[Federal Register Volume 61, Number 27 (Thursday, February 8, 1996)]
[RU]
[Pages 4736-4742]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 96-2723]



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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[FRL-5418-3]


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.

ACTION: Notice of acceptability and clarification of June 13, 1995 
final rule.

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SUMMARY: This notice expands the list of acceptable substitutes for 
ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) 
program. SNAP implements section 612 of the amended Clean Air Act of 
1990, which requires EPA to evaluate substitutes for the OZONE-
DEPLETING SUBSTANCES (ODS), and regulate the use of substitutes where 
other alternatives exist that reduce overall risk to human health and 
the environment. Through these evaluations, SNAP generates lists of 
acceptable and unacceptable substitutes for each of the major 
industrial use sectors. In addition, this Notice clarifies several 
points from the June 13, 1995 final rule (60 FR 31092).
    On March 18, 1994, EPA promulgated its plan for administering the 
SNAP program, and issued decisions on the acceptability and 
unacceptability of a number of substitutes (59 FR 13044). In today's 
Notice, EPA issues decisions on the acceptability of substitutes not 
previously reviewed by the Agency. The intended effect of this action 
is to expedite movement away from ozone depleting compounds. To arrive 
at determinations on the acceptability of substitutes, the Agency 
completed a cross-media sector end-use screening assessment of risks to 
human health and the environment.

EFFECTIVE DATE: February 8, 1996.

ADDRESSES: Information relevant to this notice is contained in Air 
Docket A-91-42, Central Docket Section, South Conference Room 4, U.S. 
Environmental Agency, 401 M Street SW., Washington, DC 20460. 
Telephone: (202) 260-7548. The docket may be inspected between 8 a.m. 
and 5:30 p.m. weekdays. As provided in 40 CFR part 2, a reasonable fee 
may be charged for photocopying.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Levy at (202) 233-9727 or fax 
(202) 233-9577, U.S. EPA, Stratospheric Protection Division, 401 M 
Street, SW., Mail Code 6205J, Washington, DC 20460; EPA Stratospheric 
Ozone Protection Hotline at (800) 296-1996; EPA World Wide Web Site at 
http://www.epa.gov/docs/ozone/title6/SNAP/snap.html.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements
    B. Regulatory History
II. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Substitutes for Class I 
Substances
    B. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Substitutes for Class II 
Substances
    C. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection
III. Substitutes Pending Review
IV. Additional Information

Appendix A Summary of Acceptable and Pending Decisions

I. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act authorizes EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. EPA 
is referring to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy 
(SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
     Rulemaking--Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate 
rules making it unlawful to replace any class I (chlorofluorocarbon, 
halon, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, methyl bromide, and 
hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class II (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) substance 
with any substitute that the Administrator determines may present 
adverse effects to human health or the environment where the 
Administrator has identified an alternative that (1) reduces the 
overall risk to human health and the environment, and (2) is currently 
or potentially available.
     Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes--Section 
612(c) also requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses. EPA must publish a corresponding list 
of acceptable alternatives for specific uses.
     Petition Process--Section 612(d) grants the right to any 
person to petition EPA to add a substance to or delete a substance from 
the lists published in accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 
90 days to grant or deny a petition. Where the Agency grants the 
petition, EPA must publish the revised lists within an additional 6 
months.
     90-day Notification--Section 612(e) requires EPA to 
require any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I 
substance to notify the Agency not less than 90 days before new or 
existing chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for 
significant new uses as substitutes for a class I substance. The 
producer must also provide the Agency with the producer's unpublished 
health and safety studies on such substitutes.
     Outreach--Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator 
shall seek to maximize the use of federal research facilities and 
resources to assist users of class I and II substances in identifying 
and developing alternatives to the use of such substances in key 
commercial applications.
     Clearinghouse--Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to 
set up a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product 
substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available 
for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and II 
substances.

