[Federal Register Volume 64, Number 233 (Monday, December 6, 1999)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 68039-68043]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 99-31544]



[[Page 68039]]

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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[FRL-6503-7]


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.

ACTION: Notice of acceptability.

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SUMMARY: This document expands the list of acceptable substitutes for 
ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) 
program.

EFFECTIVE DATE: December 6, 1999.

ADDRESSES: Information relevant to this document is contained in Air 
Docket A-91-42, Central Docket Section, South Conference Room 4, U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 
20460, telephone: (202) 260-7548. The docket may be inspected between 
8:00 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. weekdays. As provided in 40 CFR part 2, a 
reasonable fee may be charged for photocopying.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kelly Davis at (202) 564-2303 or fax 
(202) 565-2096, davis.kelly@epa.gov, U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Stratospheric Protection Division, Mail Code 6205J, Washington, 
D.C. 20460. Overnight or courier deliveries should be sent to the 
office location at 501 3rd Street, NW, Washington, DC, 20001. The 
Stratospheric Protection Hotline at (800) 296-1996. EPA's Ozone 
Depletion World Wide Web site at ``http://www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/
snap/''.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
I. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements
    B. Regulatory History
II. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    B. Foam Blowing
    C. Solvents Cleaning
    D. Aerosols
III. Additional Information

Appendix A--Summary of Acceptable Decisions

I. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act authorizes EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. EPA 
refers to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy 
(SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
     Rulemaking--Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate 
rules making it unlawful to replace any class I (chlorofluorocarbon, 
halon, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, methyl bromide, and 
hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class II (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) substance 
with any substitute that the Administrator determines may present 
adverse effects to human health or the environment where the 
Administrator has identified an alternative that (1) reduces the 
overall risk to human health and the environment, and (2) is currently 
or potentially available.
     Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes--Section 
612(c) also requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses. EPA must publish a corresponding list 
of acceptable alternatives for specific uses.
     Petition Process--Section 612(d) grants the right to any 
person to petition EPA to add a substance to or delete a substance from 
the lists published in accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 
90 days to grant or deny a petition. Where the Agency grants the 
petition, EPA must publish the revised lists within an additional 6 
months.
     90-day Notification--Section 612(e) requires EPA to 
require any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I 
substance to notify the Agency not less than 90 days before new or 
existing chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for 
significant new uses as substitutes for a class I substance. The 
producer must also provide the Agency with the producer's unpublished 
health and safety studies on such substitutes.
     Outreach--Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator 
shall seek to maximize the use of federal research facilities and 
resources to assist users of class I and II substances in identifying 
and developing alternatives to the use of such substances in key 
commercial applications.
     Clearinghouse--Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to 
set up a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product 
substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available 
for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and II 
substances.

