[Federal Register Volume 63, Number 36 (Tuesday, February 24, 1998)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 9151-9156]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 98-4654]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[FRL-5969-7]


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.

ACTION: Notice of Acceptability.

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SUMMARY: This document expands the list of acceptable substitutes for 
ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) 
program.

EFFECTIVE DATE: February 24, 1998.

ADDRESSES: Information relevant to this document is contained in Air 
Docket A-91-42, Central Docket Section, South Conference Room 4, U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 
20460. Telephone: (202) 260-7548. The docket may be inspected between 
8:00 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. weekdays. As provided in 40 CFR Part 2, a 
reasonable fee may be charged for photocopying.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carol Weisner at (202) 564-9193 or fax 
(202) 565-2095, U.S. EPA, Stratospheric Protection Division, 401 M 
Street, S.W., Mail Code 6205J, Washington, D.C. 20460; EPA 
Stratospheric Ozone Protection Hotline at (800) 296-1996; EPA World 
Wide Web Site (http://www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/snap).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
I. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements
    B. Regulatory History
II. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    B. Foam Blowing
    C. Aerosols
    D. Solvent Cleaning
III. Additional Information
Appendix A--Summary of Acceptable Decisions

I. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act authorizes EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. EPA 
refers to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy 
(SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
     Rulemaking--Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate 
rules making it unlawful to replace any class I (chlorofluorocarbon, 
halon, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, methyl bromide, and 
hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class II (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) substance 
with any substitute that the Administrator determines may present 
adverse effects to human health or the environment where the 
Administrator has identified an alternative that (1) reduces the 
overall risk to human health and the environment, and (2) is currently 
or potentially available.
     Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes--Section 
612(c) also requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses. EPA must publish a corresponding list 
of acceptable alternatives for specific uses.
     Petition Process--Section 612(d) grants the right to any 
person to petition EPA to add a substance to or delete a substance from 
the lists published in accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 
90 days to grant or deny a petition. Where the Agency grants the 
petition, EPA must publish the revised lists within an additional 6 
months.
     90-day Notification--Section 612(e) requires EPA to 
require any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I 
substance to notify the Agency not less than 90 days before new or 
existing chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for 
significant new uses as substitutes for a class I substance. The 
producer must also provide the Agency with the producer's unpublished 
health and safety studies on such substitutes.
     Outreach--Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator 
shall seek to maximize the use of federal research facilities and 
resources to assist users of class I and II substances in identifying 
and developing alternatives to the use of such substances in key 
commercial applications.
     Clearinghouse--Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to 
set up a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product 
substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available 
for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and II 
substances.

B. Regulatory History

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the Final Rulemaking (FRM) (59 FR

[[Page 9152]]

13044) which described the process for administering the SNAP program 
and issued EPA's first acceptability lists for substitutes in the major 
industrial use sectors. These sectors include: refrigeration and air 
conditioning; foam blowing; solvent cleaning; fire suppression and 
explosion protection; sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and 
inks; and tobacco expansion. These sectors compose the principal 
industrial sectors that historically consumed the largest volumes of 
ozone-depleting compounds.
    As described in the final rule for the SNAP program (59 FR 13044), 
EPA does not believe that rulemaking procedures are required to list 
alternatives as acceptable with no limitations. Such listings do not 
impose any sanction, nor do they remove any prior license to use a 
substance. Consequently, by this notice EPA is adding substances to the 
list of acceptable alternatives without first requesting comment on new 
listings.
    EPA does, however, believe that Notice-and-Comment rulemaking is 
required to place any substance on the list of prohibited substitutes, 
to list a substance as acceptable only under certain conditions, to 
list substances as acceptable only for certain uses, or to remove a 
substance from either the list of prohibited or acceptable substitutes. 
Updates to these lists are published as separate notices of rulemaking 
in the Federal Register.
    The Agency defines a ``substitute'' as any chemical, product 
substitute, or alternative manufacturing process, whether existing or 
new, that could replace a class I or class II substance. Anyone who 
produces a substitute must provide the Agency with health and safety 
studies on the substitute at least 90 days before introducing it into 
interstate commerce for significant new use as an alternative. This 
requirement applies to substitute manufacturers, but may include 
importers, formulators or end-users, when they are responsible for 
introducing a substitute into commerce.
    EPA published Notices listing acceptable alternatives on August 26, 
1994 (59 FR 44240), January 13, 1995 (60 FR 3318), July 28, 1995 (60 FR 
38729), February 8, 1996 (61 FR 4736), September 5, 1996 (61 FR 47012), 
March 10, 1997, and June 3, 1997, and published Final Rulemakings 
restricting the use of certain substitutes on June 13, 1995 (60 FR 
31092), May 22, 1996 (61 FR 25585), and October 16, 1996 (61 FR 54030).

II. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes

    This section presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing 
decisions for substitutes for class I and class II substances in the 
following industrial sectors: refrigeration and air conditioning, foam 
blowing, aerosols, and solvent cleaning. In this Notice, EPA has split 
the refrigeration and air conditioning sector into two parts: 
substitutes for class I substances and substitutes for class II 
substances. For copies of the full list, contact the EPA Stratospheric 
Protection Hotline at (800) 296-1996.
    Parts A through D below present a detailed discussion of the 
substitute listing determinations by major use sector. Tables 
summarizing today's listing decisions are in Appendix A. The comments 
contained in Appendix A provide additional information on a substitute, 
but for listings of acceptable substitutes, they are not legally 
binding under section 612 of the Clean Air Act. Thus, adherence to 
recommendations in the comments is not mandatory for use as a 
substitute. In addition, the comments should not be considered 
comprehensive with respect to other legal obligations pertaining to the 
use of the substitute. However, EPA encourages users of acceptable 
substitutes to apply all comments to their use of these substitutes. In 
many instances, the comments simply allude to sound operating practices 
that have already been identified in existing industry and/or building-
code standards. Thus, many of the comments, if adopted, would not 
require significant changes in existing operating practices for the 
affected industry.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Class I

1. Clarification
a. Secondary Loop Systems
    In the Notice published on March 10, 1997 (62 FR 10700), EPA stated 
that it would not review secondary loop fluids under the SNAP program. 
In the final rule of June 13, 1995 (60 FR 31092), however, EPA listed 
the first set of acceptable substitute refrigerants for heat transfer 
fluids. EPA has received requests to further clarify the distinction 
between the use of a fluid in a secondary fluid system (which is not 
regulated under SNAP), and the use of such a fluid in a heat exchange 
system (which is regulated under SNAP).
    A key characteristic of a secondary loop system is that it 
contains, as an integral part, a system that moves heat from a cooled 
area to a warmer one, thereby reversing the natural flow of heat. The 
secondary loop simply carries heat as an adjunct to the primary loop's 
effect. For example, in a building chiller, the primary loop uses a 
vapor compression or other cycle to refrigerate water. This chilled 
water then circulates throughout the building and fans blow air over 
the cold pipes to air condition occupied spaces. Under the SNAP 
program, EPA reviews the refrigerant used in the primary system, but 
not the fluid used to carry the chill throughout the building. Note 
that a secondary loop moves heat from a warmer area to a cooler one. 
Thus, neither loop within a cascade refrigeration system is considered 
a secondary loop.
    In contrast, a heat transfer system's primary effect is to move 
heat from a warmer area to a cooler one. Thus, the heat transfer fluid 
is the primary refrigerant and it delivers the actual cooling. An 
example of this type of system is a thermosyphon transformer. A liquid 
heat transfer fluid absorbs heat from hot electrical components, 
vaporizes, and rises into a cooling heat exchanger, where it gives off 
the heat to the surrounding air. There are also heat transfer systems 
that rely on a pump, but their primary function is still to move heat 
in the direction it naturally flows. In essence, a heat transfer system 
augments or assists natural heat flow as the primary effect, rather 
than augmenting a primary loop that reverses the natural heat flow.
b. Definition of MVAC Under SNAP
    Under the SNAP program, the motor vehicle air conditioning (MVAC) 
end-use includes all forms of air conditioning that provide cooling to 
the passenger compartments in moving vehicles. This definition includes 
both MVACS, defined at 40 CFR 82.32, and MVAC-like equipment, defined 
at 40 CFR 82.152. EPA regulations issued under sections 608 and 609 of 
the Clean Air Act distinguished between MVACS and MVAC-like equipment 
for purposes of refrigerant recycling and handling. EPA includes both 
in the SNAP MVAC end-use and has relied on this definition since the 
original SNAP rule of March 18, 1994 (59 FR 13044); today's Notice 
simply clarifies this definition. All use conditions, unacceptability 
findings, and other regulatory actions for this end-use apply equally 
to on-road vehicles, such as automobiles and trucks, and to off-road 
vehicles, such as tractors, combines, construction, and mining 
equipment.
c. Use of Adapters With Refrigerant Identifiers in MVACs
    In the June 3, 1997 SNAP Notice (62 FR 32075), EPA clarified that 
manifold gauge sets may be used with multiple refrigerants, provided 
that for each refrigerant there is a separate set of hoses with 
permanently attached