B. Regulatory History

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the Final Rulemaking (FRM) (59 FR 
13044) which described the process for administering the SNAP program 
and issued EPA's first acceptability lists for substitutes in the major 
industrial use sectors. These sectors include: refrigeration and air 
conditioning; foam blowing; solvent cleaning; fire suppression and 
explosion protection; sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and 
inks; and tobacco expansion. These sectors compose the principal 
industrial sectors that historically consumed the largest volumes of 
ozone-depleting compounds.
    As described in the final rule for the SNAP program (59 FR 13044), 
EPA does not believe that rulemaking procedures are required to list 
alternatives as acceptable with no limitations. Such listings do not 
impose any sanction, nor do they remove any prior license to use a 
substance. Consequently, EPA is adding substances to the list of 
acceptable alternatives without first requesting comment on new 
listings.
    EPA does, however, believe that notice-and-comment rulemaking is 
required to place any substance on the list of prohibited substitutes, 
to list a substance as acceptable only under certain conditions, to 
list substances as acceptable only for certain uses, or to remove a 
substance from either the list of prohibited or acceptable substitutes. 
Updates to these lists are published as separate notices of rulemaking 
in the Federal Register.
    The Agency defines a ``substitute'' as any chemical, product 
substitute, or 

[[Page 4737]]
alternative manufacturing process, whether existing or new, that could 
replace a class I or class II substance. Anyone who produces a 
substitute must provide the Agency with health and safety studies on 
the substitute at least 90 days before introducing it into interstate 
commerce for significant new use as an alternative. This requirement 
applies to substitute manufacturers, but may include importers, 
formulators or end-users, when they are responsible for introducing a 
substitute into commerce.
    EPA published Notices listing acceptable alternatives on August 26, 
1994 (59 FR 44240), January 13, 1995 (60 FR 3318), and July 28, 1995 
(60 FR 38729), and published a Final Rulemaking restricting the use of 
certain substitutes on June 13, 1995 (60 FR 31092). EPA also published 
a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking restricting the use of certain 
substitutes on October 2, 1995 (60 FR 51383).

II. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes

    This section presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing 
decisions for substitutes for class I and class II substances in the 
following industrial sectors: refrigeration and air conditioning, foam 
blowing, and fire suppression and explosion protection. In this Notice, 
EPA has split the refrigeration and air conditioning sector into two 
parts: Substitutes for class I substances and substitutes for class II 
substances. These decisions represent substitutes not previously 
reviewed and add to the lists of acceptable substitutes under SNAP. For 
copies of the full list, contact the EPA Stratospheric Protection 
Hotline at (800) 296-1996.
    Parts A through D below present a detailed discussion of the 
substitute listing determinations by major use sector. Tables 
summarizing today's listing decisions are in Appendix A. The comments 
contained in Appendix A provide additional information on a substitute, 
but like the listings of acceptable substitutes, they are not legally 
binding. Thus, adherence to recommendations in the comments are not 
mandatory for use of a substitute. In addition, the comments should not 
be considered comprehensive with respect to other legal obligations 
pertaining to the use of the substitute. However, EPA encourages users 
of acceptable substitutes to apply all comments to their use of these 
substitutes. In many instances, the comments simply allude to sound 
operating practices that have already been identified in existing 
industry and/or building-code standards. Thus, many of the comments, if 
adopted, would not require significant changes in existing operating 
practices for the affected industry.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

