[Federal Register Volume 67, Number 245 (Friday, December 20, 2002)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 77927-77936]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 02-32130]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[FRL-7425-6]
RIN 2060-AG12


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 17 for Significant New 
Alternatives Policy Program

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.

ACTION: Notice of acceptability.

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SUMMARY: This notice of acceptability expands the list of acceptable 
substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives 
Policy (SNAP) program. The substitutes are for use in the following 
sectors: refrigeration and air conditioning, solvents cleaning, fire 
suppression and explosion protection, and aerosols.

EFFECTIVE DATE: December 20, 2002.

ADDRESSES: Information relevant to this notice is contained in Air 
Docket A-91-42, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW.; U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Mail Code 6102T; Washington, DC, 20460. The docket 
reading room is located at the address above in room B102 in the 
basement. Reading room telephone: (202) 566-1744, facsimile: (202) 566-
1749 Air docket staff telephone: (202) 566-1742 and facsimile: (202) 
566-1741 You may inspect the docket between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. 
weekdays. As provided in 40 CFR part 2, a reasonable fee may be charged 
for photocopying.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard by telephone at 
(202) 564-9163, by fax at (202) 565-2155, by e-mail at 
sheppard.margaret@epa.gov, or by mail at U.S. Environmental Protection

[[Page 77928]]

Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Mail Code 6205J, Washington, DC 
20460. Overnight or courier deliveries should be sent to 501 3rd 
Street, NW., Washington, DC 20001.
    For more information on the Agency's process for administering the 
SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the 
original SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 
1994 (59 FR 13044). Notices and rulemakings under the SNAP program, as 
well as other EPA publications on protection of stratospheric ozone, 
are available from EPA's Ozone Depletion World Wide Web site at http://
www.epa.gov/ozone/ including the SNAP portion at http://www.epa.gov/
ozone/snap/.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
I. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    B. Solvent Cleaning
    C. Fire Suppression
    D. Aerosols
II. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements
    B. Regulatory History

Appendix A--Summary of Acceptable Decisions

I. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes

    This section presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing 
decisions for substitutes in the following industrial sectors: 
refrigeration and air conditioning, solvent cleaning, fire suppression 
and explosion protection, and aerosols. For copies of the full list of 
SNAP decisions in all industrial sectors, visit EPA's Ozone Depletion 
web site at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists/index.html.
    The sections below discuss the substitute listing in detail. 
Appendix A contains a table summarizing today's listing decisions. The 
statements in the ``Further Information'' column in the table provide 
additional information, but are not legally binding under section 612 
of the Clean Air Act. In addition, the ``further information'' may not 
be a comprehensive list of other legal obligations you may need to meet 
when using the substitute. Although you are not required to follow 
recommendations in the ``further information'' column of the table to 
use a substitute, EPA strongly encourages you to apply the information 
when using these substitutes. In many instances, the information simply 
refers to standard operating practices in existing industry and/or 
building-code standards. Thus, many of these statements, if adopted, 
would not require significant changes to existing operating practices.
    Submissions to EPA for the use of the substitutes listed in this 
document may be found under category VI-D of EPA air docket A-91-42 at 
the address described above under ADDRESSES. You can find other 
materials supporting the decisions in this action under category IX-B 
of EPA docket A-91-42.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

