[Federal Register Volume 75, Number 182 (Tuesday, September 21, 2010)]
[Notices]
[Pages 57506-57514]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2010-23485]


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DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Bureau of Labor Statistics


Summary of Comments

AGENCY: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

ACTION: Notice of comments received and final definition of green jobs.

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SUMMARY: The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for 
developing and implementing the collection of new data on green jobs. 
The resulting information will be useful for evaluating policy 
initiatives and the labor market impact of economic activity related to 
protecting the environment and conserving natural resources. BLS 
activities also will be useful to State

[[Page 57507]]

labor market information offices in their efforts to meet the need for 
information for State policymakers, businesses, and job seekers.
    In a Federal Register Notice on March 16, 2010 (75 FR 12571), BLS 
solicited comments on the definition BLS will use in measuring green 
jobs, the list of industries where green goods or services are 
classified, or any other aspect of the information provided in the 
notice. The current notice summarizes the comments received and the BLS 
response to the comments, and provides the final BLS definition of 
green jobs for use in data collection.
    Appendices. This notice includes four appendices in the 
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Appendix I summarizes the 
comments received on the proposed definition of green jobs and the BLS 
response. Appendix II presents the final definition of green jobs BLS 
will use for data collection beginning in FY 2011. Appendix III 
summarizes comments on identifying industries where green goods and 
services are classified and the approach BLS intends to use for data 
collection beginning in FY 2011. Appendix IV summarizes comments 
received on the BLS plan to measure green jobs and the BLS response.

ADDRESSES: For further information, contact Richard Clayton, Office of 
Industry Employment Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Room 4840, 
2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE., Washington, DC 20212 or by e-mail to: 
green@bls.gov.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Clayton, Office of Industry 
Employment Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics, telephone number 
202-691-5185 (this is not a toll-free number), or by e-mail to: 
green@bls.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Summary of Comments on the Green Jobs Definition and BLS Response

    In response to the March 16, 2010, Federal Register Notice, BLS 
received 156 comments. The largest number of comments was from business 
or industry associations (44 comments), followed by State workforce 
agencies (22), private employers (20), labor unions (16), individuals 
(15), other State or local government (14), academic or research 
organizations (9), Federal agencies (8), and nonprofit organizations 
(8). BLS reviewed and considered all comments and made certain changes 
in the green jobs definition and industry list, as described below.
    In the March 16, 2010, Federal Register Notice, BLS requested 
comments and recommendations from the public on the definition, 
industry list, or any other aspect of the information provided in the 
notice. BLS was interested in comments on:
    1. Whether the definition of green jobs is clear and 
understandable.
    2. The comprehensiveness of the definition, including the 
composition of the set of economic activities in which green jobs are 
involved and the types of green goods and services.
    3. Whether the distribution of green goods should be included as 
green services.
    4. Whether the preparation and sale of organic food by restaurants 
and food service industries should be included as green services.
    The following summary addresses the comments received on each of 
these questions, followed by comments on other topics related to the 
definition of green jobs. Comments related to data collection plans are 
summarized in Appendix IV.
    Whether the definition of green jobs is clear and understandable. 
Three comments asked for clarification of the broad definition of green 
jobs. One comment noted that, by using both the output and process 
approaches, BLS is trying to encompass the broadest definition of green 
jobs, although one would want to know the degree of overlap between the 
two approaches. BLS agrees this overlap is of interest; the data BLS 
will collect will provide an indication but not a direct measure of the 
overlap.
    One comment questioned whether certain workers would be included, 
such as a sustainability manager in a business that is not producing a 
green good or service. BLS responds that jobs with the titles listed in 
the comment would be captured by either of the two measurement 
approaches, depending on where these jobs occur.
    One comment noted that the definition should clearly include 
development, production, installation, and maintenance activities that 
contribute to protecting the environment and conserving natural 
resources. BLS has modified the descriptions of the relevant categories 
to specifically mention research and development, installation, and 
maintenance.
    The comprehensiveness of the definition. Ten comments addressed the 
broad definition of green jobs. Three comments agreed with the broad 
definition, with one of these comments noting that this is a new area 
for data collection and the dimensions are somewhat unknown until data 
collection occurs. Three comments encouraged BLS to narrow the 
definition, with one of these comments citing policy needs for credible 
and concrete data, and one of these comments expressing the fear that 
the definition of green becomes so broad as to make it not useful.
    Two comments recommended wording changes to reference ``growing the 
economic engine'' or ``promoting sustainability.'' BLS has not adopted 
these changes, as they suggest policy positions or advocacy roles 
inappropriate for a statistical agency.
    Whether the distribution of green goods should be included as green 
services. Thirty-one comments addressed whether distribution of green 
goods should be included in the BLS definition of green goods and 
services. The proposed BLS definition includes services that specialize 
in the distribution of green goods, including certain detailed 
industries in the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 
sectors of Transportation and Warehousing, Wholesale Trade, Retail 
Trade, and Real Estate and Rental and Leasing. Including these 
industries would result in the identification of green jobs in, for 
example, trucking, grocery stores, and motor vehicle dealers.
    Thirteen comments recommended excluding distribution activities. 
Most of these comments based their recommendation on lack of skill 
differences for workers involved in distributing green goods versus 
those distributing other goods. In response, BLS notes that its green 
jobs definition is not based on skill differences, but instead on the 
environmental impact of the good or service produced or the production 
process used. Several comments expressed concerns about the feasibility 
and cost of data collection in the distribution sectors.
    Ten comments recommended including distribution only on the basis 
of whether the distribution process is green (e.g., use of energy-
efficiency vehicles). BLS responds that distribution activities 
conducted using environmentally friendly production processes will be 
addressed in the process approach to data collection.
    Eight comments recommended including distribution. One commenter 
noted that their State green jobs survey had identified jobs in the 
transportation industry and related occupations. BLS notes that it is 
unclear in this State survey whether these jobs were reported because 
of the nature of the good being transported or the nature of the 
production process.
    Five comments recommended including distribution but narrowing the

