complicated. Per- Bibliography haps the only practical solution would be to adopt the zon- Adkins, Gerald. 1972. A study of the blue crab fishery in 61 Louisiana. Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Commission, of the west coast of Florida (Cedar Key to Naples) Fla. Oyster, Water Bottoms and Seafoods Div., Tech. Bull. State Bd. Conserv. Marine Lab, Tech. Ser. 21:33p. 3:57p. Carlton, F. E. 1975. Recreational fishing interests-conflicts and cooperation. In: To stem the tide. Nati. Conf. on Literature Consulted but not Cited Effective Mgmt. of Marine Fisheries, pp. 72-81. Lexing- This list is provided for further reference. ton, Ky ,: Council of State Govts. California Department of Fish and Game. 1975. 1976 Cali- Clark, J. R. 1962. The 1960 salt-water angling survey. U.S. fornia sport fishing regulations. Sacramento, Calif.: 32p. Dept. Interior, Bu. Sport Fish. Wildl., Circ. 153:iii+36p. Florida Department of Natural Resources. 1974. Facts for Council of State Governments. 1975. To stem the tide. Ef- Florida fishermen. Tallahassee, Fla.: 2p_ fective state marine fisheries management. Nati. Conf. Magoon, C.D. 1974. Shrimp fishing in Washington. Wash- on Effective Mgmt. of Marine Fisheries. ington Dept. Fisheries, Inf. Booklet 3:21 p. Deuel, D. G. 1973. 1970salt-water angling survey. U.S. Dept. McAllister, Robert. 1975. California marine fish landings for Commerce, NOAA, Nati. Marine Fish. Serv., Current 1973. Calif. Dept. Fish & Game, Fish. Bull. 163:53p. Fish Stat. Miller, D.J., Geibel, J.J., and Houk, J. L. 1974. Results of the Deuel, D. G. and Clark, J. R. 1968. The 1965 salt-water angl- 1972 skindiving assessment survey, Pismo Beach to Ore- ing survey. U.S. Dept. Interior, Bu. Sport Fish. Wildl., gon. Calif. Dept. Fish & Game, Marine Resources Tech. Resource Publ. Rept. 23:61 p. Dewling, R.T.; Walker, K.H.; and Brezenski, F.T. 1972. Ef- North Carolina Department of Natural and Economic Re- fects of pollution: Loss of an $18 million/year shell- sources. 1974. North Carolina fisheries regulations for fishery. In: Marine pollution and sea life. ed. M. Ruivo, coastal waters 1975. Div. of Marine Fish:57p. pp. 553-559. London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd. North Carolina Department of Natural and Economic Re- Keck, Richard; Maurer, Don; Daisey, William; and Sterling, sources. 1975. North Carolina coastal fishing regulations Lee. 1973. Ann. Rept. 1972-1973, Marine Invertebrate for sportsmen: 2p. Resources, Lewes, Del: Coll. Marine Stud., Univ. Dela- Rees, G.H. 1963. Edible crabs of the United States. U.S. ware. Dept. Interior, FishandWildl. Serv., Bu. Comm. Fish:18p. Levenson, A.M. 1971. Evaluation of recreational and cultural Swingle, H.A., Bland, D.G., and Tatum, W.M. 1976. Survey benefits of estuarine use in an urban setting. Hempstead, of the 16-foot trawl fishery of Alabama. Ala. Marine Re- N.Y.: Center for Business and Urban Research, Hofstra sources Bull. 11 :14 ms p. (in press). Univ. Tegelberg, Herb and Magoon, Doug. 1968. The 1965 and MacMillan, R.B. 1975. Public health significance of shellfish 1966 razor clam fisheries. Washington Dept. Fisheries: management. Proc. Workshop on the Shellf. Mgmt. Pro- iv+40p. gram in N.Y. State, pp. 17-24, Albany, N.Y.: N.Y. State Tegelberg, Herb and Magoon, Doug. 1969. The 1967razor Dept. Envir. Conserv. and N.Y. Sea Grant Inst. clam fishery. Washington Dept. Fisheries:ii+28p. McHugh, J.L. 1975. Management of New York's hard clam Tegelberg, Herb; Magoon, Doug; and Leboki, Mike. 1969. fishery. Proc. Workshop on the Shellf. Mgmt. Program in The 1968 razor clam fisheries and sampling programs. N.Y. State, pp. 44-47, Albany, N.Y.: N.Y. State Dep ,t. Washington Dept. Fisheries, Research Div.:vii+93p. Envir. Conserv., and N.Y. Sea Grant Inst. Tegelberg, Herb; Magoon, Doug,- Leboki, Mike; and Westby, McHugh, J. L. 1976. Fisheries and fishery resources of New Ji m. 197 1. Progress report: the 1969 and 1970 razor clam York Bight U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA, Natl. Marine fisheries and sampling programs. Wa 'shington Dept. Fish- Fish. Serv., NOAA Tech. Rept. NMFS Circ: (in press). eries, Mgmt. & Research Div.:viii+109p. Ridgely, J.E. and Deuel, D.G. 1975. Participation in marine Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 1975. Digest of recreational fishing, northeastern United States 1973-74. shrimp laws. Austin, Texas:2p. U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA, Natl. Marine Fish. Serv., Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 1975.Aguideto Texas Current Fish Stat., 6236:8p. commercial fishing regulations 1975-1976. Austin, Texas: Wallace, D.H. 1971. The biological effects of estuaries on 8p. shellfish of the Middle Atlantic. In: A Symposium on the Washington Department of Fisheries. 1975. 1975 sport fish- Biological Significance of Estuaries, pp. 76-85. Washing- ing regulations: Salmon, shellfish and other food fish. ton, D.C.: P.A. Douglas and R.H. Stroud (eds), Sport Olympia, Washington: 24p. Fish. Inst. Washington Department of Fisheries. 1975. Washington Wheeland, H.H. 1973. Fishery statistics of the United States State shellfish. Olympia, Washington: 16p. 1970. U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA, Nati. Marine Fish. Williams, A.B. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern Serv., Stat. Digest, 64:489p. United States. Crustacea: Decapoda. U.S. Dept. Com- Woodburn, K.D.; Eldred, Bonnie; Clark, Eugenie; Hutton, R. merce, NOAA Tech. Rept. NMFS Circ. 389:iii+50p. F.; and Ingle, R.M. 1957. The live bait shrimp industry 62 Wildlife: Description, Use and Values Joseph P. Linduska, Vice President National Audubon Society New York, New York Introduction logic of attempting to do this solely on a basis of human- Four or five years ago, I was invited by the World Forestry use, consumptive or otherwise, I'll now reverse my field Congress to present a paper on the Economicsof ForestWild- and attempt to do the best I can with it. life in North America-not Massachusetts or Montana, or even the United States, but all of North America. After in- Waterfowl volving a few unsuspecting colleagues in the assignment, I A major consumptive use of the wildlife of our coasts and worked long and hard to produce little of real consequence. estuaries concerns waterfowl, and the total national involve- True, a few local surveys were found which gave dollar ment in this sport is substantial. The last National Survey of values to the harvest records of big game and fur bearers. Hunting and Fishing in 19701 showed that 2.9 million par- Some went further -and assigned dollar amounts to the col- ticipants spent in excess of $244 million during 25 million lateral costs of harvest which further impacted on the local recreation days in hunting these birds. There is no good way, economy, such things as travel and equipment costs, food of course, of sorting out the part of this total which centers and lodging, etc. However, the sum total of these spot sur- on the areas under discussion. We can, however, look to the veys scarcely gave an insight into the true value of forest distribution of birds and gain a clue from a few examples. wildlife on this continent. I n the Atlantic Flyway, more than 75 percent of the Can- More to the point, it became evident in the course of this adian geese winter on and near tidewater from Kent County exercise that to relegate wildlife to the same economicstatus in Delaware to Hyde County in North Carolina.2 While much as wheat, corn and beef -on-the-hoof was to miss the point of the actual harvest occurs over cropland, it's a fair assump- completely. First off, it plays into the hands of the develop- tion that the open bays and network of tidal streams con- ers-the drainers, fillers, cutters and polluters-who rejoice tribute substantially to their presence in the area. in comparing their inflated claims of the social value of de- Maryland, without question, is the mother lode for At- velopment and change with the inherent value of natural lantic flyway geese. Waterfowl hunters in the state number systems.- It is, in fact, the trap which we fell into with our 50,000 and expenditures, depending on the survey and what River Basins programs several years ago when we sold wild- all it included, range from $17 million to $23.5 million an- life for the mitigation dollars of the Corps, Reclamation and nually. Included in this figure is $8 million for lease or rent- other ch ,ampions of a new social order. al of hunting sites in high-use areas arid, of that total, $2.5 Secondly, and related to the first, any assignment of val- million was expended on rental of 1600 offshore blinds. In ue to use-days or units of living beings fails to credit and ac- moderate-use areas land rentals were negotiated on 3650 count for the elusive values that any one life form contrib- farms and 475 offshore sites, and in fair-use areas rentals utes to .a functioning life system. Modern-day economists, were arranged for 5600 farms and 1150 offshore blinds. The I understand, have a word to express this in some measure- harvest last year included 273,000 geese, 101,000 ducks and extemalities, the values beyond obvious values, values out- lesser numbers of coots, sea ducks and other species. Resi- side of use periods. dent game, including quail and white-tailed deer are also tak- A reckoning of wildlife values in coastal and adjacentwa- en regularly in coastal marshes, particularly toward the end ters presents the same difficulties I've just described for for- of the season when hunting pressure drives them from up- est wildlife. And, having built a case of sorts denying the land habitats.3 63 The Texas Gulf Coast winters in excess of 3.5 million highly. The study revealed that waterfowlers placed an aver- ducks and geese or about 15 percent of the total United States age daily value on their sport of $49 compared with $39 for population. This figure, incidentally, includes nearly four- small game. And, by another measurement, "dollars demand- fifths of all red head ducks, a species on the wane and in ed to give up a day of hunting," waterfowl again rated ahead need of shepherding. A 1968 survey revealed that 309,000 of small game with a value of $67 compared to $55. Using man-days of hunting occurred in this area with a hunter ex- the latter value on waterfowling the total value in theSouth- penditure which added to $3 million. Since the total figure east figures to be over $357 million. The growing observa- was computed on the basis of a $9.75 expenditure per hunt- tion that duck and goose shooting is becoming a rich man's er the amount seems quite low. Surely today's cost would sport also is borne out in part by the study. Individuals in be double that figure.4 an annual salary range of $25,000 and up gave it a daily val- The fact that two of our four flyways hug our oceanic ue of $98 compared with only $31 by those whose annual coastlines testifies to the importance of these waters in sus- income was under $3,000. taining waterfowl. And, above all other areas, we can look to Alaska to see the intimate association of waterfowl with Furbearing Animals estuaries. Our coastal marshes are also highly productive of furbear- Alaska has a diverse tidal shoreline measuring 34,000 ers, and, while that value lends itself to dollar accounting, miles or roughly one-third @ of the coastal shores of all the the record keeping is such that good figures on the total United States including the Great Lakes. A large part of the worth of this resource are hard to establish. A decade ago it waterfowl 'entering the Central and Pacific flyways are pro- was estimated that the sale of fur and meat returned about duced here in such lush estuarine sites as Yukon River Delta, $6 million to trappers in the Gulf and Atlantic states. Rough- Yakutat Bay, Copper River Flats, and Bristol and Kuskok- ly $5 million was represented by fur and the remainder, $1 wim Bays, to name just a few. And as great as the numbers million in carcasses, mainly nutria. This figure was further of nesting birds are, these flocks swell dramatically during broken down to allot $4.6 million of the total to Louisiana spring and fall when nearly the entire population of birds alone, and $4 million of that was accounted for as having from Alaska, Siberia and Northeast Canada rest and feed in been taken in 3.5 million acres of coastal marsh. The trapper its estuaries. The coastal waters of this state produce and take that year (1966) in Louisiana included 1.25 million nurture a substantial segment of North America's water- nutria, 320,000 muskrats, 78,000 raccoons, 28,000 mink fowl.5 As for a dollar value, who can assign it? But, at the and 3,600 otters.7 same time who would question that without these lush coast- Of course, what has happened to the fur market since al pastures the $244 million spent on waterfowling would those lean years is difficult to imagine. A tripling of the be diminished appreciably. total revenues would appear to be a fair reflection of the enormous increase in fur values. In Louisiana, where com- Horvath Report parable figures are available, that seems to have been the You are all familiar, I'm sure, with the so-called Horvath re- case, since the fur take in that state was put at $11 million ,port6 covering an economic survey of wildlife recreation in for the 1973-74 season and at $12 million for 1974-75. the Southeast. While this study provided detailed informa- In Maryland a similar trend is evident. Duane Pursley, tion on wildlife-oriented activities for that geographic region, program director for the Maryland Game Administration, it did not attempt to segregate the portion of those activities provided me with trapping figures for the 14 Bay counties which relate specifically to our area of interest-the coastal of the State. In 1974-75 the value of fur taken from those and estuarine zone. However, seven of the 11 states covered coastal marshes was recorded at nearly $1.5 million, most by the study have contact with oceanic waters and, in de- of which accrued from a muskrat harvest of 232,000. scribing major habitat types covered, the report did state Alongside other values of coastal wetlands-, the fur yield that, "estuaries and coastal marshes, along with interior wet- has never bulked large. But today's historically high prices land, comprise extremely important habitat components." could change that. Muskrats are bringing $446 dollars, rac- We can, therefore, assume with some confidence that a sub- coons $12 to $25, red fox $40-$50 and otters about the stantial portion of the waterfowling depended on those same. habitats of concern to us here. Good documentation of the values deriving from a con- The 11 -state survey estimated that the total hunting ef - sumptive use of wildlife is difficult to establish and the prob- fort for all game added to 101 million days or 123 million lem is aggravated when one turns to nonconsumptive uses. occasions. The Southeast is quail and squirrel country and, There is evidence in recent years that the latter use is sub- as would be expected, small game accounted for substan- stantial and growing, and probably related in part to an in- tialty more recreation time than was recorded for big game creased public antipathy towards hunting and trapping. and waterfowl. Yet, waterfowl hunting alone was measured at nearly 6 million days on 6.8 million occasions. Other 'Recreational Language Although there are fewer waterfowl hunters than small Bird watching is one of the fast-growing diversion *s. The 1970 game hunters in the Southeast, they prize their sport more National Survey of Hunting and Fishingi gave a figure of 64 6.8 million people engaging in this recreational activity. While from 67. The difference between the two figures represents this figure is less than half the number of hunters, the days unmanned rfuges which do not report and,others whose re- of recreation enjoyed (411 million) is more than twice that porting is done through another station. for hunters (203 million), due obviously to the year round The attendance figures for this select group of refuges season on bird watching. The same survey tallied 4.5 mil- are of interest. Wildlife oriented recreation was by far the lion bird and wildlife photographers who snapped shutters most popular reason for visitation with just under 10 mil- for 38 million days, and 27 million nature walkers whowere lion participants in fiscal year 1975.What remains, of course, out on 337 million days. is to assign a $50 value to each visitation. The resultant On lands administered by the Bureau of Land Manage- product of $500 million, as an annual value to the public mentandthe Forest Service, hunter visitations have remained of coastal refuges alone, should put a gleam in the jaundiced relatively stable in recent years, whereas viewing and photo- eye of the office of Management and Budget, the executive graphing wildlife has grown dramatically, as much as 25 per- department which consistently has refused to acknowledge cent per year in some areas.8 The spectacular growth of my the public worth of these areas. own organization, the National Audubon Society, is a fur- Visitations to these coastal refuges for purposes other ther indication of the growing interest in birdlife and en- than wildlife were well below that total. Fish-related visits vironmental issues. From an organization of only 41,000 numbered less than 1.5 million and non-wildlife oriented rec- in 1963, we grew to 142,000 in 1970 and 331,000 in 1975- reation drew 2.5 million participants. an B-fold increase in 12 years. Marked by a few years delay, the concern of professional Attaching a dollar value to such enthusiastic participa- wildlife managers closed on the public's interest in non-game tion in wildlife-oriented events involves a considerable judge- birds with a symposium last May (11975) in Tucson, Arizona. ment factor. The Horvath study6, previously mentioned, The resulting proceedings of 343 pages includes a great wealth gave a user value of $65 to $80 per day, considerably higher of information pertaining to this long-neglected resource.9 than for hunters. On this basis, the value of wildlife and hab- Once more, however,- I must lean on your collective imagi- itat resources in the Southeast was assessed at $12.3 billion nation to relate what is happening to non-game birds in gen- for nonconsumptive users ascompared with $11.8 billion for eral to what is happening in the salt marshes, tidal gluts and consumptive users. river deltas. As to what allocation can be made of these high values In their Oaper on economic values and recreational trends, to coastal resources, I can only quote from McConnell's Payne and De Graff put a 1974 value of MO million on ac- overview on estuaries.4 He said: "Nongame enthusiasts, tivities associated with the enjoyment of non-game birds. particularly birders, are especially interested in estuaries. This total was judged to be conservative since it covered on- Millions of individual birds are attracted to the rich estu- ly direct costs and excluded such peripheral expenditures as aries. Approximately 80 percent of the 500 plus species travel, food, lodging and alcoholic beverages. By compari- of birds known to occur in Texas have been seen along the son, waterfowl hunters in 1970 spent a total of $180 mil- coast. Bird watchers spend money here just to look." This lion and, with an allowance for increased hunting and inflat- same study gives figures from the General Land Office in ed costs, the 1974 figure was placed at $300 million. The Texas which assigns to Texas coastal counties a recreation duck-hunter figure also excluded accessory costs, including value of $441 million during 1968-70. Activities such as the alcoholic beverages. Exclusion of the latter would seem hunting and trapping were not included. And by way of to make for a more favorable comparison on the part of bird adding another local example, more than one-half million watchers. However, as a relatively new recruit to the world persons are known to pay boat fares annually to view ocean of bird watching, I'm not entirely sure about that. birds, whales, sea otters, sea lions, etc. in the Pacific Ocean off California. Bird Watching The manner by which this considerable interest in birds was made manifest is of interest. A survey of Amherst, Massa- Record-Keeping Systems chusetts residents showed that 40 percent fed birds and, As some of you may know, the Division of Wildlife Refuges state-wide, one-third of all households put out an average of in the Department of the Interior entered into a system of 60 pounds of feed. In Maine about the same number fed but record-keeping a few years back which would permit a bet- more generously-125 pounds per year, a reflection, no ter understanding of the use to which these areas are put by doubt, of the harsher winters or the growing popularity of the public. The information, tallied on a monthly basis, is that state as a haven for retirees. In any event, 20 percent computerized so read-outs for a variety of activities is read- of all United States households purchase an average of 60 ily available. In order to gain a focus on whatwas happening pounds of birdseed a year at a total cost of $170 million. on those habitats pertinent to our discussion here, I request- An annual expenditure of $15 million was estimated for ed, and promptly got, tabulations for those refuges over all feeders and birdhouses, $3 million for bird guides, and an- of the United States which are of a coastal nature. The total other $4 million for gift books about birds. of such refuges numbered 131 and reports were available Bird watching, according to this report, accounts for 65 one-half to two-thirds of all binocular sales, with those in and Canadian coastlines to wintering grounds in the bays the higher price range of $250 and up accounting for three- of Washington, Oregon and California and into the larger fourths of all sales. A total investment in binoculars for this bays and lagoons of Baja California and Mexico. Some fol- purpose was judged to be $115 million in 1974. low along the Asiatic coast to winter in Japan. Wherever Bird photography is a big thing but, as pointed out by, they come from and wherever they go their total existence the authors, cameras serve a manifold purpose, subject-wise, is in coastal waters. and pinpointing costs attributable tobirds is difficult at best. In California, black brant are a thing of the past. Since They looked at the $3.7 billion outlay in 1972 for items the late 1940's the,species has declined from well over 60,- such as cameras, lenses, film, processing, and attributed 4 000 birds to near zero today. percent of the total, $190 million for 1974, to bird photog- While much speculation attended its steady decline, the raphy. It seems reasonable. In turn, I leave to you the inter- best guess is that human activity, harassment and distur- 13 esting prospect of relating all these figures to the wealth of bance was the cause of it. Of course management short- non-game birds in our coastal zone. comings are capable of remedy and black brant could prob- ably be reinstated as residents of Califo6a if, in fact, the Wildlife and Coastal Waters -causes mentioned are the real ones leading to abandonment My remarks thus far, have centered on the dollar value, di- of the area. rect and indirect, of wildlife of our coastal waters. And such@ an accounting is some measure of the contribution these Coastal Waters Destruction situations make to the public interest. As I mentioned at But destruction of such areas is forever and what's hap- the outset, however, it is but one of the arguments for pres- pening in this respect is a national disgrace. The National ervation of such areas and maybe even the weakest of the Estuary Study of 197015 shows that of'16.7 million acres I ot. of the Natin's estuaries, 665,000 acres or 4 percent, con- As our basic living needs have been met, even surpassed sidered important to wildlife, were lost to dredging and fill- in a lavish measure, our people have come to put far greater ing in one 20-year period- (1950-69). This same study re- values on things once taken for granted. Today, the hue and vealed that virtually all of such areas have been impaired in cry is for preservation of diversity in our natural world, and some measure. The degree of modification is given as: se- the avoidance and remedy of environmental abuses, not on- vere-23 percent, moderate-50 percent and slight-27 per- ly as they relate to our own well-being but for the benefit cent.5 of all living things. Our new-found concern for endangered Actual documentation of wildlife losses due to destruc- wild-life, extending to the little-known pupfish, even mol- tion of coastal waters has not been done in a very convincing luscs and plants, is an indication, I believe, of the new val- way. However, one study has come to my attention con- ues we are assigning the world around us. cerning a large bayfill operation in Hillsborough County, Few, if any, (if our natural habitats afford us the diversi- Florida in 1968. The following effects were recorded for ty of wildlife found in coastal waters and the lands and trib- Alfia Sanctuary on Green Key: nesting by American egrets utaries over which they wash. And the part played by this dropped from 18-28 pairs to zero. Brown pelicans, which rich lode of wildlife in the maintenance of a healthful, func- normally nested until fall, hatched one batch of young then tioning system is yet to be determined. Consider, for exam- deserted. the Island, nesting cormorants declined by 50 per- ple, that of all the bird species in eastern North America, cent and the numbers of wood ibis that nested there dropped nine-tenths have been recorded from the Gulf coast marshes from 25-30 to 2 or 3. Although a dozen yellow-crowned alone.10 It is facts such as these that make it futile to at- night herons normally nested in the area, none did so fol- tempt a fair appraisal of the value of such areas. in sustain- lowing the nearby filling operation.16 ing many species of wildlife on this continent. However, I would suggest one more imperative for the preserva- some of our most abundant species seem intimately tied to tion of our coastal waters. Yesterday's concern for endan- coastal situations. gered wildlife has become today's preoccupation. We seem Almost the entire population of snow and blue geese, prepared to go to any length, spend any amount, to rescue which number in the millions, are dependent on the marshes these animals from the finality of total elimination. Yet of the Texas and Louisiana coasts. These are their sole win- other species which have not gained this doubtful distinc- tering grounds. Other major groups intimately tied to coast- tion are taken for granted. Must we wait until a species al marshes and estuaries include pelicans and cormorants, achieves this select but growing list before steps are taken the long-legged waders, eagles and ospreys, cranes and rails, for its preservation? shorebirds, gulls and terns and a few passerines.14 By one person's count, ourbays, estuaries and open wa- On the west coast, the black brant is still another species ters satisfy, in full or in part, the needs of 24 endangered closely tied to a coastal life, both on its breeding and win- species, not including the whales. In itself that should be tering grounds. The principal breeding area is just above reason enough for treating these areas gently. But, as I high tide level along the delta of the Yukon and Kuskok@ stated earlier, our coastlines produce and sustain wild- wirn rivers in Alaska. Their migrations follow the Alaskan life in prodigious variety and many are highly sensitive 66 in their demands for this unique habitat. If the public con- 5. National Estuary Study, vol. 1. (Washington, D.C.:U.S. cern for endangered wildlife is as genuine as it appears, then Government Printing Office, 1970.) a concerted effort to preserve these wetlands today could 6. Joseph C. Horvath, Southeastern Economic Survey of spare us much hand-ringing tomorrow. Wildlife Recreation (Atlanta, Ga.: Environmental Re- search Group, Georgia State University, 1974.) Audubon Society 7. Granville H. Sewell, "Estuarine Pollution Study Series- National Audubon Society has had a traditional concern for 2," in The Economic and Social Importance of Estua- endangered species and colonial birds, with studies on the ries, Environmental Quality-The Fifth Annual Report latter extending back for 50 years. While the initial interest of the Council on Environmental Quality. (Washington, was in the inherent value of the-birds, we now view these D. C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 1971.) colonial species as being sensitive indicators of the well- 8. Environmental Quality- The Fifth Annual Report of the being of the environment in which they are confined. Council on Environmental Quality. (Washington, D. C.: In the past few years, we have enlarged considerably our U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.) ground and aerial surveys,over the Gulf coast, Mexico and 9. Dixie R. Smith, "General Technical Report WO-11," Proc. parts of the Eastern seaboard. And that enlargement of our of the Symposium on Management of Forest and Range data gathering ability has been accompanied by an improve- Habitats for Nongame Birds. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. De- ment in our data processing potential. This past year we es- partment of Agriculture, Forest Service, 1975.) tablished a computerized data bank under a cooperative ar- 10. George H. Lowery, Jr., and Robert J. Newman, "the rangement with Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Birds of the Gulf of Mexico," Fishery Bull. no. 89, vol. Fish and Wildlife Service and others in the Department of 55 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Of- the Interior, likewise, have given a new urgency to wetlands fiGe, 1954.) studies. They have many new projects in development, some 11. SF1 Bulletin, no. 270. (Washington, D.C.: The Sport of which cover the economic aspects. I'm sure Mr. Palmisano Fishing Institute, 1975.) will be reporting on these. All told, the treasure which is 12. James G. Gosselink; Eugene P. Odum; and R.M. Pope, our coastal waters seems to be gaining a recognition long The Value of the TidalMarsh, Work paper no. 3. (Athens, overdue. Hopefully, a decade from now (if we're not too Ga.: Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, 1973.) late) a symposium such as this one will deal more with solu- 13. John E. Chattin, Proceedings of Northwest Estuarine tions and less with problems. and Coastal Zone Symposium. (Portland, Oregon: Bu- reau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 1970.) Literature Cited 14. Alexander Sprunt, IV, "Values of the South Atlantic Footnotes and Gulf Coast Marshes to Birds Other Than Waterfowl." 1 .National Survey of Hunting and Fishing. (Resource pub- (Paper presented at Marsh and Estuary Management Sym- lication 95, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.: posium, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Taver- U.S. Department of Interior, 1970.) nier, Florida: National Audubon Society, 1967.) 2. National Estuary Study, vol. 3 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. 15. National Estuary Study, vol. 2 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.) Government Printing Office, 1970.) 3. Vernon Stotts, personal communication, 1976. 16. Richard C. Till is, Proceedings, Fish and Wildlife Values 4. ChesterA. McConnell, Effects of Reservoirson Estuaries- of the Estuarine Habitat, A seminar for the Petroleum In- an overview. (Washington, D.C.: Wildlife Management dustry. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Interior, Institute, 1976.) Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 1973.) 67 Hu man Encroachmebt on Barrier Beaches. of the' Northeastern U.S. and Its Imp .act on Coastal Birds P.A. Buckley, Chief Scientist North Atlantic Regional Office National Park Service, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Francine G. Buckley, Staff Biologist Manornet Bird Observatory Manornet, Massachusetts 02345 Introduction ible modus vivendi than at present, if we are willing to de- the northeastern U.S. coast includes some of the greatest vote the effort and money necessary to achieve it. population densities in the country. Here lies "Megalopolis,". that diffuse, linear CitY7and-suburb amalgam stretchingfrom Beach Development Boston to Richmond, and it is here also that some of the Encroachment in its extreme form is probably typified by greatest pressures for recreational pursuits are felt by coastal the Rockaways on western L.I., where all natural features resources. Despite these increasing pressures, there are still of the beach have been removed by building and develop- some essentially undeveloped barrier beaches and marshes ment (Fig. 1). The beach is no longer able to respond as a to be found there, which are now facing or will in the near natural system to the inexorable forces of the ocean, so future face a continuous spectrum of human encroachment man-made defenses that rarely work are thrust against it: pressures ranging from few changes to virtual elimination of groins, jetties, seawalls. Beaches are heavily used by swim- the natural scene. mer and sunbather, stroller and fisherman, and on the bay- It is our intent here to outline briefly some of the more side, salt marshes have been filled in. Adjacent inlets are serious kinds of encroachment that have occurred in the stabilized by jetties, stopped in their natural coastwise mi- northeast, using Long Island, New York as an example, and gration parallel to littoral drift; they are dredged on a regu- to indicate in general terms the impacts that they have pro- lar basis to maintain navigation channels; new inlets are pre- duced'on the birds which formerly occurred in great num- cluded from opening in the barrier beaches; and the natural bers there, are still trying to remain, or are newly arrived or landward rollback of the island by periodic overwash, inlet recolonizing species attempting to live in disturbed beach formation, dune breaching, destruction and subsequent for- areas. A complete catalogue of impacts such as we outline mation, is eliminated; new salt marshes cannot form on shal- remains to be prepared, and while trends are clear, many de- low, sloping sediments. The island is immobilized in granite, tails still need to be worked out. We should point out that brick and macadam and erodes accordingly (Figs. 2, 3). some of these changes could be construed as "beneficial" The scenario seems horrific, and in many senses is. To be in the sense that while some species were eliminated, oth- sure, very many coastal birds disappear from this situation, ers increased in both range and numbers. We prefer to take and virtually all breeding species do. But in migration and an objective view that these human activities formed an un- during the winter, mollusc- and fish-eating species restricted desirable disturbance of a natural system, which led to severe to the water (such as scoters, grebes, and loons) are still pres- changes in the relative abundance, and ecology, of many ent; scavenging gulls have actually increased with man's de- species. Most ecologists would consider this a detrimental velopment, and congregate near his sewage outfalls and gar- effect. bage dumps. Brant, almost wiped out with the eelgrass blight Given the human population pressures in the northeast, of the 1920's, have adapted to eating sewage-nurtured Ulva, we feel a sensible approach is assessment of the impact of one of the few algae thriving near habitation. The erection human encroachment, and then amelioration of it whenever of hundreds and thousands of groins and jetties down the and wherever possible. People cannot be removed entirely Atlantic Coast (Fig. 1) has probably been the prime factor from the coastal area, but with careful thought, men and in the southward range extension of several rock-loving birds beasts-in this case coastal birds- can reach a more compat- formerly notoccurring with any regularity south of northern 68 New England, among them Purple Sandpiper, Harlequin Duck, Common and King Eiders. These structures have like- wise allowed northward wintering of some species that stay quite close to them for shelter and food, such as Rud- dy Turnstones and Double-crested Cormorants. It is when we examine the effect of beach development on breeding birds that man.'s impact here is seen to its fullest. In areas of total development such as the Rockaways and Coney Island, all naturally breeding beach species have been eliminated, as their habitat has been totally destroyed or is so heavily used as to preclude their nesting. Terns, skim- mers, and Piping Plovers are gone, and cannot return. Iron- ically, exceptions have occurred, generally only at the tips or ends of prograding barrier islands or spits, such as Breezy Point (Rockaway' Inlet), Short Beach and Democrat Point Figure 2. Outer Banks of N.C. (Cape Hatteras National Sea- (Fire Island Inlet), where, as a result of jetty construction, shore) on the north side of Buxton village following severe sand is accreting on that side of the inlet first reached by storm in February 1973. Note extensive overwash fans. View the still-continuing longshore or littoral drift. The purpose to the NW. of the jetties is to entrap sand before it reaches-spil ling into and occluding-the inlets. As jetty sand compartments fill up, the low, flat frequently-overwashing profile of a. natural barrier beach (Fig. 4) recurs, even to the formation of new marshes on the backside of the beach. Being at the ends of spits or islands, these locations are relatively iso- lated, so it is here that the last remaining colonies of birds formerly breeding on the undisturbed beaches of Long Island-especially terns-can now be found. Unfortunately, the fishing is so good at these inlets that human disturbance, especially by off-road vehicles (ORVs), has all but elimi- A Figure 3. Parking Field 9, Jones Beach State, Park; now per- manently closed to public. Note proximity of Ocean High way to moving high water line. View to the NNE, June . ........... 