1. and 2. R-404A and R-507A
    EPA's decision: R-404A and R-507A are acceptable for use in new and 
retrofit equipment as substitutes for HCFC-22 and HCFC blends 
including, but not limited to, R-401A, R-401B, R-402A, R-402B, R-406A, 
R-408A, R-409A, R-411A, R-411B, R-411C, R-414A, R-414B, and R-416A in:
    [sbull] Retail food refrigeration
    [sbull] Cold storage warehouses
    [sbull] Commercial ice machines
    [sbull] Refrigerated transport
    [sbull] Ice skating rinks
    [sbull] Water coolers
    [sbull] Residential dehumidifiers
    [sbull] Vending machines
    [sbull] Industrial process air conditioning
    [sbull] Reciprocating chillers
    [sbull] Screw chillers
    [sbull] Centrifugal chillers
    [sbull] Industrial process refrigeration
    [sbull] Very low temperature refrigeration
    [sbull] Non-mechanical heat transfer systems
    [sbull] Household refrigerators and freezers
    [sbull] Household and light commercial air conditioning
    R-404A is a blend of 44% by weight HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane), 52% 
by weight HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane) and 4% by weight HFC-134a 
(1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane). You may find the submission under EPA Air 
Docket A-91-42, items VI-D-284 and VI-D-287. R-507A, also known as R-
507, is a blend of 50% by weight HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane) and 50% by 
weight HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane).
    EPA previously listed both R-404A and R-507A as acceptable 
alternatives for various CFCs (e.g., R-12) and CFC-containing blends 
(e.g., R-500 and R-502) in several applications in the original SNAP 
rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 1994 (59 FR 
13044) and in subsequent SNAP Notices (August 26, 1994, 59 FR 44240; 
January 13, 1995, 60 FR 3318). EPA previously listed R-404A and R-507A 
as acceptable substitutes for HCFC-22 in various end uses (March 22, 
2002, 67 FR 13272 for R-404A; September 5, 1996, 61 FR 47012 for R-
507A). Since that time, many users have switched directly from CFCs to 
R-404A or R-507A, while others have switched to HCFC-22 or many 
different HCFC blends found acceptable under various SNAP rulemakings 
and notices. Today's decision finds it acceptable to switch from HCFC-
22 and HCFC blends to R-404A or R-507A in the end uses listed above.
Environmental Information
    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of R-404A and of R-507A is 
zero. The Global Warming Potentials (GWP) of HFC-125, HFC-143a and HFC-
134a are 3400, 4300 and 1300, respectively (relative to carbon dioxide, 
using a 100-year time horizon).
    All components of these blends have been exempted from listing as a 
volatile organic compound (VOC) under Clean Air Act regulations 
concerning the development of state implementation plans (SIPs) at 40 
CFR 51.100(s).
Flammability Information
    While HFC-143a is moderately flammable, the blends are not 
flammable.
Toxicity and Exposure Data
    All components of the blend have workplace environmental exposure 
limits (WEELs) of 1000 ppm established by the American Industrial 
Hygiene Association (AIHA). EPA expects users to follow all 
recommendations specified in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for 
the blend and the individual components and other safety precautions 
common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. We also 
expect that users of R-404A and R-507A will adhere to the AIHA's WEELs.
Comparison to Other Refrigerants
    R-404A and R-507A are not ozone depleting; thus, they reduce risk 
from ozone depletion compared to HCFC-22, the ODS they replace, and 
blends containing HCFCs. Flammability and toxicity risks are low, as 
discussed above. Thus, we find that R-404A and R-507A are acceptable 
because they reduce overall risk to public health and the environment 
in the end uses listed.
3. RS-24
    EPA's decision: RS-24 is acceptable for use in new and retrofit 
equipment as a substitute for CFC-12 in the following end uses:
    [sbull] Industrial process refrigeration
    [sbull] Industrial process air conditioning
    [sbull] Ice skating rinks
    [sbull] Cold storage warehouses
    [sbull] Refrigerated transport
    [sbull] Retail food refrigeration
    [sbull] Vending machines
    [sbull] Water coolers
    [sbull] Commercial ice machines
    [sbull] Household refrigerators and freezers
    [sbull] Residential dehumidifiers
    RS-24 is acceptable, subject to use conditions, for use in new and 
retrofit

[[Page 77929]]

equipment as a substitute for CFC-12 in the following end use:
    [sbull] Motor vehicle air conditioning
Conditions for Use in Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems
    Regulations regarding recycling and prohibiting venting issued 
under section 609 of the Clean Air Act apply to this blend (subpart B 
of 40 CFR part 82).
    On October 16, 1996, (61 FR 54029), EPA promulgated a final rule 
that prospectively applied certain conditions on the use of any 
refrigerant used as a substitute for CFC-12 in motor vehicle air 
conditioning systems (Appendix D of subpart G of 40 CFR part 82). That 
rule provided that EPA would list new refrigerants in future notices of 
acceptability. Therefore, the use of RS-24 as a CFC-12 substitute in 
motor vehicle air conditioning systems must follow the standard 
conditions imposed on previous refrigerants, including:
    [sbull] The use of unique fittings designed by the refrigerant 
manufacturer,
    [sbull] The application of a detailed label,
    [sbull] The removal of the original refrigerant prior to charging 
with RS-24, and
    [sbull] The installation of a high-pressure compressor cutoff 
switch on systems equipped with pressure relief devices.
    The October 16, 1996, rule gives full details on these use 
conditions.
    You must use the following fittings to use RS-24 in motor vehicle 
air conditioning systems:

