[Federal Register Volume 64, Number 109 (Tuesday, June 8, 1999)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 30410-30415]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 99-14356]



[[Page 30410]]

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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[FRL-6355-8]


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.

ACTION: Notice of acceptability.

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SUMMARY: This document expands the list of acceptable substitutes for 
ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) 
program.

EFFECTIVE DATE: June 8, 1999.

ADDRESSES: Information relevant to this document is contained in Air 
Docket A-91-42, Central Docket Section, South Conference Room 4, U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 
20460, telephone: (202) 260-7548. The docket may be inspected between 
8:00 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. weekdays. As provided in 40 CFR part 2, a 
reasonable fee may be charged for photocopying.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kelly Davis at (202) 564-2303 or fax 
(202) 565-2096, U.S. EPA, Stratospheric Protection Division, 401 M 
Street, S.W., Mail Code 6205J, Washington, D.C. 20460; EPA 
Stratospheric Ozone Protection Hotline at (800) 296-1996; EPA World 
Wide Web Site (http://www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/snap).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements
    B. Regulatory History
II. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    B. Foam Blowing
    C. Solvents Cleaning
    D. Aerosols
    E. Adhesives, Coatings, and Inks
III. Additional Information
Appendix A--Summary of Acceptable Decisions

I. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act authorizes EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. EPA 
refers to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy 
(SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
     Rulemaking--Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate 
rules making it unlawful to replace any class I (chlorofluorocarbon, 
halon, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, methyl bromide, and 
hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class II (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) substance 
with any substitute that the Administrator determines may present 
adverse effects to human health or the environment where the 
Administrator has identified an alternative that (1) reduces the 
overall risk to human health and the environment, and (2) is currently 
or potentially available.
     Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes--Section 
612(c) also requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses. EPA must publish a corresponding list 
of acceptable alternatives for specific uses.
     Petition Process--Section 612(d) grants the right to any 
person to petition EPA to add a substance to or delete a substance from 
the lists published in accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 
90 days to grant or deny a petition. Where the Agency grants the 
petition, EPA must publish the revised lists within an additional 6 
months.
     90-day Notification--Section 612(e) requires EPA to 
require any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I 
substance to notify the Agency not less than 90 days before new or 
existing chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for 
significant new uses as substitutes for a class I substance. The 
producer must also provide the Agency with the producer's unpublished 
health and safety studies on such substitutes.
     Outreach--Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator 
shall seek to maximize the use of federal research facilities and 
resources to assist users of class I and II substances in identifying 
and developing alternatives to the use of such substances in key 
commercial applications.
     Clearinghouse--Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to 
set up a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product 
substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available 
for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and II 
substances.

