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Appendix L FLOOD VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT CITY OF MILFORD, CT CZIC COLLECTION HD 1676 C6 C58 1983 CITY OF MILFORD, CONNECTICUT FLOOD VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Natural Resources Center Hartford, Connecticut CITY OF MILFORD, CONNECTICUT FLOOD VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT Prepared by: Department of Environmental Protection Natural Resources Center Hartford, Connecticut August 1983 Funded through the State Assistance Program of the Emergency Management and National Preparedness Program, Federal Emergency Management Agency. TABLE OF CONTENTS Program Description 4 Municipal Profile 7 Coastal Property Homeowner's Questionnaire: Tabulation and 23 Analysis I. Flood Hazard Awareness & Preparedness Assessment 24 II. Information Provisions 26 III. Conclusion 27 Emergency Operations Plan Review 34 Checklist for Evaluation of Existing Flood Preparedness Plans 36 Planning Guidance 41 Recommendations 58 I. Emergency Operations Plan 59 II. Flood Insurance 67 III. Floodplain.Zoning and Floodplain Ordinances 69 -IV. Land Acquisition 69 IV. Road, Bridge and Culvert Design Standards 70 V. Stormwater Management 71 VI. Conclusions 71 -3- PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Natural Resources Center in conjunction -with the Water Resources and Coastal Area Management Units of the Department of Environmental Protection undertook a study utilizing a grant from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to assess potential flood hazards in Connecticut's coastal communities. The study produced an inventory of residential, commercial and industrial structures located within coastal and riverine flood zones and examined municipal flood preparedness measures. Specific program goals included: (1) development of a sound data base for examining flood hazard potential, (2) informing municipal leadership of potential flood problems, (3) assisting the municipalities in developing better flood forecasting, warning and evacuation procedures, (4) encouraging the municipalities to prepare special contingency plans for flood events, (5) proposing that municipalities adopt strict flood damage ordinances in high hazard areas, (6) informing individual property owners of potential flood hazards and assisting them with flood mitigation techniques and (7) carrying out a marketing campaign for the purchase of flood insurance. The study was conducted in each of Connecticut's 25 coastal communities, listed in Table 1. An inventory of flood-prone structures was developed by transferring Federal Emergency Management Agency's Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Flood Hazard Boundary Maps to mylar overlays of the 1980 aerial photographs (1:1,000). Structures and utilities located within the A (100- year flood), B (500-year flood), V (coastal flood) and F (riverine floodway) zones were counted and grouped. The results of the inventory are shown in Table 2. A detailed muni -cipal assistance program for flood hazard mitigation was then initiated in the coastal towns. The detailed program developed a municipal profile documenting the community's history of flooding, existing flood studies, structural flood control projects, demographic and geographic information. An assessment of local zoning regulations and land-use practices was made to determine their compatibility with natural floodplain functions. In addition, an examination of the community's participation in the National Flood Insurance Program was made. The number of flood insurance policies in effect was compared with the inventory of flood-prone structures to determine additional flood insurance needs, and claims data was reviewed to delineate areas having repeated flooding problems. Finally, local flood forecasting, warning and response procedures were reviewed to assess their adequacy in addressing flood hazards. The municipal assistance program additionally provided flood hazard mitigation assistance to owners of residential property located in coastal high hazard flood zones. A questionnaire was distributed to a representative sample of homeowners to assess the level of flood hazard awareness on the Connecticut shoreline and to provide information on flood preparedness planning, the National Flood Insurance Program and residential flood-proofing -techniques. -4- TABLE 1: CONNECTICUT TOWNS INCLUDED IN THE COASTAL FLOOD HAZARD VULNERABILITY STUDY, STATE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Branford Bridgeport Clinton Darien East Haven East Lyme Fairfield Greenwich Groton Guilford Madison Milford New Haven New London North Haven Norwalk Old Lyme Old Saybrook Stamford Stonington Stratford Waterford Westbrook West Haven Westport -5- TA*2 NATURAL RESOURCES CENTER Municipal Flood Hazard Inventory Preliminary Structure Counts October 1982 A (100-Yr. Flood Zone) B (500-Yr. Flood Zone) V (Coastal Flood Zone) F (Riverine Floodway) TOTAL 1. Fairfield 2,477 West Haven 983 Milford 623 Bridgeport 101 Fairfield 3,136 2. Stratford 2,004 Old Saybrook 858 Branford 391 East Haven 82 Stratford 2,754 3. Stonington 1,385 New Haven 757 East Haven 353 Norwalk 74 Milford 2,281 2 .4. Milford 1,248 Old Lyme 728 Madison 1 275 Stratford 63 West Haven 2,230 5. Bridgeport 1,191 Madison 661 Westport 2 275 Stamford 30 old Saybrook 1,991 6. Groton 1,069 East Haven 594 West Haven 246 West Haven 30 East Haven 1,845 7. Norwalk 1,065 Fairfield 549 Stratford 245 Fairfield 10 Bridgeport 4 1,825 8. West Haven 971 Westbrook 538 Old Saybrook 235 Westport 10 Stonington 1,822 9. Old Saybrook 898 Branford 529 Greenwich 208 North Haven 7 New Ha9en 1,628 10. East Haven 816 Bridgeport 506 Guilford 174 Darien 6 Groton 1,568 11. New Haven 816 Groton 476 Norwalk 147 Greenwich 5 Norwalk 1,493 12. Greenwich 810 Stratford 442 Old Lyme 132 New Haven 4 Old Lyme 1,468 13. Clinton 683 Stonington 422 Darien 126 Guilford 3 Branford 1,429 14. Old Lyme 607 Milford 410 Westbrook 126 Madison 3 Greenwich 1,272 15. Westport 537 Clinton 408 Fairfield 100 Clinton 2 Clinton 1,188 16. Branford 509 New London 336 Clinton 95 East Lyme 2 Madison 1,102 17. Westbrook 419 East Lyme 298 New Haven 51 Groton 1 Westbrook 1,083 18. Stamford 335 Darien 265 New London 48 Old Lyme 1 Westport 1,046 19. Guilford 321 Greenwich 249 Bridgeport 27 Branford 0 Guilford 727 20. Waterford 226 Waterford 248 Groton 22 Milford 0 Stamford 607 21. East Lyme 224 Stamford 232 Stonington 15 New London 0 Darien 540 22. Madison 163 Guilford 229 Waterford 12 Old Saybrook 0 East Lyme 529 23. Darien 143, Westport 224 Stamford 10 Stonington 0 Waterford 486 24. North Haven ill Norwalk 207 East Lyme 5 Waterford 0 New London 455 25. New London 71 North Haven 56 North Haven 0 Westbrook 0 North Haven 174 19,099 11,205 3,941 434 34,679- 1Count does not include all islands. 2Figures may be altered by reconstruction of sea wall. 3Floodway maps not available. 4Figures include Town of Stonington and Borough of Stonington. 5Figures include Town of Groton, City of Groton, Groton Long Point Association and Noank Fire District. 6Figures may be altered upon completion of revised wave-height studies. CJR 10/25/82 MUNICIPAL PROFILE CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Municipal Flood Hazard Inventory Profile for: Milford, CT Mailing Address: City Hall River Street Milford, CT Date: July 1983 1. Town Officials: a. Chief Elected Official: Alberta C. Jagoe b. Chief-Executive officer: Alberta C. Jagoe C. Public Works Director (Acting): Jake Donnelly d. Town Planner: Wade Pierce e. Building Inspector: William Slater f. Civil Preparedness Officer: William Healey (Chief, Fire Department) g. Chairman, Flood and Erosion Control Board: Edmund Colangelo 2. Form of Government: Mayor, Board of Aldermen 3. Regional Planni ng Agency: South Central Connecticut 96 Grove Street New Haven, CT 06510 4. Total Municipal Land Area: 23.5 square miles 5. Population: a. Permanent: 50,898 (1980 Census) b. Seasonal: 500 - 1000 maximum C. Number located in flood hazard zones: 2,863 in V zone 500 in Wepawaug River Flood Zone 31,363 -7- 6. General History of Flooding (Where and When): Major flooding events include August 17-20, 1955 (50-year), October 14-17, 1955 (25-year), September 18-21, 1938 and June 4-7, 1982. Flooding on the Housatonic River upstream from the Conrail bridge has been caused by high tides and high river flows acting either separately or coincidentally. High Housatonic River flows historically have resulted from either heavy rainfall alone or a combination of rainfall and snowmelt throughout the Housatonic River basin. Flooding in other Milford streams is also caused by high flows and high tides acting either separately or together. The principal damage resulting from high river flows is the destruction and loss of man-made development in floodplain and wetland areas adjacent to streams. Extremely high tide levels induced by ocean storm surges and wind-driven waves-accompanying hurricanes and coastal storms are the principal causes of coastline flooding. The principal damage in the tidal zone is the destruction and loss of man-made development in the low coastal areas and tidal estuaries adjacent to Long Island Sound. The flooding of June 4-7, 1982 caused severe flooding along the Wepawaug River. City Hall was flooded, causing extensive damage to offices and city records located in the basement. Commercial establishments located on the easterly side of River and Daniel Streets, just downstream from City Hall, sustained flood damages. Severe flooding damages were sustained at the Boston Post Road bridge over the Wepawaug River, extending northward approximately one half mile. Lastly, approximately sixty structures, residential and commercial, between the Conecticut Turnpike and Bridge Street were inundated by flooding. 7. Flood Studies.: Date Author/Sponsoring Agency Description In Progress USDA/soil conservation Central Coastal Service Cooperative River Basin Study In Progress U.S. Army Corps of En- Section 205 Reconnais- gineers, New England sance Study, Division Wepawaug River In Progress Diversified Great Creek Study Technologies In Progress Department of Environ- Milford shoreline mental Protection -8- on-going Department of DOT Study 83-149 Transportation Quirk Pond, Woodmont Road February 1982 R.M.Field Associates, Connecticut CoasE-a-= Inc./DEP Coastal Area Flood Hazard Area Management Program Study March 1978 U.S.Army Corps of En- Flood Insurance Study gineers, New England Division/U.S.Dept of Housing & Urban Devel- opment, Federal Insurance Administration July 1976 U.S. Army Corps of En- Connecticut Coastline gineers, New England Study - Effects of Division/DEP Coastal Coastal Storms Area Management Program 8. Existing Flood Control Structures: Type No. Location Description Breakwater I Off Milford Point Seawall 1 Morningside 9. Flood Control Projects, Proposed or in Progress: Description Target Date of Completion 1,680-ft. revetment - In progress Burwells and Fairview beaches 10. Flood Warning System: a. Description: Sirens stationed throughout the city and local radio stations b. Operated and Maintained by: Fire Department Fire Alarm Division -9- 11. Status of Emergency Operations Plan: a. Title: "Milford Plan For Civil Preparedness, Civil Defense or Disaster Emergencies", b. Date of latest revision: April 26, 1980 c. Specific flood annexes: Natural Disaster Plan 12. Inventory of Structures Located in Flood Hazard Zones (Summary): Residential Commercial/Industrial TOTAL A Zone: 1,203 45 1,248 B Zone: 403 7 410 V Zone: 615 8 623 Floodway:* 0 0 0 TOTAL: 2,221 @T-o 2,281 *No floodway maps available b. Municipal and other public ownership in flood hazard zones: State of Connecticut: Silver Sands State Reserve (293 acres) State of Connecticut: Wheeler Wildlife Area- State of Connecticut: Charles Island City of Milford: City Beach (adjacent to Silver Sands) 13. National Flood Insurance Program Status: a. Date entered emergency program: b. Date entered regular program: September 29, 1978 14. Flood Insurance Policy Information: Month Ending March 31, 1982 NUMBER OF POLICIES (3/31/82) New Renewal Dwelling Other