[[Page 57508]]

scope of what is included. These comments would narrow the scope 
variously, such as limited to ``the extent a distributor deals 
predominantly or exclusively in green goods;'' only if ``the primary 
function is green related;'' only if ``the overall net impact of those 
jobs is positive or neutral at best;'' and if ``the distribution 
services are a subdivision of a company that is selling energy 
efficient or organic produce, then the distribution costs for that 
percentage of the business should be included.''
    Three comments recommended BLS investigate local and regional food 
networks or include locally produced foods as green. BLS responds that 
food producers who distribute locally and businesses that purchase 
locally produced food have adopted an environmentally friendly process 
that will be covered in the process survey.
    BLS has determined to exclude distribution of green goods from its 
definition of green goods and services. Transporting or selling a green 
good has no apparent benefit to the environment compared to 
transporting or selling any other good.
    Whether the preparation and sale of organic food by restaurants and 
food service industries should be included as green services. Twenty-
two comments responded to this question. The proposed BLS definition 
includes services classified in Accommodation and Food Services 
industries such as restaurants, caterers, and cafeterias.
    Ten comments recommended excluding this activity from the 
definition of green goods and services. Generally, these comments noted 
that the environmental benefit of organic food is in the production 
stage, not in the preparation and sale. Several comments expressed 
concerns that including this activity would lead to overcounting the 
number of green jobs.
    One comment that recommended excluding this activity noted an 
inconsistency in the proposed definition in the treatment of organic 
food products versus goods containing recycled inputs. BLS agrees with 
this comment and has addressed this inconsistency in its final 
definition.
    Eight comments recommended including this activity. One comment 
said the reason was to encourage the growth of organic farming; BLS 
responds that it does not have an advocacy position on organic farming. 
One comment noted that the purchase and end use is as important as 
production of organic products because without the buyers and markets, 
no organic farming could exist. One comment noted environmental impacts 
in this category, i.e., using fresh versus packaged food, reduces 
packaging waste and using composting practices diverts waste from the 
landfill. BLS notes that these practices are not inherent to organic 
foods.
    Three comments recommended including this activity only on the 
basis of whether the process is green; another comment said that if the 
activity is counted as a green service, then it should not be counted 
in the process approach.
    BLS has determined to exclude preparation and sale of organic food 
from its definition of green goods and services. Preparing or selling 
organic food has no apparent benefit to the environment compared to 
preparing or selling other food.
    Need for a standardized definition of green jobs. Thirteen comments 
noted the need for a standardized national definition of green jobs, 
and some comments indicated an expectation that the BLS definition 
would be adopted for other than statistical purposes. BLS responds that 
it is developing the definition of green jobs only for use in 
collecting and analyzing data. Other uses of the definition have played 
no role in its development.
    Job quality and worker characteristics. Eleven comments expressed 
concerns about the statement in the Federal Register Notice that the 
definition does not consider job aspects unrelated to the work itself, 
such as wages, union membership, benefits, or career ladders. Some of 
these comments urged BLS to use criteria such as worker health and 
safety, wages and benefits, and career pathways. BLS responds that 
using such criteria would require BLS to determine, for example, what 
level of worker safety is high enough for the job to be included as a 
green job. Making such determinations would be inappropriate for a 
statistical agency, which must refrain from policy advocacy to maintain 
its credibility among data users. However, data users may make use of 
information on worker safety, wages, and other topics to select jobs 
from the BLS data that meet their own criteria regarding these topics.
    Two comments cited the need for demographic characteristics of 
workers in green jobs. BLS does not plan to collect demographic data in 
its surveys. However, users may be able to supplement the BLS green 
jobs data with demographic data from other sources.
    Categories of green economic activity: General comments. Three 
comments addressed the categories of green economic activity in 
general. One comment recommended including ``operation and 
maintenance'' in each instance where development and implementation are 
listed. BLS agrees that green goods maintenance services should be 
included and has changed the descriptions for the relevant categories.
    One comment noted that the categories are highly integrated and not 
necessarily independent. BLS agrees with this comment. The categories 
do overlap and are not intended to be mutually exclusive. The purpose 
of the categories is to establish the scope of green jobs. BLS may 
decide to tabulate data from the green goods and services survey 
according to these categories, recognizing that such a tabulation would 
sum to greater than the total number of green jobs identified, and 
requires clear explanation to data users. Alternatively, BLS could 
assign each industry where green goods or services are produced to only 
one category, so the categories sum to the total number of green jobs 
identified.
    One comment supported the use of ``reduction'' throughout the 
definition, but noted that this does not address the goal of 
environmental sustainability and climate stability. The comment stated 
that ``while the seven economic activities are comprehensive * * * they 
do not capture the underpinnings of business and industry that create 
these economic activities and their associated environmental outcomes. 
It would help to articulate the management policies and operational 
systems that lead to these outcomes.'' BLS responds that it is unclear 
how the commenter would change the definition or data collection.
    BLS has determined to consolidate the seven categories into five 
categories for green goods and services and four categories for 
environmentally friendly production processes. Additionally, BLS has 
determined to modify the term ``categories of green economic activity'' 
to ``categories of green goods and services'' and ``categories of green 
technologies and practices used within establishments.'' See Appendix 
II of this notice.
    Category 1, Renewable energy. Five comments addressed category 1. 
One comment recommended that BLS merge this category with categories 2 
(energy efficiency) and 3 (greenhouse gas reduction), creating a single 
``clean energy'' category, with the proposed category addressing only 
energy systems. BLS has determined to merge certain categories, as 
described in Appendix II of this notice. These decisions do not affect 
category 1, however.
    One comment recommended that BLS modify the description to show the 
sources of renewable energy consistent with the statutory definition. 
BLS has