B. Regulatory History

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the Final Rulemaking (FRM) (59 FR 
13044) which described the process for administering the SNAP program 
and issued EPA's first acceptability lists for substitutes in the major 
industrial use sectors. These sectors include: refrigeration and air 
conditioning; foam blowing; solvents cleaning; fire suppression and 
explosion protection; sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and 
inks; and tobacco expansion. These sectors compose the principal 
industrial sectors that historically consumed the largest volumes of 
ozone-depleting compounds.
    As described in the original rule for the SNAP program (59 FR 
13044; March 18, 1994), EPA does not believe that rulemaking procedures 
are required to list alternatives as acceptable with no limitations. 
Such listings do not impose any sanction, nor do they remove any prior 
license to use a substance. Consequently, by this document EPA is 
adding substances to the list of acceptable alternatives without first 
requesting comment on new listings.
    EPA does, however, believe that Notice-and-Comment rulemaking is 
required to place any substance on the list of prohibited substitutes, 
to list a substance as acceptable only under certain conditions, to 
list substances as acceptable only for certain uses, or to remove a 
substance from either the list of prohibited or acceptable substitutes. 
Updates to these lists are published as separate notices of rulemaking 
in the Federal Register.
    The Agency defines a ``substitute'' as any chemical, product 
substitute, or alternative manufacturing process, whether existing or 
new, that could replace a class I or class II substance. Anyone who 
produces a substitute must provide the Agency with health and safety 
studies on the substitute at least 90 days before introducing it into 
interstate commerce for significant new use as an alternative. This 
requirement applies to substitute manufacturers, but may include 
importers, formulators or end-users, when they are responsible for 
introducing a substitute into commerce.
    EPA published documents listing acceptable alternatives on August 
26, 1994 (59 FR 44240), January 13, 1995 (60 FR 3318), July 28, 1995 
(60 FR 38729), February 8, 1996 (61 FR 4736), September 5, 1996 (61 FR 
47012), March 10, 1997 (62 FR 10700), June 3, 1997 (62 FR 30275), 
February 24, 1998 (63 FR 9151), and May 22, 1998 (63 FR 28251), and 
published Final Rulemakings restricting or prohibiting the use of 
certain substitutes on March 18, 1994 (59 FR 13044), June 13, 1995 (60 
FR 31092), May 22, 1996 (61 FR 25585), October 16, 1996 (61 FR 54029), 
January 26, 1999 (64 FR 3861), January 26, 1999 (64 FR 3865), and March 
3, 1999 (64 FR 10374), April 28, 1999 (64 FR 22981).

II. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes

    This section presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing 
decisions for substitutes for class I and class II substances in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning; foam blowing; solvents cleaning; 
aerosols; and adhesives, coatings, and inks sectors. For copies of

[[Page 30411]]