Dwelling Other TOTAL POLICIES 121 12 .749 106 988 -10- AMOUNT OF INSURANCE (in whole dollars) Dwellin Other TOTAL WRITTEN PREMIUM $36,672,300 $9,621,500 $46,293,800 $140,220.54 POLICY CLAIMS PAYMENTS (12/31/82) YEAR OF PAYMENT YEAR OF FLOOD Year Payments Amount Paid Payments Amount Paid 1977 0 0.00 5 8,140.40 1978 39 52,457.14 37 45,913.29 1979 31@ $102,146.21 31 $117,269.21 1980 43 $166,324.29 143 $745,312.11 1981 103 $595,707.37 0 $ 0.00 1982 66 $432,232.60 66 $432,232.60 15. Drainage Basins in which Municipality Located: Basin Number Basin Name 5000 South Central Shoreline 5306 Indian River 5307 Wepawaug River 6000 Housatonic River 16. Watercourses: Name Basin Number Calf Pen Meadow Creek 5000 Oyster River 5000 Indian River 5306 Wepawaug River 5307 Stubby Plain Brook 5307 Beaver Brook 6000 Great Creek 6000 Housatonic River 6000 Turkey Hill Brook 6000 17. Lakes and Reservoirs (Impoundments): Name Watercourse Basin Number Quirks Pond Oyster River tributary 5000 Clark Pond Indian River 5306 Indian Lake Indian River 5306 Rose Mill Pond Indian River 5306 Nigs Pond 5307 Lily Pond Beaver Brook tributary 6000 Milford Reservoir Beaver Brook 6000 18. Wetlands: a. Location Basin Number of Acres (if available) b. Wetlands Regulatory Authority: State of Connecticut 19. Coastline: a. Number of Miles: 19.3 b. Percent of developed coastline (beachfront housing): 73% -12- 20. Coastal and Riverine Structures: a. Dams Dam or NRC Dam Impoundment Name Watercourse Ownership 084-01 Clark Pond Indian River N/A 084-02 West Pond Housatonic River N/A tributary 084-03 Milford Beaver Brook Utility Reservoir 084-04 City Pond Wepawaug River Municipal 084-05 Rose Mill Pond Indian River Private 084-06 Quirks Pond Calf Pen Meadow N/A Brook 084-07 Indian Lake Indian River Private 084-08 Mondo Pond Beaver Brook Utility tributary 084-09 Wepawaug Pond Wepawaug River N/A 084-10 Beaver Pond Beaver Brook Municipal 084-11 Unnamed Wepawaug River Municipal 084-12 Turkey Pond Turkey Hill Brook N/A 084-13 New Pond Housatonic River N/A tributary 084-14 Herbert Pond Housatonic River N/A tributary 084-15 Unnamed Wepawaug River Private b. Bridges: Road Name Watercourse Responsibility Route 1 Housatonic River State Route I Beaver Brook State Route 1 Wepawaug River State Route 15 Housatonic River State Route 95 Wepawaug River State Route 95 Indian River State Route 162 Wepawaug River State -13- Route 162 Indian River State Route 162 Turtle Creek State Route 736 Calf Pen Meadow Creek State Route 736 Gulf Pond State Route 747 Beaver Brook State Flax Mill Lane Wepawaug River Municipal Gulf Street Gulf Pond Municipal Maple Street Wepawaug River Municipal River Street Wepawaug River Municipal Walnut Street Wepawaug River Municipal West Main Street Wepawaug River Municipal Bridge Street Wepawaug River Municipal c. Jetties and Groins: Number Location 2 Cedar Beach 5 Wildemere, Walnut & Myrtle Beaches 12 Gulf Beach' 4 Bayview Beach 8 Pond Point Beach 20 Point Beach 18 Fairview/Burwells Beach 2 Milford Harbor 3 Welches Point d. Piers and Docks: Number Location 13 Housatonic River 3 Housatonic River 6 Milford Harbor 21. Ports/marinas: a. Name Address Commodore Marina, Inc. 164 Rogers Avenue Flagship Marina, Inc. 40 Bridgeport Avenue Milford Harbor Marina 1 High Street & Boat Works, Inc. Milford Yacht Club "OF Sea Frolic Yacht Club Spencer's Marina, Inc. 44 Rose Street -14- Town Dock & Landing Ramp Valley Yacht Club Wepawaug Yacht Club The Chandlery 1 High Street b. Name and Address of Harbor Master: Allen-G. Berrien Milford Boat Works 1 High Street Milford, CT 22. Utilities: a. Names of Utility Companies Serving the Town: United Illuminating Co. Southern New England Telephone Co. New Haven Gas Co. b. Facilities Located in Flood Zones (Solid Waste Disposal, Water Treatment, Sewage Treatment, Power Generation): Type Flood Zone Floodproofed? If so, to what extent? Sewage Treatment Plant 100 year No, but fairly well (Beaver Brook) elevated *Sewage Treatment Plant 100 year (Great Creek) *Sewage Treatment Plant 100 year (Milford Harbor) *Sewage Treatment Plant 100 year (Indian River) *To be put out of operation in 2 or 3 years upon completion of new Sewage Treatment Plant on Housatonic River 23. Water Supply: a. Name and Address of Water Utility Serving the Town: South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority -15- b. Public Water Supply Reservoirs: Name Watercourse Milford Reservoir, a.k.a. Beaver Brook Beaver Brook Reservoir (Emergency Reservoir) C. Public Water Supply Wells: Name Location Comments NONE d. Estimated # of private wells: 300-500 maximum (north I of Boston Post Road) e. Potential effects of flooding on water supply: 24. Storm Water Drainage System: a. Written Plan: -Yes X no 25. Floodplain Zoning and Floodplain Ordinances I. Mapping Flood plains shown on zoning (X) Flood plains not shown on zoning map W Flood insurance rate maps used (Referenced in zoning text) W Flood hazard boundary maps used (Referenced in zoning text) Other II. Zoning Text (Z) and Ordinance Text (0) A. Floodway (Z) Prohibited uses: encroachments which would increase tlood levels during base flood discharge (Z) Permitted uses: all; subject to standards and pro- visions for flood hazard reduction specified in zoning text (Z) Special Exceptions: mobile homes in an existing mobile home park or existing mobile home subdivision -16- B. Floodway Fringe I. Base flood elevations and flood hazard factors not determined (All A Zones) (Z) Prohibited uses: -9. any uses which would adversely affect the capacity of drainage facilities, - increase flood damages to other lands, or accelerate erosion; storage of injurious materials; open or outdoor storage of any material or equipment (Z) Permitted uses: all; subject to standards and provis- ions tor flood hazard reduction spe- cified in zoning text Special Exceptions: 2. Base flood elevations and @flood hazard factors determined (Al-A30, Vl-V30 Zones) (Z) Prohibited uses: none M Permitted uses: all; residential structures must meet lowest floor elevation requirement and be certified; non-residential may either meet lowest floor elevation requirement or be floodproofed so that walls below the base flood level are substantially impermeable; be constructed to resist h@7- drostaFic -1oads and effects of buoyancy; and be certified (Z) Special Exceptions: mobile homes subject to additional regulation C. Coastal Areas M Prohibited uses: alteration of sand dunes which would increase potential flood damage W Permitted uses: all; must be elevated, located landward ot the reach of the me@E -high tide, and certifTe-d (Z) Special Exceptions: mobile homes in an existing mobile home park or an existing mobile home subdivision III. Procedural Provisions AD A. Permit Requirements W Yes No Provides a separate permitting procedure -17- for all new construction and substantial alteration in flood zones Yes (X) No Provides for uses "as of right" (X) Yes No Specifies permit application procedures W Yes No Provides standards for permit approval ( ) Other: B. Variance Requirements W Yes No Provides a separate permitting procedure for variances in flood zones (X) Yes No Specifies conditions for application submittal (X) Yes No Specifies standards for permit approval ( ) other C. Certificate-of Zoning Compliance (X) Required Not Required D. Ordinance Amendment Procedures (X) Specified ( ) Not Specified E. Appeal Procedures (X) Specified Not Specified IV. Miscellaneous A. Enforcement Provision - Penalties for nonconformance (X) Yes No-Daily fines for noncompliance B. Interpretive Provisions W Yes ( ) No Severability clause (X) Yes ( ) No Liability disclaimer (X) Yes ( ) No Purpose and findings of fact W Yes No Definitions C. Regulated Areas W 100-year (1%) flood (All A Zones) 100-year flood for most uses, but 500-year (.2%) flood for critical actions (X) Coastal Areas Other V. Comments/Recommendations Flood Plain District is a class of district in addition to and overlapping one or more of the other districts. Milford's floodplain zoning regulations are excellent guidelines for the city's future floodplain management. By etailing mandatory floodproofing measures, construction specifications in flood zones, and standards for granting permits or variances, the regulations facilitate administrative and court review and provide certainty and predictability in the review process. The only recommendation made concerns critical uses in flood zones. While judicious use of the 100 year flood standard as a minimum for flood hazard area regulation should be continued, critical facilities should be protected to the 500 year flood elevation. Critical facilities include disaster, fire and police centers, hospitals, prisons, facilities for the elderly and handicapped, fuel and hazardous or toxic materials storage. These facilities pose unique, serious threats to public health and safety when exposed to flooding, and the town may wish to consider banning such uses from the floodway and flood fringe and coastal high hazard flood areas. -19- SOURCES: Atlas of the Public Water Supply Sources and Drainage Basins of Connecticut, Natural Resources Center, Department of Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Protection Bulletin No. 4, June 1982. City of Milford, Connecticut Municipal Coastal Program Phase II, as recommended by Milford Coastal Task Force, SeptemVe-r 1982, Raymond, Parish, Pine & Weiner, Inc., Hamden, CT. Coastal Recreation, Planning Report No. 25, prepared for the Department of Environment@i_l Protection.Coastal Area Management Program by Margaret N. Schneider, March 1978. Connecticut Coastal Flood Hazard Area Study, submitted to State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protec- tion Coastal Area Management Program, Hartford, CT, prepared by Ralph M. Field Associates, Inc., Westport, CT., February, 1982. Connecticut Dams, State of Connecticut, Natural Resources Center, Department of Environmental Protection,. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, 1983, Scale 1:125,000. Connecticut State Register and Manual 1982, Secretary of the State, Hartford, CT, 1982. Digest of Federal Disaster Assistance Programs, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Disaster Response and Recovery, Second Edition, October 1979. Directory of Boating Facilities, Office of Planning and Coordination/Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Protection, January 1983. Flood Hazard Mitigation A Manual for Connecticut Municipalities, Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Hartford, CT, Water Planning Report No. 4, September 1981. Flood Insurance Rate Maps, City of Milford, Connecticut, New @10 Haven County, Scale 1:1,000; Community Panel No. 090082, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Federal Insurance Administration, Effective September 29, 1978. -20- Flood Insurance stud , City of Milford, CT, New Haven County# U.S. Army Corps ot Engineers, New England Division, for the Federal Insurance Administration, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Contract No. IAA-4-15-72, March 1978. Flood Studies of Connecticut, prepared by the Natural Resources Center, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection; Compiled, Abstracted and Updated by George Dunn/Allan Williams (April 1979) from an original text by Anne Simko (January 1978). Gazateer of Natural Drainage Areas of Streams and Water Bodies Within the State of Connecticut, Mendall P. Thomas, U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Bulletin No. 1, 1972. Guide for Flood and Flash Flood Preparedness Planning, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, M.D., February 1977. "In-Force Policies by State and Community", Flood Insurance Program (3/31/82), Federal Emergency Management Agency Region I, Boston, MA. Interagency Flood Hazard Mitigation Report, in response to the June 14, 1982 Disaster Declaration (FEMA 661-DR-CT) covering all eight counties in Connecticut, prepared by the Region I Interagency Flood Hazard Mitigation Team. "Local Roads and Bridge Functions," Bureau of Highways, Division of Engineering Services, Engineering Data and Inventory Section, Connecticut Department of Transportation, 1980 Edition. "Milford Plan for Civil Preparedness, Civil Defense or Disaster Emergencies," Effective February 28, 1977, updated April 26, 1980. Municipal Officials, City of Milford: interviews and conversa- tions with Alberta Jagoe, Edmund Colangelo, Wade Pierce and William Healey, March 25, 1982, March 31, 1983, and July 13, 1983. -21- Natural Drainage Basins Maps, Scale 1:24,000, Natural Resources Center, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, 1981. Natural Resources Information Directory 1982, Natural Resources Center, State Geological and Natural History Survey, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, prepared by Elliott C. Bronson. 