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FISHES OF THE EDISTO RIVER BASIN Bibliography Historical Sampling Locations Species Occurrence QL61 4. 83 REPORT6 .S68 F57 Fisheries Habitat Committee 1995 Edisto River Basin Project S.C. Department of Natural Resources Water Resources Division Columbia, South Carolina FISHES of the EDISTO RIVER BASIN SOUTH CAROLINA Bibliography Historical Sampling Locations Species Occurrence Q-1 Editors: Barton C. Marcy, Jr. Suzanne K. O'Brien-White do Fisheries Habitat Committee Edisto River Basin Project South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Water Resources Division C Library Columbia, South Carolina Property 01 CS Report 6 March 1995 Us De partment of coTmerce NOAA Coastal services center Library 2234 south 1,@obsori Avenue 29405-2413 Cliarieston, sc 4 State of South Carolina ,A CAR The Honorable David M. Beasley, Governor South Carolina Department of Natural Resources OR MT Water Resources Division Appointed Members Mr. Marion Burnside, Chairman .................................................. Member-at-Large Mr. Thomas W. Miller, Vice Chairman ............................ 3rd Congressional District Mr. George L. Vickery ..................................................... 1 st Congressional District Mr. J.M. Pendarvis ......................................................... 2nd Congressional District Mr. Knox L. Haynsworth, Jr ............................................. 4th Congressional District Mr. Jake Rasor, Jr . .......................................................... 5th Congressional District Mr. Howard H. Poston, Jr . ............................................... 6th Congressional District Staff James A. Timmerman, Jr., Ph.D., Director Alfred H. Vang, Deputy Director, Water Resources Hank Stallworth, Assistant Deputy Director, Water Resources Anne Hale Miglarese, Chief, Resource Assessment & Planning Section FISHES OF THE EDISTO RIVER BASIN Contents Page Edisto River Basin Project ..................................................... Introduction ................................................................. 3 Edisto River Basin 5 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin 9 Freshwater Fishes 9 Anadromous Fishes 11 Estuarine / Marine Fishes ................................................ 12 Fish Species Occurrence in the Edisto River Basin / Estuary ....................... 13 Freshwater ........................................................... 15 Saltwater ............................................................. 21 Historical Fisheries Sampling Locations in the Edisto River Basin / Estuary ........... 27 Freshwater ........................................................... 29 Saltwater ............................................................. 37 Bibliography ................................................................ 41 Edisto River Basin / Estuary ............................................. 41 Freshwater ..................................................... 43 Saltwater ...................................................... 44 Adjacent River Basins ................................................. 47 Freshwater / Saltwater ............................................. 49 Selected Related Fisheries References in South Carolina .................... 51 Freshwater ..................................................... 53 Saltwater ....................................................... 55 1V FISHES OF THE EDISTO RIVER BASIN Tables Page 1 Families, genera, and species collected in freshwater and saltwater surveys from 1964 to 1994, in the Edisto River Basin Estuary ............. 10 2 Fish species occurring in freshwater portions of the Edisto River Basin .............. 15 3 Fish species occurring in saltwater portions of the Edisto River Basin ............... 21 Figures Page Maps showing: 1 Counties of the Edisto River Basin, South Carolina ............................. 6 2 Sub-basins and major streams of the Edisto River Basin ........................ 7 3 Freshwater-fisheries stream-survey locations in the North Fork Edisto River sub-basin 32 4 Freshwater-fisheries stream-survey locations in the South Fork Edisto River sub-basin 33 5 Freshwater-fisheries stream-survey locations in the Four Hole Swamp sub-basin ..... 34 6 Freshwater-fisheries stream-survey locations in the main stem Edisto River sub-basin . 35 7 Freshwater-fisheries river surveys in the Edisto River Basin ...................... 36 8 Estuarine-fisheries sampling locations on the South Edisto River .................. 38 9 Estuarine-fisheries sampling locations on the North Edisto River ................. 39 V I Vi FISHES OF THE EDISTO RIVER BASIN Edisto River Basin Project The Edisto River Basin Project involved citizens of the Basin in the evaluation and planning of the region's natural, cultural, and economic assets. A primary goal of the project was to make future- land-use planning recommendations concerning how these resources should be utilized and/or protected. The project was conducted by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) in partnership with the South Carolina Department of Commerce and the South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism. Funding was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Fisheries Habitat Committee The Fisheries Habitat Committee was formed to evaluate the quality of fisheries habitat in the Basin and make recommendations to the Edisto River Basin project task force and basin residents as to how the fishery resource should be utilized, protected, and managed. B. C. Marcy Chairperson, Fisheries Biologist, Westinghouse Savannah River Company L. Baldwin Private citizen, Shrimper C. R. Brown Environmental Planner, SCDNR T. Dingley Manager, Orangeburg National Fish Hatchery, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Retired J. Hansbarger Biologist, University of South Carolina S. K. O'Brien-White Geographic Information System Design Analyst, SCDNR M. H. Paller Fisheries Biologist, Westinghouse Savannah River Company W. A. Roumillat Marine Fisheries Biologist, SCDNR G. T. Sloat Fisheries Biologist, National Marine Fisheries Service D. R. Spencer Biologist, National Marine Fisheries Service C. S. Thomason Freshwater Fisheries Biologist, SCDNR C. Zemp Marine Fisheries Biologist, SCDNR Edisto River Basin Project 2 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin m Introduction This report summarizes all of the available fish population data and fishery information collected to date in the Edisto River Basin and estuary. It includes a bibliography of both freshwater and saltwater fisheries references specific to the Edisto, adjacent river basins, and selected related fisheries references in South Carolina pertinent to the species occurring in the Edisto River Basin. The report also includes the historical sampling locations and descriptions for both freshwater and saltwater fisheries studies and surveys and a historical listing of freshwater and saltwater fish species occurring in the Basin and estuary. A geographic information system (GIS) is used extensively in the Edisto River Basin Project as a tool to evaluate natural and anthropogenic resources. Maps included in this document were created by the Water Resources Division of the SCDNR, using the ARC/INFO analysis software and Adobe Illustrator graphics software. Sampling locations were developed from a series of fisheries survey data. The hydrography data represent the river channels and tributary system of the Edisto River Basin compiled by the United States Geological Survey at a scale of 1:24,000. Members of the Fisheries Habitat Committee of the Edisto River Basin Project compiled and verified fish population data and fishery information for this report. The commiffee especially wishes to acknowledge Anne Hale Miglarese, Chief of the Resource Assessment and Planning Section of the Water Resources Division, and Barry Beasley, Project Director, for their support of this document. Appreciation especially goes to Jim Scurry and Chris Page, also of the Water Resources Division, for their technical expertise and support throughout the process of creating and publishing this document. Introduction M 4 