    Please refer to the final SNAP rule for detailed information 
pertaining to the designation of end-uses, additional requirements 
imposed under sections 608 and 609, and other information related to 
the use of alternative refrigerant.
1. Clarifications From the June 13, 1995 Final Rule
    HCFC Blend Beta was listed as containing HFC-134a, HCFC-124, and 
isobutane. In fact, according to the submission on file with EPA, this 
blend contains butane. The determination that this blend is acceptable 
subject to certain use conditions applied to the actual blend, not to 
the incorrectly listed one.
    In the tables listing unacceptable substitutes for CFC-12 in motor 
vehicle air conditioning, a definition for the category ``Flammable 
Substitutes'' was inadvertently omitted. As discussed in the preamble, 
it should have included the phrase ``as having flammability limits as 
measured according to ASTM E-681 with modifications included in Society 
of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice J1657, including blends 
which become flammable during fractionation.'' In addition, EPA clearly 
does not intend to constrain future findings. Thus, the table should 
have included a statement that this category does not include 
substitutes discussed explicitly in other rulings.
2. Other Clarification
    EPA has received inquiries as to the point at which a blend is 
sufficiently different from an already reviewed substitute as to 
require a new submission. EPA generally follows similar guidelines used 
by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning 
Engineers (ASHRAE). When new blends are submitted to ASHRAE for 
classification, the manufacturer must specify blending tolerances. Any 
blend that falls outside those tolerances is defined to be a distinct 
refrigerant. EPA requires leak testing of blends to determine whether 
they can become flammable after fractionation. The percentage of 
flammable components in a blend are usually quite close to the maximum 
possible for the blend as a whole to remain nonflammable. Even an 
increase of 1% of a flammable component may change the flammability of 
the blend. Therefore, blending tolerances are smaller for flammable 
components than for nonflammable components. Companies should determine 
blending tolerances. If the outside range of those tolerances could 
result in a different flammability or toxicity profile, then the blend 
will require a new submission. EPA encourages manufacturers to contact 
the SNAP refrigerants analyst for assistance in making this 
determination.
3. Acceptable Substitutes
    a. R-508. R-508, which contains HFC-23 and R-116, is acceptable as 
a substitute for CFC-13, R-13B1, and R-503 in retrofitted and new very 
low temperature refrigeration. Both components of this blend exhibit 
extremely high GWPS and long lifetimes. HFC-23 has a GWP of 9,000 and a 
lifetime of 280 years, and R-116, perfluoroethane, has a GWP of 9,000 
and a lifetime of 10,000 years. EPA believes this blend could 
significantly contribute to global warming if allowed to escape 
refrigeration systems. In addition, the long lifetimes of R-116 and 
HFC-23 mean any global warming or other effects would be essentially 
irreversible. Note that the prohibition on venting, which applies to 
all substitute refrigerants, was mandated in section 608(c)(2) and took 
effect on November 15, 1995. While the current rule issued under 
section 608 of the CAA (58 FR 28660) does not specify recycling or leak 
repair requirements, it is illegal to vent this refrigerant at any 
time. In addition, EPA anticipates proposing new recycling regulations 
for non-ozone-depleting refrigerants in the near future. A fact sheet 
on the proposal is available from the EPA Ozone Hotline at (800) 296-
1996. This blend is nonflammable and does not deplete ozone. EPA urges 
manufacturers to develop alternatives for R-503 and CFC-13 that do not 
contain substances with such high GWPS and long lifetimes.
    b. R-411A and R-411B. R-411A and R-411B, which consist of HCFC-22, 
HFC-152a, and propylene, are acceptable as substitutes for CFC-12 and 
R-502 in the following end-uses:
     Reciprocating Chillers
     Industrial Process Refrigeration
     Cold Storage Warehouses
     Refrigerated Transport
     Retail Food Refrigeration
     Commercial Ice Machines
     Vending Machines
     Water Coolers
    HCFC-22 contributes to ozone depletion, but to a much lesser degree 
than CFC-12. Regulations regarding recycling and reclamation issued 
under section 608 of the Clean Air Act apply to this blend (58 FR 
28660). This blend

[[Page 4738]]