1980 Aerial Photographs, State of Connecticut, Scale 1:12,000, March 1980. 1980 Census of Population and Housing, Connecticut Census Data Center, Office of Policy and Management, April 16, 1981. Policy Claims Payments by Year of Payment and Year of Flood (12/31/82), Federal Emergency Management Agency Region I, Boston, MA. State Highway Bridge Log, Bureau of Highways, Division of Engineering Services, Engineering Data and Inventory Section, Connecticut Department of Transportation. U.S.G.S. 7.5-minute Series Topographic Maps, Scale 1:24,000, contour interval 10 ft: Ansonia, Connecticut (1964), Photorevised (1972); Milford, Connecticut (1960), Photorevised (1971); Woodmont, Connecticut (1960), Photo- revised (1971). Zoning Regulations, Milford, Connecticut, October 1973, Revised to June 1982. -22- COASTAL PROPERTY HOMEOWNER'S QUESTIONNAIRE: TABULATION AND ANALYSIS COASTAL PROPERTY H0;-iE0[-.71ER-S QUESTIONNAIRE Location of Property (Town) Circle Best Answer FLOOD HAZARD AWARENESS 1. Do you a) own 1. a b c d b) rent c) manage d) other 2. Is this your permanent address? 2. yes no If 'no', what percent of your time is spent here? In what community is your permanent address? 3. Are you aware that your home/cottage is located within 3. yes no a coastal high hazard flood zone? 4. Do you feel that the risk of injury and/or property 4. yes no damag& to which you are exposed is an acceptabl.e price to pay for living on the Connecticut coastline? 5. Have you experienced flooding at your present location? 5. yes no If 'yes', in what year? Describe the damage. Provide a dollar,estimate of the damage. FLOOD PREPAREDNESS 6. Are you aware that your homeowner's insurance does not 6. yes no cover losses related to flooding? Your community is partitipating in the National Flood Insurance Program, which is a federal program created to reduce annual flood losses through better planning and to provide property owners with the opportunity to purchase flood insurance guaranteed by the federal government. Are you: 7. a b c a) insured to replacement value of the building and contents? b) insured to less than full replacement value? c) not insured? 8. If your home was severely damaged or destroyed by a flood, could you afford to rebuild according to the more stringent building codes applicable to new construction in flood zones? 8. a b c a) could afford to rebuild at same location. b) could afford to rebuild outside of flood zone. c) could not afford to rebuild. 9. Have you determined your lowest flood elevation in 9. yes no relation to the probability and extent that your home is likely to be flooded? 10. Have you learned alternate evacuation routes from 10. yes no your home and/or place of business to high, safe ground? 11. In the even't of a flood, do you know where you can 11. yes no obtain medical help and where emergency shelter is located? 1-2- Are --you- aware of your cm-ToTty-s fl'bocs preparedness yes no plans? 13. In the event of a major flood, who would you expect to pay for disaster response and recovery costs? 13. a. b c d a) federal government b) state government c)'mbnicipal government d) yourself CONTINUED ON BACK PUBLIC AWARENESS The Coastal Property Homeowner's Questionnaire section of the Municipal Assistance Program was designed to meet two needs: 1) assess the degree of flood hazard awareness and preparedness of Connecticut's coastline residents, and 2) provide information on floodplain management, flood preparedness planning, residential floodproofing techniques, emergency operationso cleanup and repair, and the National Flood Insurance Program. I. Flood Hazard Awareness and Preparedness Assessment Data Accumulation Utilizing FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Maps for the City of Milford, a list of roads that occur partially or totally within the A (100-year) and V (Coastal) flood zones was'compiled. Milford's tax assessment records were then used to collect the names and addresses of one hundred randomly selected individuals for the questionnaire mailing distribution list. (A list of streets to which the questionnaire was distributed is shown in Table 3). Included with the questionnaire was a cover letter which explained the Municipal Assistance Program and the purpose of the questionnaire, and a self- addressed, stamped envelope to encourage questionnaire returns. (A copy of the questionnaire and cover letter is included in this section). Data Processing Each returned questionnaire was given its respective town code and individual identification number. The information each contained was encoded and transferred to a key-punch computer card. The entire -24- deck was then run through a comprehensive Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program. The program is capable of computing individual frequency statistics as well as cross-comparison statistics; the results of which are displayed in tabular and histogram chart form. Statistical Analysis--City of Milford The questionnaire statistical analysis consisted of correlating variables (individual questions) to compare the level of public flood hazard awareness with the application of flood preparedness practices. The subsequent results assisted in the determination of problem areas that we recommend be addressed in order to help alleviate any unnecessary future expenditures in the form of life, property loss, and disaster relief aid. The Natural Resources Center received thirty questionnaires from Milford. (A summary of responses is shown in Table 4). Due to the fact that the sample size is small in relation to the city's 1980 flood zone residential structure inventory (2,221), the statistical results must be regarded with discretion. The results generally indicated the following: --Seventy percent of the individuals who responded to the questionnaire had experienced flooding in the past at their present location. --Even though all (one hundred percent) of the respondents are aware of their existence within a high hazard flood zone, eighty-three percent feel that the risks imposed are an acceptable price to pay for living along the Connecticut shoreline. --Ninety-seven percent of the respondents are aware that their homeowner's insurance does not cover losses related to flooding but -25- only forty-seven percent are insured to full replacement value of their building and contents. --A significant number of individuals (seventeen percent) are unaware of alternate evacuation routes from their home and/or place of business to high, safe ground in the event of a flood. --Ten percent of the respondents do not know where to obtain medical help or where emergency shelter is located. --Approximately one half of the respondents (forty-seven percent) are unaware of any community flood preparedness_plans. --Although eighty-eight percent of the respondents are prepared to take precautionary measures in the event of a flood, only a small number (thirty percent) have implemented the more secure floodproofing measures to protect their property from potential flooding. II. Information Provisions Questionnaire Mail Package Contained in the questionnaire mail package that was sent to the one hundred flood zone inhabitants were three pamphlets published by FEMA. One pamphlet provided suggestions to help minimize the loss of life and property in the event of a flood while the other two provided information on the National Flood Insurance Program. As of March 31, 1982, Milford had 988 flood insurance policies in effect. Based on the 1980 flood zone residential inventory of 2,221 structures, there is a forty-four percent coverage. One of the goals of the municipal Assistance Program is to carry out a marketing campaign for the purchase of flood insurance. Due to the fact that the federal government has placed a greater responsibility upon the state and local governments to pay for disaster response and recovery costs in -26- the event of a major flood and the fact that individual and family grant assistance has been reduced, we believe it would be beneficial for all parties if there were an increase in the number of policyholders in the City of Milford. Additional Information Option Included on the back of each questionnaire was an option that gave interested individuals the opportunity to request more detailed information on flood preparedness, floodproofing, emergency actions, and cleanup and repair. The booklet and booklet excerpts sent to each I respondent were written by several state and federal agencies which are involved with the administration of proper floodplain management practices. Flood Information Exhibit In order to broaden our scope of coverage to those individuals who live within a flood zone but did not receive a questionnaire or the opportunity to request additional information, the Natural Resources Center designed a flood mitigation information exhibit. The exhibit includes all of the material that is provided through the questionnaire plus three pamphlets and two booklets which cover additional subjects such as hurricane safety tips, coastal home construction considerations, and floodproofing regulations. This exhibit is best suited for display in a public building (public library, town hall) and is available to all of the municipalities that are included in the Municipal Assistance Program. III. Conclusion An analysis of the cross-comparison statistics indicated that the individuals who showed deficiency in overall flood awareness and -27- preparedness were those who had not experienced flooding in the past. In addition, the level of public interest regarding flood preparedness is high in Milford, as we received many requests for additional information. Therefore, the development of an effective public information campaign in the City of Milford would not only help to satisfy the present high interest regarding flood hazard mitigation but would also serve to increase the level of flood awareness and preparedness of the individuals who are presently unaware that they live in this potentially hazardous area. -28- TABLE 3 QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION (by street) City of Milford 1. Ann Street 2. Bittersweet Avenue 3. Blair Street 4. Bridgewater Avenue 5. Caroline Street 6. Chetwood. Street 7. Cooper Avenue 8. Derby Avenue 9. Marsh Street 10. Melba Street 11. Point Beach Drive 12. Sand Street 13. Seaview Avenue 14. Virginia Street 15. Waterbury Avenue -29- TABLE 4 SUMMARY OF RESPONSES: COASTAL PROPERTY HOMEOWNERS' QUESTIONNAIRE CITY OF MILFORD 30 Questionnaires Returned/100 Mailed Out = 30% Response Rate I. Flood Hazard Awareness Q-1 Flood Zone Property Status Choice Frequency Percent Do you a) own a 30 100.0 b) rent b 0 0.0 c) manage c 0 0.0 d) other d 0 0.0 *) no response 0 0.0 Q.2 Permanent Address Is this your permanent address? yes 27 90.0 no 3 10.0 0 0.0 Q.3 High Hazard Flood Zone Awareness Are you aware that your home/ yes 30 100.0 cottage is located within a high no 0 0.0 hazard flood zone? 0 0.0 Q.4 Risk of Injury, Property Acceptable Do you feel that the risk of injury yes 25 83.3 and/or property damage to which you no 5 16.7 are exposed is an acceptable price 0 0.0 to pay for living on the Connecti- cut coastline? Q.5 Experienced Flooding Have you experienced flooding at yes 21 70.0 your present location? no 9 30.0 0 0.0 II. Flood Preparedness Q-6 Homeowner's Insurance Limitations Are you aware that your homeowner's yes 29 96.7 insurance does not cover losses no 1 3.3 related to flooding? 