[Federal Register Volume 78, Number 212 (Friday, November 1, 2013)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 65843-65864]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2013-26061]

[[Page 65843]]

Vol. 78


No. 212

November 1, 2013

Part III

Department of the Interior


Fish and Wildlife Service


50 CFR Parts 10 and 21

 General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds; Final Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 212 / Friday, November 1, 2013 / 
Rules and Regulations

[[Page 65844]]



Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Parts 10 and 21

[Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2010-0088, FF09M21200-134-FXMB1231099BPP0]
RIN 1018-AX48

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.


SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, revise the List of 
Migratory Birds by both adding and removing species. Reasons for the 
changes to the list include adding species based on new taxonomy and 
new evidence of occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories, 
removing species no longer known to occur within the United States, and 
changing names to conform to accepted use. The net increase of 19 
species (23 added and 4 removed) brings the total number of species 
protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) to 1,026. We regulate 
most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, 
barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate 
and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for 
public notification and regulatory purposes.

DATES: This rule is effective December 2, 2013.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen at 703-358-1825.



What statutory authority does the service have for this rulemaking?

    We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703-712), the Fish and 
Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and 
Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-j). The MBTA implements 
Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries 
for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:
    (1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain 
[on behalf of Canada] for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 
1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628);
    (2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the 
Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 
Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912);
    (3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States 
of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory 
Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 
4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and
    (4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of 
Migratory Birds and Their Environment (Russia), November 19, 1976, 29 
U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).

What is the purpose of this rulemaking?

    Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by the 
MBTA and its implementing regulations. These regulations are found in 
Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 10, 20, and 21. We 
regulate most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, 
purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An 
accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is 
essential for regulatory purposes.

Why is this amendment of the list of migratory birds necessary?

    The amendment is needed to: (1) Add five species previously 
overlooked from a family protected under the MBTA; (2) correct the 
spelling of six species on the alphabetized list; (3) correct the 
spelling of three species on the taxonomic list; (4) add 11 species 
based on new distributional records documenting their natural 
occurrence in the United States since April 2007; (5) add one species 
from a family now protected under the MBTA as a result of taxonomic 
changes; (6) add six species newly recognized as a result of recent 
taxonomic changes; (7) remove four species not known to occur within 
the boundaries of the United States or its territories as a result of 
recent taxonomic changes; (8) change the common (English) names of nine 
species to conform with accepted use; and (9) change the scientific 
names of 36 species to conform to accepted use.
    The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on 
March 1, 2010 (75 FR 9282). These amendments were necessitated by three 
published supplements to the 7th (1998) edition of the American 
Ornithologists' Union's (AOU's) Check-list of North American birds (AOU 
2008, AOU 2009, and AOU 2010).
    In addition, we correct the legal authorities citations at 50 CFR 
    We also make a small change to a definition in 50 CFR 21.3. We 
update the definition of ``raptor'' to also include the Order 
Accipitriformes, corresponding to recent taxonomic changes reflected in 
the List of Migratory Birds.

What scientific authorities are used to amend the list of migratory 

    Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, 
staying current with standardized use is necessary to avoid confusion 
in communications. In making our determinations, we primarily relied on 
the American Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American birds 
(AOU 1998), as amended (AOU 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 
2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010), on matters of taxonomy, nomenclature, and 
the sequence of species and other higher taxonomic categories (orders, 
families, subfamilies) for species that occur in North America. The AOU 
Checklist contains all bird species that have occurred in North America 
from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and the 
Hawaiian Islands, and includes distributional information for each 
species, which specifies whether the species is known to occur in the 
United States. For the 39 species that occur outside the geographic 
area covered by the Check-list (28 that occur in the Pacific island 
territories and 11 listed in the Japanese and/or Russian conventions 
that have not occurred in the AOU area), we relied primarily on 
Clements (2007). Although we primarily rely on the above checklists, 
when informed taxonomic opinion is inconsistent or controversial, we 
evaluate available published and unpublished information and come to 
our own conclusion regarding the validity of taxa.

What criteria are used to identify individual species protected by the 

    A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or 
more of the following four criteria:
    (1) It is covered by the Canadian Convention of 1916, as amended in 
1996, by virtue of meeting the following three criteria: (a) It belongs 
to a family or group of species named in the Canadian Convention, as 
amended; (b) specimens, photographs, videotape recordings, or audiotape 
recordings provide convincing evidence of natural occurrence in the 
United States or its territories; and (c) the documentation of such 
records has been recognized by the AOU or other competent scientific 
    (2) It is covered by the Mexican Convention of 1936, as amended in

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1972, by virtue of meeting the following three criteria: (a) It belongs 
to a family or group of species named in the Mexican Convention, as 
amended; (b) specimens, photographs, videotape recordings, or audiotape 
recordings provide convincing evidence of natural occurrence in the 
United States or its territories; and (c) the documentation of such 
records has been recognized by the AOU or other competent scientific 
    (3) It is listed in the annex to the Japanese Convention of 1972, 
as amended.
    (4) It is listed in the appendix to the Russian Convention of 1976.
    In accordance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004 
(MBTRA) (Pub. L. 108-447, 118 Stat. 2809, 3071-72), we include all 
species native to the United States or its territories, which are those 
that occur as a result of natural biological or ecological processes 
(see 70 FR 12710, March 15, 2005). We do not include nonnative species 
whose occurrences in the United States are solely the result of 
intentional or unintentional human-assisted introduction(s).

How do the changes affect the list of migratory birds?

    Several taxonomic changes were made at the Order and Family level 
by the AOU since our 2010 publication of the list (75 FR 9282, March 1, 
2010). These changes affect the inclusion and taxonomic order of 
species on this list. Specifically, the Orders Phaethontiformes and 
Suliformes were split from the Pelecaniformes. Phaethontiformes now 
includes the Family Phaethontidae (tropicbirds); Suliformes now 
includes the Families Fregatidae (frigatebirds), Sulidae (boobys), 
Phalacrocoracidae (cormorants), and Anhingidae (anhingas). In addition, 
the Order Accipitriformes was split from the Falconiformes and now 
include the Families Cathartidae (vultures), Pandionidae (Osprey), and 
Accipitridae (hawks and eagles). At the Family level, the Ardeidae 
(herons and egrets) and Threskiornithidae (ibis and spoonbills) were 
moved from the Ciconiiformes to the Pelecaniformes Order, the 
Pandionidae (Osprey) was split from the Accipitridae (hawks and 
eagles), and the Stercorariidae (jaegers and skuas) was split from the 
Laridae (gulls, terns, and skimmers). The Polioptilidae (gnatcatchers), 
Phylloscopidae (Phylloscopus warblers), Acrocephalidae (Acrocephalus 
warblers), and Megaluridae (Locustella warblers) were split from the 
Sylviidae, and the Calcariidae (longspurs and snow buntings) was split 
from the Emberizidae (buntings and sparrows). The euphonias were put 
into their own Subfamily (Euphoniinae) and moved from the Thraupidae to 
the Fringillidae Family. All species within these newly created 
Families continue to be protected under the MBTA. In addition, the 
Wrentit was moved from the Timaliidae (babblers) to the Sylviidae and 
is now in a Family protected by the MBTA.
    The amendments (23 additions, 4 removals, and 54 name changes) 
affect a grand total of 79 species and result in a net addition of 19 
species to the List of Migratory Birds, increasing the species total 
from 1,007 to 1,026. Of the 23 species that we add to the list, 6 were 
previously covered under the MBTA as subspecies of listed species. 
These amendments can be logically arranged in the following 9 
    (1) Add five species from the family Muscicapidae, a family 
specifically listed in the 1996 protocol amending the 1916 convention 
with Canada. The omission of these species on the previous list was an 
oversight. All are considered accidental or casual in Alaska. The 
species and relevant AOU publication(s) are:
    Mugimaki Flycatcher, Ficedula mugimaki (AOU 1987, 1997, 1998);
    Taiga Flycatcher, Ficedula albicilla (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998, 2006);
    Dark-sided Flycatcher, Muscicapa sibirica (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998, 
    Asian Brown Flycatcher, Muscicapa dauurica (AOU 1987, 1989, 1998); 
    Spotted Flycatcher, Muscicapa striata (AOU 2004).
    (2) Correct the spelling of six scientific names on the 
alphabetized list:
    Nesofregata fuliginosa (Polynesian Storm-Petrel), becomes 
Nesofregetta fuliginosa;
    Thalleseus maximus (Royal Tern), becomes Thalasseus maximus;
    Thalleseus sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern), becomes Thalasseus 
    Vireo atricapillus (Black-capped Vireo), becomes Vireo atricapilla;
    Phylloscopus siilatrix (Wood Warbler), becomes Phylloscopus 
sibilatrix; and
    Locustella lanceoloata (Lanceolated Warbler), becomes Locustella 
    (3) Correct the spelling of three scientific names on the taxonomic 
    Nesofregetta fuiginosa (Polynesian Storm-Petrel), becomes 
Nesofregetta fuliginosa;
    Vireo atricapillus (Black-capped Vireo), becomes Vireo atricapilla; 
    Tiaris olivacea (Yellow-faced Grassquit), becomes Tiaris olivaceus.
    (4) Add 11 species based on review and acceptance by AOU (since 
April 2007) of new distributional records documenting their occurrence 
in the United States, Puerto Rico, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. These 
species belong to families covered by the Canadian and/or Mexican 
Conventions, and all are considered to be of accidental or casual 
occurrence. For each species, we list the State in which it has been 
recorded plus the relevant publication:
    Parkinson's Petrel, Procellaria parkinsoni--California (AOU 2008);
    Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma monorhis--North Carolina (AOU 
    Swallow-tailed Gull, Creagrus furcatus--California (AOU 2008);
    Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata--Alaska (AOU 2009);
    White-crested Elaenia, Elaenia albiceps--Texas (AOU 2010);
    Crowned Slaty Flycatcher, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus--
Louisiana (AOU 2010);
    Sinaloa Wren, Thryothorus sinaloa--Arizona (AOU 2010);
    Pallas's Leaf-Warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus--Alaska (AOU 2008);
    Sedge Warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus--Alaska (AOU 2009);
    Rufous-tailed Robin, Luscinia sibilans--Alaska (AOU 2010); and
    Yellow-browed Bunting, Emberiza chrysophrys--Alaska (AOU 2009).
    (5) Add one species because of recent taxonomic changes 
transferring a species in a family formerly not protected by the MBTA 
(Timaliidae) into a family protected under the MBTA (Sylviidae). We 
reference the AOU publication supporting the change:
    Wrentit, Chamaea fasciata (AOU 2010).
    (6) Add six species because of recent taxonomic changes in which 
taxa formerly treated as subspecies have been determined to be distinct 
species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated as 
subspecies of a listed species, these additions will not change the 
protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they 
are known. In each case, we reference the AOU publication supporting 
the change:
    Eastern Spot-billed Duck, Anas zonorhyncha--formerly considered a 
subspecies of Anas poecilorhyncha, Spot-billed Duck (AOU 2008);
    Black Scoter, Melanitta americana--formerly treated as a subspecies 
of Melanitta nigra, Common [Black] Scoter (AOU 2009);
    Mexican Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus arizonae--formerly treated as a 
subspecies of Caprimulgus vociferus, Whip-poor-will (AOU 2010);
    Pacific Wren, Troglodytes pacificus--formerly treated as a 
subspecies of

