[Federal Register Volume 77, Number 155 (Friday, August 10, 2012)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 47768-47779]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2012-19688]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118; FRL-9712-4]
RIN 2060-AG12


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Determination 27 for 
Significant New Alternatives Policy Program

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Determination of Acceptability.

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SUMMARY: This Determination of Acceptability expands the list of 
acceptable substitutes for ozone-depleting substances under the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives 
Policy (SNAP) program. This action lists as acceptable four additional 
substitutes for use in the refrigeration and air conditioning sector; 
two additional substitutes in the foam blowing sector; one additional 
substitute in the solvent cleaning sector; two additional substitutes 
in the aerosol sector; and one additional substitute in the fire 
suppression sector.

DATES: This determination is effective on August 10, 2012.

ADDRESSES: EPA has established a docket for this action under Docket ID 
No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 (continuation of Air Docket A-91-42). All 
electronic documents in the docket are listed in the index at http://www.regulations.gov. Although listed in the index, some information is 
not publicly available, i.e., Confidential Business Information (CBI) 
or other

[[Page 47769]]

information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Publicly 
available docket materials are available either electronically at 
http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the EPA Air Docket (No. 
A-91-42), EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., 
Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 
p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone 
number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone 
number for the Air Docket is (202) 566-1742.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard by telephone at 
(202) 343-9163, by facsimile at (202) 343-2338, by email at 
sheppard.margaret@epa.gov, or by mail at U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency, Mail Code 6205J, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 
20460. Overnight or courier deliveries should be sent to the office 
location at 1310 L Street NW., 10th floor, Washington, DC 20005.
    For more information on the Agency's process for administering the 
SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the 
original SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 18, 
1994 (59 FR 13044). Notices and rulemakings under the SNAP program, as 
well as other EPA publications on protection of stratospheric ozone, 
are available at EPA's Ozone Depletion Web site at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/strathome.html including the SNAP portion at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    B. Foam Blowing
    C. Solvent Cleaning
    D. Aerosols
    E. Fire Suppression
II. Section 612 Program
    A. Statutory Requirements and Authority for the SNAP Program
    B. EPA's Regulations Implementing Section 612
    C. How the Regulations for the SNAP Program Work
    D. Additional Information About the SNAP Program
Appendix A--Summary of Decisions for New Acceptable Substitutes

I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes

    This action presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing decisions 
for substitutes in the refrigeration and air conditioning, foam 
blowing, solvent cleaning, aerosols and fire suppression sectors. For 
copies of the full list of acceptable substitutes for ozone-depleting 
substances (ODSs) in all industrial sectors, visit EPA's Ozone Layer 
Protection Web site at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists/index.html.
    The sections below discuss each substitute listing in detail. 
Appendix A contains tables summarizing today's listing decisions for 
these new acceptable substitutes. The statements in the ``Further 
Information'' column in the tables provide additional information, but 
are not legally binding under section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). 
In addition, the ``further information'' may not be a comprehensive 
list of other legal obligations you may need to meet when using the 
substitute. Although you are not required to follow recommendations in 
the ``further information'' column of the table to use a substitute 
consistent with section 612 of the CAA, EPA strongly encourages you to 
apply the information when using these substitutes. In many instances, 
the information simply refers to standard operating practices in 
existing industry and/or building-code standards. However, some of 
these statements may refer to obligations that are enforceable or 
binding under federal or state programs other than the SNAP program. 
Many of these recommendations, if adopted, would not require 
significant changes to existing operating practices.
    You can find submissions to EPA for the use of the substitutes 
listed in this document and other materials supporting the decisions in 
this action in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 at http://www.regulations.gov.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

1. C7 Fluoroketone
    EPA's decision: EPA finds C7 Fluoroketone acceptable as a 
substitute for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-113 for use in new and retrofit 
equipment in non-mechanical heat transfer.
    C7 Fluoroketone is marketed under the trade name NovecTM 
774 and is also designated as FK-6-1-12. This substitute is a blend of 
two isomers, 3-pentanone,1,1,1,2,4,5,5,5-octafluoro-2,4-
bis(trifluoromethyl) (Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number [CAS 
Reg. No.] 813-44-5) and 3-hexanone,1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-undecafluoro-
2-(trifluoromethyl) (CAS Reg. No. 813-45-6). You may find the redacted 
submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0287 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: C7 Fluoroketone has no ozone depletion 
potential (ODP). C7 Fluoroketone has a 100-year integrated (100-yr) 
global warming potential (GWP) of about 1.\1\ C7 Fluoroketone is 
considered a volatile organic compound (VOC) under Clean Air Act (CAA) 
regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of state 
implementation plans (SIPs) to attain and maintain the National Ambient 
Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The emissions of this refrigerant will 
be limited given it is subject to the venting prohibition under section 
608(c)(2) of the CAA and EPA's implementing regulations codified at 40 
CFR 82.154(a)(1).
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    \1\ TSCA SNAP Addendum Form to EPA for C7 Fluoroketone. February 
22, 2010.
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    Flammability information: C7 Fluoroketone is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include respiratory tract irritation and symptoms may 
include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, headache, hoarseness, and 
nose and throat pain. Contact with the eyes or skin during product use 
is not expected to result in significant irritation. Ingestion of C7 
Fluoroketone is not expected to cause health effects, and there is no 
anticipated need for first aid if C7 Fluoroketone contacts the eyes or 
skin or if C7 Fluoroketone is ingested.
    EPA anticipates that C7 Fluoroketone will be used consistent with 
the recommendations specified in the manufacturer's material safety 
data sheet (MSDS). The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure 
limit (AEL) for the workplace of 225 ppm over an eight-hour time-
weighted average (8-hr TWA) for C7 Fluoroketone. EPA anticipates that 
users will be able to meet the manufacturer's recommended workplace 
exposure limit and address potential health risks by following 
requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and other safety 
precautions common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants: C7 Fluoroketone is not ozone-
depleting, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-
depleting substitutes for this end use such as hydrofluoroether (HFE)-
7100, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-245fa and CO2 and in contrast 
to CFC-113 (with an ODP of 1.0 relative to CFC-11), the ozone-depleting 
substance (ODS) which it replaces.\2\ C7 Fluoroketone's GWP of

[[Page 47770]]

