[Federal Register Volume 79, Number 46 (Monday, March 10, 2014)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 13208-13216]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2014-05065]


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CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION

16 CFR Parts 1112 and 1227

[Docket No. CPSC-2013-0019]


Safety Standard for Carriages and Strollers

AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: The Danny Keysar Child Product Safety Notification Act, 
section 104 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 
(CPSIA), requires the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission 
(Commission or CPSC) to promulgate consumer product safety standards 
for durable infant or toddler products. These standards are to be 
``substantially the same as'' applicable voluntary standards or more 
stringent than the voluntary standards if the Commission concludes that 
more stringent requirements would further reduce the risk of injury 
associated with the products. The Commission is issuing a safety 
standard for carriages and strollers in response to the direction under 
Section 104(b) of the CPSIA.

DATES: The rule is effective on September 10, 2015. The incorporation 
by reference of the publication listed in this rule is approved by the 
Director of the Federal Register as of September 10, 2015.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mike Lee, Compliance Officer, Consumer 
Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814; 
telephone: 301-504-7737; email: mlee@cpsc.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

A. Background and Statutory Authority

    The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA, Pub. L. 
110-314) was enacted on August 14, 2008. Section 104(b) of the CPSIA, 
part of the Danny Keysar Child Product Safety Notification Act, 
requires the Commission to: (1) Examine and assess the effectiveness of 
voluntary consumer product safety standards for durable infant or 
toddler products, in consultation with representatives of consumer 
groups, juvenile product manufacturers, and independent child product 
engineers and experts; and (2) promulgate consumer product safety 
standards for durable infant and toddler products. These standards are 
to be ``substantially the same as'' applicable voluntary standards or 
more stringent than the voluntary standards if the Commission concludes 
that more stringent requirements would further reduce the risk of 
injury associated with the products.
    On May 20, 2013, the Commission issued a notice of proposed 
rulemaking (NPR) for carriages and strollers. 78 FR 29279. The NPR 
proposed to incorporate by reference the voluntary standard, ASTM 833-
13, ``Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Carriages 
and Strollers,'' with certain changes to provisions in the voluntary 
standard to strengthen the ASTM standard.
    In this document, the Commission is issuing a safety standard for 
carriages and strollers. As required by Section 104(b)(1)(A), the 
Commission consulted with manufacturers, retailers, trade 
organizations, laboratories, consumer advocacy groups, consultants, and 
members of the public in the development of this proposed standard, 
largely through the ASTM process. The rule incorporates by reference 
the most recent voluntary standard developed by ASTM International 
(formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials), ASTM F833-
13b, ``Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Carriages 
and Strollers'' (ASTM F833-13b), with a

[[Page 13209]]

modification to address head entrapment hazards associated with multi-
positional/adjustable grab bars.

B. Product Description

    The term ``durable infant or toddler product'' is defined in 
section 104(f)(1) of the CPSIA as a durable product intended for use, 
or that may be reasonably expected to be used, by children under the 
age of 5 years. ``Strollers'' are specifically identified in section 
104(f)(2)(I) of the CPSIA as a durable infant or toddler product. ASTM 
F833-13b defines a ``stroller'' as a wheeled vehicle to transport 
children usually from infancy to 36 months of age. Children are 
transported generally in a sitting-up or semi-reclined position. The 
motive power is supplied by a person while pushing on a handle attached 
to the stroller. Carriages, on the other hand, are wheeled vehicles to 
transport an infant, usually in a lying down position. Thus, the 
principal difference between strollers and carriages is the position of 
the occupant. Both carriages and strollers may be capable of being 
folded for storage.
    Umbrella strollers are lightweight, compact when folded, and may 
lack certain accessories, such as baskets underneath the seat, or cup 
holders for the caregiver. Strollers that fold in two dimensions, the 
height and length, are called ``2D'' strollers. Strollers that collapse 
in all three dimensions--height, length, and width--resulting in a 
smaller folded package than 2D strollers, are called ``3D'' strollers. 
Other types of strollers include travel systems that accommodate an 
infant car seat on a stroller. Strollers intended to be used at a 
jogging rate are called ``jogging strollers.'' Some products can be 
used as strollers and carriages (convertible carriages/strollers). 
Convertible carriages or strollers are intended to be converted by the 
owner to be used as a carriage or a stroller. Some strollers 
incorporate automatic or assisted folding and unfolding mechanisms. All 
of these carriages and strollers fall within the scope of ASTM F833-
13b.