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Troglodytes troglodytes, Eurasian [Winter] Wren (AOU 2010);
    Winter Wren, Troglodytes hiemalis--formerly treated as a subspecies 
of Troglodytes troglodytes, Eurasian [Winter] Wren (AOU 2010); and
    Puerto Rican Oriole, Icterus portoricensis--formerly treated as a 
subspecies of Icterus dominicensis, Hispaniolan [Greater Antillean] 
Oriole (AOU 2010).
    (7) Remove four species based on revised taxonomic treatments and 
distributional evidence confirming that their known geographic ranges 
lie entirely outside the political boundaries of the United States and 
its territories. In each case, we reference the AOU publication 
supporting these changes:
    Spot-billed Duck, Anas poecilorhyncha (AOU 2008);
    Common [Black] Scoter, Melanitta nigra (AOU 2009);
    Eurasian [Winter] Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes (AOU 2010); and
    Hispaniolan [Greater Antillean] Oriole, Icterus dominicensis (AOU 
    (8) Revise the common (English) names of nine species to conform to 
the most recent nomenclatural treatment. These revisions do not change 
the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which 
they are known. In each case, we reference the published source for the 
name change:
    Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber, becomes American Flamingo 
(AOU 2008);
    Greater Shearwater, Puffinus gravis, becomes Great Shearwater (AOU 
    Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus, becomes Eastern Whip-poor-
will (AOU 2010);
    Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus, becomes Green Violetear (AOU 
    Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius, becomes Blue Rock-Thrush 
(Clements 2007);
    Clay-colored Robin, Turdus grayi, becomes Clay-colored Thrush (AOU 
    White-throated Robin, Turdus assimilis, becomes White-throated 
Thrush (AOU 2008);
    Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Ammodramus nelsoni, becomes Nelson's 
Sparrow (AOU 2009); and
    Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus, becomes 
Saltmarsh Sparrow (AOU 2009).
    (9) Revise the scientific names of 36 species to conform to the 
most recent nomenclatural treatment. These revisions do not change the 
protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they 
are known. In each case, we reference the AOU publication documenting 
the name change:
    Larus philadelphia (Bonaparte's Gull) becomes Chroicocephalus 
philadelphia (AOU 2008);
    Larus cirrocephalus (Gray-hooded Gull) becomes Chroicocephalus 
cirrocephalus (AOU 2008);
    Larus ridibundus (Black-headed Gull) becomes Chroicocephalus 
ridibundus (AOU 2008);
    Larus minutus (Little Gull) becomes Hydrocoloeus minutus (AOU 
    Larus atricilla (Laughing Gull) becomes Leucophaeus atricilla (AOU 
    Larus pipixcan (Franklin's Gull) becomes Leucophaeus pipixcan (AOU 
    Cyanocorax morio (Brown Jay) becomes Psilorhinus morio (AOU 2010);
    Poecile hudsonica (Boreal Chickadee) becomes Poecile hudsonicus 
(AOU 2009);
    Poecile cincta (Gray-headed Chickadee) becomes Poecile cinctus (AOU 
    Calcarius mccownii (McCown's Longspur) becomes Rhynchophanes 
mccownii (AOU 2010);
    Vermivora pinus (Blue-winged Warbler) becomes Vermivora cyanoptera 
(AOU 2010);
    Vermivora peregrina (Tennessee Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis 
peregrina (AOU 2010);
    Vermivora celata (Orange-crowned Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis 
celata (AOU 2010);
    Vermivora ruficapilla (Nashville Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis 
ruficapilla (AOU 2010);
    Vermivora virginiae (Virginia's Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis 
virginiae (AOU 2010);
    Vermivora crissalis (Colima Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis crissalis 
(AOU 2010);
    Vermivora luciae (Lucy's Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis luciae (AOU 
    Parula superciliosa (Crescent-chested Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis 
superciliosa (AOU 2010);
    Seiurus noveboracensis (Northern Waterthrush) becomes Parkesia 
noveboracensis (AOU 2010);
    Seiurus motacilla (Louisiana Waterthrush) becomes Parkesia 
motacilla (AOU 2010);
    Pipilo fuscus (Canyon Towhee) becomes Melozone fusca (AOU 2010);
    Pipilo crissalis (California Towhee) becomes Melozone crissalis 
(AOU 2010);
    Pipilo aberti (Abert's Towhee) becomes Melozone aberti (AOU 2010);
    Aimophila carpalis (Rufous-winged Sparrow) becomes Peucaea carpalis 
(AOU 2010);
    Aimophila botterii (Botteri's Sparrow) becomes Peucaea botterii 
(AOU 2010);
    Aimophila cassinii (Cassin's Sparrow) becomes Peucaea cassinii (AOU 
    Aimophila aestivalis (Bachman's Sparrow) becomes Peucaea aestivalis 
(AOU 2010);
    Aimophila quinquestriata (Five-striped Sparrow) becomes Amphispiza 
quinquestriata (AOU 2010);
    Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll) becomes Acanthis flammea (AOU 
    Carduelis hornemanni (Hoary Redpoll) becomes Acanthis hornemanni 
(AOU 2009);
    Carduelis spinus (Eurasian Siskin) becomes Spinus spinus (AOU 
    Carduelis pinus (Pine Siskin) becomes Spinus pinus (AOU 2009);
    Carduelis psaltria (Lesser Goldfinch) becomes Spinus psaltria (AOU 
    Carduelis lawrencei (Lawrence's Goldfinch) becomes Spinus lawrencei 
(AOU 2009);
    Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch) becomes Spinus tristis (AOU 
2009); and
    Carduelis sinica (Oriental Greenfinch) becomes Chloris sinica (AOU 
    For ease of comparison, changes are summarized in the following 
table (numbers reference the categories treated above). Species whose 
names have been revised (categories 2, 3, 8, and 9) appear in both the 
left-hand column (old name removed) and right-hand column (new name 
added), as are species that have been added based on taxonomic splits 
(category 6) of extralimital species that have been removed (category 

        Removed (taxonomically)               Added (taxonomically)
Spot-billed Duck, Anas poecilorhyncha    Eastern Spot-billed Duck, Anas
 (7).                                     zonorhyncha (6).
Common [Black] Scoter, Melanitta nigra   Black Scoter, Melanitta
 (7).                                     americana (6).
Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber   American Flamingo,
 (8).                                     Phoenicopterus ruber (8).
                                         Parkinson's Petrel, Procellaria
                                          parkinsoni (4).
Greater Shearwater, Puffinus gravis (8)  Great Shearwater, Puffinus
                                          gravis (8).
Polynesian Storm-Petrel, Nesofregata     Polynesian Storm-Petrel,
 fuliginosa (2).                          Nesofregetta fuliginosa (2).