poses less of a threat to the ozone layer than HCFC-22, which has 
already been listed as an acceptable substitute for CFC-12. The GWP of 
HCFC-22 is somewhat high, but the GWP of HFC-152a is low. Although 
propylene and HFC-152a are flammable, R-411A and R-411B have been 
designated as A1/A2 refrigerants by the American Society of Heating, 
Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). This 
designation means that the blend as formulated is nonflammable, but can 
become flammable under worst-case fractionation. However, over 75% of 
R-411A and 95% of R-411B must leak from the vapor phase before becoming 
flammable. Leaks from the liquid phase do not become flammable, 
regardless of the amount leaked.
c. HCFC Blend Beta. HCFC Blend Beta, which consists of HCFC-124, HFC-
134a, and butane, is acceptable as a substitute for CFC-12 in the 
following new and retrofitted end-uses: 
     Reciprocating Chillers
     Industrial Process Refrigeration
     Cold Storage Warehouses
     Refrigerated Transport
     Retail Food Refrigeration
     Vending Machines
     Water Coolers
     Commercial Ice Machines
     Household Refrigerators
     Household Freezers
     Residential Dehumidifiers
    This blend contains HCFC-124. Therefore, it contributes to ozone 
depletion, but to a much lesser degree than CFC-12. HCFC-124 has an ODP 
much lower than that of HCFC-22, which has already been listed as an 
acceptable substitute for CFC-12. Regulations regarding recycling and 
reclamation issued under section 60 of the Clean Air Act (58 FR 28660) 
apply to this blend. The GWPS of the components are moderate to low. 
This blend is nonflammable, and leak testing has demonstrated that the 
blend never becomes flammable.
    d. HCFC Blend Delta. HCFC Blend Delta is acceptable as a substitute 
for CFC-12 in retrofitted household refrigerators and freezers. The 
composition of this blend has been claimed confidential by the 
manufacturer. This blend contains at least one HCFC, and therefore 
contributes to ozone depletion, but to a much lesser degree than CFC-
12. Regulations regarding recycling and reclamation issued under 
section 608 of the Clean Air Act apply to this blend (58 FR 28660). The 
GWPS of the components are moderate to low. This blend is nonflammable, 
and leak testing has demonstrated that the blend never becomes 
flammable.
    e. HCFC Blend Lambda. HCFC Blend Lambda, which consists of HCFC-22, 
HCFC-142b, and isobutane, is acceptable as a substitute for R-500 in 
retrofitted centrifugal chillers and as a substitute for CFC-12 in the 
following new and retrofitted end-uses: 
     Reciprocating Chillers
     Industrial Process Refrigeration
     Cold Storage Warehouses
     Refrigerated Transport
     Retail Food Refrigeration
     Vending Machines
     Water Coolers
     Commercial Ice Machines
     Household Refrigerators
     Household Freezers
     Residential Dehumidifiers
    HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b contribute to ozone depletion, but to a much 
lesser degree than CFC-12. Regulations regarding recycling and 
reclamation issued under section 608 of the Clean Air Act apply to this 
blend (58 FR 28660). HCFC-142b has an ODP slightly higher than that of 
HCFC-22. The GWPS of HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b are somewhat high. Although 
HCFC-142b is flammable, the blend is not. Under massive leakage, this 
blend becomes weakly flammable. However, this blend contains more HCFC-
22 and less of the two flammable components than R-406A, and therefore 
should be at least as safe to use as R-406A. However, users should note 
that operating pressures will be higher than when using R-406A, so its 
use may not be appropriate in the same types of equipment.
    f. HFC-236fa. HFC-236fa, when manufactured using any process that 
does not convert perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) directly to HFC-236fa in a 
single step, is acceptable as a substitute for CFC-114 in centrifugal 
chillers. HFC-236fa does not harm the ozone layer because it does not 
contain chlorine. HFC-236fa has an extremely high 100-year GWP of 8000, 
but its lifetime is considerably shorter than that of perfluorocarbons. 
Although HCFC-124 is already listed as acceptable in this end-use, it 
produces toxic byproducts when it passes through air purification 
systems on submarines. Therefore, HCFC-124 is not a feasible 
alternative. HFC-236fa is the only alternative identified to date that 
is safe for the ozone layer, is low in toxicity, and can withstand the 
air purification process. Note that the prohibition on venting, which 
applies to all substitute refrigerants, was mandated in section 
608(c)(2) and took effect on November 15, 1995. While the current rule 
issued under section 608 of the CAA (58 FR 28660) does not specify 
recycling or leak repair requirements, it is illegal to vent this 
refrigerant at any time. In addition, EPA anticipates proposing new 
recycling regulations for non-ozone-depleting refrigerants in the near 
future. A fact sheet on the proposal is available from the EPA Ozone 
Hotline at (800) 296-1996.
    In the March 18, 1994 final SNAP rule (58 FR 13044), EPA required 
manufacturers to submit information on manufacturing processes to allow 
an assessment of the risks posed to the general public and workers. 
However, EPA clarified in that action that acceptability determinations 
made on the basis of one company's submission would apply to the same 
chemical produced by other manufacturers, obviating the need for 
duplicative reporting requirements and review. To date, despite the 
fact that some alternatives are manufactured by several companies, no 
process has been identified as significantly more hazardous than 
another. Therefore, EPA has not yet based SNAP decisions specifically 
on the manufacturing process.
    EPA is aware, however, of several methods for manufacturing HFC-
236fa, including one that produces HFC-236fa directly from PFIB. PFIB 
is an extremely toxic substance that could pose risks in very small 
concentrations. Thus, EPA believes it is appropriate to distinguish 
among the different methods for producing HFC-236fa. This acceptability 
determination does not prohibit the manufacture of HFC-236fa directly 
from PFIB. Rather, it finds acceptable the production of HFC-236fa in 
processes that do not convert PFIB directly to HFC-236fa in a single 
step. If a manufacturer wishes to produce HFC-236fa directly from PFIB, 
it must submit that process to EPA for review under SNAP.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Substitutes for Class II 
Substances

