[Federal Register Volume 67, Number 56 (Friday, March 22, 2002)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 13272-13278]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 02-6848]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[FRL-7160-4]
RIN 2060-AG12


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 16 for Significant New 
Alternatives Policy Program

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.

ACTION: Notice of acceptability; notice of data availability.

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SUMMARY: This notice of acceptability expands the list of acceptable 
substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives 
Policy (SNAP) program. The substitutes are for use in the following 
sectors: refrigeration and air conditioning; aerosols; and adhesives, 
coatings, and inks. In addition, we are notifying the public of new 
information available on the toxicity of HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb, 
acceptable substitutes used in solvents cleaning.

EFFECTIVE DATE: March 22, 2002.

ADDRESSES: Information relevant to this document is contained in Air 
Docket A-91-42, Room M-1500, Waterside Mall, U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460, telephone: 
(202) 260-7548. You may inspect the docket between 8:00 a.m. and 5:30 
p.m. weekdays. As provided in 40 CFR part 2, a reasonable fee may be 
charged for photocopying. Submissions to EPA for the use of the 
substitutes listed in this document may be found under category VI-D of 
EPA docket A-91-42. You can find other materials supporting the 
decisions in this action under category IX-B of EPA docket A-91-42.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard by telephone at 
(202) 564-9163, by fax at (202) 565-2155, by e-mail at 
sheppard.margaret@epa.gov, or by mail at U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Mail Code 6205J, Washington, DC 
20460. Overnight or courier deliveries should be sent to 501 3rd 
Street, NW., Washington, DC, 20001.
    For more information on the Agency's process for administering the 
SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the 
original SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 
1994 (59 FR 13044). Notices and rulemakings under the SNAP program, as 
well as other EPA publications on protection of stratospheric ozone, 
are available from EPA's Ozone Depletion World Wide Web site at http://
www.epa.gov/ozone/ including the SNAP portion at http://www.epa.gov/
ozone/title6/snap/.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    B. Aerosols
    C. Adhesives, Coating and Inks
II. New Data Available on the Toxicity of HCFC-225ca/cb
III. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements
    B. Regulatory History
Appendix A--Summary of Acceptable Decisions
Appendix B--New Information Available

I. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes

    This section presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing 
decisions for substitutes in the following industrial sectors: 
refrigeration and air conditioning; aerosols; and adhesives, coatings, 
and inks. For copies of the full list of SNAP decisions in all 
industrial sectors, visit EPA's Ozone Depletion web site at http://
www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/snap/lists/index.html.
    The sections below discuss the substitute listing in detail. 
Appendix A contains a table summarizing today's listing decisions. The 
statements of further information contained in the table provide 
additional information, but are not legally binding under section 612 
of the Clean Air Act. In addition, the ``further information'' may not 
be a comprehensive list of other legal obligations you may need to meet 
when using the substitute. Although you are not required to follow 
recommendations in the ``further information'' column of the table to 
use a substitute, EPA

[[Page 13273]]

strongly encourages you to apply the information when using these 
substitutes. In many instances, the information simply refers to 
standard operating practices in existing industry and/or building-code 
standards. Thus, many of these statements, if adopted, would not 
require significant changes to existing operating practices.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