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin m Edisto River Basin The Edisto River Basin is located in south-central South Carolina (Figure 1). From its west- ern extreme in eastern Edgefield County, the Basin extends southeastward 130 miles across the Coastal Plain to the Atlantic Ocean. The Edisto River Basin is a drainage area of about 3,120 square miles (nearly 2 million acres). The region occupies approximately one-tenth of the area of South Carolina. The width of the Basin ranges from an approximately 30-mile-wide corridor, through an 8- mile-wide bottleneck below Givhans Ferry State Park, to a 10- to 24- mile-wide estuarine region at the coast. Portions of 12 counties are encompassed by the Basin. These counties are: Edgefield, Saluda, Lexington, Aiken, Barnwell, Bamberg, Orangeburg, Calhoun, Dorchester, Berkeley, Charles- ton, and Colleton (Figure 1). The approximately 250 unobstructed river miles from the headwaters in Edgefield County to the Atlantic Ocean have distinguished the Edisto as one of the longest free-flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River and its tributaries are associated with extensive wetland areas. The Basin is drained by four sub-basins: South Fork Edisto River, North Fork Edisto River, Edisto River (main stem), and Four Hole Swamp (Figure 2). The North and South Forks of the Edisto River originate in the upper Coastal Plain, primarily in the Sandhills regions of Edgefield, Saluda, and Lexington Counties. The North and South Forks drain two sub-basins of 750 and 870 square miles, respectively. These sub-basins span approxi- mately 70-75 miles each and then join to form the main stem of the Edisto River. The headwaters of Four Hole Swamp sub-basin are in the Coastal Plain in Calhoun and Orangeburg Counties and drain about 650 square miles. The Four Hole Swamp system spans approximately 50 miles before it Adopted from Marshal 1 (11993) and Thomason et al. (11993). Edisto River Basin 5 COUNTIES OF THE EDISTO RIVER BASIN Saluda ngton Edgefleid " 8 OU 'Jc lh Aiken "n, z"' range u 9 Barnwell Bambeto@"' Berkeley Dorchester Colleton @.Charleston Edisto River Basin County Boundaries 0 10 20 30 40 Miles Edisto River Basin Project Map produced by: Suzanne OBrien White South Carolina Department of Natural Resources for the Fisheries Habitat Committee Water R sources Division SCONRIWRDIGISI MS-95-07-14 Columb!ia, South Carolina Figure 1. Counties of the Edisto River Basin, South Carolina Fishes of the Edisto River Basin EDISTO RIVER BASIN Sub-Basins and Major Streams NORTHFORK EDISTO RIVER FOUR HOLE SWAMP SOUTH FORK EDISTO RIVER MAIN STEM EDISTO RIVER Sub-Basin Boundaries Major Streams 0. 5 10 15 20 25 30 miles Edisto River Basin Project Map produced by: Suzanne ClBrien White South Carolina Department of Natural Resources for the Fisheries Habitat Committee Water Resources Division SCDNR/WRD1GlS/ MS-95-07-15 Columbia, South Carolina Figure 2. Sub-basins and major streams of the Edisto River Basin V Edisto River Basin discharges into the main stem of the Edisto River. The Edisto River (main stem) eventually receives all the drainage from the North and South Forks and Four Hole Swamp. In addition, the main stem receives drainage from its own sub-basin area of about 850 square miles. The main stem extends approximately 65 miles from the confluence of the North and South Forks to the Atlantic Ocean. At the coast, the Edisto River is divided by Edisto Island to form the North and South Edisto Rivers, each having a distinct estuary. Most of the freshwater flow is toward the south side of Edisto Island. These tidally influenced brackish streams also receive drainage from bordering salt marshes, tidal rivers, and tidal creeks. The coastal/estuarine portion of the main-stem drainage is about 200 square miles. The Edisto River flows relatively fast over a bottom of shifting sand. As it enters the lower Coastal Plain, the bottom also includes much marl. Numerous meanders create undercut banks with resulting deadfalls. Stream gradient is slight, falling only about 650 feet over the entire length of the system. The stream channel is generally narrow and heavily canopied in the upper reaches, but it broadens as it nears the coast. While the channel is well defined during low to normal flows, it frequently leaves the streambed after heavy rainfall events and inundates the swampy flood plain. Tidal influences begin at about river mile 40. Water quality of the Edisto River is generally good: characterized by low turbidity, low alkalin- ity, and dark color, the latter resulting from the leaching of organic materials in the flood plain. The water is acidic, having a pH between 5.5 and 6.0. Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Fishes of the Edisto River Basin / Estuary Freshwater Fishes The fish community of the Edisto River system is diverse and contains both freshwater and saltwater species. Management activities on the system in recent years have been limited to the collection of biological data, the earliest being in 1964 and 1968. These surveys focused on the species composition of fish in the Edisto River Basin. To date, 87 species (25 families) have been collected and identified from the freshwater portion of the Basin and 120 species (52 families) have been collected and identified from the saltwater portion of the Basin from all sampling efforts since 1964 (Table 1). The Edisto River typifies the "blackwater streams" of the Southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States. These systems have historically supported highly regarded fisheries, particu- larly for redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus). Stockings of various fish species were common in the river, with surplus hatchery production of redbreast sunfish, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), large- mouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) stocked by the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (SCWMRD) (as of 1993, South Carolina Depart- ment of Natural Resources; SCDNR) on numerous occasions, usually at the request of public offi- cials. The National Fish Hatchery at Orangeburg, operated by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has also periodically released sunfish, largemouth bass, catfish, and striped bass (Morone saxatifis), in the North Fork Edisto River. The SCDNR sampled river habitats for freshwater fish species from 1988 to 1990, collecting a total of 68 species. Spotted sucker (Minytrema melanops) contributed the most biomass. Other *Adopted from Marshall (1993), Thomason et al. (1993), and W. A. Roumillat (personal communication) Fishes of the Edisto River Basin 9 Table 1. Families, genera, and species collected in freshwater and saltwater surveys from 1964 to 1994, in the Edisto River Basin Estuary Families Genera Species Freshwater surveys 25 47 87 Saltwater surveys 52 85 120 Reported in both surveys 13 14 18 Families, genera, and species count for the Edisto River Basin / Estuary 64 118 189 dominant species (by weight) included bowfin (Amia calva), flat bullhead (Ameiurus platycepha/us),Iargemouth bass, common carp (Cyprinus carpio), longnose gar (Lepisosteus osseus), and American eel (Anguilla rostrata). Redbreast sunfish, an important recreational species, contributed 6 percent to the total biomass. A 1989-90 creel census for the Edisto River to determine the user and harvest characteristics of the sport fishery was conducted by SCDNR. These data indicate that the redbreast sunfish is by far the most sought-after species in terms of the percentage of angler hours of directed effort (65 percent of total directed effort). Redbreast sunfish was the dominant species harvested in terms of numbers (45 percent) and pounds (32 percent) of fish caught. Results indicated that flat bullhead and channel catfish were second to the redbreast sunfish in being sought-after and in total catch. The catch per unit of effort was much greater for the bullhead and channelcatfish. Census results showed that the Edisto freshwater sport fishery maybe characterized as a winter bullhead and channel caff ish fishery and late spring/early summer redbreast fishery with low fishing pressure in the late summer and autumn. .10 