[[Page 57509]]

modified the description to reflect the sources listed in Section 
203(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, with the exception of the 
qualification of hydropower. The statutory definition includes as 
renewable only ``new hydroelectric generation capacity achieved from 
increased efficiency or additions of new capacity at an existing 
hydroelectric project.'' BLS finds this qualification too complex to be 
used in employment surveys and therefore includes all hydroelectric 
generation as a green good. In response to this comment, BLS has 
changed the description to add landfill gas and municipal solid waste 
as renewable sources, and remove hydrogen fuel cells.
    One comment recommended that the description include installation 
and maintenance. BLS agrees that these activities are included and has 
modified the description accordingly. One comment asked whether trading 
of certificates and offsets is included. BLS responds that these 
activities are included. They could be placed in categories for 
renewable energy, pollution reduction and cleanup, or greenhouse gas 
reduction, depending on what is being traded.
    One comment recommended that BLS expand the description to include 
``construction workers who build and install technologies that harness 
or collect renewable energy.'' BLS responds that these workers are 
included in the proposed definition, and should be identified in the 
data collection.
    Category 2, Energy efficiency. Four comments addressed category 2. 
Two comments recommended that BLS clarify where energy storage and 
distribution are categorized, including the electric power grid and 
battery technologies, and whether BLS intends to distinguish between 
the storage and distribution of energy from renewable sources versus 
energy from other sources.
    BLS has determined to categorize improving the efficiency of the 
electric power grid, including Smart Grid technologies, in category 2. 
BLS has also determined that electric power distribution services are 
not included as a green service, similar to its decision on 
distribution of other green goods and services as discussed above.
    One comment recommended that BLS break out transportation 
efficiency and other sources of efficiency. BLS responds that it does 
not see a need for this breakout.
    One comment asked that BLS clarify whether the category means to 
include ``energy efficiency products'' not ``energy-efficient 
production of any product.'' BLS responds that both ``energy efficiency 
products'' and ``energy-efficient production of any product'' are 
included, with the latter identified as an environmentally friendly 
production process. The revised presentation of the categories makes 
this clearer.
    Category 3, Greenhouse gas reduction. Five comments addressed 
category 3. One comment stated agreement with the inclusion of research 
and development activities in this category. One comment recommended 
moving nuclear energy to category 1, renewable energy. BLS responds 
that nuclear power is not renewable energy, as the fuel source is not 
renewable.
    Two comments supported including nuclear energy in this category, 
while one comment opposed including nuclear energy as a source of green 
jobs. One comment supporting inclusion of nuclear energy recommended 
keeping it as a separate category for data tabulation, as many 
stakeholders will likely reject nuclear energy as a source of green 
jobs. BLS responds that it intends to tabulate data from the green jobs 
surveys by NAICS industry, which should result in presentation of data 
specifically for NAICS 221113 Nuclear electric power generation as well 
as other NAICS categories, providing transparency and allowing users to 
exclude sectors for their own purposes. BLS continues to include 
nuclear energy in the final definition on the basis of lower greenhouse 
gas emissions relative to other major sources of electric power.
    One comment recommended eliminating ``reduction of GHG emissions in 
electricity from fossil fuels'' from this category, noting that ``every 
fossil fueled power plant * * * is or will soon be trying to make 
incremental improvements to its emissions intensity, but that activity 
will not `green' the fossil fuel industry and nor will it qualify the 
associated power plants as `green energy.' '' Another comment supported 
including this activity, noting that ``energy production includes jobs 
that design and apply cleaner technologies to coal such as 
gasification, pyrolysis, and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). 
CCS is still under development but our definition includes efforts that 
seek to reduce adverse impacts of coal in the near future while the 
country works to develop clean, renewable energy sources.'' BLS 
responds that activities in the fossil fuel industry to make 
incremental improvements to its emissions intensity represent 
establishments adopting environmentally friendly production processes 
and should be measured in the BLS green process survey. BLS also notes 
that the proposed definition includes research and development of CCS 
as a green activity, and the planned surveys should identify this 
activity, depending on where it is being performed.
    Category 4, Pollution reduction and cleanup. Five comments 
addressed category 4. These comments generally supported the category 
and recommended including the words ``prevention'' and/or 
``elimination'' in the description. BLS agrees with this recommendation 
and has revised the description accordingly.
    One comment recommended merging category 4 and category 5 
(recycling and waste reduction), noting that there is some overlap in 
the categories. BLS has determined to merge certain categories, as 
described in Appendix II of this notice. This decision combines 
categories 3, 4 and 5 into one category.
    Category 5, Recycling and waste reduction. Forty-four comments 
addressed category 5. These comments generally recommended adding 
certain activities to the description, specifically reuse (29 
comments), remanufacturing (23), composting (22), reduction or 
elimination (7), deconstruction (4), repair (2), and demanufacturing 
(1). BLS has revised the description to include reuse, remanufacturing, 
composting, and avoiding creation of waste materials. ``Reuse'' 
includes reuse of building materials.
    One comment recommended creation of new NAICS codes related to 
composting. BLS responds that revising the NAICS is outside the scope 
of the BLS green jobs initiative.
    One comment recommended that recycled goods be included only on 
evidence that they typically had previously entered the waste stream; 
another comment recommended the category recognize producer 
responsibility for recycling product at end of life. BLS responds that, 
while these suggestions may have merit, they are more complex than BLS 
data collection processes could reasonably identify.
    One comment recommended rewording the description to include 
greater detail about the nature of recycling. BLS responds that it does 
not believe this additional detail is needed.
    One comment recommended rewording to include stormwater management. 
BLS agrees with this recommendation and has included stormwater 
management in the natural resources conservation category.
    Two comments opposed including solid waste landfills, incineration, 
waste-to-energy, or landfill-to-energy