the full list of SNAP decisions in all industrial sectors, contact the 
EPA Stratospheric Protection Hotline at (800) 296-1996.
    Parts A through E below present a detailed discussion of the 
substitute listing determinations by major use sector. The table 
summarizing today's listing decisions is in Appendix A. The comments 
contained in Appendix A provide additional information on a substitute, 
but for listings of acceptable substitutes, they are not legally 
binding under section 612 of the Clean Air Act. Thus, adherence to 
recommendations in the comments is not mandatory for use of a 
substitute. In addition, the comments should not be considered 
comprehensive with respect to other legal obligations pertaining to the 
use of the substitute. However, EPA encourages users of acceptable 
substitutes to apply all comments to their use of these substitutes. In 
many instances, the comments simply allude to sound operating practices 
that have already been identified in existing industry and/or building 
code standards. Thus, many of the comments, if adopted, would not 
require significant changes in existing operating practices for the 
affected industry.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    Under section 612 of the Clean Air Act, EPA is authorized to review 
substitutes for class I (CFC) and class II (HCFC) chemicals. The 
decisions set forth in this section A expand the acceptable listing for 
refrigerants.
    In listing these refrigerants as acceptable, EPA anticipates that 
these refrigerants will be used in such a manner so that any 
recommendations specified in the manufacturers' Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDSs) are followed. EPA also anticipates that manufacturers, 
installers, servicers, building owners and other parties responsible 
for construction and maintenance of refrigeration and air-conditioning 
systems will follow all applicable standard industry practices and 
technical standards established by voluntary consensus standards 
organizations such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 
The Agency also expects that refrigerating systems will conform to all 
relevant provisions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating 
and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards, including Standard 
15, Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration, which provides guidelines 
for the safety of persons and property on or near premises where 
refrigeration facilities are located. Finally, the Agency anticipates 
that any exposures by installers or servicers to refrigerants will 
conform to all applicable standards set by the U.S. Occupational Safety 
and Health Administration (OSHA) and will not exceed any acceptable 
exposure limits set by any voluntary consensus standards organization, 
including the American Conference of Governmental Industrial 
Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshhold limit values (TLVs) or the American 
Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace environmental 
exposure limits (WEELs).
    (a) THR-04. The chemical blend submitted to EPA with the 
unregistered tradename THR-04 is acceptable as a substitute for R-502 
in all end-uses. Tsinghua University of Beijing and the Beijing Inoue 
Qinghua Refrigeration Technology Company, the joint submitters of THR-
04, claim that its composition is confidential business information. 
Fractionation and flammability testing have determined that although 
one constituent of the blend is flammable, THR-04 as blended is not, 
and further testing has shown that it does not become flammable after 
leakage. This blend contains an HCFC and for this reason is an ozone 
depleter. However, the HCFC is a class II ozone depleter and is an 
acceptable substitute for the class I ozone depleter, R-502. THR-04 
contains a constituent with a high global warming potential (GWP). 
However, the potential of this constituent for contributing to global 
warming will be mitigated in each end-use through the implementation of 
the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the Clean Air Act.
    (b) HFC-236fa. HFC-236fa, when manufactured using any process that 
does not convert perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) directly to HFC-236fa in a 
single step, is acceptable as a substitute for CFC-114 in non-
mechanical heat transfer. HFC-236fa does not harm the ozone layer 
because it does not contain chlorine. Although HFC-236fa has an 
extremely high 100-year GWP of 6,300,1 its lifetime is at 
least an order of magnitude shorter than that of perfluorocarbons 
(PFCs), which have comparable 100-year GWPs. For some specialized non-
mechanical heat transfer end-uses, HFC-236fa is the only CFC-114 
alternative that is safe for the ozone layer and is low in toxicity. 
HFC-236fa may not be vented when used as a refrigerant, in accordance 
with section 608(c)(2) of the Act. EPA has proposed new recycling 
regulations for non-ozone-depleting refrigerants (63 FR 32044; June 11, 
1998). This proposal would extend to HFC and PFC refrigerants the 
requirements currently in place for class I (CFC) and class II (HCFC) 
refrigerants, including required service practices, certification 
programs for recovery/recycling equipment, reclaimers, and technicians, 
a prohibition on the sale of refrigerant to anyone but certified 
technicians, leak repair requirements, and safe disposal requirements. 
A fact sheet on the proposal is available from the EPA Ozone Hotline at 
(800) 296-1996 or on the world wide web at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/
title6/608/subrecsm.html.
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    \1\ GWPs and atmospheric lifetimes cited in this document are 
from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report 
entitled Climate Change 1995--The Science of Climate Change, IPCC 
Second Assessment Report. More recent values for GWPs and 
atmospheric lifetimes published in the Scientific Assessment of 
Ozone Depletion: 1998, World Meteorological Organization Global 
Ozone Research and Monitoring Project--Report No. 44, may be 
somewhat different than the values cited here but do not alter any 
of the technical or policy determinations by EPA in this rule.
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    (c) HFE-7100. Hydrofluoroether (HFE-7100) 
(C4F9OCH3; methoxynonafluorobutane, 
iso and normal) is an acceptable substitute for CFC-113 in non-
mechanical heat transfer. HFE-7100 does not deplete the ozone layer 
since it does not contain chlorine or bromine. It has a 4.1 year 
atmospheric lifetime and a GWP of 500 over a 100-year time horizon. The 
GWP and lifetime for this HFE are lower than the GWP and lifetime for 
CFC-113, and this HFE exhibits low toxicity, with a WEEL of 750 ppm.
    (d) HFC-23. HFC-23 is acceptable as a substitute for CFC-12 in very 
low-temperature refrigeration. (Readers of this section should also 
note the clarification of the definition of very-low-temperature 
refrigeration set forth in section 2 below.) HFC-23 has already been 
listed as an acceptable substitute for CFC-13, R-13B1, and R-503 in 
very-low-temperature refrigeration and industrial process 
refrigeration. It is non-flammable and does not deplete stratospheric 
ozone. However, HFC-23 has an extremely high 100-year GWP of 11,700 
relative to CO2 and an atmospheric lifetime of 264 years. 
Its GWP is the highest among the HFCs, and its lifetime is exceeded 
only by the PFCs. Consequently, EPA believes HFC-23 could contribute 
significantly to global warming. In addition, the long lifetime of HFC-
23 means any global warming or other effects would be essentially 
irreversible. It is illegal to vent HFC-23 at any time when used as a 
refrigerant. The current regulations issued under section 608 of the 
CAA (58 FR 28660; May 14, 1993) do not require recycling and recovery 
of HFC-23, or

