[Federal Register Volume 76, Number 192 (Tuesday, October 4, 2011)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 61269-61279]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2011-25391]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118; FRL-9474-4]
RIN 2060-AG12


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: acceptability Determination 26 
for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Determination of acceptability.

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SUMMARY: This Determination of Acceptability expands the list of 
acceptable substitutes for ozone-depleting substances under the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives 
Policy (SNAP) program. The determinations concern new substitutes for 
use in the refrigeration and air conditioning, solvent cleaning and 
fire suppression sectors.

DATES: This determination is effective on October 4, 2011.

ADDRESSES: EPA has established a docket for this action under Docket ID 
No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 (continuation of Air Docket A-91-42). All 
electronic documents in the docket are listed in the index at http://www.regulations.gov. Although listed in the index, some information is 
not publicly available, i.e., Confidential Business Information (CBI) 
or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. 
Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically 
at http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the EPA Air Docket 
(No. A-91-42), EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., 
NW., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 
4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The 
telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the 
telephone number for the Air Docket is (202) 566-1742.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard by telephone at 
(202) 343-9163, by facsimile at (202) 343-2338, by e-mail at 
sheppard.margaret@epa.gov, or by mail at U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Mail Code 6205J, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 
20460. Overnight or courier deliveries should be sent to the office 
location at 1310 L Street, NW., 10th floor, Washington, DC 20005.
    For more information on the Agency's process for administering the 
SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the 
original SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 
1994 (59 FR 13044). Notices and rulemakings under the SNAP program, as 
well as other EPA publications on protection of stratospheric ozone, 
are available at EPA's Ozone Depletion World Wide Web site at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/ including the SNAP portion at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    B. Solvent Cleaning
    C. Fire Suppression
II. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements and Authority for the SNAP Program
    B. EPA's Regulations Implementing Section 612
    C. How the Regulations for the SNAP Program Work
    D. Additional Information About the SNAP Program
Appendix A--Summary of Decisions for New Acceptable Substitutes

I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes

    This section presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing 
decisions for substitutes in the refrigeration and air conditioning, 
solvent cleaning, and fire suppression sectors. For copies of the full 
list of ozone-depleting substance (ODS) substitutes in all industrial 
sectors, visit EPA's Ozone Layer Protection Web site at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists/index.html.
    The sections below discuss each substitute listing in detail. 
Appendix A contains a table summarizing today's listing decisions for 
new substitutes. The statements in the ``Further Information'' column 
in the table provide additional information, but are not legally 
binding under section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). In addition, the 
``further information'' may not be a comprehensive list of other legal 
obligations you may need to meet when using the substitute. Although 
you are not required to follow recommendations in the ``further 
information'' column of the table to use a substitute consistent with 
section 612 of the CAA, EPA strongly encourages you to apply the 
information when using these substitutes. In many instances, the 
information simply refers to standard operating practices in existing 
industry and/or building-code standards. However, some of these 
statements may refer to obligations that are enforceable or binding 
under federal or state programs other than the SNAP program. Many of 
these statements, if adopted, would not require significant changes to 
existing operating practices.
    You can find submissions to EPA for the use of the substitutes 
listed in this document and other materials supporting the decisions in 
this action in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 at http://www.regulations.gov.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

1. Hot Shot 2
    EPA's decision: EPA finds Hot Shot 2 is acceptable as a substitute 
for CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, CFC-114, R-13B1, R-500, R-502, HCFC-22 and 
HCFC blends, including those containing HCFC-22 and/or HCFC-142b, for 
use in retrofit equipment in:
     Centrifugal chillers
     Reciprocating and screw chillers
     Industrial process refrigeration
     Ice skating rinks
     Cold storage warehouses

[[Page 61270]]