    Please refer to the March 18, 1994 SNAP rule (59 FR 13044) for 
detailed information pertaining to the designation of end-uses, 
additional requirements imposed under sections 608 and 609, and other 
information related to the use of alternative refrigerants.
    This Notice marks the first time EPA has addressed substitutes for 
HCFC-22 in the refrigeration and air conditioning sector. Although the 
substitutes listed below were intended specifically to replace HCFC-22, 
HCFC-22 is itself frequently used as a substitute for class I 
refrigerants (e.g, CFC-11 and CFC-12). 

[[Page 4739]]

    Therefore, the listings below also describe these HCFC-22 
substitutes as acceptable alternatives for class I refrigerants in new 
equipment. The underlying reasoning is that if, for instance, HCFC-22 
poses lower overall risk than CFC-12, and R-410A poses lower overall 
risk than HCFC-22, then R-410A must also pose lower overall risk than 
CFC-12. Therefore, even though R-410A isn't designed to be a direct 
replacement for CFC-12, in new equipment it may be appropriate to 
design for R-410A rather than for another CFC-12 substitute. As with 
all listings, however, engineering decisions are required to determine 
the best match between a given class I refrigerant and an alternative.
1. Acceptable
    a. R-410A and R-410B. R-410A and R-410B, which consist of HFC-32 
and HFC-125, are acceptable as substitutes for HCFC-22, and by 
extension, class I refrigerants, in equipment in the following new end-
uses:
     Centrifugal, Reciprocating, and Screw Chillers
     Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems
     Very-Low-Temperature Industrial Process Refrigeration
     Industrial Process Air Conditioning
     Ice Skating Rinks
     Refrigerated Transport
     Retail Food Refrigeration
     Cold Storage Warehouses
     Vending Machines
     Water Coolers
     Commercial Ice Machines
     Household Refrigerators and Freezers
     Residential Dehumidifiers
     Household and Light Commercial Air Conditioning
    Both R-410A and R-410B contain HFC-32 and HFC-125 but in slightly 
different compositions. Neither blend is flammable when used in these 
end uses while maintaining as-formulated composition nor after leak 
conditions. Leak testing has demonstrated that their compositions do 
not become flammable under any of the conditions found in these end 
uses. However, since both blends include HFC-32, which is flammable by 
itself, they should not be mixed with high concentrations of air above 
atmospheric pressures to minimize the risk of ignition. HFC-125 
exhibits a fairly high global warming potential (3,200 at 100 year 
integrated time horizon) compared to other HFCs and HCFC-22. However, 
its potential for contributing to global warming will be delayed in the 
listed end uses through the implementation of the venting prohibition 
under Section 608(c)(2) of the Clean Air Act Amendments. Note that the 
prohibition on venting, which applies to all substitute refrigerants, 
was mandated in section 608(c)(2) and took effect on November 15, 1995. 
While the current rule issued under section 608 of the CAA (58 FR 
28660) does not specify recycling or leak repair requirements, it is 
illegal to vent this refrigerant at any time. In addition, EPA 
anticipates proposing new recycling regulations for non-ozone-depleting 
refrigerants in the near future. A fact sheet on the proposal is 
available from the EPA Ozone Hotline at (800) 296-1996. R-410A and R-
410B do not contain ozone-depleting substances, they are low in 
toxicity, and none of their components is regulated as a volatile 
organic compound.