[[Page 57510]]

activities as green activities. BLS responds that it has added 
municipal solid waste and landfill gas as sources of renewable energy, 
consistent with the statutory definition of renewable energy sources.
    Category 6, Agriculture and natural resources conservation. 
Eighteen comments addressed category 6. Fourteen of the comments 
concerned the inclusion of additional NAICS industries on the industry 
list in the area of forestry and wood products, specifically 113110 
Timber Tract Operations, and manufacturing industries related to wood 
and paper products. BLS has added timber tract operations to the list 
of industries producing green goods and services, based on timber 
tracts producing timber meeting sustainable forestry standards.
    BLS continues to include on the industry list industries producing 
certain wood products meeting standards, such as LEED-eligible 
construction materials. One comment criticized the use of the LEED 
standard to identify green wood products and recommended alternative 
standards. BLS is examining the recommended standards.
    One comment recommended this category include activities that take 
place in urban areas. BLS agrees that activities in urban areas are 
included; the key is environmental impact of the activity, not where it 
occurs.
    Two comments asked for clarification of the term ``natural 
resources conservation.'' One comment recommended that the category 
include land management and water conservation. BLS agrees that these 
activities are included; they are specifically mentioned in the 
description for this category.
    Category 7, Education, compliance, public awareness, and training. 
Eight comments addressed category 7. Two comments supported including 
this category. One comment called for deleting the category, stating 
that ``all industries perform these as a public service and academia 
trains in them as its mission. Compliance is a regulatory and process 
review activity, not an economic one--no good or service is produced.'' 
BLS responds that education and compliance are services industries 
recognized in the NAICS.
    One comment recommended adding ``internally within the 
organization'' in addition to the point of raising public awareness. 
One comment noted that this category does not denote any green 
function, but agrees that the jobs meant to be included in the category 
are green. This comment proposed counting jobs in this category under 
each of the preceding categories, depending on the type of training 
provided. BLS has determined to retain a separate category for 
education and compliance goods and services, as some of these outputs 
span across two or more of the preceding categories. BLS has determined 
to drop this category from the categories of environmentally friendly 
production processes, and to include training of an establishment's 
staff or contractors in application of environmentally friendly 
technologies and practices in the remaining four categories.
    One comment recommended the category be more open to allow 
respondents to include themselves, e.g., add `other' or `similar 
services.' BLS responds that, if these categories are presented on data 
collection forms for either the green goods and services survey or the 
process survey, an ``other'' response may be provided.
    One comment stated that it was unclear what types of jobs would 
count. BLS responds that the approach is under development and will be 
specified on the data collection instruments.
    One comment recommended that health and safety education and 
compliance related to green jobs may deserve special notice within this 
category. BLS does not see how health and safety education and 
compliance related to environmental problems has a beneficial impact on 
the environment.
    Comments recommending additional categories. Seven comments 
recommended adding new categories. Two comments recommended adding a 
category ``Environmental health'' to cover work to protect public 
health and worker health from the adverse effects of environmental 
problems. For the reason given in the paragraph above, BLS rejected 
this suggestion.
    Two comments recommended adding a category ``Sustainable design, 
construction, and operations.'' BLS responds that these activities are 
related to energy efficient building design, construction, and 
operation, and are covered in the category 2, Energy efficiency.
    One comment recommended adding a category ``Emission inventory 
management and trading and compliance.'' With the clarification that 
emission offset trading is included as a green activity (see discussion 
of category 1, above), BLS has addressed this comment.
    One comment recommended adding a category for the transportation 
sector, mentioning equipment manufacturing, public transit operation 
and maintenance, public transit infrastructure, and all road 
construction involved in repair ``as long as those construction 
projects are linked to greenhouse gas emissions reductions and/or oil 
savings goals.'' BLS responds that the definition of green goods and 
services includes the equipment manufacture and public transit topics. 
Some road construction activities are also included; it does not seem 
feasible to use the suggested criterion in BLS data collection.
    One comment recommended adding a category ``Water efficiency'' 
similar to ``Energy efficiency,'' noting that the proposed categories 
mainly focus on energy, and that water is not included except for the 
mention of water conservation in category 6. The comment recommended 
including activities such as water conservation, drinking water 
protection, and stormwater management. BLS responds that the 
recommendation appears to be an elaboration of ``water conservation'' 
which is already included in the natural resources conservation 
category, and wastewater management, which is included in the pollution 
reduction category. Stormwater management has been added to the 
description for the natural resources conservation category.
    Types of green goods and services, general comments. Ten comments 
generally addressed the definition of green goods and services, with a 
focus on the extent to which the supply chain or production chain is 
included in the BLS definition.
    Most comments recommended including all of the ``supply chain'' or 
all stages from inputs to final sale. One comment, however, noted that 
``going too far down the chain reduces the `greenness' of the good 
because it could be shipped, stored, or sold with many other nongreen 
goods.''
    Two comments pointed out inconsistencies in the treatment of 
organic food products versus recycled inputs. The proposed BLS 
definition includes organic food products from specialized inputs 
through specialized distribution and sale, while recycled products are 
included only up to the stage where the recycled inputs are introduced.
    BLS notes that including the entire production chain is difficult 
for products other than organic foods, which carry a specific 
certification label, and would greatly expand the list of industries in 
which green goods are classified. These comments also relate to the 
question about whether to include distribution of green goods as a 
green service, discussed above.
    BLS has determined to drop the use of the four types of green goods 
and services from its final definition. Many