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Polynesian Storm-Petrel, Nesofregetta    Polynesian Storm-Petrel,
 fuiginosa (3).                           Nesofregetta fuliginosa (3).
                                         Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel,
                                          Oceanodroma monorhis (4).
                                         Swallow-tailed Gull, Creagrus
                                          furcatus (4).
Bonaparte's Gull, Larus philadelphia     Bonaparte's Gull,
 (9).                                     Chroicocephalus philadelphia
Gray-hooded Gull, Larus cirrocephalus    Gray-hooded Gull,
 (9).                                     Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus
Black-headed Gull, Larus ridibundus (9)  Black-headed Gull,
                                          Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Little Gull, Larus minutus (9).........  Little Gull, Hydrocoloeus
                                          minutus (9).
Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla (9).....  Laughing Gull, Leucophaeus
                                          atricilla (9).
Franklin's Gull, Larus pipixcan (9)....  Franklin's Gull, Leucophaeus
                                          pipixcan (9).
Royal Tern, Thalleseus maximus (2).....  Royal Tern, Thalasseus maximus
Sandwich Tern, Thalleseus sandvicensis   Sandwich Tern, Thalasseus
 (2).                                     sandvicensis (2).
                                         Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata
Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus    Eastern Whip-poor-will,
 (8).                                     Caprimulgus vociferus (8).
                                         Mexican Whip-poor-will,
                                          Caprimulgus arizonae (6).
Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus    Green Violetear, Colibri
 (8).                                     thalassinus (8).
                                         White-crested Elaenia, Elaenia
                                          albiceps (4).
                                         Crowned Slaty Flycatcher,
                                          aurantioatrocristatus (4).
Black-capped Vireo, Vireo atricapillus   Black-capped Vireo, Vireo
 (2, 3).                                  atricapilla (2, 3).
Brown Jay, Cyanocorax morio (9)........  Brown Jay, Psilorhinus morio
Boreal Chickadee, Poecile hudsonica (9)  Boreal Chickadee, Poecile
                                          hudsonicus (9).
Gray-headed Chickadee, Poecile cincta    Gray-headed Chickadee, Poecile
 (9).                                     cinctus (9).
                                         Sinaloa Wren, Thryothorus
                                          sinaloa (4).
                                         Pacific Wren, Troglodytes
                                          pacificus (6).
Eurasian [Winter] Wren, Troglodytes      Winter Wren, Troglodytes
 troglodytes (7).                         hiemalis (6).
Wood Warbler, Phylloscopus siilatrix     Wood Warbler, Phylloscopus
 (2).                                     sibilatrix (2).
                                         Pallas's Leaf-Warbler,
                                          Phylloscopus proregulus (4).
Lanceolated Warbler, Locustella          Lanceolated Warbler, Locustella
 lanceoloata (2).                         lanceolata (2).
                                         Wrentit, Chamaea fasciata (5).
                                         Sedge Warbler, Acrocephalus
                                          schoenobaenus (4).
                                         Mugimaki Flycatcher, Ficedula
                                          mugimaki (1).
                                         Taiga Flycatcher, Ficedula
                                          albicilla (1).
                                         Dark-sided Flycatcher,
                                          Muscicapa sibirica (1).
                                         Asian Brown Flyctcher,
                                          Muscicapa dauurica (1).
                                         Spotted Flycatcher, Muscicapa
                                          striata (1).
Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius   Blue Rock-Thrush, Monticola
 (8).                                     solitarius (8).
                                         Rufous-tailed Robin, Luscinia
                                          sibilans (4).
Clay-colored Robin, Turdus grayi (8)...  Clay-colored Thrush, Turdus
                                          grayi (8).
White-throated Robin, Turdus assimilis   White-throated Thrush, Turdus
 (8).                                     assimilis (8).
McCown's Longspur, Calcarius mccownii    McCown's Longspur,
 (9).                                     Rhynchophanes mccownii (9).
Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora pinus     Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora
 (9).                                     cyanoptera (9).
Tennessee Warbler, Vermivora peregrina   Tennessee Warbler, Oreothlypis
 (9).                                     peregrina (9).
Orange-crowned Warbler, Vermivora        Orange-crowned Warbler,
 celata (9).                              Oreothlypis celata (9).
Nashville Warbler, Vermivora             Nashville Warbler, Oreothlypis
 ruficapilla (9).                         ruficapilla (9).
Virginia's Warbler, Vermivora virginiae  Virginia's Warbler, Oreothlypis
 (9).                                     virginiae (9).
Colima Warbler, Vermivora crissalis (9)  Colima Warbler, Oreothlypis
                                          crissalis (9).
Lucy's Warbler, Vermivora luciae (9)...  Lucy's Warbler, Oreothlypis
                                          luciae (9).
Crescent-chested Warbler, Parula         Crescent-chested Warbler,
 superciliosa (9).                        Oreothlypis superciliosa (9).
Northern Waterthrush, Seiurus            Northern Waterthrush, Parkesia
 noveboracensis (9).                      noveboracensis (9).
Louisiana Waterthrush, Seiurus           Louisiana Waterthrush, Parkesia
 motacilla (9).                           motacilla (9).
Yellow-faced Grassquit, Tiaris olivacea  Yellow-faced Grassquit, Tiaris
 (3).                                     olivaceus (3).
Canyon Towhee, Pipilo fuscus (9).......  Canyon Towhee, Melozone fusca
California Towhee, Pipilo crissalis (9)  California Towhee, Melozone
                                          crissalis (9).
Abert's Towhee, Pipilo aberti (9)......  Abert's Towhee, Melozone aberti
Rufous-winged Sparrow, Aimophila         Rufous-winged Sparrow, Peucaea
 carpalis (9).                            carpalis (9).
Botteri's Sparrow, Aimophila botterii    Botteri's Sparrow, Peucaea
 (9).                                     botterii (9).
Cassin's Sparrow, Aimophila cassinii     Cassin's Sparrow, Peucaea
 (9).                                     cassinii (9).
Bachman's Sparrow, Aimophila aestivalis  Bachman's Sparrow, Peucaea
 (9).                                     aestivalis (9).
Five-striped Sparrow, Aimophila          Five-striped Sparrow,
 quinquestriata (9).                      Amphispiza quinquestriata (9).
Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow,           Nelson's Sparrow, Ammodramus
 Ammodramus nelsoni (8).                  nelsoni (8).
Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow,          Saltmarsh Sparrow, Ammodramus
 Ammodramus caudacutus (8).               caudacutus (8).
                                         Yellow-browed Bunting, Emberiza
                                          chrysophrys (4).
Hispaniolan [Greater Antillean] Oriole,  Puerto Rican Oriole, Icterus
 Icterus dominicensis (7).                portoricensis (6).
Common Redpoll, Carduelis flammea (9)..  Common Redpoll, Acanthis
                                          flammea (9).
Hoary Redpoll, Carduelis hornemanni (9)  Hoary Redpoll, Acanthis
                                          hornemanni (9).
Eurasian Siskin, Carduelis spinus (9)..  Eurasian Siskin, Spinus spinus
Pine Siskin, Carduelis pinus (9).......  Pine Siskin, Spinus pinus (9).
Lesser Goldfinch, Carduelis psaltria     Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus
 (9).                                     psaltria (9).
Lawrence's Goldfinch, Carduelis          Lawrence's Goldfinch, Spinus
 lawrencei (9).                           lawrencei (9).
American Goldfinch, Carduelis tristis    American Goldfinch, Spinus
 (9).                                     tristis (9).
Oriental Greenfinch, Carduelis sinica    Oriental Greenfinch, Chloris
 (9).                                     sinica (9).

[[Page 65848]]

How do the changes implemented here differ from those discussed in the 
proposed rule?

    The scientific name of one species spelled erroneously in the 
proposed rule is corrected to conform to the AOU Check-list (1998) and 
    Black-capped Vireo, Vireo atricapillus becomes Vireo atricapilla.

How is the list of migratory birds organized?

    The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of 
different segments of the public: alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) 
and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, 
species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific 
name of each species following the English group name. This format, 
similar to that used in modern telephone directories, is most useful to 
members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species are listed 
in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name 
following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, 
we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, 
and Subfamily. This format follows the sequence adopted by the AOU 
(1998, 2010) and is most useful to ornithologists and other scientists.

What species are not protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?

    The MBTA does not apply to:
    (1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or its 
territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance 
that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or 
Russian Conventions, in accordance with the MBTRA. See 70 FR 12710 
(March 15, 2005) for a partial list of nonnative, human-introduced bird 
species in this category. Note, though, that native species that are 
introduced into parts of the United States where they are not native 
are still protected under the MBTA regardless of where they occur in 
the United States or its territories.
    (2) Nonnative, human-introduced species that belong to families or 
groups not covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions, 
including Tinamidae (tinamous), Cracidae (chachalacas), Megapodiidae 
(megapodes), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), Turnicidae 
(buttonquails), Odontophoridae (New World quail), Pteroclididae 
(sandgrouse), Psittacidae (parrots), Dicruridae (drongos), 
Rhamphastidae (toucans), Musophagidae (turacos), Bucerotidae 
(hornbills), Bucorvidae (ground-hornbills), Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), 
Pittidae (pittas), Irenidae (fairy-bluebirds), Timaliidae (babblers), 
Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings; except as listed in 
the Japanese Convention), Passeridae (Old World sparrows), Ploceidae 
(weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), and numerous other families 
not currently represented in the United States or its territories.
    (3) Native species that belong to families or groups represented in 
the United States, but which are not expressly mentioned by the 
Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions, including the Megapodiidae 
(megapodes), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), 
Odontophoridae (New World quail), Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae 
(pratincoles), Psittacidae (parrots), Todidae (todies), Meliphagidae 
(honeyeaters), Monarchidae (monarch flycatchers [elepaios]), 
Zosteropidae (white-eyes), and Coerebidae (bananaquit). It should be 
noted that this rule supersedes the 70 FR 12710 notice to the extent 
that they are inconsistent. Specifically, the 1996 amendment to the 
Canadian Convention included the family Muscicapidae (Old World 
flycatchers). Thus, all members of the Muscicapidae family are now 
included on this list. In addition, the Wrentit is now considered a 
member of the Sylviidae family rather than the Timaliidae family and is 
now included on this list.
    Partial lists of the species included in categories 2 and 3 are 
available at http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/RegulationsPolicies/mbta/MBTAProtectedNonprotected.html.

Responses to Public Comments

    On April 26, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 
23428) a proposed rule to revise the list of migratory birds at 50 CFR 
10.13. We solicited public comments on the proposed rule for 90 days, 
ending on July 25, 2011.
    We received 7 comments in response to the proposed rule; 5 were 
from agencies, and 2 were from private individuals. The following text 
discusses the substantive comments we received and provides our 
responses to them.
    Comment: One individual indicated that Brown Hawk-Owl, and the 10 
other species we proposed to add based on new distributional records 
(Category 4), should not be added because they are either extremely 
rare vagrants or were moved by humans. The commenter further pointed 
out that the MBTA loses biological and ecological credibility when 
species are added that do not naturally occur in the United States or 
its territories, and pointed to the Eurasian Kestrel as one example.
    Response: In 2004, the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act (MBTRA; 
Pub. L. 108-447) amended the MBTA. While the primary purpose of the 
MBTRA was to eliminate protection for introduced species, it also 
defined native species as those ``occurring in the United States or its 
territories as a result of natural biological or ecological 
processes.'' Vagrancy is a natural biological process, so these species 
are protected under the MBTA.
    There is credible evidence to support our contention that these 
species have occurred in the United States as natural vagrants 
unhindered by human intervention. The AOU and other bird record 
committees take human intervention into account whenever they evaluate 
such records. Several of these species, including the Brown Hawk-Owl, 
have occurred in some of the remotest parts of Alaska, and are most 
unlikely to have been moved there by humans. Furthermore, multiple 
records of Eurasian Kestrel have been accepted from Western Alaska, and 
at scattered locations across North America, by the AOU and other 
competent scientific authorities.
    Comment: The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission urged the Service to 
carefully consider the implications to State regulations when making 
recommendations, and ensure that they do not occur so frequently as to 
become burdensome. Specifically, they point out that the split of the 
order Accipitriformes from the Falconiformes will necessitate a change 
in State falconry regulations.
    Response: The Service appreciates the State's concern regarding 
changes to Federal regulations that affect States, and we make a 
concerted effort to work closely with the States through the Flyway 
Councils. To comply with the intent of the migratory bird treaties and 
the MBTA, we are obligated to update the list at intervals. However, 
the List of Migratory Birds has been updated only twice since 1985, 
which is not frequently enough to stay current with changes in bird 
taxonomy. Consequently, we intend to update this list on a 5-year cycle 
to coincide with updates to the Birds of Conservation Concern, thus 
balancing the frequency of updates with the frequency of changes in 
bird taxonomy. In this update, taxonomic changes at the Order level did 
not change which species are protected under the MBTA, as the species 
within those families were previously protected. Furthermore, this is 
the first change we have made to the

[[Page 65849]]

Falconiformes since the families within that Order were first protected 
in 1972.
    Comment: The Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife (IDFW) was 
pleased that the Service intends to continue to treat cackling geese as 
Canada geese, pointing out that hunting management of white-cheeked 
geese could become more difficult if they were split. The IDFW also 
pointed out that the Mississippi Flyway Council is trying to simplify 
hunting regulations for Canada geese, and splitting them into two 
species for management purposes could cause progress toward 
simplification to stall.
    Response: The Service recognizes the management concerns referred 
to by the commenter. While we appreciate the complexities of white-
cheeked goose management, our decision to continue to include the 
Cackling Goose within the listing for Canada Goose is based on 
lingering uncertainty regarding their taxonomic relationship. Work is 
currently being conducted in Alaska and northern Canada to resolve that 
uncertainty. We will consider new information when it is available, at 
which time we may reconsider our decision. In any case, regardless of 
name, goose subspecies identified as Cackling Goose by the AOU are 
currently protected under the MBTA as Canada Goose.