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin The Edisto River is ranked as the number one river fished according to respondents in a State survey. With the economic worth of the Edisto River fishery (over 1 million dollars annually) coupled to the estimated $725,000 spent on the neighboring Combahee River fishery, these coastal river fisheries are providing valuable recreational and economic opportunities for the people in their drainage areas. Anadromous Fishes Anadromous fish species known to occur in the Edisto River include the American shad (Alosa sapidissima), hickory shad (Alosa mediocris), blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), striped bass, Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus), and shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), an endangered species. A survey conducted by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service reported that the recent status of each of these species in the Edisto River, except for the American shad and shortnose sturgeon, was judged to be stable (Rulifson 1982). Census and harvest data have indi- cated declines in American shad. The shad fishery of the Edisto has traditionally been important to residents of the region. The recreational shad fishery for South Carolina is centered on the Edisto River in the Jacksonboro area. Reports of commercial catches for shad in the Edisto date back to 1880. Major declines in commer- cial landings were noted. A summary of American shad landed in South Carolina showed a decline of approximately 85 percent over the period from 1896 to 1977. The Edisto shad fishery was reported in 1978 to extend from Willtown Bluff to Branchville, but shad have been known to ascend the river as far as Orangeburg on the North Fork Edisto River and Norway on the South Fork Edisto River. Unpublished data from L. E. Cable in 1938 indicated that the major shad spawning grounds were between Westbank Landing and Givhans Ferry. Wade (11971) reported that 92 percent of the spawning activity of the American shad on the Edisto River occurred Fishes of the Edisto River Basin between Westbank Landing and Jellico Landing just south of Givhans Ferry State Park. Another 7 percent occurred between Jellico Landing and Givhans Ferry. Estuarine / Marine Fishes There have been no economic impact analyses limited solely to the Edisto River estuarine system. A coastwide assessment was made by Ray Rhodes, SCIDNR Economist, but the results have not been fully analyzed. The only commercial fin-fish fishery in the estuarine area of the Edisto River System was the limited gill-net capture of the presently protected Atlantic sturgeon, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), and the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). The red drum and spotted seatrout, along with the sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are presently most sought by recreational anglers (Low, 1989). Much of the effort to capture these species is by angling from small boats, primarily because the preferred habitats of these fishes are inaccessible from the shore. Fishes captured from shore-access regions (bridges, private piers, and docks) are primarily the spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), southern kingfish (Menticirrhus americanus), silver perch (Bairdiella chrysura), and sea catfish (Arius felis). Creel census surveys have been conducted (Low et al. 1986, 1987, 1992a, 1992b) to esti- mate recreational harvest by anglers throughout the State. These efforts for the Edisto region indi- cate relatively light harvest rates, probably because of the low human population present, and the relative inaccessibility of appropriate habitat for fish capture. No intentional fish stocking has occurred in the estuarine area of the Edisto River drainage. Much of the aquaculture activity that has taken place at the Bears Bluff Research Laboratory facility in recent years has involved the Atlantic sturgeon and the endangered shortnose sturgeon. 12 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Fish Species Occurrence Edisto River Basin Estuary Freshwater Saltwater Af Fish Species Occurrence - Freshwater 13 14 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Table 2. Fish species occurring in freshwater portions of the Edisto River Basin 1 Family Common name Scientific name Petromyzontidae - lampreys Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Acipenseridae - sturgeons Shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum Atlantic sturgeon Acipenseroxyrhynchus Lepisosteidae - gars Longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus Amiidae - bowfins Bowfin Amia calva Anguillidae - freshwater eels American eel Anguilla rostrata Clupeidae - herrings Blueback herring Alosa aestivalis American shad Alosa sapidissima Gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum Source: C. S. Thomason et al. (1993) and personal communication from C. S. Thomason (1995). Fish Species Occurrence - Freshwater 15 Table 2. Fish species occurring in freshwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common name Scientific name Cyprinidae - minnows and carps Rosyside dace Clihostomus funduloides Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Bannerfin shiner Cyprinella leedsi Whitefin shiner Cyprinella nivea Common carp Cyprinus carpio Bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus Golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas Highfin shiner Notropis altipinnis Ironcolor shiner Notropis chalybaeus Dusky shiner Notropis cummingsae Spottail shiner Notropis hudsonius Sailfin shiner Notropis hypselopterus Yellowfin shiner Notropis lutipinnis Taillight shiner Notropis maculatus Coastal shiner Notropis petersoni Rosyface chub Notropis rubescens Pugnose minnow Opsopoeodus emiliae Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus Catostomidae - suckers Creek chubsucker Erimyzon oblongus Lake chubsucker Erimyzon sucetta Spotted sucker Minytrema melanops Silver redhorse Moxostoma anisurum Striped jumpock Moxostoma rupiscartes Ictaluridae - freshwater catfishes Snail bullhead Ameiurus brunneus White catfish Ameiurus catus Yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis Brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus Flat bullhead Ameiurus platycephalus Blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Tadpole madtom Noturus gyrinus Margined madtom Noturus insignis Speckled madtom Noturus leptacanthus Broadtail madtom Noturus sp. Flathead catfish Pylodictis ofivaris 16 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Table 2. Fish species occurring in freshwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common name Scientific name Esocidae - pikes Redfin pickerel Esox americanus americanus Chain pickerel Esox niger Umbridae - mudminnows Eastern mudminnow Umbra pygmaea Aphredoderidae - pirate perches Pirate perch Aphredoderus sayanus Amblyopsidae - cavefishes Swampfish Chologaster comuta Belonidae - needlefishes Atlantic needlefish Strongylura marina Cyprinodontidae - killifishes Murnmichog Fundulus heteroclitus Lined topminnow Fundulus fineolatus Poecilildae - livebearers; Eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Least killifish Heterandria formosa Atherinidae - silversides Brook silverside Labidesthes sicculus Fish Species Occurrence - Freshwater 17 Table 2. Fish species occurring in freshwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common name Scientific name Percichthyidae - temperate basses Striped bass Morone saxatifis Centrarchidae - sunfishes Mud sunfish Acantharchus pomotis Flier Centrarchus macropterus Everglades pygmy sunfish Elassoma evergladei Bluebarred pygmy sunfish Elassoma okatie Banded pygmy sunfish Elassoma zonatum Blackbanded sunfish Enneacanthus chaetodon Bluespotted sunfish Enneacanthus gloriosus Banded sunfish Enneacanthus obesus Redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus Green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus Warmouth Lepomis gulosus Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus Dollar sunfish Lepomis marginatus Redear sunfish Lepomis microlophus Spotted sunfish Lepomis punctatus Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides Black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus Percidae - perches Savannah darter Etheostoma fricksium Swamp darter Etheostoma fusiforme Christmas darter Etheostoma hopkinsi Turquoise darter Etheostoma inscriptum Tesellated darter Etheostoma olmstedi Sawcheek darter Etheostoma serrifer Blackbanded darter Percina nigrofasciata Gerreidae - mojarras Spotfin mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus 18 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Table 2. Fish species occurring in freshwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common name Scientific name Mugilidae - mullets Striped mullet Mugil cephalus Eleotridae - sleepers Fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus Bothidae - lefteye flounders Summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus Southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma Soleidae - soles Hogchoker Trinectes maculatus Fish Species Occurrence - Freshwater 19 20 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Table 3. Fish species occurring in saltwater portions of the Edisto River Basin 1 Family Common Name Scientific Name Carcharlhinidae - requiem sharks Finetooth shark Carcharhinus isodon Blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus Smooth dogfish Mustelus canis Lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris Atlantic sharpnose shark Phizoprionodon terraenovae Sphyrnidae - hammerhead sharks Scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini Bonnethead shark Sphyrna tiburo Squalidae - spiny dogfishes Spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias Rajidae - skates Clearnose skate Paja eglanteria Dasyatidae - stingrays Southern stingray Dasyatis americana Atlantic stingray Dasyafis sabina Bluntnose stingray Dasyatis sayi Smooth butterfly ray Gymnura micrura Source: SCDNR, Marine Resources Division. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Sportsfish Restoration. Trammel Net Samples (1991-1994). SCDNR, Marine Resources Division. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Sportsfish Restoration. Larval Fish Assessment (1988). SCDNR, Marine Resources Division. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Sportsfish Restoration. North Edisto Larval Ingress Study (1993-1994). SCDNR, Marine Resources Division. Bears Bluff Trawl Samples (1959-1965). SCDNR, Marine Resources Division. Stationary Shad Gill Net Samples (1988-1994). SCDNR, Marine Resources Division. Drift Shad Gill Net Samples (1988-1994). SCDNR, Marine Resources Division. Trawl Samples for American Shad (1989). Fish Species Occurrence - Saltwater 21 Table 3. Fish species occurring in saltwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common Name Scientific Name Myliobatidae - eagle rays Cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus Acipenseridae - sturgeons Shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrhynchus Lepisosteidae - gars; Longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus Elopidae - tarpons and ladyfish Tarpon Megalops atlanticus Ladyfish Elops saurus Anguillidae - freshwater eels American eel Anguilla rostrata Congridae - conger eels Conger eel Conger oceanicus Ophichthidae - snake and worm eels Spotted worm eel Myrophis punctatus Clupeidae - herrings Blueback herring Alosa aestivalis Hickory shad Alosa mediocris American shad Alosa sapidissima Yellowfin menhaden Brevoortia smithi Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus 22 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin I Table 3. Fish species occurring in saltwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common Name Scientific Name Clupeidae - herrings (cont.) Gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum Threadfin shad Dorosoma pentenense Atlantic thread herring Opisthonema oglinum Engraulidae - anchovies Striped anchovy Anchoa hepsetus Bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli Synodontidae - lizardfishes Inshore lizardfish Synodus foetens Ictaluridae - freshwater catfishes White catfish Ameiurus catus Brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Arlidae - sea catfishes Sea catfish Arius felis Gaftopsail catfish Bagre marinus Batrachoididae - toadfishes Oyster toadfish Opsanus tau Goblesocidae - clingfishes Clingfish Gobiesox strumosus Fish Species Occurrence - Saltwater 23 Table 3. Fish species occurring in saltwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common Name Scientific Name Gadidae - codfishes Carolina hake Urophycis earli Southern hake Urophycis floridanus Spotted hake Urophycis regius Ophidiidae - cusk-eels and brotulids Striped cusk-eel Ophidion marginatum Belonidae - needlefishes Atlantic needlefish Strongylura marina Cyprinodontidae - killifishes Sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus Mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus Spoff in killifish Fundulus luciae Striped killifish Fundulus majalis Atherinidae - sliversides Atlantic silverside Menidia menidia Syngnathidae - pipefishes and seahorses Dusky pipefish Syngnathus floridae Northern pipefish Syngnathus fuscus Chain pipefish Syngnathus touisianae Percichthyidae - temperate basses Striped bass Morone saxatilis 24 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Table 3. Fish species occurring in saltwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common Name Scientific Name Serranidae - sea basses Rock seabass Centropfisfis philadelphica Black seabass Centropristis striata Gag grouper Mycteroperca microlepis Pomatomidae - bluefish Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix Carangidae - jacks Blue runner Caranx cfysos Jack crevalle Caranx hippos Atlantic bumper Chloroscombrus chrysurus Atlantic moonfish Selene setapinnis Lookdown Selene vomer Lutjanidae - snappers Gray snapper Lutjanus griseus Lane snapper Lutjanus synagris Lobotidae - tripletail Tripletail Lobotes surinamensis Gerreldae - mojarras Spotfin mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus Mojarra Eucinostomus sp. (cf E harengula) Pomadasyidae - grunts Pigfish Orthoprisfis chtysoptera Fish Species Occurrence - Saltwater 25 Table 3. Fish species occurring in saltwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common Name Scientific Name Sparidae - porgies Pinfish Lagodon rhomboides Sheepshead Archosargus probatocephalus Sciaenidae - croakers and drums Silver perch Bairdiella chrysur Spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus Sand trout Cynoscion nothus Weakfish Cynoscion regalis Banded drum Larimus fasciatus Spot Leiostomus xanthurus Southern kingfish Menticirrhus americanus Gulf kingfish Menticirrhus littorafis Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus Black drum Pogonias cromis Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus Star drum Stellifer lanceolatus Mullidae - goaff ishes Spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus Ephippidae - spadefishes Spadefish Chaetodipterus faber Mugilidae - mullets Striped mullet Mugil cephalus White mullet Mugil curema Sphyraenidae - barracudas Gauchanche Sphyraena gouchancho 26 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Table 3. Fish species occurring in saltwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common Name Scientific Name Uranoscopidae - stargazers Southern stargazer Astroscopus y-graecum Blennildae - blennies Striped blenny Chasmodes bosquianus Crested blenny Hypleurochilus geminatus Feather blenny Hypsoblennius hentzi Freckeled blenny Hypsoblennius ionthus Goblidae - gobles Violet goby Gobioides broussoneti Darter goby Gobionellus boleosoma Sharptail goby Gobionellus hastatus Freshwater goby Gobionellus shufeldti Naked goby Gobiosoma bosci Seaboard goby Gobiosoma ginsburgi Green goby Microgobius thalassinus Trichiuridae - cutlassfish Atlantic cutlassfish Thichiurus lepturus Scombridae - mackerels Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus Stromateidae - butterfishes Harvestf ish Peprilus alepidotus Butter fish Peprilus triacanthus Fish Species Occurrence - Saltwater 27 Table 3. Fish species occurring in saltwater portions of the Edisto River Basin (Cont.) Family Common Name Scientific Name Trigildae - sea robins Northern searobin Prionotus carofinus Striped searobin Prionotus evolans Leopard searobin Prionotus scitulus