B. Regulatory History

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published rulemaking (FRM) (59 FR 13044) 
which described the process for administering the SNAP program and 
issued EPA's first acceptability lists for substitutes in the major 
industrial use sectors. These sectors include: refrigeration and air 
conditioning; foam blowing; solvents cleaning; fire suppression and 
explosion protection; sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and 
inks; and tobacco expansion. These sectors compose the principal 
industrial sectors that historically consumed the largest volumes of 
ozone-depleting compounds.
    As described in the original rule for the SNAP program (59 FR 
13044; March 18, 1994), EPA does not believe that rulemaking procedures 
are required to list alternatives as acceptable with no limitations. 
Such listings do not impose any sanction, nor do they remove any prior 
license to use a substance. Consequently, by this notice EPA is adding 
substances to the list of acceptable alternatives without first 
requesting comment on new listings.
    EPA does, however, believe that Notice-and-Comment rulemaking is 
required to place any substance on the list of prohibited substitutes, 
to list a substance as acceptable only under certain conditions, to 
list substances as acceptable only for certain uses, or to remove a 
substance from either the list of prohibited or acceptable substitutes. 
Updates to these lists are published as separate notices of rulemaking 
in the Federal Register.
    The Agency defines a ``substitute'' as any chemical, product 
substitute, or alternative manufacturing process, whether existing or 
new, that could replace a class I or class II substance. Anyone who 
produces a substitute must provide the Agency with health and safety 
studies on the substitute at least 90 days before introducing it into 
interstate commerce for significant new use as an alternative. This 
requirement applies to substitute manufacturers, but may include 
importers, formulators or end-users, when they are responsible for 
introducing a substitute into commerce.
    EPA published Notices listing acceptable alternatives on August 26, 
1994 (59 FR 44240), January 13, 1995 (60 FR 3318), July 28, 1995 (60 FR 
38729), February 8, 1996 (61 FR 4736), September 5, 1996 (61 FR 47012), 
March 10, 1997 (62 FR 10700), June 3, 1997 (62 FR 30275), February 24, 
1998 (63 FR 9151), May 22, 1998 (63 FR 28251), and June 8, 1999 (64 FR 
30410), and published Final Rulemakings restricting or prohibiting the 
use of certain substitutes on March 18, 1994 (59 FR 13044), June 13, 
1995 (60 FR 31092), May 22, 1996 (61 FR 25585), October 16, 1996 (61 FR 
54029), January 26, 1999 (64 FR 3861 and 3865), March 3, 1999 (64 FR 
10374), April 28, 1999 (64 FR 22981), and June 8,1999 (64 FR 30410).

II. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes

    This section presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing 
decisions for substitutes for class I and class II substances in the 
refrigeration and air

[[Page 68040]]

conditioning, foam blowing, solvents cleaning, and aerosols sectors. 
For copies of the full list of SNAP decisions in all industrial 
sectors, contact the EPA Stratospheric Protection Hotline at (800) 296-
1996.
    Parts A-D below present a detailed discussion of the substitute 
listing. The table summarizing today's listing decisions is in Appendix 
A. The comments contained in Appendix A provide additional information, 
but are not legally binding under section 612 of the Clean Air Act. 
Thus, adherence to recommendations in the comments is not mandatory for 
use of a substitute. In addition, the comments should not be considered 
comprehensive with respect to other legal obligations pertaining to the 
use of the substitute. However, EPA strongly encourages users of 
acceptable substitutes to apply all comments to their use of these 
substitutes. In many instances, the comments simply refer to 
standardized operating practices that have already been identified in 
existing industry and/or building-code standards. Thus, many of the 
comments, if adopted, would not require significant changes in existing 
operating practices for the affected industry.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    Under section 612 of the Clean Air Act, EPA is authorized to review 
substitutes for class I (CFC) and class II (HCFC) chemicals. The 
decisions set forth in this section expand the acceptable listing for 
refrigerants.
    In listing these refrigerants as acceptable, EPA anticipates that 
these refrigerants will be used in such a manner so that any 
recommendations specified in the manufacturers' Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDSs) are followed. EPA also anticipates that manufacturers, 
installers, servicers, building owners and other parties responsible 
for construction and maintenance of refrigeration and air-conditioning 
systems will follow all applicable standard industry practices and 
technical standards established by voluntary consensus standards 
organizations such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 
The Agency also expects that refrigerating systems will conform to all 
relevant provisions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating 
and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards, including Standard 
15, Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration, which provides guidelines 
for the safety of persons and property on or near premises where 
refrigeration facilities are located. Finally, the Agency anticipates 
that any exposures by installers or servicers to refrigerants will 
conform to all applicable standards set by the U.S. Occupational Safety 
and Health Administration (OSHA) and will not exceed any acceptable 
exposure limits set by any voluntary consensus standards organization, 
including the American Conference of Governmental Industrial 
Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) or the American 
Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace environmental 
exposure limits (WEELs).
    (a) THR-02. The chemical blend submitted to EPA with the 
unregistered trade name THR-02 is acceptable as a substitute for CFC-12 
in the following end-uses:
     Industrial process refrigeration and air-conditioning.
     Cold storage warehouses.
     Refrigerated transport.
     retail food refrigeration.
     Ice machines.
     Vending machines.
     Water coolers.
     Centrifugal chillers.
     Reciprocating chillers.
     Household refrigerators and freezers.