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review (Executive Order 12866)

    Executive Order (EO) 12866 provides that the Office of Information 
and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management and Budget 
will review all significant rules. OIRA has determined that this rule 
is not significant.
    EO 13563 reaffirms the principles of EO 12866, while calling for 
improvements in the nation's regulatory system to promote 
predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most 
innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. 
EO 13563 directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches that reduce 
burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the public 
where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and consistent with 
regulatory objectives.
    EO 13563 emphasizes further that regulations must be based on the 
best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for 
public participation and an open exchange of ideas. We have developed 
this rule in a manner consistent with these requirements.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as 
amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act 
(SBREFA) of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-121)), whenever an agency is required to 
publish a notice of rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must 
prepare and make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility 
analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., 
small businesses, small organizations, and small government 
jurisdictions). However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required 
if the head of an agency certifies the rule does not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
    SBREFA amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act to require Federal 
agencies to provide the statement of the factual basis for certifying 
that a rule will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. We have examined this rule's 
potential effects on small entities as required by the Regulatory 
Flexibility Act, and have determined that this action will not have a 
significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities, 
because we are simply updating the list of migratory bird species 
protected under the Conventions. Consequently, we certify that because 
this rule does not have a significant economic effect on a substantial 
number of small entities, a regulatory flexibility analysis is not 
    This rule is not a major rule under SBREFA (5 U.S.C. 804(2)). It 
does not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small 
    a. This rule does not have an annual effect on the economy of $100 
million or more.
    b. This rule does not cause a major increase in costs or prices for 
consumers, individual industries, Federal, State, or local government 
agencies, or geographic regions.
    c. This rule does not have significant adverse effects on 
competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the 
ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based 

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 
et seq.), we have determined the following:
    a. This rule does not ``significantly or uniquely'' affect small 
governments. A small government agency plan is not required. Actions 
under the regulation do not affect small government activities in any 
significant way.
    b. This rule does not produce a Federal mandate of $100 million or 
greater in any year; i.e., it is not a ``significant regulatory 
action'' under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.


    In accordance with Executive Order 12630, the rule does not have 
significant takings implications. This rule does not contain a 
provision for taking of private property. Therefore, a takings 
implication assessment is not required.


    This rule does not have sufficient Federalism effects to warrant 
preparation of a Federalism summary impact statement under Executive 
Order 13132. It does not interfere with the States' ability to manage 
themselves or their funds. No significant economic impacts are expected 
to result from the updating of the list of migratory bird species.

Civil Justice Reform

    In accordance with Executive Order 12988, the Office of the 
Solicitor has determined that the rule does not unduly burden the 
judicial system and meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) 
of the Order.

Paperwork Reduction Act

    We examined this rule under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 
U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). There are no new information collection 
requirements associated with this rule. We do not require any new 
permits, reports, or recordkeeping in this rule.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    Given that the revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly administrative 
in nature and will have no or minor environmental effects, it is 
categorically excluded from further NEPA requirements (43 CFR 

Endangered Species Act (ESA)

    Seventy-four of the species on the List of Migratory Birds are also 
designated as endangered or threatened in all or some portion of their 
U.S. range under provisions of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 
U.S.C. 1531-44; 50 CFR 17.11). No legal complications arise from the 
dual listing as the two lists are developed under separate authorities 
and for different purposes. Because the rule is strictly administrative 
in nature, it has no effect on threatened or endangered species. It 
does not require ESA consultation.

[[Page 65850]]

Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, 
``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American tribal 
Governments'' (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we 
have evaluated potential effects on federally recognized Indian tribes 
and have determined that there are no potential effects. The revisions 
to existing regulations in this rule are purely administrative in 
nature and do not interfere with the tribes' ability to manage 
themselves or their funds or to regulate migratory bird activities on 
tribal lands.

Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (Executive Order 13211)

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 
addressing regulations that significantly affect energy supply, 
distribution, and use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to 
prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. 
Because this rule only affects the listing of protected species in the 
United States, it is not a significant regulatory action under 
Executive Order 12866, and does not significantly affect energy 
supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a 
significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is 

References Cited

    A complete list of all references cited is available upon request 

List of Subjects

50 CFR Part 10

    Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, 

50 CFR Part 21

    Exports, Hunting, Imports, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements, Transportation, Wildlife.

Regulation Promulgation

    For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we amend title 50, 
chapter I, subchapter B, parts 10 and 21 of the Code of Federal 
Regulations, as follows:


1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows:

    Authority:  18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 703-712; 16 U.S.C. 668a-d; 
19 U.S.C. 1202; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543; 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384, 1401-1407; 
16 U.S.C. 742a-742j-l; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378.
2. Revise Sec.  10.13 to read as follows:

Sec.  10.13  List of Migratory Birds.

    (a) Legal authority for this list. The legal authorities for this 
list are the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA; 16 U.S.C. 703-712), the 
Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 742l), and the 
Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-742j). The MBTA 
implements Conventions between the United States and four neighboring 
countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:
    (1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain 
[on behalf of Canada] for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 
1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended;
    (2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the 
Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 
Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended;
    (3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States 
of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory 
Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 
4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and
    (4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of 
Migratory Birds and Their Environment, November 19, 1976, 20 U.S.T. 
4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).
    (b) Purpose of this list. The purpose is to inform the public of 
the species protected by regulations that enforce the terms of the 
MBTA. These regulations, found in parts 10, 20, and 21 of this chapter, 
cover most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, 
purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds.
    (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species 
protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the 
varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this 
section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy 
and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American 
Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American birds (1998, as 
amended through 2010). For species not treated by the AOU Check-list, 
we generally follow The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World 
(Clements 2007).
    (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by 
common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species 
following the common name.

ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella
AKEKEE, Loxops caeruleirostris
AKEPA, Loxops coccineus
AKIALOA, Greater, Hemignathus ellisianus
AKIAPOLAAU, Hemignathus munroi
AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi
AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei
ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana
    Oahu, Paroreomyza maculata
ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris
    Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes
    Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis
    Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata
    Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus
    Shy, Thalassarche cauta
    Wandering, Diomedea exulans
    Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos
AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Hemignathus virens
    Kauai, Hemignathus kauaiensis
    Oahu, Hemignathus flavus
ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga
ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris
    Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani
ANIANIAU, Magumma parva
APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea
AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus
    Crested, Aethia cristatella
    Least, Aethia pusilla
    Parakeet, Aethia psittacula
    Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata
    Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea
AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana
BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis
    Tundra, Anser serrirostris
BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe
BECARD, Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae
BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus
    Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis
    Least, Ixobrychus exilis
    Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus
    Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis
BLACK-HAWK, Common, Buteogallus anthracinus
BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus
    Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus
    Rusty, Euphagus carolinus
    Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis
    Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor
    Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
    Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus
BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis
    Mountain, Sialia currucoides
    Western, Sialia mexicana
BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus
BLUETHROAT, Luscinia svecica
BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus

[[Page 65851]]