    b. R-407C. R-407C, which is a blend of HFC-32, HFC-134a and HFC-
125, is acceptable as a substitute for HCFC-22 in new and retrofit 
equipment, and by extension, as a substitute for class I refrigerants 
in new equipment, in the following end-uses:
     Centrifugal, Reciprocating, and Screw Chillers
     Industrial Process Refrigeration
     Very Low Temperature Industrial Process Refrigeration
     Ice Skating Rinks
     Refrigerated Transport
     Retail Food Refrigeration Systems
     Cold Storage Warehouses
     Vending Machines
     Water Coolers
     Commercial Ice Machines
     Household Refrigerators and Freezers
     Residential Dehumidifiers
     Household and Light Commercial Air Conditioning
    This blend is not flammable when used in these end uses while 
maintaining as-formulated composition or after leak conditions. Leak 
testing has demonstrated that its composition, or composition 
variations due to fractionation, does not make it flammable under any 
of the conditions found in these end uses. This blend includes HFC-32 
and HFC-125, therefore the above discussion of these two substances as 
part of R-410A and R-410B is applicable. Again, EPA urges users to 
reduce leakage and recover and recycle this blend during equipment 
servicing and upon the retirement of equipment. R-407C doesn't damage 
the ozone layer, it is low in toxicity, and none of its components is 
regulated as a volatile organic compound. Note that the prohibition on 
venting, which applies to all substitute refrigerants, was mandated in 
section 608(c)(2) and took effect on November 15, 1995. While the 
current rule issued under section 608 of the CAA (58 FR 28660) does not 
specify recycling or leak repair requirements, it is illegal to vent 
this refrigerant at any time. In addition, EPA anticipates proposing 
new recycling regulations for non-ozone-depleting refrigerants in the 
near future. A fact sheet on the proposal is available from the EPA 
Ozone Hotline at (800) 296-1996.
    c. HFC-134a. HFC-134a is acceptable as a substitute for HCFC-22 in 
new Household and Light Commercial Air Conditioning. HFC-134a exhibits 
a moderate to high global warming potential (1,300 at 100 year 
integrated time horizon) compared to other HFCS. Although much lower 
than HFC-125, uncontrolled emissions could have a significant impact on 
global warming. Therefore, the above guidance on controlling leaks and 
recycling, particularly during disposal, are applicable to HFC-134A in 
this end use. HFC-134a does not damage the ozone layer, it is very low 
in toxicity, and it is not regulated as a volatile organic compound. 
Note that the prohibition on venting, which applies to all substitute 
refrigerants, was mandated in section 608(c)(2) and took effect on 
November 15, 1995. While the current rule issued under section 608 of 
the CAA (58 FR 28660) does not specify recycling or leak repair 
requirements, it is illegal to vent this refrigerant at any time. In 
addition, EPA anticipates proposing new recycling regulations for non-
ozone-depleting refrigerants in the near future. A fact sheet on the 
proposal is available from the EPA Ozone Hotline.

B. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection

1. Acceptable
    a. Total Flooding Agents. (1) [Powdered Aerosol] C is acceptable 
for use in normally unoccupied areas. This agent is intended solely for 
use in normally unoccupied areas and thus it does not represent a 
significant threat to worker safety or health. Use conditions to limit 
the risk of inadvertent exposure to personnel in normally unoccupied 
areas may be included in future rulemakings.