C. Market Description

    The majority of carriages/strollers are produced and/or marketed by 
juvenile product manufacturers and distributors. Currently, there are 
85 known suppliers of carriages/strollers to the U.S. market. Thirty-
four are domestic manufacturers, 36 are domestic importers, and four 
are domestic firms with unknown supply sources. In addition, 10 foreign 
firms supply strollers to the U.S. market: Seven foreign manufacturers, 
one firm that imports products from foreign companies and distributes 
them from outside of the United States, one foreign retailer that ships 
directly to the United States, and one firm with an unknown supply 
source. There is an additional manufacturer whose size and location we 
could not determine.
    According to a 2005 survey conducted by the American Baby Group 
(2006 Baby Products Tracking Study), nearly all new mothers (99 
percent) own at least one stroller. Applying this information to 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) birth data indicates 
that nearly 4 million strollers are owned by new mothers. Approximately 
26 percent of those strollers were handed down or purchased secondhand, 
according to the 2006 Baby Products Tracking Study. Thus, about 74 
percent of strollers were acquired new, and approximately 3 million 
strollers are sold to households annually (.99 x .74 x 4 million births 
per year). Strollers can cost between $20 to $700, depending upon the 
type and brand of stroller. On average, umbrella strollers tend to be 
the least expensive (around $25-$50 for the least costly versions); and 
most other strollers cost around $150-$300, with many carriages, travel 
systems, and jogging stroller costs running in the $500-$700 range.

D. Incident Data

    The preamble to the NPR summarized the incident data reported to 
the Commission from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012, 
involving strollers. 78 FR 29281. In the NPR CPSC's Directorate for 
Epidemiology staff identified four stroller-related fatalities. In 
addition, 1,203 stroller-related nonfatal incidents, 359 of which 
resulted in injuries, were reported during that time period.
    The hazard patterns identified in the NPR included issues with 
wheels, parking brakes, lock mechanisms, restraints, hinges, structural 
integrity, stability/tip-over, clearance, car seat attachment, 
canopies, handlebars, seats, sharp points or edges, trays, and 
unspecified or miscellaneous problems. Since the NPR, 90 new incidents 
related to carriages and strollers were reported to the Commission 
between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013; these incidents reportedly 
occurred between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2013. There were no new 
fatal incidents reported. Out of the 90 new incidents, 32 stroller-
related, nonfatal injuries were reported. Thus, the total number of 
incidents reported from January 1, 2008 through June 30, 2013, 
increased to 1,297 incidents, including 4 fatalities, and 391 injuries.
    The hazard patterns identified among the 90 new incidents were 
similar to the ones identified in the NPR. Wheel problems accounted for 
25 of the 90 new incidents, which resulted in six injuries. Lock 
mechanical failures resulted in 11 incidents, causing five injuries. 
Ten incidents, resulting in three injuries, arose from stability 
issues. Restraints were associated with two injuries and eight 
noninjury incidents.
    Of the 90 new incidents, four incidents required hospitalization. 
Two incidents resulted in finger amputations, one that occurred when a 
child's finger got caught in the folding hinge; the second finger 
amputation occurred when a stroller collapsed. The third 
hospitalization involved a child unbuckling the restraints, attempting 
to leave the stroller, and getting caught on the extended rivet used to 
latch the folded stroller; this incident caused a laceration to the 
crotch area. The fourth hospitalization resulted from a stroller 
rolling off a train platform and falling onto the tracks with the child 
in the stroller, causing a cut on the child's forehead.
    The NPR also noted 78 reported stroller incidents that involved 
children older than 4 years of age and adults. Out of the 78 incidents, 
72 involved victims between 17 and 64 years of age. Almost all of the 
incidents (74 out of 78) resulted in injuries, mostly to the fingers. 
Six new incidents were reported from January 1, 2013 to June 30, 2013, 
for a total of 84 stroller incidents. Based on the narratives provided, 
all six new incidents involved children older than 4 years of age or 
adults, and the six incidents each resulted in finger injuries.

E. Overview of ASTM F833

    ASTM first published a consumer product safety standard for 
carriages and strollers in 1983. ASTM F833, ``Standard Consumer Safety 
Performance Specification for Carriages and Strollers,'' established 
safety performance requirements, test methods, and labeling 
requirements to minimize the hazards to children presented by carriages 
and strollers. ASTM F833 has been revised more than 20 times. The 
current standard, ASTM F833-13b, was approved on November 1, 2013.

1. Proposed Rule

    In the NPR, the Commission proposed to incorporate ASTM F833-13, 
which addressed many of the hazards patterns identified for strollers. 
Among other requirements, ASTM F833-13 provided:
     An improved test method for the parking brake requirement;
     a new requirement and test method to address head 
entrapment hazards

[[Page 13210]]

associated with car seats on a stroller (combination unit);
     a new requirement, test method, and warnings to address 
wheel and swivel assemblies' detachments;
     an improved test method for latching and locking 
mechanisms;
     a new requirement and test method to address the scenario 
of the child releasing the buckle of the restraint system and a 
clarification on the buckle closing system;
     a new requirement and test method to address pinching, 
shearing, and scissoring at the saddle hinge link on 3D fold strollers;
     a new requirement and test method to address pinching, 
shearing, and scissoring at the canopy hinges;
     an improved requirement and test method to address 
stability issues by taking into account multiple seats facing different 
directions, such as rotating seats;
     a new requirement and test method to address a 
strangulation hazard associated with cords and straps within the 
occupant space; and
     warning label clarifications.
    In the NPR, the Commission also proposed a performance requirement 
and test method to address scissoring, shearing, and pinching hazards 
associated with 2D fold strollers, which were already required for 3D 
fold strollers. The Commission noted that hinge issues caused the 
highest injury rate of any stroller hazard category (75 incidents, 
resulting in 72 injuries). Most of the hinge-related injuries resulted 
from scissoring, pinching, or shearing at the hinge link of 2D and 3D 
fold strollers. Most of the incidents occurred when a caregiver was 
unfolding the stroller for use and the child was climbing into the 
stroller. Reported injuries involved pinched, lacerated, or amputated 
fingers or arms, including one hospitalization for reattachment of a 
finger. For testing of the 2D fold stroller and convertible carriage/
strollers, the Commission proposed a test within an access zone based 
on the incident data and the anthropometric dimensions of a child 
occupant. The Commission also proposed a test method to test the frame 
folding action of a stroller while the stroller is moved from the 
completely folded to the completely erect position and from the 
partially folded position to the fully erect and locked position 
(travel distance calculation).