[[Page 30412]]

leak repair for systems using HFC-23. In particular, EPA urges users to 
reduce leakage and recover and recycle HFC-23 during equipment 
servicing and upon the retirement of equipment and adhere to the 
amended leak repair provisions established in 60 FR 40419; August 8, 
1995. EPA has proposed new recycling regulations for non-ozone-
depleting refrigerants (63 FR 32044; June 11, 1998). This proposal 
would extend to HFC and PFC refrigerants the requirements currently in 
place for class I (CFC) and class II (HCFC) refrigerants, including 
required service practices, certification programs for recovery/
recycling equipment, reclaimers, and technicians, a prohibition on the 
sale of refrigerant to anyone but certified technicians, leak repair 
requirements, and safe disposal requirements. A fact sheet on the 
proposal is available from the EPA Ozone Hotline at (800) 296-1996 or 
on the world wide web at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/608/
subrecsm.html.
    (e) Motor Vehicle Air-Conditioning: thermal storage systems used in 
tractor trailers in conjunction with passenger compartment climate 
control systems that use a SNAP-accepted refrigerant. Thermal storage 
systems used in a tractor trailer in conjunction with a conventional 
motor vehicle air-conditioning system that already uses an acceptable 
substitute refrigerant, are acceptable as substitutes for CFC-12 in 
motor vehicle air conditioners. These systems have been developed for 
use in heavy duty trucks that contain sleeper compartments. Currently 
these trucks must continually idle while the vehicle is parked and the 
driver is resting in the sleeper compartment, to power a conventional 
air-conditioner or heater when cooling or heating comfort is needed. 
These thermal storage systems will allow the provision of cooling/
heating comfort while the engine is off.
    The thermal storage system uses water blended with small amounts of 
one or more of the SNAP acceptable HFC-based refrigerants such as HFC-
134a. The blend is contained in a sealed storage device. The system 
consists of a packaged cool storage reservoir and a fuel-fired heater 
that generates cooling or heating capacity during the normal operation 
of the vehicle. This cooling or heating capacity becomes available for 
use in the passenger compartment at a desired time. The cooling 
capacity is generated by chilling a circulating coolant with air from 
the air conditioner, while the heating capacity is achieved by heating 
this same coolant with a fuel-fired heater. The coolant functions as a 
secondary fluid in a secondary-loop refrigeration system similar to 
chilled water in building chillers.
    After reviewing the technology of the thermal storage system 
submitted in the SNAP application, EPA found no safety or environmental 
concerns associated with its use in trucks. EPA acknowledges the 
existence of such a system and recognizes the potential merits. This 
type of technology promises to significantly lower fuel consumption and 
reduce pollutant emissions, including nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, 
carbon dioxide, sulfuric oxides, and particulate emissions.
2. Clarification
    (a) Very-low-temperature refrigeration. In a previous rule (60 FR 
31092; June 13, 1995), EPA stated in its definition of very-low-
temperature refrigeration that ``[m]edical freezers, freeze-dryers, and 
other small appliances require extremely reliable refrigeration cycles. 
These systems must meet stringent technical standards that do not 
normally apply to refrigeration systems.'' EPA does not intend to limit 
the very-low-temperature refrigeration application to medical freezers, 
freeze-dryers and other small appliances. Larger systems may also fall 
within the definition of very-low-temperature refrigeration, as long as 
the systems or portions of the systems require very low temperatures in 
the vicinity of -80 degrees F or lower. Submitters to the SNAP program 
who believe that particular systems may qualify as very-low-temperature 
refrigeration and/or industrial process refrigeration should contact 
EPA for a determination prior to submitting substitute refrigerants for 
review under the SNAP program.