about 1 is lower than or comparable to that of other non-ozone-
depleting substitutes in heat transfer uses, such as HFE-7100 with a 
GWP of 297, HFC-245fa with a GWP of 1030, and CO2 with a GWP 
of 1.\3\ Furthermore, the GWP of C7 Fluoroketone is well below that of 
CFC-113, the ODS it is replacing (with a GWP of 6130). Flammability and 
toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. The potential health 
effects of C7 Fluoroketone are common to many refrigerants, including 
many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. Thus, EPA finds 
C7 Fluoroketone acceptable in the end use listed above because the 
overall environmental and human health risk posed by C7 Fluoroketone is 
lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found 
acceptable in the same end use.
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    \2\ Unless otherwise stated, all ODPs in this document are from 
WMO (World Meteorological Organization), 2011. Scientific Assessment 
of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring 
Project--Report No. 52, 516 pp., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. This 
document is accessible at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ozone_2010/ozone_asst_report.html .
    \3\ Unless otherwise stated, all GWPs in this document are from: 
IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. 
Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of 
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, 
M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. 
Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United 
Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. This document is accessible at http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/contents.html.
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2. Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E))
    EPA's decision: EPA finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene 
acceptable as a substitute for CFC-11 and hydrochlorofluorocarbon 
(HCFC)-123 for use in new equipment in centrifugal chillers.
    Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene ((E)-1-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoroprop-1-ene, CAS Reg. No. 102687-65-0) is a chlorofluoroalkene 
marketed under the trade names SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) and 
SolsticeTM N12 Refrigerant for this end use. You may find 
the redacted submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0285 at 
http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has an 
ODP of 0.00024 to 0.00034.4 5 Estimates of this compound's 
potential to deplete the ozone layer found that even with worst-case 
estimates of emissions which assume that this compound would substitute 
for all compounds it could replace, the impact on global atmospheric 
ozone abundance would be statistically insignificant.\6\ 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) has a 100-yr GWP reported as 4.7 to 7 
and an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 26 to 31 days or 
less.7 8 SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is currently 
considered a VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) 
addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS. 
The manufacturer has petitioned EPA to exempt SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E) from that definition based on its claim that the chemical 
exhibits low photochemical reactivity. The emissions of this 
refrigerant will be limited given it is subject to the venting 
prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the CAA and EPA's implementing 
regulations codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1).
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    \4\ Wang D., Olsen S., Wuebbles D. 2011. ``Preliminary Report: 
Analyses of tCFP's Potential Impact on Atmospheric Ozone.'' 
Department of Atmospheric Sciences. University of Illinois, Urbana, 
IL. September 26, 2011.
    \5\ Patten and Wuebbles, 2010. ``Atmospheric Lifetimes and Ozone 
Depletion Potentials of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trichloropropylene and 
trans-1,2-dichloroethylene in a three-dimensional model.'' Atmos. 
Chem. Phys., 10, 10867-10874, 2010.
    \6\ Wang et al., 2011. Op. cit.
    \7\ Sulbaek Andersen, Nilsson, Neilsen, Johnson, Hurley and 
Wallington, ``Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH=CHCl: Kinetics of 
the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and 
O3'', Jrnl of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: 
Chemistry 199 (2008) 92-97; and Wang D., Olsen S., Wuebbles D. 
Undated. ``Three-Dimensional Model Evaluation of the Global Warming 
Potentials for tCFP.'' Department of Atmospheric Sciences. 
University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. Draft report, undated.
    \8\ Wang et al. 2011 and Sulbaek Andersen et al., 2008. Op cit.
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    Flammability information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include serious eye irritation, skin irritation, and 
frostbite. It may cause central nervous system effects such as 
drowsiness and dizziness. The substitute could cause asphyxiation if 
air is displaced by vapors in a confined space.
    EPA anticipates that SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) will be used 
consistent with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer's 
MSDS. The manufacturer recommends an AEL of 300 ppm (8-hr TWA) for 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E). EPA anticipates that users will be 
able to meet the manufacturer's recommended workplace exposure limit 
and address potential health risks by following requirements and 
recommendations in the MSDS and in any other safety precautions common 
to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) 
has an ODP of 0.00024 to 0.00034. This is roughly one order of 
magnitude higher than the ODPs of HFCs used in substitute refrigerants 
which are considered to have zero ODP, including HFC-134a and HFC-
125.\9\ SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)'s ODP is well below that of 
CFC-11 and HCFC-123 (with ODPs ranging from 0.01 to 1.0), the ODSs 
which it replaces. SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)'s GWP of 4.7 to 7 is 
lower than or comparable to that of other acceptable substitutes in the 
same end uses, such as HFC-134a with a GWP of 1430, HFC-245fa with a 
GWP of 1030, and ammonia with a GWP of 0. Its GWP is also well below 
those of CFC-11 and HCFC-123 (with GWPs ranging from 77 to 4750). 
Flammability and toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. The 
potential health effects of SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) are common 
to many refrigerants, including many of those already listed as 
acceptable under SNAP. Thus, EPA finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)) acceptable in the 
end use listed above because the overall environmental and human health 
risk posed by trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene is lower than or 
comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in 
the same end use.
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    \9\ The ODP of HFC-134a was estimated to be less than 1.5 x 
10-5 and the ODP of HFC-125 was estimated to be less than 
3.0 x 10-5 using a theoretical 2-dimensional model. 
Ravishankara, A. R., A. A. Turnipseed, N. R. Jensen, S. Barone, M. 
Mills, C. J. Howard, and S. Solomon. 1994. Do hydrofluorocarbons 
destroy stratospheric ozone? Science 263: 71-75.
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3. Carbon dioxide (R-744)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds carbon dioxide CO2 or R-744) 
acceptable as a substitute for CFC-12, HCFC-22 and blends containing 
HCFC-22 and/or HCFC-142b, and R-502 \10\ for use in new equipment in 
vending machines.
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    \10\ R-502 is a refrigerant blend containing 51.2% CFC-115 and 
48.8% HCFC-22 by weight.
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    Carbon dioxide is also known as CO2, CAS Reg. No. 124-
38-9, or R-744 when used as a refrigerant. We have previously listed 
CO2 as a refrigerant in other refrigeration and air 
conditioning end uses (e.g., 77 FR 33315, June 6, 2012; 74 FR 50129, 
September 30, 2009; 60 FR 3318, January 13, 1995). You may find the 
redacted submission under docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0283 at 
http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: CO2 has no ODP. The 100-yr 
GWP of CO2 is 1.
    EPA's regulations codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart F exempt 
CO2 refrigerant from the venting prohibition under section 
608(c)(2) of the Clean Air Act (see 69 FR 11946; March 12, 2004). This 
section and EPA's implementing regulations prohibit the intentional 
venting or release of substitutes for class I or class II ODSs during 
the repair, maintenance, service or disposal of refrigeration and air 
conditioning appliances, unless EPA expressly exempts a particular 
substitute refrigerant from the venting prohibition, as we have done 
for CO2.
    CO2 is excluded from the definition of VOC under Clean 
Air Act regulations

[[Page 47771]]