1975. Iq I 7 . .......... . Figure 4. Portsmouth Island, Ca pe Lookout National Sea- Figure 1. Rockaway Beach, Queens Co., looking WSW to- shore, N.C. in February 1973. Note profile of a naturally wards Coney Island in October 1974. Note beach loss and overwashing beach with inlets free to open, close and mi- one groin every block. gr ate; cf Figures 1 and 14. View to the NW. 69 nated successful nesting to the point of young actually tionally important in coastal New Jersey; and in a survey of f I edged. the Outer Banks of North Carolina in 1973 we found that Where do breeding birds go when beach development between Oregon and Ocracoke Inlets-a distance of 75 miles eliminates them? The vast majority simply cease to nest in -95 percent of the total of 6300 pairs of colonially nesting the area,,the species become locally extirpated. In the last waterbirds were using spoil islands (Buckley and Buckley, few years, though, we have noticed Common and Roseate 1975). The main Outer Banks beaches were so eroded due to Terns, and to a lesser extent, Black Skimmers, attempting to man's intervention and so hard-pressed by ORVs and other adapt by using a new habitat: whole colonies sometimes recreational demands that they were unavailable for bird numbering only a few pairs, sometimes thousands, are nest- u se. ing directly on open marshy islands. While historically there On Long Island proximity of people to the beaches from have apparently always been a few pairs attempting marsh Shinnecock Bay eastto Montauk Point-which are partof the nesting, we have never heard of any numbers in the north- mainland and thus inlet-free and not in a barrier configura- east. In three locations on L.I. where human pressures and tion-had eliminated most beachfront nesting. The very few disruption are increasing (Shinnecock Bay, South Oyster remaining colonies in eastern L.I. are almost without Bay and Jamaica Bay), normal beachfront habitat is now exception on private or otherwise generally inaccessible unavailable for nesting, so the species are resorting to spring- islands. From Shinnecock Bay westward, where barrier tide deposited wrack clusters on marsh islands behind the beaches and inlets occur, there are occasional attempts at beaches and in a few cases are actually nesting on the beachfront nesting, usually by Least Terns, but virtually ground in short Spartina alterniflora marshes. We do not all other colonies are now on dredge spoil islands adjacent know their nesting success generally, except that in the to the permanent (jettied) inlets: Shinnecock, Moriches, 2000+ pair colony in Shinnecock Bay, essentially zero productivity in both 1975 and 1976 was attributed to a combination of high tides and extensive Norway rat preda- h!p "i tion. Rat burrows were much in evidence there in 1976, .and numerous dead and partially eaten adult terns were strewn about. If this colony continues to be unsuccessful, its loss to the area breeding population would be signi- f icant, as in 1976 it accounted for about 10 percent of the Common Terns on L.I., and was only one of four colonies containing in excess of 1000 pairs. On the other hand, if Common and Roseate Terns are able to adapt to breeding in marshes successfully, as dothe marsh-adapted Forster's and Black Terns, especially where there is little tide swing, the species' continued presence as breeders near highly developed beaches would be possible, barring further en- croachment on the marshes. American Oystercatcher, a southern species now coloniz- ing N.Y. and New England, faces identical pressures on its preferred oceanfront beach. It has solved the problem in the same manner as the terns, moving onto marsh islands -va for nesting and feeding when confronted with heavy human use of beaches. Dredge Spoil Islands In addition to terns and oystercatchers, other beachf ront or true colonial nesters such as Piping Plover, Black Skimmer, Herring and Great Black-backed Gulls, and herons, egrets, and ibises are now resorting to dredge spoil islands-man- made structures created when bottom-dredged material is deposited on land, and now in many locations the only rela- tively undisturbed habitat for these birds left on our coast. Located as they invariably are along major "inside" water- Figure 5. Dredge spoil islands, Oregon Inlet, Cape Hatteras ways and at inlets (Fig. 5), these islands now provide the larg- National Seashore, N.C., looking NW, February 1973. Note est single source of available habitat for colonially nesting different plant successional stages related to dates of last waterbirds along the entire coast of Long Island; are excep- spoil deposition. 70 Fire Island, Jones, East Rockaway, and Rockaway. In recent years colonies at the last two inlets (Atlantic Beach and Breezy Points, respectively) have failed to materialize or to produce young, owing to human interference. These areas also happen to have no adjacent spoil islands, so at breeding time have become essentially waterbird-free. Along the Jones Beach strip herons, ibises, gulls (Fig. 6), terns and skimmers have achieved a remarkable "peaceful coexistence" with man, and colonies are scattered along, and between, lanes of roadway the entire 18-mile distance from Fire Island to Jones Inlets; admonitory signs and dra- conian enforcement against parking outside of parking fields and against crossing the roads except at designated locations have helped immensely, but were an unintended benefit. Even with Jones Beach lowering percentages, spoil islands on L.I. in 1975 still accounted for breeding sites for 36 per- Figure 6. Gull colony present between lanes of roadway at cent of all herons and ibises, 33 percent of all gulls and 21 Captree State Park since 1940s. View taken June 1974 look- percent of all terns and skimmers, totalling an estimated ing ESE across Fire Island Inlet towards F.I. Lighthouse. 42,000 pairs (Buckley et al. 1975; Buckley and Buckley in prep.). We can confidently expect that as recreational pres- sures increase 'on L.I. beaches and waterways, these percent- ages will go up, not down, so the resource value of spoil is- lands is, if anything, underestimated and well below its likely maximum. At other times of the year, spoil islands are also vital to birds. Migrating shorebirds feed by the thousands in the shal- low flats created-and soon colonized by invading plants and animals-when a spoil island is made by allowing the slurry to flow undiked into the surrounding shallow waters. They become feeding and resting grounds for innumerable gulls, shorebirds. Brant and cormorants (Fig. 7), especially if the islands are not frequented by boating parties. During the summertime when recreational boating traffic is heaviest, remote or overgrown spoil islands are frequently the only Figure 7. Cormorants wintering on dredge spoil islands in refuge for shorebirds at high tide, or for non-breeding gulls, Oregon Inlet, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, N.C. Taken terns and waterfowl. in February 1973. . Spoil islands are created by dredging of navigable water- ways, and when fresh unpolluted spoil is left to dry, it will by the next season probably be populated by Least Terns and Black Skimmers. But the very dredging that creates the new habitat for breeding destroys old feeding areas: the highly productive shallows and flats in inlets and tidal bays sustaining large populations of small fishes and the birclsfeed- ing on them. Inasmuch as weather is a limiting factor in dredging, it is usually done-at our latitudes-only from about April through October. At these times obtaining food for nestlings is critical, and even more devastating can be the dumping of spoil directly atop an existing colony full of in- cubating adults, which we have seen done several times. In addition, once the islands are created, their very posi tions-adjacent to inlets and alongside small boat channels- makes them attractive goals for boaters, fishermen and oth- Figure 8. Scars from off-road vehicle use in Spartina alterni- er water-oriented recreationists. On Long Island, several is- flora marsh, Short Beach (Jones Beach State Park), in Sep- lands have already become scarred by tracks from trail bikes tember 1974. and dune buggies (Fig. 8), transported by boat at great in- 71 tures of shorebirds seen on western U. in recent years. It was also in an unsuspected tern and skimmer colony on a high patch of sparsely vegetated sand over the pipeline that we found the first known nest in New York of Gull-billed Tern (Fig. 10)., thereby extending the species' breeding range some 150 miles north of its previous limit. Not to extoll the benefits of such drastic marsh surgery, we must point out the vast quantities of shellfish and ben- thic plants and animals that were destroyed in the process of cutting the outfall line, as well as the inevitable effect on mainland U.'s watertable which will result from dumping hundreds of millions of gallons of fresh water into the ocean, instead of recharging the fast-disappearing aquifers. And point pollution at the outfall is yet another matter. As if Figure 9. Trespassers on island in Jamaica Bay Wildlife Ref- that were not enough, 10 miles to the eastSuffolk Co. is uge, summer 1975. Note motorcycle. Photo courtesy T.H. proposing an identical ocean outfall, certain to produce the Davis, Jr. same mixed bag of effects. But here the preferred route wil 'I take them directly through the middle of the largest known convenience. Unsanctioned and often illicit camping (Fig. tern and skimmer colony (2800 pairs) on mainland L. 1. (i.e., 9), replete with all its 20th century detritus-strands of not on spoil, or other isolated islands), and the only one har- discarded monofilament line, Polaroid film backing, beer boring the rare and local Roseate Tern (Cedar Beach, Fig. can pop-tops and six-pack holders-is increasing annually 11). So far authorities have turned a deaf ear to the protes- and threatens to become a major problem. Thus there are tations of biologists and conservationists, and the issue will strong pros and cons to the dredge spoil situation. What likely wind up in court. seems to have the potential for unmitigated disaster, can, Another kind of ditching is that done to salt marshes to with foresight, planning and management b-acome at least a attempt control of mosquitoes, especially Aedes solficitans. mixed blessing, if not an environmental asset. Asidefrom the aesthetic impactof unrelievedly parallelditch- es extending row upon row (off to the horizon in some plac- Salt Marsh Alteration Salt marshes are one of the most important parts of our coastal wildlife habitat, and they too are subject to heavy population pressures; their extensive despoilation from dredging, filling and pollution are well known. However, even with unavoidable dredging and filling there are wildlife management opportunities which can turn a potential long- term disaster into a short-term perturbation from which the marshes can recover. Permits for cutting trenches, ditches and boat channels across coastal marshes are no longer as easy to obtain as they once were. It still goes on, and seems inevitable that it will increase if oil in marketable quantities is discovered off the New England and Middle Atlantic states. But if carefully done, it too can produce striking effects on birds by intro- ducing a diversity of habitat and thereby of birdlife. As an example, Nassau Co.'s recently constructed Wantagh ocean outfall sewer line cut a 250' swath across Great South Bay salt marshes and bottoms (Fig. 10). (The buried pipe now leaks sewage but that's another problem.) After burial, the right-of-way was covered with fresh, clean fill originally re- moved during construction. This expanse of sand and mud with intermittent pools of shallow water and recolonizing Spartina forms ideal habitat for a rich diversity of marsh Figure 10. Ocean outfall line for Nassau Co.'s Wantagh sew- birds, and last summer, following the discovery there of the age treatment plant, cut across South Oyster Bay marshes. first Long-billed Curlew on L.I. since 1938-, intensive field Sandy, vegetated area atop cut, at bottom of picture, har- work revealed some of the greatest concentrations and mix- bored tern colony. View NNW, June 1975. es), many doubts have been raised about the deleteriou's 'J- ecological effects ditching has on salt marshes. Studies are few and far between, and we are aware of almost no work done on the effects of marsh ditching on birdlife. There are it three exceptions, all concerning the only unditched salt marsh of any consequence remaining on the south shore (or perhaps the entirety) of Long Island, N.Y. Located near.Oak Beach, on the Jones Beach Strip, this 300-acre marsh sup- ports the only known L.I. breeding population of the rare and local Black Rail, and at present the only salt marsh pop- L.I. Post and Enders (1969; 1970) ulation of Virginia Rails on attribute both these occurrences to the unditched nature of the marsh and attendant vegetational zoning. Post (1974) I ikewise s tudied the breeding ecology of Seaside Sparrows at Oak Beach with control populations nearby in ditched salt marshes. While he found no difference in breeding success, Figure 11. Cedar Beach-ternery, Jones Beach strip, looking breeding pairs behaved differently in the two habitats. In W, June 1975. Note proximity to four-lane Ocean Highway; unaltered Oak Beach marsh, they formed group territories plantings of pines along roadway; and narrowing of barrier for nesting from which they made distant foraging flights; island W of ternery as beach enters full erosional shadow of in ditched marshes they maintained all-purpose activity jetty on the end of Fire Island (out of view to SE). Suffolk spaces from which other conspecifics were excluded. We Co. SW sewer district ocean outfall line is to cut across col- suggest that the remarkable aspect of this study is not that ony right to left, near bottom of picture; cf. Fig. 10. there were differences in breeding behavior (which we would have-predicted based on the habitat differences), but rather there were none in overall nesting success. We would be sur- prised if otherspecies were as plastic in their ability to toler- ate as radical an environmental manipulation as ditching, and would go so far as to predict that for most species reduced success would occur in ditched marshes. Such studies remain to be done, however, and the existence of Oak Beach un- M" ditched marsh is also being threatened by the proposed Suf- folk Co. sewer pipe. What we do know f rom many years'observation, although a quantitative study remains to be done, is that the shallow pool and 'panne topography of Oak Beach Marsh (Fig. 12) produces the greatest shorebird species diversity of any nat- ural (i.e. no n-impounded) location on L. I., that the concen- Figure 12. Unditched Oak Beach Marsh, N of Ocean High- trations of herons (especially Little Blue and Louisiana) in way (Jones Beach strip), looking W in September 1974. those pools (Fig. 13) are probably reached or exceeded at only one of two other L.I. locations, if at all, and that, in, season, no other salt marsh habitat on L.I. supports the di- versity of freshwater (dabbling) ducks that Oak Beach Marsh does. Clearly, the area is uniquely valuable to birds, and the most frequently offered explanation is its unditched nature. :!I" lie- Adjacent, ditched marshes offer but a pale ghost of this marsh's diversity and numbers. Barrier Beach Uplands The upland areas of barrier beaches normally support a cir- cumscribed vegetation reasonably clearly zoned, which has been described by many ecologists. Where man has arrived with his vehicles and habitation on barrier islands, he has usually created and/or strengthened a Maginot Line-like, so- Figure 13. Concentration of egrets in Oak Beach Marsh, Sep- called primary dune, intended to be a barrier against the rav- tember 1961, looking NNE. ages of the onrushing (and inexorably rising) sea. Thus fas- 73 tened in place (only cosmetically, as each severe coastal storm placed terns and skimmers from the few remaining suitable demonstrates; see Figs. 2,3). The beach loses its ability to nesting colony sites in so many areas of the northeast. It is advance landward as it rolls over on itself, its characteristi- not.that terns are "better" than gulls but rather that man cally flat profile, its clear but ever-shifting ocean-to-bay veg- has, once again, upset a natural ratio. etational zones, and their attendant birds. Back-beach bare sand flats and grass fields become first shrublands, and then Wildlife Refuge Problems small maritime forests. In many parks, extensive plantings Sometimes in our attempts to aid wildlife we unwittingly of native and exotic conifers are made. With all these vege- create problems. An excellent case in point is Jamaica Bay tational changes come significant changes in birdlife. Un- Wildlife Refuge. The City of New York created the heart of questionably, landbird diversity i Increases, and spectacularly Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge by diking two large freshwater so. Vast amounts of new habitat are suddenly made avail- impoundments in 1953 to provide a shallow, freshwater able. Songbirds in migration stop and linger where previous- habitat lacking in the Bay area. It was immensely successful, ly there was no habitat; ornamental plantings provide nest- as was the then burgeoning and immediately adjacent Idle- ing habitat for Mourning Doves, Purple Grackles and House wild Airport. Then in 1956 the city opened two immense Finches; shrublands support great numbers of wintering garbage dumps within a mile of the Refuge ponds. Up went Myrtle Warblers; woodland owls arrive to winter in sheltered the gull population, as they found idyllic conditions: the coastal Black Pine groves adjacent to salt marshes overrun dumps for food, two large islands in mid-Bay for nesting, with voles, mice and rats. The southern relative of the Whip- the Refuge ponds for drinking and bathing, and the airport poor-will, Chuck-will's-widow, is slowly expanding its range runways for loafing and preening, most especially on rainy northward from its previous limit.in extreme southern New days when the shallow pools on the runway are irresistable. Jersey. In 1975 the first nest in New York State was found Conditions are so rosy for the gulls that upwards of 100,000 in just such a planted pine grove near Oak Beach Marsh, and have been in the Bay during recent Novembers. The prob- within sight of the Gull-billed Terns nesting on the sewage lem that gulls have created for planes taking off at now im- pipe outfall cut. And as man's boating and other recreation- mense JFK International Airport are too well known to be al activities have interfered more and more with the sites repeated here, but are not likely to be solved, despite fran- where heronries have been traditionally located in shrubbery tic efforts by airport officials to chase the birds away, until and low trees, the birds have taken to the tops of tall trees. the two major dumps are closed. In 1975 a 220-pair Great Egret colony was situated on the tops of four adjacentgroves of planted pines in between traf- Habituation fic lanes at Jones Beach State Park, high and safe from all Lest we paint too gloomy a picture we must point out that comers, but surely a far cry from their preferred habitat on despite the negative impacts man has had on birds in coastal low islands out in the marshes. areas-numbers of breeders drastically reduced, some species extirpated, and certain areas relatively birdless-there still Recreational Pressures are large numbers of coastal birds around. This has been Recreational pressures, rather than industrial, commercial due to their remarkable abilities to habituate to man's pres- or housing pressures, have probably made the greatest im- ence, and to adapt, to a constantly changing environment. pact on birds in most coastal areas. Whether by creation of We have already mentioned Seaside.Sparrows' reactions to vast recreational complexes such as Jones Beach State Park ditched salt marshes, to Common Terns' attempted move- on L.I., or by establishment of marinas and summer beach ment to spoil islands and salt marshes when the beaches were cottage colonies as on the Outer Banks, or by running vari- no longer available, to Great Egrets' use of the tops of plant- ous ORVs along the beaches to f ishing spots as at Fire Island ed pine groves for their heronries. (Fig. 14), or for sightseeing or for picnicking as on Cape In the context of the gulls' problem just mentioned we Cod, or by covering inland bays and sounds in summer with should point out that only because the gulls have habituated myriads of small boat enthusiasts who land on every availa- to the presence of the planes, is there not an even greater ble island or barrier beach such as in New Jersey, human problem at JFK airport, at least one of whose glide paths pressure has reduced almost to the vanishing point the habi- passes directly over the two garbage dumps. When a plane tat needed by these birds for breeding. And people them- comes in low, the birds scatterfast (Fig. 15); in general they selves do far less harm than uncontrolled-or worse, aban- seem to avoid the glide path entirely. When the NYC sub- doned-pets, especially dogs. One dog in a few hours can ob- ways roar past the shorebird flats on the East Pond at Jamai- literate an entire tern colony. The pressures interact in bi- ca Bay Wildlife Refuge (Fig. 16), it's still astonishing to see zarre ways: with the great increase in small boat activity has hundreds of birds not even flinch or pause in their feeding to naturally come marina growth, resulting in turn in much fish look up; thesame non-reaction is given to passing jets; week- cleaning and many entrails being dumped overboard. This, end boaters know how they barely rate a passing glance from in turn, has allowed a population explosion of Herring and gulls or terns resting on a jetty so long as the boat does not Great Black-backed Gulls, which, for their part, have dis- disgorge passengers; likewise, ORV users know they will not 74 unduly disturb resting flocks of sandpipers on the beach-so long as cars, not pedestrians, move past the birds and keep going. Even the marvelous Ghost Crabs of the Outer Banks (Fig. 17) have reached, in some places, an accommodation with the hordes of ORVs: where traffic has not simply eliminated the animals, they have become crepuscular and nocturnal. This contrasts markedly with their behavior on vehicle-free AZ islands where they are aggressively diurnal. 0@7 Conclusions and recommendations 40 Having enumerated some of the conflicts and the effects- 4,.$k' 0'"o ; '_ most largely negative, although some might be considered ,4w positive under certain conditions-man has had on birds in Z7- k the coastal environment, we wish to conclude with some recommendations for the future. We would hope that, if im- plemented, they would result in mitigated impacts of the kinds we have described, inasmuch as man will be an intrus- ive part of the coastal ecosystem for the foreseeable future. 1 ) We need increased research on the ability of species to adapt to changed environmental conditions-and before the changes, not after. 2) We need increased recognition that man impinges on e t7 y q, birds along coasts at all timesof theyear, not just when th are breeding, and that very often long term but indirect re- sults of his action can be more profoundly disruptive to birds than short term but direct results. 3) We must recognize both that man cannot be removed Figure 14. Ever-narrowing ocean beachfront on Fire Island from the coast sothat birds mustto some extent accomodate him, as well as that under some conditions, man must be National Seashore. Note vehicle tracks, density of houses, totally excluded from some areas if we are not to eliminate and down-drift I(= towards the viewer) erosional scouring some of the birds. past the only groins on Fire Island. View over Village of 4) We must pay more attention to multiple use of areas Ocean Beach looking ENE, September 1974. Cf. Figs. 2 & 4.. by season, so that all-or-none inclusions or restrictions are replaced by carefully tailored regulations. 5) We need a tremendous increase in education of the public to the, possible ways by which they thoughtlessly damage our avian coastal resources. 6) We need increased inventories of our coastal bird re- 11r. sources before we attempt environmental manipulation even if the actions are only likely to affect birds significantly. 7) On a more specific basis, we need to time unavoidable human activities such as construction, dredging, spoil depo- sition, etc., to avoid disturbing significant aggregations of 17 breeding birds. 8) We need to recognize those areas that have especial ecological value to breeding birds, such as Long Island's Oak Beach Marsh, various dredge spoil islands, etc., and take extraordinary measures to protect them from encroachment. 9) We need to assess how we have already altered the coastal environment of birds, and take steps to restore favor- able conditions by habitat creation, manipulation or man- agement. I @k 10) We have to realize that in some instances we will be Figure 15. Gulls scattering in front of helicopter, Canarsie forced to choose between human use and wildlife preserva- Pol, Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. View looking E, Febru- tion because sometimes they are mutually exclusive. ary 1975. 75 fit Figure 16. Rockaway Line of N.Y.C. subway system travers- ing dike containing East Pond, Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. Thousands of ducks and shorebirds populate waters and shores of ponds in season; runways of J.F.K. International Airport just out of picture to right, top. View to N, October 1974. 7 Literature Cited @A* Buckley, P.A., and Buckley, F.G., 1975. The significance of dredge spoil islands to colonially nesting waterbirds in certain national parks. In Proc. Conf. Mgmt Dredge /s- lands in N. C. Estuaries, ed. J. Parnell, Univ. N. C. Sea Grant Publ., UNC-SG-75-01: 1-142. eA Buckley, P. A.; Paxton, R. 0.; and Cutler, D. A., 1975. -Delaware Region: nesting season, 1975. The Hudson American Birds, 29:947-954. Buckley, P.A., and Buckley, F.G., inprep. Colonially nesting q waterbirds of Long Island, N.Y.: 1973-1976. Parts 1, 11, -related be- Post, William. 1974. Functional analysis of space havior in the Seaside Sparrow. Ecology, 55: 564-575. Post, William, and Enders, Frank, 1969. . Reapp earance of Figure 17. Aggressive male ghost crab in authors' vehicle the Black Rail on Long Island. Kingbird, 19: 189-191. track at midday. Taken on Fisherman's Island National Wild- Post, William, and Enders, Frank. 1970. Notes on a salt life Refuge, Cape Charles, Va., June 1969. marsh Virginia Rail population. Kingbird, 20:61-67. 76 The Role of Ecological Information in Planning for the Future of Wildlife Resources A. William Palmisano, Project Leader-Coastal Ecosystems Office of Biological Services, Fish and Wildlife Service Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. Introduction in the sixties, when the public acquired an environmental The narrow coastal zone fringing the continents and the sur- consciousness, the Service could provide assistance to de- face layer of the sea, to only a few meters-in depth, com- cision-makers in developments requiring environmental im- prises less than one percent-of the volume of the oceans,yet pact analyses. The role of the Service as an ecological ad- represents more than 90 percent of the seas' primary.pro- visor has steadily increased since that time. ductivity and living biomass. These land-water-air interfaces Presently the FWS has management responsibilities for are also sites of disproportionately high human development migratory birds, endangered species, selected marine mam- activities. Though coastal areas have been used for centuries mals, anadromous fishes and national wildlife refuges. In its by man for transportation, food production and habitation, advisory role, the Service reviews and comments on environ- only since the turn of the century has our technology de- mental impact statements and many permits requiring ap- veloped to the point where major ecosystems and possibly propri,ate federal participation. The agency also provides the natural functions of the oceans themselves might be technical assistance in activities involving comprehensive jeopardized. natural resource planning at national, regional, state and This poses a significant problem to those of us trying to local levels. plan for a future with both a high standard of living and a The Office of Biological Services has recently' been es- high quality of life. Our ability to alter the environment tablished to improve FWS advisory capabilities by: 1) devel- continues to increase at a rate that far exceeds our ability ..opment of appropriate ecological information; 2) improved to predict the environmental consequences of our actions. impact assessrn-ent; 3) development of information transfer The present energy dilemma which we face will almost cer- mechanisms to bring information effectively to bear on de- tainly broaden this rangeof relative ignorance. Impactassess- cision-making processes. ment state-of-the-art relative to coastal and marine systems has not developed much beyond an approach which involves Development of Ecological Information avoiding the actual or potential "big bads." The varied nature of the disturbances and the diversity of resources subject to impact require a broad base of infor- Fish and Wildlife Service Responsibilities and Activities mation to adequately assess development impacts in the Historically the FWS has performed a number of functions coastal zone. The approach being developed by the Ser- for the administration. The first half of this century saw the vice to develop this base involves a comprehensive character- Biological Survey u'ridertake basic life history studies of many ization of coastal ecosystems. Environmental Characteriza- forms of wildlife both game and non-game. The emphasis tion may be briefly defined as a structured approach to eco- gradually changed to land management for wildlife which in- logical information development, synthesis and analysis de- volved acquisition of refuges and activities to enhance the signed to provide an understanding of the functional pro- production of wildlife on both public and private lands. By cesses and natural resource elements comprising complex mid-century the Service had become primarily a management coastal ecosystems. The procedure is designated to make agency, managing its own refuge lands, and through hunting maximum use of existing information essential to the re- regulations, the nation's vast waterfowl population. A con- source assessment and in providing guidance to the develop- siderable ecological capability was housed in the Service and ment of future studies. A description of significant natural 77 resources and functional processes of the ecosystem are nificant resources and do not necessarily dominate the de- highlighted in the characterization. cision process. In addition to living resources, processes which drive the Impact Assessment coastal ecosystems are also subject to alteration by devel- The Service provides technical assistance to other federal opment. Living resources are part of the web of I ife and sig- agencies in the preparation and review of ElSand the issuance nificant disruption of processes such as nutrient cycling, of permits for development activities in the coastal zone. hydrologic patterns, successional trends and trophic rela- Improved impact assessment capabilities is a primary ob- tionships can have a severe detrimental impact. The state- jective of the Office of Biological Services. of-the-art is generally inadequate for predicting such changes Analysis of industry activities related to OCS Oil and Gas but the potential threat is no less real. Studies designed to Development is presently being undertaken to determinethe improve predictive modeling of major coastal ecosystems environmental disturbances to be anticipated and an evalua- will probably occupy the time of investigators for many years tion of optional approaches. All phases of development must to come before adequate models can be developed which be considered and a comprehensive environmental studies quantitatively predict impacts. program designed to provide timely planning information The Service's approach makes maximum use of the state- for each step of development. Environmental studies should of-the-art relative to impact analysis. To make full use of be scheduled to provide essential resource information early presently available technology, four separate lines of investi- in the leasing program to determine tracts which should be gation are being pursued: 1) literature review; 2) case history excluded from the sale and to establish appropriate lease studies; 3) consultation with acknowledged experts in the stipulations. Exploratory drilling requires permits and often respective fields; 4) an analysis of the permit process within detailed ecological information near the platform site. Pro- the FWS. duction and transportation of petroleum initiates a series of development activities often removed from the lease area. Summary Pipelines, navigation dredging, chronic and acute spills, near The volume of environmental information presently being and onshore development of storage and service facilities are developed staggers the imagination. Sophisticated informa- only a part of the total environmental impact of production tion transfer mechanisms are required to make full use of and the coastal zone will undoubtedly feel the brunt of these even a fraction of the data available. The Service is develop- impacts. ing an information transfer network designed to provide max- Information provided by the environmental characteriza- imum use of systems currently available and to store and re- tion will identify the distribution of the significant living re- trieve information being developed by ongoing studies. De- sources as well as essential and unique habitats. Extensive velopment decisions and comprehensive planning efforts are permanent alteration of these resources should be considered underway and decisions are being made now. The best de- a "big bad" to be avoided in the course of normal develop- cisions will be made in light of the best information availa- ment. Other living resources are addressed in the impact ble. analysis but are considered more "expendable" than the sig- 78 Will zation of Physical Resources qp, 7, T, 4 V5, 4@@ g oi- I W,-, Ipswich Chronicle Preserving and Protecting Natural Resources John T. Scanlon, Executive Director of Save the Bay, Inc. East Greenwich, Rhode Island I am here to tell you that the work of preserving and pro- Rhode Island area, which I represent, we have banded to- tecting our valuable natural resources has begun and is pro- gether in developing a 21,000 member organization to find ceeding nicely but not without problems. ways of saving our important resources for people. The topics being discussed here today contain valuable It has been our hope and our plan to get as deep a com- information. Information which needs to be expertly com- mitment from official sources as we can to plan for recrea- municated to a receptive citizenry. It is my belief, and one tional use of Narragansett Bay as a primary use, (not exclu- which we at Save The Bay incorporate into our daily opera- sive) but certainly primary, and to have all other planning tions and philosophy, that our people are sensitive to the decisions follow from that. I am happy to report to you to- demands on the fragile environment but need to be taught day that a short time ago we were able to get the State- the reasons why some of the onslaughts are putting these wide Planning Council to accept such a provision and to in- natural resources in jeopardy. corporate it as an integral part of the recreational part of The message I bring you this morning is succinctly con- the Statewide Guide Plan. taified in the paragraph of Save The Bay's charter, which The battle to preserve the bay from the intrusion of ad- says, "People well-informed and well-organized can do some- ditional oil and gas development is a constant one. It is an thing positive about determining the kind of environment area which brings the environmental community into face in which they choose to live." to face confrontation with political and developmental All those recreational interests represented here today forces on a regular basis. However, our purpose in being is need to understand that caring is not enough. We must or- to ask the hard questions and to muster the necessary pub- ganize our forces, our information, our messages into a lic support in getting answers to those questions. The road meaningful objective and then embark on a program of "de- an environmentally sensitive person or group travels is not liberated telling" so that those audiences we want to get an easy one and the choices they must make do not lead to our message can be cultivated. a primrose path. But my experience tells me that the easy I learned a lot here this weekend. But I got the overwhelm- path leads backwards or nowhere. The road that I ies ahead ing feeling that the sinners were not in church, that we were is a hard road because there is no way to do less and accom- talking to ourselves and that perhaps what we need is a dif- plish more, no way to produce less and have more and no ferent perspective on what it is we are attempting to achieve. way to give less and get more. My other message carries the plea that those of us who We cannot sit waiting for great things to happen. Some- work at developing marine recreational usage of our water- body (including you and me) has got to do the thinking, the ways remain alert to the dangers faced by these waterways. conserving, the protecting, the changing, the rebuilding, tife In brief, the overdevelopment of sensitive shorefront areas reordering, the caring. It appears to me, at least, that the as we saw elaborately illustrated by the husband and wife only way to do a better job is to work at the job. Work harder research team dealing with Long Island and in the discussion and be smarter or both, or more importantly, work together. on the Gulf Coast, signals the problem we must solve. The job is too big and important for any of us to work at alone. It is certainly too big for all of us,to be working at Recreational Use Protection cross-purposes. lask you to join together in deciding which It is easy to allow the erosion of recreational values in the path to take- and then to work hard at getting that message face of escalating economic demands. But I know in the aggressively communicated to a public who needs to know. so Conflicts in Uses and Misuses of the Tidal Water Zone Lee E. Koppelman and DeWitt Davies Nassau-Suffolk Regional Planning Board Hauppaugue, Long Island, New York Introduction "conservationist" or any other "ist" except perhaps "prag- The human impact on basin, shore, and water profoundly matist--two things quickly become evident. First, that cer- affects the complex whole. To the natural or scientific de- tain conflicts are built in between one use of water or shore scriptors of the system, e.g., sediments, water and salt bud- and another use; competition is inescapable. There's just so gets, and beach profiles, should be added man's uses and much shore and so much water, and no more. Second, that abuses of the marine environment. The real drama is in un- pollution has a directly damaging impact on shellfish and derstanding the day-to-day interactions that take place on, recreation industries, and an indirectly damaging impact on in, and around this marine environment as the result of bur- most marine activities. A sound marine economy rests on a geoning urbanization. properly conserved marine environment. The loss of wet- Ever-increasing numbers of people and ever-expanding lands, for whatever reasons, results in attrition for the en- uses of the water affect, and are affected by, the presence tire ecosystem. and condition of the tidal zone. It is reasonable to assume, If conservation of the natural environment is so impor- for example, that future use of the shorelinefor fishing, swim- tant, one might reasonably ask, "What is the problem? Why ming, and tourism is in jeopardy. The greater the popula- aren't good practices put into force?" A fast inventory of tion, the greater its recreation demand, and the greater the uses of the marine environment brings into focus the funda- impact on the natural resource and its capacity to fulfill the mental fact that each use by itself can individually be vali- demand. Present trends that spoil the natural environment dated; conflict arises when one use impinges on another. can be offset, however, by adopting sound conservation For example, the desire to maintain wetlands conflicts with practices. Conservation is the key to maintaining and en- other uses, such as sand and gravel mining, solid waste dis- hancing the marine environment. The introduction to a re- posal, or residential development. From an economic point port to the Regional Plan Association of New York points of view these are legitimate competing uses. Yetone mustas- this out: sess full economic costs, including social costs like public An ... instance of dangerous tampering with nature con- taxes for pollution control, in order to choose intelligently cerns the wetlands. These are the key to an adequate wa- among competing uses. ter supply, the basic component in a natural system of To make use of the marine environment one must have flood control, and a vital biological element in marine access to the sea. The access required depends on use, and productivity ... Without its tidal marshes, Long Island's ranges from deep-draft harbors to the natural shoreline. Use fishing industry would be practically non-existent. Yet of the sea can be passive, as in transportation or recreation. we permit our swamps, marshes, and bogs to be dredged, Or it can consist of extraction from the sea or insertion into drained, filled and polluted with the mistaken notion that the sea. An extracted product may be a food for man or ani- man-made works are somehow superior to these bio- mal derived from the biosphere, or it may be a mineral de- logical natural features which subtly perform a grea t, rived irom seawater,frorn thesea floor, or from beneath the continuous task free of -any capital or maintenance sea floor. Much of the waste from our economy ends up be- charge. 