B. Foam Blowing

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    (a) HFC-134a. HFC-134a is an acceptable substitute for HCFCs in all 
foam blowing end-uses. For end-uses other than rigid polyurethane and 
polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock, polystyrene extruded boardstock 
and billet foams, phenolic foams, and polyolefin foams, blends of HFC-
134a with other acceptable substitutes are also acceptable substitutes 
for HCFCs. See the original SNAP rule (53 FR 13044) for a detailed 
explanation of the distinction among end-uses for which blends are 
acceptable without further review. HFC-134a has zero ODP, has a 100-
year GWP of 1300, and is nonflammable. HFC-134a has low toxicity, with 
a WEEL of 1000 ppm.
    (b) HFC-152a. HFC-152a is an acceptable substitute for HCFCs in all 
foam blowing end-uses. For end-uses other than rigid polyurethane and 
polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock, polystyrene extruded boardstock 
and billet foams, phenolic foams, and polyolefin foams, blends of HFC-
152a with other acceptable substitutes are also acceptable substitutes 
for HCFCs. See the original SNAP rule (53 FR 13044) for a detailed 
explanation of the distinction among end-uses for which blends are 
acceptable without further review. HFC-152a is flammable; foams blown 
with HFC-152a will need to conform to building code requirements that 
relate to flammable materials. HFC-152a has zero ODP, a 100-year GWP of 
140, and low toxicity. The WEEL for HFC-152a is 1000 ppm.
    (c) Carbon Dioxide. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is an 
acceptable substitute for HCFCs in all foam blowing end-uses. For end-
uses other than rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated 
boardstock, polystyrene extruded boardstock and billet foams, phenolic 
foams, and polyolefin foams, blends of CO2 with other 
acceptable substitutes are also acceptable substitutes for HCFCs. See 
the original SNAP rule (53 FR 13044) for a detailed explanation of the 
distinction among end-uses for which blends are acceptable without 
further review. CO2 has zero ODP, a GWP of 1, low toxicity, 
and is nonflammable.
    (d) Water. Water is an acceptable substitute for HCFCs in all foam 
blowing end-uses. For end-uses other than rigid polyurethane and 
polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock, polystyrene extruded boardstock 
and billet foams, phenolic foams, and polyolefin foams, blends of water 
with other acceptable substitutes are also acceptable substitutes for 
HCFCs. See the original SNAP rule (53 FR 13044) for a detailed 
explanation of the distinction among end-uses for which blends are 
acceptable without further review. Water has zero ODP and GWP, is not 
toxic, and is nonflammable.
2. Clarification
    On September 5, 1996 (61 FR 47012), EPA listed proprietary blend 1 
(PBA 1) as an acceptable substitute for CFCs and HCFCs in rigid 
polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock foam; rigid 
polyurethane appliance; rigid polyurethane slabstock and other; and 
rigid polyurethane spray and commercial refrigeration, and sandwich 
panels. At the time PBA 1 was submitted, the submitter's identification 
and the composition of PBA 1 were claimed as confidential business 
information. The confidentiality of the composition has been withdrawn, 
and

[[Page 30413]]

EPA now discloses that PBA 1 is formic acid. On February 28, 1998 (63 
FR 9151), EPA listed formic acid as an acceptable substitute for CFC 
and HCFCs in polyurethane integral skin foam. In future lists of 
acceptable substitutes, EPA will combine these listings.

