[Federal Register Volume 68, Number 162 (Thursday, August 21, 2003)]
[Notices]
[Pages 50533-50540]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 03-21425]


=======================================================================
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

[FRL-7547-2]


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 18 for Significant New 
Alternatives Policy Program

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.

ACTION: Notice of acceptability.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: This Notice of Acceptability expands the list of acceptable 
substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (ODS) under the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives 
Policy (SNAP) program. The substitutes are for use in the following 
sectors: refrigeration and air conditioning, solvents cleaning, foam 
blowing, fire suppression and explosion protection, and aerosols.

EFFECTIVE DATE: August 21, 2003.

ADDRESSES: Information relevant to this notice is contained in Air 
Docket A-91-42, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW.; U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Mail Code 6102T; Washington, DC 20460. The docket 
reading room is located at the address above in room B102 in the 
basement. Reading room telephone: (202) 566-1744, facsimile: (202) 566-
1749, Air docket staff telephone: (202) 566-1742 and facsimile: (202) 
566-1741 You may inspect the docket between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. 
weekdays. As provided in 40 CFR part 2, a reasonable fee may be charged 
for photocopying.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard by telephone at 
(202) 564-9163, by fax at (202) 565-2155, by e-mail at 
sheppard.margaret@epa.gov, or by mail at U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Mail Code 6205J, Washington, DC 
20460. Overnight or courier deliveries should be sent to 501 3rd 
Street, NW., Washington, DC 20001.
    For more information on the Agency's process for administering the 
SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the 
original SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 
1994 (59 FR 13044). Notices and rulemakings under the SNAP program, as 
well as other EPA publications on protection of stratospheric ozone, 
are available from EPA's Ozone Depletion World Wide Web site at http://
www.epa.gov/ozone/ including the SNAP portion at http://www.epa.gov/
ozone/snap/.
    EPA has established an official public docket for this action under 
Docket ID No. OAR-2003-0118 (continuation Docket A-91-42). The official 
public docket consists of the documents specifically referenced in this 
action and other information related to this action. Although a part of 
the official docket, the public docket does not include Confidential 
Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is 
restricted by statute. The official public docket is the collection of 
materials that is available for public viewing at the Air and Radiation 
Docket in the EPA Docket Center, (EPA/DC) EPA West, Room B102, 1301 
Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. The EPA Docket Center Public 
Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through 
Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public 
Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the Air 
and Radiation Docket is (202) 566-1742.
    An electronic version of the public docket is available through 
EPA's electronic public docket and comment system. EPA Dockets. You may 
use EPA Dockets at http://www.epa.gov/edocket/ to view public comments, 
access the index listing of the contents of the official public docket, 
and to access those documents in the public docket that are available 
electronically. Although not all docket materials may be available 
electronically, you may still access any of the publicly available 
docket materials through the docket facility identified in the previous 
paragraph. Once in the system, select ``search,'' then key in the 
appropriate docket identification number (OAR-2003-0118).

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

I. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration
    B. Solvents Cleaning
    C. Foam Blowing
    D. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection
    E. Aerosols
II. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements
    B. Regulatory History
Appendix A--Summary of Acceptable Decisions

I. Listing of Acceptable Substitutes

    This section presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing 
decisions for substitutes in the following industrial sectors: 
refrigeration and air conditioning, solvents, cleaning, foam blowing, 
fire suppression and explosion protection, and aerosols. For copies of 
the full lists of SNAP decisions in all industrial sectors, visit EPA's 
Ozone Depletion Web site at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists/
index.html.
    The sections below discuss each substitute listing in detail. 
Appendix A contains a table summarizing today's listing decisions. The 
statements in the ``Further Information'' column in the table provide 
additional information, but are not legally binding under section 612 
of the Clean Air Act. In addition, the ``further information'' may not 
be a comprehensive list of other legal obligations you may need to meet 
when using the substitute. Although you are not required to follow 
recommendations in the ``further information'' column of the table to 
use a substitute, EPA strongly encourages you to apply the information 
when using these substitutes. In many instances, the information simply 
refers to standard operating practices in existing industry and/or 
building-code standards. Thus, many of these statements, if adopted, 
would not require significant changes to existing operating practices.
    Submissions to EPA for the use of the substitutes listed in this 
document may be found under category VI-D of EPA air docket A-91-42 at 
the address described above under ADDRESSES. You can find other 
material supporting the decisions in this action under category IX-B of 
EPA docket A-91-42 and in e-docket OAR-2003-0118 at http://www.epa.gov/
edocket/.