Bighead searobin Prionotus tribulus Bothidae - lefteye flounders Fourspot flounder Ancelopsetta quadrocellata Bay whiff Citharichthys spilopterus Fringed flounder Etropus crossotus Summer flounder Parafichthys dentatus Southern flounder Parafichthys lethostigma Windowpane Scophthalmus aquosus Soleidae - soles Hogchoker Trinectes maculatus Cynoglossidae - tonguefishes Blackcheek tonguefish Symphurus plagiusa Ballstidae - leatherjackets Planehead filefish Monacanthus hispidus Tetraodontidae - puffers Smooth puffer Lagocephalus laevigatus Northern puffer Sphoeroides maculatus Diodontidae - porcupinefishes Striped bun-fish Chilomycterus schoepfi 28 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Historical Fisheries Sampling Locations Edisto River Basin Estuary Freshwater Saltwater A@ Historical Sampling Locations 29 30 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Freshwater The South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (presently SCDNR) biologists conducted freshwater stream surveys throughout the State between 1974 and 1981. All streams 3 miles in length or longer were surveyed to determine species composition and water quality. Roten- one was the most common means of sampling; some sites were also electrofished (Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6). Angler creel surveys were conducted from 1989 to 1991 by the SCDNR District V1 biologists. Extensive roving creel surveys recorded angler numbers and hours, harvest, species targeted and caught, economic data, and opinions. Surveys in 1989 and 1990 included the North Fork Edisto River, South Fork Edisto River, and the main stem of the Edisto River. In 1991, only sections of the main river were surveyed. SCDNR biologists of District VI and the Eastover office used electrofishing and rotenone to determine species composition,. biomass, age, and growth for the biological survey. This survey was done from 1988 to 1990 on both forks and the main river. A tag and return study to determine redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) mortality due to angling was conducted in 1989 and 1992. In 1989, redbreast tagging was conducted on both forks and the main river. In 1992, tagging was done only on a section of the main river. In 1991, an aquatic macroinvertebrate rapid bioassessment was made on both forks and the main river for the primary purpose of assessing the effects of the city of Orangeburg on the biota of the Edisto. Family-level assessment was carried out by biologists of SCDNR District VI (Figure 7). C. S. Thomason, Personal Communication. Historical Sampling Locations 31 STREAM SURVEYS North Fork Edisto River Sub-Basin 0 Stream Survey Locations, 1974-1981 - Major Streams 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Miles Edisto River Basin Project Map produced by: Suzanne OBrien White South Carolina Department of Natural Resources for the Fisheries Habitat Committee Water Resources Division SCDNR/WRD/GlSJ MS-95-07-16 Columbia, South Carolina Figure 3. Freshwater-fisheries stream-survey locations in the North Fork Edisto River sub-basin 32 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin STREAM SURVEYS South Fork Edisto River Sub-Basin 0 Stream Survey Locations, 1974-1981 - Major Streams 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Miles Edisto River Basin Project Map produced by: Suzanne 08rien White South Carolina Department of Natural Resources for the Fisheries Habitat Committ Water Resources Division SCDNR/WRDfG[S/ MS-95-07-17" Columbia, South Carolina Figure 4. Freshwater-fisheries stream-survey locations in the South Fork Edisto River sub-basin IV Historical Sampling Locations 33 STREAM SURVEYS Four Hole Swamp Sub-Basin Stream Survey Locations, 1974-1981 Major Streams 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Miles Edisto River Basin Project Map produced by: Suzanne OBrien White South Carolina Department of Natural Resources for the Fisheries Habitat Committee Water R sources Division SCDNR/WRD/GlS/ MS-95-07-18 0' Columbia, South Carolina Figure 5. Freshwater-fisheries stream-survey locations in the Four Hole Swamp sub-basin 34 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin STREAM SURVEYS Main Stem Edisto River Sub-Basin Stream Survey Locations, 1974-1981 Major Streams 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Miles FMI_E@@ Edisto River Basin Project Map produced by: Suzanne OBrien White South Carolina Department of Natural Resources for the Fisheries Habitat Committee Water Resources Division SCDNRIWRD/GlSI MS-95-07-19 Columbia, South Carolina Figure 6. Freshwater-fisheries stream-survey locations in the main stem Edisto River sub-basin Historical Sampling Locations 35 EDISTO RIVER SURVEYS 0 B E RO, EF EF T , C1, I EF RO, EF NV T1 C1 I EF: INV EO, INV' RO, EF INV EF RO, EF RID, EF, INV EF, INV RO C2, T2 EF T1 to TV - Redbreast Tagging, 1989 EF, INV T2 to T2' - Redbreast Tagging, 1992 C1 to Cl' - Creel Survey, 1989-1991 C2 to C2' - Mini Creel Survey, 1991 T2' B to B' - Fish Biological Survey, 1988-1990 1 to I' - Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Rapid Bioassessment, 1991 2' EF - Electrofishing sample location IN RO - Rotenone sample location TV, CV, B-, I- INV - Invertebrate sample location Edisto River Basin Boundary Edisto River 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Miles Edisto River Basin Project Map produced by: Suzanne OBrlen White South Carolina Department of Natural Resources for the Fisheries Hablitat Committee Water Resources Division SCDNRIWRDIGISI MS-9"7-20 Columbia, Sout@ Carolina Figure 7. Freshwater-fisheries river surveys in the Edisto River Basin 36 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Saltwater Sampling in the Edisto River estuary has been done irregularly for the past 30 years. Biolo- gists at the USFWS Bears Bluff Laboratory, on Wadmalaw Island, did survey trawling to obtain information on fishes and macroinvertebrates found in the North Edisto River during the 1960's (Bearden 1961). The SCDNR conducted a statewide survey of estuaries from 1973 to 1977, most of it done in the North Edisto River with a standard sampling trawl (116 ft. offer trawl). Wenner et al. (11991) com- piled and analyzed these data as part of a synopsis of fishes and macroinverteb rates of the region. Shad gill-net and trawling work was conducted in order to sample anadromous fishes by the Office of Fisheries Management (SCDNR) from 1988 to 1995 in the Edisto estuarine system. Larval fish collections were made by SCDNR / Marine Resources Research Institute in an attempt to establish larval and juvenile habitats for recreationally sought estuarine species (Wenner et al. 1990). Sampling was conducted monthly from June 1987 through August 1988. Trammel nets were used from 1991 to 1994 to sample the shallow water of the Edisto estua- rine system. The nets were used to capture many of the recreationally important species found in the region (red drum [Sciaenops oceilatus], spotted seatrout [Cynoscion nebulosus], southern flounder [Parafichthys lethostigma], sheepshead [Archosargus probatocephalus], and black drum [Pogonias cromis]). Trammel net sets targeted other species, such as spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), mullet (Mugil cephalus), silver perch (Bairdiella chrysura), and sea catfish (Arius tefis), which were co- inhabitants of the shallow waters sampled. The main objective of the trammel net work was to capture, tag, and release selected recreationally important species in effort to analyze fishing pres- sure, age composition, and fish population status within the state estuaries (Wenner et al. 1990)(Fig- ures 8 and 9). W. A. Roumillat, Personal Communication. Historical Sampling Locations 37 ESTUARY SURVEYS South Edisto River 0 0 Trammel Net Samples Estuarine Survey Trawl Samples Larval Fish Assessment 0 Stationary Shad Gill Net V Drift Shad Gill Net 0 Trawl Samples, American Shad Streams 0 1 2 3 4 5 Miles Edisto River Basin Project Map produced by: Suzanne OBrlen White South Carolina Department of Natural Resources for the Fisheries Habitat Committee Water Resources Division SCDNR/WRD/GIS/ MS-96-07-21 Columbia, South Carolina Figure 8. Estuarine-fisheries sampling locations on the South Edisto River 38 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin ESTUARY SURVEYS North Edisto River 1L_J 0 A b T2 A* Trammel Net Samples Estuarine Survey Trawl Samples North Edisto Larval Ingress Study T1, T2 Bears Bluff Trawl Samples 0 Trawl Samples, American Shad Streams 0 1 2 3 4 5 Miles Edisto River Basin Project Map produced by: Suzanne OBrien White South Carolina Department of Natural Resources for the Fisheries Habitat Committee Water R sources Division SCDNRIWRDIGISI MS-95-07-22 Z Columbia, South Carolina Figure 9. Estuarine-fisheries sampling locations on the North Edisto River Historical Sampling Locations 39 I 40 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Bibliography Edisto River Basin Estuary Freshwater Saltwater qL AML- @i Bibliography Edisto River Basin 41 42 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Edisto River Basin / Estuary Freshwater ACE River Basin Study - South Carolina Water and Land Resources. 