Tsinghua University of Beijing and the Beijing Inoue Qinghua 
Refrigeration Technology Company LTD, the joint submitters of THR-02, 
claim that its composition is confidential business information. 
Fractionation and flammability testing have determined that although 
two constituents of the blend are flammable, THR-02 as blended is not, 
and further testing has shown that it does not become flammable after 
leakage. The blend does not contain any significant ozone depleters. 
THR-02 contains a constituent with a low global warming potential 
(GWP). The potential of this constituent for contributing to global 
warming will be mitigated in each end-use through the implementation of 
the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the Clean Air Act.
    (b) THR-03. The chemical blend submitted to EPA with the 
unregistered trade name THR-03 is acceptable as a substitute for HCFC-
22 in the following end-uses:
     Industrial process refrigeration and air-conditioning.
     Cold storage warehouses.
     Refrigerated transport.
     Retail food refrigeration.
     Ice machines.
     Centrifugal chillers.
     Reciprocating chillers.
     Ice skating rinks.
     Household refrigerators and freezers.
     Residential window unit air-conditioning.

Tsinghua University of Beijing and the Beijing Inoue Qinghua 
Refrigeration Technology Company LTD, the joint submitters of THR-03, 
claim that its composition is confidential business information. 
Fractionation and flammability testing have determined that although 
one constituent of the blend is flammable, THR-03 as blended is not, 
and further testing has shown that it does not become flammable after 
leakage. The blend has virtually no ozone depleting potential. THR-03 
contains two constituents with moderate global warming potentials 
(GWP). The potential of these constituents for contributing to global 
warming will be mitigated in each end-use through the implementation of 
the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the Clean Air Act.
    (c) ISCEON 59. The chemical blend submitted to EPA with the 
unregistered trade name ISCEON 59 is acceptable as a substitute for R-
22 in the following end-uses:
     Household and light commercial air-conditioning.
     Commercial comfort air-conditioning.
     Industrial process refrigeration and air-conditioning.
     Cold storage warehouses.
     Refrigerated transport.
     Retail food refrigeration.
     Ice machines.
     Vending machines.
     Water coolers.
     Centrifugal chillers.
     Reciprocating chillers.
     Household and other refrigerated appliances.
     Ice skating rinks.
     Non-mechanical heat transfer.
ISCEON 59 contains HFC-125, HFC-134a, and a small amount of n-butane. 
HFC-125 and HFC-134a exhibit a fairly high global warming potential 
(3,400 and 1,900, respectively, over a 100 year integrated time 
horizon) compared to HCFC-22 (1,750 over a 100 year integrated time 
horizon). However, the potential of these constituents for contributing 
to global warming will be mitigated in each end-use through the 
implementation of the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of 
the Clean Air Act. ISCEON 59 does not contain ozone-depleting 
substances and is low in toxicity. Although n-butane is flammable, the 
blend is not. Leak testing has demonstrated that its composition should 
never become flammable under the expected conditions in the listed end-
uses.
    (d) Ikon B. Ikon B, a blend of 
trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I), HFC-134a

[[Page 68041]]

and HFC-152a, is acceptable as a substitute for CFC-12 in the following 
end-uses:
     Industrial process refrigeration and air-conditioning.
     Cold storage warehouses.
     Refrigerated transport.
     Retail food refrigeration.
     Ice machines.
     Vending machines.
     Water coolers.
     Centrifugal chillers.
     Reciprocating chillers.
     Residential dehumidifiers.