A. Refrigeration

1. R-407C
    EPA's decision. R-407C is acceptable for use in new and retrofit 
equipment as a substitute for R-502 in:

[sbull] retail food refrigeration
[sbull] cold storage warehouses
[sbull] commercial ice machines
[sbull] refrigerated transport
[sbull] ice skating rinks
[sbull] water coolers
[sbull] residential dehumidifiers
[sbull] vending machines
[sbull] industrial process air conditioning
[sbull] reciprocating chillers
[sbull] screw chillers
[sbull] industrial process refrigeration
[sbull] non-mechanical heat transfer systems
[sbull] household refrigerators and freezers
[sbull] household and light commercial air conditioning

R-407C is a blend of 23% by weight HFC-32 (difluoromethane, Chemical

[[Page 50534]]

Abstract Service [CAS] No. 75-10-5), 25% by weight HFC-125 
(pentafluoroethane, CAS No. 354-33-6) and 52% by weight HFC-134a 
(1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CAS No. 811-997-2). The submission may be 
found in EPA Air Docket A-91-42, item VI-D-293.
    EPA previously listed R-407C as an acceptable alternative for 
hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-22 and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 
(February 8, 1996; 61 FR 4736) and as an acceptable substitute for HCFC 
blends (December 20, 2002; 67 FR 77927) in various refrigeration and 
air conditioning end uses under SNAP.
    Environmental information. The ozone depletion potential (ODP) or 
R-407C is zero. The Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) of HFC-32, HFC-
125, and HFC-134a are 543, 3450, and 1320, respectively (relative to 
carbon dioxide, using a 100-year time horizon (United Nations 
Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Meteorological Organization 
(WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002).) The atmospheric 
lifetimes of these constituents as 4.9, 29 and 14.0 years, 
respectively.
    All components of this blend are excluded from the definition of 
volatile organic compound (VOC) under Clean Air Act regulations 
addressing the development of State implementation plans (SIPs) to 
attain and maintain the national ambient air quality standards. 40 CFR 
51.100(s).
    Flammability information. While HFC-32 is moderately flammable, the 
blend as formulated and under worst case fractionated formulation 
scenarios is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data. All components of the blend have 8 
hour/day, 40 hour/week workplace environmental exposure limits (WEELs) 
of 1000 ppm established by the American Industrial Hygiene Association 
(AIHA). EPA expects users to follow all recommendations specified in 
the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the blend and the individual 
components and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and 
air conditioning industry. We also expect that users of R-407C will 
adhere to the AIHA's WEELs.
    Comparison to other refrigerants. R-407C is not an ozone depleter; 
thus, it poses a lower risk for ozone depletion than R-502, a blend of 
HCFC-22 and CFC-115, the ODS it replaces. R-407C has a comparable or 
lower GWP than most other substitutes for R-502. Flammability and 
toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, we find that R-407C 
is acceptable because there are no other substitutes that are currently 
or potentially available and that provide a substantially reduced risk 
to public health and the environment in the end uses listed.
2. ISCEON 89
    EPA's decision. ISCEON 89 is acceptable for use in new and retrofit 
equipment as a substitute for R-13B1 in very low temperature 
refrigeration. ISCEON 89 is a blend of 86% by weight HFC-125 
(pentafluoroethane, CAS No. 354-33-6), 9% by weight PFC-218 
(octofluoropropane, CAS NO. 76-19-7) and 5% by weight R-290 (propane, 
CAS No. 74-98-6). The submission may be found in EPA Air Docket A-91-
42, item VI-D-293.
    Environmental information. The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 
ISCEON 89 is zero. Relative to carbon dioxide, using a 100-year time 
horizon, from the source cited above in IA1, the Global Warming 
Potentials (GWPs) of HFC-125 and PFC-218 are 3450 and 8690, 
respectively. The source lists the atmospheric lifetimes as 29 years 
for HFC-125 and 2600 years for PFC-218. The source does not list a GWP 
for propane, but it is thought to be on the order of 10 to 20.
    Because of the high GWP of HFC-125 and especially PFC-218, EPA 
strongly encourages prompt identification and repair of any leaks that 
may occur. EPA notes that most of the R-13B1 alternatives already 
listed as acceptable for use within the very low temperature 
refrigeration end use have GWPs as high or higher than this blend, and 
encourages the continued search for lower-GWP alternatives for this end 
use. The contribution of these blends to global warming will be 
minimized through the implementation of the venting prohibition under 
section 608(c)(2) of the Clean Air Act (See 40 CFR part 82, subpart F). 
This section and EPA's implementing regulations at subpart F of 40 CFR 
part 82 prohibit venting or release of substitutes for class I and 
class II ozone depleting substances used in refrigeration and air-
conditioning and require proper handling and disposal of these 
substances, such as recycling or recovery.
    Propane is defined as a volatile organic compound (VOC) under Clean 
Air Act regulations addressing the development of State implementation 
plans (SIPs) to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality 
standards. 40 CFR 51.100(s). HFC-125 and PFC-218 are excluded from the 
definition of VOC under those regulations.
    Flammability information. While propane is flammable, the blend 
formulated as submitted is not. The submitter has provided data to 
indicate that under a worst case fractionation scenario, the blend will 
have a lower flammable limit (LFL) of 6% by volume. Due to this minor 
risk of flammability, EPA expects users to take extra precautions while 
handling this blend, including those listed under Toxicity and exposure 
data, below.
    Toxicity and exposure data. All components of the blend have 
workplace guidance level exposure limits on the order of 1000 ppm. EPA 
believes this exposure limit will be protective of human health and 
safety. EPA expects users to adhere to all exposure limits, follow all 
recommendations specified in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for 
the blend and the individual components, and undertake all other safety 
precautions common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants. ISCEON 89 is not an ozone 
depleter; thus, it reduces the associated risk compared to R-13B1, the 
ODS it replaces. ISCEON 89 has a comparable or lower GWP than most 
other substitutes for R-13B1 in very low temperature refrigeration end 
use. Thus, we find that ISCEON 89 is acceptable because it reduces 
overall risk to public health and the environment in the end use 
listed.
3. RS-44
    EPA's decision. RS-44 is acceptable for use in new and retrofit 
equipment as a substitute for HCFC-22 in the following end uses:

[sbull] industrial process refrigeration
[sbull] industrial process air conditioning
[sbull] ice skating rinks
[sbull] cold storage warehouses
[sbull] refrigerated transport
[sbull] retail food refrigeration
[sbull] commercial ice machines
[sbull] household refrigerators and freezers
[sbull] residential dehumidifiers
[sbull] screw chillers
[sbull] reciprocating chillers
[sbull] centrifugal chillers
[sbull] household and light commercial air conditioning

    The submitter of RS-44 claims that the composition of this blend is 
confidential business information. You can find a version of the 
submission with information claimed confidential by the submitter 
removed in EPA Air Docket A-91-142, item VI-D-295.
    Environmental information. The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 
RS-44 is zero. The Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) of the constituents 
are all below 5000 (relative to carbon

[[Page 50535]]

dioxide, using a 100-year time horizon, from the source listed in IA1).
    At least one component of this blend has not been excluded from the 
definition of VOC under Clean Air Act regulations addressing the 
development of SIPs to attain and maintain the national ambient air 
quality standards. 40 CFR 51.100(s).
    Flammability information. While at least one component of the blend 
is moderately flammable, the submitter has provided test results that 
show the blend as formulated and at worst case formulation and worst 
case fractionated formulation conditions is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data. Components of the blend have workplace 
guidance level exposure limits on the order of 600 to 1000 ppm. EPA 
believes this exposure limit will be protective of human health and 
safety. EPA expects users to follow all recommendations specified in 
the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the blend and the individual 
components and other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and 
air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants. RS-44 is not an ozone depleter; 
thus, it reduces risk from ozone depletion compared to CFC-12, the ODS 
it replaces. RS-44 has a comparable or lower GWP than most other 
substitutes for HCFC-22. Flammability and toxicity risks are low, as 
discussed above. Thus, we find that RS-44 is acceptable because it 
reduces overall risk to public health and the environment in the end 
uses listed.

B. Solvents Cleaning

1. HFE-7000
    Hydrofluoroether (HFE)-7000 is acceptable for use as a substitute 
for methyl chloroform and CFC-113 in the precision cleaning and 
electronics cleaning end uses. 3M, the submitter, indicates that this 
chemical is also known as HFE-301 and propane, 1,1,1,2,2,3,3 hepta 
fluoro-3-methoxy or 1-(methoxy)-1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane. The 
empirical formula is C4H3F7O and it is 
also identified as CH3-O-CF2-CF2-
CF3 and R-E347mcc1. You can find a version of the submission 
with information claimed confidential by the submitter removed, in EPA 
Air Docket A-91-42, items VI-D-272 and VI-D-300. EPA previously found 
HFE-7000 acceptable in several refrigerant end uses (March 22, 2002; 67 
FR 13272).
    Environmental information. The ODP of HFE-7000 is zero. The GWP is 
estimated as 400 (derived from Ninomiya et al., 2000) relative to 
carbon dioxide, using a 100-year time horizon. Experimental data 
indicates a lifetime of 4.7 years (Ninomiya et al., 2000).
    HFE-7000 is considered a VOC. This chemical is being reviewed by 
EPA for exclusion from the definition of VOC under Clean Air Act 
regulations addressing the development of State implementation plans 
(SIPs) to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality 
standards. 40 CFR 51.100(s).
    Flammability information. This chemical is nonflammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data. The manufacturer has recommended an 
acceptable exposure limit (AEL) of 75 ppm over an eight-hour time-
weighted average. EPA has reviewed this exposure limit and believes it 
is protective of human health and safety. We expect users to follow all 
recommendations specified in the MSDS for this chemical.
    Comparison to other aerosol solvents. HFE-7000 is not an ozone 
depleter; thus, in the electronics and precision cleaning end uses, it 
reduces risk overall compared to methyl chloroform and CFC-113, the 
ODSs it replaces. The GWP and atmospheric lifetime of HFE-7000 are 
lower than those of several other acceptable alternatives that are 
cleaning solvents.