1., 2., 3. and 4. PFC-1102HC, PFC-662HC, PFC-552HC and FLC-15
    EPA's decision: The chemical blends submitted to EPA with the 
unregistered trade names PFC-1102HC, PFC-662HC, PFC-552HC and FLC-15 
are acceptable for use in new equipment as substitutes for:
     CFC-13, CFC-113, CFC-114 and blends thereof in very low 
temperature refrigeration.
    IGC Polycold Systems Inc., the submitter of the above-listed 
blends, claims that the compositions of these HFC blends, tailored for 
use in its equipment, are confidential business information. Despite 
the trade names of these refrigerants, they are not perfluorocarbons. 
You can find a version of the submission with information claimed 
confidential by the submitter removed, in EPA Air Docket A-91-42, item 
VI-D-268.
    Environmental information: The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 
each of these four blends is zero.
    The global warming potentials (GWPs) of the blends are between 7500 
and 8500; therefore, EPA strongly encourages prompt identification and 
repair of any leaks that may occur. EPA notes that many of the 
alternatives already listed as acceptable for use within the very low 
temperature refrigeration end use have GWPs this high or higher, and 
encourages the continued search for lower-GWP alternatives for this end 
use. The contribution of these blends to global warming will be 
minimized through the implementation of the venting prohibition under 
section 608(c)(2) of the Clean Air Act (see 40 CFR part 82, subpart F). 
This section and EPA's implementing regulations prohibit venting or 
release of substitutes for class I and class II ozone depleting 
substances used in refrigeration and air-conditioning and require 
proper handling and disposal of these substances, such as recycling or 
recovery.
    Some components of these blends have not been exempted from listing 
as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under Clean Air Act regulations 
for purposes of State Implementation Programs (SIPs) to control ground-
level ozone.
    Flammability information: These four blends are nonflammable. The 
individual components of the blends exhibit little to no flammability.
    Toxicity and exposure data: All components in these blends have 
eight-hour time-weighted average occupational exposure limits, such as 
Workplace Environmental Exposure Levels (WEELs) from the American 
Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), of approximately 1,000 ppm. EPA 
expects users to follow all recommendations specified in the material 
safety data sheets (MSDSs) for the blends and other safety precautions 
common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants: The Polycold HFC blends reduce 
risk to the public compared to the ODSs they replace because they have 
no ODP. The other substitutes already listed as acceptable for very low 
temperature refrigeration either (1) have an ODP, (2) have a higher GWP 
than the Polycold HFC blends, (3) have lower energy efficiency compared 
to the Polycold HFC blends, resulting in an even higher GWP, or (4) 
have not been developed into a useful technology for this end use. In 
addition, there are relatively few acceptable substitutes in this end 
use with no ODP. Thus, we find that the Polycold HFC blends are 
acceptable because they reduce overall risk to public health and the 
environment in the end uses listed.
5. HFE-7000
    EPA's decision: Hydrofluoroether (HFE)-7000 is acceptable for use 
in new and retrofit equipment as a substitute for:
     HCFC-123 in very low temperature refrigeration;
     CFC-11 and CFC-113 in industrial process refrigeration; 
and
     CFC-11 and CFC-113 in non-mechanical heat transfer.
    3M, the submitter of the above-listed blends, indicates that this 
chemical is also known as HFE-301 and propane, 1,1,1,2,2,3,3 hepta 
fluoro-3-methoxy or 1-(methoxy)-1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane. The 
empirical formula is C4H3F7O and it is also identified as CH3-O-CF2-
CF2-CF3 and R-E347mcc1. You can find a version of the submission with 
information claimed confidential by the submitter removed, in EPA Air 
Docket A-91-42, item VI-D-272.
    Environmental information: The ODP of HFE-7000 is zero. The GWP is 
estimated to range between 140 (World Meterological Organization 
estimate) and 400 (derived from Ninomiya et.al., 2000) relative to 
carbon dioxide, using a 100-year time horizon. The World Meteorological 
Organization previously estimated an atmospheric lifetime of 1.3 years, 
but more recent experimental data indicates a lifetime of 4.7 years 
(Ninomiya et.al., 2000).
    This chemical has been exempted from listing as a VOC under Clean 
Air Act regulations.
    Flammability information: This chemical is nonflammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The manufacturer has recommended an 
acceptable exposure limit (AEL) of 75 ppm over an eight-hour time-
weighted average. EPA believes this exposure limit will be protective 
of human health and safety. We expect users to follow all 
recommendations specified in the MSDS for this refrigerant and other 
safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning 
industry. This substitute was submitted to the Agency as part of a 
Premanufacture Notice (PMN) under the Toxic Substances Control Act 
(TSCA).
    Comparison to other refrigerants: HFE-7000 is less toxic than HCFC-
123 and is not an ozone depleter; thus, in the very low temperature end 
use, it reduces risk overall compared to CFC-11, CFC-113, and HCFC-123, 
the ODS it replaces. The GWP and atmospheric lifetime of HFE-7000 are 
lower than those of other acceptable alternatives in very low 
temperature refrigeration.
    There are few alternatives for CFC-11 and CFC-113 in non-mechanical 
heat transfer, and HFE-7000 has a comparable or lower GWP than those 
alternatives. HFE-7000 has lower or comparable GWP and an ODP of zero, 
compared to most other substitutes available for industrial process 
refrigeration. Thus, we find that HFE-7000 is acceptable because it 
reduces overall risk to public health and the environment in the end 
uses listed.
6. ISCEON 39TC
    ISCEON 39TC is acceptable for use in new and retrofit equipment as 
a substitute for CFC-12 in:
     Centrifugal chillers;
     Industrial process refrigeration;
     Industrial process air conditioning;
     Cold storage warehouses; and
     Ice skating rinks.
    Rhodia Organique Fine Limited, the submitter of the above-listed 
refrigerant, claims the composition to be confidential business 
information. The submitter indicates that the refrigerant, also known 
as Centri-Cool, is a blend of two hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).You can 
find a version of the submission with information claimed confidential 
by the