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                                         Diameter
             Fitting type                (inches)    Thread pitch (threads/inch)          Thread direction
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Low-side service port................  ...........  quick-connect................  .............................
High-side service port...............  ...........  quick-connect................  .............................
Large containers (20 lb.).  ...........  quick-connect................  .............................
Small cans...........................  ...........  quick-connect................  .............................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The quick-connect fittings have been reviewed and found to be 
sufficiently different from HFC-134a and FRIGC FR-12 quick-connect 
fittings to be considered unique. The labels will have a gold 
background and black text.
    The submitter of RS-24 claims that the composition of this HFC 
blend is confidential business information. You can find a version of 
the submission with information claimed confidential by the submitter 
removed in EPA Air Docket A-91-42, item VI-D-281.
Environmental Information
    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of RS-24 is zero. The Global 
Warming Potentials (GWPs) of the constituents are between zero and 
approximately 4000 (relative to carbon dioxide, using a 100-year time 
horizon).
    At least one component of this blend has not been exempted from 
listing as a VOC under Clean Air Act regulations concerning the 
development of SIPs at 40 CFR 51.100(s).
Flammability Information
    While at least one component of the blend is moderately flammable, 
the blend is not flammable.
Toxicity and Exposure Data
    Components of the blend have workplace guidance level exposure 
limits on the order of 500 to 1000 ppm. EPA believes this exposure 
limit will be protective of human health and safety. EPA expects users 
to follow all recommendations specified in the Material Safety Data 
Sheet (MSDS) for the blend and the individual components and other 
safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning 
industry.
Comparison to Other Refrigerants
    RS-24 is not an ozone depleter; thus, it reduces risk from ozone 
depletion compared to CFC-12, the ODS it replaces. RS-24 has a 
comparable or lower GWP than the other substitutes for CFC-12. 
Flammability and toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, we 
find that RS-24 is acceptable because it reduces overall risk to public 
health and the environment in the end uses listed.
4. NU-22
    EPA's decision: NU-22 [R-125/134a/600 (46.6/50.0/3.4)] is 
acceptable for use in new and retrofit equipment as a substitute for R-
502 in:
    [sbull] Industrial process refrigeration
    [sbull] Industrial process air-conditioning
    [sbull] Cold storage warehouses
    [sbull] Refrigerated transport
    [sbull] Retail food refrigeration
    [sbull] Commercial ice machines
    [sbull] Vending machines
    [sbull] Water coolers
    [sbull] Ice skating rinks
    NU-22 is a blend of 46.6 percent HFC-125, 50.0 percent HFC-134a, 
and 3.4 percent n-butane.
    You can find the most recent submission in EPA Air Docket A-91-42, 
item VI-D-286.
    In SNAP Notice of Acceptability 16 (March 22, 2002; 67 FR 
13272), EPA noted that the composition of NU-22 was changed to match 
that of ISCEON 59, and that EPA previously found ISCEON 59 acceptable 
as a substitute for R-22 in a number of end uses in SNAP Notice of 
Acceptability 11 (December 6, 1999; 64 FR 68039).
Environmental Information
    For environmental information on HFC-125 and HFC-134a, see above in 
section I.A.1 for R-404A. The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of NU-22 
is zero. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) of butane is less than 10 
(relative to carbon dioxide, using a 100-year time horizon). Butane is 
a VOC under Clean Air Act regulations concerning the development of 
SIPs at 40 CFR 51.100(s).
Flammability Information
    While butane, one component of the blend, is flammable, the blend 
is not flammable.
Toxicity and Exposure Data
    HFC-125 and HFC-134a have guidance level WEELs of 1000 ppm 
established by the AIHA. Butane has a threshold limit value (TLV) of 
800 ppm established by the American Conference of Goverment Industrial 
Hygienists (ACGIH). EPA expects users to follow all recommendations 
specified in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the blend and 
the individual components and other safety precautions common in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry. We also expect that users 
of NU-22 will adhere to the AIHA's WEELs and the ACGIH's TLVs.
Comparison to Other Refrigerants
    NU-22 is not an ozone depleter; thus, it reduces risk from ozone 
depletion compared to R-502, the ODS it replaces. NU-22 has a 
comparable or lower GWP than the other substitutes for R-502. 
Flammability and toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, we 
find that NU-22 is acceptable because it reduces overall risk to public 
health and the environment in the end uses listed.

[[Page 77930]]