III. Substitutes Pending Review

    The Agency describes submissions as pending if data are incomplete 
or for which the 90-day review period is underway and EPA has not yet 
reached a final decision. For submissions that are incomplete, the 
Agency will contact the submitter to determine a schedule for providing 
the missing information if the Agency needs to extend the 90-day review 
period. EPA will use its authority under section 114 of the Clean Air 
Act to gather this information, if 

[[Page 4740]]
necessary. Any delay of the review period does not affect a 
manufacturer's ability to sell a product 90 days after notification of 
the Agency. Substitutes currently pending completion of review are 
listed in Appendix A.

IV. Additional Information

    Contact the Stratospheric Protection Hotline at 1-800-296-1996, 
Monday-Friday, between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. (Eastern 
Standard Time) weekdays.
    For more information on the Agency's process for administering the 
SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the 
SNAP final rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 
1994 (59 FR 13044). Federal Register notices can be ordered from the 
Government Printing Office Order Desk (202) 783-3238; the citation is 
the date of publication. This Notice can also be retrieved 
electronically from EPA's Technology Transfer Network (TTN), Clean Air 
Act Amendment Bulletin Board. If you have a 1200 or 2400 bps modem, 
dial (919) 541-5742. If you have a 9600 bps modem, dial (919) 541-1447. 
For assistance in accessing this service, call (919) 541-5384. Finally, 
this notice may be obtained on the World Wide Web at http://
www.epa.gov/docs/ozone/title6/snap/snap.html.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: December 19, 1995.
Mary D. Nichols,
Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation.

    Note: The following Appendix will not appear in the Code of 
Federal Regulations.

                             Appendix A: Summary of Acceptable and Pending Decisions                            
                                 [Refrigerants--Class I Acceptable Substitutes]                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               End-Use                        Substitute                Decision                 Comments       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CFC-12 and R-500 Reciprocating         R-411A.................  Acceptable.............  This blend contains the
 Chillers; CFC-12 and R-502            R-411B.................  Acceptable.............   same components as R- 
 Industrial Process Refrigeration,     HCFC blend Beta........  Acceptable.............   406A, but in different
 Cold Storage Warehouses,              HCFC Blend Lambda......  Acceptable.............   percentages.          
 Refrigerated Transport, Retail Food                                                                            
 Refrigeration, Vending Machines,                                                                               
 Water Coolers, Commercial Ice                                                                                  
 Machines (Retrofitted and New).                                                                                
CFC-12 and R-502 Household             HCFC Blend Beta........  Acceptable.............  This blend contains the
 Refrigerators, Household Freezers,    HCFC Blend Lambda......  Acceptable.............   same components as R- 
 and Residential Dehumidifiers.                                                           406A, but in different
                                                                                          percentages.          
CFC-13, R-13B1, and R-503 Very Low     R-508..................  Acceptable.                                     
 Temperature Refrigeration.                                                                                     
CFC-114 Centrifugal Chillers.........  HFC-236fa..............  Acceptable.                                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Acceptable Substitutes for Class II Substances               
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               End-use                        Substitute                Decision                 Comments       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Household and Light Commercial Air     .......................  .......................  This end use also      
 Conditioning                                                                             includes heat pump    
                                                                                          systems.              
    HCFC-22 Systems, New.............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B,  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
                                        HFC-134A.                                                               
    HCFC-22 Systems, Retrofit........  R-407C.................  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
Commercial Comfort Air Conditioning    .......................  .......................  This end use includes  
                                                                                          chillers in general.  
    HCFC-22 Reciprocating Chillers,    R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
     New.                                                                                                       
    CFC-12 Reciprocating Chillers,     R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
     New.                                                                                                       
    R-500 Reciprocating Chillers, New  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    CFC-11 Centrifugal Chillers, New.  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    CFC-12 Centrifugal Chillers, New.  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    HCFC-22 Centrifugal Chillers, New  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    HCFC-22 Centrifugal Chillers,      R-407C.................  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
     Retrofit.                                                                                                  
    R-500 Centrifugal Chillers, New..  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    HCFC-22 Screw Chillers, New......  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    HCFC-22 Screw Chillers, Retrofit.  R-407C.................  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
Industrial Process Refrigeration       .......................  .......................  It also includes very- 
                                                                                          low-temperature       
                                                                                          industrial            
                                                                                          refrigeration.        
    HCFC-22 Systems, New.............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    HCFC-22 Systems, Retrofit........  R-407C.................  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    CFC-12 Systems, New..............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    R-500 Systems, New...............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   