[[Page 57511]]

comments indicated that these types were not clear or helpful to data 
users.
    Direct green goods and services. One comment addressed treatment of 
Recyclable Material Merchant Wholesalers in the NAICS. BLS responds 
that revising the NAICS is outside the scope of the BLS green jobs 
initiative. However, this NAICS industry is included in the industry 
list as producing a green service.
    Indirect green goods and services. Two comments addressed indirect 
green goods and services. One comment said the qualifier ``favorable * 
* * relative to other goods'' is vague. BLS responds that it intends, 
where possible, to use existing Federal or industry standards to make 
this qualifier more specific. BLS also notes that, without the 
``relative'' qualifier, it would have little or no basis to make a 
distinction between green and nongreen goods or services that are not 
``direct'' and would exclude a large number of products and services 
that are generally considered green.
    One comment said the distinction between direct green products and 
indirect green products seems unclear: For example, why is weatherizing 
a building directly green, but producing renewable energy is indirectly 
green? BLS responds to this example by noting that weatherization is 
conducted specifically for an environmental purpose, the definition of 
a direct good or service. Producing renewable energy is conducted to 
produce electricity, but has an environmental benefit, and thus fits 
the definition of an indirect green good or service.
    Specialized inputs. One comment recommended that specialized inputs 
be rolled into indirect green goods and services, noting that examples 
such as USDA approved fertilizers, wind turbine blades, and mass 
transit rail cars fit the definition of indirect, i.e., they are 
``produced for another purpose, but when produced, consumed, or 
scrapped have a favorable impact on protecting the environment or 
conserving natural resources.''
    Standards. Twenty-six comments addressed the BLS plan to use 
existing Federal or industry standards to identify indirect green goods 
and services. Most of these comments suggested specific standards for 
BLS to consider or commented on the standards listed in the Federal 
Register Notice as examples. BLS finds these comments very helpful.