    Fractionation and flammability testing have determined that 
although HFC-152a is flammable, Ikon B as blended is not, 
and further testing has shown that it does not become flammable after 
leakage. Ikon B has virtually no ozone depleting potential. 
It contains two constituents with moderate global warming potentials 
(GWP). The potential of these constituents for contributing to global 
warming will be mitigated in each end-use through the implementation of 
the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the Clean Air Act.
    (e) Cryo-Mechanical Cryogenic Transport Refrigeration 
System. The cryo-mechanical cryogenic transport system that 
uses recaptured and recycled liquid carbon dioxide or liquid nitrogen 
is acceptable as a substitute for R-502 or CFC-12 in the transport 
refrigeration end-use. The cryo-mechanical cryogenic 
transport system replaces the conventional engine and compressor in a 
transport refrigeration system by using the energy from evaporating and 
expanding liquid CO2 or N2. The CO2 or 
N2 expands through the system coils and powers a vapor 
motor, which then powers an evaporator blower and an alternator. The 
evaporator blower forces cargo space air through the system coils where 
it is cooled down and subsequently propelled back into the cargo space. 
The CO2/N2 vapors are released into the 
atmosphere without ever entering the cargo space. Since the system does 
not require the use of the conventional diesel engine, emissions of 
combustion products such as NOX, SO2, and 
CO2 are avoided.
    (f) HFE-7200. Hydrofluroether (HFE-7200) 
(C4F9OC2H5; 
ethoxynonafluorobutane, iso and normal) is an acceptable substitute for 
CFC-113 in non-mechanical heat transfer. HFE-7200 does not delete the 
ozone layer since it does not contain chlorine or bromine. It has a 0.9 
year atmospheric lifetime and a GWP of 100 over a 100-year time 
horizon. The GWP and lifetime for this HFE are lower than the GWP and 
lifetime for CFC-113.

B. Foam Blowing

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    (a) HFC-245fa. HFC-245fa is acceptable as a substitute for CFC-11 
and HCFC-141b in all foam end-uses. HFC-245fa contains no chlorine or 
bromine; therefore, it has zero ODP. Its 100-year GWP is 1022. HFC-
245fa is non-flammable. EPA anticipates that HFC-245fa will be used in 
such a manner so that any recommendations specified in the 
manufacturers' Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) are followed. The 
Agency also expects that any exposures will not exceed any acceptable 
exposure limits set by any voluntary consensus standards organization, 
including the American Conference of Governmental Industrial 
Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) or the American 
Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace environmental 
exposure limits (WEELs).
    (b) Exxsol Blowing Agents. Exxsol Blowing Agents are acceptable 
substitutes for HCFC-141b in all foam end-uses. C3-C6 saturated light 
hydrocarbons are already acceptable substitutes for CFC-11 and HCFC-
141b in several foam end-uses. Exxsol blowing agents are hydrocarbon 
(pentane) blends that have no ozone depletion potential, low global 
warming potentials, and are low in toxicity. However, these agents are 
flammable and should be handled with proper precautions.
    The flammability of hydrocarbon blowing agents, including Exxsol, 
are of particular concern in spray foam applications where a controlled 
factory environment is not possible. The manufacturer and supplier of 
Exxsol blowing agents, Exxon, has performed several studies showing 
that under normal circumstances flammable concentrations do not occur 
in spray foam applications (Docket A-91-42, Category IX-B, Background 
Documents for Notice 11). However, without adequate ventilation, 
several situations could lead to explosion or fire. Examples include, 
but are not limited to, equipment wells on roofs, roofs enclosed by 
high parapet walls, and interior applications (especially where a 
basement or other confined space is beneath the spray area). Therefore, 
it is critical that application in enclosed areas be accompanied by 
adequate forced ventilation, flammable vapor monitoring and the 
elimination of all possible ignition sources.
    The potential for explosion or fire highlights the need for safety 
training. Exxon will sell Exxsol blowing agents only to systems 
manufacturers who have contractually guaranteed to provide training on 
safe storage, handling and application to their customers, contractors, 
and applicators. Draft training materials have been provided to EPA and 
are available through the Air Docket (Docket A-91-42, Category IX-B, 
Background Documents for Notice 11). Exxon has also offered to work 
with trade groups to develop additional training. While training can 
not provide an absolute guarantee of safety, EPA believes that a 
comprehensive training program, if implemented properly, can adequately 
control risks associated with use of potentially flammable pentane-
blown spray foam systems.
    Because manufacturers of other hydrocarbon blowing agents have not 
ensured adequate training, today's listing does not extend to 
hydrocarbons as a class. If other manufacturers are interested in 
Exxon's approach, they should contact EPA.