C. Foam Blowing

1. EcomateTM
    EPA's decision. EcomateTM is acceptable as a substitute 
for CFCs and HCFCs in the following end-uses:

    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated 
boardstock;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane appliance;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other foams;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich 
panels; and
    [sbull] Polyurethane integral skin foam.

    The submitter, Foam Supplies, claims that the composition of 
EcomateTM is confidential business information (see docket 
A-91-42, item VI-D-296).
    Environmental information. Ecomate TM has no ODP and 
very low or zero global warming potential (GWP). Users should be aware 
that Ecomate TM is not excluded from the definition of 
volatile organic compound (VOC) under Clean Air Act regulations 
addressing the development of State implemention plans (SIPs) to attain 
and maintain the national ambient air quality standards. 40 CFR 
51.100(s). For more information refer to the manufacturer of Ecomate 
TM, EPA regulations, and your state or local air quality 
agency. Also, because Ecomate TM is considered hazardous, 
spills and disposal should be handled in accordance with requirements 
of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).
    Flammability information: Ecomate TM is flammable and 
should be handled with proper precautions. Use of Ecomate TM 
will require safe handling and shipping as prescribed by OSHA and DOT 
(for example, using personal safety equipment and following 
requirements for shipping hazardous materials at 49 CFR parts 170 
through 173). However, when blended with fire retardant, the 
flammability of Ecomate TM can be reduced to make a 
formulation that is either combustible or non-flammable (refer to the 
manufacturer of Ecomate TM for more information). Due to its 
flammability, EPA is not finding Ecomate TM acceptable for 
use in spray foam at this time. For information on the safety training 
requirements for use of flammable blowing agents in spray foam refer to 
SNAP Notice of Acceptability 11 (64 FR 68039, December 6, 1999) or 
contact the EPA SNAP program.
    Toxicity and exposure data. Ecomate TM should be handled 
with proper precautions. EPA anticipates that Ecomate TM 
will be used in such a manner so that any recommendations specified in 
the manufacturers' Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) are followed. 
OSHA established a permissible exposure limit for the main component of 
Ecomate TM of 100 ppm for a time-weighted average over an 
eight-hour work shift.
    Comparison to other foam blowing agents. Ecomate TM is 
not an ozone depleter; thus, it reduces risk overall compared to the 
ODS it replaces. Ecomate TM has a comparable or lower GWP 
than the other substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs in these end uses. Thus, 
we find that Ecomate TM is acceptable because it reduces 
overall risk to public health and the environment in the end uses 
listed.
2. HFC-245fa
    EPA's decision. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-245fa is an acceptable 
substitute for all HCFCs in:

    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated 
boardstock;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane appliance;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other foams;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich 
panels;
    [sbull] Phenolic insulation board and bunstock;
    [sbull] Polyolefin;
    [sbull] Polystyrene: extruded boardstock and billet;
    [sbull] Polyurethane integral skin foam.


[[Page 50536]]


HCF-245fa is also known as 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (CAS Registry 
No. 460-73-1). We previously found HFC-245fa acceptable for use as a 
substitute for CFC-11 and HCFC-141b in foam blowing (64 FR 68041, 
December 6, 1999), refrigeration and air conditioning (65 FR 37901, 
June 19, 2000) and aerosols (67 FR 13272, March 22, 2002).
    In its original rulemaking on March 18, 1994 (59 FR 13084), the 
SNAP program addressed the use of blends in foam blowing applications. 
EPA determined that notification was not required for ``use of blends 
or mixtures of substitutes listed as acceptable under the SNAP program 
in open-celled or closed-cell or semi-rigid end uses'' except in the 
following end-uses: polyurethane rigid laminated boardstock; 
polystyrene extruded boardstock and billet foams; phenolic foams; and 
polyolefin foams. Therefore, use of HFC-245fa in blends with other 
substitutes that EPA has found acceptable \1\ as HCFC replacements is 
currently acceptable in the following end uses:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ By acceptable, in this case we mean acceptable, acceptable 
subject to use conditions, or acceptable subject to use limits.