1977. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, Forest Service, and Soil Conservation Service, S.C. Water Resources Commission. 211 pp. Allen, D. E. 1981. Stream Survey Data - Freshwater Fisheries District V1. Unpublished report, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. Allen, D. E. 1981. The effects of industrial pollution on fish populations of the Edisto River. Unpublished report, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 16 pp. Allen, D. E. and C. S. Thomason. 1989. Fisheries investigations in lakes and streams, District V1. Annual Progress Report, Federal Aid Project F-32-2, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 49 pp. Allen, D. E. and C. S. Thomason. 1990. Fisheries investigations in lakes and streams, District V1. Annual Progress Report, Federal Aid Project F-32-3, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 63 pp. Allen, D. E. and C. S. Thomason. 1991. Fisheries investigations in lakes and streams, District VI. Annual Progress Report, Federal Aid Project F-32-4, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 96 pp. Allen, D. E. and C. S. Thomason. 1992. Fisheries investigations in lakes and streams, District VI. Annual Progress Report, Federal Aid Project F-32-5, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 77 pp. Bayless, J. D. 1968. Survey and classification of the Edisto River and tributaries, South Carolina. Job Compliance Report F-1-R-15, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 40 pp. Calder, D. R., B. B. Boothe, Jr., and M. S. Maclin. 1977. A preliminary report on estuarine macrobenthos of the Edisto and Santee River Systems, South Carolina, USA. S.C. Marine Resources Center Technical Report 22. 50 pp. Logan, H. J. 1990. Freshwater fishing study. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Divisionof Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 62 pp. McCord, C. 1977. Study of aquatic organism populations at SCE&G power station, Candys, South Carolina. Evinright and Associates. Marshall, W. D., editor. 1993. Assessing change in the Edisto River Basin, an ecological characterization. South Carolina Water Resources Commission. Report. No. 177. 149 pp. South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. 1975. Edisto-Combahee River Basin Water Quality Management Plan. 128 pp. Thomason, C. S., D. E. Allen, and J. S. Crane. 1993. A fisheries study of the Edisto River. Projects F-30 and F-32, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 84 pp. Williams, H. M. 1975. Aiken county data in stream survey data - Freshwater Fisheries District V1. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. Bibliography/ Edisto River Basin 43 Edisto River Basin / Estuary Saltwater Ashepoo-Combahee- Edisto (ACE) Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve in South Carolina, Final impact statement and draft management plan. 1991. NOAA, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, S.C. Coastal Council. 114 pp. Ashepoo-Combahee- Edisto (ACE) Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve in South Carolina, Management plan. 1992. NOAA, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, S.C. Coastal Council. 18 pp. Bearden, C. M. 1961. Common marine fishes of South Carolina. Contrib. Bears Bluff Laboratories No. 34, 47 p. Bearden, C. M. 1963. A contribution to the Biology of the king whitings, genus Menficirrhus, of South Carolina. Bears Bluff Laboratories No. 38: 1-27. Bearden, C. M. 1964. Distribution and abundance of Atlantic Croaker, Micropogon Undulatus, in South Carolina. Bears Bluff Laboratories No. 40, 3-23. Dawson, C. E. 1958. A study of the Biology and life history of the spot, Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepede, with special reference to South Carolina. Bears Bluff Laboratories No. 28: 1-48. Lunz, G. R. 1951. A salt water fish pond. Contrib. Bears Bluff Laboratories 12: 1-12. Lunz, G. R. and F. J. Schwartz. 1969. Analysis of eighteen year trawl captures of seatrout (Cynoscion sp.: Sciaenidae) from South Carolina. Contrib. Bears Bluff Laboratories No. 53, 29 p. Rulifson, R. A. 1982. Status of anadromous fishes in the southeastern U.S. estuaries. In: Estuarine Comparisons: Proceedings of the sixth biennial international estuarine research conference, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, November 1-6, 1981. Academic Press Inc. New York. Shealy, M. H., Jr. 1975. Midwater trawl data from South Carolina estuary survey cruises: North Edisto, South Edisto, and Cooper Rivers, 1973 - 1974. Data Report Number 2. Marine Resources Research Institute, S.C. Ulrich, G., N. Chipley, J. W. McCord, and D. Cupka. Undated < 1978. Development of fishery management plans for selected anadromous fishes in South Carolina and Georgia. Special scientific report number 14. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department and contribution number 31 of the Coastal Resources Division, Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Wade, W. C. 1971. Commercial anadromous fishery, Edisto River, South Carolina. Annual Progress Report, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 79 pp. Wade, W. C. 1972. Commercial anadromous fishery, Edisto River, South Carolina. Annual Progress Report, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 49 pp. Walburg, C. H. 1956. Commercial and sport shad fisheries of the Edisto River, South Carolina. Special Scientific Report - Fisheries No. 187. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 9 pp. 44 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Wenner, E. L., W. P. Coon, III, P. A. Sandifer, and M. H. Shealy, Jr. 1991. A comparison of species composition and abundance of decapod crustaceans and fishes from the North and South Edisto Rivers in South Carolina. Technical Report No. 78. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 48 pp. White, M. G., Ill. 1969. Anadromous fishes survey of the Edisto and Coosawhatchie Rivers of South Carolina. Annual Progress Report, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 94 pp . Bibliography Edisto River Basin 45 46 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Bibliography Adjacent River Basins Freshwater Saltwater Bibliography Adjacent River Basins 47 48 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Adjacent River Basins Freshwater / Saltwater Bennett, D. H. and R. W. McFarlane. 1983. The fishes of the Savannah River Plant: National Environmental Research Park, SRP-NERP-12, Aiken, South Carolina. Curtis, T A. 1970. Anadromous fish survey of the Combahee River Watershed. Project AFS-2-4. S.C. Wildlife Resources Department. 129 pp. Davis, K. B. and R. F. Van Dolah. 1986. A survey of existing information on the physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the vicinity of the Port Royal Ocean dredged material disposal site. Marine Resources Research Institute, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. Final report submitted to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Charleston, SC District. 123 pp. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 1984. Final Environmental Impact Statement: L-Reactor Operation, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina, DOE/EIS-01 08, U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office, Aiken, South Carolina. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 1987. Impingement and entrainment at the river water intakes of the Savannah River Plant, submitted to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as special condition B of Section 404 Permit #84-2Z-088 for the L-Lake Embankment, Savannah River Operations Office, Aiken, South Carolina. Dudley, R. G., A. W. Mullis, and J. W. Ferrell, 1977. Movements of adult striped bass (Morone saxatifis) in the Savannah River, Georgia, Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. Vol. 106 (f). Pages 314-322. ECS (Environmental and Chemical Sciences, Inc.). 1983c. Interim Report on the adult fisheries study in the Savannah River October 1982 and January 1983, Volume 2, DPST-83-737, draft prepared for E. 1. duPont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. Georgia Power Company. 1974. Final environmental statement related to the proposed Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear plant units 1, 2, 3, 4. Hall, J. W., T. 1. J. Smith, and S. Lamprecht. 1991. Movements and habitats of shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, in the Savannah River. Copeia 3: 695-702. Knott, D. M. and R. M. Martore. 1991. The short-term effects of Hurricane Hugo on fishes and decapod crustaceans in the Ashley River and adjacent marsh creeks, South Carolina. J. Coast. Res. (special issue) 8: 335-356. Matthews, R. A. and C. Muska. 1983. Shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon in the Savannah River, DPST-83-753, E. 1. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. McFarlane, R. W., 1982. The occurrence of American shad eggs in the 1 G cooling water canal, DPST-82-969, E. 1. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. Paller, M. H. 1984. Summary of the ichthyoplankton sampling data from the creeks and swamps of the Savannah River Plant, interim report, ECS-SR-10, prepared by Environmental and Chemical Sciences, Inc., for E. 1. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. Bibliography /Adjacent River Basins 49 Paller, M. H. and B. M. Saul. 1986. Effects of thermal discharges on the distribution and abundance of adult fishes in the Savannah River and selected tributaries, annual report, November 1984 - August 1985, prepared by Environmental and Chemical Sciences, Inc. for E. 1. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. Paller, M. H., B. M. Saul, and D. V. Osteen. 1986. Distribution and abundance of ichthyoplankton in the mid-reaches of the Savannah River and selected tributaries, prepared by Environmental and Chemical Sciences, Inc. for E. 1. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. Shealy, M. H., Jr., B. B. Boothe, Jr., and C. M. Bearden. 1975. A survey of the macrofauna of Fripp Inlet and Hunting Island, South Carolina, prior to beach nourishment. Tech. Report No. 7. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 30 pp. 50 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Bibliography Selected Related Fisheries References in South Carolina Freshwater Saltwater Ida Bibliography/ Selected Related References 51 52 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin m Selected Related Fisheries References in South Carolina Freshwater Anderson, W. D., JL, 1964. Fishes of some South Carolina coastal plain streams. Quart.. J. Fl. Acad. Sci. 27(l): 53 pp. Beasley, B. R. 1988. South Carolina rivers assessment. Report No. 164. S.C. Water Resources Commission. 249 pp. Bulak, J. S. 1991 Distribution of fishes in South Carolina. Study Completion Report WC-8, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. Coomer, C. E., Jr., D. R. Holder and C. D. Swanson. 1977. A comparison of the diets of redbreast sunfish and spotted sucker in a coastal plain stream. Proc. 3rd Ann. Conf., South. Assoc. Fish Wild. Agen. 31: 587-596 Crochet, D. W. and C. W. Sample. 1991. Fisheries investigations in lakes and streams, District VII. Annual Progress Report, Federal Aid Project F-31-4, Study 1, Job 1, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. Pages 4-12. Crochet, D. W. and C. W. Sample. 1992. Fisheries investigations in lakes and streams, District VII. Annual Progress Report, Federal Aid Project F-31-5, Study 1, Job 1, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. Pages 4-13. Davis, J. R. 1971. The spawning behavior, fecundity rates, and food habits of the redbreast sunfish in southeastern North Carolina. Proc. 25th Ann. Conf., South. Assoc. Game and Fish Commis. 25: 556-560. Heidt, A. R. and R. J. Gilbert, 1978. The Shortnose Sturgeon in the Altamaha River Drainage, In: Proceedings of the rare and endangered wildlife symposium. R. R. Odum and 1. Landers (editors), Technical Bulletin WL4, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Game and Fish Division. Pages 54-60. Koli, A. K. 1977. Mercury levels in freshwater fish of the State of South Carolina. Bul. Env. Contam. Tox. 17:82. Koli, A. K. 1977. The quality of food-fish consumed by the rural people of South Carolina. South Carolina State College. 29 pp. Leland, J. G., 11. 1968. A survey of the sturgeon fishery of South Carolina. Project AFC-1, Bears Bluff Laboratories, Wadmalaw Island, SC. 27 pp. Marchette, D. E. and R. Smiley. 1982. Biology and life history of incidentally captured shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, in South Carolina. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Research Institute, Charleston, South Carolina. Meffe, G. K. and A. L. Sheldon. 1990. Post-defau nation recovery of fish assemblages in southeastern blackwater streams. Ecology 71: 657-667. Reimold, R. J. and M. H. Shealy, Jr. 1976. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and mercury in coastal young-of-the-year finfish, South Carolina and Georgia - 1972-1974. Pestic. Mon. J. 9: 170-175. Bibliography /Selected Related References 53 Rohde, F. C. and R. G. Arndt. 1987. Two new species of pygmy sunfishes Elassomatidae elassoma from the Carolinas, USA. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 139(l): 65-86. Rountree, R. A. 1990. Community structure of fishes attracted to shallow water fish aggregation devices of South Carolina, USA. Environmental Biology of Fishes 29: 241-262. Sanclhu, S. S. 1977. Study on the post-mortem identification of pollutants in the fish killed by water pollution: detection of arsenic. South Carolina State College. 373 pp. Smith, T 1. J., E. K. Dingley, R. D. Lindsay, S. B. Van Sant, R. A. Smiley, and A. D. Stokes. 1985. Spawning and culture of shortnose sturgeon, Acipenserbrevirostrum. J. World Maric. Soc. 16:104-113. Smith, T. 1. J., E. K. Dingley, and D. E. Marchette. 1980. Induced spawning and culture of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus. Progressive Fish Culturist, Marine Resources research Institute, S. C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. Pages 147-151. Smith, T. 1. J., D. E. Marchette, and G. F. Ulrich. 1984. The Atlantic sturgeon fishery in South Carolina. N. Am. J. Fish. Mgt. 4: 164-176. Snelson, F. F., Jr., 1989. Distribution and status of the bluebarred pygmy sunfish, Elassoma okatie, in South Carolina. A report to Heritage Trust Program, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 11 pp. South Carolina State Water Assessment. 1983. Report No. 140, S.C. Water Resources Commission. 367 pp. Water Resources Development by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in South Carolina. 1989. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 85 pp. 54 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Selected Related Fisheries References in South Carolina Saltwater Bell, M., C. J. Moore, and S. W. Murphy. 1989. Utilization of manufactured reef structures in South Carolina's marine artificial reef program. Bul. Mar. Sci. 44(2): 818-830. Bozeman, E. L. and M. J. Van Den Avyle. 1989. Species profile: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - alewife and blueback herring. School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. 26 pp. Collins, M. R. and G. R. Sedberry. 1991. Status of vermillion snapper and red porgy stocks of South Carolina. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 120: 116-120. Collins, M. R. and C. A. Wenner. 