     Refrigerated transport
     Retail food refrigeration
     Vending machines
     Commercial ice machines
     Residential dehumidifiers
     Household and light commercial air conditioning and heat 
pumps
    Hot Shot 2 is a blend by weight of 79.3 percent HFC-134a, which is 
also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811-97-2), 19.5 
percent HFC-125, which is also known as 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane 
(CAS Reg. No. 354-33-6), and 1.7 percent R-600, which is also known as 
n-butane (CAS Reg. No. 106-97-8). You may find the submission under 
Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0271 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: Hot Shot 2 has no ozone depletion 
potential (ODP). Its components (HFC-134a, HFC-125, and R-600) have 
100-year integrated (100-yr) global warming potentials (GWPs) of 
1,430,\1\ 3,500, and 4 respectively. If these values are weighted by 
mass percentage, then Hot Shot 2 has a GWP of about 1,820. Of the three 
components of Hot Shot 2, R-600 is defined as a volatile organic 
compound (VOC) under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing 
the development of State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to attain and 
maintain the national ambient air quality standards. The emissions of 
this refrigerant will be limited given it is subject to the venting 
prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the CAA and EPA's implementing 
regulations codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1).\2\ Considering the small 
expected emissions of this refrigerant and particularly of the VOC 
component, use of Hot Shot 2 is not expected to pose any significant 
adverse impacts on local air quality.
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    \1\ Unless otherwise stated, all GWPs in this document are from: 
IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. 
Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of 
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Solomon, S., D. Qin, 
M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. 
Miller (eds.)). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United 
Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. This document is accessible at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/contents.html.
    \2\ For more information, including definitions, see 40 CFR part 
82 subpart F.
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    Flammability information: While the component R-600, isobutane, is 
a hydrocarbon that is flammable, Hot Shot 2 as formulated and in the 
worst-case fractionation formulation is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may also 
irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high 
concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space. These potential health effects are common to many 
refrigerants.
    EPA anticipates that Hot Shot 2 will be used consistent with the 
recommendations specified in the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) 
for the blend and for the individual components. For the blend, the 
manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit (AEL) of 1000 ppm 
on an 8-hour time-weighted average. For both HFC-134a and HFC-125, the 
American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) recommends workplace 
environmental exposure limits (WEELs) of 1000 ppm on an 8-hour time-
weighted average. Similarly, for R-600 the American Conference of 
Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has established a threshold 
limit value (TLV) of 1,000 ppm on an 8-hour time-weighted average. The 
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has a 
recommended exposure limit (REL) of 800 ppm for R-600 on a 10-hour 
time-weighted average. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet 
workplace exposure limits (WEELs, TLVs, RELs and manufacturer AELs) and 
address potential health risks by following requirements and 
recommendations in the MSDS and other safety precautions common to the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants: Hot Shot 2 is not ozone-depleting 
in contrast to CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, CFC-114 (with ODPs ranging from 
0.58 to 1.0 \3\), R-13B1 (with an ODP of 15.9), HCFC-22 (with an ODP of 
0.04), R-500 (with an ODP of 0.074) and R-502 (with an ODP of 0.334), 
the ozone-depleting substances which it replaces, and comparable to a 
number of other acceptable non-ozone-depleting substitutes for these 
end uses such as HFC-134a, R-410A, and R-404A. Hot Shot 2's GWP of 
about 1,820 is lower than or comparable to those of the substances it 
is replacing, including CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, CFC-114, R-13B1, R-
500, R-502, and HCFC-22, with GWPs ranging from 1,810 to 10,900. 
Furthermore, the GWP of Hot Shot 2 is lower than or comparable to that 
of other non-ozone-depleting substitutes in the same refrigeration and 
air conditioning end uses for which we are finding it acceptable, such 
as HFC-134a with a GWP of 1,430, R-410A with a GWP of 2,100 and R-404A 
with a GWP of 3,930. Flammability and toxicity risks are low, as 
discussed above. Thus, EPA finds Hot Shot 2 acceptable in the end uses 
listed above because the overall environmental and human health risk 
posed by Hot Shot 2 is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by 
other substitutes found acceptable in the same end uses.
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    \3\ Unless otherwise stated, all ODPs in this document are from: 
WMO (World Meteorological Organization), Scientific Assessment of 
Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project-
Report No. 52, 516 pp., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. This document is 
accessible at http://ozone.unep.org/Assessment_Panels/SAP/Scientific_Assessment_2010/index.shtml.
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2. R-407F
    EPA's decision: EPA finds R-407F is acceptable as a substitute for 
HCFC-22 and HCFC blends, including those containing HCFC-22 and/or 
HCFC-142b, for use in new and retrofit equipment in:
     Industrial process refrigeration
     Ice skating rinks
     Industrial process air conditioning
     Cold storage warehouses
     Refrigerated transport
     Retail food refrigeration
     Commercial ice machines
     Household refrigerators and freezers
     Motor vehicle air conditioning (buses and passenger trains 
only)
     Household and light commercial air conditioning and heat 
pumps
    R-407F, marketed under the trade name Genetron[supreg] LT or 
Genetron[supreg] PerformaxTM LT, is a weighted blend of 30 
percent HFC-32, which is also known as difluoromethane (CAS Reg. No. 
75-10-5), 30 percent HFC-125, which is also known as 1,1,1,2,2-
pentafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 354-33-6), and 40 percent HFC-134a, 
which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811-97-
2). You may find the submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-
0264 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: R-407F has no ODP. HFC-32, HFC-125, and 
HFC-134a have GWPs of 675, 3500, and 1430, respectively. If these 
values are weighted by mass percentage, then R-407F has a GWP of about 
1,820. The contribution of this refrigerant blend to greenhouse gas 
emissions will be limited given it is subject to the venting 
prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the CAA and EPA's implementing 
regulations codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1), which limit emissions of 
refrigerant substitutes.
    R-407F does not contain any VOCs as defined under CAA regulations 
(see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and 
maintain the national ambient air quality standards.

[[Page 61271]]

    Flammability information: While the component HFC-32 is moderately 
flammable, R-407F as formulated and in the worst-case fractionation 
formulation is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may also 
irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high 
concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space. These potential health effects are common to many 
refrigerants.
    The AIHA has established WEELs of 1000 ppm on an 8-hour time-
weighted average for each of the components of R-407F. The manufacturer 
also recommends an AEL of 1000 ppm on an 8-hour time-weighted average 
for each of the R-407F components. EPA anticipates that users will be 
able to meet AIHA's WEELs and the manufacturer's recommended AELs and 
address potential health risks by following requirements and 
recommendations in the MSDS and other safety precautions common to the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants: R-407F is not ozone-depleting in 
contrast to HCFC-22 (with an ODP of 0.04) and HCFC-142b (with an ODP of 
0.06), the ozone-depleting substances which it replaces, and comparable 
to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-depleting substitutes in 
these end uses (e.g., R-410A and R-404A). R-407F's GWP of about 1,820 
is comparable to that of HCFC-22 with a GWP of 1,810 and lower than or 
comparable to that of other non-ozone-depleting substitutes for HCFC-22 
in the same refrigeration and air conditioning end uses, such as R-410A 
with a GWP of 2,100 and R-404A with a GWP of 3,930. Flammability and 
toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, EPA finds R-407F 
acceptable in the end uses listed above because the overall 
environmental and human health risk posed by R-407F is lower than or 
comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in 
the same end uses.
3. R-507A
    EPA's decision: EPA finds R-507A is acceptable as a substitute for 
R-13B1 for use in retrofit equipment in very low temperature 
refrigeration.
    R-507A, also known as R-507, is a blend of 50% by weight HFC-125 
(1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane) and 50% by weight HFC-143a (1,1,1-
trifluoroethane). EPA previously listed R-507A as an acceptable 
alternative for various CFCs (e.g., CFC-12) and CFC-containing blends 
(e.g., R-500 and R-502) in several refrigeration and air conditioning 
end uses and as an alternative for HCFC-22 and blends in the very low 
temperature refrigeration end use. (March 18, 1994, 59 FR 13044; August 
26, 1994, 59 FR 44240; January 13, 1995, 60 FR 3318; September 5, 1996, 
61 FR 47012; December 20, 2002, 67 FR 77927). Today's decision finds R-
507A acceptable as a substitute for R-13B1 (also known as halon 1301) 
in the very low temperature refrigeration end use.\4\
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    \4\ EPA received a test marketing notification for this use, 
accessible under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0266 at http://www.regulations.gov.
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    Environmental information: The ODP of R-507A is zero. The GWPs of 
HFC-125 and HFC-143a are about 3,400 and 4,300, respectively. If these 
values are weighted by mass percentage, then R-507A has a GWP of 3,850. 
The contribution of this refrigerant blend to greenhouse gas emissions 
will be limited given it is subject to the venting prohibition under 
section 608(c)(2) of the CAA and EPA's implementing regulations 
codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1), which limit emissions of refrigerant 
substitutes.
    R-507A does not contain any VOCs as defined under CAA regulations 
(see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and 
maintain the national ambient air quality standards.
    Flammability Information: While the component HFC-143a is 
moderately flammable, R-507A as formulated and in the worst-case 
fractionation formulation is not flammable.
    Toxicity and Exposure Data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, or loss of 
consciousness. The substitute may also irritate the skin or eyes or 
cause frostbite. At sufficiently high concentrations, the substitute 
may cause irregular heartbeat or rapid heartbeat. The substitute could 
cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. 
These potential health effects are common to many refrigerants.
    EPA anticipates that R-507A will be used consistent with the 
recommendations specified in the MSDSs for the blend and the individual 
components. All components of the blend have WEELs of 1,000 ppm, as 
established by AIHA. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet 
AIHA's WEELs and address potential health risks by following 
requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and other safety 
precautions common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to Other Refrigerants: R-507A is not ozone-depleting, in 
contrast to R-13B1 (with an ODP of 15.9), the ozone-depleting substance 
which it replaces, and in contrast to NARM-502 and R-403B, substitutes 
for this end use that contain HCFC-22 with an ODP of 0.04. R-507A's GWP 
of about 3,850 is well below that of R-13B1 with a GWP of 7,140 and 
lower than or comparable to that of other non-ozone-depleting 
substitutes for R-13B1 in the very low temperature refrigeration end 
use, such as R-508A with a GWP of 13,200, NARM-502 with a GWP of 2,380, 
and R-403B with a GWP of 1,500. Flammability and toxicity risks are 
low, as discussed above. Thus, EPA finds R-507A acceptable in the very 
low temperature refrigeration end use for retrofit equipment because 
the overall environmental and human health risk posed by R-507A is 
lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found 
acceptable in the same end use.