2. Current ASTM Standard for Carriages and Strollers (ASTM F833-13b)

    ASTM adopted the performance requirement and test method proposed 
by the Commission in a subsequent version of the ASTM standard, ASTM 
F833-13a, to address scissoring, shearing, and pinching hazards 
associated with 2D fold strollers. ASTM approved ASTM F833-13a on 
September 15, 2013. On November 1, 2013, ASTM approved the current 
version of the standard, ASTM F833-13b, which adopts the performance 
requirement and test method for 2D fold strollers, with a modification 
to the travel distance calculation to test for scissoring, shearing, 
and pinching.
    In this rule, the Commission incorporates by reference ASTM F833-
13b because the Commission's proposed modifications in the NPR have 
been adopted in ASTM F833-13b, including the requirements and test 
methods for 2D fold strollers to address hazards associated with 
scissoring, shearing, and pinching. Specifically, ASTM F833-13b 
provides a definition of a ``2D fold stroller'' as a stroller that 
folds the handlebars and leg tubes only in the front-to-back (or back-
to-front) direction. To address the 2D fold stroller hazards, ASTM 
F833-13b requires the frame folding action of a 2D fold stroller and 
convertible carriage/stroller to be designed and constructed to prevent 
injury from scissoring, shearing, or pinching. Scissoring, shearing, or 
pinching that may cause injury exists when the edges of the rigid parts 
admit a 0.210-in (5.33-mm) diameter probe but do not admit a 0.375-in 
(9.53-mm) diameter probe when tested. However, units with a removable 
seat that prevents the complete folding of unit when still attached are 
exempt from this requirement.
    ASTM F833-13b also provides a test method for 2D frame strollers to 
address folding scissoring, shearing, and pinching. In the NPR, the 
Commission proposed a test method for scissoring, shearing, and 
pinching hazards that may occur while moving the stroller from a 
completely folded and partially folded position to the fully erect and 
locked position. The test proposed in the NPR calculated the travel 
distance based on the distance between front and rear wheels in an open 
position and in a closed position. ASTM F833-13b modified the travel 
distance calculation for the test. The modified test shows the travel 
distance based on the distance between front and rear wheels only in an 
open position. ASTM's rationale for the test explains that products are 
evaluated for the last 1/3 of travel for a predefined access zone 
because the last 1/3 of travel is considered the most hazardous 
condition, where a seated child's hand may be vulnerable to scissoring, 
shearing, and pinching within the access zone while the caregiver is 
preoccupied with the final stages of erecting the stroller.
    CPSC staff compared both methods of the calculation, using various 
strollers, including strollers involved in incidents. Although in 
certain strollers the total amount of travel distance to be tested 
would be less than the travel distance proposed in the NPR, CPSC 
staff's review showed that the revised test method would be less 
burdensome and would provide an equal degree of safety as the travel 
distance calculation proposed in the NPR. According to CPSC staff, 
under the revised travel distance calculation, the most critical part 
of the frame folding associated with the incidents will be tested for 
scissoring, shearing, or pinching. Because the revised test is simpler 
to use, and because the reduction in travel distance does not make the 
test less effective, the Commission incorporates by reference ASTM 
F833-13b with the revised travel distance calculation.

F. Response to Comments

    The Commission received six comments from manufacturers, consumer 
advocacy groups, and trade associations in response to the NPR. A 
summary of each comment topic and response is provided. In general, all 
of the commenters support the mandatory standard for carriages and 
strollers.

1. 2D Fold Stroller Test

    Comment: One manufacturer recommended simplifying the test method 
that was included in the NPR, as outlined in section 7.18.2 for units 
where the front and rear wheels move toward each other during folding, 
to address scissoring, shearing, and pinching hazards for 2D frame fold 
strollers. The commenter proposed determining the starting point for 
the stroller test by beginning at 2/3 the distance between the front 
and rear wheel axles in an open position of the stroller. The commenter 
stated that the ASTM subcommittee was working to include this starting 
point definition in the next revision and requested that the Commission 
review and adopt the change to the test method once the requirement is 
approved by the ASTM subcommittee.
    Response: ASTM has revised the travel distance calculation in ASTM 
F833-13b. CPSC staff compared the travel distance calculation test 
proposed in the NPR and the modified test in ASTM F833-13b, using 
various strollers, including certain incident strollers. CPSC staff's 
review showed that the revised test is simpler, but the revised test 
will still test the most critical part of the frame folding

[[Page 13211]]

associated with the incidents. Accordingly, the Commission will adopt 
ASTM F833-13b with the revised travel distance calculation because the 
hazards identified by CPSC staff (scissoring, shearing, and pinching 
hazards in 2D fold strollers) will be addressed adequately by the test 
in ASTM F833-13b.