(see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and 
maintain the NAAQS.
    Flammability information: CO2 is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute at lower concentrations include loss of concentration, 
headache and shortness of breath. The substitute may also irritate the 
skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high concentrations, 
it may cause central nervous system depression. The substitute could 
cause asphyxiation, if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. 
For additional information concerning potential health risks of 
CO2, see EPA's final rule under the SNAP program for use of 
CO2 as a refrigerant in motor vehicle air conditioning 
systems (77 FR 33315, June 6, 2012). Also, EPA has performed an 
assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this 
substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
under the name, ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for CFC-12 and R-502 in 
Vending Machines Substitute: Carbon Dioxide.'' To protect against these 
potential health risks, CO2 has an 8 hour/day, 40 hour/week 
permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5000 ppm in the workplace required 
by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and a 15-
minute recommended short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 30,000 ppm 
established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and 
Health (NIOSH). EPA recommends that users follow all requirements and 
recommendations specified in the MSDS, in American Society for Heating, 
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard 15, and 
other safety precautions common in the refrigeration and air 
conditioning industry. Based on the Risk Screen analysis described 
above, we recommend installing vending machines using CO2 in 
well-ventilated spaces and avoiding confined spaces with poor 
ventilation. We also recommend that users of CO2 adhere to 
NIOSH's STEL and to ASHRAE 15, and we expect that users will meet 
OSHA's PEL. EPA anticipates that users will be able to address 
potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in 
the MSDS, in ASHRAE 15, and other safety precautions common in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants: CO2 is not ozone-
depleting, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-
depleting substitutes for these end uses, including R-404A, R-407C, R-
410A, and HFC-134a, and in contrast to the ODSs CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R-
502 (with ODPs ranging from 0.04 to 1.0) which it replaces. 
CO2s GWP of 1 is lower than or comparable to that of other 
non-ozone-depleting substitutes in the same refrigeration and air 
conditioning end use for which we are finding it acceptable, such as R-
404A with a GWP of about 3930, R-407C with a GWP of about 1770, R-410A 
with a GWP about 2090, and HFC-134a with a GWP about 1430. Furthermore, 
the GWP of CO2 is well below those of the ODSs it is 
replacing, including CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R-502 (with GWPs ranging from 
1810 to 10,900). Flammability risks are low, as discussed above. 
Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with industry 
standards, recommendations in the MSDS, and other safety precautions 
common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. The 
potential health effects of CO2 are common to many 
refrigerants, including many of those already listed as acceptable 
under SNAP. Thus, EPA finds CO2 acceptable in the end uses 
listed above because the overall environment and human health risk 
posed by CO2 is lower than or comparable to the risks posed 
by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end uses.
4. HFO-1234ze
    EPA's decision: EPA finds hydrofluoroolefin \11\ (HFO)-1234ze is 
acceptable as a substitute for:
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    \11\ Hydrofluoroolefins are a subset of hydrofluorocarbons that 
contain double bonds between carbon atoms.
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     CFC-12, R-500, HCFC-22 and blends containing HCFC-22 and/
or HCFC-142b for use in new equipment in reciprocating, screw and 
scroll chillers
     CFC-11 and HCFC-123 for use in new equipment in 
centrifugal chillers
    HFO-1234ze is also known as HFC-1234ze, HFO-1234ze(E) or trans-
1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118-24-9). It is sold 
under the trade name SolsticeTM 1234ze. We have previously 
listed HFO-1234ze as an acceptable substitute for a number of foam 
blowing end uses, as an aerosol propellant, and as a refrigerant for 
heat transfer (74 FR 50129, September 30, 2009; 75 FR 34017, June 16, 
2010). You may find the submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-
0118-0282 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: HFO-1234ze has no ODP. HFO-1234ze has a 
100-yr GWP of 6 \12\ and an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 2 
weeks. HFO-1234ze is exempted from the definition of VOC under CAA 
regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs 
to attain and maintain the NAAQS (June 22, 2012; 77 FR 37610). The 
emissions of this refrigerant will be limited given it is subject to 
the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the CAA and EPA's 
implementing regulations codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1).
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    \12\ ``Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH=CHF: products and 
mechanisms of hydroxyl radical and chlorine atom initiated 
oxidation, M. S. Javadi, R. S[oslash]ndergaard, O.J. Nielsen, M. D. 
Hurley, and T.J. Wellington, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 
Discussions 8, 1069-1088, 2008
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    Flammability information: HFO-1234ze is non-flammable at standard 
temperature and pressure using the standard test method ASTM E681. 
However, at higher temperatures it is mildly flammable. It is 
classified as a Class 2L (lower flammability, low burning velocity) 
refrigerant under the standard ASHRAE 34 (2010).
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute at lower concentrations include headache, nausea, drowsiness 
and dizziness. The substitute may also irritate the skin or eyes or 
cause frostbite. At sufficiently high concentrations, it may cause 
central nervous system depression and affect respiration. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation, if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space.
    EPA anticipates that HFO-1234ze will be used consistent with the 
recommendations specified in the manufacturer's MSDS. The American 
Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) recommends a workplace 
environmental exposure limit (WEEL) of 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFO-
1234ze. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet the workplace 
exposure limit (WEEL) and address potential health risks by following 
requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and other safety 
precautions common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other refrigerants: HFO-1234ze is not ozone-
depleting, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-ozone-
depleting substitutes for these end uses such as R-407C, HFC-134a and 
ammonia, and in contrast to CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R-500 (with ODPs 
ranging from 0.04 to 1.0), the ODSs which it replaces. HFO-1234ze's GWP 
of about 6 is lower than or comparable to that of other non-ozone-
depleting substitutes in the same refrigeration and air conditioning 
end uses for which we are finding it acceptable, such as R-407C with a 
GWP about 1770, HFC-134a with a GWP about 1430, and ammonia with a GWP 
of zero. HFO-1234e's GWP is well below

[[Page 47772]]

that of the ODSs it replaces, including CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R-500 with 
GWPs ranging from 1810 to 10,900. Flammability and toxicity risks are 
low, as discussed above. The potential health effects of HFO-1234ze are 
common to many refrigerants, including many of those already listed as 
acceptable under SNAP. Thus, EPA finds HFO-1234ze acceptable in the end 
uses listed above because the overall environmental and human health 
risk posed by HFO-1234ze is lower than or comparable to the risks posed 
by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end uses.

B. Foam Blowing

1. Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 
Liquid Blowing Agent)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene 
is acceptable as a substitute for CFC-11 and HCFC-141b in:

     Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated 
boardstock
     Rigid polyurethane appliance
     Rigid polyurethane spray, commercial refrigeration and 
sandwich panels
     Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other
     Integral skin polyurethane

    Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene ((E)-1-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoroprop-1-ene, CAS Reg. No. 102687-65-0) is a chlorofluoroalkene 
marketed under the trade names SolsticeTM 1233zd(E), 
SolsticeTM Liquid Blowing Agent or SolsticeTM LBA 
in these end uses. You may find the redacted submission under Docket 
item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0285 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: The environmental information for this 
substitute is set forth in the ``Environmental information'' section in 
listing A.2.
    Flammability information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The toxicity information for this 
substitute is set forth in the ``Toxicity and exposure data'' section 
in listing A.2.
    EPA anticipates that SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) will be used 
consistent with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer's 
MSDS. The manufacturer recommends an AEL of 300 ppm (8-hr TWA) for 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E). EPA anticipates that users will be 
able to meet the manufacturer's recommended workplace exposure limit 
and address potential health risks by following requirements and 
recommendations in the MSDS and in other safety precautions common to 
the foam blowing industry.
    Comparison to other foam blowing agents: SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E) has an ODP of 0.00024 to 0.00034. This is roughly one order 
of magnitude higher than the ODP of HFC-134a, a substitute foam blowing 
agent which is considered to have zero ODP.\13\ SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E)'s ODP is well below that of CFC-11 and HCFC-141b (with ODPs 
ranging from 0.12 to 1.0), the ODSs which it replaces. 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)'s GWP of 4.7 to 7 is lower than or 
comparable to that of other non-ozone-depleting substitutes in the same 
foam blowing end uses for which we are finding it acceptable, such as 
HFC-245fa with a GWP of 1030, HFC-365mfc with a GWP of 794 and C3-C6 
saturated light hydrocarbons with GWPs less than 10. Furthermore, 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)'s GWP is well below that of CFC-11 and 
HCFC-141b (with GWPs ranging from 725 to 4750). Flammability and 
toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. The potential health 
effects of SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) are common to many foam 
blowing agents, including many of those already listed as acceptable 
under SNAP. Thus, EPA finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene 
(SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)) acceptable in the end uses listed 
above because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by 
trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene is lower than or comparable to 
the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end 
uses.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \13\ The ODP of HFC-134a was estimated to be less than 1.5 x 
10-5 using a theoretical 2-dimensional model. 
Ravishankara et al. 1994. Op. cit.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Formacel[supreg] Z-6
    EPA's decision: EPA finds Formacel[supreg] Z-6 is acceptable as a 
substitute for HCFC-22, HCFC-142b or blends thereof in:

     Polystyrene extruded boardstock & billet
     Polystyrene extruded sheet
     Rigid polyurethane appliance foam
     Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich 
panels
     Integral skin polyurethane
     Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other

    Formacel[supreg] Z-6 is a series of blends with different 
percentage contents of the same compounds. The submitter has claimed 
its composition as confidential business information (CBI). You may 
find the redacted submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-
0284 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: Formacel[supreg] Z-6 has no ODP. 
Formacel[supreg] Z-6 blends range in GWP from approximately 370 to 
1290. Formacel[supreg] Z-6 does not contain VOCs as defined under CAA 
regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs 
to attain and maintain the NAAQS.
    Flammability information: Some components of the Formacel[supreg] 
Z-6 blends are flammable. Some specific blends are flammable as 
formulated and should be handled with proper precautions, as specified 
by the manufacturer. EPA recommends that users follow all requirements 
and recommendations specified in the MSDS and other safety precautions 
for use of flammable blowing agents used in the foam blowing industry. 
Use of Formacel[supreg] Z-6 will require safe handling and shipping as 
prescribed by OSHA and the Department of Transportation (for example, 
using personal safety equipment and following requirements for shipping 
hazardous materials at 49 CFR parts 170 through 173).
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include nausea, headache, weakness, or central nervous 
system depression with effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, 
confusion, or loss of consciousness. The substitute may also irritate 
the lungs, skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At high concentrations, the 
substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The substitute could cause 
asphyxiation, if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. EPA 
anticipates that Formacel[supreg] Z-6 will be used consistent with the 
recommendations specified in the manufacturer's MSDS. The manufacturer 
recommends an AEL of 1000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for Formacel[supreg] Z-6. The 
AIHA has established a WEEL of 1000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for at least one of 
the components of Formacel[supreg] Z-6. EPA anticipates that users will 
be able to meet the manufacturer's recommended workplace exposure limit 
(AEL) and any AIHA WEELs for components and will be able to address 
potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in 
the MSDS and other safety precautions common in the foam blowing 
industry.
    Comparison to other foam blowing agents: Formacel[supreg] Z-6 is 
not ozone-depleting, comparable to a number of other acceptable non-
ozone-depleting substitutes for these end uses, such as HFC-134a, HFC-
245fa and C3-C6 saturated light hydrocarbons, and in contrast to HCFC-
142b and HCFC-22 (with ODPs ranging from 0.04 to 0.06), the ODSs which 
it replaces. Formacel[supreg] Z-6 blends range in GWP from 370 to 1290, 
lower than or comparable to those of other non-ozone-depleting 
substitutes

[[Page 47773]]

in the same foam blowing end uses for which we are finding it 
acceptable, such as HFC-134a with a GWP of 1430 and HFC-245fa with a 
GWP of 1030. Furthermore, the GWP of Formacel[supreg] Z-6 is lower than 
or comparable to that of the ODSs it replaces, including HCFC-142b and 
HCFC-22, with GWPs ranging from 1810 to 2310. Like many other 
substitutes in this end use, such as HFC-365mfc or C3-C6 saturated 
light hydrocarbons, flammability risks can be addressed by procedures 
common in the industry. The toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. 
The potential health effects of Formacel[supreg] Z-6 are common to many 
foam blowing agents, including many of those already listed as 
acceptable under SNAP. Thus, EPA finds Formacel[supreg] Z-6 acceptable 
in the end uses listed above because the overall environmental and 
human health risk posed by Formacel[supreg] Z-6 is lower than or 
comparable to the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in 
the same end uses.

C. Solvent Cleaning

1. HFE-347pcf2
    EPA's decision: EPA finds HFE-347pcf2 acceptable as a substitute 
for CFC-113, methyl chloroform, and HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and blends 
thereof for use in:

 Electronics cleaning
 Precision cleaning

    HFE-347pcf2 is also known as 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy-1,1,2,2-
tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 406-78-0). It is marketed under the 
trade name AE-3000. You may find the redacted submission under Docket 
item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0280 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: HFE-347pcf2 has no ODP. HFE-347pcf2 has 
a 100-year GWP of 580 and an atmospheric lifetime of 7.1 years. HFE-
347pcf2 is currently defined as a VOC under Clean Air Act regulations 
(see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and 
maintain the NAAQS. The manufacturer has petitioned EPA to exempt HFE-
347pcf2 from that definition based on its claim that the chemical 
exhibits low photochemical reactivity. Many states, in particular those 
with areas that are not attaining the NAAQS for ozone, currently have 
regulations governing the VOC content of solvents.
    Flammability information: HFE-347pcf2 is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of this 
substitute include coughing, dizziness, dullness, drowsiness, and 
headache. Higher concentrations can produce heart irregularities, 
central nervous system depression, narcosis, unconsciousness, 
respiratory failure, or death. The substitute may also irritate the 
skin or eyes.
    An assessment was performed to examine the health and environmental 
risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA-
HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the name, ``Risk Screen on Substitutes CFC-113, 
Methyl Chloroform, and HCFC-141b in Aerosol Solvent, Electronics 
Cleaning, and Precision Cleaning Substitute: HFE-347pcf2.'' Based on 
this analysis, EPA anticipates that users will be able to use HFE-
347pcf2 in electronics and precision cleaning without appreciable 
health risks. EPA anticipates that HFE-347pcf2 will be used consistent 
with the recommendations specified in the MSDS. The manufacturer 
recommends an AEL of 50 ppm (8-hr TWA). EPA recommends a ceiling limit 
\14\ of 150 ppm for HFE-347pcf2. EPA anticipates that users will be 
able to meet the workplace exposure limits (manufacturer and EPA 
recommendations) based on the risk screen mentioned above. We expect 
that users will address potential health risks by following 
requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and other safety 
precautions common in the solvent cleaning industry.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \14\ A ceiling limit is a concentration of a chemical that no 
person should be exposed to for any period of time in order to 
prevent adverse health effects.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Comparison to other solvents: HFE-347pcf2's ODP of zero is less 
than or comparable to that of other substitutes in electronics and 
precision cleaning such as perfluorobutyl iodide with an ODP of less 
than 0.005 and HFC-4310mee, HFE-7100 and aqueous cleaners with no ODP. 
Its ODP is significantly below those of methyl chloroform, CFC-113, 
HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb (with ODPs ranging from 0.02 to 0.85), the 
ODSs it replaces. HFE-347pcf2's GWP of 540 is lower than that of some 
other substitutes in the listed end uses, such as HFC-4310mee with a 
GWP of 1640, but higher than the GWP of some other substitutes, such as 
HFE-7100 with a GWP of 297 and aqueous cleaners with no direct GWP. 
Flammability risks are low and toxicity risks will be addressed when 
used according to recommendations in the MSDS and other safety 
precautions common in the solvent cleaning industry, as discussed 
above. The potential health effects of HFE-347pcf2 are common to many 
solvents, including many of those already listed as acceptable under 
SNAP. Thus, EPA finds HFE-347pcf2 acceptable in the end uses listed 
above because the overall risk to human health and the environment 
posed by HFE-347pcf2 is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by 
other substitutes found acceptable in the same end uses.