5. R-407C
    EPA's decision: R-407C is acceptable for use in new and retrofit 
equipment as a substitute for HCFC-22 and HCFC blends including, but 
not limited to, R-401A, R-401B, R-402A, R-402B, R-406A, R-408A, R-409A, 
R-411A, R-411B, R-411C, R-414A, R-414B, and R-416A in:
    [sbull] Retail food refrigeration
    [sbull] Cold storage warehouses
    [sbull] Commercial ice machines
    [sbull] Refrigerated transport
    [sbull] Ice skating rinks
    [sbull] Water coolers
    [sbull] Residential dehumidifiers
    [sbull] Vending machines
    [sbull] Industrial process air conditioning
    [sbull] Reciprocating chillers
    [sbull] Screw chillers
    [sbull] Centrifugal chillers
    [sbull] Industrial process refrigeration
    [sbull] Very low temperature refrigeration
    [sbull] Non-mechanical heat transfer systems
    [sbull] Household refrigerators and freezers
    [sbull] Household and light commercial air conditioning
    R-407C is a blend of 23% by weight HFC-32 (difluoromethane), 25% by 
weight HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane) and 52% by weight HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-
tetrafluoroethane).
    EPA previously listed R-407C as an acceptable alternative for HCFC-
22 and CFCs in various end uses under SNAP (February 8, 1996; 61 FR 
4736). Since that time, many users have switched to R-407C, while 
others have switched to many different HCFC blends found acceptable 
under various SNAP rulemakings and notices. Today's decision finds it 
acceptable to switch from HCFC blends to R-407C.
Environmental Information
    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of R-407C is zero. The Global 
Warming Potentials (GWP) of HFC-125, HFC-32 and HFC-134a are 3400, 880, 
and 1300, respectively (relative to carbon dioxide, using a 100-year 
time horizon).
    HFC-32 is the only component of this blend that is a VOC under 
Clean Air Act regulations.
Flammability Information
    While HFC-32 is moderately flammable, the blend is not flammable.
Toxicity and Exposure Data
    All components of the blend have workplace environmental exposure 
limits (WEELs) of 1000 ppm established by the American Industrial 
Hygiene Association (AIHA). EPA expects users to follow all 
recommendations specified in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for 
the blend and the individual components and other safety precautions 
common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. We also 
expect that users of R-407C will adhere to the AIHA's WEELs.
Comparison to Other Refrigerants
    R-407C is not an ozone depleter; thus, it reduces risk from ozone 
depletion compared to HCFC-22, the ODS it replaces, and blends 
containing HCFCs. R-407C has a comparable or lower GWP than the other 
substitutes for HCFC-22. Flammability and toxicity risks are low, as 
discussed above. Thus, we find that R-407C is acceptable because it 
reduces overall risk to public health and the environment in the end 
uses listed.
6. R-410A
    EPA's decision: R-410A is acceptable for use in new equipment as a 
substitute for HCFC blends including, but not limited to, R-401A, R-
401B, R-402A, R-402B, R-406A, R-408A, R-409A, R-411A, R-411B, R-411C, 
R-414A, R-414B, and R-416A in:
    [sbull] Retail food refrigeration
    [sbull] Cold storage warehouses
    [sbull] Commercial ice machines
    [sbull] Refrigerated transport
    [sbull] Ice skating rinks
    [sbull] Water coolers
    [sbull] Residential dehumidifiers
    [sbull] Vending machines
    [sbull] Industrial process air conditioning
    [sbull] Reciprocating chillers
    [sbull] Screw chillers
    [sbull] Centrifugal chillers
    [sbull] Industrial process refrigeration
    [sbull] Very low temperature refrigeration
    [sbull] Non-mechanical heat transfer systems
    [sbull] Household refrigerators and freezers
    [sbull] Household and light commercial air conditioning
    R-410A is a blend of 50% by weight HFC-32 (difluoromethane) and 50% 
by weight HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane).
    EPA previously listed R-410A as an acceptable alternative for HCFC-
22 and CFCs in various end uses under SNAP (February 8, 1996; 61 FR 
4736). Since that time, many users have switched to R-410A, while 
others have switched to many different HCFC blends found acceptable 
under various SNAP rulemakings and notices. Today's decision finds it 
acceptable to switch from HCFC blends to R-410A.
Environmental Information
    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of R-410A is zero. For 
environmental information about HFC-125, see section I.A.1 above for R-
404A; for environmental information about HFC-32, see section I.A.5 
above for R-407C.
Flammability Information
    While HFC-32 is moderately flammable, the blend is not flammable.
Toxicity and Exposure Data
    For toxicity and exposure data on HFC-125 and HFC-32, see section 
I.A.5 above for R-407C. We expect that users of R-410A will adhere to 
the AIHA's WEELs.
Comparison to Other Refrigerants
    R-410A is not an ozone depleter; thus, it reduces risk from ozone 
depletion compared to HCFC-22, the ODS it replaces, and blends 
containing HCFCs. Flammability and toxicity risks are low, as discussed 
above. Thus, we find that R-410A is acceptable because it reduces 
overall risk to public health and the environment in the end uses 
listed.
7. R-414B
    EPA's decision: R-414B [R-22/124/600a/142b (50/39/1.5/9.5)] is 
acceptable for use in new and retrofit equipment as a substitute for 
CFC-12 and CFC-114 in:
    [sbull] Industrial process air conditioning
    R-414B, sold under the trade name Hot Shot, is a blend of 50% by 
weight HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane), 39% by weight HCFC-124 (2-
chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), 1.5% by weight R-600a (isobutane) 
and 9.5% by weight HCFC-142b (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane). You may 
find the submission under EPA Air Docket A-91-42, item VI-D-289.
    EPA previously listed R-414B as an acceptable alternative for CFC-
12 and R-500 in several end-uses under SNAP (September 5, 1996; 61 FR 
47012) and found it acceptable subject to use conditions as a CFC-12 
alternative in motor vehicle air conditioners (October 16, 1996; 61 FR 
54029). Today's decision extends this decision to an additional end-
use.
Environmental Information
    The ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) of HCFC-22, HCFC-124 and 
HCFC-142b are 0.055, 0.022 and 0.065, respectively. The global warming 
potentials (GWPs) are 1700, 620 and 2400, respectively (relative to 
carbon dioxide, using a 100-year time horizon).
    Isobutane is under Clean Air Act regulations concerning the 
development of SIPs at 40 CFR 51.100(s).
Flammability Information
    While HCFC-142b and isobutane are flammable, the blend is not 
flammable.
Toxicity and Exposure Data
    HCFC-22, HCFC-124 and HCFC-142b have workplace environmental 
exposure