BOOBY, Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii
    Brown, Sula leucogaster
    Masked, Sula dactylatra
    Red-footed, Sula sula
BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla
BRANT, Branta bernicla
BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola
BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
    Puerto Rican, Loxigilla portoricensis
BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina
    Gray, Emberiza variabilis
    Indigo, Passerina cyanea
    Little, Emberiza pusilla
    Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys
    Lazuli, Passerina amoena
    McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus
    Painted, Passerina ciris
    Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi
    Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos
    Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus
    Rustic, Emberiza rustica
    Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis
    Varied, Passerina versicolor
    Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola
    Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys
    Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans
BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus
CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria
CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway
CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis
CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus
    Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis
CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris
    Gray, Dumetella carolinensis
CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs
CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens
CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus
    Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus
    Carolina, Poecile carolinensis
    Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens
    Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus
    Mexican, Poecile sclateri
    Mountain, Poecile gambeli
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Caprimulgus carolinensis
CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus
COOT, American, Fulica americana
    Caribbean, Fulica caribaea
    Eurasian, Fulica atra
    Hawaiian, Fulica alai
CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus
    Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus
    Great, Phalacrocorax carbo
    Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
    Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus
    Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus
    Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile
COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus
    Brown-headed, Molothrus ater
    Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis
CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex
    Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops
    Spotless, Porzana tabuensis
    Yellow-breasted, Porzana flaviventer
CRANE, Common, Grus grus
    Sandhill, Grus canadensis
    Whooping, Grus americana
CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana
    Hawaii, Oreomystis mana
CROSSBILL, Red, Loxia curvirostra
    White-winged, Loxia leucoptera
CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos
    Fish, Corvus ossifragus
    Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis
    Mariana, Corvus kubaryi
    Northwestern, Corvus caurinus
    Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus
    White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus
CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
    Common, Cuculus canorus
    Mangrove, Coccyzus minor
    Oriental, Cuculus optatus
    Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus
CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis
    Eskimo, Numenius borealis
    Eurasian, Numenius arquata
    Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis
    Little, Numenius minutus
    Long-billed, Numenius americanus
DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana
DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus
DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus
DOVE, Inca, Columbina inca
    Mourning, Zenaida macroura
    White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi
    White-winged, Zenaida asiatica
    Zenaida, Zenaida aurita
DOVEKIE, Alle alle
DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus
    Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus
DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes
    Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha
    Falcated, Anas falcata
    Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus
    Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana
    Laysan, Anas laysanensis
    Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis
    Masked, Nomonyx dominicus
    Mottled, Anas fulvigula
    Muscovy, Cairina moschata
    Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa
    Ring-necked, Aythya collaris
    Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis
    Tufted, Aythya fuligula
    Wood, Aix sponsa
DUNLIN, Calidris alpina
EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
    Golden, Aquila chrysaetos
    White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla
EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis
    Chinese, Egretta eulophotes
    Great, Ardea alba
    Intermediate, Mesophoyx intermedia
    Little, Egretta garzetta
    Reddish, Egretta rufescens
    Snowy, Egretta thula
EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima
    King, Somateria spectabilis
    Spectacled, Somateria fischeri
    Steller's, Polysticta stelleri
ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica
    Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata
    White-crested, Elaenia albiceps
EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus
EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica
FALCON, Aplomado, Falco femoralis
    Peregrine, Falco peregrinus
    Prairie, Falco mexicanus
    Red-footed, Flaco vespertinus
FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris
FINCH, Cassin's, Carpodacus cassinii
    House, Carpodacus mexicanus
    Laysan, Telespiza cantans
    Nihoa, Telespiza ultima
    Purple, Carpodacus purpureus
FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber
FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides
    Northern, Colaptes auratus
FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens
    Alder, Empidonax alnorum
    Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens
    Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica
    Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus
    Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons
    Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis
    Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus
    Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica
    Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri
    Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer
    Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana
    Gray, Empidonax wrightii
    Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta
    Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus
    Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii
    La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae
    Least, Empidonax minimus
    Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki
    Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina
    Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi
    Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi
    Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis
    Piratic, Legatus leucophalus
    Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum
    Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus
    Social, Myiozetetes similis
    Spotted, Muscicapa striata
    Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris
    Taiga, Ficedula albicilla
    Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus
    Variegated, Empidonomus varius
    Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus

[[Page 65852]]

    Willow, Empidonax traillii
    Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris
FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus
FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor
    Lesser, Fregata ariel
    Magnificent, Fregata magnificens
FROG-HAWK, Gray, Accipiter soloensis
FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus
    Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii
    Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla
FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis
GADWALL, Anas strepera
GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris
    Purple, Porphyrio martinica
GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus
GARGANEY, Anas querquedula
GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps
    Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura
    Blue-gray, Polioptila caerulea
    California, Polioptila californica
GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica
    Black-tailed, Limosa limosa
    Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica
    Marbled, Limosa fedoa
GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica
    European, Pluvialis apricaria
    Pacific, Pluvialis fulva
GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica
    Common, Bucephala clangula
GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis
    Lawrence's, Spinus lawrencei
    Lesser, Spinus psaltria
GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis
    Canada, Branta canadensis (including Cackling Goose, Branta 
    Emperor, Chen canagica
    Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons
    Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis
    Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus
    Ross's, Chen rossii
    Snow, Chen caerulescens
GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis
GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major
    Common, Quiscalus quiscula
    Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus
    Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger
GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis
GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor
    Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus
GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii
    Eared, Podiceps nigricollis
    Horned, Podiceps auritus
    Least, Tachybaptus dominicus
    Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps
    Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena
    Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis
GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica
GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia
    Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer
GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus
    Blue, Passerina caerulea
    Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno
    Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus
    Pine, Pinicola enucleator
    Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus
    Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus
GROUND-DOVE, Common, Columbina passerina
    Friendly, Gallicolumba stairi
    Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti
    White-throated, Gallicolumba xanthonura
GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle
    Pigeon, Cepphus columba
GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri
    Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
    Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris
    Bonaparte's, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
    California, Larus californicus
    Franklin's, Leucophaeus pipixcan
    Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus
    Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens
    Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus
    Great Black-backed, Larus marinus
    Heermann's, Larus heermanni
    Herring, Larus argentatus
    Iceland, Larus glaucoides
    Ivory, Pagophila eburnea
    Kelp, Larus dominicanus
    Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla
    Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus
    Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus
    Mew, Larus canus
    Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis
    Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea
    Sabine's, Xema sabini
    Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus
    Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus
    Thayer's, Larus thayeri
    Western, Larus occidentalis
    Yellow-footed, Larus livens
    Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis
GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus
HARRIER, Northern, Circus cyaneus
HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes
HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus
    Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii
    Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens
    Ferruginous, Buteo regalis
    Gray, Buteo nitidus
    Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus
    Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius
    Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus
    Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis
    Roadside, Buteo magnirostris
    Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus
    Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus
    Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus
    Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni
    White-tailed, Buteo albicaudatus
    Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus
HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Cuculus fugax
HAWK-OWL, Brown, Ninox scutulata
HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea
    Great Blue, Ardea herodias
    Green, Butorides virescens
    Little Blue, Egretta caerulea
    Tricolored, Egretta tricolor
HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo
HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops
HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum
HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin
    Anna's, Calypte anna
    Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus
    Berylline, Amazilia beryllina
    Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri
    Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae
    Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris
    Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus
    Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis
    Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa
    Calliope, Stellula calliope
    Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila
    Costa's, Calypte costae
    Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer
    Magnificent, Eugenes fulgens
    Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris
    Rufous, Selasphorus rufus
    Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps
    White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis
    Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii
IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus
    Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber
    White, Eudocimus albus
    White-faced, Plegadis chihi
IIWI, Vestiaria coccinea
IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica
JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria
JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa
JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus
    Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus
    Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus
JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata
    Brown, Psilorhinus morio
    Gray, Perisoreus canadensis
    Green, Cyanocorax yncas
    Mexican, Aphelocoma ultramarina
    Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus
    Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri
JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis
    Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus
KAKAWAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea
KAMAO, Myadestes myadestinus
KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius
    Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus
KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus
KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans
    Couch's, Tyrannus couchii
    Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus
    Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis
    Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus

[[Page 65853]]

    Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris
    Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus
    Western, Tyrannus verticalis
KINGFISHER, Belted, Megaceryle alcyon
    Collared, Todirhamphus chloris
    Green, Chloroceryle americana
    Micronesian, Todirhamphus cinnamominus
    Ringed, Megaceryle torquata
KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa
    Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula
KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus
KITE, Black, Milvus migrans
    Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus
    Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis
    Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis
    Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus
    White-tailed, Elanus leucurus
KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla
    Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris
KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris
    Red, Calidris canutus
LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus
LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris
    Sky, Alauda arvensis
LEAF-WARBLER, Pallas's, Phylloscopus proregulus
LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna
LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti
LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus
    Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus
    McCown's, Rhynchophanes mccownii
    Smith's, Calcarius pictus
LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica
    Common, Gavia immer
    Pacific, Gavia pacifica
    Red-throated, Gavia stellata
    Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii
MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia
    Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli
MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos
MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus
    Green, Anthracothorax viridis
    Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii
MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera
    Caribbean, Progne dominicensis
    Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca
    Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea
    Purple, Progne subis
    Southern, Progne elegans
MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna
    Western, Sturnella neglecta
MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser
    Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus
    Red-breasted, Mergus serrator
MERLIN, Falco columbarius
MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris
MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii
    Blue, Melanotis caerulescens
    Northern, Mimus polyglottos
MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus
MURRE, Common, Uria aalge
    Thick-billed, Uria lomvia
MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus
    Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri
    Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris
    Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix
    Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus
    Xantus's, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus
NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax
    Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi
    Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus
    Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea
NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii
    Common, Chordeiles minor
    Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis
NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus
    Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris
NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Caprimulgus ridgwayi
    Gray, Caprimulgus indicus
    Puerto Rican, Caprimulgus noctitherus
NODDY, Black, Anous minutus
    Blue-gray, Procelsterna cerulea
    Brown, Anous stolidus
NUKUPUU, Hemignathus lucidus
NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana
NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla
    Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea
    Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis
    White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis
OLOMAO, Myadestes lanaiensis
OMAO, Myadestes obscurus
ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis
    Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda
    Baltimore, Icterus galbula
    Black-vented, Icterus wagleri
    Bullock's, Icterus bullockii
    Hooded, Icterus cucullatus
    Orchard, Icterus spurius
    Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis
    Scott's, Icterus parisorum
    Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus
OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus
OU, Psittirostra psittacea
OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla
OWL, Barn, Tyto alba
    Barred, Strix varia
    Boreal, Aegolius funereus
    Burrowing, Athene cunicularia
    Elf, Micrathene whitneyi
    Flammulated, Otus flammeolus
    Great Gray, Strix nebulosa
    Great Horned, Bubo virginianus
    Long-eared, Asio otus
    Mottled, Ciccaba virgata
    Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula
    Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus
    Short-eared, Asio flammeus
    Snowy, Bubo scandiacus
    Spotted, Strix occidentalis
    Stygian, Asio stygius
OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus
    Black, Haematopus bachmani
    Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus
PALILA, Loxioides bailleui
PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia
PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys
PARULA, Northern, Parula americana
    Tropical, Parula pitiayumi
PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis
PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
    Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis
PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow
    Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata
    Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis
    Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca
    Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii
    Cook's, Pterodroma cookii
    Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera
    Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera
    Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis
    Herald, Pterodroma arminjoniana
    Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax
    Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa
    Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta
    Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata
    Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima
    Parkinson's, Procellaria parkinsoni
    Phoenix, Pterodroma alba
    Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris
    Tahiti, Pterodroma rostrata
    White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis
PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus
    Greater, Contopus pertinax
    Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis
    Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris
PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens
PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius
    Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus
    Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor
PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans
    Eastern, Sayornis phoebe
    Say's, Sayornis saya
PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata
    Plain, Patagioenas inornata
    Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris
    Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa
    White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala
PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta
    White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis
PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens
    Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni
    Pechora, Anthus gustavi

[[Page 65854]]