II. Definition of Green Jobs BLS Will Use for Data Collection

    In response to comments received on the proposed definition, as 
well as additional considerations, BLS has revised the definition of 
green jobs. The final definition will be used in data collection 
beginning in FY 2011, and is presented below, following a discussion of 
the nature of the changes.
    Categories of green jobs. BLS has changed the term ``categories of 
green economic activity'' to ``categories of green goods and services'' 
and ``categories of green technologies and practices used within 
establishments.''
    BLS has revised the name of category 1 to ``Energy from renewable 
sources.''
    BLS has revised the description of category 2, ``Energy 
efficiency,'' to include improving the efficiency of energy storage and 
distribution, including Smart Grid technologies.
    BLS has combined categories 3 (greenhouse gas reduction), 4 
(pollution reduction and cleanup), and 5 (recycling and waste 
reduction) into one category, now labeled ``category 3, Pollution 
reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and recycling and 
reuse.'' Combining these categories reduces to some extent the overlap 
among categories. The description for this category has been edited to 
include mention of eliminating emissions of pollutants and to include 
reuse, remanufacturing, composting, and avoiding creation of waste 
materials.
    BLS has revised the title of category 4 (formerly category 6) to 
``Natural resources conservation.''
    BLS has edited the descriptions of categories 1 through 4 (formerly 
1 through 6) to include the terms research and development, 
installation, and maintenance.
    BLS has revised the title of category 5 (formerly category 7) to 
``Environmental compliance, education and training, and public 
awareness.'' This category now appears only in relation to green goods 
and services.
    Types of green goods and services. BLS has dropped the use of the 
four types of green goods and services (direct, indirect, specialized 
inputs, and distribution). BLS has excluded distribution of green goods 
from its definition of green services.
    Final BLS definition of green jobs. BLS has developed this 
definition of green jobs for use in data collection in two planned 
surveys.
    Green jobs are either:
    A. Jobs in businesses that produce goods or provide services that 
benefit the environment or conserve natural resources.
    B. Jobs in which workers' duties involve making their 
establishment's production processes more environmentally friendly or 
use fewer natural resources.
    The BLS approach to identifying each type of green job for 
measurement purposes is described in more detail below. The planned BLS 
surveys may identify and count some jobs in both surveys.
    A. Jobs in businesses that produce goods and provide services that 
benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. These goods and 
services are sold to customers, and include research and development, 
installation, and maintenance services. This definition will be used in 
the BLS survey of establishments in industries that produce green goods 
and services. Green goods and services fall into one or more of five 
groups:
    1. Energy from renewable sources. Electricity, heat, or fuel 
generated from renewable sources. These energy sources include wind, 
biomass, geothermal, solar, ocean, hydropower, landfill gas, and 
municipal solid waste.
    2. Energy efficiency. Products and services that improve energy 
efficiency. Included in this group are energy-efficient equipment, 
appliances, buildings, and vehicles, as well as products and services 
that improve the energy efficiency of buildings and the efficiency of 
energy storage and distribution, such as Smart Grid technologies.
    3. Pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and 
recycling and reuse. These are products and services that:
     Reduce or eliminate the creation or release of pollutants 
or toxic compounds, or remove pollutants or hazardous waste from the 
environment.
     Reduce greenhouse gas emissions through methods other than 
renewable energy generation and energy efficiency, such as electricity 
generated from nuclear sources.
     Reduce or eliminate the creation of waste materials; 
collect, reuse, remanufacture, recycle, or compost waste materials or 
wastewater.
    4. Natural resources conservation. Products and services that 
conserve natural resources. Included in this group are products and 
services related to organic agriculture and sustainable forestry; land 
management; soil, water, or wildlife conservation; and stormwater 
management.
    5. Environmental compliance, education and training, and public 
awareness. These are products and services that:
     Enforce environmental regulations.
     Provide education and training related to green 
technologies and practices.
     Increase public awareness of environmental issues.

[[Page 57512]]

    B. Jobs in which workers' duties involve making their 
establishment's production processes more environmentally friendly or 
use fewer natural resources. These workers research, develop, maintain, 
or use technologies and practices to lessen the environmental impact of 
their establishment, or train the establishment's workers or 
contractors in these technologies and practices. This definition will 
be used in the BLS survey of establishments across all industries to 
identify jobs related to green technologies and practices used within 
the establishment. These technologies and practices fall into one or 
more of four groups:
    1. Energy from renewable sources. Generating electricity, heat, or 
fuel from renewable sources primarily for use within the establishment. 
These energy sources include wind, biomass, geothermal, solar, ocean, 
hydropower, landfill gas, and municipal solid waste.
    2. Energy efficiency. Using technologies and practices to improve 
energy efficiency within the establishment. Included in this group is 
cogeneration (combined heat and power).
    3. Pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and 
recycling and reuse. Using technologies and practices within the 
establishment to:
     Reduce or eliminate the creation or release of pollutants 
or toxic compounds, or remove pollutants or hazardous waste from the 
environment.
     Reduce greenhouse gas emissions through methods other than 
renewable energy generation and energy efficiency.
     Reduce or eliminate the creation of waste materials; 
collect, reuse, remanufacture, recycle, or compost waste materials or 
wastewater.
    4. Natural resources conservation. Using technologies and practices 
within the establishment to conserve natural resources. Included in 
this group are technologies and practices related to organic 
agriculture and sustainable forestry; land management; soil, water, or 
wildlife conservation; and stormwater management.

III. Summary of Comments on Identifying Industries Where Green Goods 
and Services Are Classified and the Approach BLS Will Use for Data 
Collection

    Forty-seven comments recommended adding a total of 371 detailed 
NAICS industries to the list of industries where green goods and 
services are classified. Six comments recommended dropping 18 detailed 
NAICS industries from the list. Numerous comments addressed certain 
details on the industry list.
    BLS notes that many of the comments were based on whether 
establishments in the industry may use environmentally friendly 
production processes, rather than whether the product or service meets 
the BLS definition of a green product or service. The purpose of the 
industry list is only to identify industries where green goods and 
services are classified.
    A large number of the industries were recommended for addition to 
the list based on the use of recycled inputs, such as numerous 
fabricated metal products industries that may use recycled metals. BLS 
notes that recycled products are included only up to the stage where 
the environmental impact occurs, and do not include products fabricated 
from materials containing recycled content. Therefore BLS has not added 
these industries to the list.
    Some comments requested changing the type of green good or service 
from indirect to direct, apparently based on a belief that direct green 
goods or services are preferred over other types of green goods or 
services. BLS notes that the direct and indirect types were used as 
criteria for determining what goods or services to include as green, 
and indicate no hierarchy or preference. These types are not included 
in the final definition.
    BLS has revised the industry list to be consistent with the final 
definition of green jobs and in light of its review of comments 
recommending inclusion or exclusion of specific industries. The revised 
list is posted at http://www.bls.gov/green, along with a separate list 
showing the industries added or dropped from the list published with 
the March 16, 2010, Federal Register Notice. The following table 
presents the industry sector distribution of business establishments 
that potentially produce green goods and services. The establishment 
counts represent the number of establishments eligible for sample 
selection for the green goods and services survey. The approximately 
2.2 million eligible establishments compare to a total of 9.0 million 
establishments on the BLS business list in 2009. The number of 
establishments that potentially produce green goods and services could 
change over time as industries currently offering green goods and 
services grow or decline, or as new or different industries begin to 
produce green goods and services.