B. Solvent Cleaning

1. Perfluorobutyl Iodide (PFBI)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds perfluorobutyl iodide (PFBI) is 
acceptable as a substitute for CFC-113, methyl chloroform, and HCFC-
225ca, HCFC-225cb, and blends thereof for use in:
     Metal cleaning.
     Electronics cleaning.
     Precision cleaning.
    PFBI is also known as 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluoro-4-iodo-butane 
(CAS Reg. No. 423-39-2). This substitute was submitted to EPA under the 
trade name Capstone[supreg] 4-I as a fluorinated iodide mixture 
containing greater than 99 percent PFBI. You may find the submission 
under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0269 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: PFBI has an ODP of less than 0.005. PFBI 
has a GWP of less than 5 relative to CO2 and an atmospheric 
lifetime of a few days \5\. PFBI is currently defined as a VOC under 
Clean Air Act regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the 
development of SIPs to attain and maintain the national ambient air 
quality standards. Many States currently, in particular those with 
areas that are violating the ozone NAAQS,

[[Page 61272]]

have regulations governing the VOC content of solvents.
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    \5\ ODP, GWP and atmospheric lifetime for PFBI are from 
information provided in the submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-
2003-0118-0269 at http://www.regulations.gov.
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    Some evidence shows that the substitute can cause aquatic toxicity, 
with an LC50\6\ of 2 mg/l in a 96-hour test on fathead 
minnows under laboratory conditions. Due to PFBI's low solubility in 
water, high vapor pressure and high volatility, it is not likely to 
accumulate in surface water at concentrations high enough to be toxic 
to fish \7\. To address the potential for toxicity to fish, the EPA 
recommends that users follow recommendations in the manufacturer's 
MSDS, including:
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    \6\ LC50 is defined as the concentration at which 50% 
of the test animals die.
    \7\ For more information see the risk screen for PFBI provided 
in the Docket at http://www.regulations.gov.
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     Collect the spent solvent for reclamation or incineration;
     Incinerate materials that contain or are contaminated with 
the solvent;
     Send solvent-contaminated wastewater to a wastewater 
treatment facility to prevent the solvent from entering waterways; and
     Do not dispose of the solvent by releasing it into 
waterways.

EPA anticipates that PFBI will be disposed of consistent with 
regulations pertaining to the definition of hazardous waste under the 
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as with the 
recommendations above.
    Flammability information: PFBI is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include cough, shortness of breath, central nervous system 
depression, dizziness, confusion, incoordination, drowsiness, or 
unconsciousness. The substitute may also irritate the skin or eyes. At 
sufficiently high concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular 
heartbeat or fluid in the lungs. These potential health effects are 
common to many solvents.
    EPA anticipates that PFBI will be used consistent with the 
recommendations specified in the manufacturer's MSDS. EPA and the 
manufacturer both recommend an acceptable exposure limit of 375 ppm 
over an 8-hour time-weighted average for PFBI. Users should be aware of 
additional exposure limits that may be associated with byproducts in 
PFBI solutions, such as iodine. EPA anticipates that users will be able 
to meet the workplace exposure limits (manufacturer AEL and EPA 
recommendation) and address potential health risks by following 
requirements and recommendations in the MSDSs and other safety 
precautions common in the solvent cleaning industry.
    Comparison to other solvents: PFBI's ODP of less than 0.005 is 
below that of CFC-113 (with an ODP of 0.85) and lower than or 
comparable to that of other substitutes for CFC-113 in metals, 
electronics, and precision cleaning such as HCFC-225ca with an ODP of 
0.02, HCFC-225cb with an ODP of 0.03, and HFE-7100 with an ODP of zero. 
PFBI's GWP of less than 5 is well below that of CFC-113 with a GWP of 
6,130 and is lower than that of other substitutes for CFC-113 in the 
listed end uses, such as HCFC-225ca with a GWP of 1,220, HCFC-225cb 
with a GWP of 595, and HFE-7100 with a GWP of 297. PFBI has a lower 
LC50 for fish than some other acceptable solvents in these 
end uses (e.g., 7280 to 8120 mg/l for acetone \8\, 40.7 to 66.8 mg/l 
for trichloroethylene,\9\ and greater than 7.9 mg/l for HFE-7100 \10\) 
and an LC50 higher than for some other acceptable 
substitutes (e.g., 0.7 mg/l for d-limonene \11\). EPA expects that 
following the disposal recommendations in the manufacturer's MSDS can 
sufficiently address this risk. Flammability and toxicity risks are 
low, as discussed above. Thus, EPA finds PFBI acceptable in the end 
uses listed above because the overall risk to human health and the 
environment posed by PFBI is lower than or comparable to the risks 
posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end uses.
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    \8\ Fisher Scientific, 2001. Material Safety Data Sheet for 
acetone. Updated March 19, 2001. Available at http://www.mhatt.aps.anl.gov/dohn/msds/acetone.html.
    \9\ NPS, 1997. Irwin, R.J., M. VanMouwerik, L. Stevens, M.S. 
Seese, and W. Basham. 1997. Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia. 
National Park Service, Water Resources Division, Fort Collins, 
Colorado.
    \10\ Material Safety Data Sheet for 3M\TM\ Novec\TM\ 7100 
Engineered Fluid. March 17, 2011. Downloaded from http://multimedia.3m.com/mws/mediawebserver?mwsId=SSSSSuUn_zu8l00xl8mBm8mePv70k17zHvu9lxtD7SSSSSS--on August 10, 2011. HFE-
7100's LC50 for fish (fathead minnow) is reported as being greater 
than its saturation concentration in water.
    \11\ Toxicity of eight terpenes to fathead minnows (Pimephales 
promelas), daphnids (Daphnia magna), and algae (Selenastrum 
capricornutum). AScI Corporation and U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. 1990.
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C. Fire Suppression