    Red-throated, Anthus cervinus
    Sprague's, Anthus spragueii
    Tree, Anthus trivialis
PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola
    Collared, Charadrius collaris
    Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula
    Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius
    Mountain, Charadrius montanus
    Piping, Charadrius melodus
    Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus
    Snowy, Charadrius alexandrinus
    Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia
POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri
    Common, Aythya ferina
POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus
POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
POO-ULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma
PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri
PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica
    Horned, Fratercula corniculata
    Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata
PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum
    Northern, Glaucidium gnoma
PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus
QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea
    Key West, Geotrygon chrysia
    Ruddy, Geotrygon montana
QUETZEL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus
RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis
    Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis
    Clapper, Rallus longirostris
    Guam, Gallirallus owstoni
    King, Rallus elegans
    Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus
    Virginia, Rallus limicola
    Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis
RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus
    Common, Corvus corax
RAZORBILL, Alca torda
REDHEAD, Aythya americana
REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea
    Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni
REDSHANK, Spotted, Tringa erythropus
REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla
    Painted, Myioborus pictus
    Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus
REED-WARBLER, Nightingale, Acrocephalus luscinia
REEF-EGRET, Pacific, Egretta sacra
REEF-HERON, Western, Egretta gularis
ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus
ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius
    Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus
    Rufous-tailed, Luscinia sibilans
    Siberian Blue, Luscinia cyane
ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius
ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus
ROSY-FINCH, Black, Leucosticte atrata
    Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis
    Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis
RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Luscinia calliope
RUFF, Philomachus pugnax
SANDERLING, Calidris alba
SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii
    Broad-billed, Limicola falcinellus
    Buff-breasted, Tryngites subruficollis
    Common, Actitis hypoleucos
    Curlew, Calidris ferruginea
    Green, Tringa ochropus
    Least, Calidris minutilla
    Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis
    Pectoral, Calidris melanotos
    Purple, Calidris maritima
    Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis
    Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla
    Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata
    Solitary, Tringa solitaria
    Spoon-billed, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus
    Spotted, Actitis macularius
    Stilt, Calidris himantopus
    Terek, Xenus cinereus
    Upland, Bartramia longicauda
    Western, Calidris mauri
    White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis
    Wood, Tringa glareola
SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii
    Lesser, Charadrius mongolus
SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber
    Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis
    Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus
    Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius
SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila
    Lesser, Aythya affinis
SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia
SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana
    Surf, Melanitta perspicillata
    White-winged, Melanitta fusca
SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio
    Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes
    Western, Megascops kennicottii
    Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis
SCRUB-JAY, Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens
    Island, Aphelocoma insularis
    Western, Aphelocoma californica
SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus
SEEDEATER, White-collared, Sporophila torqueola
SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri
    Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas
    Buller's, Puffinus bulleri
    Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii
    Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis
    Cory's, Calonectris diomedea
    Flesh-footed, Puffinus carneipes
    Great, Puffinus gravis
    Little, Puffinus assimilis
    Manx, Puffinus puffinus
    Pink-footed, Puffinus creatopus
    Short-tailed, Puffinus tenuirostris
    Sooty, Puffinus griseus
    Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas
    Townsend's, Puffinus auricularis
    Wedge-tailed, Puffinus pacificus
SHOVELER, Northern, Anas clypeata
SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus
    Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus
    Northern, Lanius excubitor
SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptilogonys cinereus
SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus
    Pine, Spinus pinus
SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger
SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua
    South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki
SMEW, Mergellus albellus
SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago
    Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus
    Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura
    Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala
    Wilson's, Gallinago delicata
SOLITAIRE, Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi
SORA, Porzana carolina
SPARROW, American Tree, Spizella arborea
    Bachman's, Peucaea aestivalis
    Baird's, Ammodramus bairdii
    Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis
    Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata
    Botteri's, Peucaea botterii
    Brewer's, Spizella breweri
    Cassin's, Peucaea cassinii
    Chipping, Spizella passerina
    Clay-colored, Spizella pallida
    Field, Spizella pusilla
    Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata
    Fox, Passerella iliaca
    Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla
    Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum
    Harris's, Zonotrichia querula
    Henslow's, Ammodramus henslowii
    Lark, Chondestes grammacus
    Le Conte's, Ammodramus leconteii
    Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii
    Nelson's, Ammodramus nelsoni
    Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus
    Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps
    Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis
    Sage, Amphispiza belli
    Saltmarsh, Ammodramus caudacutus
    Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis
    Seaside, Ammodramus maritimus
    Song, Melospiza melodia
    Swamp, Melospiza georgiana
    Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus
    White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys
    White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis
    Worthen's, Spizella wortheni
SPARROWHAWK, Japanese, Accipiter gularis
SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis

[[Page 65855]]

    Western, Spindalis zena
SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja
STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Sturnus philippensis
    White-cheeked, Sturnus cineraceus
STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii
STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus
    Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus
STINT, Little, Calidris minuta
    Long-toed, Calidris subminuta
    Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis
    Temminck's, Calidris temminckii
STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus
STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana
STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa
    Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro
    Black, Oceanodroma melania
    Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica
    Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata
    Leach's, Oceanodroma leucorhoa
    Least, Oceanodroma microsoma
    Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae
    Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa
    Ringed, Oceanodroma hornbyi
    Swinhoe's, Oceanodroma monorhis
    Tristram's, Oceanodroma tristrami
    Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys
    White-faced, Pelagodroma marina
    White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria
    Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus
SURFBIRD, Aphriza virgata
SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis
    Bank, Riparia riparia
    Barn, Hirundo rustica
    Cave, Petrochelidon fulva
    Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
    Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea
    Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
    Tree, Tachycineta bicolor
    Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina
SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio
SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator
    Tundra, Cygnus columbianus
    Whooper, Cygnus cygnus
SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba
    Black, Cypseloides niger
    Chimney, Chaetura pelagica
    Common, Apus apus
    Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus
    Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura
    Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi
    White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris
    White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis
SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi
    White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius
TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata
    Hepatic, Piranga flava
    Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus
    Scarlet, Piranga olivacea
    Summer, Piranga rubra
    Western, Piranga ludoviciana
TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes
    Wandering, Tringa incana
TEAL, Baikal, Anas formosa
    Blue-winged, Anas discors
    Cinnamon, Anas cyanoptera
    Green-winged, Anas crecca
TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus
    Arctic, Sterna paradisaea
    Black, Chlidonias niger
    Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana
    Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus
    Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia
    Common, Sterna hirundo
    Elegant, Thalasseus elegans
    Forster's, Sterna forsteri
    Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus
    Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii
    Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica
    Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex
    Least, Sternula antillarum
    Little, Sternula albifrons
    Roseate, Sterna dougallii
    Royal, Thalesseus maximus
    Sandwich, Thalesseus sandvicensis
    Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus
    Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida
    White, Gygis alba
    White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus
THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei
    Brown, Toxostoma rufum
    California, Toxostoma redivivum
    Crissal, Toxostoma crissale
    Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre
    Le Conte's, Toxostoma lecontei
    Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre
    Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus
    Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus
THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola
    Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli
    Clay-colored, Turdus grayi
    Dusky, Turdus naumanni
    Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus
    Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus
    Hermit, Catharus guttatus
    Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus
    Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus
    Varied, Ixoreus naevius
    White-throated, Turdus assimilis
    Wood, Hylocichla mustelina
TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus
    Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi
    Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi
    Oak, Baeolophus inornatus
    Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor
TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata
TOWHEE, Abert's, Melozone aberti
    California, Melozone crissalis
    Canyon, Melozone fusca
    Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
    Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus
    Spotted, Pipilo maculatus
TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans
TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus
    Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda
    White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus
TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala
    Ruddy, Arenaria interpres
TURTLE-DOVE, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis
VEERY, Catharus fuscescens
VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps
VIOLETEAR, Green, Colibri thalassinus
VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii
    Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla
    Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus
    Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius
    Cassin's, Vireo cassinii
    Gray, Vireo vicinior
    Hutton's, Vireo huttoni
    Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus
    Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus
    Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri
    Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus
    Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris
    Warbling, Vireo gilvus
    White-eyed, Vireo griseus
    Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis
    Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons
    Yucatan, Vireo magister
VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus
    Turkey, Cathartes aura
WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola
    Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis
    Gray, Motacilla cinerea
    White, Motacilla alba
WARBLER, Adelaide's, Dendroica adelaidae
    Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis
    Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii
    Bay-breasted, Dendroica castanea
    Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia
    Black-throated Blue, Dendroica caerulescens
    Black-throated Gray, Dendroica nigrescens
    Black-throated Green, Dendroica virens
    Blackburnian, Dendroica fusca
    Blackpoll, Dendroica striata
    Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera
    Canada, Wilsonia canadensis
    Cape May, Dendroica tigrina
    Cerulean, Dendroica cerulea
    Chestnut-sided, Dendroica pensylvanica
    Colima, Oreothlypis crissalis
    Connecticut, Oporornis agilis
    Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa
    Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus
    Elfin-woods, Dendroica angelae
    Fan-tailed, Euthlypis lachrymosa
    Golden-cheeked, Dendroica chrysoparia
    Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus
    Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera

[[Page 65856]]