[[Page 77931]]

limits (WEELs) established by the American Industrial Hygiene 
Association (AIHA) or threshold limit value (TLV) established by the 
American Conference of Goverment Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) of 1000 
ppm. Isobutane has a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 800 ppm 
established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and 
Health (NIOSH). EPA expects users to follow all recommendations 
specified in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the blend and 
the individual components and other safety precautions common in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry. We also expect that users 
of R-414B will adhere to all recommended exposure limits.
Comparison to Other Refrigerants
    R-414B has a much lower ozone-depletion potential than CFC-12 and 
CFC-114, the ODSs it replaces; thus, it reduces risk from ozone 
depletion. R-414B has a comparable or lower GWP than the other 
substitutes for CFC-12 and CFC-114 in the end-use listed. Flammability 
and toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, we find that R-
414B is acceptable because it reduces overall risk to public health and 
the environment in the end use listed.

B. Solvent Cleaning

1. HCFC-225ca/cb
    EPA's Decision: HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb are acceptable for use as 
a substitute for CFC-113 and methyl chloroform in the metals cleaning 
end use.
    HCFC-225ca is also called 3,3-dichloro-1,1,1,2,2-
pentafluoropropane. HCFC-225cb is also called 1,3-dichloro-1,1,2,2,3-
pentafluoropropane. They are sold in a commercial blend of 45% of the 
ca isomer and 55% of the cb isomer (``HCFCca/cb'').
    EPA has previously found HCFC-225ca/cb acceptable subject to use 
conditions for use in solvents cleaning in the precision cleaning and 
electronics cleaning end uses (June 13, 1995, 60 FR 31092) and 
acceptable for use in aerosol solvents (April 28, 1999, 64 FR 22981).
Environmental Information
    HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb have ozone depletion potentials (ODPs), 
respectively, of 0.025 and 0.033. HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb have global 
warming potentials (GWPs) of 180 and 620, respectively, over a 100-year 
time horizon. HCFC-225ca has an atmospheric lifetime (ALT) of 2.1 years 
and HCFC-225cb has an ALT of 6.2 years.
    HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and the commercial blend of HCFC-225ca/cb 
have been exempted from listing as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 
under Clean Air Act regulations concerning the development of state 
implementation plans at 40 CFR 51.100(s).
Flammability
    HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and the commercial blend of HCFC-225ca/cb 
are non-flammable.
Toxicity and Exposure Data
    The manufacturer's recommended exposure guidelines over an eight-
hour time-weighted average are 50 ppm for HCFC-225ca, 400 ppm for HCFC-
225cb, and 100 ppm for the commercial mixture of HCFC-225ca/cb. EPA 
initially established a use condition for HCFC-225ca/cb in the 
precision cleaning and electronics cleaning end uses and did not issue 
an acceptability determination for the metal cleaning end use because 
of earlier data indicating the exposure guideline for the commercial 
mixture should be only 50 ppm. More recent analysis of the 
toxicological data indicate that a higher exposure guideline is 
appropriate (SNAP Notice 16, March 22, 2002, 67 FR 13272). EPA 
expects users of HCFC-225ca/cb to follow all recommendations specified 
in the manufacturer's Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs).
Comparison to Other Cleaning Solvents
    HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb have ODPs of 0.025 and 0.033, 
respectively; thus, they reduce risk overall compared to CFC-113 and 
methyl chloroform, the ODSs they replace. HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb 
have comparable or lower GWP than some acceptable substitutes for CFC-
113 and methyl chloroform. HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb are non-flammable. 
HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb are VOC-exempt. Thus, we find that HCFC-
225ca, HCFC-225cb, and the commercial blend of HCFC-225ca/cb are 
acceptable because they reduce overall risk to public health and the 
environment in the end use listed.

C. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection

1. C6-perfluoroketone
    EPA's decision: C6-perfluoroketone is acceptable as a substitute 
for halon 1301 in the total flooding end use for both normally occupied 
and unoccupied spaces.
    C6-perfluoroketone is comprised of a perfluoroalkyl ketone 
(1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,5-nonafluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pentanone). It is 
marketed under the trade name Novec-1230. Other names include FK-5-1-
12mmy2, perfluoro-2-methyl-3-pentanone, and L-15566. You can find a 
version of the submission with information claimed confidential by the 
submitter removed in EPA Air Docket A-91-42, items VI-D-269 and VI-D-
277. Additional information on this fire suppressant is available in 
EPA Air Docket A-2002-08.
Environmental Information
    C6-perfluoroketone has no ozone-depletion potential, a global 
warming potential of six to 100 relative to CO2 over a 100 
year time horizon, and an atmospheric lifetime of less than three days.
Flammability
    C6-perfluoroketone is non-flammable.
Toxicity and Exposure Data
    The C6-perfluoroketone was assayed for its ability to induce 
cardiac sensitization in the beagle dog (Huntington 2001). In that 
study, the cardiotoxic NOAEL was determined to be 10 percent. The 
manufacturer's maximum design concentration of 6.44 percent is 
significantly below the cardiotoxic NOAEL.
    Appropriate protective measures should be taken and proper training 
administered for the manufacture, clean-up and disposal of this product 
and for the installation and maintenance of the total flooding systems 
using this product. EPA recommends the following for establishments 
installing and maintaining total flooding systems using this agent:
    [sbull] Install and use adequate ventilation;
    [sbull] Clean up all spills immediately in accordance with good 
industrial hygiene practices;
    [sbull] Provide training for safe handling procedures to all 
employees that would be likely to handle containers of the agent or 
extinguishing units filled with the agent; and
    [sbull] Provide safety features such as pre-discharge alarms, time 
delays, and system abort switches, as directed by applicable OSHA 
regulations and NFPA standards. EPA recommends that unnecessary 
exposure to fire suppression agents and their decomposition products be 
avoided and that personnel exposure be limited to no more than 5 
minutes.
    Use of this agent should conform with relevant Occupational Safety 
and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements, including 29 CFR 1910, 
subpart L, sections 1910.160 and 1910.162. EPA expects that users will 
follow the safety guidelines in the NFPA 2001 standard for clean agent 
fire extinguishing systems and the guidelines in the manufacturer's 
MSDSs.

[[Page 77932]]

Comparison to Other Fire Suppressants
    EPA has reviewed the potential environmental impacts of this 
substitute and has concluded that, by comparison to halon 1301 and 
other acceptable substitutes, C6-perfluoroketone significantly reduces 
overall risk to the environment. With no ozone-depletion potential, a 
global warming potential value of less than 100, and an atmospheric 
lifetime of less than three days, C6-perfluoroketone provides an 
improvement over use of halon 1301, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) 
and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in fire protection. We find that C6-
perfluoroketone is acceptable because it reduces overall risk to public 
health and the environment in the end use listed.

D. Aerosols

1. HCFC-225ca/cb
    EPA's Decision: HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb are acceptable for use as 
a substitute for HCFC-141b in the aerosol solvent end use.
    For further information on HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb, see section 
B., Solvent Cleaning, above.
Comparison to Other Aerosol Solvents
    HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb have ODPs of 0.025 and 0.033, while HCFC-
141b has an ODP of 0.11; thus, HCFC-225ca and -225cb reduce risk 
overall compared to HCFC-141b, the ODS they replace. HCFC-225ca and 
HCFC-225cb have GWPs of 180 and 620, respectively, which are comparable 
or lower than the GWP of HCFC-141b (700) and the GWPs of some 
acceptable substitutes for HCFC-141b. HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb are 
non-flammable. They are less toxic than some other acceptable 
substitutes for HCFC-141b. HCFC-225ca and -225cb are VOC-exempt and are 
not hazardous air pollutants, unlike many alternatives in this end use. 
Therefore, we find that HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and the commercial 
blend of HCFC-225ca/cb are acceptable because they reduce overall risk 
to public health and the environment in the end use listed.

II. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act authorizes EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. We 
refer to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) 
program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
    [sbull] Rulemaking--Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate rules 
making it unlawful to replace any class I (chlorofluorocarbon, halon, 
carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, methyl bromide, and 
hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class II (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) substance 
with any substitute that the Administrator determines may present 
adverse effects to human health or the environment where the 
Administrator has identified an alternative that (1) reduces the 
overall risk to human health and the environment, and (2) is currently 
or potentially available.
    [sbull] Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes--Section 
612(c) also requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses. EPA must publish a corresponding list 
of acceptable alternatives for specific uses.
    [sbull] Petition Process--Section 612(d) grants the right to any 
person to petition EPA to add a substance to or delete a substance from 
the lists published in accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 
90 days to grant or deny a petition. Where the Agency grants the 
petition, it must publish the revised lists within an additional six 
months.
    [sbull] 90-day Notification--Section 612(e) directs EPA to require 
any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I substance 
to notify the Agency not less than 90 days before new or existing 
chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for significant new 
uses as substitutes for a class I substance. The producer must also 
provide the Agency with the producer's unpublished health and safety 
studies on such substitutes.
    [sbull] Outreach--Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator 
shall seek to maximize the use of federal research facilities and 
resources to assist users of class I and II substances in identifying 
and developing alternatives to the use of such substances in key 
commercial applications.
    [sbull] Clearinghouse--Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to set 
up a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product 
substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available 
for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and II 
substances.