0 0.0 -30- Q.7 Building and Contents Insurance Status Your community is participating in the National Flood Insur- ance Program, which is a federal program created to reduce annual flood losses through better planning and to provide property owners with the opportunity to purchase flood in- surance guaranteed by the federal government. Are you a) insured to replacement value of a 14 46.7 the building and contents? b) insured to less than full b 13 43.3 replacement value? c) not insured? c 2 6.7 no response 1 3.3 Q.8 Afford to Rebuild If your home was severely' damaged or destroyed by a flood, could you afford to rebuild according to the more stringent building codes applicable to new construction in flood zones? a) could afford to rebuild at same a 16 53.3 location b) could afford to rebuild outside b 1 3.3 of flood zone c) could not afford to rebuild c 8 26.7 d) no response 5 16.7 Q.9 Determine Lowest Flood Elevation Have you determined your lowest flood yes 19 63.3 elevation in relation to the prob- no 8 26.7 ability and extent that your home is 3 10.0 likely to be flooded? Q10. Learn Alternate Evacuation Routes Have you learned alternate evacuation yes 21 70.0 routes from your home and/or place of no 5 16.7 business to high, safe ground? 4 13.3 Q.11 Know Where to Obtain Help and Shelter In the event of a flood, do you know yes 27 90.0 where you can obtain medical help and no 3 10.0 where emergency shelter is located? 0 0.0 -31- Q.12 Aware of Town Preparedness Are you aware of your community's yes 14 46.7 flood preparedness plans? no 14 46.7 2 6.6 Q13 Who Should Pay In the event of a major flood, who would you expect to pay for disaster response and recovery costs? a) federal government a 14 46.7 b) state government ab 3 10.0 c) municipal government abc 1 3.3 d) yourself abcd 2 6.7 no response ad 2 6.7 b 3 10.0 bd 1 3.3 c 2 6.7 d 1 3.3 1 3.3 Q14A-14G Recent changes in federal legislation have placed greater responsibility on the homeowner to take first acitons to reduce damage before and immediately following a flood. Are you prepared to take the following precautionary measures in the event of a flood? Q.14A Turn Off Utilities yes 28 93.3 no 2 6.7 0 0.0 Q.14B Close Gas, Water Valves yes 25 83.3 no 5 16.7 0 0.0 Q.14C Mo ve Valuable Possessions Moving valuable possessions (furni- yes 26 86.7 ture, small appliances, jewelry, no 3 10.0 artwork, coins, etc.) to upper 1 3.3 floors or removing them from the building Q-14D Secure or Bring Possessions Inside yes 29 96.7 no 1 3.3 0 0.0 Q.14E Fill Bathtubs, Sinks With Clean Water Filling bathtubs and sinks with clean yes 29 96.7 water in case regular supplies are no 1 3.3 contaminated 0 0.0 -32- Q.14F Board-Up Windows yes 23 .76.7 no 6 20.0 1 3.3 Q.14G Open Basement Windows - Lower Pressure Leaving basement windows and doors yes 24 80.0 open to prevent pressure build-up no 4 13.3 2 6.7 Q15A-15E Have you implemented one or more of the following flood- proofing measures to protect your property from potential flooding? Q.15A Relocate or Elevate Basement Utilities Relocating or elevating basement util- yes 16 53.3 ities (furnace, hot water heater, el- no 6 20.0 ectrical panel, water and gas meters) will above flood elevations consider 1 3.3 7 53.3 Q.15B Raise House Above Flood Elevation Raising the entire house above flood yes 5 16.7 elevation on a new or extended no 21 70.0 foundation will consider 3 10.0 1 3.3 Q.15C Rearrange or Protect Damageable Property Rearranging or protecting damageable yes 19 63.3 property within an existing structure no a 26.7 will consider 2 6.7 1 3.3 Q.15D Install Temporary or Permanent yes 9 30.0 Closures no 13 43.3 will consider 3 10.0 5 16.7 Q.15E Construct Small Walls or Dikes yes 12 40.0 no 14 46.7 will consider 1 3.3 3 10.0 -33- STATE OF CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION June 1982 Dear Connecticut Resident: Your residence on the Connecticut coastline enables you to fully appreciate and enjoy the vast resources of Long Island Sound and the coastal area. While the Sound provides a medium for.recreational activities, it is also the source of a serious threat to shoreline occupants: coastal storm flooding. Whether the-shore is the site of your permanent residence or a second home, it is im- perative that you become aware of potential flood hazards to ensure your family's safety. The enclosed questionnaire and brochures provide important information on measures you can take to protect your home and property from future flooding. Please take time now to read and complete the questionnaire. Connecticut has not experienced a major, statewide flood in a number of years; yet, it is extremely vulnerable to flood hazards. An inventory was recently conducted to determine the number of residential, commercial and in- dustrial structures occurring within riverine and coastal flood zones in 20 coastal towns. Although 30,000 structures were found to be located within flood zones, only 8,000 flood insurance policies are presently in effect. Seventy- three percent of the structures located within flood zones are not insured against flooding. In the absence of a major coastal storm, flo@_d_insurance claims for those same 20 towns still approached $6 million between the years 1977-1981. Furthermore, recent changes in legislation will shift a larger percentage of flood disaster recovery costs.from,the federal to state and local- governments. Clearly, preventive measures must be taken now to reduce the effects of a potential disaster. The most effective flood preparedness actions rest on the efforts made by the individual property owners of the coastal flood zones. While it is not possible to completely eliminate the danger of flooding to homes in coastal and low-lying areas, it is possible to reduce the cost of flood damage to your property through flood preparedness planning. 'The enclosed questionnaire was developed by the Natural Resources Center as part of its Flood Plain Management Municipal Assistance Program. Distributed to a representative sample of coast- line residents, the questionnaire seeks to assess residents' flood hazard awareness and provide information on flood preparedness planning, the National Flood Insurance Program, and residential flood-proofing techniques. Please complete and return the questionnaire in the enclosed envelope; your efforts will play an important role in improving the state's flood plain management program. Any questions regarding'the questionnaire or the state's rofe in flood plain management should be directed to the Natural Resources Center at 566--3540. Sincerely yours, Cyl Rummel Project Leader Natural Resources Center CJR:cz Enclosures Phone: 165 Capitol Avenue e Hartford, Connecticut 06106 An Equal Opporlunity Employer EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN REVIEW EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN REVIEW Approximately 35,000 structures along Connecticut's shoreline have been identified as flood prone; 2,300 of these are located in the City of Milford. Connecticut has not experienced a major coastal storm in a number of years; yet the damage potential associated with a coastal storm in any Connecticut municipality is phenomenal, involving property destruction, loss of life and business interruption. The municipalities of Connecticut must therefore develop and.maintain alevel of flood preparedness that is adequate to protect its citizens in the event of a major coastal flooding event. A preliminary review of the Emergency operations Plans in effect in Connecticut's coastline towns revealed a marked deficiency in preparedness measures specifically addressing flood hazards. A detailed analysis was therefore conducted to identify deficiencies and assess the overall adequacy of the municipal Emergency operations Plans. Milford's Emergency Operations Plan (Milford Plan for Civil Preparedness, Civil Defense or Disaster Emergencies, February 28, 1977, updated April 26, 1980) was evaluated using the National Weather Service's Planning Guidance and Checklist for Evaluation of Existing Flood Preparedness Plans. The following section assesses-the adequacy of the existing provisions of Milford's Emergency Operations Plans and identifies plan items that are recommended but not presently included. General comments regarding Milford's Emergency Operations Plans are included in the Recommendations section which follows. -35- CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATION OF EXISTING FLOOD PREPAREDNESS PLANS Plan Item Presently Existing Subtasks To WARNING ELEMENT Included Adequacy Be Planned Flood Recognition Task Al. Select warning point Yes Very Good A2. Warning point operational Yes Good d,e,f procedures A3. Observer/monitor procedures No Poor a,b Warning Dissemination Task A4. Procedures for issuing Yes Fair b,c,d warnings Procedures for warning No Poor a,,b,c special recipients A6. Procedures for warning Yes Fair b,c,e dissemination EVACUATION AND RESCUE FJM49NT Evacuation Area Identification Task Bl. Identify overflow areas No Poor a,b B2. Identify ponding areas No Poor B3. Identify other hazardous No Poor a,b,c areas Evacuation Procedures Development Task B4. Select evacuation destinations Yes Fair b,c B5. Identify evacuation routes No Poor a,b,c B6. Establish evacuation No Poor a,,b,,c priorities B7. Establish evacuation Yes Very Good procedures -36- eception Center Operations Task B8. Determine reception center Yes Fair ab,,c requirements B9. Select reception centers Yes Good B10. Reception center operational Yes Good d procedures Emergency Action Task Bll. Identify need for emergency Yes Good action B12. Determine emergency action Yes Good d requirements B13. Establish emergency action Yes Good procedures DAMAGE REDUCT110K ELEMENT Flood Fighting Task obl. Identify needed flood No Poor a,,b,,cd,e,,f fighting actions C2. Establish flood fighting No Poor a,,b,,c,,d procedures C3. Establish property Yes Fair a,c protection procedures Utility Management Task C4. Procedures for curtailment Yes Fair a,c C5. Emergency operation procedures No Poor a,b,,c Traffic Control Task C6. Identify traffic control needs Yes Good b,c C7. Establish traffic control Yes Good e procedures -37- 0 intenance of Vital Services Task C8. Identify vital services/ Yes Fair a,b,d facilities C9. Vital services operational Yes Fair a,c procedures C10. Establish records protection No Poor a,,b,,c,,de,,f procedures RECOVERY ELEMENT Maintenance of Public Health Task Dl. Morgue procedures Yes Fair b,c D2. Preventive health care Yes Very Good procedures Return of Services Task D3. Procedures to restore utility Yes Fair a,d services IDD4. Procedures to restore traffic Yes Fair C Rehabilitation and Repair Task D5. Procedures for cleanup Yes Fair b,d D6. Procedures for damaged Yes Good buildings Mobilization of Assistance Task D7. Identify recovery assistance Yes Good d D8. Establish procedures for Yes Fair b,c obtaining assistance PUBLIC INFORMATION ELEMENT Community Education Task El. Prepare public information Yes Fair a,c,d,,e,,f program g,h E2. Prepare technical assistance No Poor a,b,c,d program 0 -38- Oergency Information Task E3. Identify emergency Yes Good information requirements E4. Establish emergency Yes Fair a,b,c procedures E5. Prepare warning announcements No Poor a,,b,c PLAN 1"LEMENTATION ELEMENT Resources Identification Task Fl. Identify required resources Yes Good F2. Identify available resources Yes Good Responsibility Allocation Task F3. Determine needs for Yes Good responsibility assignments F4. Assign responsibilities Yes Good 06rdination Task F5. Establish inter-agency Yes Good coordination procedures F6. Establish emergency acquistion Yes Fair a,b arrangements F7. Establish state-local Yes Fair b,c arrangements F8. Establish site-specific No Poor ab,,c planning guidelines PLAN MAINTENANCE ELEMENT Plan Updating Task Gl. Periodic updating procedures Yes Poor a.b.codesfe goh,?i G2. Event-dependent updating No Poor a,,b,,c procedures -39- an Improvement Task G3. Describe needed plan No Poor a,b extensions G4. Describe needed plan No Poor a,b,c,d refinements G5. Establish procedures for No Poor a,b critiques Plan Practice Task G6. Establish plan test procedures Yes Poor a,c,d,e,f G7. Establish