D. Aerosols

1. HFE-347pcf2
    EPA's decision: EPA finds HFE-347pcf2 acceptable as a substitute 
for CFC-113, methyl chloroform, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, 
and blends thereof for use as an aerosol solvent.
    HFE-347pcf2 is also known as 2,2,2-Trifluoroethoxy-1,1,2,2-
tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 406-78-0). It is marketed under the 
trade name AE-3000. You may find the redacted submission under Docket 
item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0280 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: The environmental information for this 
substitute is set forth in the ``Environmental information'' section in 
listing C.1.
    Flammability information: HFE-347pcf2 is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The toxicity information for this 
substitute is set forth in the ``Toxicity and exposure data'' section 
in listing C.1.
    EPA anticipates that HFE-347pcf2 will be used consistent with the 
recommendations specified in the manufacturer's MSDS. The manufacturer 
recommends an AEL of 50 ppm (8-hr TWA). EPA recommends a ceiling limit 
of 150 ppm for HFE-347pcf2.
    An assessment was performed to examine the health and environmental 
risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA-
HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the name, ``Risk Screen on Substitutes CFC-113, 
Methyl Chloroform, and HCFC-141b in Aerosol Solvent, Electronics 
Cleaning, and Precision Cleaning Substitute: HFE-347pcf2.'' Based on 
this analysis, we recommend using this compound as an aerosol solvent 
with adequate ventilation and following good industrial hygiene 
practice due to the potential neurotoxic effects of this substitute at 
high acute (short-term) concentrations. EPA anticipates that users will 
be able to meet the workplace exposure limits (manufacturer and EPA 
recommendations) and address potential health risks by following 
requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and other safety 
precautions common during use of aerosol solvents.
    Comparison to other aerosol solvents: HFE-347pcf2 is not ozone-
depleting,

[[Page 47774]]

comparable to that of a number of acceptable non-ozone depleting 
substitutes for the aerosol solvent end use such as HFC-4310mee, HFE-
7100 and trans-dichloroethylene, and in contrast to methyl chloroform, 
CFC-113, HCFC-141b, HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb (with ODPs ranging from 
0.02 to 0.85), the ODSs it replaces. HFE-347pcf2's GWP of 540 is lower 
than that of some other substitutes for CFC-113 in the listed end use, 
such as HFC-4310mee with a GWP of 1640, but higher than the GWP of some 
other substitutes, such as HFE-7100 with a GWP of 297 and trans-
dichloroethylene with a GWP less than 10. Its GWP is well below that of 
CFC-113 with a GWP of 6130, comparable to that of HCFC-141b and HCFC-
225cb with GWPs of 717 and 606, and higher than those for methyl 
chloroform and HCFC-225ca (with GWPs of 146 and 122). Flammability 
risks are low, as discussed above. Toxicity risks can be managed when 
the guidelines in the manufacturer's MSDS and other safety precautions 
common during use of aerosol solvents in industry are followed. The 
potential health effects of HFE-347pcf2 are common to many solvents, 
including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. Thus, 
EPA finds HFE-347pcf2 acceptable in the end use listed above because 
the overall risk to human health and the environment posed by HFE-
347pcf2 is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by other 
substitutes found acceptable in the same end use.
2. Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E))
    EPA's decision: EPA finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene 
acceptable as a substitute for CFC-113, methyl chloroform, HCFC-141b, 
and HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and blends thereof for use as an aerosol 
solvent.
    Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene ((E)-1-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoroprop-1-ene, CAS Reg. No. 102687-65-0) is marketed under the 
trade names SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) and SolsticeTM 
Performance Fluid in this end use. You may find the redacted submission 
under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0285 at http://www.regulations.gov.
    Environmental information: The environmental information for this 
substitute is set forth in the ``Environmental information'' section in 
listing A.2.
    Flammability information: SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The toxicity information for this 
substitute is set forth in the ``Toxicity and exposure data'' section 
in listing A.2.
    EPA anticipates that SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) will be used 
consistent with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer's 
MSDSs. The manufacturer recommends an AEL of 300 ppm (8-hr TWA) for 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E). EPA anticipates that users will be 
able to meet the manufacturer's recommended workplace exposure limit 
(AEL) and address potential health risks by following requirements and 
recommendations in the MSDS and other safety precautions common during 
use of aerosol solvents.
    Comparison to other aerosol solvents: SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E) has an ODP of 0.00024 to 0.00034. This is comparable to the 
ODPs of trans-1,2-dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene and an order 
of magnitude lower than the ODP of perchloroethylene, other substitutes 
in the aerosol solvents end use that are not regulated as ODS.\15,16\ 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)'s ODP is well below those of methyl 
chloroform, CFC-113, HCFC-141b, HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb (with ODPs 
ranging from 0.02 to 0.85), the ODSs it replaces. SolsticeTM 
1233zd(E)'s GWP of 4.7 to 7 is lower than or comparable to that of 
other substitutes in the aerosol solvent end use, such as HFC-4310mee 
with a GWP of 1640, HFE-7100 with a GWP of 297 and trans-
dichloroethylene with a GWP less than 10. Furthermore, the GWP of 
SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) is well below those of the ODSs being 
replaced, including CFC-113, methyl chloroform, HCF-141b, HCFC-225ca 
and HCFC-225cb, with GWPs ranging from 122 to 6130. Flammability and 
toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. The potential health 
effects of SolsticeTM 1233zd(E) are common to many solvents, 
including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP. Thus, 
EPA finds trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene 
(SolsticeTM 1233zd(E)) acceptable in the end use listed 
above because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by 
trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene is lower than or comparable to 
the risks posed by other substitutes found acceptable in the same end 
use.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \15\ Wuebbles and Patten, 2010. Atmospheric lifetimes and Ozone 
Depletion Potentials of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropylene and 
trans-1,2-dichloroethylene in a three-dimensional model. Atmos. 
Chem. Phys., 10, 10867-10874, 2010.
    \16\ WMO, 2010. Section 1.3.6.2.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

E. Fire Suppression

1. Cold Fire[supreg] (Surfactant Blend A)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds Cold Fire[supreg] (Surfactant Blend A) is 
acceptable as a substitute for halon 1301 for total flooding uses in 
both occupied and unoccupied areas.
    Cold Fire[supreg] is a liquid fire suppression agent. The 
manufacturer of Cold Fire[supreg] has claimed its composition as CBI. 
You may find the redacted submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-
0118-0288 at http://www.regulations.gov. EPA previously listed 
``Surfactant Blend A,'' a blend consistent with the composition of Cold 
Fire[supreg], as an acceptable substitute for halon 1211 in the 
streaming end use (March 18, 1994; 59 FR 13044).
    Environmental information: Cold Fire[supreg] has no ODP and no GWP. 
Cold Fire[supreg] does not contain any VOCs as defined under CAA 
regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs 
to attain and maintain the NAAQS.
    Cold Fire[supreg] is expected to aerosolize rapidly during 
expulsion from the fire suppression system and then settle as a liquid 
on surfaces in the space being protected, rather than becoming airborne 
and moving to surface waters. After settling, cleanup would involve 
washing or rinsing of surfaces.
    Cold Fire[supreg] is not biodegradable. During cleanup, we 
recommend that discharges of Cold Fire[supreg] be collected (e.g., 
mopped) and sealed in containers and then disposed of in accordance 
with local, state, and federal requirements and as specified in the 
manufacturer's MSDS. EPA recommends that discharges of Cold 
Fire[supreg] not be released to waterways. The MSDS also specifies that 
training for safe handling procedures be provided to all employees that 
would be likely to dispose of Cold Fire[supreg] at cleanup. EPA 
anticipates that users will be able to avoid potential risks to water 
and aquatic life by following requirements and recommendations in the 
MSDS.
    Flammability information: Cold Fire[supreg] is non-flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The majority of the constituents in the 
Cold Fire[supreg] formulation are classified by the U.S. Food and Drug 
Administration (FDA) as ``generally recognized as safe'' (GRAS) 
compounds, and the remaining constituents are FDA-approved for use as 
direct or indirect food additives. These compounds are commonly used in 
food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications. Individual constituents 
may cause gastrointestinal discomfort (if excessively ingested) or 
minor irritation to the eyes, skin, and/or respiratory