    Grace's, Dendroica graciae
    Hermit, Dendroica occidentalis
    Hooded, Wilsonia citrina
    Kentucky, Oporornis formosus
    Kirtland's, Dendroica kirtlandii
    Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata
    Lucy's, Oreothlypis luciae
    MacGillivray's, Oporornis tolmiei
    Magnolia, Dendroica magnolia
    Mourning, Oporornis philadelphia
    Nashville, Oreothlypis ruficapilla
    Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus
    Orange-crowned, Oreothlypis celata
    Palm, Dendroica palmarum
    Pine, Dendroica pinus
    Prairie, Dendroica discolor
    Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea
    Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons
    Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons
    Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
    Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii
    Tennessee, Oreothlypis peregrina
    Townsend's, Dendroica townsendi
    Virginia's, Oreothlypis virginiae
    Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus
    Wilson's, Wilsonia pusilla
    Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix
    Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum
    Yellow, Dendroica petechia
    Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus
    Yellow-rumped, Dendroica coronata
    Yellow-throated, Dendroica dominica
WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla
    Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis
WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus
    Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum
WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe
WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus
WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Caprimulgus vociferus
    Mexican, Caprimulgus arizonae
WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis
    Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor
    West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea
WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca
WIGEON, American, Anas americana
    Eurasian, Anas penelope
WILLET, Tringa semipalmata
WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens
    Western, Contopus sordidulus
WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor
    Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola
WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus
    American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis
    Arizona, Picoides arizonae
    Black-backed, Picoides arcticus
    Downy, Picoides pubescens
    Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis
    Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons
    Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major
    Hairy, Picoides villosus
    Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis
    Ladder-backed, Picoides scalaris
    Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis
    Nuttall's, Picoides nuttallii
    Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus
    Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis
    Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus
    Red-cockaded, Picoides borealis
    Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
    White-headed, Picoides albolarvatus
WOODSTAR, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae
WREN, Bewick's Thryomanes bewickii
    Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
    Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus
    Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus
    House, Troglodytes aedon
    Marsh, Cistothorus palustris
    Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus
    Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus
    Sedge, Cistothorus platensis
    Sinaloa, Thryothorus sinaloa
    Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis
WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata
WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla
YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca
    Lesser, Tringa flavipes
YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas
    Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala
    (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence 
by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the 
scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list 
the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily.
    Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck
    Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck
    Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose
    Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose
    Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose
    Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose
    Chen canagica, Emperor Goose
    Chen caerulescens, Snow Goose
    Chen rossii, Ross's Goose
    Branta bernicla, Brant
    Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose
    Branta canadensis, Canada Goose (including Branta hutchinsii, 
Cackling Goose)
    Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose
    Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan
    Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan
    Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan
Subfamily ANATINAE
    Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck
    Aix sponsa, Wood Duck
    Anas strepera, Gadwall
    Anas falcata, Falcated Duck
    Anas penelope, Eurasian Wigeon
    Anas americana, American Wigeon
    Anas rubripes, American Black Duck
    Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard
    Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck
    Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck
    Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck
    Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spot-billed Duck
    Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck
    Anas discors, Blue-winged Teal
    Anas cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal
    Anas clypeata, Northern Shoveler
    Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail
    Anas acuta, Northern Pintail
    Anas querquedula, Garganey
    Anas formosa, Baikal Teal
    Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal
    Aythya valisineria, Canvasback
    Aythya americana, Redhead
    Aythya ferina, Common Pochard
    Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard
    Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck
    Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck
    Aythya marila, Greater Scaup
    Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup
    Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider
    Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider
    Somateria spectabilis, King Eider
    Somateria mollissima, Common Eider
    Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck
    Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter
    Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter
    Melanitta americana, Black Scoter
    Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck
    Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead
    Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye
    Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye
    Mergellus albellus, Smew
    Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser
    Mergus merganser, Common Merganser
    Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser
    Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck
    Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck
    Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon
    Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon
    Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon
    Gavia immer, Common Loon
    Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon

[[Page 65857]]

    Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe
    Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe
    Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe
    Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe
    Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe
    Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe
    Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe
    Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo
    Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross
    Thalassarche cauta, Shy Albatross
    Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross
    Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross
    Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross
    Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross
    Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross
    Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross
    Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar
    Pterodroma macroptera, Great-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel
    Pterodroma arminjoniana, Herald Petrel
    Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel
    Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel
    Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel
    Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel
    Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel
    Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel
    Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel
    Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel
    Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel
    Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel
    Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's Petrel
    Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel
    Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel
    Pterodroma rostrata, Tahiti Petrel
    Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel
    Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel
    Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson's Petrel
    Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater
    Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater
    Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater
    Puffinus creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater
    Puffinus gravis, Great Shearwater
    Puffinus pacificus, Wedge-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus bulleri, Buller's Shearwater
    Puffinus griseus, Sooty Shearwater
    Puffinus tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater
    Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater
    Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater
    Puffinus auricularis, Townsend's Shearwater
    Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater
    Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater
    Puffinus assimilis, Little Shearwater
    Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel
    Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel
    Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma hornbyi, Ringed Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma monorhis, Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel
    Oceanodroma microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel
    Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird
    Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird
    Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird
    Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru
    Mycteria americana, Wood Stork
    Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird
    Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird
    Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird
    Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby
    Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby
    Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby
    Sula sula, Red-footed Booby
    Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet
    Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant
    Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant
    Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga
    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican
    Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican
    Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern
    Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern
    Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern
    Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern
    Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern
    Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron
    Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron
    Ardea alba, Great Egret
    Mesophoyx intermedia, Intermediate Egret
    Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret
    Egretta garzetta, Little Egret
    Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Egret
    Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron
    Egretta thula, Snowy Egret
    Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron
    Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron
    Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret
    Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret
    Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron
    Butorides virescens, Green Heron
    Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron
    Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
    Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron
    Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron
    Eudocimus albus, White Ibis
    Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis
    Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis
    Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis

[[Page 65858]]

    Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill
    Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture
    Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture
    Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor
    Pandion haliaetus, Osprey
    Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite
    Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite
    Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite
    Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite
    Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite
    Milvus migrans, Black Kite
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle
    Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle
    Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle
    Circus cyaneus, Northern Harrier
    Accipiter soloensis, Gray Frog-Hawk
    Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk
    Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk
    Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk
    Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk
    Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-Hawk
    Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk
    Buteo magnirostris, Roadside Hawk
    Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk
    Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk
    Buteo nitidus, Gray Hawk
    Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk
    Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk
    Buteo albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk
    Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk
    Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk
    Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk
    Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk
    Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk
    Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle
    Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon
    Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara
    Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel
    Falco sparverius, American Kestrel
    Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon
    Falco columbarius, Merlin
    Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby
    Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon
    Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon
    Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon
    Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon
    Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail
    Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail
    Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail
    Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail
    Crex crex, Corn Crake
    Rallus longirostris, Clapper Rail
    Rallus elegans, King Rail
    Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail
    Porzana carolina, Sora
    Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake
    Porzana flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake
    Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake
    Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail
    Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen
    Porphyrio martinica, Purple Gallinule
    Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule
    Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen
    Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot
    Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot
    Fulica americana, American Coot
    Fulica caribaea, Caribbean Coot
    Aramus guarauna, Limpkin
    Grus canadensis, Sandhill Crane
    Grus grus, Common Crane
    Grus americana, Whooping Crane
    Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing
    Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover
    Pluvialis apricaria, European Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover
    Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover
    Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover
    Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover
    Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover
    Charadrius alexandrinus, Snowy Plover
    Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover
    Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover
    Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover
    Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover
    Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover
    Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer
    Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover
    Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel
    Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher
    Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher
    Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher
    Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt
    Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt
    Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet
    Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana
    Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper
    Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper
    Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper
    Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper
    Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper
    Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler
    Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler
    Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank
    Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs
    Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank
    Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank
    Tringa semipalmata, Willet
    Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs
    Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper
    Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper
    Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper
    Numenius minutus, Little Curlew
    Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew
    Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel
    Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew
    Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew
    Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew
    Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew
    Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit
    Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit
    Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit
    Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit
    Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone
    Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone
    Aphriza virgata, Surfbird
    Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot
    Calidris canutus, Red Knot
    Calidris alba, Sanderling
    Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper
    Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper
    Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint
    Calidris minuta, Little Stint
    Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint
    Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint
    Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper
    Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped

[[Page 65859]]

    Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper
    Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper
    Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
    Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper
    Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper
    Calidris alpina, Dunlin
    Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper
    Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper
    Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, Spoon-billed Sandpiper
    Limicola falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper
    Tryngites subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper
    Philomachus pugnax, Ruff
    Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher
    Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher
    Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe
    Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe
    Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe
    Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe
    Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe
    Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock
    Scolopax minor, American Woodcock
    Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope
    Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope
    Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope
Subfamily LARINAE
    Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull
    Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake
    Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake
    Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull
    Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull
    Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull
    Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull
    Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull
    Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull
    Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull
    Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull
    Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull
    Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull
    Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull
    Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull
    Larus canus, Mew Gull
    Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull
    Larus occidentalis, Western Gull
    Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull
    Larus californicus, California Gull
    Larus argentatus, Herring Gull
    Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull
    Larus thayeri, Thayer's Gull
    Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull
    Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull
    Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull
    Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull
    Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull
    Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull
    Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull
    Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy
    Anous minutus, Black Noddy
    Procelsterna cerulea, Blue-gray Noddy
    Gygis alba, White Tern
    Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern
    Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern
    Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern
    Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern
    Sternula albifrons, Little Tern
    Sternula antillarum, Least Tern
    Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern
    Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern
    Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern
    Chlidonias niger, Black Tern
    Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern
    Chlidonias hybridus, Whiskered Tern
    Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern
    Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern
    Sterna hirundo, Common Tern
    Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern
    Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern
    Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern
    Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern
    Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern
    Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern
    Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer
    Stercorarius skua, Great Skua
    Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua
    Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger
    Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger
    Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger
    Alle alle, Dovekie
    Uria aalge, Common Murre
    Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre
    Alca torda, Razorbill
    Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot
    Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot
    Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet
    Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet
    Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Xantus's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet
    Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet
    Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet
    Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet
    Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet
    Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet
    Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet
    Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet
    Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin
    Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin
    Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin
    Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon
    Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon
    Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon
    Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon
    Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon
    Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove
    Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove
    Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove
    Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove
    Columbina inca, Inca Dove
    Columbina passerina, Common Ground-Dove
    Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove
    Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove
    Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove
    Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove
    Gallicolumba xanthonura, White-throated Ground-Dove
    Gallicolumba stairi, Friendly Ground-Dove
    Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove
    Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove
    Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon
    Cuculus fugax, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo
    Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo
    Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo
    Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo
    Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo

[[Page 65860]]

    Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner
    Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani
    Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani
    Tyto alba, Barn Owl
    Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl
    Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl
    Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl
    Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl
    Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl
    Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl
    Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl
    Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl
    Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl
    Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl
    Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl
    Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl
    Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl
    Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl
    Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl
    Strix varia, Barred Owl
    Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl
    Asio otus, Long-eared Owl
    Asio stygius, Stygian Owl
    Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl
    Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl
    Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl
    Ninox scutulata, Brown Hawk-Owl
    Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk
    Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk
    Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk
    Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque
    Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill
    Caprimulgus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow
    Caprimulgus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar
    Caprimulgus vociferus, Eastern Whip-poor-will
    Caprimulgus arizonae, Mexican Whip-poor-will
    Caprimulgus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar
    Caprimulgus indicus, Gray Nightjar
    Cypseloides niger, Black Swift
    Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift
    Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift
    Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift
    Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift
    Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail
    Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet
    Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet
Subfamily APODINAE
    Apus apus, Common Swift
    Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift
    Apus melba, Alpine Swift
    Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift
    Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift
    Colibri thalassinus, Green Violetear
    Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango
    Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango
    Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango
    Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib
    Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib
    Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird
    Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald
    Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird
    Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird
    Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird
    Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird
    Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird
    Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird
    Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird
    Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird
    Eugenes fulgens, Magnificent Hummingbird
    Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat
    Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar
    Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird
    Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird
    Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird
    Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird
    Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird
    Stellula calliope, Calliope Hummingbird
    Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird
    Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird
    Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird
    Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird
    Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon
    Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzel
    Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe
    Todirhamphus cinnamominus, Micronesian Kingfisher
    Todirhamphus chloris, Collared Kingfisher
    Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher
    Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher
    Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher
Subfamily JYNGINAE
    Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck
Subfamily PICINAE
    Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker
    Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker
    Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker
    Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker
    Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker
    Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker
    Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker
    Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker
    Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker
    Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker
    Picoides scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker
    Picoides nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker
    Picoides pubescens, Downy Woodpecker
    Picoides villosus, Hairy Woodpecker
    Picoides arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker
    Picoides borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker

[[Page 65861]]

    Picoides albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker
    Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker
    Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker
    Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker
    Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker
    Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker
    Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker
    Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet
    Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia
    Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia
    Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Eleania
    Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher
    Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher
    Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee
    Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee
    Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee
    Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee
    Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee
    Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee
    Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
    Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher
    Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher
    Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher
    Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher
    Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher
    Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher
    Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher
    Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher
    Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher
    Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher
    Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe
    Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe
    Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe
    Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher
    Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher
    Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher
    Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher
    Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher
    Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee
    Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher
    Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher
    Legatus leucophalus, Piratic Flycatcher
    Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher
    Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher
    Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird
    Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird
    Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird
    Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird
    Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird
    Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird
    Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird
    Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird
    Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
    Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher
    Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard
    Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra
    Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike
    Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike
    Lanius excubitor, Northern Shrike
    Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo
    Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo
    Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo
    Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo
    Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo
    Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo
    Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo
    Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo
    Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo
    Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo
    Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo
    Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo
    Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo
    Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo
    Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo
    Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo
    Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo
    Perisoreus canadensis, Gray Jay
    Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay
    Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay
    Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay
    Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay
    Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay
    Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma californica, Western Scrub-Jay
    Aphelocoma ultramarina, Mexican Jay
    Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker
    Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie
    Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie
    Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow
    Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow
    Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow
    Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow
    Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow
    Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow
    Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow
    Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven
    Corvus corax, Common Raven
    Alauda arvensis, Sky Lark
    Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark
    Progne subis, Purple Martin
    Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin
    Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin
    Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin
    Progne elegans, Southern Martin
    Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin
    Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow
    Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow
    Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow
    Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow
    Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow
    Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow
    Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow
    Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow
    Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow
    Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin
    Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee
    Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee
    Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee
    Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee
    Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee
    Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee
    Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee
    Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse

[[Page 65862]]

    Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse
    Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse
    Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse
    Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse
    Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin
    Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit
Subfamily SITTINAE
    Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch
    Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch
    Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch
    Certhia americana, Brown Creeper
    Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren
    Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren
    Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren
    Thryothorus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren
    Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren
    Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren
    Troglodytes aedon, House Wren
    Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren
    Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren
    Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren
    Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren
    Polioptila caerulea, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher
    Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher
    Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper
    Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet
    Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet
    Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler
    Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler
    Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler
    Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas's Leaf-Warbler
    Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler
    Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler
    Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat
    Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit
    Acrocephalus luscinia, Nightingale Reed-Warbler
    Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird
    Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler
    Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler
    Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler
    Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher
    Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher
    Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher
    Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher
    Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher
    Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher
    Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher
    Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock-Thrush
    Luscinia sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin
    Luscinia calliope, Siberian Rubythroat
    Luscinia svecica, Bluethroat
    Luscinia cyane, Siberian Blue Robin
    Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail
    Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear
    Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat
    Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird
    Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird
    Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird
    Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire
    Myadestes myadestinus, Kamao
    Myadestes lanaiensis, Olomao
    Myadestes obscurus, Omao
    Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi
    Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush
    Catharus fuscescens, Veery
    Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush
    Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush
    Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush
    Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush
    Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush
    Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush
    Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush
    Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare
    Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush
    Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush
    Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin
    Turdus migratorius, American Robin
    Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush
    Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush
    Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush
    Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird
    Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird
    Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird
    Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird
    Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher
    Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher
    Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher
    Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher
    Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher
    Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher
    Toxostoma lecontei, Le Conte's Thrasher
    Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird
    Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher
    Sturnus philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling
    Sturnus cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling
    Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor
    Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail
    Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail
    Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail
    Motacilla alba, White Wagtail
    Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit
    Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit
    Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit
    Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit
    Anthus rubescens, American Pipit
    Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit
    Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing
    Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing
    Ptilogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher
    Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla
    Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler
    Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur
    Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur
    Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur
    Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown's Longspur
    Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting
    Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting
    Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler
    Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged

[[Page 65863]]

    Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler
    Oreothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler
    Oreothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler
    Oreothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler
    Oreothlypis virginiae, Virginia's Warbler
    Oreothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler
    Oreothlypis luciae, Lucy's Warbler
    Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler
    Parula americana, Northern Parula
    Parula pitiayumi, Tropical Parula
    Dendroica petechia, Yellow Warbler
    Dendroica pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler
    Dendroica magnolia, Magnolia Warbler
    Dendroica tigrina, Cape May Warbler
    Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler
    Dendroica coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler
    Dendroica nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler
    Dendroica chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler
    Dendroica virens, Black-throated Green Warbler
    Dendroica townsendi, Townsend's Warbler
    Dendroica occidentalis, Hermit Warbler
    Dendroica fusca, Blackburnian Warbler
    Dendroica dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler
    Dendroica graciae, Grace's Warbler
    Dendroica adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler
    Dendroica pinus, Pine Warbler
    Dendroica kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler
    Dendroica discolor, Prairie Warbler
    Dendroica palmarum, Palm Warbler
    Dendroica castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler
    Dendroica striata, Blackpoll Warbler
    Dendroica cerulea, Cerulean Warbler
    Dendroica angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler
    Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler
    Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart
    Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler
    Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler
    Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler
    Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird
    Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush
    Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush
    Oporornis formosus, Kentucky Warbler
    Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler
    Oporornis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler
    Oporornis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler
    Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat
    Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat
    Wilsonia citrina, Hooded Warbler
    Wilsonia pusilla, Wilson's Warbler
    Wilsonia canadensis, Canada Warbler
    Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler
    Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart
    Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart
    Euthlypis lachrymosa, Fan-tailed Warbler
    Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler
    Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler
    Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat
    Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager
    Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis
    Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis
    Sporophila torqueola, White-collared Seedeater
    Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit
    Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit
    Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch
    Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow
    Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee
    Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee
    Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee
    Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow
    Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee
    Melozone crissalis, California Towhee
    Melozone aberti, Abert's Towhee
    Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow
    Peucaea botterii, Botteri's Sparrow
    Peucaea cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow
    Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow
    Spizella arborea, American Tree Sparrow
    Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow
    Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow
    Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow
    Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow
    Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow
    Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow
    Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow
    Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow
    Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow
    Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow
    Amphispiza belli, Sage Sparrow
    Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting
    Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow
    Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow
    Ammodramus bairdii, Baird's Sparrow
    Ammodramus henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow
    Ammodramus leconteii, Le Conte's Sparrow
    Ammodramus nelsoni, Nelson's Sparrow
    Ammodramus caudacutus, Saltmarsh Sparrow
    Ammodramus maritimus, Seaside Sparrow
    Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow
    Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow
    Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow
    Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow
    Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow
    Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow
    Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow
    Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow
    Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco
    Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco
    Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting
    Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-browed Bunting
    Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting
    Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting
    Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting
    Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting
    Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting
    Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting
    Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting
    Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager
    Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager
    Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager
    Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager
    Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager
    Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak
    Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal
    Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia
    Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak
    Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak

[[Page 65864]]

    Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting
    Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak
    Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting
    Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting
    Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting
    Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting
    Spiza americana, Dickcissel
    Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink
    Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird
    Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird
    Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
    Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
    Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark
    Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird
    Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird
    Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird
    Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle
    Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle
    Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle
    Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird
    Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird
    Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird
    Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole
    Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole
    Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole
    Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole
    Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole
    Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole
    Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole
    Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole
    Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole
    Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole
    Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch
    Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling
    Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia
    Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch
    Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch
    Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak
    Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch
    Carpodacus purpureus, Purple Finch
    Carpodacus cassinii, Cassin's Finch
    Carpodacus mexicanus, House Finch
    Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill
    Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill
    Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll
    Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll
    Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin
    Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin
    Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch
    Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch
    Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch
    Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch
    Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak
    Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch
    Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch
    Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch
    Psittirostra psittacea, Ou
    Loxioides bailleui, Palila
    Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill
    Hemignathus virens, Hawaii Amakihi
    Hemignathus flavus, Oahu Amakihi
    Hemignathus kauaiensis, Kauai Amakihi
    Hemignathus ellisianus, Greater Akialoa
    Hemignathus lucidus, Nukupuu
    Hemignathus munroi, Akiapolaau
    Magumma parva, Anianiau
    Oreomystis bairdi, Akikiki
    Oreomystis mana, Hawaii Creeper
    Paroreomyza maculata, Oahu Alauahio
    Paroreomyza flammea, Kakawahie
    Paroreomyza montana, Maui Alauahio
    Loxops caeruleirostris, Akekee
    Loxops coccineus, Akepa
    Vestiaria coccinea, Iiwi
    Palmeria dolei, Akohekohe
    Himatione sanguinea, Apapane
    Melamprosops phaeosoma, Poo-uli


3. Revise the authority citation for part 21 to read as follows:

    Authority:  Pub. L. 65-186, 40 Stat. 755 (1918) (16 U.S.C. 703-
712), as amended.

Sec.  21.3  [Amended]

4. In Sec.  21.3, amend the definition of ``Raptor'' by adding the 
words ``the Order Accipitriformes,'' immediately before the words ``the 
Order Falconiformes'' and adding a comma after ``Falconiformes''.

    Dated: September 17, 2013.
Michael J. Bean,
Acting Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and 
[FR Doc. 2013-26061 Filed 10-31-13; 8:45 am]