[[Page 13274]]

submitter removed, in EPA Air Docket A-91-42, item VI-D-279.
    Environmental information: The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 
ISCEON 39TC is zero. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) of each of the 
two components is roughly 2000 to 3000 (relative to carbon dioxide, 
using a 100-year time horizon).
    One component of this blend has not been exempted from listing as a 
volatile organic compound (VOC) under Clean Air Act regulations for 
purposes of State implementation plans (SIP) to control ground-level 
ozone.
    Flammability information: Neither component, nor the blend, is 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Both components of the blend have 
workplace guidance level exposure limits on the order of 1000 ppm. EPA 
believes this exposure limit will be protective of human health and 
safety. EPA expects users to follow all recommendations specified in 
the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the blend and the individual 
components and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and 
air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants: ISCEON 39TC is not an ozone 
depleter; thus, it reduces risk overall compared to CFC-12, the ODS it 
replaces. ISCEON 39TC has a comparable or lower GWP than the other 
substitutes for CFC-12. Thus, we find that ISCEON 39TC is acceptable 
because it reduces overall risk to public health and the environment in 
the end uses listed.
7. R-404A
    R-404A is acceptable for use in new and retrofit equipment as a 
substitute for HCFC-22 in:
     Industrial process refrigeration.
    R-404A is a blend of 44% by weight HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane), 52% 
by weight HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane) and 4% by weight HFC-134a 
(1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane). You may find the submission under EPA Air 
Docket A-91-42, item VI-D-283. EPA previously listed R-404A as an 
acceptable substitute for CFC-12 in industrial process refrigeration 
and other end uses in the original SNAP rule (March 18, 1994; 59 FR 
13044).
    Environmental information: The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 
R-404A is zero. The Global Warming Potentials (GWP) of HFC-125, HFC-
143a and HFC-134a are 3400, 4300 and 1300, respectively (relative to 
carbon dioxide, using a 100-year time horizon). The contribution of 
this blend to global warming will be minimized through the 
implementation of the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of 
the Clean Air Act (see 40 CFR part 82, subpart F). This section and 
EPA's implementing regulations prohibit venting or release of 
substitutes for class I and class II ozone depleting substances used in 
refrigeration and air-conditioning and require proper handling and 
disposal of these substances, such as recycling or recovery.
    All components of this blend have been exempted from listing as a 
volatile organic compound (VOC) under Clean Air Act regulations for 
purposes of the State implementation plan (SIP) program.
    Flammability information: The component HFC-143a is moderately 
flammable; however, the blend is not flammable nor does it fractionate 
into a flammable mixture.
    Toxicity and exposure data: All components of the blend have 
workplace environmental exposure limits (WEELs) of 1000 ppm established 
by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). EPA expects 
users to follow all recommendations specified in the Material Safety 
Data Sheet (MSDS) for the blend and the individual components and other 
safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning 
industry. We also expect that users of R-404A will adhere to the AIHA's 
WEELs.
    Comparison to other refrigerants: R-404A is not an ozone depleter; 
thus, it reduces risk overall compared to HCFC-22, the ODS it replaces. 
R-404A has a comparable or lower GWP than the other substitutes for 
HCFC-22 and no ODP. Thus, we find that R-404A is acceptable because it 
reduces overall risk to public health and the environment in the end 
use listed.
8. Update: Formulation of NU-22 Changed
    ICOR International has indicated that it is changing the 
composition of NU-22. On December 18, 2000, EPA found the original 
formulation acceptable for a variety of end-uses. At that time, the 
composition was claimed as confidential business information (CBI); 
however, the submitter has withdrawn that claim. The original 
formulation was 28.1% by weight pentafluoroethane (HFC-125), 70% 
1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and 1.9% isobutane (HC-600a). ICOR 
International has indicated it will not market this formulation. We are 
modifying the previous acceptability determination to now list this 
blend by its composition [R-125/134a/600a (28.1/70.0/1.9)] (rather than 
as NU-22) as an acceptable substitute for HCFC-22 in new and retrofit 
applications in the following end-uses:
     Industrial process refrigeration and air-conditioning;
     Centrifugal chillers;
     Reciprocating chillers;
     Residential air conditioning and heat pumps;
     Residential dehumidifiers;
     Refrigerated transport;
     Motor vehicle air conditioning (buses only).
    The composition of NU-22 has been changed to 46.6% by weight 
pentafluoroethane (HFC-125), 50% 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) 
and 3.4% butane, also known as n-butane (HC-600). This composition is 
identical to that of the refrigerant ISCEON 59. The manufacturer of 
ISCEON 59 has applied for assignment under the American Society of 
Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) 
Standard 34. The designation of R-417A has been recommended; however, 
this has not yet been formally published in an addendum or revision to 
ASHRAE Standard 34.
    EPA previously found ISCEON 59 acceptable for several end-uses on 
December 6, 1999 at 64 FR 68040. That finding now applies to NU-22. NU-
22 [R-125/134a/600 (46.6/50.0/3.4)] is acceptable for use in new and 
retrofit equipment as a substitute for R-22 in:
     Household and light commercial air-conditioning
     Commercial comfort air-conditioning (centrifugal chillers; 
reciprocating and screw chillers)
     Industrial process refrigeration;
     Industrial process air-conditioning;
     Cold storage warehouses;
     Refrigerated transport;
     Retail food refrigeration;
     Commercial ice machines;
     Vending machines;
     Water coolers;
     Household refrigerators;
     Household freezers;
     Ice skating rinks;
     Non-mechanical heat transfer.