    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane appliance;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other foams;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich 
panels;
    [sbull] Polyurethane integral skin foam.

Approval of an HFC-245fa blend in any other end-use would require 
formal determination by EPA. Blends of HFC-245fa and other substitutes 
EPA has found acceptable as replacements for HCFCs are subject to the 
same conditions that apply to the individual substitutes (e.g., 
flammable blowing agents in spray foam require EPA approval and safety 
training). For more information on HFC-245fa and its blends refer to 
the original listing (64 FR 68041, December 6, 1999) and the 
information below for blends of HFC-245fa and HCFC-22.
3. Blends of HFC-245fa and HCFC-22
    EPA's decision. Blends of HFC-245fa and HCFC-22 are acceptable 
substitutes for blends of HCFC-141b and HCFC-22, where the HFC-245fa 
replaces the HCFC-141b in:

    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane and polysocyanurate laminated 
boardstock;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane appliance;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other foams;
    [sbull] Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich 
panels;
    [sbull] Phenolic insulation board and bunstock;
    [sbull] Polyolefin;
    [sbull] Polyurethane integral skin foam.

Further information on HFC-245fa is described above in section C.2. of 
this document.
    Environmental information. HFC-245fa has an ODP of zero. It has a 
GWP of 1022. This value is similar to or lower than the GWP of the 
substances that HFC-245fa would be replacing. Both HFC-245fa and HCFC-
22 have been excluded from the definition of VOC under Clean Air 
regulations addressing the development of State implementation plans 
(SIPs) to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality 
standards. 40 CFR 51.100(s).
    Flammability. Blends of HFC-245fa and HCFC-22 are non-flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data. EPA anticipates that HFC-245fa will be 
used in such a manner so that any recommendations specified in the 
manufacturers' Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) are followed. We 
also expect that the workplace exposure level will not exceed the 
American Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace 
environmental exposure limit (WEEL) of 300 ppm for HFC-245fa or the 
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) 
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 1000 ppm for HCFC-22.
    The blend of HFC-245fa and HCFC-22 has moderate to low toxicity. 
EPA expects that these blends will be used in a manner such that 
occupational exposure to any component of the blend does not exceed the 
WEEL for that chemical.
    Comparison to other foam blowing agents. HFC-245fa has a lower ODP 
than HCFC-141b, the ODS it replaces; thus, blends of HFC-245fa and 
HCFC-22 reduces risk overall compared to the ODS blends they replace. 
Blends of HFC-245fa and HCFC-22 have comparable or lower GWP than HCFC-
141b and other approved substitutes for HCFC-141b. Blends of HFC-245fa 
and HCFC-22 are non-flammable. Blends of HFC-245fa and HCFC-22 exhibit 
moderate to low toxicity and guidance is available from the AIHA and 
the ACGIH on their use in the workplace. Thus, we find that blends of 
HFC-245fa and HCFC-22 are acceptable because they reduce overall risk 
to public health and the environment in the end uses listed.

D. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection

1. HFC-125 with 0.15% d-limonene (NAF S-125)
    EPA's decision. NAF S-125 is acceptable for use as a substitute for 
halon 1301 in the total flooding end use in both normally occupied and 
unoccupied spaces. NAF S-125 is a mixture of HFC-125 containing 0.15% 
d-limonene by weight. HFC-125 is also known as 1,1,1,2,2-
pentafluoroethane, CAS No. 354-33-6. Another name for d-limonene is 4-
isopropenyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene, CAS No. 5989-27-5. EPA finds the 
blend acceptable as submitted; however, blends containing more than 
0.15% d-limonene are not addressed by today's decision. EPA previously 
found HFC-125 acceptable in total flooding (January 29, 2002; 67 FR 
4185). EPA previously found the entire class of terpenes, including d-
limonene, acceptable in solvent cleaning (March 18, 1994; 59 FR 13044).
    Environmental information. Both of the components of NAF S-125 have 
an ozone depletion potential of zero. HFC-125 has a global warming 
potential (GWP) of 2800 and d-limonene has a GWP of 10. These values 
are lower than the GWP of Halon 1301 (6900).
    HFC-125 is excluded from the definition of volatile organic 
compound (VOC) under Clean Air Act regulations addressing the 
development of State implementation plans (SIPs) to attain and maintain 
the national ambient air quality standards. 40 CFR 51.100(s). d-
limonene is used as a solvent in cleaning solutions and has a variety 
of uses. d-limonene is a VOC. Given that d-limonene exists at higher 
percentages in commonly used cleaners and polishes than it does in NAF 
S-125, the effects of fire extinguishers containing d-limonene upon the 
environment and the general population are expected to be minimal.
    Flammability. Although d-limonene is flammable, the blend is non-
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data. As with other fire suppressants, EPA 
recommends that you minimize exposure to this agent. If personnel are 
exposed to the agent, they should exit the area within five minutes or 
less. EPA recommends that unnecessary exposure to fire suppression 
agents and their decomposition products be avoided and that personnel 
exposure be limited to no more than 5 minutes.
    In order to keep exposure levels as low as possible, EPA recommends 
the following for establishments installing and maintaining total 
flooding systems:

--Put adequate ventilation in place. If ventilation is suspected to be 
inadequate, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be 
available;
--Wear proper personal protection equipment (impervious butyl gloves, 
eye protection, chemical resistant aprons, long sleeves, and safety 
shoes);

[[Page 50537]]

--Clean up all spills immediately in accordance with good industrial 
hygiene practices; and
--Provide training for safe handling procedures to all employees that 
would be likely to handle the containers of NAF S 125 or extinguishing 
units filled with the material.

    Use of this agent should conform with relevant Occupational Safety 
and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements, including 29 CFR part 
1910, subpart L, Sec.  1910.160 for fixed fire extinguishing systems, 
Sec.  1910.162 for gaseous agents and Sec.  1910.165 for predischarge 
employee alarms. Per OSHA requirements, protective gear (self-contained 
breathing apparatus) should be available in the event that personnel 
reenter the area. In addition, also observe the guidelines in the 
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2001 standard for use of 
Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems for use of HFC-125.
    Comparison to other fire suppressants. NAF S-125 has no ODP; thus, 
it reduces risk overall compared to halon 1301, the ODS it replaces. 
EPA has already found acceptable HFC-125, the main ingredient in NAF S-
125. NAF S-125 has a GWP comparable with that of many other acceptable 
substitutes for halon 1301. Thus, we find that NAF S-125 is acceptable 
because it does not present a greater risk to public health and the 
environment in the end use listed than other substitutes that are 
available.

E. Aerosols

1. HFE-7000
    HFE-7000 is acceptable for use as a substitute for methyl 
chloroform, CFC-113, and HCFC-141b in the aerosol solvent end use. For 
further information about HFE-7000, see above in section B.1 on solvent 
cleaning.
    Comparison to other aerosol solvents. HFE-7000 is not an ozone 
depleter; thus, in the aerosol solvent end use, it reduces risk overall 
compared to methyl chloroform, CFC-113, and HCFC-141b, the ODSs it 
replaces. The GWP and atmospheric lifetime of HFE-7000 are lower than 
those of a number of other acceptable alternatives that are aerosol 
solvents.

II. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act authorizes EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. We 
refer to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) 
program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
    [sbull] Rulemaking--Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate rules 
making it unlawful to replace any class I (chlorofluorocarbon, halon, 
carbon tetrachloride, methyl choloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbon) 
or class II (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) substance with any substitute 
that the Administrator determines may present adverse effects to human 
health or the environment where the Administrator has identified an 
alternative that (1) reduces the overall risk to human health and the 
environment, and (2) is currently or potentially available.
    [sbull] Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes--Section 
612(c) also requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses. EPA must publish a corresponding list 
of acceptable alternatives for specific uses.
    [sbull] Petition Process--Section 612(d) grants the right to any 
person to petition EPA to add a substance to or delete a substance from 
the lists published in accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 
90 days to grant or deny a petition. Where the Agency grants the 
petition, it must publish the revised lists within an additional six 
months.
    [sbull] 90-day Notification--Section 612(e) directs EPA to require 
any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I substance 
to notify the Agency not less than 90 days before new or existing 
chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for significant new 
uses as substitutes for a class I substance. The producer must also 
provide the Agency with the producer's unpublished health and safety 
studies on such substitutes.
    [sbull] Outreach--Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator 
shall seek to maximize the use of federal research facilities and 
resources to assist users of class I and II substances in identifying 
and developing alternatives to the use of such substances in key 
commercial applications.
    [sbull] Clearinghouse--Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to set 
up a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product 
substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available 
for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and II 
substances.