plan simulation No Poor a,b,c,d,e,f -40- Planning Guidance subtasks NOT presently included in Emergency Operations Plan NOT DONE A. Warning Element Planning Objectives: To define systems for early recognition of floods and dissemination of warnings which are accurate, timely and reliable. Planning Tasks: Flood Recognition Warning Dissemination Flood Recognition Task Al. Select a suitable local warning point which: a. is operational and staffed on a 24-hour basis; b. has adequate communications capability to receive flood information by primary and back-up means from all relevant sources; c. is safely located with respect to flooding or other common hazards; and d. has an auxiliary power supply and other provisions necessary to maintain full capability under adverse conditions. A2. Establish operational procedures at the warning point which are applicable to the flood recognition approach used and: a. specify arrangement for prompt receipt of flood watches and flood warnings from NWS; b. describe handling procedures for incoming information; c. specify conditions under which data collection net- works will be activated and the means of activation; d. specify arrangements for initiating observation of rivers and rainfall and for relaying of observations; e. identify the point(s) to be referenced by NWS in flood warnings and describe the translation necessary to in- terpret stage and time information for use in the specific area covered by the preparedness plan; and/or f. describe detailed procedures for preparing forecasts or estimates of flood severity based on river and rainfall observer reports. -41- A3. Establish operational procedures to be followed by river and rainfall observers which: a. identify the informational content and frequency of reports to be made; b. provide for both primary and back-up means of communications. Warning Dissemination Task A4. Establish procedures for issuing warnings which: a. assure prompt attention to information concerning flood threats; b. specify what types of warnings are to be issued under various possible conditions; c. assure warnings are commensurate with the expected severity of the flood; and d. assure warnings are coordinated with NWS. A5. Establish procedures for disseminating information concerning potential flood threats to special warning recipients which a. identify which special warning recipients are to be noti- fied under various possible conditions of flood threat; b. describe the means of communications to be used in alerting each special warning recipient; and c. specify record keeping, acknowledgement and other pro- cesses to assure notices are given and received. A6. Establish procedures for the dissemination of warnings to the gen- eral public which: a. are adequate to assure all affected persons receive warn- ings on a timely basis, notwithstanding telephone and power failures; b. pj@qvide-for various levels of warning appropriate to the immediacy and seriousness of the flood threat; c. specify the conditions under which each means of warning dissemination will be used; d. describe the process by which parties responsible for each means of dissemination are instructed to begin distribu- ting warnings; and e. take into consideration the time of day, day of the week or seasonal factors affecting the need for or means of warning dissemination. -42- Evacuation and Rescue Element Planning Objectives: To prevent the loss of life due to flooding or to flood related causes. Planning Tasks: Evacuation Area Identification Evacuation Procedures Development .Reception Center Operations Emergency Actions Evacuation Area Identification Task Bl. Identify areas which will be inundated at each potential level of flooding due to: a. overbank flows; and b. entry of flood waters through sewers, drainag e channels or other means of access. B2. Identify areas which will be inundated due to internal drainage or ponding unrelated to flood height. B3. Identify areas requiring evacuation for reasons other than inunda- tion including: a. loss of access or escape routes; b. loss or curtailment of utility or other emergency services; and c. site-specific problems. Evacuation Procedures Development Task B4. Select evacuation destinations for each area to be evacuated which are: a. safe from flooding and other related hazards; b. easily identified to the public; c. within time and distance commensurate with the warning time; and, d. suitable for use for the expected duration of the flood. B5. Identify best available evacuation routes which are: a. safe from early flooding due to urban drainage or other impediments; b. passable in all weather; and c. adequate to handle expected traffic. -43- B6. Establish priorities for evacuation which take into account: a. time of flooding with respect to other areas; b. severity of flooding; and c. loss of escape routes. B7. Establish procedures for carrying out evacuation which are consis- tent with the warning time available including: a. insuring affected public is advised of the need to evac- uate, safe destinations, routes and time available; b. providing general assistance in transportation and in preparing homes and businesses for evacuation; c. providing special assistance to those having unusual evacuation needs;. d.' assuring evacuation is complete; e. establishing traffic controls to prevent accidental entry into dangerous areas, identify evacuation routes and facilitate evacuation traffic; and f. establishing surveillance over the evacuation area to insure safety of the area. Reception Center Operations Task B8. Estimate the duration, damage and population affected in the case of a severe flood and determine reception center requirements including: a. number of persons likely to be housed overnight; b. number of meals to be served; c. type and extent of medical or other care required; d. required services, equipment and supplies for operation; e. required personnel for operation. Select reception center(s) which: a. are safe under conditions of severe flooding; b. have or can be provided with necessary equipment and services; c. provide sufficient space for required activities; 4D d. are available on short notice for the required duration; e. are readily identifiable to the public and accessible from all areas. -44- B10. Establish procedures for the operation of reception centers including: a. basis on which reception center operations will be activated and terminated; b. source and means of providing necessary supplies, equipment and services; c. allocation of space for reception center functions; and d. provision of temporary assistance and information on long term recovery aid. Emergency Action Task Bll. Evaluate the areas subject to flooding or isolation with respect to the types of emergency activities which may be required including: a. emergency evacuation of persons from dangerous areas; b. emergency provision of medical attention, fire control or other assistance; c. emergency operation or curtailment of power, water, gas and other services; d. control or containment of toxics, explosive gases and other dangerous commodities; and e. search for survivors. B12. Determine requirements for conducting emergency actions including: a. personnel; b. transportation; c. heavy duty equipment such as boats, trucks, earth movers and others; and d. portable hand tools and other equipment. B13. Establish procedures for carrying out emergency actions including: a. organization of rescue squads; b. placement of personnel and equipment for conducting emergency activities; c. coordination arrangements for identifying needs for assistance and responding to calls; and d. maintenance of communications. -45- C. Damage Reduction Element Planning Objectives: To reduce public and private property damages from flooding or flood related causes. Planning Tasks: Flood Fighting Utility Management Traffic Control Maintenance of Vital Services Flood Fighting Task Cl. Identify needed flood fighting actions to reduce overflow, seepage and other types of flooding as well as erosion due to flood waters including: a. assuring flood gates or sewer outlets are closed; b. temporary heightening of levees or floodwalls; c. closing of openings in levees and other embankments; d. containing overflows through manholes and other openings in the sewer system; e. pumping of internal drainage waters; and f. control of erosion at bridges, levees, building foundations and roadway embankments. C2. Establish flood fighting procedures to control overflow, seepage or other types of flooding with respect to: a. locations where each action is to be carried out; b. maintaining surveillance to determine the need for per- sonnel, equipment and further actions; c. priority for accomplishment; and d. extent of action required for various flood heights. C3. Establish procedures for the evacuation or temporary removal and relocation of automobiles, furniture, valuables, clothes, business and personal records, machinery and other movable property to reduce damage including: a. identification of types of action required at various locations and expected flood heights; b. arrangements for the provision of labor and transportation assistance; and c. identification of safe locations for storage of property. -46- Utility Management Task C4. Establish procedures for the curtailment of utility services to flooded areas including: a. need for curtailment by area or individual property for each flood height; b. means for accomplishing curtailment (i.e., homeowner, utility staff); and c. preparations to be made by property owner (within allow- able time) prior to evacuation to minimize damage and facilitate the eventual return of services. C5. Establish utility operation procedures to be used immediately prior to and during floods to: a. minimize losses and-risks caused by damaged utility systems; b. reduce damage done to utility equipment, supplies and operational capabilities; and c. maintain necessary utility services to vital community facilities. 0 Traffic Control Task C6. Identify needs for traffic control prior to, during and immediately after floods including: a. preventing accidental travel in areas which are.or will be flooded; b. establishing evacuation routes and speeding evacuation traffic; c. facilitating access to evacuation areas for transporta- tion, rescue and other essential traffic; d. preventing use of damaged roadways and bridges; and e. controlling access to damaged areas. C7. Establish procedures for traffic control which: a. identify areas to be controlled at each expected flood height; b. specify locations where traffic control is to be established; c. identify detours or types of control to be effected; d. specify placement of personnel, barricades and signs to effect necessary control and means of enforcement; and -47- e. describe the process for implementing pass systems or other arrangements for limiting post-flood entry to damaged areas to residents and other authorized persons. Maintenance of Vital Services Task C8. Identify police, fire, medical and other vital community services and facilities with respect to: a. location; b. vulnerability to interference by inundation, loss of access or communications;, C. interdependencies on other services and facilities including utilities; d. temporary floodproofing or other actions required to pre- vent the loss of service or function; and e. need for and means of providing auxiliary power, heat, water, sewage disposal and other services necessary for continued operation of vital facilities. C9. Establish operational procedures for police, fire, utility repair, @escue, medical and other services prior to and during floods including: a. placement of equipment and personnel to prevent loss of access due to flooding of roads and underpasses or failure of bridges; b. means of relaying calls for assistance and coordinating responses; and c. alternate routes for entering areas where traffic is controlled and avoiding evacuation routes. C10. Establish procedures for evacuation or protection of important records and documents located in areas subject to flooding including those relating to: a. vital statistics; b. tax