1. Firebane[supreg] All-Weather 1115 and Firebane[supreg] 1115
    EPA's decision: EPA finds Firebane[supreg] All-Weather 1115 and 
Firebane[supreg] 1115 acceptable as substitutes for halon 1211 for use 
as streaming agents.
     Because the formulations of Firebane[supreg] All-Weather 1115 and 
Firebane[supreg] 1115 are very similar and share the same human health 
and environmental risks, we are listing them together and, hereinafter, 
collectively referring to them as ``both Firebane[supreg] 1115 
formulations.'' The manufacturer of both Firebane[supreg] 1115 
formulations has claimed their composition as CBI. You may find the 
submissions under Docket items EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0255 and EPA-HQ-
OAR-2003-0118-0256 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: Both Firebane[supreg] 1115 formulations 
have zero ODP and zero GWP. Therefore, both Firebane[supreg] 1115 
formulations are not expected to pose any significant adverse impacts 
on the ozone layer or climate.
    In the case of both Firebane[supreg] 1115 formulations, it is 
expected that all of the constituents would rapidly aerosolize during 
expulsion from the container and then settle as a liquid on surfaces. 
After settling, cleanup would involve washing or rinsing of surfaces. 
The substitutes are readily biodegradable and have an exceptionally low 
biological oxygen demand \12\ (BOD) level for wastewater and low 
chemical oxygen demand. Discharge of either Firebane[supreg] 1115 
formulation is, therefore, not expected to contribute to surface water 
contamination or generation of solid waste.
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    \12\ BOD is the amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms as 
they decompose organic materials in water.
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    Of the constituents of both Firebane 1115[supreg] formulations, 
only one has not been exempted as a VOC under the CAA (40 CFR 
51.100(s)). Potential emissions of VOCs from the use of substitutes for 
halons in the fire extinguishing and explosion prevention sector are 
likely to be insignificant relative to VOCs from all other sources 
(i.e., other industries, mobile sources, and biogenic sources). Even at 
full market penetration, and given typical annual emission rates for 
halon substitute fire suppressants, estimated annual VOC emissions from 
both formulations of Firebane[supreg] 1115 are not expected to pose any 
significant adverse impacts on local air quality.
    Flammability information: Both Firebane[supreg] 1115 formulations 
are non-flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The majority of the constituents of the 
Firebane[supreg] 1115 formulations are classified by the U.S. Food and 
Drug Administration (FDA) as ``Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)'' 
compounds, and the remaining constituents are FDA-approved for use as 
direct and/or indirect food additives. These compounds are commonly 
used in food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications. Individual 
constituents may cause gastrointestinal discomfort (if

[[Page 61273]]

excessively ingested), or minor irritation to the eyes, skin, and/or 
respiratory tract.
    Given the low toxicity of its constituents, both formulations of 
Firebane[supreg] 1115 are not expected to pose a significant risk to 
personnel during manufacture, installation and maintenance. To minimize 
worker exposure to any chemicals during manufacture, installation, and 
maintenance through an accidental release or spill, EPA recommends the 
following:
     Proper personal protective equipment (PPE) be used during 
handling of the substitute (e.g., goggles, gloves);
     Adequate ventilation should be in place;
     All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance 
with good industrial hygiene practices;
     Training for safe handling procedures should be provided 
to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of or 
extinguishing units filled with Firebane[supreg] 1115 or 
Firebane[supreg] All-Weather 1115; and
     In case of an inadvertent discharge, workers should 
immediately follow the instructions listed in the manufacturer's MSDS.

The above recommendations are all contained in the manufacturers's 
MSDS. EPA also recommends that use of these systems should be in 
accordance with the latest edition of NFPA 10 Standard for Portable 
Extinguishers.
    Firebane[supreg] 1115 and Firebane[supreg] All-Weather 1115 are not 
expected to cause significant harm to human health when used as 
streaming agents in portable fire extinguishers. As described above, 
the constituents of both Firebane[supreg] 1115 formulations are 
composed of compounds with low toxicity. Their use as streaming agents 
is not expected to pose any significant adverse health effects when the 
recommended safety precautions are followed.
    Comparison to other fire suppressants: Both Firebane[supreg] 1115 
formulations have zero ODP and GWP in contrast to halon 1211 (with an 
ODP of 7.1 and a GWP of 1,890), the ODS which they replace. Compared to 
other substitutes for halon 1211, such as HCFC Blend B (with ODP of 
roughly 0.01 and GWP of roughly 80), HFC-227ea (with ODP of 0 and GWP 
of 3,220), and HFC-236fa (with an ODP of 0 and GWP of 9,810), both 
Firebane[supreg] 1115 formulations have less impact on the atmosphere. 
Toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, we find that 
Firebane[supreg] 1115 and Firebane[supreg] All-Weather 1115 are 
acceptable because the overall environmental and human health risk 
posed by Firebane[supreg] 1115 and Firebane[supreg] All-Weather 1115 is 
lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found 
acceptable in the same end use.
2. Firebane[supreg] 1170 and Firebane[supreg] 1179
    EPA's decision: EPA finds Firebane[supreg] 1170 and 
Firebane[supreg] 1179 acceptable as substitutes for halon 1211 for use 
as streaming agents.
    Because the formulations of Firebane[supreg] 1170 and 
Firebane[supreg] 1179 are very similar and share the same human health 
and environmental risks, they are being listed together and, 
hereinafter, collectively referred to in this section as ``both 
Firebane[supreg] formulations.'' The manufacturer of both 
Firebane[supreg] formulations has claimed their composition as CBI. You 
may find the submissions under Docket items EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0260 
and EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0270 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: Both Firebane[supreg] formulations have 
zero ODP and zero GWP. Therefore, both Firebane[supreg] formulations 
are not expected to pose any significant adverse impacts on the ozone 
layer or climate.
    At manufacture, EPA believes that regulatory requirements on 
industrial wastewater discharges are sufficient to prevent the unlikely 
release of the substitute to surface water during the manufacturing 
operations of both Firebane[supreg] formulations. Because of the BOD 
level of these formulations, discharges of either Firebane[supreg] 
formulation that result in release to waterways could result in 
relatively high BOD in the waterways. However, neither Firebane[supreg] 
formulation is expected to pose significant harm to the environment, 
provided that proper disposal procedures are followed. As with the 
majority of halon substitutes, their physicochemical properties make it 
unlikely that the substitutes would be released to surface water.
    During discharge, the constituents of both Firebane[supreg] 
formulations would rapidly aerosolize during expulsion from the 
container and then settle as a liquid on surfaces. After settling, 
cleanup would involve washing or rinsing of surfaces. It is recommended 
that discharges of either Firebane[supreg] formulation not be released 
to waterways. Further, during cleanup, it is recommended that 
discharges of either Firebane[supreg] formulation be collected (e.g., 
mopped) and sealed in containers and then disposed of in accordance 
with local, state, and federal requirements and as specified in the 
manufacturer's MSDS. The MSDS also specifies that training for safe 
handling procedures be provided to all employees that would be likely 
to dispose of either Firebane[supreg] formulation at cleanup. In 
addition, the use of an extinguisher is expected to be infrequent 
(i.e., in case of a fire emergency), and therefore discharges at end-
use would be infrequent. Therefore, EPA expects that following the safe 
handling and disposal recommendations in the manufacturer's MSDS would 
protect against significant harm to surface water during manufacture, 
end-use or at cleanup.
    Of the constituents of both Firebane[supreg] formulations, only one 
has not been exempted as a VOC under the CAA (40 CFR 51.000). Potential 
emissions of VOCs from the use of substitutes for halons in the fire 
extinguishing and explosion prevention sector are likely to be 
insignificant relative to VOCs from all other sources (i.e., other 
industries, mobile sources, and biogenic sources). Even at full market 
penetration, and given typically annual emission rates for halon 
substitute fire suppressants, estimated annual VOC emissions from both 
Firebane[supreg] formulations are not expected to pose any significant 
adverse impact on local air quality.
    Flammability information: Both Firebane[supreg] formulations are 
non-flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The majority of the constituents of 
both Firebane[supreg] formulations are composed of FDA-classified GRAS 
compounds, and the remaining constituents are FDA-approved for use as 
direct or indirect food additives. These compounds are commonly used in 
food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications. Individual constituents 
may cause gastrointestinal discomfort (if excessively ingested), or 
minor irritation to the eyes, skin, and/or respiratory tract. Given the 
low toxicity of their constituents, both Firebane[supreg] formulations 
are not expected to pose a significant risk to personnel during 
manufacture, installation and maintenance. To minimize worker exposure 
to any chemicals during manufacture, installation, and maintenance 
through an accidental release or spill, EPA recommends the following:
     Proper Level C or higher PPE be used during handling of 
the substitute (e.g., goggles, gloves);
     Adequate ventilation should be in place;
     All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance 
with good industrial hygiene practices;
     Training for safe handling procedures should be provided 
to all employees that would be likely to