C. Solvents Cleaning

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    (a) HFC-4310mee. HFC-4310mee is acceptable as a substitute for 
HCFC-141b in all solvents cleaning end-uses. HFC-4310mee is listed as 
acceptable subject to use conditions in the metals cleaning and aerosol 
solvent sectors (64 FR 22981, April 28, 1999) as a substitute for CFC-
113 and methyl chloroform. It is already acceptable in electronics and 
precision cleaning subject to a 200 ppm time-weighted average workplace 
exposure standard and a 400 ppm workplace exposure ceiling (61 FR 
54029; October 16, 1996).
    This document clarifies that HFC-4310mee is also acceptable as a 
substitute for HCFC-141b. HCFC-141b is scheduled for complete phaseout 
in 2003 and is currently unacceptable for use in all sectors except for 
very specific aerosol uses. The exemptions to the ban under Clean Air 
Act section 610 include use for specific medical devices, aircraft 
maintenance, mold release agents, spinnerettes, document preservation 
sprays, photographic equipment, and wasp and hornet sprays used near 
high-tension wires (58 FR 69638; December 30, 1993). Note that the ban 
under section 610 is for all class II substances.
2. Clarification
    (a) All Solvents Cleaning End-uses. (1) Benzotrifluoride (CAS# 98-
08-8). This notice of clarification serves to list benzotrifluoride 
(C7H5F3) as acceptable with an 
acceptable exposure limit (AEL) of 100 ppm. Monochlorotoluenes/
benzotrifluorides are acceptable subject to use conditions as 
substitutes for CFC-113 and MCF in all solvent end-uses. The category 
of monochlorotoluenes/benzotrifluoride has been listed with a company-
established acceptable exposure limit of 50 ppm workplace standard for 
monochlorotoluenes and a 25 ppm standard for benzotrifluoride (61 FR 
25585; May 22, 1996). Of all the structures of commercial interest, the 
only chemical with an Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
(OSHA) standard is orthochlorotoluene, one of the monochlorotoluenes. 
This substance has an OSHA Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) of 50 ppm. 
Using this standard as a proxy, the Agency set a workplace standard of 
50 ppm for monochlorotoluenes as a group. Benzotrifluoride does not 
have a PEL. Further testing has demonstrated that benzotrifluoride is 
one of the least toxic chemicals in the category of monochlorotoluenes/ 
benzotrifluoride. As such, the company-set acceptable exposure limit 
for benzotrifluoride is 100 ppm.

D. Aerosols

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    (a) Aerosol solvents. (1) HFC-4310mee. HFC-4310mee is acceptable as 
a substitute for HCFC-141b in all aerosol solvent end-uses. For a 
complete discussion, please refer to the solvents cleaning section 
above.
2. Clarification
    (a) Aerosol Solvents. (1) Benzotrifluoride (CAS# 98-08-8). This 
notice of clarification serves to list benzotrifluoride 
(C7H5F3) as acceptable with an 
acceptable exposure limit (AEL) of 100 ppm. For a complete discussion, 
please refer to the solvent section above.

E. Adhesives, Coatings, and Inks

1. Clarification
    (a) Benzotrifluoride (CAS# 98-08-8). This notice of clarification 
serves to list benzotrifluoride 
(C7H5F3) as acceptable with an 
acceptable exposure limit (AEL) of 100 ppm. For a complete discussion, 
please refer to the solvent section above.

III. Additional Information

    Contact the Stratospheric Protection Hotline at 1-800-296-1996, 
Monday-Friday, between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. (Eastern 
Standard Time). For more information on the Agency's process for 
administering the SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of 
substitutes, refer to the SNAP final rulemaking published in the 
Federal Register on March 18, 1994 (59 FR 13044). Notices and 
rulemakings under the SNAP program, as well as all EPA publications on 
protection of stratospheric ozone, are available from EPA's Ozone 
Depletion World Wide Web site at ``http://www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/
snap/'' and from the Stratospheric Protection Hotline whose number is 
listed above.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: May 27, 1999.
Paul Stolpman,
Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Office of Air and Radiation.