1 ing "inserted" into the sea, either directly or by secondary When one begins to look at how the coast is used, and transport through rivers and groundwater. Liquid effluents tries to do it without bias-that is, without starting off as a dumped in the sea include industrial wastes, sewage outflows, 81 and oil spills. Solid wastes are, for example, sewage sludge, The growing number of people participating in coastal and chunks of cement, and dredge spoils. In addition, coastal offshore recreational activities places increasing pressure waters receive waste heat from industry, primarily from on our limited coastal resources. Already deteriorating due electric generating plants. The flow pattern of each of these to industrial development and pollution, the coast is now four major use categories-recreation, tr ansportation, ex- sustaining further impact from the recreational activities traction, and insertion-is summarized in Figure 1 . themselves and from the commercial developments to service them. Here we face the crux of the problem, as we saw before: U S E conflict among competing uses. Recreational use of the shoreline conflicts with other uses and can actually change ACCESS the marine environment. Parking lots, boat ramps, and dock- ing facilities alter the shoreline. Beachfront owners and com- INSERTION mercial resorts wish to limit access to their shoreline, where- TRAM -ORTATION -EAT as the public desires free access. People walking around or RECKE ON LIQ11 IID camping may destroy the delicate plant life in dune areas, salt marshes, and tidal pools. Commercial collecting of live SOLID organisms for sale.to tourists may devastate natural popula- of organisms. Power boats release oil and gas. Raw tions sewage from boats, beach facilities, and coastal resorts is often discharged straight into the water with no treatment. BOTTOM -77 /-/772/77 1,// Sport fishing may deplete some species past the point of maximum sustainable yield and so lead to decreasing re- Figure 1. sources. Recreational boating does not mix well with com- mercial shipping. On top of all that is the heavy demand for safe and clean swimming areas, because swimming is the Recreation region's most popular outdoor sport. Fewer working hours and increasing prosperity have led to Swimming-It is important to note that there is a certain increased demands for outdoor recreation. Recreation stands amount of conflict or competition even within one use cate- fourth on the list of expenditures, after food, housing, and gory. Swimmers, for example, must stay in a separate area transportation.2 At the same time urban problems, particu- from power boating for their own safety; fishing is incom- larly the "hot summer" phenomenon, draw attention to the patible with water skiing. Different uses have different maxi- need for increased recreational facilities for the urban poor. mum densities for safe enjoyment. The order of decreasing Both salt water and fresh water are, of course, natural play- permissible density runs from sunbathers to swimmers to grounds. In 1968, 112 million Americans participated in fishermen in slowly-moving boats to water skiers. As the marine-oriented recreation activities, and spent $14 billion.3 density of users increases, the problem of safety becomes The numbers are climbing much more rapidly than the pop- more acute. ulation as a whole.* The demand for water recreation is I Boating-The space required for boating is much greater soaring. than that needed for swimming. Docking or launching facili- Water recreation ranges from a casual stroll on the beach ties must be provided on the shoreline, as well as parking to a vacation atan ocean resort or a world cruise. Swimming spaces for cars and boat tra"qrs. The number of boats that is the number one outdoor recreational activity around Long can safely use nearshore water is limited; as more people Island Sound,4 and of all Americans over twelve, 28 percent become affluent enough to buy boats, the demand for participate in fishing, 23 percent participate in boating, and boating space will rapidly exceed the available areas. For 7 percent water ski. It is no surprise that an important part dock space, a waiting list of four and five years is common of Long Island Sound's economy is providing recreational in most marinas in the region, and the high density of boats goods and services, especially marine-oriented. Such activi- on weekends already limits enjoyment of many parts of the ties as boat building, sales and services of fishing gear Sound. There is great danger that the proliferation of boats and boat rentals, party boat operations, swimming and will choke the urban marine areas as the automobile has the diving equipment sales, and the rental of housing to vaca- cities. The problem is how to allocate limited boating re- tioners are al I strongly growing business areas. sources equitably among an exponentially-growing popula- This marine-oriented business depends directly upon the tion of boat owners. Shore facilities should be limited to survival of a healthy marine environment for its prosperity. the capacity of the offshore area. Sport Fishing-Sport fishing is closely tied to the boating *It is projected that swimmers alone will increase by 72 per- -industry and shares its dependence on water clean enough cent between 1965 and 1980, while population as a whole to support marine life. Continuance of this sport depends will increase by 29 percent. largely upon water quality in the bays and harbors where 82 most sport fishing is done, and upon navigable channels For Water Transportation many occasional and serious anglers who do not have the Until the development of railroads, water transportation was means or desire to fish from boats, facilities such as fishing the only economical method for moving heavy goods over piers can provide access to water. great distances. To move goods over land required the tre- Housing-The marine environment has an important mendous effort of roadbuilding to smooth out the irregu- though indirect bearing on the real estate industry. People larities of the land and to provide a bearing surface for wheels. build and rent hou 'ses in the tidal region partly because the The sea has the advantage of being flat, and displaced water water is there, near enough for recreation and enjoyment. Ac- supports the load of the vessel. The only construction in- cess to harbors and bays usually increases property values volved is the buiding of ports at either end of the route to substantially. The tremendous and increasing demand on permit the transfer of goods from the land to the ship. available waterfront land complicates the choice between Most large cities in the United States were originally ports. development of new home sites and protection of natural The harbor was the action center of the city, for employ- resources. It often means filling in irreplaceable wetlands. ment, recreation, marketplaces, and parks. There is no more Any kind of waterfront land is a valuable asset for the de- dramatic example of the impact of technological change than veloper and for the people who live nearby.5 Water f rontage the transformation of the waterfront from what it was a creates low-maintenance open space, provides many kinds hundred years ago to what it is now. Then it was the focus of recreation facilities, and is so popular that- it increases of the excitement of ships; now it often is rotting wharves, surrounding land values up to fiveorten times normal value.* pockets of filth, and a dangerous place to be, day or night. On Long Island, waterfront plots can command a premium It is not nostalgia but such unacceptable conditions that of $5,000 to $15,000 over non-waterfront plots, according motivate the rehabilitation of urban waterfronts. to Richard D. Schoenfeld of the Long Island Builders Insti- They will not be rehabilitated to do their old job, how- titute.6 As a result, many areas have been under heavy pres- ever. Tr.ansoceanic passengers going by airplane, increases in sure for development. Most of the loss of wetlands over the vessel size, and cargo containerization have drastically altered past 20 years has occurred from bulkheading and filling requirements for port facilities. Fewer, larger, and more auto- marshes to make construction sites for residential or com- mated port facilities are replacing the numerous wharves mercial property. that once were required to handle the multitude of small The 1972 NYS Tidal Wetlands Act, if implemented, should vessels, which were unloaded by methods not significantly protect the remaining wetlands from irresponsible filling and different from those used in Phoenician times. Thus, most home building. Fortunately, builders on Long Island have U.S. ports are a mixture of efficient modern facilities and generally been a progressive group. They have supported semi-abandoned older piers. New York Harbor is a striking planning innovations like clustering, buffer strips, and example. Despite substantial increases in cargo tonnage we planned unit development, in which environmental conser- actually need less urban waterfront. The President's Council vation is integrated by planning a whole community at once. on Recreation and Natural Beauty recommended in 1968 Most Long Island builders are aware of and act to preserve "that Federal agencies be authorized to conduct, in coopera- aesthetic and productive aspects of the marine environment, tion with State and local governments, a coordinated pro- setting aside waterways and natural features. Sound land gram of urban waterfront restoration that would emphasize planning practices can provide waterfront access while pre- recreational, scenic, and aesthetic values, including physical serving large marsh areas as open space. Mr. Schoenfeld and visual access."8 This is a major challenge for both urban writes: and marine environmental planners. It is essential that while compatibility between marine en- Each of the two main developments in water transporta- vironment interests and builder interests could be achiev- tion-larger vessels and containerization-has meant certain ed, it must be remembered that builders are people-orient- changes in the marine environment. The larger the ship, the ed as opposed to any other orientation. Popular demand deeper it rides in the water, and the deeper the harbor has and availability of suitable land to accommodate increased to be to accommodate it. The advantages of an increased population is the builder's f irst concern. In no event does capacity are lower costs for fuel, capital, and labor per unit the average builder wish to see the marine environment weight. The tendency towards larger ships has been particu- unnecessarily deteriorate or destroyed in any fashion and larly marked for tankers. In 1945, the standard tanker was will work toward the accomplishment of these objectives. the T-2 tanker with a dead weight (total carrying capacity) Swimming, boating, visual beauty, and to some extent of 16,460 tons. The upper practical limit for supertankers fishing are perhaps the major aspects which are quickly of 1 million dead weight tons will probably be reached by brought to mind by the average builder's reflection upon 1990. Freighters and bulk carriers are also increasing in the worth of marine environment to his own property.7 size, though less dramatically. In 1970, the maximum size for freighters and bulk carriers was 25,500and 105,000tons *Waterfront building lots in Suffolk County had an average respectively. As the capacity of the vessel increases, its draft price of $300 per front foot in 1972, or $35,000 per acre. increases roughly as the cube root of the tonnage. In 1972 Inland acre building lots start at $3,000. the maximum draft for New York Harbor was 45 feet, which 83 limited ships entering the harbor to a tonnage of about 70,- that prevents the landward intrusion of salt water.10 When 000 deap weight tons. New Haven Harbor had only 35 feet groundwater pressure is reduced past the balance point, of water in its entrance channel. To maintain the harbors by pumping too much water out of the ground into the even at their present depth requires dredging to remove sed- town water supply, or by discharging too much sewage iment and waste deposits. For supertankers and big bulk car- (which is, after all, fresh rather than salt water) into the riers, existing harbors will have to be deepened or new har- ocean, seawater begins to seep in under the land and in- bor facilities provided.9 Harbor maintenance and deepening filtrate the groundwater. Brooklyn and Queens lost their affects the ocean in four ways: dredging (1) modifies water groundwater supply this way a number of years ago. This movements in the harbor which in turn causes (2) changes delicate balance Nassau County is now approaching or may of salinity and (3) altered sediment transport; and (4) the even have reached. Suffolk County, although it has an dredge spoils, often polluted, are usually disposed of at sea. ample groundwater supply now, should prudently consider Containerization for handling miscellaneous cargos has supplemental sources." One potential supplemental source meant a move to different facilities-sometimes refurbishing is known to be inapplicable for Long Island: fresh water old ones, sometimes abandoning them and building a brand from sources beneath the continental shelf or from sub- new port. Miscellaneous products are packed into a stan- marine fresh water springs. dardized container by the originator, sent by truck or rail to There is a potentially infinite source of fresh water: sea- the port, and then lifted into a container ship. At the desti- water converted by desalinization. At the end of 1967 there nation of the cargo, the process is reversed. In this manner, were, worldwide, 625 desalting plants in operation or under the dockside handling of the cargo can be automated be- construction, with a total capacity of over 200 million gal- cause the containers are standard sizes, regardless of their lons per day. They use any of three methods: distillation, contents. Handling of bulk cargo, liquid or solid like oil or membrane processes, or freezing. The cost of desalting water sand, is also automated, using pumping, suction, or other is dropping. I n 1952, desalted seawater cost more than $4.00 bulk handling methods. Dockside storage tanks must be pro- per thousand gallons. By 1967, this cost was reduced to vided to hold the cargo until it can be sent to the consumer. about $1.00 per thousand for a plant with a capacity of a These streamlined, large-scale methods are havinga major million gallons a day. This cost doesn't compare favorably impact on the nature of the urban waterfront. with groundwater costs yet; however, in plants larger than a million gallons, or in plants using brackish water of 6 parts Extraction per thousand salinity-far less salty than seawater-the costs The use of the sea for extracting resources-from water, from can be reduced to 65d and 35d per thousand gallons respec- underlying sediments, and from subsurface deposits-is both tively.1 2 profitable and necessary, but can, like other uses, be dis- Desalinization is no panacea. Seawater desalination plants torted to misuse. The products of extraction are conveniently take in seawater and discharge hot brine at about twice the grouped into living and non-living resources. First let us ex- salinity of seawater. The disposal of hot brine can have dele- amine the non-living resources. terious effects on the nearshore environment: since it is From the Water: Desafinated Water-The water demand denser than seawater, the brine could fill topographic'depres- of coastal areas is rising much more rapidly than over the sions near the shore and form a stable layer of saline water country as a whole, a reflection of intensive urbanization near the bottom, impeding water circulation. Eventually, taking place along the seabords. At present, these demands this would result in depletion of dissolved oxygen in bottom are being met from surface or subsurface sources. Connecti- waters and destruction of all life except sulphate-reducing cut, for example, obtains its supply entirely from stream- bacteria. fed reservoirs (75 percent) and groundwater sources (25 per- From the Sea Bottom: Sand and Gravel-Sand and gravel cent). But New York City and the Long Island communi- are among the most important mineral resources taken from ties must pay special heed to alternative sources. New York the ocean. In 1967 sand and gravel was valued at $1 billion City now obtains its water supply from upstate New York, for the United States.13 Sand and gravel in Long Island-its including some from Delaware River Basin sources. The U.S. only mining-in that same year had an annual value of about Army Corps of Engineers has studied the feasibility of tap- $8 million. 14 During 1967 Suffolk County produced 4.6 ping the Hudson River. million tons of sand and gravel and was the largest producer On Long Island the water supply problem is especially in New York State. Nassau.County was second with 4 mik' acute. Nassau County is approaching the balance between I ion tons. About 90 percent of the sand and gravel produced demand and safe yield of its underground reserves. In fact, comes from upland mining operations, often located adja- the demand may already be excessive, as evidenced by low- cent to harbors, since for this large-volume, low-cost indus- ered water levels in surface water such as Hempstead Lake. try, transportation costs are what's critical. One-third of the If rainwater doesn't replenish the groundwater supply, the sand and gravel sold to New York City construction-industry delicate balance between sea water and fresh water at the customers is barged by water, the rest goes by truck. In ur- shore's edge may be disturbed. It is this dynamic boundary, ban coastal areas, marine deposits will be sought after for formed by pressure of fresh groundwater against seawater, an increasing fraction of the sand and gravel requirements, 84 for two good reasons. As land deposits are exhausted, opera- resettles and new bottom growth eventually covers it again. tors will first exploit nearshore deposits in protected waters Finally, it is said that if dredging improves water circulation before mining deeper deposits in exposed waters. Second, in polluted harbors, ecological conditions in these baysand many zoning controls now prevent opening up new sand and harbors may be enhanced rather than damaged.18 gravel pits, due to the unsightly land scarsthey leave behind. The answering arguments, on the other hand, focus on Consequently, harbor improvement and channel deepening, two adverse consequences of dredging. First, sand and gravel yielding sand and gravel as a by-product profitable for con- operations disturb the living balance in the dredged area; struction, are favorite operations for the industry. Since bot- the silt blanket covers the bottom, making it unfit for many tom lands are in the public domain, dredging operations for desirable organisms like oysters, which grow better on a sand are usually partof town or county public improvement, sandy bottom. The turbid water caused by the silt blocks where the prime purpose istodiga channel, improve a beach, out sunlight, killing off plants by ending photosynthesis. or modify the circulation of a bay or harbor. This stops not only the food supply of finfish and shell- Sometimes, regard for the public benefit is negligible or fish but also one of their major sources of oxygen-photo- even non-existent; then the dredging usually becomes a ma- synthetic oxygen. Furthermore, the decay of any aquatic jor controversy. Potential ill effects of sand and gravel pro- animals killed off in the process produces noxious gases det- duction near shore include bluff erosion and loss of beach. rimental to other life forms and consumes oxygen present Neither is likely to be acceptable to shoreline property own- in the water.19 Dredging operations have had devastating ef- ers and local residents. However, the public interest may be fects on the shellfish in Northport Harbor, Oyster Bay, well served by combining a dredging project with a mining Mount Sinai, and Wading River. Conservationists and bay- operation. For example, instead of requiring governmental men agree that most bottom lands dredged to date were expenditures for harbor improvements, the usual Long Is- not "mucky"' bottoms originally. They were hard or sand land township practice is to allow commercial dredging. bottoms that were detrimentally affected by dredging. In The town gets the work done and also receives a royalty addition, theso-called "mucky" bottornsare notecologically for each ton of sand and gravel taken. The improvement of useless.20 They provide a decomposition zone under a pho- Huntington Harbor would have cost $2 million; because the tosynthetic one. In other words, digging up the decomposi- bottom consisted of usable sand and gravel, the town was tion zone buries the nutrients necessary for the growth of able to sell the privilege of mining this resource and realize all the marshland vegetation instead of allowing the nutrients half a million dollars profit.15 to recycle back into the system. Profit is not the last word on the subject. Controversy The other objection is that controls on dredging opera- over the Huntington Harbor dredging focuses for us once tions have often been sloppy or non-existent. Contractors again the crux of the problem of uses and misuses: compe- have dug deeper channels than called for, or dredged areas tition among differ 'ent kinds of uses of the marine environ- not within their contract, or left large, deep holes in the ment. On the one hand, dredgers claim that through their bottom. These deep holes accumulate waste deposits which operation in 1965 the harbor bottom was rehabilitated and gradually degrade water quality or cause odor problems in should become a more productive area for shellfish than it hot weather. Some of the dredges used in the sand and grav- was before.16 On the other hand, shellfish companies claim el operations are equipped to dig deeper than 16 feet, often that 90 percent of the area dredged had been shellfish-pro- with an endless chain of dippers. The dredged material is ducing area of the best quality and that at least a portion sorted into gravel, sand and silt, and the marketable aggre- of this area will not be conducive to shellfish growth for a gates are shipped to local or NewYork construction mar- long time.17 These areas were capable of producing an es- kets. Between 1955 and 1968 Mount Sinai Harbor was timated one-half million dollars worth of shellfish annually. dredged by a private contractor.21 More than 3 million What does dredging do to marine life andtheshapeof the cubic yards of sand and gravel were taken from the har- shore? We don't really know some of the essential informa- bor's bottom.22 When the operation began, the top of tion. Much of the heat in present debate comes from lack the wetlands north of the beach was removed to a depth of light on such issues as: bottom rehabilitation through of 40 feet, for the sand underneath. The dredges were to dredging on salt water intrusion, pollution control versus backfill to a finished grade of 12 feet below water level. salinity control, how dredging inlets affects their stabiliza- Not only was the backfill ineffective to restore any wetland tion, the use of groins for erosion control and beach stabili- growth, but there still are deep holes in the harbor. The zation, and where to dump dredging spoils. dredges exceeded boundaries set for the east and also went Meanwhile, it is argued, on the one hand, that wetlands are into the south where no boundaries or check points had more important to marine life-cycles than sand and gravel been established. Approximately 60 percent (140 acres) of deposits. Since offshore dredging does not affect wetlands the former wetlands was destroyed.* directly, the ecological loss is less than, say, filling in wet- lands. Furthermore, mining operations clean up an ecologi- *This estimate is based on various testimony presented to cally useless "mucky" bottom and leave behind fine-grained the Oceanographic Committee of the Nassau-Suffolk Re- materials after removing the sand and gravel. This silt blanket gional Planning Board. 85 The dredge problem is further illustrated where dredges In 1971 about 16 percent of the United States oil and gas contracted to remove the sand bar off Center Island Beach production was from beneath the sea; 25 percent of world in Oyster Bay were supposed to dig to a depth of about 18 production, including the United States, was from the sea.24 feet below mean low water (mlw). They in fact went as As continental resources are depleted, the fraction of off- deep as 33 feet below m1w. Conflicts arise due to the lack shore production is likely to increase. of controls in existing legislation, in which adverse conse- The production of petroleurnfrom under water presents quences of dredging are not articulated. Use of dredging for a number of environmental problems. Withdrawal of oil and speculative real estate development or make-work projects gas in a nearshore area can lead to subsidence of the land. involving political patronage rarely is in accord with desir- The extensive extraction of oil from Lake Maracaibo in Ven- able conservation or public-interest objectives.* ezuela has dropped the shorelines so much that dykes have The point is that dredging can be beneficial, but must be had to be constructed to prevent inundation. planned for compatible use, and must be supervised. Har- Some spillage of oil is common during offshore drilling, bors- do silt in and do require circulation channels. Naviga- but extensive pollution can result when blowouts occur. tion and mooring channels are also necessary. We do need During drilling, the weight of the mud in the hole being dredging to build up ground for shoreline roads, waterfront drilled (drilling mud) must be carefully adjusted to equal power plants, and fuel storage tank sites. Moreover, there the pressure of the oil reservoir.. Oil formations are usually is no question that sand and gravel mining is a necessary in- sealed by impervious clay layers and may be at abnormally dustry: construction requires the aggregate for the manufac- high pressures; when such reservoirs are encountered unex- ture of concrete. At the present time, offshore mining ap- pectedly, the reservoir pressure may exceed the weight of pears to be the most economical method. However, certain the drilling mud. Blowout preventers on the drill tubing, if comprotfiises will have to be reached if ecology and beauty properly installed, should forestall accidents, but blowouts are to be served as well. Up to now, Nassau and Suffolk from human error do occur. When a well blows out, the drii- Counties' public works departments and the U.S. Corps of ling mud is expelled and oil and gas pour out of the hole. Engineers have used navigation as the sole criterion for dredg- Often a well catches fire, and thefire has to be extinguished ing. Recently, the President's Science Advisory Committee by explosives before attempts can be made to bring the well made a heartening suggestion: back under control. To control a blowout, another hole is We recommend that issuance by the United States Army drilled at a slant to intersect the "wild" well. When contact Corps of Engineers of permits for dredging, and decisions is made, cement is injected to form a seal inthe "wild" well. concerning the Corps' own operations, be continued on It takes weeks, usually, to control the well; during this time the anticipated effect on all resources, not on effects on an enormous amount of oil may be discharged. On Febru- navigation alone. 23 ary 10, 1970, a Chevron production platform 10 miles off It is possible, with good planning and proper control, to the Louisiana coast caught fire. It took two monthsand 300 use dredging intelligently and at the same time preserve the pounds of TNT to extinguish the fire, but then the well marine environment. began discharging water with a 5 percent oil content-2000 From Beneath the Sea Floor: OH and Gas-By far the gallons per minute. Eighty-four ships were employed in an most important economic resource from the continental attempt to contain the oil slick that formed. shelf is petroleum and natural gas. Between 1850 and 1950, Even without such catastrophes, offshore oil production U.S. fuel consumption increased by 'a factor of 14.7; per- poses problems. The offshore production platforms are po- capita consumption increased by a factor of 2.3. Not only tential h.azards to navigation. Drilling and production opera- 25 is the total energy demand going up, but the type of fuel has tions may reduce the aesthetic values-9f the seashore, aes- shifted markedly. Around 1850 wood was the dominant thetic values which, as the recreation d iscussion made clear, fuel. By 1885 coal was dominant, losing its place to oil and are worth hard, cold cash. The noise of oil drilling may ad- gas by 1947. Because of limited supplies, however, oil will versely affect wildlife; seismic exploration for subsurface proba 'bly be replaced before the year 2000. Coal is one pos- structures has been blamed for fish kills. sible replacement, but even this resource can last only a few The facts remain that the nation uses 'more energy than hundred years; ultimately the world's energy demands will ever, and that oil and gas are at present the best available be met by nuclear fuels or other energy sources. For the energy sources. This puts considerable impetus behind solv- present, the profits of oil production offset the short life ing underwater production problems like subsidence, blow- expectancy of oil as a dominant fuel, and oil companies outs, navigation, aesthetics, an-d-damage ta wild I if e. It is no continue to invest in new exploration, especially offshore. longer at a distance, "over there in California" or off Loui- siana shores; it is a major challenge for the whole Atlantic *Article 1 of the Suffolk County Charter, adopted by ref- seaboard for the 1970s. erendum, November 1970, requires county agencies to sub- Food From the Sea: Fish and Shellfish-The living re- mit statements of environmental impact of certain projects source of food extracted from the sea has a long history to the Suffolk County Council on Environmental Quality around the Sound, and is the subject of much folklore and for review. nostalgia. Lately; though, the decline in both fishing and 86 shellfishing industries has-caused some concern. wetland production of basic food chain organisms. Hence, The United States per-capita consumptionof fish forfood wetlands that do still exist often show very marked reduc- has been remarkably constant at about 11 pounds per year. tions in productivity. As iswell known,fish is high in protein. Given the consump- One improvement in fish products-potentially a great tion of fish and its nutritive value both for people and for boon to the fishing industry, and offering year-round em- animals, it is clearly not slackening @demand that is bringing ployment aswell-is presently hampered by rulesof the Food down the fishing industry. One of the main reasons is fewer and Drug Administration against using whole fish forhuman fish. Fishing is a form of hunting and gathering; it is quite consumption. An improved type of fishmeal called fish pro- unlike meat production. Cattle growers control the feeding, tein concentrate (FPC) can be produced from industrial fish. breeding and killing of livestock in order to maximize the This product is odorless and tasteless and can be stored in- meat yield: nearly all the meat produced can be consumed definitely without spoilage, since all of the fish oil has been by man. The only reduction in yield results from loss of live- removed. A plant processing FPC was.recently established stock by disease and occasional predators. In constrast to in Greenport, entailing an investment of over $1 million.28 the farmer, the fisherman has very little control over his Unfortunately, odors from the plant, together with a short- stock, and, rather than increasing it, he preys upon it-along age of fish, have forced it to close. An FPC industry on Long with other fish predators. Fish species have a natural distri- Island has good potential, if adequate standards are insti- bution with climatic and self-induced variations. The popu- tuted to prevent nuisance factors and if the menhaden stocks lation dynamics produce a certain age distribution for each revive. An FPC industry could also lead to the development species so that, on the average, the population is in a steady of ancillary food packaging and processing on Long Island. state. If fish are removed at a constant rate below the maxi- The Food and Drug Administration recently changed its mum sustainable yield, a new steady state is established: a position on FPC and now allows sale of one-pound packages smaller population with fewer old fish. This is perfectly tol- of FPC made only from hake species. FDA does not allow erable. But if the rate of fishing is high, beyond the maxi- the sale of products containing FPC as an ingredient.29 mum sustainable yield, the standing stock will drop drasti- cally and may become unprofitable for fishing. For many Insertion species the maximum sustainable yie'ld is between one-third Wastes have to be disposed of somewhere, and in some and one-half the natural standing stock. form. Both sewage wastes and solid wastes like rubbish, gar- this is' a significant part of the conflict between com- bage,and dredge, spoils have been undergoing some transfor- mercial and sports fisheries. Each claims the other is over- mations before they are dumped-inserted-into the water. fishing; each alone is a legitimate use; but between them They are compressed or separated mechanically or treated both, some species have been fished beyond the maximum biologically or chemically, for instance. But we still are sustainable yield. finding exactly how much impact these metamorphoses real- In addition, various types of pollution and the destruc- ly make on the water chemistry, how much of the ocean tion of wetlands reduce the available stocks. The vitality of floor is covered by which wastes, and what that means for the fish industry is intimately tied to the health of the wet- bottom plant and animal growth, to list a few areas of re- lands. Wetlands produce food and serve as a spawning and search. Other substances we insert into the ocean are begin- nursery area for the growing fish.26 Menhaden, forexample, ning to be dealt with as having priority for research and spawn in the ocean or Long Island Sound. When the young management. The quantity and effects of pesticides on ocean fish are about one inch long they swim to the wetlands, life are virtually unknown. The effects of heated water pour- where they find food and protection from larger fish. After ing out of such industrial plants as electric power generating spending about eight months in the nursery areas, the young facilities are presently under