[[Page 9153]]

fittings unique to that refrigerant. Today, EPA further clarifies that 
refrigerant identifiers may be used with multiple refrigerants under 
the same proviso. The connection between the identifier or similar 
service equipment and the service hose may be standardized and work 
with multiple hoses. For each refrigerant, the user must attach a hose 
to the identifier that has a fitting unique to that refrigerant 
permanently attached to the end going to the vehicle. Adapters may not 
be attached for one refrigerant and then removed and replaced with the 
fitting for a different refrigerant. The guiding principle is that once 
attached to a hose, the fitting is permanent and is not removed. This 
procedure allows identifiers and other service equipment to be used 
with more than one refrigerant while still preventing the attachment 
and detachment of unique fittings from hoses. Note that for recovery, 
recycling, or other equipment used to transfer refrigerant, hoses must 
include shutoff valves and must have the refrigerant recovered prior to 
changing hoses from one refrigerant to another, but for low-flow 
devices like refrigerant identifiers, there are no such requirements.
2. Acceptable Substitutes
    Note that EPA acceptability does not imply that an acceptable 
substitute is technically viable or has been optimized for a given type 
of equipment within an end-use. Engineering expertise must be used to 
determine the appropriate use of substitutes for ozone depleting 
chemicals. In addition, although some alternatives are listed as 
acceptable substitutes for multiple refrigerants, they may not be 
appropriate for use in all equipment or under all conditions.
a. Self-Chilling Cans Using Carbon Dioxide as the Refrigerant
    Self-chilling cans using carbon dioxide are acceptable substitutes 
for CFC-12, R-502, and HCFC-22 in retrofitted and new household 
refrigeration, transport refrigeration, vending machines, cold storage 
warehouses, and retail food refrigeration.
    This technology represents a product substitute intended to replace 
several types of refrigeration equipment. A self-chilling can includes 
a heat transfer unit that performs the same function as one half of the 
traditional vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The unit contains a 
charge of refrigerant that is released to the atmosphere when the user 
activates the cooling unit. As the refrigerant is released to the 
atmosphere it absorbs heat from the can's contents and evaporates, thus 
cooling the liquid inside the can. Because this process provides the 
same cooling effect as household refrigeration, transport 
refrigeration, vending machines, cold storage warehouses, or retail 
food refrigeration, it is a substitute for CFC-12, R-502, or HCFC-22 in 
these systems.
    In a recent Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, EPA proposed that self-
chilling cans using HFC-134a or HFC-152a as the refrigerant were 
unacceptable substitutes (63 FR 5491; February 3, 1998). In contrast to 
HFC-134a, which has a global warming potential (GWP) of 1300, 
CO2 has a GWP of 1. Therefore, the potential impact of 
CO2 use in self-chilling cans versus HFC-134a will be much 
lower. In addition, the submitter indicates that the self-chilling cans 
will use CO2 either recovered as a by-product from other 
industrial activities or taken from the atmosphere, thus further 
reducing the net impact.
    CO2 exhibits very high pressures compared to some other 
refrigerants including HFC-134a. The submitter indicated that an 
alternative technology would prevent internal pressures within the heat 
exchange unit from exceeding 150 psig. EPA believes that this design is 
within acceptable limits, since this pressure will exist within the 
heat exchange unit rather than the outer can containing the beverage; 
if this pressure is transmitted to the can (which is not expected), 
existing beverage cans are designed to withstand equivalent pressure. 
In addition, tabs used to open existing cans are designed to open 
automatically at 200 psig, providing a safety valve if high pressures 
do develop.
    EPA's determination that self-chilling cans using CO2 
are acceptable substitutes in the end-uses listed above is based on the 
maximum design pressure of 150 psig and the intent to use 
CO2 recaptured from other activities or from the atmosphere. 
EPA invites information about the pressures actually found in self-
chilling cans once they are produced and on the specific sources for 
CO2. If either the cans exceed 150 psig in pressure or use 
newly produced CO2, EPA may revisit today's decision.
b. THR-01
    THR-01, composed of HCFC-22 and HFC-152a, is acceptable as a 
substitute for CFC-12 in the following new systems:

 Household Refrigerators
 Household Freezers

    Because this blend contains an HCFC, it contributes to ozone 
depletion. However, this concern is mitigated by the scheduled phaseout 
of this chemical. Regulations regarding recycling and reclamation 
issued under section 608 of the Clean Air Act (58 FR 28660) apply to 
this blend. This blend is flammable, but significantly less so than 
pure HFC-152a. A risk assessment showed that HFC-152a can be safely 
used in newly designed household refrigerators and freezers; since HFC-
152a is listed as acceptable in these end-uses, and THR-01 poses lower 
flammability risk than pure HFC-152a, THR-01 is also acceptable. The 
GWP of HFC-152a is much less than that of HCFC-22; again, since HCFC-22 
is listed as acceptable, THR-01 is also acceptable.
c. FRIGC FR-12
    FRIGC FR-12, which consists of HCFC-124, HFC-134a, and butane, is 
acceptable as a substitute for R-500 in the following new and 
retrofitted end-uses:

 Centrifugal Chillers
 Reciprocating Chillers
 Industrial Process Refrigeration
 Cold Storage Warehouses
 Refrigerated Transport
 Retail Food Refrigeration
 Vending Machines
 Water Coolers
 Commercial Ice Machines
 Residential Dehumidifiers

and as a substitute for CFC-12 in centrifugal chillers.
    This blend contains HCFC-124. Therefore, it contributes to ozone 
depletion, but to a much lesser degree than R-500. Regulations 
regarding recycling and reclamation issued under section 608 of the 
Clean Air Act (58 FR 28660) apply to this blend. The GWPs of the 
components are moderate to low. This blend is nonflammable, and leak 
testing has demonstrated that the blend never becomes flammable.
d. Galden Fluids
    Galden Fluids, which contain perfluoroethers and perfluorocarbons, 
are acceptable substitutes for CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, and 
CFC-115 in retrofitted heat transfer systems. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) 
offer high dielectric resistance, noncorrosivity, thermal stability, 
materials compatibility, chemical inertness, low toxicity, and 
nonflammability. In addition, they do not contribute to ground-level 
ozone formation or stratospheric ozone depletion. The principal 
characteristic of concern for PFCs is that they have long atmospheric 
lifetimes and have the potential to contribute to global climate 
change.

[[Page 9154]]