B. Aerosols

1. HFC-245fa

    EPA's decision: Hydrofluorocarbon-245fa is acceptable as a 
substitute for:
     CFC-113 and HCFC-141b in the aerosol solvent end use.
    This compound is also known as HFC-245fa or 1,1,1,3,3-
pentafluoropropane. You can find a version of the submission with 
information claimed confidential by the submitter removed, in EPA Air 
Docket A-91-42, item VI-D-274. EPA has previously found HFC-245fa 
acceptable

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for use in certain foam blowing (64 FR 68041, December 6, 1999) and 
refrigeration and air conditioning applications (65 FR 37901, June 19, 
2000).
    Environmental information: HFC-245fa has an ozone depletion 
potential of zero. It has a global warming potential (GWP) of 1022. 
This chemical has been exempted from listing as a VOC under Clean Air 
Act regulations.
    Flammability: HFC-245fa is non-flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: We expect users to follow all 
recommendations specified in the manufacturer's MSDS for HFC-245fa. We 
also expect that the workplace environmental exposure will not exceed 
the American Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace 
environmental exposure limit (WEEL) of 300 ppm.
    Comparison to other aerosols: HFC-245fa's global warming potential 
(GWP) is similar to or lower than that of the ODSs that it would be 
replacing, and it has no ODP. Thus, HFC-245fa reduces risk overall 
compared to the substances it replaces. HFC-245fa:
    (1) Is non-flammable and reduces the risk of fire compared to 
flammable aerosol solvents,
    (2) Is less toxic than many of the non-flammable aerosol solvents, 
and
    (3) Has a GWP comparable to or less than other substitute aerosol 
solvents and has no ODP.
    Thus, we find that HFC-245fa is acceptable because it reduces 
overall risk to public health and the environment in the aerosol 
solvent end use.