  Number and Percent Distribution of Establishments in Industries Where
    Green Goods and Services Are Classified, by Industry Sector, 2009
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Number of          Percent
           Industry sector             establishments     distribution
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Construction........................           820,700              38.1
Professional and business services..           779,100              36.2
Other services (Repair and                     183,300               8.5
 maintenance services, Professional
 organizations).....................
Natural resources and mining........            88,700               4.1
Information.........................            77,000               3.6
Manufacturing.......................            77,700               3.6
Trade, transportation, and utilities            49,300               2.3
Public administration...............            42,100               2.0
Education and health services.......            26,400               1.2
All other sectors...................            10,400               0.5
                                     -----------------------------------
    Total...........................         2,154,700             100.0
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In general, the BLS approach is to designate as green those goods 
and services that directly benefit the environment or preserve natural 
resources. The BLS approach does not (automatically) designate as green 
the goods and services produced by industries that supply inputs to or 
distribute the outputs from green producing industries. Instead, BLS 
first evaluates those supplier and distributor industry goods and 
services for whether

[[Page 57513]]

they directly benefit the environment or preserve natural resources. 
Green goods and services may be sold to intermediate demand or to final 
demand.

IV. Summary of Comments on Plans To Measure Green Jobs and BLS Response

    BLS received comments on its approach to measuring green jobs and 
specific measurement plans. These comments are summarized in this 
Appendix, and the BLS response is indicated.
    General measurement approach. One comment expressed unqualified 
support for the output and process approaches.
    Two comments disagreed with the BLS approach. One of these comments 
recommended using the O\*\NET categories and focusing on occupations in 
the output approach. BLS responds that the O\*\NET program in the 
Employment and Training Administration is developing information on 
green jobs and an effort by BLS to collect similar data would be 
duplicative. Further, data users will be able to use O\*\NET 
information in conjunction with the BLS green jobs data, since both 
sources use the Standard Occupational Classification.
    One comment disagreeing with the BLS approach recommended that 
``BLS make it clear that this is a `green firm survey' and not a `green 
jobs survey' '' and that ``the BLS is more concerned with measuring 
jobs created by the demand for green products and not necessarily green 
jobs per se.'' BLS responds that it is referring to the survey to be 
used in the output approach as the ``green goods and services survey.''
    Three comments pointed out that the BLS approach will miss green 
goods and services produced by firms classified in NAICS industries 
excluded from the list. Establishments are classified into NAICS 
industries based on the goods or services that account for the majority 
of their revenue. Establishments not classified into an industry on the 
BLS list will not be included in the green goods and services survey; 
if a minority of their revenue is from a green good or service, these 
goods or services and the jobs related to them will not be identified. 
BLS is aware of this limitation and notes that how large this 
limitation may be is unknown.
    Use of share of revenue to apportion share of jobs. In the green 
goods and services survey, for establishments that produce both green 
and nongreen goods or services, BLS proposed to capture the share of 
establishment revenue received from the sale of green goods and 
services. (An alternative to revenue will be used for nonmarket 
sectors.) BLS plans to use the revenue share as a proxy for the share 
of the establishment's employment associated with the production of 
green goods and services.
    Fifteen comments agreed with use of revenue, and seven comments 
disagreed. Both types of comments cited collectability and respondent 
burden as reasons for their agreement or disagreement. Some comments 
disagreeing with the approach questioned whether the result would 
overestimate the number of green jobs, and said the results would be 
difficult to interpret. BLS responds that its field research to date 
indicates that respondents are generally able to provide share of 
revenue information and this information is more readily available than 
share of employment. BLS also notes that this result is similar to the 
experience of Statistics Canada in its environmental surveys.
    Eleven comments pointed out limitations of the revenue share 
approach, suggested other measures (employment, hours, task 
proportions, degree of shift to green practices or sustainability), 
recommended attempting to collect employment as well as revenue, and/or 
recommended field testing. BLS responds that it is conducting field 
testing of both share of revenue and share of employment, and that the 
collection of hours, task proportions, or degree of shift to green 
practices or sustainability would be more difficult to collect than 
shares of revenue or employment.
    One comment recommended that, regarding electric power distribution 
jobs associated with ``clean energy,'' BLS count jobs associated with 
transmission and distribution as proportional to the quantity of clean 
energy flowing on the grid. Consistent with its decision to exclude 
distribution of green goods from the definition of green services, BLS 
has determined that the operation of the electric power grid is not 
included as a green good or service. However, goods and services or 
processes that improve the efficiency of energy storage and 
distribution, such as Smart Grid technologies, are included in category 
2, energy efficiency. Construction of the power transmission facilities 
to connect new renewable energy sources to the grid is included in 
category 1, energy from renewable sources.
    Coverage and sampling frame, green goods and services survey. Three 
comments addressed the coverage and sampling frame for the green goods 
and services survey. One comment expressed concern about exclusion of 
the self-employed. BLS responds that this limitation is imposed by 
nature of the BLS business list that will be used as the sampling 
frame.
    One comment recommended that, for the construction industry, BLS 
should rely on a sampling frame of projects, not establishments. BLS 
responds that such a frame is not available and would result in data 
based on a different concept than for other industries.
    One comment suggested that BLS work with the National Agricultural 
Statistics Service (NASS) if BLS has a need to expand coverage of farms 
beyond the BLS business list, where coverage of agriculture production 
is limited. BLS has determined that the scope of its green jobs data 
collection will be wage and salary employment within the scope of the 
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program, except private 
households. All NAICS industries in this scope will be surveyed in the 
process survey; only those NAICS industries identified as producing 
green goods or services will be surveyed in the goods and services 
survey. While QCEW coverage of NAICS Sector 11 Agriculture, Forestry, 
Fishing and Hunting is not as complete as in most other industries, BLS 
believes it is comprehensive enough for purposes of green jobs data 
collection.
    Measuring occupational employment and wages. Six comments addressed 
the collection of occupational data from establishments in the green 
goods and services survey. Certain of these comments indicate that the 
Federal Register Notice did not provide sufficient description of the 
plans concerning occupational data collection. BLS responds that it 
intends to collect an Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) schedule 
from establishments sampled for the green goods and services survey. 
These responses will allow estimation of occupational staffing 
patterns, employment, and wages for those establishments reporting 
green goods or services and for those not reporting such goods or 
services. BLS has not yet developed the specific estimation methods to 
account for establishments that report producing both green and 
nongreen goods or services.
    One comment recommended that survey respondents be asked directly 
to identify the job titles of positions that meet the BLS definition of 
``green.'' BLS responds that, in the process survey, respondents may be 
asked to provide job titles, which would be coded using the SOC. For 
the occupations of jobs related to production of green goods and 
services, however, the existing OES survey procedures will be used, 
which do not ask respondents for job titles.