B. Regulatory History

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the final rulemaking (59 FR 13044) 
which described the process for administering the SNAP program. In the 
same notice, we issued the first acceptability lists for substitutes in 
the major industrial use sectors. These sectors include:

    [sbull] Refrigeration and air conditioning;
    [sbull] Foam blowing;
    [sbull] Solvents cleaning;
    [sbull] Fire suppression and explosion protection;
    [sbull] Sterilants;
    [sbull] Aerosols;
    [sbull] Adhesives, coatings and inks; and
    [sbull] Tobacco expansion.

These sectors compose the principal industrial sectors that 
historically consumed the largest volumes of ozone-depleting compounds.
    As described in this original rule for the SNAP program, EPA does 
not believe that rulemaking procedures are required to list 
alternatives as acceptable with no limitations. Such listings do not 
impose any sanction, nor do they remove any prior license to use a 
substance. Therefore, by this notice we are adding substances to the 
list of acceptable alternatives without first requesting comment on new 
listings.
    However, we do believe that notice-and-comment rulemaking is 
required to place any substance on the list of prohibited substitutes, 
to list a substance as acceptable only under certain conditions, to 
list substances as acceptable only for certain uses, or to remove a 
substance from the lists of prohibited or acceptable substitutes. We 
publish updates to these lists as separate notices of rulemaking in the 
Federal Register.
    The Agency defines a ``substitute'' as any chemical, product 
substitute, or alternative manufacturing process, whether existing or 
new, intended for use as a replacement for a class I or class II 
substance. Anyone who produces a substitute must provide EPA with 
health and safety studies on the substitute at least 90 days before 
introducing it into interstate commerce for significant new use as an 
alternative. This requirement applies to substitute manufacturers, but 
may include importers, formulators, or end-users, when they are 
responsible for introducing a substitute into commerce.
    You can find a complete chronology of SNAP decisions and the 
appropriate Federal Register citations from the SNAP section of EPA's 
Ozone Depletion World Wide Web site at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/
chron.html. This information is also available from the Air Docket (see 
ADDRESSES section above for contact information).

    Dated: August 7, 2003.
Brian J. McLean,
Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Office of Air and Radiation.

Appendix A: Summary of Acceptable Decisions

[[Page 50538]]



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End-Use                     Substitute                Decision              Further information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Industrial process refrigeration  RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 (retrofit and new).               for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Industrial process air            RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 conditioning (retrofit and new).  for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Ice skating rinks (retrofit and   RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 new).                             for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Cold storage warehouses           RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 (retrofit and new).               for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Refrigerated transport (retrofit  RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 and new).                         for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Retail food refrigeration         RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 (retrofit and new).               for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Vending machines (retrofit and    R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
 new).                             for R-502.
---------------------------------
Water coolers (retrofit and new)  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Commercial ice machines           RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 (retrofit and new).               for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Household refrigerators and       RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 freezers (retrofit and new).      for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Centrifugal chillers (retrofit    RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 and new).                         for HCFC-22.
---------------------------------
Reciprocating chillers (retrofit  RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 and new).                         for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Screw chillers (retrofit and      RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 new).                             for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Very low temperature              ISCEON 89 as a           Acceptable.............
 refrigeration (retrofit and       substitute for R-13B1.
 new).
---------------------------------
Non-mechanical heat transfer      R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
 systems (retrofit and new).       for R-502.
---------------------------------
Household and light commercial    RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 air conditioning (retrofit and    for HCFC-22.
 new).
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
Residential dehumidifiers         RS-44 as a substitute    Acceptable.............
 (retrofit and new).               for HCFC-22.
                                  R-407C as a substitute   Acceptable.............
                                   for R-502.
---------------------------------
                                                Solvent Cleaning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Precision cleaning..............  HFE-7000 as a            Acceptable.............  EPA expects that the
                                   substitute for CFC-                               workplace environmental
                                   113, methyl                                       exposure will not exceed
                                   chloroform, and HCFC-                             the workplace exposure
                                   141b.                                             limit of 75 ppm and that
                                                                                     users will observe the
                                                                                     manufacturer's
                                                                                     recommendations in MSDSs.
---------------------------------

[[Page 50539]]