C. Solvents Cleaning

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    (a) HFE-7200. Hydrofluoroether (HFE-7200): 
(C4F9OC2H5; 
ethoxynonafluorobutane, iso and normal) is an acceptable substitute for 
CFC-113 and methyl chloroform (MCF) in all solvents cleaning end-uses. 
This chemical does not deplete the ozone layer since it does not 
contain chlorine or bromine. It has a 0.9 year atmospheric lifetime and 
a GWP of 100 over a 100-year time horizon. EPA anticipates that HFE-
7200 will be used in such a manner so that any recommendations 
specified in the manufacturers' Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) are 
followed. The Agency also expects that any exposures will not exceed 
any acceptable exposure limits set by any voluntary consensus standards 
organization, including the American Conference of Governmental 
Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) or the 
American Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace 
environmental exposure limits (WEELs).

D. Aerosols

1. Acceptable Substitutes
    (a) HFE-7200. Hydrofluoroether (HFE-7200): 
(C4F9OC2H5; 
ethoxynonafluorobutane, iso and normal) is an acceptable substitute for 
CFC-113 and methyl chloroform (MCF) as a solvent in aerosol products. 
This chemical does not deplete the ozone layer since it does not 
contain chlorine or bromine. It has a 0.9 year atmospheric lifetime and 
a GWP of 100 over a 100-year time horizon. EPA

[[Page 68042]]

anticipates that HFE-7200 will be used in such a manner so that any 
recommendations specified in the manufacturers' Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDSs) are followed. The Agency also expects that any exposures 
will not exceed any acceptable exposure limits set by any voluntary 
consensus standards organization, including the American Conference of 
Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit values 
(TLVs) or the American Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) 
workplace environmental exposure limits (WEELs).

III. Additional Information

    Contact the Stratospheric Protection Hotline at (800) 296-1996, 
Monday-Friday, between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. (EST). For 
more information on the Agency's process for administering the SNAP 
program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the SNAP 
final rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 1994 
(59 FR 13044). Notices and rulemakings under the SNAP program, as well 
as all EPA publications on protection of stratospheric ozone, are 
available from EPA's Ozone Depletion World Wide Web site at ``http://
www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/snap/'' and from the Stratospheric Protection 
Hotline whose number is listed above.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: November 24, 1999
Paul Stolpman,
Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Office of Air and Radiation.