2. 2D Fold Stroller Access Zone

    Comment: A commenter suggested an exemption to the 2D fold stroller 
test procedure, if there is a cover over the hinge that is within the 
access zone; for example, a stroller hinge that has a cover over the 
top and sides of the hinge, but the bottom is left open to allow the 
frame members to rotate during folding. The only way to access the 
hinge would be to come up from underneath or behind through the rear of 
the stroller, which would not be possible if a child is sitting in the 
stroller or standing on the side of the stroller. According to the 
commenter, the ASTM subcommittee is currently reviewing an additional 
requirement to assess at what point a covering on a hinge is sufficient 
protection from the 2D frame fold pinch hazard. The commenter requested 
that the Commission review and adopt the additional requirement once 
the additional requirement is approved by the ASTM subcommittee.
    Response: As discussed in the preamble, ASTM 833-13b now addresses 
hazards associated with frame fold hinges for both 2D fold strollers 
and 3D fold strollers, regardless of the direction of entry, to reduce 
the risk of finger injury to a child who is sitting or is about to sit 
in a stroller. CPSC staff believes that there are many factors, 
including the size, shape, and material properties of the cover that 
may hinder the cover's effectiveness. Without more information about 
protective covers and how they would be used, the Commission will not 
provide an exemption for such covers without further review and 
testing. However, if ASTM subsequently publishes a standard to include 
a protective cover exemption, ASTM can notify the Commission of the 
revision, and the Commission would consider the revision at that time.

3. Combined Braking and Stability Test

    Comment: A commenter suggested that the Commission adopt the 
combined braking and stability test that Consumer Reports uses in its 
testing. The commenter stated that the test evaluates both brake 
efficacy and stability in various orientations on an incline of 
20[deg]--as opposed to 12[deg]. In addition, the commenter states that 
the brake standard should assess how easy it is to engage the brake, 
and reliably tell if the brake is engaged.
    Response: The parking brake requirements were improved 
significantly in the ASTM F833-13 version of the standard to 
approximate the force that is applied to the parking brake, if the 
12[deg] inclined plane was increased to 20[deg]. ASTM F833-13 also 
included an improved requirement and test method for multiple seats 
facing different directions, such as rotating seats, to address 
stability issues. These requirements are included in ASTM F833-13b. 
Therefore, the Commission finds that the requirements in ASTM F833-13b 
are adequate to address the hazards associated with parking brakes and 
stability issues and do not require additional requirements at this 
time.

4. Irregular Surface Test

    Comment: Two commenters suggested that the Commission adopt the 
Irregular Surface Test in EN 1888:2012. The commenters stated that the 
irregular surface test is a durability test that evaluates the 
strollers for the expected lifetime of the product.
    Response: ASTM F833-13 included improved parking brake, stability, 
wheel detachment, and locking mechanism requirements that address the 
hazards associated with the structural issues identified in the 
incident data. These requirements are included in ASTM F833-13b. CPSC 
staff's review of fatigue tests, such as the irregular surface test, 
indicates that such tests are time-consuming (and costly) and that 
tests with lower repetitions and higher weights/forces yield 
substantially similar results. Accordingly, the Commission will not 
require the irregular surface test at this time.