C. Adhesives, Coatings and Inks

1. HFE-7100
    EPA's decision: Hydrofluoroether-7100 is an acceptable substitute 
for:
     CFC-113, HCFC-141b, and methyl chloroform in adhesives, 
coatings, and inks.
    Hydrofluoroether-7100 is also called HFE-7100; 
C4F9OCH3;C5F9OH3
; methoxynonafluorobutane, iso and normal; and methyl nonafluorobutyl 
ether. HFE-7100 also may be used as a carrier for lubricant coatings.
    Environmental information: HFE-7100 has an ozone depletion 
potential (ODP) of zero, a global warming potential (GWP) of 390 over a 
100-year time horizon, and an atmospheric lifetime of 4.1years. This 
chemical has been exempted from listing as a volatile organic compound 
(VOC) under Clean Air Act regulations.
    Flammability: HFE-7100 is non-flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: HFE-7100 has low toxicity. HFE-7100 has 
a workplace environmental exposure limit (WEEL) of 750 ppm established 
by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).
    Comparison to other carrier solvents in adhesives, coatings, and 
inks: HFE-7100's GWP is similar to or lower than that of the ODSs that 
it would be replacing, and it has no ODP. Thus, HFE-7100 reduces risk 
overall compared to the substances it replaces.
    HFE-7100:
    (1) Is non-flammable and reduces the risk of fire compared to 
flammable carrier solvents,
    (2) Is less toxic than the non-flammable carrier solvents, and
    (3) Has a GWP comparable to or less than other substitute carrier 
solvents and has no ODP.
    Thus, we find that HFE-7100 is acceptable because it reduces 
overall risk to public health and the environment in the adhesives, 
coatings, and inks end uses.
2. HFE-7200
    EPA's decision: Hydrofluoroether-7200 is an acceptable substitute 
for:
     CFC-113, HCFC-141b, and methyl chloroform in adhesives, 
coatings, and inks.
    Hydrofluoroether 7200 is also known as HFE-7200; 
C4F9OC2H5; 
C6F9OH5; and ethoxynonafluorobutane, 
iso and normal. HFE-7200 also may be used as a carrier for lubricant 
coatings.
    Environmental information: HFE-7200 has an ODP of zero, a GWP of 55 
and an atmospheric lifetime of 0.9 years. This chemical has been 
exempted from listing as a VOC under Clean Air Act regulations.
    Flammability: HFE-7200 has no flash point. Its flammability range 
in air is 2.4-12.4%.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The manufacturer's recommended exposure 
guideline for HFE-7200 is 200 ppm over an eight-hour time-weighted 
average. EPA expects HFE-7200 users to follow all recommendations 
specified in the manufacturer's Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs). We 
also expect that users of HFE-7200 will adhere to any acceptable 
exposure limits set by any voluntary consensus standards organization, 
including the American Conference of Governmental Industrial 
Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) or the AIHA's WEELs.
    Comparison to other carrier solvents in adhesives, coatings, and 
inks: HFE-7200's GWP is similar to or lower than that of the ODSs that 
it would be replacing, and it has no ODP. Thus, HFE-7200 reduces risk 
overall compared to the substances it replaces.
    HFE-7200:
    (1) Reduces the risk of fire compared to more flammable carrier 
solvents,
    (2) Is less toxic than the non-flammable carrier solvents, and
    (3) Has a GWP comparable to or less than other substitute carrier 
solvents and has no ODP.
    Thus, we find that HFE-7200 is acceptable because it reduces 
overall risk to public health and the environment in the adhesives, 
coatings, and inks end uses.

II. New Data Available on the Toxicity of HCFC-225ca/cb

    The manufacturer of HCFC-225ca/cb conducted a review of the 
toxicity of HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and the mixture of the two isomers. 
The manufacturer's new analysis indicates that exposure limits of 50 
ppm, 400 ppm, and 100 ppm, respectively, for the -ca and -cb isomers 
and for the commercial formulation of HCFC-225ca/cb may be appropriate. 
The company that produces HCFC-225 ca/cb has indicated to EPA that they 
may petition the American Industrial Hygiene Association, a voluntary 
standard setting committee, to set a Workplace Environmental Exposure 
Level using these new data.
    When EPA originally reviewed HCFC-225ca/cb, we found this 
substitute acceptable subject to use conditions in solvents cleaning 
(June 13, 1995; 60 FR 31099) and acceptable in aerosol solvents (April 
28, 1999; 64 FR 22993) as a substitute for methyl chloroform and CFC-
113. At the time of our determination, we stated that the company-set 
exposure limit of 25 ppm for the -ca isomer and 250 ppm for the -cb 
isomer would be protective of human health. The condition for use of 
HCFC-225 as a non-aerosol cleaning solvent specified that users must 
meet the company-set exposure limit of 25 ppm for the -ca isomer.
    EPA has also done our own assessment of the toxicity using all 
available toxicity studies and a benchmark dose approach to arrive at 
an acceptable exposure limit. Our analysis indicates that the 
manufacturer's revised exposure limits are sufficiently protective of 
human health. You can find this information in a document titled, 
``Recommendation of AELs for HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and HCFC-225 ca/
cb.'' This document is in EPA's Air Docket #A-91-42, item IX-B-73. To 
obtain a copy, you can contact the EPA Air Docket at the address and 
phone number listed above in the ADDRESSES

[[Page 13276]]

section at the beginning of this document.

III. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act authorizes EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. We 
refer to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) 
program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
     Rulemaking--Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate 
rules making it unlawful to replace any class I (chlorofluorocarbon, 
halon, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, methyl bromide, and 
hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class II (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) substance 
with any substitute that the Administrator determines may present 
adverse effects to human health or the environment where the 
Administrator has identified an alternative that (1) reduces the 
overall risk to human health and the environment, and (2) is currently 
or potentially available.
     Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes--Section 
612(c) also requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses. EPA must publish a corresponding list 
of acceptable alternatives for specific uses.
     Petition Process--Section 612(d) grants the right to any 
person to petition EPA to add a substance to or delete a substance from 
the lists published in accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 
90 days to grant or deny a petition. Where the Agency grants the 
petition, it must publish the revised lists within an additional six 
months.
     90-day Notification--Section 612(e) directs EPA to require 
any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I substance 
to notify the Agency not less than 90 days before new or existing 
chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for significant new 
uses as substitutes for a class I substance. The producer must also 
provide the Agency with the producer's unpublished health and safety 
studies on such substitutes.
     Outreach--Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator 
shall seek to maximize the use of federal research facilities and 
resources to assist users of class I and II substances in identifying 
and developing alternatives to the use of such substances in key 
commercial applications.
     Clearinghouse--Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to 
set up a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product 
substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available 
for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and II 
substances.

B. Regulatory History

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the rulemaking (59 FR 13044) which 
described the process for administering the SNAP program. In the same 
notice, we issued the first acceptability lists for substitutes in the 
major industrial use sectors. These sectors include:
     Refrigeration and air conditioning;
     Foam blowing;
     Solvents cleaning;
     Fire suppression and explosion protection;
     Sterilants;
     Aerosols;
     Adhesives, coatings and inks; and
     Tobacco expansion.
    These sectors compose the principal industrial sectors that 
historically consumed the largest volumes of ozone-depleting compounds.
    As described in this original rule for the SNAP program, EPA does 
not believe that rulemaking procedures are required to list 
alternatives as acceptable with no limitations. Such listings do not 
impose any sanction, nor do they remove any prior license to use a 
substance. Therefore, by this notice we are adding substances to the 
list of acceptable alternatives without first requesting comment on new 
listings.
    However, we do believe that notice-and-comment rulemaking is 
required to place any substance on the list of prohibited substitutes, 
to list a substance as acceptable only under certain conditions, to 
list substances as acceptable only for certain uses, or to remove a 
substance from the lists of prohibited or acceptable substitutes. We 
publish updates to these lists as separate notices of rulemaking in the 
Federal Register.
    The Agency defines a ``substitute'' as any chemical, product 
substitute, or alternative manufacturing process, whether existing or 
new, intended for use as a replacement for a class I or class II 
substance. Anyone who produces a substitute must provide EPA with 
health and safety studies on the substitute at least 90 days before 
introducing it into interstate commerce for significant new use as an 
alternative. This requirement applies to substitute manufacturers, but 
may include importers, formulators, or end-users, when they are 
responsible for introducing a substitute into commerce.
    You can find a complete chronology of SNAP decisions and the 
appropriate Federal Register citations from the SNAP section of EPA's 
Ozone Depletion World Wide Web site at www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/snap/
chron.html. This information is also available from the Air Docket (see 
Addresses section above for contact information).

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: March 1, 2002.
Paul Stolpman,
Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Office of Air and Radiation.

Appendix A--Summary of Acceptable Decisions

                                       Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              End-use                      Substitute                  Decision             Further information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Very low temperature refrigeration   PFC-1102HC, PFC-662HC,  Acceptable.
 (new equipment only).                PFC-552HC and FLC-15
                                      as substitutes for
                                      CFC-13, CFC-113, CFC-
                                      114 and blends
                                      thereof.
Very low temperature refrigeration   Hydrofluoroether-7000   Acceptable.
 (retrofit and new).                  as a substitute for
                                      HCFC-123.
Industrial process refrigeration     Hydrofluoroether-7000   Acceptable.
 (retrofit and new).                  as a substitute for
                                      CFC-11 and CFC-113.
                                     ISCEON 39TC as a        Acceptable.
                                      substitute for CFC-12.
                                     R-404A as a substitute  Acceptable.
                                      for HCFC-22.
Non-mechanical heat transfer         Hydrofluoroether-7000   Acceptable.
 (retrofit and new).                  as a substitute for
                                      CFC-11 and CFC-113.