                                   Appendix A--Summary of Acceptable Decisions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               End-Use                        Substitute                Decision                 Comments
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    REFRIGERATION and AIR CONDITIONING SECTOR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All R-502 end-uses...................  THR-04.................  Acceptable.............  EPA anticipates that
                                                                                          manufacturers,
                                                                                          installers and
                                                                                          servicers of
                                                                                          refrigeration and air-
                                                                                          conditioning systems
                                                                                          will follow all
                                                                                          applicable standard
                                                                                          industry practices and
                                                                                          technical standards.
Non-mechanical heat transfer.........  HFC-236fa..............  Acceptable as a          EPA anticipates that
                                                                 substitute for CFC-114   manufacturers,
                                                                 in non-mechanical heat   installers and
                                                                 transfer when            servicers of
                                                                 manufactured using any   refrigeration and air-
                                                                 process that does not    conditioning systems
                                                                 convert                  will follow all
                                                                 perfluoroisobutylene     applicable standard
                                                                 (PFIB) directly to HFC-  industry practices and
                                                                 236fa in a single step.  technical standards.

[[Page 30414]]

 
Non-mechanical heat transfer.........  HFE-7100...............  Acceptable.............  EPA anticipates that
                                                                                          manufacturers,
                                                                                          installers and
                                                                                          servicers of
                                                                                          refrigeration and air-
                                                                                          conditioning systems
                                                                                          will follow all
                                                                                          applicable standard
                                                                                          industry practices and
                                                                                          technical standards.
Very-low-temperature refrigeration...  HFC-23.................  Acceptable.............  This determination
                                                                                          applies where the
                                                                                          ozone-depleting
                                                                                          substance being
                                                                                          replaced is CFC-12.
                                                                                          EPA anticipates that
                                                                                          manufacturers,
                                                                                          installers and
                                                                                          servicers of
                                                                                          refrigeration and air-
                                                                                          conditioning systems
                                                                                          will follow all
                                                                                          applicable standard
                                                                                          industry practices and
                                                                                          technical standards.
Motor vehicle air conditioning.......  Thermal storage systems  Acceptable.............  EPA anticipates that
                                        used in tractor                                   installers and
                                        trailers in                                       servicers of
                                        conjunction with                                  refrigeration and air-
                                        passenger compartment                             conditioning systems
                                        climate control                                   will follow all
                                        systems that use SNAP-                            applicable standard
                                        accepted refrigerants.                            industry practices and
                                                                                          technical standards.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   FOAMS SECTOR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HCFCs used in all end-uses but rigid   HFC-134a, HFC-152a,      Acceptable.............
 polyurethane and polyisocyanurate      CO2, water (and blends
 laminated boardstock, polystyrene      of any of these with
 extruded boardstock and billet         other fully acceptable
 foams, phenolic foams, and             substitutes).
 polyolefin foams.
HCFCs used in rigid polyurethane and   HFC-134a, HFC-152a,      Acceptable.............
 polyisocyanurate laminated             CO2, water.
 boardstock, polystyrene extruded
 boardstock and billet foams,
 phenolic foams, and polyolefin foams.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 SOLVENTS SECTOR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All end-uses.........................  HFC-4310mee............  Acceptable subject to a
                                                                 200 ppm time-weighted
                                                                 average workplace
                                                                 exposure standard and
                                                                 400 ppm workplace
                                                                 exposure ceiling.
All end-uses.........................  Benzotrifluoride.......  Acceptable with an
                                                                 acceptable exposure
                                                                 limit (AEL) of 100 ppm.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 AEROSOLS SECTOR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aerosol Solvents.....................  HFC-4310mee............  Acceptable subject to a
                                                                 200 ppm time-weighted
                                                                 average workplace
                                                                 exposure standard and
                                                                 400 ppm workplace
                                                                 exposure ceiling.
Aerosol Solvents.....................  Benzotrifluoride.......  Acceptable with an
                                                                 acceptable exposure
                                                                 limit (AEL) of 100 ppm.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       ADHESIVES, COATINGS, and INKS SECTOR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All end-uses.........................  Benzotrifluoride.......  Acceptable with an
                                                                 acceptable exposure
                                                                 limit (AEL) of 100 ppm.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 30415]]

[FR Doc. 99-14356 Filed 6-7-99; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-U