[[Page 4741]]
                                                                                                                
    R-502 Systems, New...............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
Industrial Process Air Conditioners                                                                             
    HCFC-22 A/C Systems, New.........  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B,  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
                                        HFC-134a.                                                               
    HCFC-22 A/C Systems, Retrofit....  R-407C.................  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    CFC-12 A/C System, New...........  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    CFC-114 A/C System, New..........  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    CFC-12/CFC-114 A/C Systems, New..  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
Ice Skating Rinks                                                                                               
    HCFC-22 Systems, New.............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    HCFC-22 Systems, Retrofit........  R-407C.................  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    CFC-12 Systems, New..............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    R-502 Systems, New...............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
Refrigerated Transport                                                                                          
    CFC-12 Systems, New..............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    R-500 Systems, New...............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    R-502 Systems, New...............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
Retail Food Refrigeration              .......................  .......................  It also includes cold  
                                                                                          storage warehouses.   
    HCFC-22 Systems, New.............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    HCFC-22 Systems, Retrofit........  R-407C.................  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    CFC-12 Systems, New..............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    R-502 Systems, New...............  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
Ice Machines                                                                                                    
    CFC-12 Ice Machines, New.........  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
Household Refrigerators and Freezers                                                                            
    CFC-12 Household Refrigerators,    R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
     New.                                                                                                       
    CFC-12 Household Freezers, New...  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
    R-502 Household Freezers, New....  R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
Other Refrigerated Appliances          .......................  .......................  Includes water coolers,
                                                                                          vending machines, and 
                                                                                          dehumidifiers.        
    CFC-12 Refrigerated Appliances,    R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
     New.                                                                                                       
    R-502 Refrigerated Appliances,     R-407C, R-410A, R-410B.  Acceptable.............  EPA urges recycling.   
     New.                                                                                                       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                    Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection                                   
                                 [Total Flooding Agents Acceptable Substitutes]                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               End-Use                        Substitute                Decision                 Comments       
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Halon 1301...........................  Powdered Aerosol C.....  Acceptable.............  For use in normally    
                                                                                          unoccupied areas only.
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Acceptable Substitutes--Foam Blowing                                     
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Integral Skin with HCFC-22...........  CO2....................  Acceptable.............                         
                                       HFC-134a...............  Acceptable.............                         
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 4742]]


                                         Pending Decisions--Foam Blowing                                        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End-use                         Substitute                               Comments                  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HCFCs, Polyurethane Integral Skin  CO2                                                                          
                                   HFC-134a.                                                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                      Pending Substitutes--Solvent Cleaning                                     
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End-use                          Substitute                               Comments                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Metals Cleaning w/ CFC-113 and    Chlorobromomethane...............  Additional toxicity testing is necessary to
 MCF.                                                                 characterize fully the chronic health     
                                                                      effects such as carcinogenicity that could
                                                                      arise from repeated exposures. In         
                                                                      addition, decomposition studies and ozone 
                                                                      depletion analyses must be completed      
                                                                      before SNAP decision is rendered.         
Electronics Cleaning w/ CFC-113   Chlorobromomethane...............  Additional toxicity testing is necessary to
 and MCF.                                                             characterize fully the chronic health     
                                                                      effects such as carcinogenicity that could
                                                                      arise from repeated exposures. In         
                                                                      addition, decomposition studies and ozone 
                                                                      depletion analyses must be completed      
                                                                      before SNAP decision is rendered.         
Precision Cleaning w/ CFC-113     Chlorobromomethane...............  Additional toxicity testing is necessary to
 and MCF.                                                             characterize fully the chronic health     
                                                                      effects such as carcinogenicity that could
                                                                      arise from repeated exposures. In         
                                                                      addition, decomposition studies and ozone 
                                                                      depletion analyses must be completed      
                                                                      before SNAP decision is rendered.         
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[FR Doc. 96-2723 Filed 2-7-96; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P