[[Page 13277]]

 
Centrifugal chillers (retrofit and   ISCEON 39TC as a        Acceptable.
 new).                                substitute for CFC-12.
Industrial process air conditioning  ISCEON 39TC as a        Acceptable.
 (retrofit and new).                  substitute for CFC-12.
Cold storage warehouses (retrofit    ISCEON 39TC as a        Acceptable.
 and new).                            substitute for CFC-12.
Ice skating rinks (retrofit and      ISCEON 39TC as a        Acceptable.
 new).                                substitute for CFC-12.
The following end-uses (retrofit     R125/134a/600a (28.1/   Acceptable.
 and new):                            70.01/1.9)] as a
  Centrifugal chiller         sustitute for HCFC-22.
  Reciprocating chillers
  Industrial process
 refrigeration
   Industrial process air-
   conditioning
   Refrigerated transport
   Residential air
   conditioning and heat pumps
   Residential
   dehumidifiers
   Motor vehicle air
   conditioning, buses only
The following end-uses (retrofit     NU-22/ISCEON 59 [R-125/ Acceptable..................  EPA expects that
 and new):                            134a/600 (46.6/50.0/                                  manufacturers,
  Household and light         3.4] as a substitute                                  installers and
 commercial air-conditioning          for HCFC-22.                                          servicers of
  Centrifugal chiller                                                               refrigeration and
  Reciprocating chillers                                                            air-conditioning
 Screw chillers                                                                     systems will follow
 Industrial process                                                                 all applicable
 refrigeration                                                                              industry practices
 Industrial process air-                                                            and technical
 conditioning                                                                               standards, including
 Cold storage warehouses                                                            but not limited to
 Refrigerated transport                                                             standards issued by
 Retail food refrigeration                                                          the American Society
 Commercial ice machines                                                            of Heating,
 Vending machines                                                                   Refrigerating and
 Water coolers                                                                      Air-conditioning
 Household refrigerators                                                            Engineers (ASHRAE),
 Household freezers                                                                 and that exposures
 Ice skating rinks                                                                  will be kept within
 Non-mechanical heat                                                                all applicable
 transfer                                                                                   American Industrial
                                                                                            Hygiene Association
                                                                                            (AIHA) and American
                                                                                            Conference of
                                                                                            Governmental
                                                                                            Industrial
                                                                                            Hygienists (ACGIH)
                                                                                            occupational
                                                                                            exposure limits.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aerosol solvents...................  HFC-245fa as a          Acceptable..................  EPA expects that the
                                      substitute for CFC-                                   workplace
                                      113 and HCFC-141b.                                    environmental
                                                                                            exposure will not
                                                                                            exceed the Workplace
                                                                                            Environmental
                                                                                            Exposure Limit of
                                                                                            300 ppm and that
                                                                                            users will observe
                                                                                            the manufacturer's
                                                                                            recommendations in
                                                                                            MSDSs.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Adhesives, Coatings, and Inks
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Adhesives, coatings, and inks......  Hydrofluoroether-7100   Acceptable.
                                      as a substitute for
                                      CFC-113, HCFC-141b,
                                      and methyl chloroform.
Adhesives, coatings, and inks......  Hydrofluoroether-7200   Acceptable.
                                      as a substitute for
                                      CFC-113, HCFC-141b,
                                      and methyl chloroform.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix B--New Information Available

                      Non-Aerosol Cleaning Solvents
------------------------------------------------------------------------
            End-use                 Substitute     Information available
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Metal cleaning, Electronics     HCFC-225ca/cb....  Report on benchmark
 cleaning, Precision cleaning.                      dose analysis of
                                                    acceptable exposure
                                                    limit for HCFC-225ca/
                                                    cb, HCFC-225ca, and
                                                    HCFC-225cb. See
                                                    Docket A-91-42, item
                                                    IX-B-73.

[[Page 13278]]

 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                Aerosols
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aerosol solvents..............  HCFC-225ca/cb....  Report on benchmark
                                                    dose analysis of
                                                    acceptable exposure
                                                    limit for HCFC-225ca/
                                                    cb, HCFC-225ca, and
                                                    HCFC-225cb. See
                                                    Docket A-91-42, item
                                                    IX-B-73.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[FR Doc. 02-6848 Filed 3-21-02; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P