PFCs are also included in the Climate Change Action Plan, which broadly 
instructs EPA to use section 612 of the Clean Air Act, as well as 
voluntary programs, to control emissions. Despite these concerns, EPA 
is listing PFCs as acceptable in retrofitted heat transfer applications 
because they may be the only substitutes that can satisfy safety or 
performance requirements. For example, a transformer may require very 
high dielectric strength, or a heat transfer system for a chlorine 
manufacturing process could require compatibility with the process 
stream.
    In cases where users must adopt PFCs (or PFC-containing blends like 
the Galden Fluids) to transition out of ozone depleting chemicals, they 
should make every effort to:
     Recover and recycle these fluids during servicing;
     Adopt maintenance practices that reduce leakage as much as 
is technically feasible;
     Recover these fluids after the end of the equipment's 
useful life and either recycle them or destroy them; and
     Continue to search for other long-term alternatives.
    Users of PFCs should note that if other alternatives become 
available, EPA could be petitioned to list PFCs as unacceptable due to 
the availability of other suitable substitutes. If such a petition were 
granted, EPA may grandfather existing uses upon consideration of cost 
and timing of testing and implementation of new substitutes. EPA urges 
industry to develop new alternatives for this end-use that do not 
contain substances with such high GWPs and long lifetimes.
e. R-508A and R-508B
    R-508A and R-508B, both of which contain HFC-23 and R-116, are 
acceptable as substitutes for CFC-13, R-13B1, and R-503 in retrofitted 
and new very low temperature refrigeration and industrial process 
refrigeration. Notices published on July 28, 1995 (60 FR 38729) and 
Feb. 8, 1996 (61 FR 4736) listed R-508 as acceptable in these end-uses. 
At the time of these listings, only R-508 was available. Since then, 
two blends with the same components in different percentages have 
entered the market. Today's Notice expands the acceptable listing to 
include both R-508A and R-508B.

B. Foam Blowing

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    Under section 612 of the Clean Air Act, EPA is authorized to review 
substitutes for class I (CFCs) and class II (HCFCs) chemicals. The 
following listing expands the list of acceptable substitutes for CFCs 
and HCFCs in integral skin applications.
a. Polyurethane Integral Skin Foam
(a) Formic Acid
    Formic acid is an acceptable substitute for CFCs and HCFCs in 
polyurethane integral skin foam. Formic acid is more flammable than 
CFCs and HCFCs but less flammable than hydrocarbons such as n-pentane 
and cyclopentane which are currently used in foam blowing. Use of 
formic acid may require additional investment to assure safe handling 
and shipping as prescribed by OSHA and DOT. The TVL-TWA for formic acid 
is 5 ppm and a 15-minute TLV-STEL of 10 ppm. Formic acid has no ODP and 
very low or zero global warming potential (GWP). It is a volatile 
organic compound (VOC) and must be controlled as such under Title I of 
the Clean Air Act. Relevant consumer product and other safety 
requirements necessary for use of formic acid-blown integral skin foam 
would have to be met.
(b) Acetone
    Acetone is an acceptable substitute for CFCs and HCFCs in 
polyurethane integral skin foam. Acetone is more flammable than CFCs 
and HCFCs but less flammable than hydrocarbons such as n-pentane and 
cyclopentane which are currently used for foam blowing. Use of acetone 
may require additional investment to assure safe handling and shipping 
as prescribed by OSHA and DOT. The OSHA PEL-TWA for acetone is 750 ppm 
and a 15-minute STEL of 1000 ppm. Acetone has no ODP and very low or 
zero global warming potential (GWP). Acetone has been excluded from the 
definition of a VOC under Title I of the Clean Air Act (60 FR 31633; 6/
15/95) but may be subject to state or local controls. Relevant consumer 
product and other safety requirements necessary for use of acetone-
blown integral skin foam would have to be met.