[[Page 61274]]

handle containers of or extinguishing units filled with 
Firebane[supreg] 1170 or Firebane[supreg] 1179; and
     In case of an inadvertent discharge, workers should 
immediately follow the instructions listed in the MSDS for 
Firebane[supreg] 1170 or for Firebane[supreg] 1179.
The above recommendations are all included in the manufacturer's MSDSs. 
EPA also recommends that use of these systems should be in accordance 
with the latest edition of NFPA 10 Standard for Portable Extinguishers.
    Firebane[supreg] 1170 and Firebane[supreg] 1179 are not expected to 
cause harm to human health when used as streaming agents in portable 
fire extinguishers. EPA expects no significant adverse health effects 
when the recommended safety precautions and normal industry practices 
are applied and use of the substitutes is in accordance with the 
manufacturer's MSDSs.
    Comparison to other fire suppressants: Both Firebane[supreg] 1170 
and Firebane[supreg] 1179 have zero ODP and GWP in contrast to halon 
1211 (with an ODP of 7.1 and a GWP or 1,890), the ODS they replace. 
Compared to other substitutes for halon 1211, such as HCFC Blend B 
(with an ODP of roughly 0.01 and GWP of roughly 80), HFC-227ea (with an 
ODP of 0 and GWP of 3,220), and HFC-236fa (with an ODP of 0 and GWP of 
9,810), both Firebane[supreg] formulations have less impact on the 
atmosphere. Toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, we find 
that Firebane[supreg] 1170 and Firebane[supreg] 1179 are acceptable 
because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by 
Firebane[supreg] 1170 and Firebane[supreg] 1179 is lower than or 
comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in 
the same end use.
3. Firebane[supreg] 1179 Total Flooding
    EPA's decision: EPA finds Firebane[supreg] 1179 acceptable as a 
substitute for halon 1301 for total flooding uses in both occupied and 
unoccupied areas.
    The manufacturer of Firebane[supreg] 1179 has claimed its 
composition as CBI. You may find the submission under Docket item EPA-
HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0270 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: Firebane[supreg] 1179 has zero ODP and 
zero GWP. Firebane[supreg] 1179 is expected to aerosolize rapidly 
during expulsion from the fire suppression system and then settle as a 
liquid on surfaces. After settling, cleanup would involve washing or 
rinsing of surfaces. See the listing for Firebane[supreg] 1179 above in 
section C.2 for further information.
    Flammability information: Firebane[supreg] 1179 is non-flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The majority of the constituents in the 
Firebane[supreg] 1179 formulation are FDA-classified GRAS compounds, 
and the remaining constituents are FDA-approved for use as direct or 
indirect food additives. These compounds are commonly used in food, 
pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications. Individual constituents may 
cause gastrointestinal discomfort (if excessively ingested), or minor 
irritation to the eyes, skin, and/or respiratory tract. Given the low 
toxicity of its constituents, EPA expects no significant adverse health 
effects when the recommended safety precautions and normal industry 
practices are applied and use of the substitute is in accordance with 
the manufacturer's MSDS. See the listing for Firebane[supreg] 1179 
above in section C.2 for further information.
    Comparison to other fire suppressants: Firebane[supreg] 1179 has 
zero ODP and GWP in contrast to halon 1301 (with an ODP of 16 and a GWP 
of 7,140), the ozone-depleting substance which it replaces, and 
comparable to other acceptable non-ozone-depleting substitutes (e.g., 
Inert Gas 541, HFC-227ea and HFC-125). Firebane[supreg] 1179's GWP is 
comparable to or less than that for other non-ozone depleting 
substitutes for halon 1301, such as Inert Gas 541, HFC-227ea or HFC-
125, with GWPs of less than 1, 3,220, and 3,500, respectively. Toxicity 
risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, we find that Firebane[supreg] 
1179 is acceptable because the overall environmental and human health 
risk posed by Firebane[supreg] 1179 is lower than or comparable to the 
risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end use.
4. N2 Towers Inert Gas Generator Fire Suppression System (N2 
Towers[supreg] System)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds the N2 Towers Inert Gas Generator Fire 
Suppression System (N2 Towers[supreg] System) is acceptable as a 
substitute for halon 1301 for total flooding uses in both occupied and 
unoccupied areas.
    The N2 Towers[supreg] System is a fire suppression system that 
pyrotechnically generates nitrogen (N2, CAS Reg. No. 7727-
37-9). It is designed for use with Class A and B fires (ordinary 
combustible materials fires and flammable liquids fires, respectively). 
The N2 Towers[supreg] System is an inert gas system designed for total 
flooding applications for fires in normally occupied or unoccupied 
spaces. Each N2 generator unit contains a large number of 
small propellant grain discs that generate nitrogen gas when activated. 
Depending on the fire suppression requirement, several generators may 
be stacked inside an N2 tower in a room, or a single 
generator may be bracketed inside a vehicle. You may find the 
submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0253 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: The constituents of the N2 
Towers[supreg] System are solids before use and therefore have zero ODP 
and zero GWP. Further, the ODP of each of the post-activation 
constituents of the N2 Towers[supreg] System is zero, and the GWPs of 
post-activation constituents are 1 or less.
    The N2 Towers[supreg] System does not contain any VOCs as defined 
under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development 
of SIPs to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality 
standards. Accordingly, use of the N2 Towers[supreg] System is not 
expected to pose any significant adverse impacts on local air quality.
    Flammability information: The N2 Towers[supreg] System generates 
products that are non-flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The potential health risks of the N2 
Towers[supreg] System come from its production of nitrogen gas, an 
inert gas that at sufficiently high levels can cause asphyxiation. The 
N2 Towers[supreg] System is designed to ensure that the oxygen 
concentration in any protected space will not fall below 12 percent 
over the 5-minute discharge period, consistent with the health criteria 
in NFPA Standard 2001 for Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems. EPA 
recommends that use of this system should be in accordance with the 
safe exposure guidelines for inert gas systems in the latest edition of 
NFPA 2001, specifically the requirements for residual oxygen levels, 
and that use should be in accordance with the relevant operational 
requirements in NFPA Standard 2010 for Aerosol Extinguishing Systems. 
EPA also recommends that Section VIII of the OSHA Technical Manual be 
consulted as well as all information from the manufacturer for 
information on selecting the appropriate types of PPE to be worn by 
personnel involved in the manufacture, installation, and maintenance of 
the N2 Towers[supreg] System.
    Comparison to other fire suppressants: The N2 Towers[supreg] System 
is not ozone-depleting in contrast to halon 1301 (with an ODP of 16 and 
a GWP of 7,140), the ODS which it replaces, and comparable to other 
acceptable non-ozone-depleting substitutes (e.g., Inert Gas 541, HFC-
227ea and HFC-125). The GWPs of the