5. Passive Containment/Clearance

    Comment: One commenter recommended that the standard's passive 
containment/foot opening test method be augmented with a requirement 
that any adjustable part, such as an adjustable grab bar or a car seat 
adapter that remains in the stroller, be tested in all possible use 
positions.
    Response: The Commission agrees that the test for passive 
containment/foot opening should be improved. An adjustable (or multi-
positional) grab bar can adjust to suit the height of the child to 
increase comfort while holding the bar. However, adjustable grab bars 
may be left in an unsafe position, resulting in a potentially fatal 
head entrapment between the grab bar and the seat because the consumer 
may have difficulty discerning visually the difference between certain 
positions of the grab bar, such as the car seat position and the 
occupant-use position. CPSC staff is aware of earlier model year 
strollers that had adjustable grab bars, as described by the commenter. 
Of the four stroller-related fatalities from January 1, 2008 through 
December 31, 2012, one incident involved a 5-month-old infant whose 
head became entrapped between the seat and tray. Therefore, the 
Commission believes that the opening between the seat and the tray or 
the seat and grab bar could lead to a potentially fatal head entrapment 
hazard.
    Currently, the test method for passive containment/foot opening in 
ASTM F833-13b provides under 7.12 Passive Containment/Foot Opening Test 
Method the following steps: Secure the front wheels of the unit in 
their normal standing position so that the unit cannot move forward. 
Attach the tray(s) or grab bar(s) in the position that creates the 
bounded opening(s). Per the manufacturer's instructions, position any 
adjustable features (that is, calf supports, foot rests, etc.) that may 
affect the bounded opening(s) to create the minimum opening(s) size.
    If the head probe fails to pass completely through the bounded 
opening, the following steps are required: If necessary, reattach/
reposition tray(s) grab bar(s) to the manufacturer's recommended use 
position, then perform the torso probe test per 7.12.4. Per the 
manufacturer's instructions, position any adjustable features (that is, 
calf supports, foot rests, etc.) that may affect the bounded 
opening(s), to create the maximum opening(s) size.
    To prevent head entrapment hazards, the current test under ASTM 
F833-13b requires the trays or grab bar to be in the manufacturer-
recommended use position. This requirement specifies a minimum opening 
created by the grab bar or tray and foot rest. However, this test may 
not always capture a hazardous head entrapment opening between an 
adjustable grab bar and seat that could occur if the grab bar were 
improperly positioned. For example, a hazardous opening that is larger 
than the minimum opening may be created by the grab bar and foot rest 
configuration.
    Accordingly, the Commission revises the test method for passive 
containment/foot opening as follows: Secure the front wheels of the 
unit in their normal standing position so that the unit cannot move 
forward. Attach the tray(s) or grab bar(s) in the position that creates 
the bounded opening(s). Position any adjustable features (that is, grab 
bar, calf supports, foot rests, etc.) that may affect the bounded 
opening(s)

[[Page 13212]]

to create an opening(s) size that is most likely to cause failure.
    If the head probe fails to pass completely through the bounded 
opening, the following steps are required: If necessary, reattach/
reposition tray(s) grab bar(s), then perform the torso probe test per 
7.12.4. Position any adjustable features (that is, grab bar, calf 
supports, foot rests, etc.) that may affect the bounded opening(s), to 
create the opening(s) size that is most likely to cause failure.
    The revised wording: ``most likely to cause failure'' requires the 
tester to place the adjustable feature, such as a grab bar, if 
possible, in a position that creates a hazardous opening, thereby 
causing the stroller to fail, irrespective of the manufacturer's 
instructions or the manufacturer's use position. The test is based on 
an evaluation of the bounded opening(s) that is/are most likely to 
create an entrapment hazard and should address the potential for 
entrapment hazards for multi-positional or adjustable grab bars in 
strollers.
    The commenter also recommended that a car seat adapter that can 
remain in the stroller be tested for head entrapment. Currently, the 
Commission is not aware of a car seat adapter that is intended to 
remain installed in the stroller when the car seat is not used; and the 
Commission does not have any additional information or data to 
recommend additional requirements for car seat adapters at this time. 
However, this issue may be raised in an ASTM subcommittee meeting for 
further review and discussion.

6. Effective Date

    Comment: Several comments addressed the effective date of the 
proposed rule. One commenter supported the proposed 18-month effective 
date. A second commenter asked the Commission to take a careful look at 
how much time is needed to bring carriages and strollers into 
compliance and to make the new rule effective on the earliest 
practicable date. A third commenter suggested a 12-month effective 
date. The commenter stated that, given the extended length of time that 
it took for both the voluntary standard and the proposed rule to reach 
this point, consumers should not have to wait until late 2015 to see 
products that meet the standard.
    Response: In the NPR, the Commission noted that there were 
significant revisions to the ASTM standard in ASTM F833-13 requiring 
many modifications to carriages and strollers. Due to the complexity of 
stroller designs, and to allow time for manufacturers to come into 
compliance, the Commission proposed an 18-month effective date. The new 
performance requirements and test methods adopted in ASTM 833-13 and 
ASTM 833-13b are extensive and require manufacturers to make 
fundamental changes to carriages and strollers (i.e., latching 
mechanism, parking brakes, static load, restraining system, passive 
containment/foot openings, wheel and swivel assemblies, hinges, and 
stability/tip over.) Although these requirements were approved in ASTM 
833-13 in April, 2013, after the NPR was published, ASTM revised the 
standard, ASTM 833-13b, on November 1, 2013, to address the scissoring, 
shearing, and pinching hazards in 2D fold strollers. Now, in the final 
rule, the Commission requires an additional modification to address 
head entrapment issues. All of these requirements warrant additional 
time to allow manufacturers to come into full compliance with the 
mandatory standard. The Commission believes that 18 months is a 
reasonable amount of time for manufacturers who will need to redesign 
products, test new prototype products, and then retool their production 
processes to meet the considerable modifications that were made in ASTM 
F833-13 and ASTM F833-13b, plus the additional modification to the 
passive containment/foot opening test method in the final rule. 
Moreover, 18 months will reduce the impact on the firms that have 
product lines that largely or exclusively focus on strollers and 
stroller accessories. A longer effective date reduces the impact on 
firms in two ways. First, firms are less likely to experience a lapse 
in production, which could result if they are unable to comply within 
the required timeframe. Second, firms could spread costs over a longer 
time period. For these reasons, the standard for carriages and 
strollers will become effective 18 months after publication of the 
final rule.