C. Aerosols

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    Organic solvents can be used to replace CFC-11, CFC-113, and MCF, 
in certain cleaning operations. This classification category of 
chemicals was previously determined under the SNAP program to include 
C6-C20 petroleum hydrocarbons (both naturally and synthetically 
derived) (59 FR 13044).
    Under section 612 of the Clean Air Act, EPA is authorized to review 
substitutes for class I (CFCs) and class II (HCFCs) chemicals. The 
following decision expands the existing acceptable listing for 
petroleum hydrocarbons as substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs in aerosols 
solvents to include petroleum hydrocarbon C5.
(a) Aerosol Solvent
(1) Petroleum Hydrocarbon (C5)
    Petroleum hydrocarbon C5 is an acceptable substitute for CFCs and 
HCFCs in aerosol solvents. Petroleum hydrocarbons are fractionated from 
the distillation of petroleum. These compounds are loosely grouped into 
paraffins or aliphatic hydrocarbons and light aromatics (toluene and 
xylene) and come in various stages of purity. Components with up to 
twenty carbons are now also being used in an effort to reduce 
flammability. These compounds have good solvent properties, are 
relatively inexpensive, and are readily available from chemical 
distributors. When a controlled substance is used only as a diluent, 
such as automotive undercoatings, substitution using petroleum 
hydrocarbons can be achieved with minor reformulation. Many of these 
products containing petroleum hydrocarbons have been reported to be 
comparable to or to outperform their chlorinated counterparts.
    Petroleum hydrocarbons are, however, flammable and thus cannot be 
used as replacement solvents in applications where the solvent must be 
nonflammable such as electronic cleaning applications. In addition, 
pesticide aerosols formulated with certain petroleum hydrocarbons must 
adhere to requirements imposed under the Federal Insecticide, 
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).
2. Clarification
(a) n-Propyl-Bromide
    Review of the SNAP submission docket control number VI-D-114 for n-
propyl-bromide has disclosed that a submission for the Aerosol sector 
has yet to be received. As such, all distribution and sale into this 
area must cease until a complete submission is obtained and the 
necessary review period has elapsed.

D. Solvent Cleaning

1. Clarification
a. Hydrofluoroether (HFE): C4F9OCH3
    In reference to the Federal Register dated September 5, 1996, HFE 
7100 was characterized as exhibiting moderate toxicity (61 FR 47012). 
This Notice serves to inform users that additional toxicity data 
indicate that a characterization of low toxicity is now

[[Page 9155]]

warranted. This revision is made based on the 600 ppm 8-hr Time 
Weighted Average workplace standard set by the manufacturer. As with 
workplace exposure standards for other CFC alternatives, this standard 
will be examined by the Workplace Environmental Exposure Limit 
subcommittee of the American Industrial Hygiene Association.
b. Definition of Solvent Cleaning End Uses
    In reference to the Federal Register dated March 18, 1994, the 
solvents cleaning sector was subdivided into three end uses; metals 
cleaning, electronics cleaning, and precision cleaning. This notice 
serves to further clarify the definition of these end uses in order to 
avoid any confusion as to user placement.
(1) Electronics Cleaning
    Primarily the removal of flux residues from wiring assemblies after 
a soldering operation has been completed. This is considered a high 
value end use application where performance is critical.
(2) Metals Cleaning
    The removal of a wide variety of contaminants from metal objects 
during a manufacturing or maintenance process. At each stage in the 
manufacturing process contaminants must be removed from the piece to 
ensure a clean metal surface for the next step in the production 
process or for final consumption. These parts tend to be metal objects 
ranging from fully assembled aircraft down to small metal parts stamped 
out in high volume. These contaminants are most often greases, cutting 
oils, coatings, large particles, and metal chips.
(3) Precision Cleaning
    Applies to components and surfaces of any composition for which an 
extremely high level of cleanliness is necessary to ensure satisfactory 
performance during the manufacturing process or in final consumption. 
This end use is characterized as very high value end use segment based 
on a non-cost criteria. Examples of such criteria would be: high value 
products, protection or safeguarding of human life, compatibility 
concerns with plastics, temperature and mechanical stress limitations, 
precision mechanical assemblies/components with demanding machining 
tolerances or complex geometries, and base or mix of metals readily 
pitted, corroded, eroded or otherwise compromised.
2. Acceptable Substitutes
    Under Section 612 of the Clean Air Act, EPA is authorized to review 
substitutes for class I (CFCs) and class II (HCFCs) chemicals. The 
following listing expands the list of acceptable petroleum hydrocarbon 
substitutes for CFCs, HCFCs and MCF as used in semiaqueous and straight 
organic solvent cleaning to include C5.
(a) Metals, Precision and Electronics Cleaning
(1) Semi-aqueous
    Petroleum hydrocarbon C5 is an acceptable substitute for CFCs and 
HCFCs in semi-aqueous solvents. Semi-aqueous cleaners are alternatives 
for cleaning in all three SNAP solvent cleaning end-uses. These 
cleaners employ hydrocarbons/surfactant either emulsified in water 
solutions or applied in concentrated form and then rinsed with water. 
As both approaches involve water as part of the formulation, the system 
is commonly referred to as ``semi-aqueous.'' The principal categories 
of chemicals used in this formulation were previously defined under the 
SNAP program as terpenes, C6-C20 petroleum hydrocarbons (both naturally 
or synthetically derived), or oxygenated solvents (such as alcohols) 
(59 FR 13044). This determination expands petroleum hydrocarbons to 
include C5.
    An extensive discussion of various semi-aqueous cleaning 
alternatives may be found in the Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer 
Protection (ICOLP) documents on the subject. Users can obtain these 
documents from the EPA Stratospheric Protection Hotline at 1-800-296-
1996.
(b) Straight Organic Solvent Cleaning
(1) Petroleum Hydrocarbon (C5)
    Petroleum hydrocarbon C5 is an acceptable substitute for CFCs and 
HCFCs as a straight organic solvent. Organic solvents can be used to 
replace CFC-113 and MCF in certain cleaning operations. This 
classification is defined to include terpenes, C5-C20 petroleum 
hydrocarbons (both naturally and synthetically derived), and oxygenated 
organic solvents such as alcohols, ethers, (including propylene glycol 
ethers), esters and ketones. These compounds are commonly used in 
solvent tanks at room temperature, although the solvents can also be 
used in-line cleaning systems or be heated to increase solvency power. 
If heated, the solvents must be used in equipment designed to control 
vapor losses.
    These solvents, unlike class I and II compounds, do not contribute 
to stratospheric ozone depletion, and generally have short atmospheric 
lifetimes. Yet many of the organic solvents are regulated as VOCs 
because they can contribute to ground level ozone formation. In 
addition, certain of the organic solvents are toxic to human health and 
are subject to waste handling standards under the Resource Conservation 
and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to workplace standards set by Occupational 
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). For example, xylene and 
toluene may be used as substitutes but are, once they become wastes, 
regulated under RCRA as listed or characteristic wastes.