[[Page 61275]]

post-activation constituents of the N2 Towers[supreg] System range from 
zero to three which are comparable to or less than the GWPs for other 
non-ozone depleting substitutes for halon 1301, such as Inert Gas 541, 
HFC-227ea or HFC-125, with GWPs of less than 1, 3,220, and 3,500, 
respectively. Toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, we find 
that the N2 Towers[supreg] System is acceptable because the overall 
environmental and human health risk posed by the N2 Towers[supreg] 
System is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other 
substitutes found acceptable in the same end use.

II. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements and Authority for the SNAP Program

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances. EPA 
refers to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy 
(SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
1. Rulemaking
    Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate rules making it unlawful 
to replace any class I substance (i.e., chlorofluorocarbon, halon, 
carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, methyl bromide, and 
hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class II substance (i.e., 
hydrochlorofluorocarbon) with any substitute that the Administrator 
determines may present adverse effects to human health or the 
environment where the Administrator has identified an alternative that 
(1) Reduces the overall risk to human health and the environment, and 
(2) is currently or potentially available.
2. Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes
    Section 612(c) requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses and to publish a corresponding list of 
acceptable alternatives for specific uses. The list of acceptable 
substitutes may be found at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists/index.html and the lists of substitutes that are ``unacceptable,'' 
``acceptable subject to use conditions,'' and ``acceptable subject to 
narrowed use limits'' are in subpart G of 40 CFR part 82.
3. Petition Process
    Section 612(d) grants the right to any person to petition EPA to 
add a substance to, or delete a substance from, the lists published in 
accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 90 days to grant or deny 
a petition. Where the Agency grants the petition, EPA must publish the 
revised lists within an additional six months.
4. 90-Day Notification
    Section 612(e) directs EPA to require any person who produces a 
chemical substitute for a class I substance to notify the Agency not 
less than 90 days before new or existing chemicals are introduced into 
interstate commerce for significant new uses as substitutes for a class 
I substance. The producer must also provide the Agency with the 
producer's unpublished health and safety studies on such substitutes.
5. Outreach
    Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator shall seek to 
maximize the use of federal research facilities and resources to assist 
users of class I and II substances in identifying and developing 
alternatives to the use of such substances in key commercial 
applications.
6. Clearinghouse
    Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to set up a public 
clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product substitutes, and 
alternative manufacturing processes that are available for products and 
manufacturing processes which use class I and II substances.

B. EPA's Regulations Implementing Section 612

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the original rulemaking (59 FR 
13044) which established the process for administering the SNAP program 
and issued EPA's first lists identifying acceptable and unacceptable 
substitutes in the major industrial use sectors (subpart G of 40 CFR 
part 82). These sectors--refrigeration and air conditioning; foam 
blowing; cleaning solvents; fire suppression and explosion protection; 
sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and inks; and tobacco 
expansion--are the principal industrial sectors that historically 
consumed the largest volumes of ODS.
    Section 612 of the CAA requires EPA to ensure that substitutes 
found acceptable do not present a significantly greater risk to human 
health and the environment than other substitutes that are currently or 
potentially available.