research. menhaden return to the ocean during the winter and may Human Sewage-Most of Long Island Sound's waters are migrate to the south. By this time they have been trans- clean, attractive, and relatively unpolluted.30 Thousands of formed from slender, transparent larvae into deep-bodied residents and visitors still swim and fish without fear for juveniles resembling adult menhaden.27 Many of the fish their health in most places..But evident signs of sewage pol- caught by local fishermen mature in the wetlands of Long lution have begun to appear in Long Island Sound coincident Island and Connecticut. Preservation of these wetlands is 'with the increasing population. The problem was first obvi- essential for,the preservation of the industry. Without these ous and is now most critical in western Long Island Sound, tidal wetlands, the life cycle of the menhaclen@ as well as near New York City.31 It is by no means confined to that flounders, fluke and other fishes, would be broken. area. For example, the Suffolk County Health Department A wetland partly or completely filled in for housing sites has observed through its beach inspection program a slow is a wetland partly or completely useless to fish. But even but steady deterioration in water quality in the less popu- without fill, much wetland productiveness has been poisoned lated areas of the eastern Sound. by waste discharge from homes, boats, industries, farms, and Overflow from cesspools, seepage of polluted ground wa- municipal sewers. Furthermore, dredging operations and ter, and illegal direct discharge of sewage are finding their ditching to eliminate mosquitoes have damaged ordestroyed way into the surrounding water. Boats polluting directly into 87 the water need to be stopped by enforcement of regulations, ment and slabs of macadam from excavation, dredge wastes, a good education program" and convenient dockside evacua- sewage sludges, and chemical wastes, all are going down to tion facilities. Between 1960 and 1970 the Suffolk County the sea bed daily. For example, each year between 1964 and Department of Health found it necessary to refuse swimming 1968, about 0.8 million tons of waste solids were dumped permits for a small number of beaches on both the north and in western Long Island Sound and 4.6 million tons in New south shores and on some inland lakes.32 Suffolk County York Bight. Water Authority indicated the presence of ABS (synthetic The problems posed by the solid wastes depend on their detergents) in the ground water and in most of the streams composition and quantity. At the very least, they cover bot- tested.33 This is a positive sign that sewage is finding its tom-dwelling organisms; after dumping ceases, organisms way not only into the marine waters but also into the drink- adapted to the new substrate can become established. At ing water supply on Long Island. worst, the waste deposits may have a large oxygen demand, Solid Wastes-The municipal refuse pile of the United or toxic components may leach into overlying waters. Wastes States grows by about 200 million tonseachyear. Collection may remain within disp o'sal si tes or may be spread by bot- and disposal of refuse costs $4.5 billion or an average of $28 tom currents. Wastes from dredging are extremely variable per ton. The yearly trash pile includes 46 billion cans, 26 in composition. In industrialized harbors, the dredged ma- billion bottles, 30 million tons of paper and 4 million tons terials consist of municipal and industrial wastes and usu- of plastic. With rising populations in coastal areas, manage- ally resemble sewage sludges. Paroleum is common in these ment of this waste has become increasingly difficult and ex- wastes. In other areas the dredged material may be clean pensive. Every present disposal method creates new prob- sand, useful for construction or landfill. At present, oil- lems. Large metropolitan areas, many of them coastal, are soaked muds and clean sands are often dumped together caught in a dilemma of unacceptable alternatives and face with no organized effort to use the sand (because dumping the immediate crisis of being buried in their own rubbish. it may be less expensive than shipping it, and sand is less de- The major method of rubbish disposal is sanitary landfill sirable than gravel for construction). A major advance to- operation. The rubbish is piled on the ground or in an exca- ward acceptable sea-dumpihg practice would be classifica- vation and is covered daily with a few inches of fresh soil. tion of wastes and intelligent disposal based on their proba- Coastal communities have long used wetlands for landfill. ble environmental effects. Consequently, valuable wetlands are destroyed and thefilled Pesticides -Pe sti cid es are causing serious and widespread area is later developed as real estate or parkland. About 10 problems among marine organisms and among animals that percent of New York City is built on former disposal sites; feed on them, especially birds. Large amounts of chlorinated San Francisco Bay is still being filled in. Landfills also ad- hydrocarbons (DDT) and similar pesticides are used for crop versely affect nearby marine waters by leaching. Rainwater control on the uplands, and for mosquito control in the salt seeps into the ground, dissolves materials from the wastes marshes, tributary streams, and catch basins. Through seep- in the fill, and loses its oxygen through oxidation of the or- age, groundwater flow, and direct contact, these persistent ganic matter. This new ground water may contaminate other pesticides find their way into bays or the ocean. Since they ground waters or be discharged to nearby marine waters. In are relatively insoluble, they are taken in undiluted by the short, the material in a landfill may be out of sight, but microorganisms in the water and enter the food chain. As should not be out of mind, since it is not removed complete- they move up the food chain, they become concentrated; I y from the system. appreciable amounts are being found in fish, fish -eating birds, Two other answers to waste disposal -burning or dumping and other carnivores.34 at sea-also have spin-off problems. Approximately 70 per- Unfortunately, little detai I is known about pesticide ef- cent of rubbish is burnable; but reducing the trash pile by febts on marine life. It is clear that some species die, become incineration causes air pollution. That can be more expen- sterile, or don't survive the embryonic stage, resulting in re- sive than landfill, what with all the regulations and regula- duced populations of higher forms like fish.35 This in turn tors that are needed to keep air pollution down. allows excessive growth of algae and further pollution from Dumping wastes at sea has a frustrating aftermath: the the unconsurned algae dying and decomposing on the bot- f loatable components are carried ashore by surface currents. tom. From the fact that broad correlations do exist between New York City used to barge refuse to sea for dumping, but DDT concentrations and mortality, it seems patently obvi- a significant part was redeposited on the New Jersey and ous that pesticides serve no beneficial purpose in the marine Long Island shores. A U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1933 environment. In fact, the damage may be more insidious and stopped the practice. Other cities have had similar experi@ complete than from any other source now threatening the ence. Various schemes to compress rubbish and garbage to marine ecological system. DDT affects entire species on a increase its density and so avoid the flotation problem, have world-wide basis rather than a single population, and may been developed, but not enough to be put into practice. well wipe out those varieties by eliminating reproduction-36 Solid wastes other than rubbish are regularly dumped at Alternatives are needed, like the development of new sea in disposal areas designated by the Corps of Engineers. pesticides which rapidly decompose into relatively harm- Obsolete military hardware and ammunition debris, old ce- less components-Some areas around Long Island Sound are 88 experimenting with biological control schemes. Most of Nas- fossil-fuel plant, about 40 percent of the heat is converted sau County's mosquito control work is being done by irri- to electricity; of the 60 percent waste heat, about 15 per- gation and water control with ditches or small channels to cent goes into the atmosphere by stack gases and by losses improve water flow and eliminate breeding areas, and by en- from the plant, and the remaining 45 percent goes into the couraging organisms that feed on mosquitoes or mosquito cooling waters. In a nuclear plant there are no stack losses larvae. Along the New Jersey coast, upland marshes have of heat and about 5 percent of the heat is dissipated from been flooded to flush out larvae, and biological controls have the plant to the atmosphere; since in nuclear plants 32 per- been introduced: natural balance is eliminating the mosqui- cent of the heat converts to electric energy, that leaves 63 toes. Using chemical pesticides other than DDT can bring percent going as waste heat into water. Because of lower great improvement. Spraying in Nassau. County is done with operating temperatures, heat rates of nuclear plants are malathion. Where biological management is not effective or somewhat lower than those of the most efficient foss.ii-fuel possible, fuel oil emulsions are used: as a larvicide. A very plants. thin layer of oil, one molecule thick, is enough to kill larvae. Efficiency overall is better, yes. But much more electri- Most salt marsh mosquitoes have thus been eliminated in city is being generated now, and individual plants a re larg- Nassau; the remaining pests come from stagnant fresh waters. er than before, hence the total amount of water running Since the long-range effects of the various alternatives are through is much greater. Finding good, available water in unknown, research in this field is obviously indicated. We massive quantities is already problematical. Areas of high need not wait for research results, however, to act against electric load density are usually areas of water shortage DDT. The Suffolk County Mosquito Control Commission or poor water quality. Heating water further reduces water stopped using DDT in 1970 after recognizing its operations quality by lowering dissolved oxygen and raising oxygen were causing widespread pesticide contamination. DDT was uptake. The maximum demand for electricity also comes used in Nassau over a four-year period but was discontinued when flows are usually low, either in late summer or in mid- because it brought poor results relative to cost. New York winter. State banned the use of DDT on January 1, 1971.37 1It becomes clear, then why the Long Island Sound area Thermal Discharges-Many industrial processes -i nvol v- has 17 generating facilities operating and 7 more are pro- ing chemicals or metals, for example-require dissipation to posed. The vast quantities of water required make shore the environment large amounts of heat. Long Island Sound locations convenient. Because fresh water is preferred to people are quite familiar with one particular such process: salt water (which corrodes the pipes), power plants have electricity generation. There are 17 electric generating plants built on estuaries, with their intakes close to the surface. using oil or coal (fossil fuels) around the Sound, and 7 more But the heated water exacerbates adverse effects of other have been proposed. pollutants, and the quantities of water demanded by ex- In an electric generating plant using steam to turn the panded electricity needs are causing industry planners to turbine, steam is heated to a high temperatureand pressure look offshore. The generating plants presently located by burning a fossil fuel or by heat exchange with a nuclear around the Sound use more than 2.1 billion gallons of cool- reactor. The steam then drives a turbine connected to the ing water daily; this demand can be expected to increase generator which produces the electricity. The low-tempera- more than eight-fold over the next two decades. ture, low-pressure steam leaving the steam turbine must be Since siting power plants right on the seashore will com- condensed to water; condensation reduces its pressure and pete with recreational and other uses of the beach, we can maintains flow. This water is then returned to the boiler expect in the future to see large power plants, nuclear- to be reheated to steam. fueled, located near shore or on platforms offshore. The ef- The condensing stage requires great amounts of water to fect of heated water discharges depends on numerous vari- cool the steam. Cooling water flows through miles of tubing ables, so it will be essential to develop adequate safeguards surrounded by steam, absorbstheheat, and then is discharged against potential damage to the marine environment of the back into the river or ocean whence it was pumped ("once- Sound. through" cooling). Alternatively, the water may be cooled by evaporation in cooling towers and recirculated through Summary the plant. To illustrate the great amounts of water involved Conflicts among uses, competing demands made on the wa- and the proportion used by the electric industry: in 1964, ters and. shores of urbanizing America are the crux of the -United States industry used about 50 trillion gallons of wa- present situation. What the tidal zones will be like in the ter for cooling; 81 percent of that was used in the genera- future-economically and aesthetically-hangs precariously tion of electricity. on how well the environment itself is served now, when There has been considerable improvement through the competition created by rapid urbanization is balancing this years in using steam efficiently, and thus the cooling water way and that. Protection and conservation of these zones "goes farther" these days. Fossil-fuel plants use less cooling are essential if swimming and boating, fishing and clamming waterper kwh than nuclear facilities, however; "going nucle- are to continue. But competing with those uses are dredging ar" is no improvement from the water's point of view. In a to get sand and gravel for construction or to clear navigable 89 channels, and extracting and shipping oil. An intractable and Seminar on Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Dispos- direct conflict exists over wetlands: the need for preservation al (Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nassau-Suffolk Regional Marine as is for fish and shellfish life cycles, versus the need to fill Resources Council, 1972), pp. 105-127. them in and build them over with the rubbish and residences 11. Robert G. Holzmacher, Samuel C. McLendon, and Nor- of an expanding population. man E. Murrell, Comprehensive Public Water Supply There's more involved than just competition for space or Study, Suffolk County, New York (Melville, N.Y.: n.p., use, however. Actual misuse is evident, that is, a use whose 1968), 111, 31. methods are unacceptable and undesirable. On-shore prac- 12. U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Saline Water, tices like agricultural fertilization, pesticide use, and the dis- Saline Water Conversion Report, 1970-71 (Washington, posal of human and animal sewage have been and are depre- D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1971), p. x. ciating the value of Long Island waters by pollution. Thermal 13. Frank T. Manheirii, Mineral Resources off the North- pollution from generating plants in the western Sound ag- eastern Coast of the United States, U.S. Geological Sur- gravates already-severe oxygen depletion and overfertiliza- vey, Circular 669 (Washington, D.C. 1972), p. 14. tion stemming from sewage treatment plants and the charac- 14. New York State Office of Planning Coordination, Long ter of tidal flow there. Dredging that exceeds its boundaries Island Sand and Gravel Mining (New York: New York and depths wreaks irreparable havoc. State Office of Planning Coordination, 1970), p. 4. Some of the conflicts may be resolved by public aware- 15. Testimony of Edward Leitiet and James Murphy of the ness and financial support for conservation programs. Some United States Dredging Corporation before the Oceano- of the conflicts can be ameliorated by stringent enforcement graphic Committee of the Nassau-Suffolk Regional Plan- of existing rules and regulations. Some of the conflicts will ning Board, April 20, 1966. yield only to energetic coastal planning and management. 16. Ibid. We already know a great deal about the marine environment, 17. Testimony of George Vanderborgh, president of the and have some good laws; putting knowledge and laws to Long Island Shellfish Farmers Cooperative, before the work effectively depends now on active and concerned citi- Oceanographic Committee of the Nassau-Suffolk Region- zens. .al Planning.Board, November 15, 1965. 18. Ibid. Literature Cited 19. J. Albert Sherk, Jr., The Effects of Suspended and De- Footnotes posited Sediments on Estuarine Organisms (Solomons, 1. William A. Niering, Nature in the Metropolis (New York: Md.: Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, 1971), n.p. Regional Plan Association, 1960), p. 7. 20. Joel S. O'Connor, "The Benth ic Macrofauna of Moriches 2. William B. Rick, Planningand Developing WaterfrontProp- Bay," Biology Bulletin, Vol. 142, No. 1 (1972), 84-102. erty (Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 1964), 21. Advisory Committee for Mount Sinai Harbor, -A Pro- Technical Bulletin 49, p. 8. posal to the Town of Brookhaven for the Development 3. Robert B. Ditton, The Social and Economic Significance of Mount Sinai Harbor," Brookhaven, N.Y., Septem- of Recreation Activities in the Marine Environment ber 23, 1966. (Mimeographed.) (Green Bay, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Pro- 22. Testimony of Leitiet and Murphy. The United States gram, 1972), Technical Report 2, pp. 2-7. Dredging Corporation, whom they represented, was the 4. New York State Office of Planning Coordination, Out- contractor for dredging in Mount Sinai Harbor. door Recreation on Long Island (New York: New York 23. President's Science Advisory Committee, Restoring the State Office of Planning Coordination, 1971), p. 23. Qualityof OurEnvironment (Washington, D.C.;TheWhite 5. R.U. Tatcliff, Real Estate Analysis (New York: McGraw- House, 1965), p. 22. Hill Book Company, 1961), pp. 33-34. 24. J.R. Jackson, Jr., of Humble Oil and Refining Co., in 6. Testimony of Richard Schoenfeld before the Oceano- an address at the Offshore Drilling Conference sponsored graphic Committee of the Nassau-Suffolk Regional Plan- by the New York Ocean Science Laboratory, Montauk, ning Board on April 27, 1966. N.Y., September 13, 1971. 7. Letter to the Nassau-Suffolk Regional Planning Board, 26. J. Clark, Fish and Man-Conflict in the Atlantic Estu- May 13,1966 * aries (Highlands, N.J.: American Littoral Society, 1967), 8. President's Council on Recreation and Natural Beauty, Special Bulletin No. 5, p. 5. From Sea to Shining Sea (Washington, D.C.: Government 27. Testimony of Harry H. Raines and rep resentatives of the Printing Office, 1968), p. 62. Greenport Sea Food Products Co., before the Oceano- 9. Robert R. Werner, in an address given at the Wetlands graphic Committee of the Nassau-Suffolk Regional Plan- Management Seminar sponsored by the Nassau-Suffolk ning Board, March 9, 1966. Regional Marine Resources Council, Hauppauge, New 28. Raines et al., testimony, York, September 15, 1972. 29. Claiborne Pell, Senator from Rhode Island, with Harold 10. Arthur E. Bruington, "Wastewater Use and Groundwater Leland Goodwin, Challengeof the SevenSeas (NewYork: Recharge in Los Angeles County," Proceedings of the William Morrow and Co., 1966), pp. 65-67. 90 30. Suffolk County Departments of Health and Planning, N.Y.: Suffolk County Department of Health, 1959), n.p.; Report on Need and Feasibility for Public Sewerage Dis- Barry Andres and John Flynn, Effect of Synthetic Deter- posal Facilities in Western Suffolk (Hauppauge and gents on the Ground Waters of Long Island, New York Riverhead, N.Y.: Suffolk County Departments of Health (Albany: New York StateWater Pollution Control Board, and Planning, 1962), Appendix B, pp. 20-34. 1960), Research Report No. 6, n.p. 31. Charles D. Hardy,and Peter Weyl, Distribution of Dis- 34. George M. Woodwell, "Toxic Substances and Ecological solved Oxygen in the Waters of Long Island Sound (Stony Cycles," Scientific American, Vol. 216, No. 3 (March, Brook, N.Y.: Marine Sciences Research Center, 1971), 1967), p. 31. Technical Report No. 11, pp. 1-37. 35. George M. Woodwell, Charles Wurster, and Peter Isaac- 32. Testimony of John Flynn, principal sanitary environ- son, "DDT Residues in an East Coast Estuary: A Case of ment engineer of the Suffolk County Department of Biological Concentration of a Persistent Insecticide," Health, to the Oceanographic Committee of the Nassau- Science, Vol. 156 (May 12, 1967), p. 822. Suffolk Regional Plann.ing Board, November 15, 1965. 36. Woodwell, "Toxic Substances," p. 31. 33. John Flynn, Aldo Andreoli, and August Guerrera,Study 37. New York State, Agriculture and Markets Law, Article of Synthetic Detergents in Ground Water (Riverhead, 155.2, "Restricted Pesticides," effective January 1, 1971. 91 Research on Coastal Zone Management George C. Matthiessen, President, Marine Research Inc. Falmouth, Massachusetts Introduction northeast corner of Narragansett Bay. On the basis of a re- Massachusetts, like the other coastal states, is currently faced port prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency in with what would appear to be an exceedingly complex task, 1971, one would imagine this area as an ecological disaster if which is to develop a realistic and effective coastal zone man- not a national disgrace. The receptacle of a broad variety of agement program. Incorporated in this program must be pollutants in large amounts-raw sewage, toxic industrial such seemingly straight-forward objectives as identification compounds and heavy metals, agricultural pesticides, and of coastal zone boundaries; definition of permissible land the waste heat of four electric generating plants-the Taun- and water uses within these boundaries; identification of ton River and upper Mount Hope Bay would, superficially means for controlling land and water uses; and guidelines in at least, appear to be on the verge of ecological collapse. establishing priority of uses. How does an areasuch as this fit into a coastal zone man- During the past six years, my company has been involved agement program? Should it be written off as an embarras- in various types of environmental surveys along the New Eng- sing eyesore no longer useful for anything but unlimited in- land coastline. The major purpose has been to provide the dustrialization and abuse and hardly worth managing? If it environmental information necessary to determine, for ex- is to be managed, what priority-in terms of other coastal ample, whether certain coastal activities are or are not per- areas of Massachusetts-should be assigned to it? Finally- missible, whether certain areas are or are not critical, whether and perhaps most important-what is meant by the word, certain areas are of higher priority than others. We have found "manage," and how does one manage an area such as this in such criteria, seemingly simple in the abstract, to be in fact termsof preservingwhat isleftof its environmental integrity? extremely elusive in the real world. Their complexity, unfor- Taking these questions in order, an unqualified answer tunately, seems at times to increase in proportion to the to the first question is yes, the Taunton River and upper amount of information gathered. I would say that those di- Mount Hope Bay are most definitely worth saving. In fact, rectly responsible for development of Massachusetts' coastal and despite the abuse it has received and continues to re- zone management program not only deserve, but require, a ceive, it turns out that this estuary may be as biologically huge amount of patience and cooperation from the public. productive and valuable as any in the Commonwealth. A few examples are given here to illustrate this point. Coastal Zone Decisionmaking During 1972 and 1973, over 3,700 bushels of hard clams, For purposes of illustrating the complexities of coastal zone or quahogs, were harvested from the Lee River, which is con- decision-making, I would like to use as an example an estu- sidered part of the Taunton River estuary-Mount Hope Bay arine area of Massachusetts where we have been conducting complex. Because the Lee River is polluted, these shellfish research for nearly six years. While six years may appear to had to be transplanted to a clean area and allowed a period be a long time to devote to a single area, I can assure you of self-cleansing before they could be harvested directly for that significant trends or unnatural events in the marine en- consumption. However, the interesting feature here is that vironment may become discernible at a much slower pace. this volume of shellfish was harvested from an area approxi- The area to b 'e discussed in relation to the coastal zone mating only six acres. The estimated population density ex- management criteria cited above is the Taunton River estu- ceeded that of productive fishing areas in other partsof Nar- ary, which includes upper Mount Hope Bay, located in the ragansett Bay by more than a factor of ten. 92 Species diversity is frequently used as an index of the en- How to Manage vironmental health of an area, with a low diversity index sug- The question then is, how is an area such as this to be man- gestive of environmental stress. Our analyses of the finfish aged in a way that will preserve its productivity? populations in upper Mount Hope Bay, most specifically the The problems involved seem formidable. There is, first Lee River, over a three-year period indicate a relatively high of all, a problem of magnitude. The Mount Hope Bay Water- species diversity, considerably higher, in fact, than that shed is 547 square miles, over 340,000 acres of land, of which of the majority of estuaries in Massachusetts-polluted or 92.percent drains into the Taunton River, The Taunton River unpolluted-that have been investigated by similar meth- itself is 38 miles long. Water, and many of the potentially ods. toxic substances it may contain, draining.into the river at As a third example, our company undertook an intensive any point upstream, must eventually reach the highly pro- study of the entire Narragansett Bay area during 1972 and ductive waters of upper Mount Hope Bay to exert additional 1973 to determine, among other things, which areas of the stress upon its biota. It is clear that a management program Bay were the major spawning centers for different species. with jurisdiction limited to the coast can offer 'Only limited It was found that three of the most important species of fin- protection. Yet the management of the entire watershed fish that reproduce in the Bay-menhaden, winter flounder, area would seem to be an unrealistic, if praiseworthy, objec- and silversides-spawned more intensively in the area of up- tive. per Mount Hope Bay than in any other part of Narragansett Secondly, there exists a political problem. Twenty-five Bay. separate communities lie within the Mount Hope Bay water- As the fo6rth, and final example, over a six-year period shed. It seems unlikely that the needs and interests of twenty- we have identified ovW80 different species of finfish near five distinct communities could be coordinate *d in such a the mouth of the Taunton River. Included in this group are way that a uniform management policy would be accepta- large numbers of anadromous fish,such as alewives, blueback ble to the entire watershed area, yet this degree of coopera- herring and smelt, that migrate up the Taunton River to tion would be required to insure protection of the estuary spawn in fresh water; catadromous species, as the eel, that downstream. migrates down the river to the sea en route to its oceanic Thirdly, there is a problem of economics. The decline of spawning grounds; important recreational species such as the textile industry, particularly that of Fall River, has re- bluefish and striped bass, which presumably are attracted to sulted in significant unemployment in this area. Develop- the area by the presence of large numbers of forage species ment of other regional industries-tanneries, dye manufac- such as menhaden and silversides; occasional species that turers, chemical and electroplating industries, plastic manu- normally frequent fresh water, such as yellow perch, bull- facturers, electric generating plants, etc.-have absorbed an heads and crapples; species that are predominantly oceanic important segment of the labor force, yet it is these indus- in habitat, such as silver hake; and exotic species such as tries that contribute to the pollution of Mount Hope Bay. four-eyed butterflyfish and permit that have wandered into Restrictions upon their operations for conservation purposes Mount Hope Bay from regions far to the south. invite the possibility of termination of their operations for This is not intended to imply that, on the strength of economic reasons, with subsequent increases in unemploy- these findings, pollution must be beneficial and therefore ment. should be encouraged. The fact that thousands of bushels Finally, there is the scientific problem of determining of edible shellfish in this area cannot be harvested directly whether or not a proposed activity involving some environ- is clear evidence of how a once-valuable resource can be mental impact upon this estuary will in fact cause appreci- wasted by pollution, and there may be more subtle or long- able harm. As indicated above, this area presently is of high term effects resulting from pollution that we have failed to biological productivity even though severely polluted. Is the detect.. Taunton River-Mount Hope'Bay ecosystem teetering on the However, the important point, I think, is that areas as verge of disaster, requiring only a slight increase in environ- grossly polluted as this should not necessarily be dismissed mental stress before it collapses? Or do the populations of as being no longer of ecological significance. Similarly, it is this ecosystem reflect a long-term adjustment to the various important for management purposes to realize that certain stresses imposed and hence a form of resilience and stability forms of pollution, although probably not desirable, do not notgenerally found in less industrialized, more pristineareas? invariably have catastrophic consequences. And if the latter represents the truer picture of the upper Certainly the evidence would indicate that the Taunton Mount Hope Bay ecosystem today, then what forms of ac- River estuary and upper Mount Hope Bay, despite their tivities might be regarded as posing no real threat to this high levels of pollution, are presently characterized by high ecosystem and might therefore be designated as permissible? biological productivity and undoubtedly contribute sig- An excellent and very timely example of the difficulty nificantly to the commercial and recreational fisheries of in answering a question such as this involves the dredging southern Massachusetts. On this basis alone, the area operations in Mount Hope Bay recently proposed by the deserves a relatively high priority in management consider- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This project would involve ations. the removal of approximately 3.2 million cubic yards of 93 bottom material from various areas of Mount Hope Bay and aquatic organisms, particularly by finfish that can absorb it the Taunton River in order to improve navigation; the spoil through their gills. Other members of the food chain, includ- would be disposed of offshore at a site seven miles south- ing the plankton and bottom-dwelling shellfish may concen- west of Cuttyhunk Island, known as Browns Ledge. The trate it as well. Unfortunately, the rate of methyl-mercury project, which would require 14 months to complete, has uptake by these organisms is not adequately understood, ap- met with vigorous opposition, primarily from fishing inter- pearing to vary under different environmental conditions. ests who question the potential impact of dumping upon the These are examples of some of the questions that must fishery resources of Browns Ledge. It would also seem that be considered by those responsible for the management of the potential impact upon the ecosystem of Mount Hope coastal zone areas such as Mount Hope Bay. They are not Bay might be qeustioned as well. easy questions, and it is difficult to make* predictions with For example, two important species of finfish referred to any degree of certainty. On the one hand it is a project that earlier, the winter flounder and the silverside, both deposit promises substantial rewards in the form of high benef it-to- demersal rather than floating, or pelagic, eggs, that normally cost ratios. At stake, on the other hand, may be the produc- rest upon the bottom. Dredging operations result in increased tivity and environmental integrity of an estuarine area of levels of turbidity in the area of dredging, and dredging over major significance to Massachusetts. And too often the tech- a sustained period of time could result in appreciable silta- nical information upon which to base a judgment is embar- tion of the bottom. Excessive siltation at the time of spawn- rassingly inadequate. ing, therefore, could result in the smothering and loss of these eggs. Summary As a second example of potential concern, dissolved ox- In summary, our investigations of the Taunton River and ygen concentrations near the bottom in upper Mount Hope Mount Hope Bay have suggested the following points that I Bay fall to seemingly precariously low levels during summer. think are pertinent to coastal zone management: Dredging, in the process of releasing large amounts of or- First, simply because a river, bay or estuary is polluted- ganic material and hydrogen sulfide from the sediments even if grossly so as in the case of Mount Hope Bay-does into the water column, could increase the biological oxygen not mean it is no longer biologically productive and should demand still further, possibly to the lethal point for some be dismissed as expendable. Rather, polluted estuaries may species. nevertheless be valuable spawning and nursery areas and may As a third example, appreciable concentrations of mercu- conceivably be as important to the coastal fisheries as those ry and other metals, the result of industrial discharge into that are devoid of pollution. the Taunton River, presently rest in the sediment of upper Second, many years may be required to understand the Mount Hope Bay. With dredging, these metals may be re- aquatic populations in a given area in terms of overall pro- leased from these sediments and, through various pathways, cluctivity, trends in population abundance, and how these recycled through the food chain of upper Mount Hope Bay. trends may be influenced by specific forms of environment- It is conceivable that these could reach dangerously high lev- al stress. Obtaining a sufficient amount of data to detect els in various species, seriously upsetting their physiological these trends is often a horrendous and time-consuming task. functions and reac tions, or perhaps making them unfit for For this reason, it is unrealistic to expect on-the-spot yes or consumption. no answers to environmental issues from regulatory agen- -It is worthwhile to focus briefly upon the question of cies, which rarely have had the opportunity to acquire the mercury, since its release, in the process of dredging, could specific data necessary for making these decisions. be the most serious consideration of all. The danger lies in Third, and finally, the coastal zone cannot-for manage- the possible conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmer- ment purposes-be conceived of simply as a narrow band cury by micro-organisms. If mercury entering the Taunton that parallels and more or less overlaps the high tide mark. River and upper Mount Hope Bay has in fact combined with Possibly the most serious form of pollution in Mount Hope hydrogen sulfide in the bottom sediment, the result is the Bay-mercury -originates from a source'seven miles up the relatively insoluble-and presumably less dangerous-mer- Taunton River, where the water is nearly fresh. I think this curic sulfide. If, however, the mercury brought into suspen- serves as a reminder that the coastal zone, however it may sion- by dredging is converted to the highly toxic methyl- be defined, is as vulnerable to events outside its boundaries mercury, this compound may be concentrated by various as it is to those within. 