E. Adhesives, Coatings & Inks

1. Clarification
(a) n-Propyl-Bromide
    Review of the SNAP submission, docket control number VI-D-114, for 
n-propyl-bromide has disclosed that a submission for the Adhesives, 
Coatings & Inks sector has yet to be received. As such, all 
distribution and sale into this sector must cease until a complete 
submission is obtained and the mandatory 90-day review period has 
elapsed.

III. Additional Information

    Contact the Stratospheric Protection Hotline at 1-800-296-1996, 
Monday-Friday, between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. (Eastern 
Standard Time).
    For more information on the Agency's process for administering the 
SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the 
SNAP final rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 
1994 (59 FR 13044). Federal Register notices can be ordered from the 
Government Printing Office Order Desk (202) 783-3238; the citation is 
the date of publication. This Notice may also be obtained on the World 
Wide Web at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/snap/snap.html.
    The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801 et seq., as added by the 
Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Act of 1996, does not apply 
because this action is not a rule, as that term is defined in 5 U.S.C. 
804(3).

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental Protection, Administrative Practice and Procedure, 
Air Pollution Control, Reporting and Record keeping Requirements.


[[Page 9156]]


    Dated: February 12, 1998.
Richard D. Wilson,
Acting Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation.

    Note: The following Appendix will not appear in the Code of 
Federal Regulations.