[[Page 47775]]

tract. Given the low toxicity of its constituents, EPA expects no 
adverse health effects when the recommended safety precautions and 
normal industry practices are applied and use of the substitute is in 
accordance with the manufacturer's MSDS. To minimize worker exposure to 
any chemicals during manufacture, installation, and maintenance through 
an accidental release or spill, EPA recommends the following:
     Proper Level C or higher personal protective equipment 
(PPE) be used during handling of the substitute (e.g., goggles, 
gloves);
     adequate ventilation should be in place;
     all spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance 
with good industrial hygiene practices;
     after spill and cleanup, dispose of material(s) 
contaminated with Cold Fire[supreg] in accordance with local, state and 
federal laws;
     training for safe handling procedures should be provided 
to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of Cold 
Fire[supreg]; and
     in case of an inadvertent discharge, workers should 
immediately follow the instructions listed in the MSDS for Cold 
Fire[supreg].
    The above recommendations are all included in the manufacturer's 
MSDS. EPA anticipates that users will be able to address potential 
health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS 
and other safety precautions common during use of fire suppressants in 
industry.
    Comparison to other fire suppressants: Cold Fire[supreg] has no ODP 
or GWP in contrast to halon 1301 (with an ODP of 16 and a GWP of 7140), 
the ODS which it replaces. Cold Fire[supreg]'s ODP of zero and GWP of 
zero are comparable to or less than those of other acceptable non-
ozone-depleting substitutes for this end use, such as Inert Gas 541 
with a GWP of 0, HFC-227ea with a GWP of 3220 and HFC-125 with a GWP of 
3500. Toxicity risks are low, as discussed above. Thus, EPA finds Cold 
Fire[supreg] (Surfactant Blend A) acceptable in the end use listed 
above because the overall environmental and human health risk posed by 
Cold Fire[supreg] is lower than or comparable to the risks posed by 
other substitutes found acceptable in the same end use.

II. Section 612 Program

A. Statutory Requirements and Authority for the SNAP Program

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances 
(ODSs). EPA refers to this program as the Significant New Alternatives 
Policy (SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
1. Rulemaking
    Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate rules making it unlawful 
to replace any class I substance (chlorofluorocarbon, halon, carbon 
tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class 
II substance (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) with any substitute that the 
Administrator determines may present adverse effects to human health or 
the environment where the Administrator has identified an alternative 
that (1) reduces the overall risk to human health and the environment, 
and (2) is currently or potentially available.
2. Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes
    Section 612(c) requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses and to publish a corresponding list of 
acceptable alternatives for specific uses. The list of acceptable 
substitutes may be found at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists/index.html and the lists of ``unacceptable,'' ``acceptable subject to 
use conditions,'' and ``acceptable subject to narrowed use limits'' 
substitutes are found in the appendices to subpart G of 40 CFR part 82.
3. Petition Process
    Section 612(d) grants the right to any person to petition EPA to 
add a substance to, or delete a substance from, the lists published in 
accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 90 days to grant or deny 
a petition. Where the Agency grants the petition, EPA must publish the 
revised lists within an additional six months.
4. 90-day Notification
    Section 612(e) directs EPA to require any person who produces a 
chemical substitute for a class I substance to notify the Agency not 
less than 90 days before new or existing chemicals are introduced into 
interstate commerce for significant new uses as substitutes for a class 
I substance. The producer must also provide the Agency with the 
producer's unpublished health and safety studies on such substitutes.
5. Outreach
    Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator shall seek to 
maximize the use of federal research facilities and resources to assist 
users of class I and II substances in identifying and developing 
alternatives to the use of such substances in key commercial 
applications.
6. Clearinghouse
    Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to set up a public 
clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product substitutes, and 
alternative manufacturing processes that are available for products and 
manufacturing processes which use class I and II substances.

B. EPA's Regulations Implementing Section 612

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the original rulemaking (59 FR 
13044) which established the process for administering the SNAP program 
and issued EPA's first lists identifying acceptable and unacceptable 
substitutes in the major industrial use sectors (subpart G of 40 CFR 
part 82). These sectors--refrigeration and air conditioning; foam 
blowing; cleaning solvents; fire suppression and explosion protection; 
sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and inks; and tobacco 
expansion--are the principal industrial sectors that historically 
consumed the largest volumes of ODS.
    Section 612 of the CAA requires EPA to list as acceptable those 
substitutes that do not present a significantly greater risk to human 
health and the environment as compared with other substitutes that are 
currently or potentially available.

C. How the Regulations for the SNAP Program Work

    Under the SNAP regulations, anyone who plans to market or produce a 
substitute to replace a class I substance or class II substance in one 
of the eight major industrial use sectors must provide notice to the 
Agency, including health and safety information on the substitute, at 
least 90 days before introducing it into interstate commerce for 
significant new use as an alternative. 40 CFR 82.176(a). This 
requirement applies to the persons planning to introduce the substitute 
into interstate commerce,\17\ which typically are

[[Page 47776]]