and payroll information; c. court records; d..utility records; e. property ownership; and f. business records. -48- D. Recovery Element Planning Objectives: To initiate and carry out post flood actions to maintain public health, return community services to normal at the earliest possible time and to provide aid and assistance in recovery. Planning Task Maintenance of Public Health Return of Services Rehabilitation and Repair Mobilization of Assistance Maintenance of Public Health Task Dl. Estabish procedures for handling of the dead including: a. morgue location and method of operation; b. handling of personal effects; and c. identification and release of bodies. D2. Establish procedures for actions to preserve public health including: a. provision of emergency medical services and care for injured persons; b. procedure for locating missing persons and providing information to friends and relations; c. collection and destruction of contaminated foodstuffs; d. disinfection of private water supply sources and systems; e. innoculations and other preventive medical care; f. disease control; and g. control of insects, rodents, and other pests. Return of Services Task D3. Establish procedures for actions to resume provision of utility services including: a. preparations to be made by property owners; b. system preparations including decontamination of water supplies; c. sequence for returning services; and d. priority for resuming services. -49- D4. Establish procedures for returning to normal traffic patterns including: a. evaluation of road and bridge safety; b. debris clearance; and c.,priority for providing access. Rehabilitation and Repair Task. D5. Establish procedures for post-flood clean-up including: a. clearance, collection and disposal of debris and discarded goods; b. street washing; c. pumping basements; and d. return of material previously relocated for safekeeping. D6. Establish procedures for management of damaged structures including: a. procedures for identification and evaluation of damage; b. demolition or temporary repair of hazardous buildings. Mobilization of Assistance Task D7. Identify the sources and programs for recovery assistance and the means of obtaining each including: a. volunteer organizations; b. mutual aid agreements; c. state assistance; and d. federal assistance. D8. Establish procedures for mobilizing assistance from each available source including: a. conditions under which requests for assistance will be made; b. channels to be followed in requesting assistance; and c. preparation of necessary requests, disaster declarations or other documentation required as a condition of assistance. -50- 0 E. Public Information Element Planning Objectives: To develop community awareness and understanding of the flood hazard and to prepare for the accurate and timely pro- vision of information during flood emergencies. Planning Tasks: Community Education Emergency Information Community Education Task El. Prepare the materials for and carry out a continuing public infor- mation program, including letters to residents in evacuation areas, to increase community awareness of floods and evacuation area residents' knowledge with respect to: a. the source, nature, frequency and potential severity of floods; b. the community's system for flood recognition and dissem- ination of warnings to the public; c. the meaning of various types of warning announcements, siren signals and/or evacuation notices; d. the areas likely to be inundated or evacuated at each level of expected flooding; e. procedures for evacuation including preparations for evacuation, routes, safe destinations and identification of reception centers; f. actions which can be taken by property owners to reduce damages including movement of furniture and valuables, curtailment of electrical power and gas service and temporary floodproofing; g. means of requesting identification as a special warning recipient or receiving special assistance in evacuation; h. safety and remedial actions to be taken when returning to flood damaged buildings. -51- E2. Prepare and carry out a continuing program to provide technical information to those wishing to employ temporary floodproofing measures or needing to develop more detailed subplans for warning dissemination, evacuation, and damage reduction including: a. identification of areas where the depth and velocity of expected flooding and opportunities for egress enable the use of temporary floodproofing measures; b. procedures for temporary floodproofing; c. relation between forecast flood heights and on-site depths; and d. guidelines and criteria for warning dissemination and evacuation plans for hotels, motels, hospitals and/or other facilities requiring more detailed arrangements. Emergency Information Task E3. Identify the types of emergency information to be conveyed to the public in the period prior to, during and immediately following a flood including: a. early watches, warnings and evacuation notices; worded appropriately to obtain maximum public response; b. information on actions to be taken, location of safe areas and areas to be avoided, location of reception centers, and ways of obtaining emergency assistance; _c. actions being taken or to be taken to deal with the flood; d. calls for labor, equipment or other types of assistance needed for evacuation damage reduction and/or recovery activities; and e. information concerning sources and availability of recovery assistance. E4. Identify the means and procedures to be used in communicating each type of information with respect to: a. form and content of each type of message; b. handling of flood warnings and other related messages; c. source and verification of messages; and d. interfacing of communications equipment. -52- E5. Prepare warning announcements for use in various potential cir- cumstances and expected flood heights which: a. provide specific information and instructions; b. reference an authoritative and familiar source; and c. ensure an immediate adequate response on the part of the public and responsible officials to warning messages by considering the various factors governing warning confirmation and warning belief. F. Plan Implementation Element Planning Objectives: To develop the administrative arrangements necessary for effective implementation of the flood preparedness plan. Planning Tasks: Resource Identification Responsibility Allocation Coordination Resource Identification Task Fl. Identify type and amount of resources required for implementing the plan including: a. technical, administrative and other personnel; b. equipment and supplies; and c. facilities. F2. Identify the sources of personnel, equipment, supplies and facilities for implementing the plan including: a. community resources; b. private resources; c. assistance through mutual aid agreements; and d. state and/or federal assistance. -53- Responsibility Allocation Task F3. Evaluate each aspect of plan implementation with respect to: a. actions requiring detailed and specific assignments of responsibility; and b. actions suitable for assignment on an organizational basis. F4. Assign responsibility for implementation of each aspect of the plan including: a. instructions as to how, when and by whom implementation is to be assured; b. requirements for any necessary subplans or supplemental procedures; and c. establishment of a chain of command to ensure plan implementation will proceed in the event of absence or incapacity of key personnel. Coordination Task F5. Establish procedures for coordination of local governmental actions through an emergency operations center, if available, or other mechanisms, including: a. identification of responsibilities to be assigned to the center; b. operational procedures for staffing, and operation of the center to carry out the assigned responsibilities; and c. procedures for activation and termination of the center. F6. Establish necessary arrangements, including mutual aid agreements', for use of facilities, equipment and personnel, and services necessary for implementation of the plan including: a. location of river and rainfall gages, participation of observers, and receipt of information from upstream areas; b. land rights for flood fighting and other purposes; c. use of reception centers, hospitals, and areas for property storage; d use of vehicles for evacuation or movement of property; e. participation of volunteer organizations; and f. provision of necessary supplies, materials, construc- tion equipment and other items. -54- F7. Establish procedures to coordinate the local plan fully with state and other local plans for emergency operations including: a. integration with regional or statewide flood warning systems and communication networks, state flood dis- aster plans and other local natural disaster plans; b. coordination of evacuation plans with those for flood control, particularly where closure of floodgates in levees or floodwalls may affect escape routes; and c. coordination with NWS with respect to use of all available information and issuance of warnings. F8. Establish procedures to guide and coordinate more detailed site-specific planning for warning dissemination, evacuation and damage reduction in public and private buildings including: a. process for identifying locations where such plans are,necessary; b. minimum elements and appropriate level of detail to be included in planning; and c. provision of technical assistance in planning. Plan Maintena'nce Element Planning objectives: To update, extend and improve the flood prepar- edness plan and to insure readiness for executing the plan. Planning Tasks: Plan Updating Plan Improvement Plan Practice Plan Updating Task G1. Establish procedures and schedules for plan contents subject to rapid obsolescence including: a. addresses, telephone numbers, and names of key participants; b. assignments of responsibility; c. changes in flood potential; d. areas requiring evacuation; e. availability of facilities for reception centers; f. evacuation routes and priorities; g. flood fighting requirements; h. utility extensions or system modifications; and i. traffic cont5g@_requirements. 0 G2. Establish procedures for updating of plan contents based on specific events such as: a. construction of or modification in the operation of up- stream water control structures which affect the height, severity, or time of flooding; b. natural or unplanned events which modify the flood potential; and c. construction or modification in the operation of facil- ities in or downstream of the community which increases the height, severity, or duration of floods. Plan Improvement Task G3. Describe needed and planned extensions of the warning system and preparedness plan including: a. coverage of*additional area; and b. incorporation of elements, tasks and subtasks omitted from the initial plan. 0 G4. Describe 'needed and planned refinements to the warning system and preparedness plan including: a. provision of additional observers, gages and flash flood alarms to improve the flood recognition system; b. more detailed identification of areas to be evacuated; c. strengthening of communications involved in all aspects of the plan; and d. development of additional subplans for various affected organizations and locations. G5. Establish procedures for the critical evaluation of performance in real and simulated implementation of the plan including: a. process for initiationt organization and conduct of the evaluation; and b. process for modification of the plan based on findings of the evaluation. -56- Plan Practice Task G6. Establish procedures and schedules for testing those aspects of the flood warning system and preparedness plan which are sus- ceptible to periodic use such as: a. procedures for communication with observer networks, NWS and other federal offices, special warning re- cipients, organizations and officals responsible for warning,dissemination and plan execution, and others as may be appropriate; b. communications equipment including sirens, radio trans- mitters and receivers, flash flood alarm circuits, and others, with particular attention to battery