[[Page 57514]]

    One comment stated that determining green job occupations based on 
OES assumes that green jobs are distributed throughout the workforce in 
the same proportion by occupation as all jobs. The commenter stated 
that results of their State survey indicated that green jobs seem to be 
widely disbursed, but are more concentrated in construction and 
extraction, production, and farming and fishing occupations. BLS 
responds that occupational employment will be estimated using OES data 
for specific establishments, according to whether or not they produce 
green goods or services. This is different from using OES estimates for 
overall employment.
    Two comments concerned the BLS plan to count jobs in all 
occupations in the establishment in the green goods and services 
survey, with one comment agreeing and one comment saying there is ``no 
need to count support jobs, such as accountants or administrative 
staff, because their job duties are not affected directly by the green 
product or service and thus they do not require additional training.'' 
BLS notes that its green jobs definition is not based on skill 
differences, but instead on the environmental impact of the good or 
service produced or the production process used. However, data users 
can select the occupations they wish to consider for training offerings 
from those BLS identifies as occurring in establishments producing 
green goods and services. The O\*\NET green occupations taxonomy should 
be useful in this type of analysis.
    Data by public ownership. One comment encouraged BLS to generate 
data that identify the level of public sector green employment in the 
NAICS-defined industries and the characteristics of the public sector 
green jobs. BLS responds that it intends to provide data from the green 
goods and services survey by public versus private ownership.
    Process approach to measuring green jobs. BLS plans to develop a 
special employer survey to test the feasibility of collecting data on 
jobs associated with use of environmentally friendly production 
processes. Environmentally friendly production processes and practices 
are those that reduce the environmental or natural resources impact 
resulting from production of any good or service. These production 
processes include (1) production of green goods and services for use 
within the establishment, and (2) use of technologies and practices 
that have a positive environmental or natural resources conservation 
impact.
    Sixteen comments addressed the process approach. Five comments 
supported using this approach and one comment recommended against. 
Three of these comments emphasized that all industries should be 
included in the process survey. BLS responds that, as stated in the 
March 16, 2010, notice, the scope of the process survey will be all 
industries.
    Six comments indicated the need for more clarity in the process 
approach. BLS responds that the approach is under development and will 
be described in a future notice.
    Two comments recommended using product life-cycle criteria for 
identifying green goods, with one of these comments suggesting that ``a 
`green good' and a good produced with `green processes' will become 
increasingly indistinguishable in the marketplace among the leading 
experts and stakeholders in the sustainable products field.'' BLS 
responds that applying life-cycle criteria or identifying 
``sustainable'' products is not feasible in its data collection.

    Signed at Washington, DC, this 26th day of August 2010.
Kimberley Hill,
Chief, Division of Management Systems, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
[FR Doc. 2010-23485 Filed 9-20-10; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4510-24-P