7. Effective Date Marking

    Comment: Two commenters stated that products that are manufactured 
after the effective date of the rule should be marked clearly so that 
consumers can easily identify products that meet the mandatory 
standard.
    Response: A code mark or other means that identifies the date 
(month and year at a minimum) of manufacture is already required to be 
on the product under ASTM F833-13b. In addition, a final rule 
implementing sections 14(a)(2) and 14(i)(2) of the Consumer Product 
Safety Act (CPSA), as amended by the CPSIA, Testing and Labeling 
Pertaining to Product Certification, 16 CFR part 1107 (the 1107 rule), 
became effective on February 13, 2013. Under the 1107 rule, a 
manufacturer or importer may voluntarily label a certified compliant 
product: ``Meets CPSC Safety Requirements.'' At this time, the 
Commission will not require additional markings because ASTM F833-13b 
already requires the date of manufacture on each product and retail 
package, and producers may label compliant products as such under the 
1107 rule.

8. Restraining System/Harness

    Comment: One commenter suggested that the Commission require a 
five-point harness for all strollers and carriages for improved 
protection to ensure that the child does not move into an unsafe 
position on his own or due to the stroller being jarred. This commenter 
also suggested that the Commission look for feasible means of requiring 
an alert mechanism to indicate whether the harness restraint system is 
secured properly.
    Response: Although a five-point harness system may provide extra 
protection if a stroller tips over, CPSC staff's review of incident 
data did not demonstrate that such a system would result in a 
significant improvement in occupant safety beyond a three-point 
harness. Moreover, the recent changes to prevent stroller tip over that 
have been added to ASTM F833-13 and adopted in ASTM F833-13b, such as 
the new wheel-detachment requirements, should mitigate the likelihood 
of tip-over incidents. Accordingly, at this time, the Commission will 
not require a five-point harness in the standard. In addition, the 
Commission has insufficient information regarding whether an alert 
mechanism could be implemented without significantly raising the cost 
of a stroller, or whether such a system would be effective in reducing 
incidents involving restraints. However, this issue may be raised for 
further review and discussion in an ASTM subcommittee meeting.

9. Warnings

    Comment: To emphasize the risk of entrapment or suffocation to 
children falling asleep in strollers and other infant products not 
intended for overnight sleep (but where children often fall asleep), 
one commenter recommended changing the wording in section 8.2.2 of the 
standard, which currently states: ``Do not leave child unattended'' to 
state instead: ``Children have become entrapped or suffocated while 
sleeping in strollers. Never leave a sleeping child unattended. Move to 
a crib or safe sleep surface.''

[[Page 13213]]

    Response: The current wording advises the caregiver to attend to 
the child whether or not he/she is sleeping, thus providing a more 
generic warning. In most of the incidents where children were 
reportedly sleeping, the caregiver was also present. CPSC staff's 
review of the incident data shows that in one of the fatal incidents, a 
child was left sleeping in the stroller and was later found entrapped 
between the seat and tray. In another fatal incident, a child was left 
sleeping in the infant carrier that was attached to the stroller and 
found entrapped between the stroller handlebar and foot end of the car 
seat. The Commission reiterates that children should not be left 
unattended whether they are sleeping or not. However, the Commission 
believes that products in which children often fall asleep, such as 
strollers and hand-held carriers, could benefit from a harmonized and 
well-designed warning label on the product to educate consumers to take 
proper action. Accordingly, the Commission would support CPSC staff's 
participation in a cross-product ad hoc working group; and should the 
need arise, the Commission will consider future action, once such a 
warning label is developed.
    Comment: Another commenter recommended changing the current wording 
in section 8.2.2 of ASTM F833-13 from: ``The product shall have the 
following warning statements . . .'' to: ``The product shall have the 
following warning statements that address . . .'' to provide additional 
flexibility for manufacturers to alter warnings.
    Response: The warning statements in sections 8.2.2.2, 8.2.2.3, and 
8.2.2.4 already include a provision for manufacturers to insert their 
own words to describe their restraint system or product-specific 
instructions. The suggestion would only affect section 8.2.2.1, which 
includes the warning statement: ``Never leave child unattended.'' The 
commenter stated that a simple change in wording to: ``Never leave your 
child unattended'' would not be allowed under 8.2.2. The Commission 
does not believe that a change to the warnings is warranted, given that 
the requested word changes would not necessarily increase the 
effectiveness of the warning. However, this issue may be raised for 
further review and discussion in a future ASTM subcommittee meeting.