94 Coastal Recreation Aesthetics: Meaning and Measurement E. Glenn Carls, Assistant Professor Department of Recreation, University of Waterloo Ontario, Canada Introduction subject of formal study. Demand projections for scenic The major problem of outdoor recreation in the last three quality are new, and the subject is enormously complex. decades, at least the one that has received the most atten- While scientific analysis and experimental studies have tion, has been to provide areas and services sufficient to meet been conducted, and more are in progress, no objective an accelerating recreation demand. By now everyone is fa- method for determining need or demand for scenic qual- miliar with the dilemma of supply and demand, but it was ity has yet evolved. Yet, there is general agreement that not until about 1962 when the Outdoor Recreation Re- visual quality is needed. (Roy Mann Associates, 1975, sources Review Commission published the report of its land- pp. 1-2) mark study that the dimensions of the problem became commonly recognized. The pattern is familiar and one that The increase in concern for quality considerations, and it has developed in many areas of resource use and allocation. seems to be a trend, can be attributed to several origins but We are faced with resources that are mostly stable and lim- owes no small part to an overall increase in environmental ited and use figures that continue to climb. In outdoor rec- awareness among North Americans. We are finally beginnin@g reation, the problem is nowhere more pressing than in the to question the wisdom of our accumulated industrial wealth coastal zone, especially in and near urban areas. Not only is if it means living in places like Gary or Pittsburgh. We might the shoreline a highly prized resource for recreation, it is also point to a parallel phenomenon that is occurring in de- for all practical purposes finite. mand for the fine, performing and folk arts-theater, opera, Given the circumstances, it is necessary and unavoidable symphonies, 'architecture, sculpture, painting and pottery. that we have gone through a period that might be described These are, one would hope., signs of an increasingly affluent as more places for more people, whether the places were society on its way to being leisured and cultured. Finally, beaches, campsites, trails, or rooftop'playgrounds. Under- the concern for quality of recreation places and experience lying this frenzy of activity and concentration on quantity is derived from a sense of desperation that comes from a there has also been a concern for quality. Unfortunately we knowledge that we are running out of places to go. Especial- have never really known what to do about it and, mostly ly in places where it matters most, like the shoreline and out of frustration, have tossed everything into a single heap cities, it is now largely a matter of getting along with what called aesthetics. It appears now that "quality" is becoming we already have. In many cases, the problem can no longer an even more active and integral part of our planning and be alleviated by adding more parks for the simple reason management deliberations. It is significant that two recent that there is no more room for parks. planning studies, one by the Great Lakes Basin Commission The message for quality is not a new one. You may have and one by the New England River Basins Commission for heard it in the writings of men like George Catlin, Frederick Long Island Sound, have come out with separate volumes Law Olmstead, John Muir, John Burroughs, Aldo Leopold, devoted entirely to shoreline appearance and aesthetics. or Bob Marshall. The message is loud and clear, but unfor- However, the insecurity that we feel in dealing with these tunately it is in code. The code is composed of abstractions matters is clearly expressed in this statement from the Long and intangibles, and the task is to decipher these into terms Island Sound study: that are concrete and subject to empirical investigation. The need for scenic quality has only recently become a At a national conference on marine recreation, the mod- 95 Region of Region of Universal Universal Agreement Region of Variability Agreement Most Most "Beautiful" "Ugly Figure 1. "Beauty and the Beast" Paradigm of Aesthetic Perception erator for the final, summary session concluded that efforts Without pressing the point, it is interesting to note that the directed toward understanding environmental and experien- human eye is a marine eye. The anatomy of human vision is tial quality were mostly hopeless, since "beauty is in the more closely related to that of marine vertebrates than to eye of the beholder." In the sense that human experience the eye, such as is found in insects, that evolved on land. I is variable and to the extent that we cannot dictate absolute am a chauvinist of heredity to the extent that I believe that standards of quality, that conclusion is correct. However, it there is probably some universal perception of beauty deep- .is also the mentality of ambivalence that causes us to ignore ly rooted in the genetic code. This is almost certainly true our better human sensibilities and the more sensitive users in the case of certain homeostatic controls (e.g., response of outdoor recreation resources. to heat and cold). I will also postulate that on an aesthetic The subject of aesthetics and recreation quality is large continuum (Figure 1) ranging from "most ugly," to "most and confused.. Nonetheless, as quality considerations grow beautiful" not only could. we distinguish between the two more important, some very good and important research is extremes but we would all agree in our assessments. It is in beginning to emerge. Most of you are familiar with thework the middle region where environmental and social condi- that is being conducted in the area of user attitudes (wilder- tioning has the greatest effect on individual preferences.The ness users, beach users, etc.), environmental perception, research task is made more difficult by the fact that the landscape design, and the like. This paper has to do with middle, variable region is by far the larger portion of the such studies, but it is meant to focus on what we might call continuum. the ."hitting the fan" phenomenon in recreation research. In order to perceive aesthetic qualities and conditions or That is, recreation research is characterized by spurts of in- recreation quality, we must sense the environment. In man, terest and activity with little concern for a priori develop- the assimilation of sensory information is made possible by ment of theory. The, effect can be illustrated with the meta- a complete set of mechanisms-visual, auditory, gustatory, phor of a man who builds a sailboat in his basement and olefactory, haptic, and proprioceptive. In describing human then has to blast out a wall to remove the completed vessel. interaction with the built environment, one investigator Besides having a certain intellectual elegance, the building (Fitch, 1970) points out that: "In architecture, there are no of theoretical models promotes a more parsimonious and spectators: there areonly participants." This is a maxim that efficacious research effort. In addition, such models allow can be applied directly to recreation. Even the passive visitor an ordering of information and the development of an eff i- to the shore is stimulated by the variable qualities of the en- cient technology for planning and management. vironment. Sight is the master sense in man and most studies of land- Meaning and Measurement scape preference have centered on v1sual preference. Recog- When it comes to understanding the magnetism possessed nition of the total sensory experience, however, promises to by the sea and shorelines, I am always impressed by a,quo- be a most productive line of research. Think back to your tation attributed to John F. Kennedy. He said: experiences with the coastal zone and consider the man@ I don't know why it is that all of us are so committed to sensory impressions that are triggered, perhaps unconscious- the sea, except I think it's because in addition to the fact ly-the sound of surf and of bell buoys, the taste of salt, the that the sea changes, and the light changes, and ships warmth of sun heated sand, the unmistakable smell of the change, it's because we all came from the sea. And it is sea. These are the aesthetics of the marine environment trans- an interesting biological fact that all of us have in our formed from intangibles to concrete variables available for veins the exact same percentage of salt in our blood that investigation. exists in the ocean, in our sweat, in our tears. We are tied Where do.we stand now in terms of completed research? to the oceans. And when we go back to the sea-whether It would be fair to say that it is accumulating and useful but it is to sail or to watch it-we are going back from whence still sparse in comparison to what still remains unknown. we came. Coomber and Biswas (1973) have formulated a model of sce- 96 nic eva I uati on (Figure 2) that describesthenature of research 4. Uniqueness scales tend to inventory environmental in this area and provides at least one look at a process car- characteristics and differentiate areas. Leopold'sstudy riedthrough to implementation of findings.Those of youwho of river valleys (1969) is probably the most familiar are familiar with Anderson's User-Resource Planning Method example. will recognize the similarities between the two models. At mid-level in the diagram are grouped four research ap- Total Sensory Experience proaches that describe a major portion of current investiga- It is significant that this model is restricted to the scenic en- tions. Briefly, these are: vironment, since much of the completed research deals with 1 . Measurement whereby elements of the landscape scene visual impact. As noted previously, however, the total sen- are quantified and measured. Shafer's work 0 969) in sory experience should develop as an object of research. An- using landscape photographs to measure environmen- other avenue of investigation would examine psychological tal variables is an example. associations whereby perception is transformed into behav- 2. Ranking systems attempt to identify preferred land- ior by attitudes, values, and social motivation. We k .nowfrom scape types. Again, studies by Shafer are an example. studies of sensory deprivation, for example, that the mind 3. Rating systems employ some objective measure of en- seems to demand variety in sensory input, otherwise it may vironmental variables. Craighead and Craighead (1962), create its own hallucinatory experience. It might be suggest- for example, developed a five point scale to measure ed that the constant variety and change of the coastal zone 14 environmental criteria in a study of recreation areas may be a major factor. in its almost universal appeal. and activities. Related work is being done in the area of wilderness at- titudes, solitude asa componentof the recreation experience, Scenic Environment and other studies of a similar kind. Specific to the marine I environment are studies like those of Spaulding's and his for which there exists investigation of Rhode Island fishermen. These are impor- tant contributions to the literature, but again we lack an or- ganizing model that gives form to a more or less amorphous Demand supply collection of studies. One approach might be to'follow some- reflecting describing thing like Neulinger's (1976) "Paradigm of Leisure." (Fig. 3) Attractivity Aesthetic Measures The psycho-social dimensions of landscape preference and recreation quality are probably the most neglected seg- that L;Ui ILI IUULU ments of our research activity. This will also be the most dif- I ficult to get at, because underlying overt behavior are the Selected Variables effects of social and environmental conditioning and the in- I dividual psychological traits that each of us are born with. quantified by Neulinger's approach to theoretical modeling is by no means I the only one and maybe it isn't even the best one. But it is Measure nent Ranking Rating Uniqueness the kind of organizing effort that will initiate the best re- search and allow the most practical applications. which when subjected to We are reminded of one respondent in a survey we recent- ly completed of. Long Island surf fishermen. His question- Statistical Analysis naire indicates that he is a writer, that he made less than 1 $1,000 last year, that he fishes every day, and that he eats yield his catch. How do we identify this fisherman, and how do we classify him? At our present level of knowledge, we Indice's and Aggregate would probably have to list him as a vagrant. Despite his Weights Values work ethic compulsion to cite an occupation, we are led to wonder what it is about men and the sea that makes such a for lifestyle so unreasonably inviting to us all. Answering that I question is the objective of our study of coastal aesthetics Decision-Making and recreation quality. Application and Implications Like agriculture, recreation is a production based discipline. Whereas the goal of agriculture is the production of food Figure 2 Process of Quantitative Analysis of Physical and fiber, the objective of organized recreation is to provide Environment (after Coomber and Biswas) areas and services for leisure activity. In both cases, research 97 tions, entry time -and dates, and the like. It is possible for the resource manager to experiment with potential use con- Perceived Freedom Freedom Constraint ditions and management techniques (e.g., reservation sys- tems, limitation of access, etc.), using the simulation model, Motivation Motivation before committing himself to a decision. It is this kind of technology thatwill become increasingly Intrinsic Intrinsic Extrinsic Intrinsic Intrinsic Extrinsic useful and necessary for the management of recreational re- and and sources. Generally, the resource manager will have to make Extrinsic Extrinsic decisions on the lesser of two thresholds: (1) the natural car- rying capacity of the resource or (2) the "aesthetic" carrying capacity of the user. This second category is composed of a 0 (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) broad range of conditions, and it is used to describe those Pu re Leisure Leisure Pu re Work- Pu re elements that contribute to or constrain the recreation ex- Leisure Work Job Work Job I Job perience. Whichever of the two carrying capacity evaluations reaches a limiting threshold first will determine the basic State of Mind management plan. Of the two, more is now known about natural carrying capacity and the ecological processes in- volved. Information related to "aesthetid" carrying capacity Figure 3. A Psychological Paradigm of Leisure is beginning to accumulate, and we should begin to formu- (after Neulinger) late procedures, such as simulation modeling, that will make this concept operational in the field. findings, even those that are most basic, should sift through Summary the scientific mill and manifest themselves finally in a better 1. The marine environment is highly desirable for recrea- product. What is the role of intangibles in the management tion. In a metaphysical way, we will never know why it of coastal recreation resources and what are the applications is so appealing. The mystery that has always been asso- of research findings. ciated with the sea is certainly one of its attractions. Tak- Future prospects for the coastal zone call for increased en in that light, however, it becomes a measurable vari- use of areas and facilities with relatively little overall expan- able that can be incorporated into scientific investigation sion of the basic resource. The marine environment is vast, and resource mana gement. but most recreation activity is restricted to water only a 2. The human leisure experience and what has been 'ierimed few feet in depth and a shoreline that is one dimensional in "aesthetic" carrying capacity are composed largely of in- character. As use pressures become more intense, and they 'tangible qualities. They are difficult to handle, and the have already reached a point of saturation in some places, research in this area has lagged. They are essential ele- management systems will have to rely on more sophisticated ments of the planning/management processes, however, forms of technology to maintain desirable levels of resource and will become increasingly important as the supply- quality. demand ratio approaches unity. In some coastal regions, Using the exampleof wilderness recreational management, the saturation point has already been exceeded. we make one basic assumption, an assumption that several 3. The research effort is beginning to pay off, but itstill lacks completed studies seem to support. We assume thatsolitude, the overall structure that will make it most productive. isolation, and remoteness from human activity are necessary Let me mention one precaution and one suggestion. First, criteria for a wilderness recreation experience. In manage- we must avoid making conclusions about demand that ment terms, this means making decisions on maximum use are based on studies of consumption. The environmental- levels that do not exceed social or recreational carrying ca- ist Garrett Hardin and others have cited the case where pacities. For the coastal zone, the most sensitive users are more sensitive wilderness users continue to seek more and probably those like surf fishermen, though a sense of solitude more remote areas as those closer by become more high- may be important to any individual or activity group. ly used. The point is that studies conducted at the site While working with Resources for the Future, Kerry Smith may be completely erroneous when it comes to making and John Krutilla (1974) developed a computer system, overall conclusions about aesthetic taste. The suggestion based on IBM's GPSS system, that simulates the use of wil- is that we begin thinking more about experimental forms derness trails under varying conditions. The resource mana- of research as an alternative to descriptive surveys. The ger describes his trail system and experiments with several experimental approach tends to do two things: (1) it pro- alternative factors such as the total number of users in the duces discrete bits of information, and (2) it promotes area, size of parties, location of campsites, trailhead loca- useful theoretical modeling. 98 4. Finally, there is the need to transform research findings land River Basins Commission, February. into a technology that can be applied in the field, allevi- Sewell, W. R. 1971. Integrating Public Views in Planning and ating problems and optimizing recreation opportunities. Policy Making. Perceptions and Attitudes in Resources In the era of 747s the time of flying by the seat of our Management. Edited by W. R. D. Sewell and F. Burton. pants should be only a fond memory. Shafer, E. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; and Schmidt, E. A. 1969. Natural Landscape Preferences: A Predictive Model. Jour. Literature Cited Leisure Research, Vol. 1, No. 1. References Shafer, E. L., and Mietz, J. 1970. It Seem Is Possible to Quan- Coomber, N. H., and Biswas, A. K. 1973. Evaluation of tify Scenic Beauty in Photographs, U.S.D.A. ForestSer- Environmentallntangibles. Bronxville,N.Y.:Genera Press. vice ResearchPaperNE-162. Darby, Pennsylvania: North- Craighead, F. C., Jr., and Craighead, J. H. River System: eastern Forest Experiment Station. Recreational Classification, Inventory and Evaluation. Shepard, Paul. 1967. Man in the Landscape. New York: Bal- Naturalist, Jour. Natural History Society of Minnesota, lantine Books. Vol. 13, No. 2:2-19. Smith, V., and Krutilla, J. V. 1974. A Simulation Model for Fitch, J. M. 1967. Experiential Bases for Aesthetic Decision. the Management of Low Density Recreation Lakes. Jour. Environmental Psychology. Edited by H. M. Proshansky, Environmental Economics and Management, 1: 187-201. W. H. Ittelson and L. G. Rivlin. New York: Holt, Rinehart Spaulding, 1. A. 1973. Factors Related to Beach Use. King- and Winston. ston: Univ. Rhode Island Marine Technical Report Series Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix 22. Aes- Number 13. thetic and Cultural Resources. 1975. Ann Arbor: Great 197 1. Occupation, Recreation and Phasic Cummu- Lakes Basin Corn mission. tation: Selected Rhode Island Fishermen. Kingston, R.I.: Lee, T. R. 1971. Perception of Goals in the Management of Univ. Rhode Island Agriculture Experiment Station. Water Quality of the Great Lakes. Perceptions and Atti- ---. 1970. Selected Rhode Island Sport Fishermen and tudesin Resources Management. Edited byW.R.D. Sewell Their Fishing Activity. Kingston, R.I.: Univ. Rhode Island and 1. Burton, Ottawa: Department of Energy, Mines and Agriculture Experiment Station. Resources. Swanson, Diane. 1971. Public Perceptions and Resources Neulinger, John. 1976. "Social-Pol itical- (Moral) Implications Planning. Perceptions and Attitudes in Resources Man- of a Psychological Conception of Leisure." Paper pre- agement. Edited by W. R. D. Sewell and 1. Burton. Ot- sented at the University of Waterloo, Canada, Faculty of tawa: Department of Energy, Mines and Resources. Human Kinetics and Leisure Studies, 12 February. Roy Mann Associates. 1975. Shoreline Appearance and De- sign: A Planning Report. New Haven, Conn.: New Eng- 99 @Salt Marsh Studies in Rhode Island Stephen Olsen, Resource Analyst Coastal Resources Center, Narrangansett Bay Campus University of Rhode Island, Narrangansett, Rhode Island Introduction all salt marshes receive equal protection or do factors such In 1971 the Rhode Island General Assembly passed an act as size, location or vegetation productivity make some more creating the Coastal Resources Management Counci I (CRMC) valuable than others? This question is frequently asked by and granted it broad powers. The broad basis upon which marina owners who wish to expand their facilities and often the CRIVIC is charged to make management decisions is set could only do so at the cost of filling areas of salt marsh. It forth in the 1971 Act (46-23-1, G.L.R.I.) as follows: was felt that a rating method would be useful only if it could ... to preserve, protect, develop and where possi- be used by state biologists utilizing unsophisticated methods ble restore, the coastal resources of the state for this and not involving undue amounts of time. The Center's salt and succeeding generations through comprehensive marsh project was therefore designed to include three prin- and coordinated long range planning and management cipal parts: designed to produce the maximum benefit for soci- 1 ) An inventory of all the state's salt marshe's including ety ... those of less than 5 acres and all fringe marshes. The CRMC has jurisdiction over all resources and activi- 2) An investigation into the feasibility of rating the rela- ties below mean high water and over all shoreline features tive values of individual marshes. including salt marshes. The CRMC operates through the 3) A legal study designed to emphasize the taking issues granting of permits for activities within its area of jurisdic- and the problem of equal protection. tion. The project got underway in 1974 through funds pro- The great majority of the research and data analysis ne- vided in part by a planning grant from NOAA under the pro- cessary for development of CRIVIC policies and regulations visions of the federal Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972. for specific resources and activities is undertaken by the The final results of this work are approaching completion Coastal Resources Center at the URI Graduate School of and should be available within the next several months. Oceanography. Early in the planning process it became ap- parent that it would be useful to undertake a special project The Inventory on salt marsh management. A detailed inventory of the Relatively sophisticated techniques including the use of aeri- state's salt marshes was needed and, since comprehensive re- al infrared photography have been used successfully to map source management requires trade-off decisions, we felt we vegetation. Funding constraints, the small size of Rhode Is- should investigate the feasibility of developing a relatively land and the availability of recent black and white aerial simple and pragmatic method for rating the relative values photographs persuaded us, however, to rely on existing data of individual salt marshes. sources and extensive field checking. The inventory was un- Rhode Island law predating the state's Coastal Manage- dertaken by Dr. William Halvorsen (URI Dept. of Botany) ment Act states that no salt marsh shall be altered without and William Gardiner. They prepared base maps utilizing a permit and in the past requests for filling have not been 1:24,000mapsof land use and vegetation cover (MacConnell, granted. In some cases, however, the benefits of altering or 1974) drawn from 1970 black and white aerial photographs even destroying some salt marsh might outweigh the losses. of the entire state taken at a uniform scale of 1:12,000. Al- If funds were available to the state to purchase tracts of so noted were salt marshes identified in a number of other marsh, which should be selected and on what basis? Should studies undertaken in recent years. The entire shoreline of 100 the state was then covered on foot or observed from a smal I ly filled, some have had their natural water circulation pat- boat. terns artificially altered. A total of 24 parameters were According to Rhode Island law, salt marshes are defined measured in each marsh 2including net'harvest productivity as any land bordering or beneath tidal waters upon which (height, density, gdw/m , seed production), and the abun grow one or more of the following plant species: salt marsh dance, diversity and distribution of crabs, shrimp, fish, grass (Spartina alterniflora); salt marsh meadow grass (Spar- birds and insects. tina patens); spike grass (Distichfis spicata); black rush (Jun- Preliminary analysis of the restuls of this work indicates cus gerardi); saltworts (Saficornia spp.); seaside lavander (Li- that the marshes studied cannot be assembled into groups monium carolinanum). Salt marshes identified in this inven- of more or less value if all the parameters are rated and no tory were mapped on the basis of this definition. Numerous parameter is judged to be more important than others. If areas of salt marsh that had not appeared in previous sur- each parameter is rated 1-10 and composite ranks are calcu- veys were found, as were mistakes in the presence or size of lated for each marsh, the result is six marshes with a com- identified marshes. posite rank of five and four with a composite rank of six. When, upon visual inspection, previously unidentified A multivariate statistical rating designed to grapbically dis- salt marsh was found, or the base map deviated from what play similar and non-similar marshes gives similar results. was observed, direct measurements were taken. Black and Measurements designed to evaluate the value of individual white aerials taken in 1974 were then examined stereoscop- marshes as a storm buffer show that their ability to absorb ically in the lab to determine the precise outline of themarsh. storm waters is determined by their size and the average If the boundaries of the marsh were not traceable from the tidal range. All marshes in Rhode Island are covered at high photographs additional field measurements were sometimes tide by the equivalent of.1/5 the water volume of Narragan- undertaken. Only "fringe marsh", defined asa band of marsh sett Bay. Marshes do not, however, act as giant sponges to vegetation 5 meters or less in width, was noted merely as absorb flood waters. Furthermore, salt marshes are usually present or absent. The acreageof fringemarsh wascalculated found in quiet protected areas and they appear to have little using a mean width of 2.5 meters. ability to act as storm wave buffers. In high energy areas The results of this survey were transferred onto shoreline salt marshes are prone to rapid erosion. maps drawn to a scale of 1:12,000. A total of 76 miles of Preliminary examination of the results of these studies, fringe marsh was identified (18.2 percent of the entire R.I. however, do appear to show that urban marshes in the up- shoreline) and a grand total of 3,658 acres of salt marsh were per Narragansett Bay have more productive vegetation (see mapped.A comparison with other surveys shows the follow- also Nixon and Oviatt, 1973). TM& is probably due to the ing: higher tidal ranges and enriched (polluted) waters. Fish lar- 1955 2,315 acres includes only marshes vae appear to be as abundant in urban as non-urban marshes 1959 2,244 acres greater than 40 acres and species diversity is also similar. 1964 2,192 acres I This work indicates, therefore, that no simple method 1962 4 ,238 acres includes marshes greater for rating the value of individual salt marshes can be devised 1974 3,243 acres than approximately 5 acres if all the parameters studied are given equal weights in the 1976 3,658 acres@ all marsh including fringe marsh rating process. We do not feel that our understanding of the Early surveys of large salt marshes showed a reduction in values of salt marshes is at this time sufficiently complete acreage over time. The trend in later studies is less clear. The to confidently apply different weighting factors to the para- work accomplished by Halvorsen and Gardiner, however,will meters measured. provide a clear baseline from which further changes may be monitored. Legal Studies Only a preliminary review has been completed to date. It Marsh Rating is apparent, however, that if any system is devised to place This phase of the project was undertaken by Dr. Candace salt marshes into one or more categories of "value" and Oviart and Dr. Scott Nixon of the URI Graduate School of manage them according to their standing in this system, se- Oceanography. It was decided that the following four cri- vere legal problems will arise unless the reasonableness of the terion would be evaluated in ten salt marshes: storm buffer, classification system can be clearly demonstrated. Such a net harvest production, nursery for larval fish and wildlife system, unless fully substantiated in fact and clearly relating habitat. A criteria that could be termed "aesthetic value" to the providing for the.protection of salt marshes, could which is known to be important, but for which no useful open a Pandora's box of problems for those charged to and straightforward technique of measurement could b.e de- manage this resource. vised, was not included. The ten marshes selected for two years of intensive study range in size from 1.2 to 130 acres, Summary include marshes in all parts of the state, and marshes which As previously stated the final results of this work will be intuitively cover the broadest range in "apparent value." available within the next several months. This project will Five are washed by euthrophic waters, some have been part- provide Rhode Island with baseline data on its salt marsh 101 resources and will probably lead the CRMC to continue to Literature Cited provideall salt marshes, large or small, attractive and unat- Bibliography tractive, equal protection against the inroads of filling and Nixon, S.W., and Oviatt, C.A. 1973. Analysis of local varia- other human activities that may damage this valuable re- tion in the standing crop of Spartinaalterniflora. Botanica source. Marina, Vol. XVI:103-109. 102 Conflicts Between Research and Recreation Wetlands John Teal, Senior Scientist Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts Introduction each other and share most interests and concerns to at least Most of the conflicts between the desires of research scien- some degree. I believe there are two kinds of area treatments tists and the general publ ic in search of recreation in wetland required for research: 'pristine' areas and areas that can be areas are probably of minor importance compared with con- modified in controlled ways. flicts that may arise from applications of wetlands for pub- lic purposes that may be suggested by research results. It is Pristine Areas also likely that the greatest conflicts between scientists and Pristine areas are wetlands which have not been greatly al- the public will'not arise in urban areas but in less changed tered from the form they reached through natural evolution wetlands away from population centers. I believe research (outside of the influences of men). I presume in saying this is badly needed in coastal ecology. This can be seen as a self- that human influences, disturbances and pollution, will gen- serving statement from a scientist, but I believe our major erally work to degrade the wetland systems. The idea of pre- handicap in managing recreational resources along the coast serving wetlands in as natural a state as possible is to preserve is our abysmal lack of understanding of how nature works. all of the species and interactions between species that have Consider some controversies on land: the wisdom of clear-, evolved together in the wetlands. These areas can then serve cutting as a way of managing our national forests, predator' as controls from which to measure the degree of change control on federally owned rangelands, the value of biologi- caused by human activity. If we lack these undisturbed sys- cal versuschernical pestcontrol in agriculture.We lack enough tems we can never hope to understand completely the way knowledge to settle these issues with irvhat seems reasonable systems react to disturbance. certainty to all those involved in the conflicts. But here we Another purpose of the pristine areas is to preserve natu- are talking about the land,wherewe live,wherewe have been ral genetic variation. Modified environments often select a able to see how nature works most easily and where we have restricted set of genotypes and allow others to become ex- thousands of years of recorded observations to work with. tinct locally. McHugh said polluted areas may serve as a val- Although the edge of the sea is the most accessible part uable reserve for spawning shellfish. I don't quarrel with this of the ocean, we lack all but a rudimentary knowledge of but do point out that it is possible that these shellfish are its ecological relationships. We don't have a long background selected for pollution resistance wh'ich may not be the same of observations on how the animals and plants live. It is sim- thing as, for example, best growth rate or taste. If there are ply hard to see what is going on. R. T. Keck pointed out how no undisturbed environments of a particular type, the geno- difficult it is to see in muddy waters even with SCUBA. My types selected against in the modified systems may become favorite coastal environment, salt marsh, is out of water over extinct absolutely. half the time, but even there you must not mind getting Although these arguments for preservation of pristine your trousers wet if you are to watch the animals' behavior. systems are logically convincing there are no examples But in order to understand how to manage coastal eco- known to me of a case inwhich such preservation did serve systems in urban areas we must know how human activities as we might expect it to. There are abundant examples of affect these systems. I write mainly from the viewpoint of pest control in which an insect predator was imported from basic science-understanding how nature works rather than the natural range of an accidently introduced plant pest. If how to ma nage a resource, although the two merge into the predator had been exterminated from its original range 103 before importation, then the biological control would have As another example, I would suggest that controlled oil been impossible. But as far as I know there are no cases in spills on marshes would be useful. We know oil kills organ- which the introduction required a pristine natural area in isms but have little understanding of the effects of low levels which to locate the predatory insect. of oil or how recovery occurs, especially at the level of the P. A. Buckley argues that areas undisturbed during the ecosystem. nesting season are essential for preservation of shorebirds, I would attempt to summarize the desires of research sci- gulls, terns, etc., but also showed that the'birds have certain entists as 1) the preservation of some wetlands with their flexibility and often find very local areas sufficiently undis- supporting ecosystems in as natural a state as can be achieved turbed for their purposes. Perhaps all this means is that there for comparative- purposes and as sources of wetland organ- are still sufficient numbers of reasonably well preserved sys- isms and genetic variation, and 2) the ability to use other tems so that we have not yet encountered any trouble from wetlands for experiments, i.e., to modify them including the lack of preservation of them, or it may mean we have modifications that degrade wetlands temporarily. been unable to recognize our loss when it has occurred. I would argue that, in spite of lack of solid examples of Wetlands Recreation and Conflicts its usefulness, preservation of complete and unmodified nat- The desires of people who want to use wetlands for recrea- ural areas is highly desirable. Furthermore, when considering tional purposes vary according to the type of recreation en- wetlands, I would suggest that it is necessary to preserve the visioned. Recreation is constrained by weather, accessibility, associated ecosystems in as pristine a state as possible because etc., but for my purpose I will assume the desire is for the of the high degree of interaction between coastal ecosys- maximum possible use consistent with the preservation of terns. This means preservingthe protecting dunes and barrier those aspects of the wetland which attract people in the islands, the associated estuaries, and the upland drainage area first place. In the case of fishing that would mean the pres- for these systems. Obviously complete preservation of such ervation of the high levels of wetland and estuarine produc- associated ecosystems is not possible in our part of the world. tion as well as the open water and channels where the actual There is fallout of pollutant lead, hydrocarbons, etc., from fishing is done. For water skiing only the preservation of the atmosphere all overtheearth. But, if absolutely unmodi- the open water would be necessary, although a careful anal- fied systems are not available for preservation, relatively un- ysis would probably indicate that preservation of marshes changed ones are. Their preservation will inevitably lead to as sediment traps would be an essential aspect of maintain- conflict with recreational uses. ing open water suitable for skiing in many areas. For aes- thetic appreciation of salt marshes, bird watching and edu- Controlled Modification cational- uses, boardwalks properly designed can provide rec- The other general class of wetland use desired by scientists reational use with very I ittle impact of any sort. is controlled modification for experimental purposes. The The conflicts between desires of research scientists and desirability of experimenting with entire ecosystems is great. users or managers of recreation areas are obvious. Perhaps There are many results of changes in ecosystems that can the maximum conflict would arise in the "pristine areas." simply not be predicted from present knowledge of how the If there is really to be a complete protection for all of the parts of even the simplest systems are put together. Experi- co-evolved interactions within the natural ecosystem, then mental approach is also an efficient way to examine the very little human use of the system can be permitted. An results of complex interactions. Experiments with ecosys- extreme case would be the preservation of the wetland sys- terns are difficult because of the complexity of the system, tern for the use of only those scientists using it as a control but in the case of coastal wetlands the systems are suffici- for their study of other wetlands. A less extreme position ently bounded that we can hope to study them. Perhaps the might still ask for a minimum of harvesting of natural re- results can then be extended to other ecosystems where ex- sources, a minimum of disturbance by visitors, and would periments