C. How the Regulations for the SNAP Program Work

    Under the SNAP regulations, anyone who plans to market or produce a 
substitute to replace a class I substance or class II substance in one 
of the eight major industrial use sectors must provide notice to the 
Agency, including health and safety information on the substitute, at 
least 90 days before introducing it into interstate commerce for 
significant new use as an alternative. This requirement applies to the 
persons planning to introduce the substitute into interstate 
commerce,\13\ which typically are chemical manufacturers but may 
include importers, formulators, equipment manufacturers, and end-users 
\14\. The regulations identify certain narrow exemptions from the 
notification requirement, such as research and development and test 
marketing (40 CFR 82.176(b)(4) and (5), respectively).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \13\ As defined at 40 CFR 82.104, ``interstate commerce'' means 
the distribution or transportation of any product between one state, 
territory, possession or the District of Columbia, and another 
state, territory, possession or the District of Columbia, or the 
sale, use or manufacture of any product in more than one state, 
territory, possession or District of Columbia. The entry points for 
which a product is introduced into interstate commerce are the 
release of a product from the facility in which the product was 
manufactured, the entry into a warehouse from which the domestic 
manufacturer releases the product for sale or distribution, and at 
the site of United States Customs clearance.
    \14\ As defined at 40 CFR 82.172, ``end-use'' means processes or 
classes of specific applications within major industrial sectors 
where a substitute is used to replace an ODS.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Agency has identified four possible decision categories for 
substitutes that are submitted for evaluation: Acceptable; acceptable 
subject to use conditions; acceptable subject to narrowed use limits; 
and unacceptable (40 CFR 82.180(b)). Use conditions and narrowed use 
limits are both considered ``use restrictions'' and are explained in 
the paragraphs below. Substitutes that are deemed acceptable with no 
use restrictions (no use conditions or narrowed use limits) can be used 
for all applications within the relevant end uses within the sector.
    After reviewing a substitute, the Agency may determine that a 
substitute is acceptable only if certain conditions in the way that the 
substitute is used are met to minimize risks to human health and the 
environment. EPA describes such substitutes as ``acceptable subject to 
use conditions.'' Entities that use these substitutes without meeting 
the associated use conditions are in violation of EPA's SNAP 
regulations.
    For some substitutes, the Agency may permit a narrowed range of use 
within an end-use or sector. For example, the Agency may limit the use 
of a substitute to certain end-uses or specific applications within an 
industry sector. EPA describes these substitutes as ``acceptable 
subject to narrowed use limits.'' The Agency requires the user of a 
narrowed-use substitute to

[[Page 61276]]

demonstrate that no other acceptable substitutes are available for the 
specific application by conducting comprehensive studies. A person 
using a substitute that is acceptable subject to narrowed use limits in 
applications and end-uses that are not consistent with the narrowed use 
limit is using the substitute in an unacceptable manner and is in 
violation of section 612 of the CAA and EPA's SNAP regulations.
    The Agency publishes its SNAP program decisions in the Federal 
Register (FR). EPA publishes decisions concerning substitutes that are 
deemed acceptable subject to use restrictions (use conditions and/or 
narrowed use limits), or substitutes deemed unacceptable, as proposed 
rulemakings to provide the public with an opportunity to comment, 
before publishing final decisions.
    In contrast, EPA publishes decisions concerning substitutes that 
are deemed acceptable with no restrictions in ``notices of 
acceptability'' or ``determinations of acceptability,'' rather than as 
proposed and final rules. As described in the March 18, 1994, rule 
initially implementing the SNAP program, EPA does not believe that 
rulemaking procedures are necessary to list alternatives that are 
acceptable without restrictions because such listings neither impose 
any sanction nor prevent anyone from using a substitute.
    Many SNAP listings include ``Comments'' or ``Further Information'' 
to provide additional information on substitutes. Since this additional 
information is not part of the regulatory decision, these statements 
are not binding for use of the substitute under the SNAP program. 
However, regulatory requirements so listed are binding under other 
regulatory programs (e.g., worker protection regulations promulgated by 
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). The 
``Further Information'' classification does not necessarily include all 
other legal obligations pertaining to the use of the substitute. While 
the items listed are not legally binding under the SNAP program, EPA 
encourages users of substitutes to apply all statements in the 
``Further Information'' column in their use of these substitutes. In 
many instances, the information simply refers to sound operating 
practices that have already been identified in existing industry and/or 
building codes or standards. Thus many of the statements, if adopted, 
would not require the affected user to make significant changes in 
existing operating practices.

D. Additional Information About the SNAP Program

    For copies of the comprehensive SNAP lists of substitutes or 
additional information on SNAP, refer to EPA's Ozone Depletion Web site 
at: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/index.html. For more information on 
the Agency's process for administering the SNAP program or criteria for 
evaluation of substitutes, refer to the March 18, 1994, SNAP final 
rulemaking (59 FR 13044), codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart G. A 
complete chronology of SNAP decisions and the appropriate citations is 
found at: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/chron.html.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: September 27, 2011.
Elizabeth Craig,
Acting Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs.

Appendix A: Summary of Acceptable Decisions

                                       Refrigeration And Air Conditioning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End-Use                     Substitute             Decision            Further information \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Centrifugal chillers (retrofit    Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 only).                            substitute for CFC-11,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   CFC-12, CFC-114, R-                          1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   500, HCFC-22 and HCFC                        weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   blends, including
                                   those containing HCFC-
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Reciprocating and screw chillers  Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 (retrofit only).                  substitute for CFC-12,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   R-500, R-502, HCFC-22                        1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   and HCFC blends,                             weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   including those
                                   containing HCFC-22 and/
                                   or HCFC-142b.
Industrial process refrigeration  Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 (retrofit only).                  substitute for CFC-11,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-                        1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   114, R-13B1, R-500, R-                       weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   502, HCFC-22 and HCFC
                                   blends, including
                                   those containing HCFC-
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Industrial process refrigeration  R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The American Industrial Hygiene
 (retrofit and new).               for HCFC-22 and HCFC                         Association (AIHA) has
                                   blends, including                            established workplace
                                   those containing HCFC-                       environmental exposure limits
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.                         (WEELs) of 1,000 ppm over an 8-
                                                                                hour time-weighted average for
                                                                                each of R-407F's individual
                                                                                components.
Ice skating rinks (retrofit       Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 only).                            substitute for CFC-12,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   R-500, R-502, HCFC-22                        1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   and HCFC blends,                             weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   including those
                                   containing HCFC-22 and/
                                   or HCFC-142b.
Ice skating rinks (retrofit and   R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 new).                             for HCFC-22 and HCFC                         1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   blends, including                            weighted average for each of R-
                                   those containing HCFC-                       407F's individual components.
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.