chemical manufacturers but may include importers, formulators, 
equipment manufacturers, and end-users when they are responsible for 
introducing a substitute into commerce.\18\ The 90-day SNAP review 
process begins once EPA receives the submission and determines that the 
submission includes complete and adequate data. 40 CFR 82.180(a). The 
CAA and the SNAP regulations, 40 CFR 82.174(a), prohibit use of a 
substitute earlier than 90 days after notice has been provided to the 
Agency.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \17\ As defined at 40 CFR 82.104, ``interstate commerce'' means 
the distribution or transportation of any product between one state, 
territory, possession or the District of Columbia, and another 
state, territory, possession or the District of Columbia, or the 
sale, use or manufacture of any product in more than one state, 
territory, possession or District of Columbia. The entry points for 
which a product is introduced into interstate commerce are the 
release of a product from the facility in which the product was 
manufactured, the entry into a warehouse from which the domestic 
manufacturer releases the product for sale or distribution, and at 
the site of United States Customs clearance.
    \18\ As defined at 40 CFR 82.172, ``end-use'' means processes or 
classes of specific applications within major industrial sectors 
where a substitute is used to replace an ODS.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Agency has identified four possible decision categories for 
substitutes that are submitted for evaluation: acceptable; acceptable 
subject to use conditions; acceptable subject to narrowed use limits; 
and unacceptable \19\ (40 CFR 82.180(b)). Use conditions and narrowed 
use limits are both considered ``use restrictions'' and are explained 
below. Substitutes that are deemed acceptable with no use restrictions 
(no use conditions or narrowed use limits) can be used for all 
applications within the relevant end-uses within the sector. 
Substitutes that are acceptable subject to use restrictions may be used 
only in accordance with those restrictions.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \19\ The SNAP regulations also include ``pending,'' referring to 
submissions for which EPA has not reached a determination, under 
this provision.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    After reviewing a substitute, the Agency may make a determination 
that a substitute is acceptable only if certain conditions in the way 
that the substitute is used are met to minimize risks to human health 
and the environment. EPA describes such substitutes as ``acceptable 
subject to use conditions.'' Entities that use these substitutes 
without meeting the associated use conditions are in violation of EPA's 
SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c).
    For some substitutes, the Agency may permit a narrowed range of use 
within an end-use or sector. For example, the Agency may limit the use 
of a substitute to certain end-uses or specific applications within an 
industry sector. EPA describes these substitutes as ``acceptable 
subject to narrowed use limits.'' A person using a substitute that is 
acceptable subject to narrowed use limits in applications and end-uses 
that are not consistent with the narrowed use limit is using the 
substitute in an unacceptable manner and is in violation of section 612 
of the CAA and EPA's SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c).
    The Agency publishes its SNAP program decisions in the Federal 
Register (FR). EPA publishes decisions concerning substitutes that are 
deemed acceptable subject to use restrictions (use conditions and/or 
narrowed use limits), or substitutes deemed unacceptable, as proposed 
rulemakings to provide the public with an opportunity to comment, 
before publishing final decisions.
    In contrast, EPA publishes decisions concerning substitutes that 
are deemed acceptable with no restrictions in ``notices of 
acceptability'' or ``determinations of acceptability,'' rather than as 
proposed and final rules. As described in the preamble to the rule 
initially implementing the SNAP program (59 FR 13044, March 18, 1994), 
EPA does not believe that rulemaking procedures are necessary to list 
alternatives that are acceptable without restrictions because such 
listings neither impose any sanction nor prevent anyone from using a 
substitute.
    Many SNAP listings include ``Comments'' or ``Further Information'' 
to provide additional information on substitutes. Since this additional 
information is not part of the regulatory decision, these statements 
are not binding for use of the substitute under the SNAP program. 
However, regulatory requirements so listed are binding under other 
regulatory programs (e.g., worker protection regulations promulgated by 
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). The 
``Further Information'' classification does not necessarily include all 
other legal obligations pertaining to the use of the substitute. While 
the items listed are not legally binding under the SNAP program, EPA 
encourages users of substitutes to apply all statements in the 
``Further Information'' column in their use of these substitutes. In 
many instances, the information simply refers to sound operating 
practices that have already been identified in existing industry and/or 
building codes or standards. Thus many of the statements, if adopted, 
would not require the affected user to make significant changes in 
existing operating practices.

D. Additional Information About the SNAP Program

    For copies of the comprehensive SNAP lists of substitutes or 
additional information on SNAP, refer to EPA's Ozone Depletion Web site 
at: www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/index.html. For more information on the 
Agency's process for administering the SNAP program or criteria for 
evaluation of substitutes, refer to the March 18, 1994, SNAP final 
rulemaking (59 FR 13044), codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart G. A 
complete chronology of SNAP decisions and the appropriate citations is 
found at: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/chron.html.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: July 27, 2012.
Sarah Dunham,
Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs.

APPENDIX A: SUMMARY OF ACCEPTABLE DECISIONS

                                       Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End-use                     Substitute             Decision            Further information \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Centrifugal chillers (new only).  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-    Acceptable........  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
                                   trifluoroprop-1-ene as                       trifluoroprop-1-ene has an ozone
                                   a substitute for CFC-                        depletion potential (ODP) of
                                   11 and HCFC-123.                             approximately 0.00024 to
                                                                                0.00034. It has a 100-year (100-
                                                                                yr) global warming potential
                                                                                (GWP) of 4.7 to 7. Its Chemical
                                                                                Abstracts Service Registry
                                                                                Number (CAS Reg. No.) is 102687-
                                                                                65-0.
                                                                               The manufacturer recommends an
                                                                                acceptable exposure limit of 300
                                                                                ppm over an 8-hour time-weighted
                                                                                average (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-
                                                                                chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
                                                                                ene.
                                 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  HFO-1234ze as a          Acceptable........  HFO-1234ze is also known as HFO-
                                   substitute for CFC-11                        1234ze(E), HFC-1234ze or trans-
                                   and HCFC-123.                                1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene
                                                                                (CAS Reg. No. 29118-24-9). HFO-
                                                                                1234ze has a 100-yr GWP of 6.

[[Page 47777]]

 
                                                                               The American Industrial Hygiene
                                                                                Association (AIHA) has
                                                                                established a workplace
                                                                                environmental exposure limit
                                                                                (WEEL) of 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                                                                HFO-1234ze.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Reciprocating, screw and scroll   HFO-1234ze as a          Acceptable........  HFO-1234ze is also known as HFO-
 chillers (new only).              substitute for CFC-12,                       1234ze(E), HFC-1234ze or trans-
                                   R-500, HCFC-22 and                           1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene
                                   HCFC blends containing                       (CAS Reg. No. 29118-24-9). HFO-
                                   HCFC-22 and/or HCFC-                         1234ze has a 100-yr GWP of 6.
                                   142b.                                       The AIHA has established a WEEL
                                                                                of 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFO-
                                                                                1234ze.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vending machines (new only).....  Carbon dioxide (CO2 or   Acceptable........  The Occupational Safety and
                                   R-744) as a substitute                       Health Administration (OSHA) has
                                   for CFC-12, HCFC-22                          established a required 8 hour/
                                   and R-502.                                   day, 40 hour/week permissible
                                                                                exposure limit (PEL) for CO2 of
                                                                                5000 ppm. The National Institute
                                                                                for Occupational Safety and
                                                                                Health (NIOSH) has established a
                                                                                15-minute recommended short-term
                                                                                exposure limit (STEL) of 30,000
                                                                                ppm.
                                                                               EPA recommends that users follow
                                                                                all requirements and
                                                                                recommendations specified in
                                                                                American Society for Heating,
                                                                                Refrigerating and Air-
                                                                                Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
                                                                                standard 15.
                                                                               EPA recommends placing vending
                                                                                machines using CO2 in well-
                                                                                ventilated spaces.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Non-mechanical heat transfer      C7 Fluoroketone (FK-6-1- Acceptable........  C7 Fluoroketone has a 100-year
 (new and retrofit).               12 or NovecTM 774) as                        global warming potential of
                                   a substitute for CFC-                        approximately 1. This substitute
                                   113.                                         is a blend of two isomers, 3-
                                                                                pentanone,1,1,1,2,4,5,5,5-
                                                                                octafluoro-2,4-
                                                                                bis(trifluoromethyl) (CAS Reg.
                                                                                No. 813-44-5) and 3-
                                                                                hexanone,1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-
                                                                                undecafluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)
                                                                                (CAS Reg. No. 813-45-6).
                                                                               The manufacturer recommends an
                                                                                acceptable exposure limit of 225
                                                                                ppm (8-hr TWA) for C7
                                                                                Fluoroketone.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Observe recommendations in the manufacturer's MSDS and guidance for all listed refrigerants.