would be even more difficult. Therefore, it is es- certainly want to achieve as close to total lack of pollution pecially important that there be good control of the experi- as possible. The ultimate position would exclude even the ment. Disturbance by fishermen, bird watchers or sunbath- scientist and preserve the system for its role as a natural ers and swimmers will make the interpretation of the experi- reservoir of organisms. It is not hard to see that the preser- mental results more difficult. vation of any very large special areas for a privileged group Some types of experiments are designed to stress the eco- of researchers (and visiting controllers of funds or colleagues) system with high temperatures or pollutants. The purpose would not go over very well with anyone else. of the test is to change the system in order to study its re- Conflicts in other wetland study areas should be fewer, sponse. Or an experiment might be designed to study the ordinarily, but would involve some restriction on the abili- role of a wetland in the existence of viruses, for example, to ty of the public to do just what they want. In almost any see how a wetland might influence the survival of disease- sort of study involving manipulation of a wetland ecosystem causing viruses from sewage contamination. The wetland it- the researcher would want, if not to restrict the actions of self would not necessarily be damaged but its use by humans the public, at least to know what those actions were and to as a food source definitely would be temporarily restricted. quanitfy them. For example, for a study we are considering 104 to try to increase production within a marsh system we systems to find out how these complicated collections of or- would need to know how many and what kinds of fish peo- ganisms and environments function. For such experiments ple were catching and removing from the system. to be adequately interpreted we must have good control sys- A more severe conflict would be involved with the more tems. There are also good arguments for conserving what I drastic sorts of manipulative experiments. A study of the have called pristine systems to preserve all aspects of the ability of wetlands to serve as a sewage treatment system wetland system, including those of whose existence we may would certainly necessitate controlled access by the public. not even be aware at the present. Conflicts between research If, in an effort to study their fate in such an ecosystem, the and recreation-bent people will occur. But they will be tem- sewage contained human pathogens, then access would have porary in most cases with the public ultimately benefitting to be even more carefully controlled. The latter situation from knowledge that leads to better wetlands management. certainly would bring on objections from the people who For "completely preserved" areas the conflicts will be per- feltthreatened directly by-the experiment as far as their per- manent, but these areas will, by their nature, not be found sonal health was concerned. If the experiment was run in a in urban areas. manner, e.g., with artificial or with sterilized sewage, so that Carls, in this symposium, said, "The mystery associated no disease problem existed, people probably would object with the sea will always be one of its attractions." Scientists on aesthetic grounds, for fear that changes would be objec- are attracted by the opportunity to try and explain those tionable in some way, or just because the management in- mysteries and through explanations, eventually they will volved would restrict their freedom. enable people to increase both their wonder about and ac- cess to the coastal wetlands in our increasingly urbanized Summary environment... I strongly feel it is desirable to experiment with natural eco- 105 Law and Coastal Recreation: Land Use Management and Co-nflict Resolution David A. Rice, Professor of Law Boston University School of Law, Boston, Massachusetts Introduction in and power to.control private land use gave way in late Among the species of the coastal environment, it is homo nineteenth and -early twentieth century judicial decisions sapien alone that develops and muses over formal rules de- which bridled at the restrictive effects of such principles in fining rights and interests in that environment and its uses. an era of both laissez-faire and urbanization. Not surprisingly, our use of law serves disparate intere sts The fact remains, however, that legal limitation of purely and needs and both manages and mismanages our use of market forces has at no time been totally absent. Public reg- lands, waters and resources. These brief remarks address both ulation or prohibition of uses with injurious effects to pub- dimensions of the legal experience for it is useful to consider lic health or safety have always been legally permissible un- .present efforts to utifize law to assure sound management der nuisance-oriented conceptionsof the general police pow- only in light of how law has served in the past as a means of er. And more comprehensive and systematic public regula- management and mismanagement of coastal land use. tion through exercise of the police power to protect the The nominal topic of my conference contribution is the general public welfare was approved by the Supreme Court legal dimension of conflict in coastal wetlands management when it sustained zoning regulation as a legitimate means for and use. Close examination of the conference program re- coping with the pervasive and sharp conflicts attendant* to vealed to me, however, that my presentation is distinctive land use in an urbanizing society.1 Neither form of public in being the only one clearly identified as "legal." That fact regulation, however, purports to establish significant legal encourages me, to range more broadly, to be somewhat un- impediments to the otherwise legally-reinforced market al- lawyerly by venturing beyond both topical and physical location system; nuisance-oriented regulation establishes boundaries of coastal wetlands. Nevertheless, neither my only minimal outer limits on the private use and marketa- range nor my ranging is boundless; the content of my re- bility of land; zoning serves primarily-'to minimize use con I- marks remains legal and their context is coastal and recrea- flicts that would otherwise need to be dealt with in nuisance- tional. oriented regulation and thereby legally assures a greater de- gree of certainty as to use rights and rationality in actual The Traditional Role of Law use. Both assume the fact that development will occur and Historically, the law's most significant role has been to facili- that such development will be defined, subject to relatively tate coastal land, water and resource allo'catio-n- Tn accor- marginal legal limitations, by market forces and economic dance with market-determined use priorities. the concepts self-interest. - of private ownership and free alienation of interests in prop- This background on the historical functions of law is, of erty impose threshold demands of certainty in the definition course, particularly relevant with respect to coastal wetlands of both the physical boundaries and the rights of ownership. and other coastal lands. Hand-in-hand, the law and market With respect to boundaries, natural ly-def ined limits such forces have functioned with respect to the physically scarce- as low and high water marks have been conveniently, but and increasingly market scarce-supply of coastal land to arbitrarily, employed together with inland line-drawing tied promote development of developable lands and conversion to natural and artificial markers to produce the necessary of nondevel6pable into developable lands. Recreation as a certainty. As to ownership rights, early nineteenth century use has been valued in this process in primarily consump- indications from the courts show substantial public interest tive, private, short-range 'and site-specific terms with little 106 or no regard for either external and long-range environmen- decisions in Oregon and Texas establish or confirm, howev- tal or social effects, the latter generally being unvalued or er, public rights to beach and shore areas extending landward 2 undervalued by the private market mechanism. to the natural line of vegetation.8 Public recreation and shore access rights and opportunities in these states are thus The Capacity and Emerging Role of Law generally guaranteed rather than subject to public agency In recent years, and particularly in the last decade and a supply of areas maintained and acquired for that purpose. half, expressed public concerns of both an environmental The public interest in, and authority to regulate the use and a social-economic character have stimulated interest in of, privately-owned shorelands is, however, substantial. Ear- legal action counter-balancing the legal ly-faci I itated private ly Massachusetts court decisions indicate that both near- market allocation of coastal lands, waters and resources.Stag- shore and on-shore private lands may be subject to a greater nant common law principles and public constitutional and degree of regulation in their use because of their physical statutory law have all been employed, together with new proximity and relationship to the public domain.9 The stat- legislative measures, to assert and implement previously dis- ute sustained in one of the cases prohibited littoral owners regarded public interests in the management and utilization from removing sand and gravel, trees, shrubs or vegetation of coastal wetland and shoreland areas. As might be expect- and was upheld with acknowledgement that "protection and ed, such efforts following upon longstanding quiescence have preservation of beaches, in situations where they form the often generated strong and highly emotional resistance as natural embankment to public ports and harbors, and navi- well as pitched legal battles. gable streams, is obviously of great public importance.1110 Against the background of prior legal history, the courts In reaching its decision, the court noted that the 8wner's have addressed the legal issues posed by the active assertion violation of the statute had resulted in severe wind and water of public rights and interests in coastal lands and, quite pre- erosion. dictably-at least to a lawyer, uncertainly reasoned to what That statute is presently codified as Chapter 91, Sections often seem to be confusingly different results. In my re- 30 and 30Awhich specify as their purpose the protection maining remarks, my focus will be upon the active use of of harbors and navigation. The statute has little reported law in coastal lands management and directions taken by history of being enforced, however, and destruction and the courts in response to the new activism. construction in dune and other areas to which the statute specifically speaks seems to attest to the law's nonuse. Its Public andPrivate Property Rightsand Interests:-Ithas been usability may, of course, be limited in light of its focus on long recognized in the law that coastal waters, together with harbors and navigation, but here it becomes important to the lands beneath and the resources within them, are in the note that the coastal wetlands statute administered by local public domain and held in trust by the states for the benefit conservation commissions, or other appropriate local agen- of the public.3 Such ownership vests the respective states cies, extends its special permit requirements beyond wet- with management powers and, according to some court de- lands to beaches, banks and dunes and is founded on the cisions, imposes both limitations on the sale or other dis- protection of, among other things, marine and shellfish- position of these resources4 and affirmative responsibilities eriesil which are, together with navigation, among the an- to preserve and conserve them.5 The latter, in particular, cient protected rights of the public in coastal waters.1 2 may be of major significance with respect to wetlands and other resource protection laws and their validity, a matter Public Use Rights in Public Shore Lands: It is axiomatic that explored, intra. publicly-owned beach and other shorelands are subject to The near-shore transition from public to private domain public control or regulation of their use. Reasonable re- varies from one state to another. Massachusetts is among strictions are essential to manage conflicts among compet- the few states in. which private ownership extends seaward ing interests in the use of these lands and their resources, of high water, the boundary being the closer of the line of including restrictions that prevent environmentally unsound low water or one hundred rods from high water. Such pri- or destructive misuse or overuse. Typical measures pertain vate ownership is subject to reserved public navigation, fish- to public health and safety, pollution, off-road vehicles, ing and fowling rights and the use of both the waters and the fisheries and shell fisheries management, and intensity or shoreland in connection therewith, and private wharf con- manner of use. struction or other occupying uses are not permissible with- Some such regulations, however, have recently come un- out obtaining a license.6 On the other hand, public uses der intensive attack. These control measures are those which other than the enumerated trio are not permissible in the restrict or prohibit nonresident access to, or use of, munici- private shore unless secured by consent or longstanding pre- pally-owned and managed public beaches. Here again, con- scriptive use by the public.7 flict between the interests of the general and the local pub- In most other states, the public domain and use rights lic is strong, a mirror image of the public-often local pub- extend for all purposes to the mean high water line and are lic-and the private interests in the use of beach and shore excludable only by permitted wharf construction or other front of privately-owned upland. Several courts, on vari- occupancy of the area by the littoral owner. Recent court ous grounds, have struck down such restrictions in recent 107 years13 and the conflict promises to ripen into legal disputes Holmes's announcement of a new test for whether a regula- with greater frequency and closer to home in the coming tion is so severe as to constitute a "taking." The standard years. announced was, in effect, a benefit-cost or balancing test It' is, of course, a short-sighted solution to merely force limited by the requirement that the regulation in no case open local public beachesto all members of the public with- may deprive the owner of all reasonable use of the land. In out instituting and enforcing environmentally sound inten- the zoning-oriented years that followed, application of that sity and manner of use measures such as those which have standard in the development-oriented, conflict-resolving con- been established for Massachusetts state-owned beaches and text of zoning restrictions took on the meaning that no reg- the beaches of the several national seashore areas.14 Similar- ulation that substantially deprived an owner of the reason- ly, transportation and tra ff icproblems, perhaps using perim- able. use of land could be sustained. Yet, where necessary eter parking and shuttle service, must be central factors in in the early 1960s, the Supreme Court itself merely paid considering issues of access unless we are to totally sacrifice lip service to Pennsylvania Coal and relied upon its earlier local safety and convenience and the historical and cultural case law to sustain a prohibition against use of an own- character and amenities of coastal communities to a singu- er's land for the only purpose to which it was reasonably suit- lar view of the general public right and interest. 15 Recrea- ed.18 tional as well as residential or other traditional development Also in the early 1960s, the state courts first faced the uses may, of course, be environmentally unsound, if not "taking". issue in the context of severely restrictive flood properly controlled. plain and wetlands regulations statutes. These early cases adopted the analog of zoning regulation and, despite recog- Public Regulation of Private Development: Returning to nizing the legitimate purposes of such regulations, struck the matter of the public interest in and regulation of private down or tended to view such regulations as takings of pri- wetlands and other coastal lands management and use, one vate property without compensation.19 commonly finds the focus there is on wetlands development More recently, a strong trend toward sustaining strict control. More particularly, the issue is no longer whether wetlands and similar regulatory restrictions has begun to sufficient statutory authorities exist for the protection and develop. In b-ith Wisconsin and New Hampshire, it has been conservation of these and other coastal lands, but is whether declared that ownership rights do not include an inherent or not the imposition of such regulatory controls is so re- right to alter and convert property from its natural state ;trictive of identifiable private rights attendant to ownership a n d u1se capacity into land usable for residential, commer- that the effect of the regulation is to deprive the owner of cial or industrial site development.20 'These cases rest on a11 practical use of the land. If so, of course, the regulation /the conclusion that such uses may-be permitted, but may constitutes an indirect and constitutionally impermissible also be prohibited if they would cause injury to public rights taking or condemnation of the land if the owner is not paid to the regulated land. compensation for the deprivation of use. In another significant recent case, the Connecticut The significance of the "taking" issue cannot be overem- Supreme Court side-stepped its own early 1960s de- phasized in light of the realities of wetlands, shorelands, cision limiting regulation and revived a prior decision dunes and other fragile and critical natural areas needing more favorable to wetlands and flood plain regulation.21 protection regulation. Simply stated, the competing interests Somewhat more cautiously than either the Wisconsin are such that realization of the private economic value ne- or New Hampshire court, the Connecticut court made cessitates alteration of the land which destroys the values protection of resources in which public rights and inter- the public wants protected by regulation while on the other ests existed a central consideration in sustaining the regu- hand, realization of the latter values severely limits or de- lation. Similarly, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court stroys the private economic value of the land. in Turnpike Realty Co. v. Dedham sustained a severe flood While the significance of the "taking" issue cannot be plain zoning restriction, emphasizing the protection afford- overemphasized, the issue undoubtedly has been overana- ed the property of others-which could presumably include lyzed. Thus, the comments that follow are impressions or public property-and the public interest in avoiding pub- reflections on, rather than a close analysis of, the topic. The lic works and disaster relief expenditures connected with effort is to suggest where the courts have been in both the flooding. The Massachusetts court, as did the Connecti-, distant and more recent past and, more adventurously, to cut court, distinguished the earlier Connecticut and speculate about where they are going and what the signifi- similar cases which it, too had'previously viewed with fa- cance is of the trend that I perceive for recreation in the vor. coastal region. Each of the cases in the recent line of judicial decisions The mid- and late-nineteenth century court decisions expressly recognizes, in Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon found little difficulty in sustaining severe regulation of pri- terms, that recreational, educational and scientific uses of vate lands and their uses, particularly where the uses threat- privately-owned lands subject to development restrictions ened injury to public property rights or interests.16 Then are residual reasonable uses that save the regulatory restric- came Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon17 and Mr. Justice tion from attack even under thePennsylvania Coal test. This, 108 itself, may encourage an affirmative search for opportuni- 6. Mass. Gen. Laws, chapter 91, sections 14-18. ties to realize economic benefitfrorn such uses although even 7. Opinion of the Justices, 74 Mass. Adv. Sh. 1074, 313 such uses are, under the applicable statutes, subject to regu- N.E.2d 561 (1974), lation consistent with the protective purposes of the statutes. 8. State ex rel Thornton v. Hay, 254 Ore. 584, 462 P.2d 671 More significant, of course, is that the'cases af ford the means (1969); Seaway v. Attorney General, 375 S.W.2d 923 for protection and conservation of wetlands and their de- (Tex. 1964). See also County of Hawaii v. Sotomura, pendent 'sport and commercial fisheries and shellfisheries - - - Hawaii ---, 517 P.2d 57 (1973). and for preservation of beaches, banks and dunes against de- 9. Commonwealth v. Alger, 61 Mass 53,(1851); Common- struction caused directly or indirectly by their alteration.. wealth v. Tewksbury, 52 Mass. 55 (1846). The importance of this cannot be missed by the participants 10. Commonwealth v. Tewksbury, 52 Mass. 55,51-58 (1846). at this conference who well appreciate the positive results 11. Mass. Gen. Laws, chapter 13, sec. 40. of these developments for coastal recreation as well as the 12. Opinion of the Justices, 74 Mass. Adv. Sh. 1067, 313 natural environment. N.E.2d 561 (1974). See generally D. Rice, A Study of This, I reemphasize, is what I perceive as an emerging the Law Pertaining to the Tidelands of Massachusetts, trend. It is by no means a certain, definitive or unchallenged Final Report of the Legislative Commission on Tidelands view. In the final analysis, it is an optimistic view that is at Licensing, Mass. House No. 4932 (1971). once better grounded than to be mere wishful speculation 13. Gewirtz v. City of Long Beach, 69 Misc. 2d 763, 330 and guardedly hedged by the realization that a judicial change N.Y.S.2d 495 (Sup. Ct., Nassau County 1972); Gion v. in direction would not be unprecedented. City of Santa Cruz, 2 Cal.3d 29, 84 Cal. Reptr. 162, 465 P.-2d 56 (1970); Daytona Beach v. Tona-Rama, Inc., Conclusions 294 So.2d 73 (Fla. 1974); Borough of Neptune v. Bor- Broad ruminations are not really grist for analytical con- ough of Avon by-the-Sea, 61 N.J. 309, 294 A.2d 54 clusions. Perhaps what remains and ought to be said is that (11974); Greenco Corp. v. City of Virginia Beach, 214 Va. the magisterial powers of the law can undo and restore the 201, 198 S.E.2d 201 (1973). status quo ante in some of man's transactions, but it is large- 14. Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Af- ly powerless to undo the damage and destruction that has fairs, Department of Environmental Management, Divi- been already visited upon coastal lands. Likewise, it is pri- sion of Forests and Parks: Camping and Day Use Regula- marily money rather than the authority of the law which tions (1975); Recreational Trail Facilities Regulations can accomplish the expansion of the supply of coastal areas (1974) and 36 C.F.R. 1.5,.27, 28. open to public recreational and other uses; even restrictive 15. gee generally D. Rice, Public beach access and use in regulations of the use of private lands cannot impose the ob- Massachusetts, Third Interim Report of the Special Com- ligation of opening such lands to public use. Thus, there is mission Relative to the Management, Operation and much to which the law and lawyers do not and cannotspeak. Accessibility of Public Beachesalong the Sea Coast, Mass. even through formal legislation. The law can help, but it House No. 6611 at pp. 143-144 (1975). does protect the rights of individuals even against a majori- 16. See, e.g., Commonwealth v. Alger, 61 Mass. 53 (1851); ty of the people and demands at some point that the people Commonwealth v.,Tewksbury, 52 Mass. 55 (1846); Mug- as a whole rather than individuals bear the costs of the ben- ler v. Kansas, 123 U.S. 623 (1887). See generally Bossel- efits the people seek to secure. man, Cal I ies and Banta, The Taking IIssue (1973). 17. 260 U.S. 393 (1922). Literature Cited 18. Goldblatt v. Town of Hampstead, 369 U.S. 590 (1962). Footnotes 19. See, e.g., State v. Johnson, --- Me. ---, 265 A.2d 1 . Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 U.S. 365 711 (1970); Dooley v. Town Planning and Zoning Com- (1926). mission of the Town of Fairfield, 151 Conn. 304, 197 2. See genera I ly D. Ducsi k, Shoreline for the Public (1975). A.2d 770 (1964); Morris County Land improvement Co. 3. See generally J. Sax, The public trust doctrine in natural v. Parissipany-Troy Hills Township, 40 N.J. 539, 193 resource law: Effective judicial intervention, 68Michigan A.2d 232 (1963). See also Commissioner of NaturalAe- Law Review, 473 (1970), and Note, The public trust in sources v. Volpe, 349 Mass. 104, 206 N.E.2d 666 (1965), tidal areas: A sometimes submerged traditional doctrine, adopting the zoning analogy but searching for grounds 79 Yale LawJournal, 762 (1970). upon wh ich to uphold the regulatory restriction. 4. Illinois Central R. Co. v. Illinois, 146 U.S. 387 (1892). 20. Just v. Marinette County, 56 Wis.2d 7, 201 _Wi2cl 761 5. See, e.g., Maryland Department of Natural Resources v. (1972); Sibson v. State, 115 N.H. 124, 336 A.2d 239 Amerada Hess Corp., 350 F. Supp. 1060, (D.Md. 1972); (1975). State v. Bowling Green, 4 ELR 20730 (Ohio Sup. Ct. 21. Brecciaroli v. Connecticut Commissioner of Environ- 1974); State Dept. of Environmental Protection v. Jer- mental Protection, --- Conn. ---, A.2d (1975). sey Central Power and Li -ght Co., 133 N.J. Super. 375, 22. --- mass. ---, 284 N.E.2d 891 (1972), certiorari 336 A.2d 750 (1975). denied, 409 U.S. 1108 (1973). 109 Impact of Boating on Shoreline Roy Mann President, Roy Mann Associates, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts Abstract row waterways or inlets, at tributary mouths, or in small The increase in recreational boating activity and facility con- embayments, where activity on the water surface is con- struction in recent years has raised questions concerning ob- st.ricted by shoreline configuration and water depth. served and potential congestion in coastal zone waters; pos- The rate of accident occurrence does not appear to have sible impact on estuarine resources; and the needs of the risen over the years, although the number of boats using the growing boating public for improved access and activity op- tidal waters has increased steadily from 77,368 registered portunities. boats in 1965 to 113,748 in 1974. A methodology for the identification of recreational The demand for boating facilities appears to be outstrip- boating carrying capacities in the tributaries and sub-tribu- ping supply by a significant degree. Principal shortages, pri- taries of Chesapeake and Chincoteague Bays has been devel- marily of launching ramps, appear to exist in proximity to oped under Maryland's coastal zone management program. the major metropolitan regions, i.e., Baltimore and Washing- Since boating satisfactions and safety depend to a large ex- ton. In order to satisfy unmet demand, increased facility tent on boating behavior, experience, and recreational activ- programming will be needed in both the public and private ity preferences, boating capacities cannot be related rigidly sectors. to water body physical parameters a I.one. On the ot .her Boating facilities often impinge on sensitive shoreline re- hand, in the absence of better tools, computed capacities sources. Boating activity itself may in certain cases exacer- can help states determine the desirability of issuing or, de- bate shoreline erosion, increase turbitidy levels in shallow nying additional permits for new marina construction with- areas with@ soft bottoms, and degrade water quality through in or adjacent to congested waters. thedischarge of wastes in poorly flushed water bodies where The careful exercise of state powers relating to boating high levels of activity occur. Further field research appears activity, as distinct from the processing of marina construc- needed to ascertain the existence and extent of these and tion permits, can also improve net boating satisfactions to other effects in Chesapeake and Chincoteague Bays. the boating public, through educational, regulatory, and en- A strengthening of Maryland Department of Natural Re- forcement measures. Such measures must work to distrib- sources capabilities for dealing with boating activity and fa- ute trailer boat access demand and general boating demand cility development -will be essential if the growing demand evenly among, water bodies with reserve capacity and dis- for boating and its consequences for user satisfaction and courage over-use where capacities are apparently exceeded. environmental and social impact are to be adequately faced. Among the findings of the study prepared by Roy Mann Strengthening of capabilities would incorporate increasing Associates for the Maryland Department of Natural Re- staff and operational budget in the several divisions of the sources in 1975-1976 were the following: Department that deal with boating facilities and manage- Localized overcrowding or congestion is a serious con- ment; the augmentation of the present capital improvement cern in a number of sub-bay units of the tidal waters of Mary- program budget for launching ramps; and increased coordi- land. Congestion appears to be primarily a function of acces- native functions between the Energy and, Coastal Zone Ad- sibility to the water and the physical characteristics of tribu- ministration, other Departmental divisions, and county and tary water bodies. Most'instances of congestion occur in local construction programs. proximity to large concentrations of boating facilities in nar- 110 Shoreline Conflicts in Coastal Recreation Virginia K. Tippie, Marine Resources Specialist Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island Narragansett Campus, Narragansett, Rhode Island Introduction nize and carefully evaluate the alternatives for a -given site. Initially I would like to address two questions, what are our It is undesirable, however, if it unnecessarily reduces the Coastal Resources and why is there conflict over the uses of number of activities which a coastal area can support. these resources? Our "Coastal Resources" whether they're recreational or Impending Conflict industrial resources are essentially cultural constructs emerg- In Rhode Island, we are faced with an impending conflict ing from the interaction of human wants and capabilities over the use of the abandoned naval lands along our coast. with the natural environment. Obviously, changing econo .m- A rather comprehensive study of the feasibility of using ic, social and technological circum stances force us to redefine some of these'lands for a Bay Island Park System was con- -our "Coastal Resources." For example, not too long ago ducted by the Coastal Resources Center. In this study the wetlands were considered useful only as a dumping site for South end of Prudence Island, one of the larger islands in trash, old cars, tires, etc. Now they are considered a valuable Narragansett Bay, was designated as the major recreational coastal resource due to scientific studies and increasing en- area and central receiving area for the water accessible por- vironmental interest, tions of the park. Picnic and camp sites, hiking trails, walk- In today's rapidly advancing world it is often difficult ing and bicycle paths, scenic overlooks and fishing access for managers and planners to keep pace with changing cir- points were to be provided. The total cost would be $125,- cumstances. As a result extreme conflicts have arisen and of- 000. However, other studies have recommended that an oil ten gotten out of hand before equitable solutions could be storage facility and terminal be constructed on the south found. Unfortunately projects in the best long-term interest end of Prudence Island. of the public have often been lost in the conf rontati on -such At first glance, it would appear that the two uses of the has been the fate of many recreation areas. area (recreation, oil storage) would be incompatible. Per- Our coastal shoreline totals some 100,000 miles and-sev- haps they are not. But, to make matters more diff icult, mem- enty-five percent of our population is concentrated along it. bers of the Governor's OCS Task Force decided that the As the coastal population of the U.S. continues to swell, the south end of Prudence Island may be the only site in the pressures for access to and use of the shoreline increase pro- state which would be suitable for a concrete platform fabri- portionally. Obviously the amount of available shoreline de- cation yard due to the deep water immediately off its shore creases constantly and competition for shoreline space be- and the fact that it is sheltered. If Georges Bank offshore oil comes intense. The participants in this competition are many becomes a reality, and gravity platforms are the wave of the and varied: heavy industry, commerce, transportation, pub- future, the statecertainly doesn't want to close the option lic and private recreation, waste disposal, mining, conserva- of attracting the Concrete Platform fabrication industry. tion. All vie for a place on the waterfront. Obviously it is difficult to predict technology trends but Their needs are many and often contradictory. An indus- they happen so quickly that the planner is often caught un- try may seek a coastal location to conveniently dispose of aware. However, he or she would rather'be one step ahead its wastes, a home owner to provide an attractive private vis- than behind. ta, an individual to find clean water for bathing or boating. The decision-makers are faced with a difficult task. How The competition can be healthy if it forces planners to recog- to compare recreational uses to industrial uses of the area. They must also consider setting pside the area for some fu- time opportunity to help guarantee for future generations ture use not yet clearly defined. Obviously the state needs of Rhode Islanders the excellent quality of life still available economic growth. According to the Council on Environmen- in our state and if for any reason the state earmarks the bay tal Quality if development were concentrated on Georges islands primarily for industrial use, it will be casting aside Bank there would be up to 80,000 new jobs in Rhode Island forever the only major opportunity of this magnitude to and Massachusetts in 10 years. It should be noted that this demonstrate in a tangible way that the quality of life in this influx will cause a burden on recreational areas. The Indus- state is its greatest natural resource." trial Development alternative would mean increased revenue. The question we should ask is: how important are new A park system would not bring in high revenues. How can a recreation areas to the state orfor that matter New England? Bay Island Park System compete on the free market? On any given warm sunny day in July you will find the pub- Ownership and hence distribution of land is determined lic beaches near metropolitan centers jam packed, but beaches by who can and will pay the most for it. The market distri- in rural areas wil I be almost vacant. There is obviously a spa- bution system prejudices itself in favor of high return uses tial imbalance in the availability of opportunities and facili- and it does not necessarily encourage thesuccessful competi- ties for recreation in New England. Inevitably this leads to tor to modify his activities to accommodate other uses. For pressures on the carrying capacity of the site where the de- example, there is no economic incentive for an industry to mand is excessive. Competition and conflict over the recre- bury its storage tanks in order to provide a recreation area. ation space follows, along with the probability of deteriora- How do you place a value on public recreation? The return tion in the character and quality of the resource base. Afine is so diffuse and largely non-monetary. It is also very difii- example of this is the degradation of many of our sandy bar- cult to even measure the spinoff monetary returns to the rier beaches because too many people have trampled the economy from a given recreational facility (i.e., restaurants; dune grasses which maintained the barrier beaches. souvenir shops). Many people have tried to place a'mone- The need is not for additional recreational areas per se tary value on natural areas based on a correlation of natural but rather for a redistribution of recreational areas. Let us energy flow with the dollar value of producing energy. But hold on to some of those natural recreational areas which how do you measure the value of preserving a way of life? are located near urban centers and not let them fall prey We must recognize that like a famous painting, the unique- to a cruel market system. Yet let us be sure that we care- ness and quality of a given recreational area may be worth fully evaluate the possibility for multiple land use. A well more than simply its physical components. hidden oil storage facility on the south end of Prudence Is- land may be quite compatible with a park. With planning, 'Bay Islands Park recreational and industrial uses can often be compatible. The advisory Committee on the@ Bay Islands Park stated Isn't it about time that industrial parks truly became parks? that: "The Bay Islands Park proposal provides a rare, one- 112 Recreational Impact on Shorelines Research and Management Paul J. Godfrey, Leader National Park Service Cooperative Research Unit Institute for Man and Environment and Department of Botany . University of Massachusetts, Amherst Introduction man, are too severe. These systems have not adapted to hu- Recreational use of shorelines affects much more than just man stresses, and thus are subject to breakdown when such the beach. The shoreline zone includes beaches, dunes, inter- stress becomes too great. dune depressions, tidal flats,glacial marine scarps, salt marsh- The greatest difficulties with recreation usecome in those es, and all other environments found along the coast. The lands, such as the National Parks, where two goals are sought: approaches taken to research and manage the shoreline zone the use of the resources for recreational, aesthetic and edu- must deal with the entire system, not just the parts which cational purposes; and at the same time, preservation of the make up the whole. The various subunits of a shoreline sys- very resources that people want to use. This basic conflict tem are interrelated and what affects one part can ultimate- becomes increasingly difficult to resolve as more and more ly affect all others. Recreational use of the shorelines results people flock to the coasts. in impacts on all the basic parts, in one way or another. While most people heading for the beach spend most of their time Main Thesis near the water, the fact that they have access to the beach The major point of this presentation is that the increasing implies an impact has been made on some part of the coastal use of coastal shoreline resources requires implementation system. of management procedures which prevent deterioration of Modern use of shorelines falls into three basic categories: the resources. We cannot allow heavy use of the shores and people on foot; people in or on some mode of terrestrial still retain natural conditions. Some effort must be made to transport vehicle, such as motor bikes, pedal bikes, or horses; channel and control the impacts. Shoreline resources can be and people swimming. The recreational impact on shoreline easily damaged by moderate to heavy use, and therefore must resources varies with both the type of recreation and the sys- be protected from such use. tem being affected. Each natural system has its own level The role of research groups, such as the National Park of tolerance to the types of impacts being applied, and re- Service Cooperative Research Unit, is to study the problems searchers must determine the level of sensitivity of each of use, and the relative sensitivity of each ecosystem to im- area, how the systems recover, and how management might pacts of various kinds, both natural and man-made, and from alleviate the impact. this information provide managers with options for actions Much has been said and written about "fragile dune and that are in keeping with the protection of the res ource, as marsh systems." But an important question revolves around well as the facilities that might be planned. The high cost what "fragile" means. Coastal ecosystems are in fact well of facilities requires that they be used where most needed, adapted to the severe environmental forces which eliminate and research needs to be aimed at determining which parts many species of plants and animals that are found inland. of the system are in greatest need of management. These organisms are hardy, able to withstand great extremes of temperature, salinity, drought, burial by moving sand, Examples of Research waves, and flooding. The ecosystems made up of these or- Many groups are conducting research on shorelines, but this ganisms have developed adaptations which allow them to paper will describe briefly the approach being used by the survive continual change. They are fragile, but only in the University of Massachusetts National Park Service Cooper- sense that the new stresses being applied by modern, mobile ative Research Unit, and how it relates to management 113 Ocean Barrier Beach Bay Edge High water spring tide Mean sea level High water neap tide Mean sea level-.. I ntertidal Sand Fore Dune Rear Dune Stabilized Dunes High Salt Low Salt Intertidal Beach Marsh Marsh Sand Flats Ammophila breviligulata Arctostaphylos Spartina Spartina. Hudsonia patens alterniflora Deschampsia also Myrica, Prunus, Rhus radicans, and other shrubs Figure 1. Diagram showing the major ecological zones of a typical New England barrier beach and areas impacted in ORV studies done on Race Point, Cape Cod National Seashore. Plants listed in each zone are the dominants. Sensitivity to ORV stress increases from ocean to bay. decisions for recreational use of shorelines. 