APPENDIX A: SUMMARY OF ACCEPTABLE DECISIONS

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        End-use                    Substitute                         Decision                    Comments
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    REFRIGERATION and AIR CONDITIONING SECTOR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The following CFC-12    THR-02..........................  Acceptable......................  EPA expects that
 end-uses:                                                                                   manufacturers,
 Industrial                                                                          installers and
 process refrigeration                                                                       servicers of
 and air-conditioning                                                                        refrigeration and
 Cold storage                                                                        air-conditioning
 warehouses                                                                                  systems will follow
 Refrigerated                                                                        all applicable
 transport                                                                                   industry practices
 Retail food                                                                         and technical
 refrigeration                                                                               standards,
 Ice machines                                                                        including but not
 Vending                                                                             limited to
 machines                                                                                    standards issued by
 Water coolers                                                                       the American
 Centrifugal                                                                         Society of Heating,
 chillers                                                                                    Refrigeration and
 Reciprocating                                                                       Air-conditioning
 chillers                                                                                    Engineers (ASHRAE),
 Household                                                                           and that exposures
 refrigerators and                                                                           will be kept within
 freezers                                                                                    all applicable
                                                                                             American Industrial
                                                                                             Hygiene Association
                                                                                             (AIHA) and American
                                                                                             Conference of
                                                                                             Governmental
                                                                                             Industrial
                                                                                             Hygienists (ACGIH)
                                                                                             occupational
                                                                                             exposure limits.
The following HCFC-22   THR-03..........................  Acceptable......................  EPA expects that
 end-uses:                                                                                   manufacturers,
 Industrial                                                                          installers and
 process refrigeration                                                                       servicers of
 and air-conditioning                                                                        refrigeration and
 Cold storage                                                                        air-conditioning
 warehouses                                                                                  systems will follow
 Rrefrigerated                                                                       all applicable
 transport                                                                                   industry practices
 Retail food                                                                         and technical
 refrigeration                                                                               standards,
 Ice machines                                                                        including but not
 Centrifugal                                                                         limited to
 chillers                                                                                    standards issued by
 Reciprocating                                                                       the American
 chillers                                                                                    Society of Heating,
 Ice skating                                                                         Refrigeration and
 rinks                                                                                       Air-conditioning
 Household                                                                           Engineers (ASHRAE),
 refrigerators and                                                                           and that exposures
 freezers                                                                                    will be kept within
 Window-unit                                                                         all applicable
 residential air                                                                             American Industrial
 conditioners                                                                                Hygiene Association
                                                                                             (AIHA) and American
                                                                                             Conference of
                                                                                             Governmental
                                                                                             Industrial
                                                                                             Hygienists (ACGIH)
                                                                                             occupational
                                                                                             exposure limits.
The following HCFC-22   ISCEON 59.......................  Acceptable......................  EPA expects that
 end-uses:                                                                                   manufacturers,
 Household and                                                                       installers and
 light commercial air-                                                                       servicers of
 conditioning                                                                                refrigeration and
 Commercial                                                                          air-conditioning
 comfort air-                                                                                systems will follow
 conditioning                                                                                all applicable
 Industrial                                                                          industry practices
 process refrigeration                                                                       and technical
 and air-conditioning                                                                        standards,
 Cold storage                                                                        including but not
 warehouses                                                                                  limited to
 Refrigerated                                                                        standards issued by
 transport                                                                                   the American
 Retail food                                                                         Society of Heating,
 refrigeration                                                                               Refrigeration and
 Ice machines                                                                        Air-conditioning
 Vending                                                                             Engineers (ASHRAE),
 machines                                                                                    and that exposures
 Water coolers                                                                       will be kept within
 Centrifugal                                                                         all applicable
 chillers                                                                                    American Industrial
 Reciprocating                                                                       Hygiene Association
 chillers                                                                                    (AIHA) and American
 Household and                                                                       Conference of
 other refrigerated                                                                          Governmental
 appliances                                                                                  Industrial
 Ice skating                                                                         Hygienists (ACGIH)
 rinks                                                                                       occupational
 Non-                                                                                exposure limits.
 mechanical heat
 transfer

[[Page 68043]]