powered equipment; c. auxiliary sources for electrical power and other services; d. procedures for activation of the emergency operation center, sending and revceiving observer reports, handling messages, preparing forecasts, disseminating warnings, placement of equipment and personnel for evacuation and rescue, protection of vital facilities and other steps in execution of the plan. e. availability and operational status of equipment for evacuation, rescue and damage reduction activities; and f. availability and procedures for use of key maps, lists and other important plan documentation. G7. Establish procedures and schedules for the periodic simulation of those aspects of the warning system and preparedness plan not susceptible to direct testing such as: a. decisions to issue warnings or direct evacuation; b. evacuation; c. implementation of traffic control procedures; d. activation of reception centers; e. curtailment of utility services; and f. procedures for rescue, handling of injuries and casualties, and public health measures. -57- RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDED MUNICIPAL CHANGES The City of Milford is vulnerable to hurricanes, strong tidal action and flooding from its exposure to Long Island Sound, and general riverine flooding from several watercourses within the town. A large percentage of Milford's coastline is characterized by low- lying, highly developed residential areas, many of which lose access and become isolated during coastal storms. Approximately 2,300 residential, commercial and industrial structures have-been identified as being located within flood zones; and 3,400 residents of Milford live in flood prone areas. It is the responsibility of local authorities to plan, prepare and provide for their constituents in the event of an emergency. Flood preparedness is furthermore most effectively practiced at the local level. The municipal officials are, therefore, encouraged to implement flood preparedness measures to protect the lives and property of floodplain inhabitants. I. Emergency operations Plan Milford has experienced at least ten major coastal storms since 1938, costing millions of dollars in damages and the loss of at least one life. Steps have consequently been taken by the city to mitigate future damages, including the establishment of an approved Emergency Operations Plan and warning system, the establishment of an Emergency Operations Center to coordinate emergency services during a flood and integration with the National Weather Service broadcasting system for early warning. _59- While Milford has demonstrated strong initiative in.dealing with coastal flood problems, we are recommending that the process be taken one step further by developing and appending to the city's Emergency Operations Plan or Natural Disaster Planning a written flood annex, specifically addressing flood warning, preparedness and mitigation efforts. Development of such an annex may be facilitated through the use of the attached guidelines (see Planning Guidance and Checklist for Evaluation of Existing Flood Preparedness Plans). These guidelines, developed in 1977 by the National Weather Service, are intended to assist a community in its initial development or improvement of existing flood preparedness plans. While the guidelines identify a range of matters to be considered, suggest procedures and provide a planning aid, they do no t contain or constitute a model plan. Each community must first assess its potential flooding problem and identify the resources available for warning, evacuation and recovery procedures. Each town's needs will vary according to the frequency and severity of anticipated flooding, the size of the population affected and the advanced warning time available. The guidelines were used to assess the adequacy and identify deficiencies of Milford's existing Emergency operations Plan and Natural Disaster Planning in addressing flood hazards. A. War ing Milford's Warning Annex (December 8, 1981) includes a number of the elements recommended in a flood preparedness plan, such as selection of a warning point and standard operating procedures for the warning point. Because of Milford's shoreline exposure, however, it is strongly recommended that observers be assigned to monitor rainfall -60- and rising water, prepare estimates of flood severity and issue reports to the Emergency Operations Center. Milford should additionally consider the implementation of an automated flood warning system in conjunction with the Northeast River Forecast Center of the National Weather Service. These measures could increase the time available to warn residents and businesses who would be affected by potential flooding. Warning dissemination procedures are included in the annex, but special warning recipients and the methods used to warn them should be identified. Such recipients may include: 1. Persons or organizations involved in decisions to initiate general dissemination of warnings 2. Police, fire, rescue and other emergency forces 3. Public works department 4. Persons responsible for operating the Emergency Opera- tions Center 5. Mutual aid 6. Utilities 7. Schools, convalescent homes, elderly housing 8. Hotels, motels 9. Businesses, facilities or homes requiring additional time to implement floodproofing techniques 10. Individuals who may not receive or comprehend warnings by techniques in general use such as the deaf 11. Marinas and water borne traffic B. Evacuation It is recommended that the evacuation planning as assigned to the Milford Civil-Preparedness (Civil Defense) Agency and implemented by the Fire Department be more fully developed and integrated into a -61- flood annex. Evacuation poses particularly difficult problems in Milford, as a number of areas suffer loss of access in addition to inundation. Flood prone areas must first be identified in the"annex; priorities for evacuations should then be established with particular emphasis on the heavily populated coastal flood zones including Milford Point, Walnut Beach, Great Creek, Bayview Beach, and Pond Point. where possible, evacuation routes from these areas should be selected which are safe from flooding and easily identifiable to the public. Where possible, alternate evacuation routes should be planned where they exist in the event of a bridge or road washout. Evacuation planning should additionally include: 1. Description of traffic control arrangements to expedite evacuation and passage of emergency vehicles and prevent accidental travel into dangerous areas 2. Provisions for any necessary assistance to evacuees such as transportation and aid to invalids 3. Arrangements for security of evacuated areas; and 4. Listing of maps, tabular data or other aids required to support evacuation planning It is important to note that the Milford Police and Fire Departments have gone on record as being opposed to any development in any floodplain area primarily because of the loss of access to such areas for emergency services. C. Mobilization of Assistance The local government is responsible for mobilizing local resources to support an effective disaster operation. The Emergency Operations Plan contains good provisions for contacting and enlisting the aid of mutual agreements and volunteer organizations for recovery assistance (towns of Stratford, West Haven and Orange, American Red -62- Cross, Salvation Army, Veterans organizations, womens' organizations and auxiliaries) and for coordinating their efforts. The sources and programs for state and federal assistance should also be identified in the Emergency Operations Plan. All local requests for state and federal assistance are channeled through the Area II Coordinator to the State office of Civil Preparedness. The State Office of Civil Preparedness then mobilizes assistance from the appropriate state agencies and, if necessary, federal assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Although the primary responsibility for disaster relief lies with the State of Connecticut and the municipalities, a number of federal agencies offer supplemental relief and recovery programs. To expedite requests for such aid, the town may wish to document the primary federal assistance programs in the Emergency Operations Plan. These agencies and programs are outlined below: 1. Department of Agriculture/Soil Conservation Service Emergency Watershed Protection to carry out emergency measure installation for soil erosion prevention and run-off retardation in watersheds that have been suddenly impaired by a natural disaster 2. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - National Weather Service Forecasts and Warnings to provide a forecast and warning service for all weather related to natural disasters River and Flood Forecast and Warnings Services to pro- vide forecasts of warning levels of the nation's rivers as a direct contribution to public safety 3. Department of Defense/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Flood Control Works and Federally Authorized Coastal Protection Works, Rehabilitation to assist in the re- pair and restoration of flood control works damaged by floods or federally authorized hurricane flood and shore protection works damaged by extraordinary wind, wave or water action -63- Flood Fighting and Rescue Operations to provide emer- gency assistance as required to supplement local efforts and capabilities in time of flood or coastal storm Protection of Essential Highways, Highway Bridge Approaches and Public Works to provide bank protection of highways, highway bridges and essential public works endangered by flood-caused erosion 4. Federal Emergency Management Agency Communications to provide temporary communication fac- ilities in disaster areas where such facilities have been severely disrupted Debris Removal to remove debris and wreckage resulting Yr-oma major disaster from publicly and privately owned lands and waters when determined to be in the public interest Food, Water and Shelter to provide food, water, mass feeding and shelter services in time of natural disaster Protection, Evacuation, Search and Rescue to protect life and property and to carry out evacuation and search and rescue operations Public Transportation to provide temporary public trans- portation services to meet emergency needs when such services have been severely disrupted because of a major disaster Temporary Housing to provide temporary housing for individuals and families displaced as a result of a disaster Community Disaster Loans to provide funds to any local government which has suffered a substantial loss of tax and other revenue as a result of a major disaster and has demonstrated a need for financial assistance in order to perform its governmental functions Repair or Reconstruction of Public Facilities to provide for the repair, restoration, reconstruction or replacement of public facilities which have been damaged or destroyed by a major disaster. it is important that these agencies and programs be identified in the Emergency Operations Plan to ensure that the contacts needed for -64- assistance during and immediately following a disaster are readily available. D. Community Education/Public Awareness A public information element is needed in the Emergency Operations Plan to develop community awareness and understanding of the flood hazard and to provide accurate and timely information during flood emergencies. Community education serves to: (1) increase awareness of potential flood hazards, (2) familiarize the public with thie town's system for flood recognition and dissemination of warnings to the public and how emergency operations will be conducted in the event of a disaster, (3) inform residents of the areas likely to be evacuated during a flood and provide information concerning evacuation routes and destinations, (4) inform residents of actions they can take before and immediately following a flood to reduce damages such as moving valuable possessions and turning off utilities, and (5) provide a means of requesting identification as a special warning recipient or receiving special assistance in evacuation. The Natural Resources Center has conducted a limited public awareness campaign in Milford by disseminating a residential property owner's questionnaire concerning flood hazard awareness and flood preparedness measures to a representative sample of flood zone occupants. Additional information regarding flood preparedness planning, the National Flood Insurance Program and floodproofing techniques was distributed with the questionnaire. A large percentage of respondents requested yet more detailed information from the Natural Resources Center, indicating there exists a strong public demand for more flood preparedness information. Because we were .