3. Salt Marshes-Marshes are a major source of primary 'Off-Road Vehicles: Our major effort has been tostudythe productivity for estuarine waters, and form a barrier environmental effects of off-road vehicles (four-wheel drive) against erosion in the intertidal zones of bays and in the Cape Cod National Seashore. The research approach sounds. They are also significant wildlife habitats, as is experimental. As far as we know it is the first of its kind many people now know. In our research, the two main in this country. Various ecosystems within the reach of off- parts of the intertidal salt marshes were impacted-the road )traff ic'have been impacted in a controlled fashion so high marsh, flooded only by spring tides; and the low that rates of deterioration and recovery might be measured. marsh, flooded by every tide and marked by the up- This work is still preliminary, but some trends are becoming per levels of the high neap tides. Salt meadow cordgrass evident. The ecosystems being tested are as follows and are (Spartina patens) dominates the high marsh and salt more fully illustrated in Figure 1' marsh corclgrass (Spartina alterniflora) the low, 1 .Sand Beach-The beach is an important site for nutri- 4. Intertidal Sand Flats-The sand flats that are exposed ent recycling processes, drift line deposition, develop- at low tide are very important habitats for shellfish, a ment of new sand dunes and a habitat for many ani- number of which are significant commercially (such as mals, botK interstitial microscopic species and macro- thesoftshell clam -Mya arenaria); marine worms,some scopic wildlife such as terns and other shorebirds. It of which are also commercially important species (like is formed and shaped by waves and is thus the first the clam worm-Nereis virens and-bloodworms-Gly- defense against storm damage. cera); and as feeding grounds for migrating shorebirds. 2. Dunes: Fore Dunes and Rear Dunes-The dune zone Sand flats are also the environment on which new salt consists of two basic parts: the newly formed fore marshes form once enough sediment has accumulated. dunes, and the older rear dunes. Dunes catch and store sand blown up from the beach and are dependent on Preliminary Findings grass. vegetation for stability and development. They Of all the ecosystems studied sofar,the interticlal saltmarsh- are the natural barriers against severe storm flooding es and sand flats are the most severely affected by vehicle for the habitats behind the dunes, and are responsible impacts from an ecological point of view, since they are for slowing down the effects of storm surges inland. examples of very complex ecosystems with many interde- In those environments where such flooding is harmful, pendent parts, Vehicle impacts in these environments can the dunes are a major defense. Dune vegetation can lead to a chain of significant environmental changes which be broken down into either grassland, or woody com- threaten the survival of the systems in those areas being im- munities, characteristic of more stabilized dunes. In pacted. Dune environments are also seriously affected, but our research, we impacted the beach grass dunes (Am- the complexity of those habitats does not compare with the mophila b ,revili.gulata ) which represent the first stages intertidal zone o f marshes and flats, and is thus more easily in dune succession, and the more stabilized Bearberry managed and repaired. The many and complex food webs (Arctost@Whylos uva-ursi) 'heath and beach heather leading to the great diversity of marine life ,including com- (Hudsoni .a tomentosa) heathlands, as well as stabilized mercial species, are dependent on the proper functioning of Hairgrass (Deschampsia flexulosa) grassland. the interticlal ecosystem, and we have shown that vehicles 114 damaged by vehicle impact (as little as fifty passes), but the plants recover relatively well as long as their re -silient-cr=- ing stems are not broken or damaged. Beach heatner (Hud- sonia). is as rapidly destroyed; however, unlike Arctostaphy- los, it has not re-established itself during the period that,we observed the impact site (Figure 3). After two years, no substantial Hudsonia plants were present in the Vehicle tracks, although seedlings were just beginning to appear. This response can be related to this species' manner of growth; it does not reproduce readily by means of rhizomes or runners, but by seed, while bearberry expands via creeping runners as well as seed. Hairgrass (Deschampsia) communities are easily damaged as well, especially the lichens (Cladonia) as- sociated with this grassland; they show an intermediate re- covery rate, between the bearberri es' moderate regrowth and Figure 2. Impact of ninety ORV passes on a low salt marsh the beach heather's very slow recovery. From these tests, it in the Race Point study area. Destruction of the salt marsh is clear that beach heather communities are the most sensi- peat is clearly evident, and tidal water remains in tire ruts tive dune communities and must be protected from vehicle creating a panne with high salinity. (Photo by the author) impact. Depressions created by vehicles passing over a bear- berry community will be visible for a long time, even if the can significantly affect this functioning on a local level. plants are not killed. Therefore, all traffic on stabilized dune The low salt marsh community (dominated by Spartina vegetation should be prevented. alterniflora) is the least capable of tolerating vehicle impact, and the slowest to recover, of the intertidal habits studied. The pressure of a vehicle on the soft peat crushes the sub- wit strate, as well as tearing it apart. After only 90 passes of a jeep, sufficient damage was done to a low marsh study site to preclude any further driving (Figure 2). Depressions de- veloped which retained salt water, creating what might be called "pannes." These depressions are excellent mosquito habitat, having limited drainage. After two years, very little recovery is evident, although there is slow invasion of the ruts by Spartina., Nevertheless, the scar and resulting depres- sion is still very plain. Even the passage of 10 vehicles can create a long-lasting depression. It is clear that vehicle traf- fic through salt marshes should not be permitted.. Experimental evidence indicates that the open sand chan- Figure 3a. Controlled ORV impact on a Hudsonia (beach nels and extensive sand flats in Hatches Harbor (Cape Cod heather) community after 300 passes on Race Point, National Seashore), a major study area, are at least main- 8/27/74. (Photo by J.M.B. Brodhead, NPSCRU) tained by vehicles, if not created by them. The passage of vehicles over sand flats compacts the sand and prevents the normal colonization by shellfish spat, or seedlings of marsh plants. Where vehicles traverse the flats, sand is compacted into a pavement-like consistency; in protected areasIthesand is very porous. Compaction prevents shellfish below the sur- face from extending their siphons through the sand to ob- tain water -and food at high tide. In addition, shear stresses in the sand can crack the shells of bivalves such as the soft 'R shell clam. From this evidence, we have concluded that driv- ing impacts are the most severe in salt marshes and sand flats, 7W.'A and must be highly controlled, if not eliminated entirely. Kr Patterns of Recovery In the stabilized sand dunes, we observed two patterns of re- Figure 3b. Hudsonia impact site after one year showing lack covery. Bearberry heath (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) is easily of recolonization; 8/13/75. (Photo by the author) 115 41 A A- Figure 4. Controlled ORV impacts and recovery at Race Point on the fore dune edge (1 and 2), fore dunes 3 and 4) and rear dune (5 and 6). Recovery was most rapid in the fore dunes, and least on the rear dune. (Photos by J.M.B. Brodhead and the author) Of the various zones in the beach grass (Ammophila) 2 cm/day. Further up on the dune, recovery was slower. The dunes, the least sensitive are the foredunes. While initial im- region of least regrowth and least salt accumulation is at the pact of vehicles was quite severe on the beachgrass vegeta- top of the dune ridge. While this area still supports a typical tion (broken rhizomes were churned up from below, and all beachgrass community, the vigor of the plants is not as great above ground vegetation killed), the recovery rate was very as in the foredune. Only time will tell how long it takes the rapid. After only one growing season, the grass had shown upper dune system to recover completely. Further experi- signs of recovery, and after the 1975 season, the abQve ments will be made of procedures that might be used to ac- ground biomass had nearly returned to the initial values celerate the recovery rates. (Figure 4). The foredune is a region of significant sand accu- On the beach, the most sensitive zone is the drift line on mulation with resultant growth stimuli and rapid elongation the winter berm; vehicle traffic can pulverize and kill seed- of rhizomes. Rates of rhizome.growth here measured up to lings of annuals and the young plants of perennials, such as 116 Ammophila, which are associated with the drift. It was found results which show that wide, soft tires, regardless of truck that all young beach grass plants in the drift lines had grown size, move the least amount of sand. More studies are planned from fragments of rhizomes or culms which had washed up to test these observations in greater detail under varying in the drift. The presence of the organic detritus around the conditions in 1976. beach grass fragments acts as a sand trap and an excellent Sand transport studies in Hatches Harbor showed a net mulch that promotes the rapid growth of the young plants, movement of sand intothelharbor and up the channels which the possible forerunners of a new dune strand community. surround the marshes and sand flats. This implies that sand Heavy beach traffic on drift lines in the summer thus might will continually enter the region and slowly bury marshes prevent the development of new dunes. The environmental that fringe the channels as long as vehicles keep the chan- changes caused by vehicle traffic in the sand can also.affect nels open. During 1976, a much more detailed study will be the rates of nutrient cycling by beach microorganisms. conducted on the sedimentary processes of the Hatches The most unstable parts of the beach are the summer berm Harbor region. and intertidal zone. Here the dominant.organisms are micro- All the information which we now have, though it is still flora and fauna which live between the grains of sand. Tests preliminary, indicates that vehicle traffic has the least en- made on the populations of microorganisms and their natu- vironmental impact when it is restricted to the summer berm ral changes suggest that natural variations may be much and intertidal zone of the ocean beach. Vehicles should be greater than any caused by vehicles; that sand moves around excluded from nesting grounds. Vehicles have major impacts so rapidly in this zone suggests that it is a region where ve- when driven over stabilized dunes of beach heather and hair- hicle traffic would have the least overall impact. grass; this impact causes lesser damage in bearberry. The It should be noted that these studies were done on an ac- greatest environmental impact seems to occur in the intertidal creting beach system, with systems that exist under optimal sand flats and salt marshes, particularly the lowsaltmarshes. conditions. The results might be different on an eroding Microbiology and limnology of fresh waterponds in Cape shore. In 1976, we will conduct tests on the retreating Cod National Seashore-Dr. Jesse Ortiz of the University of beaches along the eastern shore of Cape Cod-Coast Guard Massachusetts Public Health Department began a study dur- Beach and Nauset Beach. ing the summer of 1975 on the public health problems re- The observations and tests concerning wildlife showed lated to recreational use of fresh water ponds in the Cape nesting terns will tolerate a passing vehicle much more read- Cod National Seashore. His work is designed to study the ily than they will tolerate pedestrians. People on foot, and epidemiological problems related to heavy use of these re- their dogs, are much more disturbing to the birds and repre- sources during summer months and attempt to determine sent much more of a threat to them than people in vehicles. what health problems might be related to swimming in these Visitors who get out of vehicles and walk up to the edge of ponds. a nesting colony (perhaps to read the sign) are creating more At the same, time, Dr. Michael Soukup and Dr. Stuart of an impact on the birds than if they remained in their ve- Ludlum in the Department of Zoology, were conducting hicles and approached the colony on wheels. The greatest a limnological survey of the same ponds to determine what problem presented by vehicles comes when drivers pass di- factors might be involved in the natural changes of pond rectly through a colony (either accidentally or intentional- ecology and how human use might be altering the natural ly), possibly running over eggs and chicks. Such problems patterns. In addition, Dr. Soukup's studies on the currents can be minimized by continued posting of nesting colonies in the ponds can give some idea of the routes pathogens and law enforcement. might follow when introduced to the water by human recre- ational use. Dune Studies These studies are designed to provide-basic data on the Geological studies showed that sand transport by a vehicle conditions in the ponds and to determine how increasing can create problems on dune slopes, but has little conse- recreational use might be altering the natural resource and quence on the level terrain, except for ruts and hollows made perhaps endangering the visitors themselves. by the vehicles. The angle of wheels, rate of travel, and sand moisture conditions all affect sand movement. As vehicles Other Visitor Use Studies in Cape Cod National Seashore- move up a slope, a small quantity of sand is pushed back in Experimental studies are being done by Dr. Norton Nicker- the track. Over a period of time, the dune profile may be son and his students at Tufts Universityonthe impactof foot significantly lowered in those areas where numerous vehicles traffic on dune vegetation. His work has shown that damage traverse the dune. Such sand movement precludes invasion to Ammophila plants varies. depending on whether visitors by plants, beyond the destruction of plants caused as a ve- wear shoes, or go barefoot. People with shoes have a much hicle goes over them; this produces a greater tendency for greater impact than those without. Their data can be used blow-outs to develop. Vehicle traffic tends to maintain dune to get some idea of how many passes it takes w damage the instability and leads to the migration of dunes, unless con- grasslands and create long lasting trails, which, if not correct- trolled. Tests on tire size and truck weight gave preliminary ed, can lead to blow-outs and dune breakdown in places. 117 Successful Management Approaches traffic may result in a more rapidly migrating barrier beach, As a result of the research as described above, we hope that and compare this migration with the model that we have de- management guidelines can be prepared to insure the opti- veloped for the Outer Banks of North Carolina. mal use of the coastal resources. As scientists, we are also More studies are needed on the ways to lessen visitor im- faced with the problem of obtaining basic, publishable data pact through structural controls or restrictive approaches. which will be reviewed and entered into the scientific litera- The placement of facilities for visitor use must be chosen in ture. Therefore, we have two basic goals in this work: man- light of the natural processes which mold and shapethecoast- agement guidelines and published papers. line. Research is needed to pinpoint those areas thatare least There is already growing evidence that large numbers of suitable for- facilities (for instance, eroding shorelines, low people can seeand enjoy coastal resources if certain facilities elevations subject to flooding, and so forth) and those which are constructed so that they fit into the environment. Care- are better in terms of longer, natural stability. If such research fully planned wooden walkways can channel any number of had been done before the bathhouses and parking lot were people to desired locations over the sand, or over the marsh. built at Coast Guard Beach in Cape Cod National Seashore, Such walkways have been built in several coastal parks and they would not be in danger of washing away now, a little are very successful. They also provide a means by which visi- more than a decade after they were built. tors can see ecosystems that they might otherwise have no knowledge of. Such facilities exist at Fire Island National Conclusion Seashore, Cape Cod National Seashore and the Parker River Based on the results that are beginning to come in, and hav- Wildlife Refuge on Plum Island. While these are man-made ing seenthose areas where successful management approaches structures, they prevent deterioration of a major resource- have allowed larger numbers of people to use a coastal re- dune vegetation. source such as a swimming beach, while at the same time In the same light, we are accumulating evidence to show protecting the major portion of the environment from dam- which ecosystems are the most sensitive to vehicle traffic age, it is clear that management actions must be taken when and which are less so. From this information we can recom- large numbersof peopleand their vehicles are using the shore- mend which areas should be closed to vehicle traffic and line. "Benign neglect" cannot be tolerated. Any human use which areas can be driven on without too much environmen- of the coastal environment is going to result in.changes of tal damage. Nevertheless, any planned vehicle track through some kind, in some cases severe, in others, less so. To pro- a coastal area should be maintained in some minimal way. tect the major portion of our coastal resources so that they There is really no such thing as a "carrying capacity" of will be an inspiration to others requires that the use be care- dune or marsh vegetation for vehicles. Even one vehicle ex- fully defined and in keeping with the environment and its ceeds the carrying capacity. It only takes a few vehicle passes tolerances. to significantly damage the vegetation; therefore, any track used by the normal number of vehicles that appear on Cape Acknowledgements Cod beaches in the summer will be essentially a permanent The research described in this paper has been funded by the feature of the dune zone as long as it is used, and when no National Park Service, North Atlantic Regional Office (Dr. longer used, will be visible for a long time. It thus becomes P.A. Buckley, Chief Scientist), and carried out with the full essential to manage the vehicle traffic and the dune tracks, support and cooperation of Cape Cod National Seashore (Mr. especially where the potential for severe deterioration of the Lawrence Hadley, Superintendent). This cooperation in- track is likely, or underway., Otherwise, tracks that are dif- cludes use of the old MITRE site in the Seashore for a field ficult to follow, or uncomfortable, will encourage drivers to laboratory and base of operations. The ecological data on seek other, unplanned routes which may be even more dam- ORV impacts were collected by a groupof graduate students aging, and therefore widen the impact area. Wooden ramps and field assistants from the University of Massachusetts over dunes can minimize dune breaks and erosion by vehicle. withoutwhose efforts the project would never have succeed- traff ic. ed: John Brodhead, who was with the project from the be- ginning, studied the dunes and salt marshes and was assisted Research Needs by Debbie Elmer and Joseph D 'iMaio; Bradford Blodget, stud- Further research is needed to determine the relative sensiti- ied terns and shorebirds, and was assisted by Thomas Clough; vity of ecosystems to various kinds of use. We are planning James Gilligan, studied beach microbiology; Nancy Wheeler, to look at the variations of impact that occur with different studied sand flat zoology, and was assisted by Joan Beskenis; vehicle types, sizes, tire type, inflation, and so forth. Our ini- Hat Walker and Dave Reynolds, driftlines and beaches; Anne tial studies were done on an accreting beach system, Race Davis, studied beach zoology. Dr. Alan Niedoroda of the .Po,int, and these will be followed by new tests on an eroding University of Massachusetts Geology Department conducted and retreating beach region, Nauset. Dr. Steve Leatherman of the geological research on ORV impact and was assisted by Boston University wiff be conducting geological tests on Wendy Carey, Richard Limeburner, James Hamilton, and Coast Guard Beach and Nauset Beach to determine if vehicle Peter Johnson. 118 Research and Management: The Case of Fire Island National Seashore James A. Schmid, Vice President Jack McCormick and Associates Devon, Pennsylvania Introduction of National Seashores and National Lakeshores, and Fire My firm was contracted during 1973 by the National Park Islanders successfully presented their case in Washington. Service to prepare an inventory of environmental conditions Congress accepted the gift of the Sunken Forest, authorized and to review management options with reference to condi- the Federal purchase of about 2,700 more acres (but by no tions at the Fire Island National Seashore. The Seashore oc- means all) of the island, and exempted the most developed cupies sections of a barrier island, estuaries, the Atlantic western section of the Seashore from Federal taking without Ocean, and the "mainland" on the South Shore of east-cen- the owners' consent (P. L. 88-587, 11 September 1964). The tral Long Island in Suffolk County, New York. This presen- Act vested substantial authority in the Secreatary of the In- tation will highlight some of the experience gained during terior to require approved, local zoning ordinances which that contract from the point of view of a consultant to a were expected to govern future development while conserv- Federal agency. The presentation first sketches the history ing environmental resources in the villages not subject to of the National Seashore and the context of the current plan- condemnation. Robert Moses' road was stopped. ning effort, then touches selectively on some major substan- A Master Plan to guide the development of Federal lands tive findings and recommendations, and concludes with sev- was prepared promptly (NPS 1965), but never released pub- eral remarks on the present state of the unfinished and con- licly. It envisioned construction of numerous visitor centers, troversial planning for Fire Island. and stressed recreation rather than preservation in conso- nance with then-current NPS administrative policy (NPS The Fire Island National Seashore Controversy 1968). Most of the funds appropriated for the Seashore were Fire Island National Seashore owes its origin to the north- spent for land acquisition. The Seashore received relatively easterl of March 1962, which caused extensive damage along little attention from senior, Wash i ngton-I eve[ bureaucrats, the barrier islands of South Shore Long Island. In the after- and NPS field personnel changed. math of this storm, Robert Moses, a powerful and contro- Private development continued with relatively little inter- versial figure in the affairs of New York State, urged the ference, either by the Seashore, administration or by the eastward extension of a highway which previously had been zoning authorities of the local municipalities, to the dissatis- built along the barrier islands west of Fire Island Inlet. Local faction of the official Seashore advisory commission and property owners strenuously opposed the highway as a ma- many of the Seashore's original proponents. Some of the jor threat to the environmental setting of their summer socioeconomically dissimilar villages showed great concern homes. Consequently they raised funds to buy Up for pub- for environmental preservation; others, relatively little. New lic donation the "Sunken Forest," a fine example of a mari- summer houses were built in the "development district," time Atlantic oak-holly forest that is sheared by salt-laden commercial establishments multiplied, and residential struc- winds at the height of the protecting dunes. tures were converted to guest-house enterprises. The early 1960's was the period for Federal acquisition The major Federal construction was a new half-million dollar marina and visitor center at Watch Hill, at the west- 'Storms which develop outside the tropics, in contrast to ern end of the series of developed villages. The marina de- hurricanes, are known as northeasters in the mid-Atlantic stroyed tidal marsh vegetation. Most Seashore visitors ar- coastal States. rived by private boat; villagers came by ferry, and increas- 119 ingly by four-wheel drive vehicle via the beach and through dered difficult the preparation of the EIS. One result was the dunes. The roughly eight-mile long stretch of barrier is- the scope of services of a contract, eventually awarded to (and (from Watch Hill east to a county park linked to the my firm, for a comprehensive environmental inventory of South Shore by bridge) was cleared of scattered structures Seashore resources. Both the District Court and the US Court (except for a few leaseholders) and allowed to revegetate. of Appeals for the Second Circuit denied plaintiffs' request Meanwhile, the western five miles of Fire Island, also linked for injunctive. relief, noting that the relief sought would have by bridge to the South Shore, were being developed into one to come from Congress, rather than from the courts. Never- of the major bathing beaches of the New York metropolitan theless, the courts were impressed with the need to expedite region by the Long Island State Parks Commission. The his- planning aimed at environmental protection. In the words toric, mid-nineteenth century Fire Island Lighthouse, situat- of Chief Judge Kaufman: ed a short distance west of the National Seashore boundary, We cannot help but urge those with the power and au- became obsolete for navigation and was abandoned by the ihority to preserve this gem of an island to halt their pro- Coast Guard in favor of a new beacon atop the State Park crastination and get on with the urgent business of sav- water tower. ing this charming and fragile outpost of nature before the The Seashore was expanded through the donation of the encroachments of haphazard development irrevocably de- historic William Floyd Estate (P.L. 89-244,9 October 1965). spoil it. Floyd was one of the signers of the Declaration of American To this end NPS issued a Draft Master Plan and a Draft En- Independence, and his descendents con'tinue to occupy the vironmental Statement during March 1975, subsequently Estate on a leasehold basis that will terminate by 1990. The held public hearings and issued a draft general management Estate forms a detached unit of the Seashore on the South plan during June 1976. The 1975 and 1976 documents in- Shore mainland at Mastic Beach. corporated findings from the environmental inventory of the Friends of the Seashore, both local residents and the New Seashore. York Congressional delegation, pressed the NPS for action on the Master Plan, and offered to seek additional Federal The Environmental Inventory Process and Findings funds. The NPS was both reluctant io request more funds My firm was involved initially during 1971 as a subcontractor prior to completion of an approved Master Plan, and slow during an inventory of the federally owned lands on Fire Is- to produce a Plan in their absence. land. We prepared a report that addressed vegetation and During the early 1970's a new planning effort, envision- geomorphology. The geornorphological effort was primarily ing somewhat reduced ultimate Federal development, was a review of the available literature, but it included a map mounted by the NPS, and my firm as a subconctractor pre- (scale, 1 :4,800) of landforms based on the interpretation of pared parts of the environmental inventory of the Federal aerial photographs. Thevegetation report contained detailed Lands WMA 1972). NPS polipy then was to develop a sche- descriptions of the plant communities on the barrier island, matic, conceptual Master Plan, the details of which could be an extensive flora, and a detailed vegetation map (scale, specified later,asfunds became available for implementation. 1 -.4800) based on field investigation supplemented by aerial Such plans can be prepared with relatively little information reconnaissance. Thefamiliarity with theSeashore gained dur- on existing conditions, but their environmental effects are ing this work was the deciding factor during the 1973 com- difficult to assess or predict. And such assessment was to be petitive selection of a firm to perform another inventory demanded of NIPS in accordance with the National Environ- contract. mental Policy Act that became effective on January 1, 1970 The second contract resulted in the preparation of a 461 - (P.L. 91-190). page report with 63 tables, 118figures, and a large map folio On August 9, 1972 a group of property owners filed suit WMA 1975). Our charge was broader than before, and our before Judge Dooling in the Federal Court for the Eastern geographical study area was considerably larger. The con- District of New York charging the NPS with failure to pro- tents of the report are outlined in Table 1. The ensuing par- duce a Master Plan after almost 10 years of Federal involve- agraphs highlight the scope and findings of each section. ment with the Seashore, with failure to prepare an EIS on the Master Plan, and with failure generally to carry out the Summary Recommendations congressional mandate to preserve the Seashore environment, The brief general introduction and summary recommenda- (George Biderman et al. vs. Rogers C. B. Morton et al., Civil tions deal primarily with land acquisition alternatives, which Action 72 C 1060, Eastern District of New York). are not addressed directly elsewhere in the inventory. The Plaintiffs specifically requested the Court to restrain the formulation of management, development, and construc- local municipalities from issuing building permits and zoning tion alternatives was not a specific task under our contract. variances for proposed commercial development on a previ- The alternatives we considered in the introduction and in ously undeveloped bay-to-ocean tract in the western sec- the inventory chapters, therefore, were derived primarily tion of @he Seashore and to curtail vehicular use of the from discussions with NIPS planning personnel. We sought to beach. Plaintiffs emphasized the lack of factual information address the major problems seen by the NPS planning team which hampered envi ron menta I ly -based planning and ren- during 1973 and 1974. 