G. Final Rule

    The CPSC is incorporating by reference ASTM F833-13b because the 
Commission's proposed modifications in the NPR have been adopted in 
ASTM F833-13b, including requirements and test methods to address 
scissoring, shearing, and pinching hazards associated with 2D fold 
strollers. However, the Commission is requiring an additional 
modification to the passive containment/foot opening test method in 
ASTM F833-13b, to address head entrapment hazards associated with 
multi-positional/adjustable grab bars. Specifically, the test method 
for passive containment/foot opening is revised as follows:
    (a) 7.12.1 Secure the front wheels of the unit in their normal 
standing position so that the unit cannot move forward. Attach the 
tray(s) or grab bar(s) in the position that creates the bounded 
opening(s). Position any adjustable features (that is, grab bar, calf 
supports, foot rests, etc.) that may affect the bounded opening(s) to 
create an opening(s) size that is most likely to cause failure; and
    (b) 7.12.3 If necessary, reattach/reposition tray(s) grab bar(s), 
then perform the torso probe test per 7.12.4. Position any adjustable 
features (that is, grab bar, calf supports, foot rests, etc.) that may 
affect the bounded opening(s), to create the opening(s) size that is 
most likely to cause failure.

H. Effective Date

    The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) generally requires that the 
effective date of the rule be at least 30 days after publication of the 
final rule. 5 U.S.C. 553(d). The safety standard for carriages and 
strollers will become effective 18 months after publication of a final 
rule in the Federal Register.

I. Regulatory Flexibility Act

1. Introduction

    The Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), 5 U.S.C. 601-612, requires 
agencies to consider the impact of proposed and final rules on small 
entities, including small businesses. Section 604 of the RFA requires 
that the Commission prepare a final regulatory flexibility analysis 
when promulgating final rules, unless the head of the agency certifies 
that the rule will not have a significant impact on a substantial 
number of small entities. The final regulatory flexibility analysis 
must describe the impact of the proposed rule on small entities and 
identify any alternatives that may reduce the impact. Specifically, the 
final regulatory flexibility analysis must contain:
     A succinct statement of the objectives of, and legal basis 
for, the rule;
     a summary of the significant issues raised by public 
comments in response to the initial regulatory flexibility analysis, a 
summary of the assessment of the agency of such issues, and a statement 
of any changes made in the proposed rule as a result of such comments;
     a description of, and, where feasible, an estimate of, the 
number of small entities to which the rule will apply;
     a description of the projected reporting, recordkeeping, 
and other compliance requirements of the rule, including an estimate of 
the classes of small entities subject to the requirements and the type 
of professional skills necessary for the preparation of reports or 
records; and
     a description of the steps the agency has taken to reduce 
the significant economic impact on small entities, consistent with the 
stated objectives of applicable statutes, including a statement of the 
factual, policy, and legal reasons for selecting the alternative 
adopted in the rule, and why each one of the other significant 
alternatives to the rule considered by the agency, which affect the 
impact on small entities, was rejected.

2. Reason for Agency Action

    The Danny Keysar Child Product Safety Notification Act, section 104 
of the CPSIA, requires the CPSC to promulgate mandatory standards that 
are substantially the same as, or more stringent than, the voluntary 
standard for a durable infant or toddler product. CPSC staff worked 
closely with ASTM stakeholders to develop the new requirements and test 
procedures that have been incorporated into ASTM F833-13b, which 
together form the basis for the mandatory standard.

3. Other Federal Rules

    There are two federal rules that would impact the stroller 
mandatory standard: (1) Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product 
Certification (16 CFR part 1107); and (2) Requirements Pertaining to 
Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies (16 CFR part 1112).
    The testing and labeling rule (16 CFR part 1107) requires that 
manufacturers of children's products subject to product safety rules, 
certify, based on third party testing, that their children's products 
comply with all applicable safety rules. Because strollers will be 
subject to a mandatory rule, they will also be subject to the third 
party testing requirements when the stroller rule becomes effective.
    In addition, the 1107 rule requires the third party testing of 
children's products to be conducted by CPSC-accredited laboratories. 
Section 14(a)(2) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) requires the 
Commission to publish a

[[Page 13214]]

notice of requirements (NOR) for the accreditation of third party 
conformity assessment bodies (i.e., testing laboratories) to test for 
conformance with each children's product safety rule. These NORs are 
set forth in 16 CFR part 1112.