B. Regulatory History

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the final rulemaking (59 FR 13044) 
which described the process for administering the SNAP program. In the 
same notice, we issued the first acceptability lists for substitutes in 
the major industrial use sectors. These sectors include:
    [sbull] Refrigeration and air conditioning;
    [sbull] Foam blowing;
    [sbull] Solvents cleaning;
    [sbull] Fire suppression and explosion protection;
    [sbull] Sterilants;
    [sbull] Aerosols;
    [sbull] Adhesives, coatings and inks; and
    [sbull] Tobacco expansion.
    These sectors compose the principal industrial sectors that 
historically consumed the largest volumes of ozone-depleting compounds.
    As described in this original rule for the SNAP program, EPA does 
not believe that rulemaking procedures are required to list 
alternatives as acceptable with no limitations. Such listings do not 
impose any sanction, nor do they remove any prior license to use a 
substance. Therefore, by this notice we are adding substances to the 
list of acceptable alternatives without first requesting comment on new 
listings.
    However, we do believe that notice-and-comment rulemaking is 
required to place any substance on the list of prohibited substitutes, 
to list a substance as acceptable only under certain conditions, to 
list substances as acceptable only for certain uses, or to remove a 
substance from the lists of prohibited or acceptable substitutes. We 
publish updates to these lists as separate notices of rulemaking in the 
Federal Register.
    The Agency defines a ``substitute'' as any chemical, product 
substitute, or alternative manufacturing process, whether existing or 
new, intended for use as a replacement for a class I or class II 
substance. Anyone who produces a substitute must provide EPA with 
health and safety studies on the substitute at least 90 days before 
introducing it into interstate commerce for significant new use as an 
alternative. This requirement applies to substitute manufacturers, but 
may include importers, formulators, or end-users, when they are 
responsible for introducing a substitute into commerce.
    You can find a complete chronology of SNAP decisions and the 
appropriate Federal Register citations from the SNAP section of EPA's 
Ozone Depletion World Wide Web site at www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/snap/
chron.html. This information is also available from the Air Docket (see 
ADDRESSES section above for contact information).

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: December 9, 2002.
Brian J. McLean,
Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Office of Air and Radiation.

Appendix A: Summary of Acceptable Decisions

[[Page 77933]]



                                       Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              End-Use                         Substitute                 Decision           Further information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Industrial process refrigeration     RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
 (retrofit and new).                  CFC-12.
                                     NU-22 as a substitute for R- Acceptable              ......................
                                      502.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note \1\
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Industrial process refrigeration     R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
 (new).                               HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Industrial process air conditioning  RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
 (retrofit and new).                  CFC-12.
                                     NU-22 as a substitute for R- Acceptable              ......................
                                      502.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      for HCFC-22 and HCFC
                                      blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      for HCFC-22 and HCFC
                                      blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      for HCFC-22 and HCFC
                                      blends.
                                     R-414B as a substitute for   Acceptable              ......................
                                      for CFC-12 and CFC-14.
Industrial process air conditioning  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable              See note
 (new).                               HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Ice skating rinks (retrofit and      RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
 new).                                CFC-12.
                                     NU-22 as a substitute for R- Acceptable              ......................
                                      502.
                                     NU-22 as a substitute for R- Acceptable              ......................
                                      502.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Ice skating rinks (new)............  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Cold storage warehouses (retrofit    RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
 and new).                            CFC-12.
                                     NU-22 as a substitute for R- Acceptable              ......................
                                      502.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Cold storage warehouses (new)......  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Refrigerated transport (retrofit     RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
 and new).                            CFC-12.
                                     NU-22 as a substitute for R- Acceptable              ......................
                                      502.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Refrigerated transport (new).......  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Retail food refrigeration (retrofit  RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
 and new).                            CFC-12.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Retail food refrigeration (new)....  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Vending machines (retrofit and new)  RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
                                      CFC-12.
                                     NU-22 as a substitute for R- Acceptable              ......................
                                      502.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.