 
Electronics cleaning............  HFE-7000 as a            Acceptable.............  EPA expects that the
                                   substitute for CFC-                               workplace environmental
                                   113, methyl                                       exposure will not exceed
                                   chloroform, and HCFC-                             the workplace exposure
                                   141b.                                             limit of 75 ppm and that
                                                                                     users will observe the
                                                                                     manufacturer's
                                                                                     recommendations in MSDSs.
---------------------------------
                                                  Foam Blowing
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane and            Ecomate as a substitute  Acceptable.............
 polyisocyanurate laminated        for CFCs and HCFCs.
 boardstock.
                                  HFC-245fa as a           Acceptable.............
                                   substitute for HCFCs.
                                  Blends of HFC-245fa and  Acceptable.............
                                   HCFC-22 as a
                                   substitute for blends
                                   of HCFC-141b and HCFC-
                                   22.
---------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane appliance      Ecomate as a substitute  Acceptable.............
 foam.                             for CFCs and HCFCs.
                                  HFC-245fa as a           Acceptable.............
                                   substitute for HCFCs.
                                  Blends of HFC-245fa and  Acceptable.............
                                   HCFC-22 as a
                                   substitute for blends
                                   of HCFC-141b and HCFC-
                                   22.
---------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane slabstock and  Ecomate as a substitute  Acceptable.............
 other foams.                      for CFCs and HCFCs.
                                  HFC-245fa as a           Acceptable.............
                                   substitute for HCFCs.
                                  Blends of HFC-245fa and  Acceptable.............
                                   HCFC-22 as a
                                   substitute for blends
                                   of HCFC-141b and HCFC-
                                   22.
---------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane commercial     Ecomate as a substitute  Acceptable.............
 refrigeration and sandwich        for CFCs and HCFCs.
 panels.
                                  HCF-245fa as a           Acceptable.............
                                   substitute for HCFCs.
                                  Blends of HFC-245fa and  Acceptable.............
                                   HCFC-22 as a
                                   substitute blends of
                                   HCFC-141b and HCFC-22.
---------------------------------
Polyurethane integral skin foam.  Ecomate as a substitute  Acceptable.............
                                   for CFCs and HCFCs.
                                  HFC-245fa as a           Acceptable.............
                                   substitute for HCFCs.
                                  Blends of HFC-245fa and  Acceptable.............
                                   HCFC-22 as a
                                   substitute for blends
                                   of HCFC-141b and HCFC-
                                   22.
---------------------------------
Phenolic insulation board and     HFC-245fa as a           Acceptable.............
 bunstock.                         substitute for HCFCs.
                                  Blends of HFC-245fa and  Acceptable.............
                                   HCFC-22 as a
                                   substitute for blends
                                   of HCFC-141b and HCFC-
                                   22.
---------------------------------
Polyolefin......................  HFC-245fa as a           Acceptable.............
                                   substitute for HCFCs.
                                  Blends for HFC-245fa     Acceptable.............
                                   and HCFC-22 as a
                                   substitute for blends
                                   of HCFC-141b and HCFC-
                                   22.
---------------------------------
                                    Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total flooding..................  NAF S-125 as a           Acceptable.............  Use of the agent should be
                                   substitute for Halon                              in accordance with the
                                   1301.                                             safety guidelines in the
                                                                                     latest edition of the NFPA
                                                                                     2001 Standard for Clean
                                                                                     Agent Fire Extinguishing
                                                                                     Systems.
                                                                                    Extinguisher bottles should
                                                                                     be clearly labeled with the
                                                                                     potential hazards
                                                                                     associated with the use of
                                                                                     HFC-125 and d-limonene, as
                                                                                     well as handling procedures
                                                                                     to reduce risk resulting
                                                                                     from these hazards.

[[Page 50540]]

 
                                                                                    See additional notes 1, 2,
                                                                                     3, 4, 5.
---------------------------------
                                                    Aerosols
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aerosol solvents................  HFE-7000 as a            Acceptable.............  EPA expects that the
                                   substitute for CFC-                               workplace environmental
                                   113, methyl                                       exposure will not exceed
                                   chloroform, and HCFC-                             the workplace exposure
                                   141b.                                             limit of 75 ppm and that
                                                                                     users will observe the
                                                                                     manufacturer's
                                                                                     recommendations in MSDSs.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Additional notes:
1--Should conform with relevant OSHA requirements, including 29 CFR 1910, Subpart L, Sections 1910.160, 1910.161
  (dry chemicals and aerosols) and 1910.162 (gaseous agents).
2--Per OSHA requirements, protective gear (SCBA) should be available in the event personnel should reenter the
  area.
3--Discharge testing should be strictly limited to that which is essential to meet safety or performance
  requirements.
4--The agent should be recovered from the fire protection system in conjunction with testing or servicing, and
  recycled for later use or destroyed.
5--EPA has no intention of duplicating or displacing OSHA coverage related to the use of personal protective
  equipment (e.g., respiratory protection), fire protection, hazard communication, worker training or any other
  occupational safety and health standard with respect to halon substitutes.

[FR Doc. 03-21425 Filed 8-20-03; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P