-65- unable to contact all floodplain occupants, the Natural Resources Center constructed two flood preparedness exhibits that are available to municipalities upon request for public display. 'Ideally, all hazard awareness campaigns should be formulated and conducted at the local level so they can be made as specific and meaningful as possible. The City of Milford should additionally consider implementing a continuing program of community education by distributing newsletters, flyers or brochures townwide or holding public meetings that will reach all citizens and maintain public i awareness of flood preparedness. E. Plan Maintenance and Practice Milford's Emergency Operations Plan contains provisions and schedules for updating but falls short of specifying the information that must be kept current. Most importantly, the names, addresses and telephone numbers of key participants and assignments of responsibility must be updated on an annual or semi-annual basis. Additional information regarding changes in flood potential, areas requiring evacuation, availability of facilities for reception centers, evacuation routes.and priorities, flood-fighting requirements and adjustments made necessary by experience gained as a result of exercises should be updated as needed. In addition, provisions should be included in the plan for testing the warning system and preparedness and response activities. Such exercises are invaluable in familiarizing the participants with the operation of the Emergency Operations Center and asociated duties. Plan practice further functions in: (1) establishing lines of communication, (2) providing coordination between agencies and -66- 0 departments, (3) setting priorities for use of manpower and equipment when resources are exhausted, and (4) surfacing unforeseen problems, allowing participants to analyze the situation and make recommendations for improvements, thereby lessening the confusion that accompanies a real disaster. II. Flood Insurance -Milford is enrolled in the regular phase of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), which enables all property owners within the town to purchase federally subsidized flood insurance. The inventory of structures located within flood zones in Milford identified 2,281 residential, commercial and industrial structures and utilities as flood prone. One thousand eight hundred seventy one (1,871) of those structures are located in the A zone (100-year flood zone) and V zone (100-year flood zone subject to wind and wave action). Comparing this figure (1,871) with the number of flood insurance. policies in effect (988 as of March 31, 1982), it appears that forty-eight percent of the structures vulnerable to the 100-year flood hazard are not insured against flooding. It is recommended that an attempt be made to increase the flood insurance coverage in Milford, given the high percentage of flood- prone structures that are not insured. Flood insurance is an effective tool in reducing the enormous recovery costs associated with a flood disaster incurred by both the public and private sectors. Furthermore, rec ent changes in feder al legislation have placed greater responsibility for flood preparedness on the state and local -67- governments and the private sector. Federal disasteraid has been reduced from a 100 percent federal to a 75 percent federal/25 percent state and local share. Flood insurance premiums have increased substantially; standard deductibles have more than doubled. Replacement cost coverage is now available only on a single-family principal residence. Yet, the purchase of flood insurance is clearly the most cost beneficial step a property owner can take to reduce flood losses. As an incentive, however, policyholders are now eligible for reimbursement of expenses incurred in moving contents of a structure away from a pending flood. Such changes are aimed at reducing the existing flood hazard potential and forcing flood zone occupants to take responsibility for flood preparedness actions. Flood insurance coverage could be increased most effectively through the efforts of independent insurance agents. Insurance agents are most knowledgeable about property insurance, and the incentive to promote flood insurance coverage is the commission earned on the policies written. The municipality could assist with flood insurance promotion through a public awareness campaign or community education program for flood preparedness. In addition, property owners who are willing to risk reconstruction costs may consider purchasing flood insurance if the town reinforces the additional requirements placed on construction begun after the publication of the Flood Insurance Rate Map. For example, new construction or substantial improvements initiated after the effective date of the Flood Insurance Rate Map (September 29, 1978) are subject to more stringent building codes, as the lowest floor elevation of buildings in special flood hazard areas must be at or above the base flood elevation. _68- III. Flooaplain Zoning and Floodplain ordinances Milford's Flood Plain Zoning Regulations provide excellent guidelines for the city's future floodplain management. By detailing mandatory floodproofing me asures, construction specifications in flood zones, and standards for granting permits or variances, the regulations facilitate administrative and court review and provide certainty and predictability in the review process. Effectiveness of the program will depend on stringent enforcement of the regulations. The only recommendation made concerns critical uses in flood zones. While judicious use of the 100-year flood standard as a minimum for flood hazard area regulation should be continued, critical facilities should be protected to the 500-year elevation. Critical facilities include disaster, fire and police centers, hospitals, prisons, facilities for the elderly and handicapped, fuel and hazardous or toxic materials storage. These facilities pose unique, serious threats to public health and safety when exposed to flooding, and the town may wish to consider banning such uses from the floodway and flood fringe areas. IV. Land Acquisition Land acquisition is an effective but infrequently used approach to reducing future flood damages. Section 1362 of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, specifically provides for the acquisition, in limited circumstances, of flood damaged properties and -69- conversion of the properties to a public open space or recreational use. In 1981, the Coastal Area Management Unit of the Department of Environmental Protection undertook a study to identify specific locations along the Connecticut coast where this technique had high potential for application following a major flood. The result of this effort, the Connecticut Coastal Flood Hazard Area Study, identified one such area in Milford: Cedar Beach. The City of Milford is encouraged to give serious consid- eration to acquiring properties within Cedar Beach as part-of its overall coastal management and floodplain management programs. In addition, the recommendations put forth in the study to increase the chances of receiving Section 1362 funds should be followed, namely: a. modify existing floodplain management regulations so that they go beyond the minimum FEMA regulations. b. maintain a record of strict enforcement of floodplain regulations, with few or no variances permitted C. prepare a post-flood recovery and hazard mitigation plan d. develop an effective flood warning and evacuation plan e. submit a complete and timely annual report to FEMA f. establish a procedure to notify all perspective purchasers and renters of flood-prone properties of the risk of living in the area. V. Road, Bridge and Culvert Design Standards The State of Connecticut supports the policy of whenever possible, upgrading hydraulically inadequate stream crossings to provide adequate capability to pass the 100 year flood discharge. Following the June 1982 flood, however, it was discovered that most -70- municipalities had inadequate stream crossing standards to qualify for upgrading under FEMA's public assistance program. Replacement of local stream crossings destroyed during a declared disaster are funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency's public assistance program. This program provides for all publicly owned structures to be replaced to the pre-flood condition with a maximum of fifteen percent of the Damage Survey Report total available for disaster proofing. If more stringent standards are formally adopted, enforced and in general use by the applicant at the time of the disaster, the structure would be upgraded, and a larger percentage paid by FEMA funds. Milford is therefore encouraged to adopt municipal road, bridge and culvert design standards equivalent to those in effect at the state level. Such standards would eliminate repeated road and bridge damage at the local level, reduce long-term damages and result in higher federal reimbursements. VI. Stormwater Management Stormwater run-off is a valuable natural resource that augments water supply, recreation and groundwater recharge. Excessive stormwater run-off, however, can result in flooding, property damage .and the destruction of roads and utilities. The entire City of Milford is subject to surface water run-off. It is recommended that Milford consider the development of a local comprehensive stormwater management plan to guide and coordinate thefuture development of the city's watersheds. -71- 0 An effective stormwater management plan would provide a balanced and flexible run-off control program by coordinating improvements to the existing drainage facilities and planning facilities for future use on a watershed basis. Development proposals are generally reviewed individually for their effect on flow rates. With a comprehensive plan, however, future development of each watershed would be examined with respect to the cumulative increases in peak run-off rates throughout the watershed. A stormwater run-off management solution for each development proposal would be based on, and supportive of, the plan for the entire basin. A stormwater management plan would thereby serve to reduce the impact of urbanization on the riverine system, including flooding, channel instability and potential erosion or siltation problems, and preserve the natural qualities of the watershed for aesthetic, recreational, fisheries and wildlife purposes. viI. conclusions A. Milford has developed good floodplain management measures in the following areas: 1. Warning, Damage Assessment and Natural Disaster Annexes of the Emergency Operations Plan 2. Floodplain Zoning Regulations B. Milford could improve its flood management programs in the following areas: 1. Development of a "flood annex" to the city's Emergency operations Plan or Natural Disaster Plan, specifically addressing flood warning, flood preparedness and flood mitigation efforts and development of an automated flood -72- warning system. 2. Development and implementation, on a continuing basis, of a community education/public awareness program for resi- den--t-s --- o-f Milford's flood zones. 3. Increase the flood insurance coverage among owners of res-idential, commercial and industrial property located in flood zones. 4. Maintaining stringent enforcement of floodplain zoning regulations. 5. Adoption of municipal road, bridge and culvert design standards to the 100 year flood standard. 6. Development of a comprehensive stormwater management plan. -73- 3 6668 14 109 3366