                                               Foam Blowing Agents
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End use                     Substitute             Decision            Further information \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane and            Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-    Acceptable........  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
 polyisocyanurate laminated        trifluoroprop-1-ene as                       trifluoroprop-1-ene has an ODP
 boardstock.                       a substitute for CFC-                        of approximately 0.00024 to
                                   11 or HCFC-141b.                             0.00034. It has a 100-yr GWP of
                                                                                4.7 to 7. Its CAS Reg. No. is
                                                                                102687-65-0.
                                                                               The manufacturer recommends an
                                                                                acceptable exposure limit of 300
                                                                                ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-
                                                                                chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
                                                                                ene.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane appliance....  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-    Acceptable........  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
                                   trifluoroprop-1-ene as                       trifluoroprop-1-ene has an ODP
                                   a substitute for CFC-                        of approximately 0.00024 to
                                   11 or HCFC-141b.                             0.00034. It has a 100-year GWP
                                                                                of 4.7 to 7. Its CAS Reg. No. is
                                                                                102687-65-0.
                                                                               The manufacturer recommends an
                                                                                acceptable exposure limit of 300
                                                                                ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-
                                                                                chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
                                                                                ene.
                                 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Formacel[supreg] Z-6 as  Acceptable........  The manufacturer recommends an
                                   a substitute for HCFC-                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   22, HCFC-142b, or                            1000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                   blends thereof.                              Formacel[supreg] Z-6.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane spray,         Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-    Acceptable........  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
 commercial refrigeration and      trifluoroprop-1-ene as                       trifluoroprop-1-ene has an ODP
 sandwich panels.                  a substitute for CFC-                        of approximately 0.00024 to
                                   11 or HCFC-141b.                             0.00034. It has a 100-year GWP
                                                                                of 4.7 to 7. Its CAS Reg. No. is
                                                                                102687-65-0.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               The manufacturer recommends an
                                                                                acceptable exposure limit of 300
                                                                                ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-
                                                                                chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
                                                                                ene.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane commercial     Formacel[supreg] Z-6 as  Acceptable........  The manufacturer recommends an
 refrigeration and sandwich        a substitute for HCFC-                       acceptable exposure limit of
 panels.                           22, HCFC-142b or                             1000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                   blends thereof.                              Formacel[supreg] Z-6.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane slabstock and  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-    Acceptable........  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
 other.                            trifluoroprop-1-ene as                       trifluoroprop-1-ene has an ODP
                                   a substitute for CFC-                        of approximately 0.00024 to
                                   11 or HCFC-141b.                             0.00034. It has a 100-year GWP
                                                                                of 4.7 to 7. Its CAS Reg. No. is
                                                                                102687-65-0.
                                                                               The manufacturer recommends an
                                                                                acceptable exposure limit of 300
                                                                                ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-
                                                                                chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
                                                                                ene.
                                 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Formacel[supreg] Z-6 as  Acceptable........  The manufacturer recommends an
                                   a substitute for HCFC-                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   22, HCFC-142b or                             1000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                   blends thereof.                              Formacel[supreg] Z-6.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 47778]]

 
Polystyrene: extruded sheet.....  Formacel[supreg] Z-6 as  Acceptable........  The manufacturer recommends an
                                   a substitute for HCFC-                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   22, HCFC-142b or                             1000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                   blends thereof.                              Formacel[supreg] Z-6.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Extruded polystyrene, boardstock  Formacel[supreg] Z-6 as  Acceptable........  The manufacturer recommends an
 and billet.                       a substitute for HCFC-                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   22, HCFC-142b or                             1000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                   blends thereof.                              Formacel[supreg] Z-6.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Integral skin polyurethane......  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-    Acceptable........  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
                                   trifluoroprop-1-ene as                       trifluoroprop-1-ene has an ODP
                                   a substitute for CFC-                        of approximately 0.00024 to
                                   11 or HCFC-141b.                             0.00034. It has a 100-year GWP
                                                                                of 4.7 to 7. Its CAS Reg. No. is
                                                                                102687-65-0.
                                                                               The manufacturer recommends an
                                                                                acceptable exposure limit of 300
                                                                                ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-
                                                                                chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
                                                                                ene.
                                 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Formacel[supreg] Z-6 as  Acceptable........  The manufacturer recommends an
                                   a substitute for HCFC-                       acceptable exposure limit of
                                   22, HCFC-142b or                             1000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for
                                   blends thereof.                              Formacel[supreg] Z-6.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Observe recommendations in the manufacturer's MSDS and manufacturer's guidance for using all listed foam
  blowing agents.


                                                    Aerosols
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            End-uses                     Substitute             Decision              Further information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Solvents........................  HFE-347pcf2 as a         Acceptable........  HFE-347pcf2 has a 100-yr GWP of
                                   substitute for CFC-                          580. Its CAS Reg. No. is 406-78-
                                   113, methyl                                  0.
                                   chloroform, HCFC-141b                       The manufacturer recommends an
                                   and HCFC-225ca, HCFC-                        acceptable exposure limit of 50
                                   225cb, and blends                            ppm (8-hr TWA) for this
                                   thereof.                                     substitute. EPA recommends a
                                                                                ceiling limit (maximum
                                                                                concentration) of 150 ppm for
                                                                                HFE-347pcf2.
                                                                               Observe recommendations in the
                                                                                manufacturer's MSDS and guidance
                                                                                for using this substitute,
                                                                                particularly with respect to
                                                                                proper ventilation and other
                                                                                industrial hygiene practices.
                                 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-    Acceptable........  Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
                                   trifluoroprop-1-ene as                       trifluoroprop-1-ene has an ODP
                                   a substitute for CFC-                        of approximately 0.00024 to
                                   113, methyl                                  0.00034. It has a 100-year GWP
                                   chloroform, HCFC-141b                        of 4.7 to 7. Its CAS Reg. No. is
                                   and HCFC-225ca, HCFC-                        102687-65-0.
                                   225cb, and blends                           The manufacturer recommends an
                                   thereof.                                     acceptable exposure limit of 300
                                                                                ppm (8-hr TWA) for trans-1-
                                                                                chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-
                                                                                ene.
                                                                               Observe recommendations in the
                                                                                manufacturer's MSDS and guidance
                                                                                for using this substitute.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                Solvent Cleaning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            End-uses                     Substitute             Decision              Further information
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electronics cleaning, Precision   HFE-347pcf2 as a         Acceptable........  HFE-347pcf2 has a 100-yr GWP of
 cleaning.                         substitute for CFC-                          580. Its CAS Reg. No. is 406-78-
                                   113, methyl                                  0.
                                   chloroform, and HCFC-                       The manufacturer recommends an
                                   225ca, HCFC-225cb, and                       acceptable exposure limit of 50
                                   blends thereof.                              ppm (8-hr TWA) for this
                                                                                substitute. EPA recommends a
                                                                                ceiling limit (maximum
                                                                                concentration) of 150 ppm for
                                                                                HFE-347pcf2.
                                                                               Observe recommendations in the
                                                                                manufacturer's MSDS and guidance
                                                                                for using this substitute,
                                                                                particularly with respect to
                                                                                proper ventilation and other
                                                                                industrial hygiene practices.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                Fire Suppression
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End-use                     Substitute             Decision           Further information\1\ \2\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total flooding systems (occupied  Cold Fire[supreg]        Acceptable........  Observe recommendations in the
 and unoccupied areas).            (Surfactant Blend A)                         manufacturer's MSDS and guidance
                                   as a substitute for                          for using this substitute.
                                   halon 1301.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ EPA recommends that users consult Section VIII of the OSHA Technical Manual for information on selecting the
  appropriate types of personal protective equipment for all listed fire suppression agents. EPA has no
  intention of duplicating or displacing OSHA coverage related to the use of personal protective equipment
  (e.g., respiratory protection), fire protection, hazard communication, worker training or any other
  occupational safety and health standard with respect to halon substitutes.
\2\ Use of all listed fire suppression agents should conform to relevant OSHA requirements, including 29 CFR
  Part 1910, subpart L, Sec.  Sec.   1910.160 and 1910.162.


[[Page 47779]]

[FR Doc. 2012-19688 Filed 8-9-12; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P