[[Page 77934]]

 
Vending machines (new).............  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Water coolers (retrofit and new)...  RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
                                      CFC-12.
                                     NU-22 as a substitute for R- Acceptable              ......................
                                      502.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Water coolers (new)................  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Commercial ice machines (retrofit    RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
 and new).                            CFC-12.
                                     NU-22 as a substitute for R- Acceptable              ......................
                                      502.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Commercial ice machines (new)......  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Household refrigerators and          R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............
 freezers (retrofit and new).         CFC-12.
                                     RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable              ......................
                                      CFC-12.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Household refrigerators and          R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
 freezers (new).                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Reciprocating chillers (retrofit     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
 and new).                            HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Reciprocating chillers (new).......  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Centrifugal chillers (retrofit and   R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
 new).                                HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Centrifugal chillers (new).........  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Screw chillers (retrofit and new)..  R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Screw chillers (new)...............  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Very low temperature refrigeration   R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
 (retrofit and new).                  HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Very low temperature refrigeration   R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
 (new).                               HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Non-mechanical heat transfer         R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
 systems (retrofit and new).          HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Non-mechanical heat transfer         R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
 systems (new).                       HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.

[[Page 77935]]

 
Household and light commercial air
 conditioning (retrofit and new).
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Household and light commercial air   R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
 conditioning (new).                  HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Residential dehumidifiers (retrofit  RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable............  ......................
 and new).                            CFC-12.
                                     R-404A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-507A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
                                     R-407C as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Residential dehumidifiers (new)....  R-410A as a substitute for   Acceptable............  See note
                                      HCFC-22 and HCFC blends.
Motor vehicle air conditioning       RS-24 as a substitute for    Acceptable subject to   Users must use the
 (retrofit and new).                  CFC-12.                      use conditions.         unique fittings and
                                                                                           label specified by
                                                                                           the manufacturer. Use
                                                                                           is subject to
                                                                                           requirements under
                                                                                           Sec.   609 of the
                                                                                           Clean Air Act.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Note: HCFC blends include, but are not limited to, R-410A, R-401B, R-402A, R-402B, R-406A, R-408A, R-409A, R-
  411A, R-411B, R-411C, R-414A, R-414B, and R-416.


                                                Solvent Cleaning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           End-Use                           Substitute                      Decision        Further Information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Metal cleaning..............  HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb as a            Acceptable........  EPA recommends
                               substitute for CFC-113 and methyl                             observing the
                               chloroform.                                                   manufacturer's
                                                                                             recommended
                                                                                             exposure guidelines
                                                                                             of 50 ppm for the -
                                                                                             ca isomer, 400 ppm
                                                                                             for the -cb isomer,
                                                                                             and 100 ppm for the
                                                                                             commercial mixture
                                                                                             of HCFC-225ca/cb.
                                                                                            EPA encourages users
                                                                                             to consider other
                                                                                             alternatives that
                                                                                             do not have an
                                                                                             ozone depletion
                                                                                             potential.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                    Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           End-Use                 Substitute            Decision                  Further Information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total flooding..............  C6-perfluoroketone    Acceptable........  Use of the agent should be in accordance
                               as a substitute for                       with the safety guidelines in the
                               Halon 1301.                               latest edition of the NFPA 2001
                                                                         Standard for Clean Agent Fire
                                                                         Extinguishing Systems.
                                                                        For operations that install and maintain
                                                                         total flooding systems using this
                                                                         agent, EPA recommends the following:
                                                                        -- Install and use adequate ventilation;
                                                                        -- Clean up all spills immediately in
                                                                         accordance with good industrial hygiene
                                                                         practices; and
                                                                        -- Provide training for safe handling
                                                                         procedures to all employees that would
                                                                         be likely to handle containers of the
                                                                         agent or extinguishing units filled
                                                                         with the agent.
                                                                        See additional notes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Additional notes:
1. Should conform with relevant OSHA requirements, including 29 CFR 1910, subpart L, sections 1910.160, 1910.161
  (dry chemicals and aerosols) and 1910.162 (gaseous agents).
2. Per OSHA requirements, protective gear (SCBA) should be available in the event personnel should reenter the
  area.
3. Discharge testing should be strictly limited to that which is essential to meet safety or performance
  requirements.

[[Page 77936]]

 
4. The agent should be recovered from the fire protection system in conjunction with testing or servicing, and
  recycled for later use or destroyed.
5. EPA has no intention of duplicating or displacing OSHA coverage related to the use of personal protective
  equipment (e.g., respiratory protection), fire protection, hazard communication, worker training or any other
  occupational safety and health standard with respect to halon substitutes.


                                                    Aerosols
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           End-Use                 Substitute            Decision                  Further Information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aerosol solvents............  HCFC-225ca and HCFC-  Acceptable........  EPA recommends observing the
                               225cb as a                                manufacturer's recommended exposure
                               substitute for HCFC-                      guidelines of 50 ppm for the -ca
                               141b.                                     isomer, 400 ppm for the -cb isomer, and
                                                                         100 ppm for the commercial mixture of
                                                                         HCFC-225ca/cb.
                                                                        EPA encourages users to consider other
                                                                         alternatives that do not have an ozone
                                                                         depletion potential.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[FR Doc. 02-32130 Filed 12-19-02; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-U