120 Table 1 -Contents of the Environmental Inventory of Fire Island National Seashore UMA 1975) Chapter Pages Tables Text Figures Folio Mapsi General Introduction and Summary Recommendations 3 0 0 0 Geomorphology and Geomorphic History 75 2 22 .2 Groundwater Resources 22 1 11 0 Surface Water Quality and Aquatic Biota 78 19 14 1 Soils 4 2 0 2 Vegetation and Flora 54 3 16 2 Wildlife 36 8 1 0 Archaeology 13 0 2 0 Historic and Cultural Resources 11 0 3 0 Storm Damage 18 4 7 0 Existing Land Use 61 14 24 2 Optimal Capacities for Development 15 4 5 0 The Need for a Federal Presence 16 5 4 0 Acknowledgments and Authorship 2 1 0 0 Bibliography 53 0 0 0 Total 461 63 109 9 The large-scale folio maps (most at 1:4,800; estuarine resources at 1:24,000) were displayed at the Conference on Cape Cod. The land-use map forms the base maps for NPS documents published during 1975 and 1976. We concluded that three first-priority land-acquisition ties in the developed communities (except after storm dam- actions and two second-priority actions should be addressed age, in concertwith FFIA) as providing relatively little bene- by NPS. In the short run we saw acquisition of the surplus fit. We also recommended that the NPS establish and publi- Coast Guard Lighthouse for use as a major visitor interpreta- cize criteria for acceptable and unacceptable commercializa- tion center and the establishment of a mechanism (in con- tion in the developed communities, and then take vigorous cert with the Federal Flood Insurance Administration enforcement action against unacceptable development. [FFIA1 ) to acquire federally insured properties damaged by major storms as the foremost priorities. In the long run the Geomorphology NPS shobld encourage owners to donate, and be prepared The geomorphology section offered a discussion of theories to accept and manage, properties in the communities of the of barrier-island development, a comprehensive discussion development district. Given the income level of Fire Island of coastal processes based on ongoing research at Fire Island, property owners, donations could be encouraged; the NPS and a discussion of the vulnerability of geomorphic subdivi- would have to maintain a long-term presence in the commu- sions keyed to a folio map. We concluded that there is no nities and not request a redrawing of Seashore boundaries so economic way to protect development on the barrier island as to exclude hem. We assigned second priority to develop- from major hurricanes, which can be expected, on the aver- ing a mechanism to ensure the use of private land in con- age, three times per century. The barrier-island system itself, formance with local (or, if necessary, federal), environmen- however, is in no danger of disappearance. Indeed, the inlets tally protective, zoning standards. As a longer-term measure, can be kept in place and navigable only through costly jet- we urged that the NPS request extension of the authorized ties and dredging as the sand deposited by alongshore cur- boundary of the Seashore westward to Fire Island inlet. The rents is trapped by them. NPS would be able then, not only to accept a donation of Coastal processes during major hurricanes (the last one land from the State of New York if the State should ever at Fire Island was the storm of September 11938@ are under- want to dispose of it, but more importantly, the whole of stood poorly. A number of potential alternative measures, Fire Island could be treated as a geomorphic unit when the however, can be used to protect beaches and dunes during NPS supports future research at the National Seashore. the brief erosive episodes of ordinary-storm and fair-weather- We regard the NPS acquisition of beach and dune proper- periods. The concepts we presented, unfortunately, subse- 121 quently were ignored by the Corps of 'Engineers in what populations associated with surface runoff and wastewater could have been a major contribution to the understanding effluent that enter the Bay generally are sufficiently great of beach erosion in the Fire Island region (US-ACE 1976). that sizeable areas, measured in hundreds or thousands of We opposed groins and endorsed both beach nourishment acres, are closed to commercial shellfishing harvesting each and inlet sand-bypassing as technical stopgap measures to year. The associated economic loss is substantial. protect structures on Fire Island. We also pointed out the The concentrations of various pollutants in the vicinity of need to provide structural crossings of the shorefront dunes Fire Island increase measurably during the summer months, for pedestrians and vehicles, if significant gaps are not to be" when the barrier-island population and recreational boating worn through the protective dune line. There still are impor- peak. Only seven percent of Suffolk County was sevvered tant unresolved questions regarding Fire Island geomorphol- during 1970, and duck farms also have contributed to the ogy, which the NIPS should undertake research to resolve, pollution of the estuaries. Duck farms have decreased in because the NPS shares responsibility for beach protection number during the past decade and have acted to decrease with the Army Corps of Engineers for the National Seashore pollution; construction is under way for a major sewage (P.L. 88-587). treatment facility in western Suffolk County (which is to have an ocean outfall, despite controversy and litigation); Groundwater so water quality in the bays should increase during furture The groundwater section, like that on surface-water quality years. and aquatic biota, was developed from the extensive exist- The NIPS has limited ability to influence surface-water ing literature without benefit of original field research. The quality in the Fire Island National Seashore. It should seek existing village and public developments on Fire Island are to preserve marshes, minimize mosquito ditches, investigate sufficiently dense that already they are supplied with pota- the creation of new marshes, require boat pumpout and ble water from artesian wells several hundred feet deep. Ex- separate sewage-holding facilities at marinas so that boat ceptions during 1974 were Atlantique, Lonelyville, and Wa- wastes can be transported to the mainland for treatment, ter Island, which still relied on bottled water and the shal- and monitor bacteria and other pollutants in recreational low fresh-water aquifer. An undetermined, but presumably shellfishing areas. large, number of householders used shallow wells for non- potable supplies (lawn sprinkling, water closets). Ocean Soils Beach is the only settlement with a sewage system, which The major restrictions on land use offered by soils at the discharges to-Great South Bay. Elsewhere wastes were dis- Seashore are associated with their susceptibility tooccasional posed through cesspools and septic tanks. A County require- flooding. Fire Island contains no fully developed soils, ac- ment that new tanks be located at least 100 feet from water- cording to Soil Conservation Service investigations. The is- table wells became effective during 1960, but has not been land is composed of sand on which organic material has ac- enforced rigorously. No water-supply related health prob- cumulated in areas which support dense vegetation. Tidal lems have been significant to date. The quantity of ground- marshes have accumulated deep muck. , water available to Fire Island is unlikely to be limited by The William Floyd Estate has coarse textured soils typi- any conceivable future development on Fire Island itself. cal of South Shore Long Island. Their depth to water table Should the recharge area for major regional aquifers be is governed by distance from the bay, because slopes are covered by development in central Suffolk County, and gentle (to thrity-two percent). should treated wastewater effluent be disposed through ocean outfalls rather than recharged to groundwater, Fire Vegetation and Flora Island's supplies of potable water could be impaired by salt- The vegetation of Fire Island is diverse and reflects great vari- water intrusion in as few as 50 years. But the current posi- ation in environmental factors, particularly wind, salinity, tion of the offshore sa I twater-f resh water interfaces in the the availability of soil moisture, and the extent of human in- major aquifers is not known, and rates of potential saltwater tervention. The gradient in the intensities of environmental intrusion are difficult to quanti .fy. We saw little necessity factors across Fire Island is neither gradual nor uniform, and for NPS action regarding groundwater, other than a general the floristic composition of the vegetation changes abruptly. opposition to ocean outfalls in the region. over short distances in many places. On-shore winds, which often are strong, dessicate vegetation on the oceanfront Surface-water Resources dunes and periodically mist the vegetation with salt spray. Because the Great South Bay and adjoining estuaries are re- Many habitats are so severe that plants of only a few species sources of major significance that have been subject to pol- can survive; in contrast, scattered, protected habitats harbor lution, they have received a substantial amount of scholarly manyspecies. Irrigation and artificial fertilization, which sup- attention. The ocean wateroff Fire Island generally is of high plement the relatively mild, ocean-dominated climate, have quality. The exchange of ocean water with the back-barrier permitted a host of introduced ornamental species to sur- lagoon system is limited to the inlets, and the flushing time vive, both with and without cultivation. for the Great South Bay is long, about 48 days. Bacterial Twelve vegetation types were mapped on Fire Island 122 primarily from field observation during 1971, and primarily widespread upland type. Lowland forest and dense thickets from aerial photo-interpretation during 1974. The interim border the tidal marshes. The estate has been farmed to an flora contained about 475 species. undetermined extent in the past, and long has been managed Above the high water line of the ocean beaches, beach- to increase its attractiveness to wildlife. A preliminary flora grass is the most abundant plant on the foredunes. On back lists 100 species typical of South Shore Long Island. Exten- dunes dense thickets of beach plum, bayberry, and poison sive field work should reveal several times that many species. ivy cover many acres. Generally, the density of plant cover increases with distance from the ocean front. In a few pro- Wildlife tected areas there is dense, broadleaf forest with a wind- The wildlife inventory was based on a literature review sup- pruned canopy less than 25 feet tall. Shrubs and herbs are plemented by field investigations during the spring of 1974. more diverse in the oak-holly forests than in the dune and The goal of this section was to ascertain the relative wildlife swale communities. The availability of soil moisture, salinity value of the several habitats as a basis for land-use planning. of the water, and depth to water table are major determi- Voluminous data exist on the birds of the vicinity of Fire nants of the natural spatial distribution and floristic compo- Island (see the paper by Buckley in this volume); our field sition of vegetation types. Small depressions support cran- investigations were directed primarily toward mammals, rep- berry bogs; forest bogs and transitional zones support azaleas tiles, and amphibians. and ferns. On the bayshore, extensive salt marshes vary in All the major vertebrate groups are represented in the species composition according to the depth and duration of fauna of the Seashore. Fowler's toad is the only amphibian flooding. Pedestrians and vehicles quickly create pathways known from Fire Island; it and 11 other species of amphibi- thrqu@h the plant communities. Native plants become re- ans are known to inhabit the Floyd estate. Eight species of established only slowly after the traffic ceases (see the page reptiles are known from the barr *ier island; 13 from the es- by Godfrey in this volume). tate. (For Long Island as a whole about 4-1 reptiles and am- In the villages of Fire Island an array of vegetation types phibians have been reported.) The vicinity of the National exists. Some villages contain a matrix of relatively undis- Seashore has been the scene for observation of birds repre- turbed native vegetation types into which houses and walk- senting 347 species, of which 52 species are known to breed ways were set. Next to the houses there are open landscapes on the barrier island. The marshes and food resources of the forimed by planted lawns, beachgrass, or low thickets, as shallow estuaries are major feeding grounds for migratory well as occasional closed landscapes. The closed landscapes birds. On the barrier island 18 species of mammals have been rarely are formed by fences or planted shrubs. They more reported; on the Floyd estate, 30. (The land fauna of Long commonly derive from remnants of high shrub thickets or Island includes 35 mammals.) Marine mammals have not been forests which were preserved to screen individual houses reported from the estuaries near Fire Island in modern times, from their neighbors. Some residents have modified the natu- although the distributional ranges of 26 species broadly en- ral vegetation by pruning native thickets so that they now compass this section of the Atlantic coastline. survive as sparse, low hedges around irrigated lawns. Other Alternative rankings of habitats according to the numbers residents have substituted elaborate cultivated landscapes, of species they harbored consistently distinguished marshes, similar to those on the mainland, for the more easily main- nativeforests, and high thickets asmost important; baresand, tained vegetation native to Fire Island. planted black pine forests, and the open ocean as least im- The two areas of greatest floristic distinctiveness on the portant. The Seashore'still supports a diverse and abundant barrier island are the expanse of forestand high thicketfrom fauna. At present,.dogs and cats are allowed to roam at will Point O'Woods through the Sunken Forest eastward to Wa- in the villages. Werecommencled the elimination of domesti- ter Island. Much of this area is under Federal protection; cated animals from the Seashore as a long-term goal. Hunting .some has been developed, as at Cherry Grove a6d Fire Island of rabbits, deer, and migratory waterfowl probably can be Pines. The other area is near Democrat Point in Robert Moses permitted indefinitely with little conflict, because the inten- State Park, where several plant species have been collected sive-recreation season does not overlap with the hunting that are rare in the Long Island region. This area is threat- season. To maximize wildlife use of the eight-mile wild zone, ened by the possible expansion of parking lots, a golf course, we recommended that future camping facilities be installed or other intensive recreational development. At-present the in Federal lands between the western villages, rather than in NPS can do little to protect these resources, other than indi- the eastern section of the barrier island. cate their value to the Long Island State Parks Commission. The NPS has opposed the introduction of exotic plants into Archaeology Federal land, but exotics have been introduced extensively An archaelogical reconnaissance survey of the barrier island by State and County park managers, as well as by private confirmed expectations that no record of prehistoric habita- owners. tion has been preserved on the dynamic land surface. One The William Floyd estateis a mostly forested tract fringed broken tip from a broad-edged quartz knife was collected by extensive bayside tidal marshes. Oak forest occupies about on the surface of a dredged-spoil landfill near t*he parking lot half of the land area; young locust-cherry forest is another at Smith Point County Park. No artifacts were encountered 123 during shallow testing in the tidal marshes. We recommended vital first step. that further study on the barrier island include the historic remains around the Fire Island Lighthouse and the sites of Storm Damage shipwrecks. Should bayside dredging be conducted, the op- Data on storm frequencies and damage were summarized, erations should be monitored by a professional archaeologist. chiefly from previous compilations by the Army Corps of No study of the William Floyd estate was authorized by our Engineers. Fire Island is inherently a storm-buffeted zone, contracts. on which structures are damaged bydisturbances which may originate either in the tropics or outside the tropics. Storms Cultural Resources that cause "moderate" damage along the coast of Long Island The history of Fire Island was summarized from existing in- are recorded almost every year; storms with "severe" dam- formation. European contact with the barrier islands was age, about once every ten years. Great tropical hurricanes initiated by Giovanni de Verrazano, who sailed northeast affect the region about three times per century, as a long- from modern New York Harbor duringl525.The saga of the term average. Descriptions of damage in the Nationaf Sea- island is intertwined with storms and shipwrecks. Recrea- shore were provided for recent major storms, as well as docu- tional development began during the mid-nineteenth centu- mentation of local responses to storm damage and recent ry, and the oldest community is Point O'Woods. flood-hazard maps promulgated by the Federal Flood Insur- Because the communities differ in age, development den- ance Administration. sity, income levels, and life styles, they display a range of Federal flood insurance is being purchased by most Sea- house types, landscapes, and vegetation patterns. There is a shore property owners. We expressed serious reservation range of friendliness or aversion to visitors. Some villages about the appropriateness of current FFIA regulations for are occupied chiefly by families; some, by "groupers;- some, barrier-island environments, however reasonable they might by "gays." Inter-village travel is relatively limited, and oc- be for inland floodplains. The regulations specify minimum curs mainly on foot along the beach. Village residents have floor elevations, but do not require deep pile foundations little contact with the town, county, or federal parkfacilities and do not exclude construction on marshes, dunes, or the on Fire Island. open beach itself. As presently constituted, the regulations The remoteness of Fire Island (apart from Robert Moses appear destined to continue, even for new construction, the Park and Smith Point Park) is one of its distinctive features, long tradition of publicsubsidy following storms to property and results from the virtual absence of motor vehicles. It al- owners in predictably hazardous environments. so helps to make possible the coexistence of such diverse communities in close geographical proximity to one another. Existing Land Use The cultural diversity on Fire Island is a great asset to the Existing land use data for the non-federally owned lands of National Seashore, and should be maintained. East-west the barrier island were compiled from aerial photographs, travel on Fire Island should remain primarily by foot. More field reconnaissance, and a questionnaire survey (30 percent than 90 percent of village respondents indicated that they return of 3,600 questionnaires). Records in county and mu- would not use their cars to reach Fire Island, even if they nicipal assessment offices were examined closely for infor- were permitted to do so. mation on tax value and ownerships. Numerous local resi- Because there is no road to permit a visitor to travel the dents, together with utility and agency personnel, assisted length of Fire Island within a few minutes with virtually no our efforts. personal exertion, the Island can be learned and appreciated There were approximately 3,593 structures in the ex- only slowly. Numerous ferry or private-boat trips and pro- empted communities during 1974. About 3,436 were utilized longed, fatiguing hikes over sand pathways are necessary for as residences, 96 were designated for commercial uses, and accumulation of an experience of Fire Island as a whole. To 60 were institutional structures. The gross density of devel- preserve the effective size of Fire Island, the National Park opment ranged from 6.7 structures per acre in Ocean Beach Service must continue to work toward the minimal use of to 1.0 structure per acre in Point O'Woods. One third of the vehicles within the Fire Island National Seashore. More than commercial structures and onefifth of the institutional struc- ample opportunities exist for motorists to obtain high-speed tures of the villages were in Ocean Beach. There were 278 glimpses of moderately to intensively -managed barrier-island structures within 80 feet of a generalized line which indicated#, environments both east and west of Fire Island. The Nation- the seaward limit of vegetation along the ocean front. During al Seashore should be preserved as an alternative for those the decade of NPS involvement on Fire Island, the number willing to invest the time and effort required to.appreciate of structures increased by 864 (31 percent). During 1928 its subtle natural beauty. At the same time, however, the there had been 950 structures; after the 1938 hurricane, 707. National Park Service should make a concerted effort to Of 330 zoning variances requested between 1965 and 1972 teach those not now aware of the natural and human history, from the towns of Brookhaven and Islip, only 31 were de- ecological complexity, and subtle beauty of Fire Island what nied. the island can offer. To this end, development of a major, The mid-summer population ranged from 16,000 to year-round interpretive center at the Lighthbuse would be a 20,000 peo ple; the year-round population was 215. The 124 year-round population has declined 26 percent since 1960 the communities tend to return year after year. (when there were 290); the number of structures increased 50 percent during the same period. The Need for a Federal Presence on Fire Island Regional population trends suggest a substantial prospective Optimal Development Capacity, increase in Suffolk County during the next several decades. As of summer 1974 there were about 1,575 vacant home- Nassau County, situated between Suffolk County and New sites in the exempted communities (assuming development York City, has been developed almost completely, and little of open land at a density equal to past development), of open land remains. The Suffolk County visitors will come to which 248 were in dunes or marshes. Development therefore Fire Island by private boat or ferry. Residents of the towns could continue for another 15 years at the 1964-1974 aver- of Islip and Brookhaven may use town beaches on the bar- age rate of increase (87 structures per year). Most existing rier island, but those from other towns must use county, development does not comply with current local minimum state, or federal facilities. During the 1969 season; 58 per- zoning standards. There is more buildable land in the western cent of visitors to federal centers resided in Nassau and Suf- villages (Town of Islip) than in the eastern villages (Town of folk Counties; only 9 percent came from New York City; Brookhaven). Utility services are available. The summer pop- and 7 percent were from other states. Most seaso 'nal-resi- ulation could increase by about 7,000 if allowable single- dents in the villages during 1674 came from New York City family residences are developed fully. A third of homeowners (67 percent) - only a few (12 percent), from the two subur- expect to winterize their structures to prolong the useful ban counties. We expect that relatively few of the new resi- season into the autumn and spring morahs. dents in the region will occupy waterfront sites or have ac- The threats to Seashore resources posed by exempted- cess to private boats. The need for public transport facilities community development and the consequent population in- to federal land, therefore, should increase crease concern about the dunes, the native vegetation, and Pressures to complete and to intensify development in the quality of water in Great South Bay. Most existing resi- the exempted communitiesalso may beexpected to increase. dents recognize the fragility of dunes. Some, however, prob- Local zoning ordinances state, on paper, that single-family ably will continue to circumvent structured dune crossings dwellings are the most intensive use for virtually the whole en route to the beach. Although poison ivy discourages in- of Fire Island from inlet to inlet. But already there is one discriminate hiking through vegetation by scantily clad bath- 1 00-unit condominium (at Fire Island Pines), which may be ers, aerial photographs neverth6less show numerous bare indicative of a.future trend. Given past experience, decisive sand trails throughout the barrier, island. It.seems unlikely federal action with respect to new development is essential., that trampling will decline as population increases. Percep- to preserve the Seashore in the fashion directed by Congress. tion of vegetation damage is much less adute than percep- Certain communities, notably Seaview,cluring recentyears tion of damage to dunes, according to questionnaire results. have attempted to exclude non-residents from the ocean Water quality prospects are difficult to assess. Minor con- beach. The NPS should continue generally to oppose the tamination of shallow freshwater could increase and provide restriction of the beach to exclusive community use, but a local source of contaminants to the Bay, but no quanti- federal acquisition of community beaches should not receive tative data are available. Few community residents (three high priority. There is ample beach to accommodate visitors ,percent) embrace the prospect of continued development to federal centers without use of any community-owned sec- enthusiastically. tion. No village could exclude hikers effectively without in- The prime recreational resource of the Seashore is the curring substantial expense. If long-term policy aims at fed- ocean beaches, whose capacity for bathers is almost unlimit- eral acquisition of all land now in the exempted communi- ed, given the prospective minor increases in public access ties, the short-term question of beach control need not be of that can be provided by enhanced ferry service. Even on great concern. peak-use days-during 1974, there were substantial areas of Federal enforcement of zoning, aimed explicitly at mini- virtually empty beach on Fire Island. Recreational vehicles, mizing long-term private investment in structures and public however, cannot increase indefinitely on the beaches of the investment in infrastructures in the communities on Fire Is- state and county parks, especially near the inlets. Already, land, would have general public benefits. It will help to as- several hundred vehicles may be found on the state and sure the preservation of the barrier-island ecosystem from county beaches on peak-use days. massive human intervention, and it will minimize long-term The federal marina at Sailors Haven is filled in excess of losses of public and private investment to damage by major capacity, when 200 to 300 boats anchor on the shoal on storms. It also wil I benefit community residents by preserv- peak days. Sanitary facilities require upgrading to handle the ing the existing, relatively low-density character of the vil- 25,000 to 3000 visitors monthly at Sailors Haven. The lages on Fire Island. Watch Hill center as of yet is less popular. It, too, has ca- The,long-term policy of the National Park Service also pacity limited by staff and facilities, rather than by natural should be directed toward the ultimate expansion of public resources. Few residents of the exempted communities visit ownership on Fire Island into the exempted communities. the federal centers., Visitors to both the federal centers and This policy first should be implemented by prevention of 125 the rebuilding of those existing structures located precari- of the boundary to exclude the western communities from ously.on beach, dune, or marsh sites. Such structures are the the Seashore. There was predictable public outcry against most vulnerable to destruction by the action of moderate this measure at public meetings held in Patchogueand in New storms which occur every few years. York City during 1975. There also was public opposition to An untried mechanism exists already for federal acquisi- the construction of a sizeable "bicycle path" along the cen- tion of damaged properties in the form of federally subsi- ter of the island. Otherwise, the recommendations of the dized flood insurance. Under the National Flood Insurance planning team were accepted almost completely (cf. NPS Program (42 USC 4001-4128), any homeowner on Fire Is- 1975b: Alternative A; NPS 1976). land can purchase up to $70,000 of flood insurance on a The NPS has contracted a consultant's report on zoning, single-family house and its contents. Although the flood in- and has worked on a model ordinance which local munici- surance legislation authorized the federal government to en- palities are going to be required to adopt. The results of these ter into negotiations to purchase any insured property which efforts have not yet been released, at least not to us. Con- was damaged substantially beyond repair, this authorization sideration has been given to a federal plan for further ac- had not been exercised anywhere in the United States as of quisition of land in the communities in the wake of major late 1974. hurricanes. The Lighthouse is to become a part of the Na- An owner of property which has federal flood insurance tional Seashore. Additional public meetings are scheduled also could be eligible for low-interest federal loans admini- for the summer of 1976. stered by the Small Business Administration under the Flood It is to be hoped that the Congress will fund adequately Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (P.L. 93-234 as amended). the prompt implementation of plans which have been devel- Thus, the owner of a property valued at $90,000,which was oped through a long process incorporating environmental destroyed totally, conceivably'could receive nearly $70,000 inventory and public interaction. in insurance benefits (after depreciation was deducted). He also could receive a federal loan for $20,000 to enable him Literature Cited to rebuild his home, if Fire Island were declared a federal Bibliography disaster area after a major storm. If rebuilding were to oc- Jack McCormick& Associates. 1972. Preliminary assessment cur on Fire Island as a result of such federal benefits, the in- of environmental resources of the Federal lands, Fire Is- evitable consequence would be an ever-increasing series of land National Seashore, Suffolk County, New York. Pre- publicly subsidized storm losses. Because the Federal Flood pared as part of Contract 14-10-6:990-871 to the National Insurance program was intended ultimately to reduce, rather Park Service. Devon, Pa. 108 pp +supplements (variously than to augment, storm losses nationwide, there is a critical paged), map folio. need for the formulation and coordination of federal policy Jack McCormick & Associates, Inc. 1975. Environmental with respect to Fire Island and other similar barrier-island inventory -of the Fire Island National Seashore and the and coastal localities. William Floyd Estate, Suffolk County, New York. Pre- Finally, we considered it highly desirable that the NPS pared as part of Contract 2000-4-0010, National Park Ser- take control of the Fire Island Lighthouse and develop it in- vice, Denver Service Center. Devon, Pa. 461 pp., map to a major federal visitor center. This would provide a fede- folio. ral center accessible to large parking lots for automobiles and National Park Service. 1965. Master plan, Fire Island Na- buses and adjacent to a large existing population of poten- tional Seashore, New York. Confidential draft. Depart- tial visitors. The site offers an opportunity for the NPS to ment of the Interior, Eastern Services Center, Philadel- provide historic and natural history interpretation to a seg- phia, Pa. 42 pp. ment of the regional population that is not now served by National Park Service. 1968. Administrative policies for rec- NPS. These are people who cannot afford private boats or reaction areas of the National Park System. (Washington, ferry charges to reach existing federal centers. D.C.: Government Printing Office.) National Park Service. 1975a. Masterplan draft, Fire Island Conclusions National Seashore, New York. (Denver Service Center, Our data and professional judgments concerning the present Denver, Colorado: Government Printing Office, Region and future conditions of environmental resources at Fire Is- 8, 1975). 677-166/32. 118 pp. land National Seashore have been useful to NPS planners in National ParkService. 1975b. Environmental statement draft, their continuing work on management plans. This can be Fire Island National Seashore, New York. (Denver Service demonstrated by comparison of the NPS documents (NPS Center, Denver, Colorado: Government Printing Office, 1965, 1975a, 1976) and our report QMA 1975). Our views Region 8, 1975). 677-166/33. 378 pp., map folio. increasingly have been adopted in the recent NPS planning National Park Service. 1976. Draftgeneralmanagementplan, ef f orts. Fire Island National Seashore, New York. (Denver Service The 1975 draft master plan gave precedence to manage- Center, Denver', Colorado: NPS 876A. Government Print- ment considerations for the Seashore, particularly with ref- ing Office, 1976). 677-346/92. 152 pp. erenceto the highly visible action of recommendinga revision United States Army, Corps of Engineers, New York District. 126 1976. Draft environmental statement for Fire Island Inlet of Tetra Tech, Inc., Pasadena, Ca. New York, N.Y. 2 vol- to Montauk Point, New York, beach erosion control and umes, 204 + 317 pp. (variously paged). hurricane protection project. Prepared with the assistance 127 Summary and Conclusions on Coastal. Recreation William Kornblum, Research Sociologist, National Park Service and Associate Professor of Sociology C.U.N.Y. Graduate School, New York, New York We seek the wise use of precious natural resources in an of making a livelihood from the marine environment was environment which is increasingly urban. The pressure of destroyed? And how many ever again found work at the our numbers and of our material cultures must be controlled water's edge? and brought more nearly into equilibrium with the, life of Of course there is no problem in proving that the United the marine environment. Every conference speaker grappled States ranks among the most urbanized nations in the world; diff ' Ity co e'in kno ing what to- do about it. As the with one or another aspect of this challenge, still it is useful the icu 1`11 s w to explore some implications of the c *onference theme wh ich geographer Brian Berry has shown, more than 90 percent of may not have received enough attention. our population lives within a twenty five mile radius of a major urban center, but our largest metropolitan regions are Marine Ecosystems vs. Human Communities located on the ocean coasts or on the Great Lakes. The impli- It is impossible to study marine ecosystems without consider- cations of these facts for the future of marine resources can- ing the relationships of those systems to the ecology of hu- not be exaggerated. Almost no large marine estuary in coastal man communities as well. This observation was implicit in United States is far enough removed from a major city to Dr. Buckley's description of wildlife adaptations in Jamaica be immune from severe impact by human uses. But at the Bay and in Dr. Teal's pleas that through political action some same time those impacts would be far greater even than they d esignated marshlands be excluded from further human im- are were it not for important aspects of the ecology of hu- pact and preserved in as pristine a state as possible. Indeed man communities. As an example consider the case of Ja- participants like Mr. Bennett of the American Littoral So- maica Bay, which has recently been incorporated in, Gate- ciety, Mr. Scanlon of Save the Bay, and planners like Mr. way National Recreation Area, the National Park Service's Davis of Long Island have stressed the importance of politi- new urban park. cal actions and administrative policies in controlling the most severe human impacts on the marine environment. But what Jamaica Bay about the viability of the human environment? Is not the Jamaica Bay is a typical East Coast tidal lagoon, but within "health" of our own communities also essential to the sur- a twenty minute transit radius of its marshy shores there vival of the natural ecosystems we prize and which we here resides some two million residents of the boroughs of Queens defend? and Brooklyn. About 8,000 of these city folk now maintain It would be a tragic error to view the politics of natural small pleasure craft and recreational fishing boats on the ecosystem preservation as somehow independent of the Bay, a large number relative to other similar estuaries, but pressing social problems of unemployment and demoraliza- certainly not large in comparison with the numbers who tion in urban America. Need we be reminded that the phenyl- could boat and fish on the bay if they so chose. Suppose chlorides, the heavy metals, and the petroleum by-products additional thousands of the millions living close to the which have wiped out so many of our best fisheries have in water's edge were to become wild about recreational fish- so doing' also destroyed human communities where men and ing? Some consequences of this trend would soon become women raised their families and built their homes at the apparent. Bait which is dug and netted in the bay would water's edge? How many oystermen and baymen and their decrease in quantity, as would the bird and fish popula- families flocked to nearby towns and cities when their means tions that feed on killies and larvae. Eventually the crush of 128 pleasure boats on the bay might become enough to discour- Recreational fishing tends to be a blue collar sport, es- age further numbers, but most certainly not before severe pecially the type of serious fishing which tends toward damage was done to the fishery. marginal employment. Now in New York and sirbilar North Obviously this grim scenario is prevented, in part, by the Atlantic cities depression in the construction industry, in incredible diversity of human life styles which co-exist in a which large numbers of recreational fishermen are employed, major city like New York. Forevery boatingand fishingfam- has led to increases in subsistence or semi-professional fish- ily there are tens and even hundreds of others who prefer to ing, and perhaps in some cases to overfishing of estuarine spend Sunday with their relatives in the backyard, or who species. A further implication of these relationships, which are attracted to the beaches, to the picnic areas, and to the I realize remain extremely impressionistic, is that increased pleasure grounds of the central city itself. Thus we arrive at levels of employment in construction and other blue collar a very simple observation: if people likethesewho are adapt- work will tend to somewhat relieve thepressure on estuarine ed in so many ways to an urban habitat, if hundreds of thou- fishing grounds in urban areas. sands of such people must uproot themselves because their Fortunately there is no lack of crucial rebuilding projects cities can no longer offer them the necessities of life, then required in the cities, projectswhose benefits for the marine the pressures of increased population on less populated shore- environment would be immense. The construction of sewer I ines could become catastrophic. treatment plants and the renewal of decaying urban water- In the same vein, if the beaches closer to the cities, like fronts alone could provide enough work to reverse the trend those at Lynn and Revere and at Coney Island and the Rock- in construction industry employment in our coastal cities. aways, are not cared for and made more attractive and ac- Marsh planting and dune rebuilding, mariculture and beach cetsible, it will become increasingly difficult to preserve the nourishment are all relatively labor intensive investments. more sensitive environments of the barrier beaches and the Those of us with PhD's have so far been the beneficiaries natural seashores like those of the outer reaches of Cape of labor intensive environmental projects like the writing Cod. of ecological inventories. Should we not also be working to spread the benefits of environmental husbandry to blue Fisheries Research collar America? Presentations by the fisheries researchers from Rhode Island, Important ecological projects require huge investments of from New Jersey, and from Delaware prove thatgreat strides "social capital." They cannot be effected through market have beeil made in recent years in quantifying national fin- mechanisms alone any more than the Interstate highway Sys- fish and shellfish catches. Perhaps of most interest for the tem could have been financed through private capital. In purposes of this admittedly biased summary was the com- consequence these marine husbandry projects will require a parison between commercial and recreational f inf ish catches. good deal of political backing and this can only come through For striped bass and other estuarine fish the recreational the effective combining of the voices of union leaders, in- catch is more important than the commercial catch, a fact dustrialists, and environmentalists. This is a coa 'lition which which again emphasizes the relationship between the marine has generally not existed in the past but which must occur- environment and the social environment of the cities. Here now. Certainly the building of that coalition, is a worthy again I speak from experience with Jamaica Bay and with goal for the members of this professional field in the coming similar estuaries in the North Atlantic states. years. 129 3 6668 14101 7