[[Page 61277]]

 
Industrial process air            R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 conditioning (retrofit and new).  for HCFC-22 and HCFC                         1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   blends, including                            weighted average for each of R-
                                   those containing HCFC-                       407F's individual components.
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Cold storage warehouses           Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 (retrofit only).                  substitute for CFC-12,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   R-500, R-502, HCFC-22                        1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   and HCFC blends,                             weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   including those
                                   containing HCFC-22 and/
                                   or HCFC-142b.
Cold storage warehouses           R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 (retrofit and new).               for HCFC-22 and HCFC                         1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   blends, including                            weighted average for each of R-
                                   those containing HCFC-                       407F's individual components.
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Refrigerated transport (retrofit  Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 only).                            substitute for CFC-12,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   R-500, R-502, HCFC-22                        1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   and HCFC blends,                             weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   including those
                                   containing HCFC-22 and/
                                   or HCFC-142b.
Refrigerated transport (retrofit  R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 and new).                         for HCFC-22 and HCFC                         1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   blends, including                            weighted average for each of R-
                                   those containing HCFC-                       407F's individual components.
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Retail food refrigeration         Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 (retrofit only).                  substitute for CFC-12,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   R-500, R-502, HCFC-22                        1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   and HCFC blends,                             weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   including those
                                   containing HCFC-22 and/
                                   or HCFC-142b.
Retail food refrigeration         R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 (retrofit and new).               for HCFC-22 and HCFC                         1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   blends, including                            weighted average for each of R-
                                   those containing HCFC-                       407F's individual components.
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Vending machines (retrofit only)  Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
                                   substitute for CFC-12,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   R-500, R-502, HCFC-22                        1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   and HCFC blends,                             weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   including those
                                   containing HCFC-22 and/
                                   or HCFC-142b.
Commercial ice machines           Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 (retrofit only).                  substitute for CFC-12,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   R-500, R-502, HCFC-22                        1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   and HCFC blends,                             weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   including those
                                   containing HCFC-22 and/
                                   or HCFC-142b.
Commercial ice machines           R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 (retrofit and new).               for HCFC-22 and HCFC                         1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   blends, including                            weighted average for each of R-
                                   those containing HCFC-                       407F's individual components.
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Residential dehumidifiers         Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 (retrofit only).                  substitute for CFC-12,                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   R-500, HCFC-22 and                           1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   HCFC blends, including                       weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   those containing HCFC-
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Household refrigerators and       R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 freezers (retrofit and new).      for HCFC-22 and HCFC                         1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   blends, including                            weighted average for each of R-
                                   those containing HCFC-                       407F's individual components.
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Motor vehicle air conditioning    R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 (retrofit and new-bus and         for HCFC-22 and HCFC                         1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
 passenger trains only).           blends, including                            weighted average for each of R-
                                   those containing HCFC-                       407F's individual components.
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Household and light commercial    Hot Shot 2 as a          Acceptable........  The manufacturer has an
 air conditioning and heat pumps   substitute for CFC-12,                       acceptable exposure limit of
 (retrofit only).                  R-502, HCFC-22 and                           1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                   HCFC blends, including                       weighted average for Hot Shot 2.
                                   those containing HCFC-
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.
Household and light commercial    R-407F as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 air conditioning and heat pumps   for CFC-12, R-502,                           1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
 (retrofit and new).               HCFC-22 and HCFC                             weighted average for each of R-
                                   blends, including                            407F's individual components.
                                   those containing HCFC-
                                   22 and/or HCFC-142b.

[[Page 61278]]

 
Very low temperature              R-507A as a substitute   Acceptable........  The AIHA has established WEELs of
 refrigeration (retrofit).         for R-13B1.                                  1,000 ppm over an 8-hour time-
                                                                                weighted average for each of R-
                                                                                507A's individual components.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Users should observe recommendations in the manufacturer's MSDS and guidance for all listed refrigerants.


                                                Solvent Cleaning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            End-Uses                     Substitute             Decision              Further information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Metals cleaning.................  Perfluorobutyl iodide    Acceptable........  PFBI has an ODP of less than
                                   (PFBI) as a substitute                       0.005 and a 100-year global
                                   for CFC-113, methyl                          warming potential of less than
                                   chloroform, and HCFC-                        5. Its Chemical Abstracts
                                   225ca, HCFC-225cb, and                       Service Registry number (CAS
                                   blends thereof.                              Reg. No.) is 423-39-2.
Electronics cleaning............  .......................  ..................  EPA recommends an acceptable
                                                                                exposure limit of 375 ppm over
                                                                                an 8-hour time-weighted average
                                                                                for PFBI.
Precision cleaning..............  .......................  ..................  Observe recommendations in the
                                                                                manufacturer's MSDS and guidance
                                                                                for using this substitute,
                                                                                particularly with respect to
                                                                                disposal considerations. EPA
                                                                                recommends that spent solvent is
                                                                                collected for reclamation or
                                                                                incineration, materials that
                                                                                contain or contaminated with
                                                                                solvents are incinerated, and
                                                                                that solvent-contaminated
                                                                                wastewater is sent to a
                                                                                wastewater treatment facility to
                                                                                prevent the solvent from
                                                                                entering waterways.
                                                                               PFBI is currently defined as a
                                                                                volatile organic compound (VOC)
                                                                                under CAA regulations (see 40
                                                                                CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the
                                                                                development of State
                                                                                Implementation Plans (SIPs) to
                                                                                attain and maintain the national
                                                                                ambient air quality standards.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                Fire Suppression
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End-Use                     Substitute             Decision            Further information 1 2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total flooding systems (occupied  Firebane[supreg] 1179    Acceptable........  EPA recommends that use of this
 and unoccupied areas).            as a substitute for                          system should be in accordance
                                   halon 1301.                                  with the manufacturer's MSDS.
                                  N2 Towers[supreg]        Acceptable........  EPA recommends that use of this
                                   System as a substitute                       system should be in accordance
                                   for halon 1301.                              with the safe exposure
                                                                                guidelines for inert gas systems
                                                                                in the latest edition of NFPA
                                                                                2001 Standard on Clean Agent
                                                                                Fire Extinguishing Systems,
                                                                                specifically the requirements
                                                                                for residual oxygen levels, and
                                                                                use should be in accordance with
                                                                                the NFPA Standard 2010 for
                                                                                Aerosol Extinguishing Systems.
Streaming agents................  Firebane[supreg] All-    Acceptable........  EPA recommends that use of these
                                   Weather 1115 and                             systems be in accordance with
                                   Firebane[supreg] 1115                        the latest edition of NFPA 10
                                   as substitutes for                           Standard for Portable
                                   halon 1211.                                  Extinguishers.
                                  Firebane[supreg] 1170    Acceptable........  EPA recommends that use of these
                                   and Firebane[supreg]                         systems be in accordance with
                                   1179 as substitutes                          the latest edition of NFPA 10
                                   for halon 1211.                              Standard for Portable
                                                                                Extinguishers.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ EPA recommends that users consult Section VIII of the OSHA Technical Manual for information on selecting the
  appropriate types of personal protective equipment for all listed fire suppression agents. EPA has no
  intention of duplicating or displacing OSHA coverage related to the use of personal protective equipment
  (e.g., respiratory protection), fire protection, hazard communication, worker training or any other
  occupational safety and health standard with respect to halon substitutes.
\2\ Use of all listed fire suppression agents should conform to relevant OSHA requirements, including 29 CFR
  part 1910, subpart L, sections 1910.160 and 1910.162.

[FR Doc. 2011-25391 Filed 10-3-11; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P