Appendix A: Summary of Acceptable Decisions

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                End-use                                     Substitute                                   Decision                       Comments        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Refrigeration and Air Conditioning                                                           
                                                                                                                                                        
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CFC-12, R-502, and HCFC-22 Household    Self-chilling cans using carbon dioxide...........  Acceptable........................  This decision is based  
 Refrigeration, Transport                                                                                                        on a maximum design    
 Refrigeration, Vending Machines, Cold                                                                                           pressure of 150 psig   
 Storage Warehouses, and Retail Food                                                                                             and the use of CO2     
 Refrigeration (Retrofit and New).                                                                                               captured from either   
                                                                                                                                 other industrial       
                                                                                                                                 activities or the      
                                                                                                                                 atmosphere.            
CFC-12 Household Refrigerators and      THR01.............................................  Acceptable.                         ........................
 Freezers (New).                                                                                                                                        
R-500 Centrifugal and Reciprocating     FR-12.............................................  Acceptable                          ........................
 Chillers, Industrial Process                                                                                                                           
 Refrigeration, Cold Storage                                                                                                                            
 Warehouses, Refrigerated Transport,                                                                                                                    
 Retail Food Refrigeration, Vending                                                                                                                     
 Machines, Water Coolers, Commercial                                                                                                                    
 Ice Machines, and Residential                                                                                                                          
 Dehumidifers, and CFC-12 Centrifugal                                                                                                                   
 Chillers (Retrofit and New).                                                                                                                           
CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-  Galden Fluids.....................................  Acceptable........................  The principal           
 115 Non-Mechanical Heat Transfer                                                                                                environmental          
 (Retrofit).                                                                                                                     characteristic of      
                                                                                                                                 concern for PFCs is    
                                                                                                                                 that they have high    
                                                                                                                                 GWPs and long          
                                                                                                                                 atmospheric lifetimes. 
CFC-13, R-13B1, and R-503 Very Low      R-508A and R-508B.................................  Acceptable........................  This listing expands the
 Temperature Refrigeration and                                                                                                   prior determination for
 Industrial Process Refrigeration                                                                                                R-508 to R-508A and R- 
 (Retrofit and New).                                                                                                             508B.                  
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                                                                      Foam Blowing                                                                      
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CFCs and HCFCs, Polyurethane Integral   Formic Acid.......................................  Acceptable........................  Formic acid is flammable
 Skin.                                                                                                                           thus additional        
                                                                                                                                 investment may be      
                                                                                                                                 required to ensure safe
                                                                                                                                 handling, use and      
                                                                                                                                 shipping for flammable 
                                                                                                                                 materials. Formic acid 
                                                                                                                                 is a VOC and subject to
                                                                                                                                 control under Title I  
                                                                                                                                 of the Clean Air Act.  
                                        Acetone...........................................  Acceptable........................  Acetone is flammable    
                                                                                                                                 thus additional        
                                                                                                                                 investment may be      
                                                                                                                                 required to ensure safe
                                                                                                                                 handling, use and      
                                                                                                                                 shipping.              
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                                                                         Aerosol                                                                        
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CFC-11, CFC-113, MCF, and HCFC-141b as  C5-C20 Petroleum hydrocarbons.....................  Acceptable........................  Petroleum hydrocarbons  
 aerosol solvents.                                                                                                               are flammable. Use with
                                                                                                                                 the necessary          
                                                                                                                                 precautions. Pesticides
                                                                                                                                 aerosols must adhere to
                                                                                                                                 FIFRA standards.       
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                                                                    Solvent Cleaning                                                                    
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Metals cleaning w/CFC-113, MCF........  Straight organic solvent cleaning with petroleum    Acceptable........................  OSHA standards must be  
                                         hydrocarbon C5.                                                                         met, if applicable.    
                                        Semi-aqueous cleaners.............................  Acceptable........................  EPA effluent guidelines 
                                                                                                                                 must be met.           
Electronics cleaning w/CFC-113, MCF...  Straight organic solvent cleaning with petroleum    Acceptable........................  OSHA standards must be  
                                         hydrocarbon C5.                                                                         met, if applicable.    
                                        Semi-aqueous cleaners.............................  Acceptable........................  EPA effluent guidelines 
                                                                                                                                 must be met.           
Precision Cleaning w/CFC-113, MCF.....  Straight organic solvent cleaning with petroleum    Acceptable........................  OSHA standards must be  
                                         hydrocarbon C5.                                                                         met, if applicable.    
                                        Semi-aqueous cleaners.............................  Acceptable........................  EPA effluent guidelines 
                                                                                                                                 must be met.           
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[FR Doc. 98-4654 Filed 2-23-98; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P