 
The following CFC-12    Ikon B................  Acceptable......................  EPA expects that
 end-uses:                                                                                   manufacturers,
 Industrial                                                                          installers and
 process refrigeration                                                                       servicers of
 and air-conditioning                                                                        refrigeration and
 Cold storage                                                                        air-conditioning
 warehouses                                                                                  systems will follow
 Refrigerated                                                                        all applicable
 transport                                                                                   industry practices
 Retail food                                                                         and technical
 refrigeration                                                                               standards,
 Ice machines                                                                        including but not
 Vending                                                                             limited to
 machines                                                                                    standards issued by
 Water coolers                                                                       the American
 Centrifugal                                                                         Society of Heating,
 chillers                                                                                    Refrigeration and
 Reciprocating                                                                       Air-conditioning
 chillers                                                                                    Engineers (ASHRAE),
 Residential                                                                         and that exposures
 dehumidifiers                                                                               will be kept within
                                                                                             all applicable
                                                                                             American Industrial
                                                                                             Hygiene Association
                                                                                             (AIHA) and American
                                                                                             Conference of
                                                                                             Governmental
                                                                                             Industrial
                                                                                             Hygienists (ACGIH)
                                                                                             occupational
                                                                                             exposure limits.
The following R-502 or  Cryo-Mechanical         Acceptable......................  The Cryogenic
 CFC-12 end-uses:        Cryogenic Transport                                                 transport system
 Refrigerated    Refrigeration System.                                               may use liquified
 transport                                                                                   nitrogen (N2) or
                                                                                             carbon dioxide
                                                                                             (CO2). EPA expects
                                                                                             that suppliers of
                                                                                             CO2 will not
                                                                                             generate new CO2
                                                                                             for this system,
                                                                                             but instead, use
                                                                                             the CO2 that is
                                                                                             commonly recovered,
                                                                                             purified, and
                                                                                             liquified from that
                                                                                             otherwise released
                                                                                             from existing
                                                                                             industrial
                                                                                             processes.
The following CFC-113   HFE-7200........................  Acceptable......................  EPA expects that
 end-uses:                                                                                   manufacturers,
 Non-                                                                                installers and
 mechanical heat                                                                             servicers of
 transfer                                                                                    refrigeration and
                                                                                             air-conditioning
                                                                                             systems will follow
                                                                                             all applicable
                                                                                             industry practices
                                                                                             and technical
                                                                                             standards.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               FOAM BLOWING SECTOR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The following CFC-11    HFC-245fa.......................  Acceptable......................  EPA's Office of
 and HCFC-141b end-                                                                          Pollution
 uses:                                                                                       Prevention and
 All foam end-                                                                       Toxics has reviewed
 uses                                                                                        the toxicity
                                                                                             profile for HFC-
                                                                                             245fa, and referred
                                                                                             it to a WEEL
                                                                                             committee for a
                                                                                             final exposure
                                                                                             limit.
The following HCFC-     Exxsol Blowing Agents...........  Acceptable......................  EPA expects that
 141b end-uses:                                                                              Exxon will work
 All foam end-                                                                       with its customers
 uses                                                                                        to ensure that they
                                                                                             are aware of
                                                                                             potential risks
                                                                                             associated with
                                                                                             Exxsol and that
                                                                                             systems
                                                                                             manufacturers
                                                                                             provide adequate
                                                                                             training on safe
                                                                                             storage, handling
                                                                                             and application to
                                                                                             customers,
                                                                                             contractors, and
                                                                                             applicators. EPA
                                                                                             also expects that
                                                                                             Exxon will work
                                                                                             with trade groups
                                                                                             and continue to
                                                                                             develop training
                                                                                             materials as more
                                                                                             information becomes
                                                                                             available on the
                                                                                             risks of
                                                                                             hydrocarbons in
                                                                                             spray foam
                                                                                             applications.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            SOLVENTS CLEANING SECTOR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The following CFC-113   HFE-7200........................  Acceptable......................  The Agency expects
 and methyl chloroform                                                                       that any exposures
 end-uses:                                                                                   will not exceed any
 All solvents                                                                        acceptable exposure
 cleaning end-uses                                                                           limits set by any
                                                                                             voluntary consensus
                                                                                             standards
                                                                                             organization,
                                                                                             including the
                                                                                             American Conference
                                                                                             of Governmental
                                                                                             Industrial
                                                                                             Hygienists' (ACGIH)
                                                                                             threshold limit
                                                                                             values (TLVs) or
                                                                                             the American
                                                                                             Industrial Hygiene
                                                                                             Association's
                                                                                             (AIHA) workplace
                                                                                             environmental
                                                                                             exposure limits
                                                                                             (WEELs).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 AEROSOL SECTOR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The following CFC-113   HFE-7200........................  Acceptable......................  The Agency expects
 and methyl chloroform                                                                       that any exposures
 end-uses:                                                                                   will not exceed any
 As a solvent                                                                        acceptable exposure
 in aerosol products                                                                         limits set by any
                                                                                             voluntary consensus
                                                                                             standards
                                                                                             organization,
                                                                                             including the
                                                                                             American Conference
                                                                                             of Governmental
                                                                                             Industrial
                                                                                             Hygienists' (ACGIH)
                                                                                             threshold limit
                                                                                             values (TLVs) or
                                                                                             the American
                                                                                             Industrial Hygiene
                                                                                             Association's
                                                                                             (AIHA) workplace
                                                                                             environmental
                                                                                             exposure limits
                                                                                             (WEELs).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[FR Doc. 99-31544 Filed 12-3-99; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P