1988. Occurrence of young-of-the-year king (Scomberomorus cavella) and Spanish (S. maculatus) mackerels in commercial type shrimp trawls along the Atlantic coast of the Southeast United States. Fish. Bul. 86(2): 394-397 Crabtree, R. E. 1978. A comparison of two South Carolina tide pool fish communities in relation to temperature and tidal elevation. Masters Thesis, University of South Carolina, Columbia. 82 pp. Crabtree, R. E. and J. M. Dean. 1982. The structure of two South Carolina estuarine tide pool fish assemblages. Estuaries 5(l):2-9. Crabtree, R. E. and D. P. Middaugh. Oyster shell size and the selection of spawning sites by Chasmodes bosquainus, Hypleurochilus geminatus, Hypsoblennius ionthas (Pisces Blenniidae) and Bobiosoma bosci (Pisces Gobiidae) in two South Carolina estuaries, USA. Estuaries 5(2):150-155. Cupka, D. M. 1972. A survey of the ichthyofauna of the surf zone in South Carolina. Tech. Report No. 4. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 19 pp. Cupka, D. M. and R. K. Dias. 1972. New records for marine fishes in South Carolina waters. Q. J. Fl. Acad. Sci. 35: 158-160. Hales, L., Jr., 1987. Distribution, abundance, reproduction, food habits, age, and growth of round scad, Decapterus punctatus, in the South Atlantic bight. Fish. Bul. 85(2): 251-268. Hammond, D. L. and D. M. Cupka. 1977. An economic and biological evaluation of the South Carolina pier fishery. Tech. Report No. 20. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 14 pp. Hayse, J. W. Feeding habits, age, growth, and reproduction of Atlantic spadefish Chaetodipterus faberin South Carolina. Fish. Bul. 88: 67-83. Hosterman, S., H.-Powles, and B. Stender. 1975. Abundance and distribution of larval spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) in South Carolina estuaries and on the southeastern continental shelf of the United States in 1973. Bul. S.C. Acad. of Sci. 37:84. Low, R. A. 1989. South Carolina marine fisheries, 1987-1988. Data Report No. 6. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 50 pp. Bibliography/ Selected Related References 55 Low, R. A. 1991. South Carolina marine fisheries, 1989. Data Report No. 7. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 45 pp. Low, R. A. 1992. South Carolina marine fisheries, 1990. Data Report No. 8. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 50 pp. Low, R. A., D. L. Theiling, and E. B. Joseph. 1987. South Carolina marine fisheries, 1977-1986. Tech. Report No. 67. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 78 pp. Low, R. A., G. F. Ulrich, C. A. Barans, and D. A. Oakley. 1985. Analysis of catch-per-unit-of-effort and length composition in the South Carolina commercial handline fishery during 1976-1982. N. Am. J. Fish. Mgt. 5:340-363. Low, R. A. and C. W. Waltz. 1988. South Carolina marine recreational fishery statistics survey, 1987. Tech. Report No. 68. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 58 pp. Low, R. A., C. W. Waltz, R. Martore, and C. J. Moore. 1986. South Carolina marine recreational fishery surveys, 1985 & 1986. Tech. Report No. 65. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 65 pp. Low, R. A., C. W. Waltz, and D. B. Stone, Ill. 1992. South Carolina marine recreational fishery surveys, 1989. Data Report No. 11. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 45 pp. Low, R. A., C. W. Waltz, and D. B. Stone, Ill. 1992. South Carolina marine recreational fishery surveys, 1990. Data Report No. 10. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 51 pp. McMillan, C., M. H. Shealy, JL, and J. V. Miglarese. 1975. Occurrence of Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus) in relation to bottom salinity and temperature in South Carolina estuaries. Bul. S.C. Acad. Sci. 37:84. Middaugh, D. P. 1981. Reproductive ecology and spawning periodicity of the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia). Copeia 1981(4):766-776 Middaugh, D. P., R. G. Domey, and G. 1. Scott. 1984. Reproductive rythmicity of the Atlantic silverside In: Rhthmicity in Fishes. American Fishery Society. Pages 472-478. Middaugh, D. P., G. 1. Scott, and J. M. Dean. 1981. Reproductive behavior of the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia). Environmental Biology of Fishes. Pages 269-276. Miglarese, J. V., C. W. McMillan, and M. H. Shealy, Jr. 1982. Seasonal abundance of Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus) in relation to bottom salinity and temperature in South Carolina estuaries. Estuaries 5: 216-223. Miglarese, J. V. and P. A. Sandifer, editors. 1982. An ecological characterization of South Carolina wetland impoundments. Tech. Report No. 51. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 132 pp. I Moore, C. J. 1980. South Carolina's non-commercial gill net fishery. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 109:577-580. Pacheo, A. L. Workshop on egg, larval, and juvenile stages of fish in Atlantic coast estuaries. 1973. National Marine Fisheries Service. 338 pp. 56 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Parker, R. 0., Jr., 1990. Tagging studies and diver observations of fish populations on live-bottom reefs on the U.S. southeastern coast. Bul. Mar. Sci. 47(3): 749-760. Shealy, M. H., Jr. 1974. Bottom trawl data from South Carolina estuary survey cruises, 1973. Marine Resources Research Institute, Data Report No. 1. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 113 pp. Shealy, M. H., Jr., J. V. Miglarese, and E. B. Joseph. 1974. Bottom fishes of South Carolina estuaries - relative abundance, seasonal distribution, and length-frequency relationships. Tech. Report No. 6. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 189 pp. Stamey, B. B., M. H. Shealy, Jr., and C. R. Richter. 1975. Length-weight relationship for star drum, Stelfifer lanceolatus, in South Carolina estuaries. Bul. S.C. Acad. Sci. 37:85. Tiner, R. W., JR. 1977. An inventory of South Carolina's coastal marshes. Tech. Report No. 23. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 33 pp. Ulrich, G. F., R. J. Jones, and K. J. Roberts. 1977. A status report on the commercial snapper- grouper fisheries off South Carolina. Proc. Gulf Carrib. Fish. Insti. 29: 102-125. Waltz, W., W. A. Rournillat, and P. K. Ashe. 1979. Distribution, age structure, and sex composition of the black sea bass, Centropristis striata, sampled along the southeastern coast of the United States. Tech. Report No. 43. S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 18 pp. Wenner, C. A., W. A. Rournillat, J. E. Moran, M. B. Maddox, L. B. Daniel III, and J. W. Smith. 1990. Investigations on the life history and population dynamics of marine recreational fishes in South Carolina: Part 1. Fed. Aid Fish Reston, F-37, S.C. Wildlife and Marine Resources Department. 177 p. Wenner, C. A., W. A. Rournillat, and C. W. Waltz. 1986. Life history of black sea bass, Centropristis striata, off the southeastern United States. Fish. Bul. 84(3): 723-741. Wenner, C. A. and G. R. Sedberry. 1989. Species composition, distribution, and relative abundance of fishes in the coastal habitat off the southeastern United States. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 79. 51 pp. Wenner, E. L., W. P. Coon III, M. H. Shealy, Jr., and P. A. Sandifer. 1981. Species assemblages, distribution, and abundance of fishes and decapod crustaceans from the Winyah Bay estuarine system, South Carolina. S.C. Sea Grant Technical Report 3. Charleston, SC, S.C. Sea Grant Consortium, 1981. Wenner, E. L., M. H. Shealy, Jr., and P. A. Sandifer. 1982. A profile of the fish and decapod crustacean community of a South Carolina estuarine system prior to flow alteration. NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF 757. White, M. G., Ill. 1970. Anadromous fishes survey 111. Anadromous Fisheries Act, Project AFS-2-2. S.C. Wildlife Resources Department. 93 pp. Bibliography/ Selected Related References 57 Fishes of the Edisto River Basin Total copies: 1425 Total cost: $2500.00 Cost per copy: $1.75 Date: 4-95 S.C. Department of Natural Resources Water Resources Division V@ CAR The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, disability, religion, or age. Direct all inquiries to the Office of Human Resources, P.O. Box 167, Columbia, S.C. 29202. OF @3 3 6668 00004 8688