4. Impact on Small Business

    There are approximately 85 firms that currently supply carriages/
strollers in the United States. Under U.S. Small Business 
Administration (SBA) guidelines, a manufacturer of strollers is 
considered small if the manufacturer has 500 or fewer employees, and 
importers and wholesalers are considered small if they have 100 or 
fewer employees. Based on these guidelines, about 55 are small firms--
26 domestic manufacturers, 26 domestic importers, and three firms with 
unknown supply sources. There may be additional unknown small stroller 
suppliers operating in the U.S. market.
Small Manufacturers
    The expected impact of the final rule will differ based on whether 
a firm's strollers are already compliant with ASTM F833-11, the 
voluntary standard in effect prior to ASTM F833-13. In general, firms 
whose strollers meet the requirements of ASTM F833-11 are likely to 
continue to comply with the voluntary standard as new versions are 
published. Many of these firms are active in the ASTM standard 
development process, and compliance with the voluntary standard is part 
of an established business practice. Firms supplying strollers that 
comply with ASTM F833-11 likely would also comply with F833-13b before 
the final rule becomes effective.
    ASTM F833-13b requirements could require product redesign for at 
least some strollers that are not compliant with ASTM F833-11 (eight of 
26 small domestic manufacturers). Most of the redesign and retooling 
costs are associated with meeting the requirements of the standard. A 
redesign would be minor if most of the changes involve adding straps 
and fasteners or using different mesh or fabric. However, a redesign 
could be more significant if changes to the frame are required. Due to 
the complexity of carriages and strollers, a complete redesign of these 
products, including engineering time, prototype development, tooling, 
and other incidental costs, could exceed $1 million for the most 
complex stroller models. Industry sources, including the Juvenile 
Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA) note that new tooling alone 
could exceed $300,000 per product model. However, costs and development 
time are likely to vary widely across firms. Companies with substantial 
experience in manufacturing strollers should be able to complete 
redesigns more cost effectively than firms with less experience. 
Additionally, firms with numerous stroller models may experience lower 
costs because stroller models could be redesigned as a group.
    The modification to the passive containment/foot opening test 
method may or may not have any impact on small manufacturers because 
CPSC staff could not identify any strollers on the U.S. market that 
have adjustable grab bars. Therefore, the direct impact on 
manufacturers whose products are expected to meet the requirements of 
ASTM F833-13b (18 of 26 small domestic manufacturers) is not expected 
to be significant, although it is possible that there are unknown 
stroller suppliers with products that might be affected.
    The 18-month effective date may mitigate the impact on small 
manufacturers because such firms are less likely to experience a lapse 
in production, which could result if these firms are unable to comply 
within the required timeframe, and costs may be spread over a longer 
period.
    In addition, there are indirect impacts. Once the new requirements 
become effective, all manufacturers will be subject to the additional 
costs associated with third party testing and certification 
requirements triggered by the final rule. Those additional third party 
testing costs will pertain to any physical and mechanical test 
requirements specified in the stroller final rule; lead and phthalates 
testing is already required. Third party testing costs could as much as 
$800-$1,000 per model sample.
    On average, each small domestic manufacturer supplies seven 
different models of strollers to the U.S. market annually. Therefore, 
if third party testing were conducted every year on a single sample for 
each model, third party testing costs for each manufacturer would be 
about $5,600-$7,000 annually. Based on a review of firm revenues, the 
impact of third party testing to ASTM F833-13b is unlikely to be 
significant if only one stroller sample per model is required. However, 
the economic impact could be significant for some small firms, if as 
few as two or three samples per model are required to meet the testing 
requirements.
Small Importers
    In the absence of regulation, small importers of strollers 
currently in compliance with F833-11 (13 of 26 small domestic 
importers) would likely continue to comply with the standard as it 
evolves, including the final mandatory standard. Any increase in 
production costs experienced by their suppliers may be passed on to 
them. However, these costs are not likely to be significant, given that 
CPSC staff could not identify any strollers on the U.S. market that 
have adjustable grab bars requiring modification.
    Small importers of strollers would need to find an alternate source 
if their existing supplier does not come into compliance with the 
requirements of ASTM F833-13b. Thirteen importers of strollers 
currently may not be in compliance with ASTM F833-11. Some importers 
may discontinue the carriage/stroller product line altogether. The 
impact of such a decision could be mitigated by replacing the 
noncompliant stroller with a compliant stroller or by deciding to 
import an alternative product. However, some of these firms have few or 
no other products in their product line. Because many of these firms 
have low sales revenues and limited product lines apart from strollers 
and stroller accessories, it is possible that the final rule could have 
a significant impact on one or more importers. The 18-month effective 
date may mitigate the impact because such firms are less likely to 
experience a lapse in obtaining compliant strollers, which could result 
if they are unable to comply within the required timeframe; and costs 
may be spread over a longer time period.
    All importers are also subject to third party testing and 
certification requirements. Consequently, importers will experience 
costs similar to those for manufacturers, if their supplying foreign 
firm(s) does not perform third party testing. The resulting costs could 
have a significant impact on a few small importers who must perform the 
testing themselves, even if only one sample per model were required.

5. Alternatives

    One alternative that could reduce the impact on small entities 
would be to make the voluntary standard mandatory, with no further 
modifications. However, given that CPSC staff could not identify any 
strollers on the U.S. market that currently would be impacted by the 
modification to the passive containment/foot opening test method, this 
reduction may be insignificant. In addition, incorporating the 
voluntary standard without modifications would not substantially 
benefit firms with noncompliant products because their strollers might 
still require redesign.

[[Page 13215]]

The 18-month effective date may mitigate the impact because suppliers 
will have additional time to modify and/or develop compliant strollers 
and spread the associated costs over a longer period of time. However, 
the Commission could opt to set a later effective date, which may 
reduce further the impact on affected firms. A third alternative would 
be to set an earlier effective date. However, setting an earlier 
effective date could increase the impact of the rule on small entities, 
particularly those with limited product lines and low sales revenues.

J. Environmental Considerations

    The Commission's regulations address whether we are required to 
prepare an environmental assessment or an environmental impact 
statement. These regulations provide a categorical exclusion for 
certain CPSC actions that normally have ``little or no potential for 
affecting the human environment.'' Among those actions are rules or 
safety standards for consumer products. 16 CFR 1021.5(c)(1). The rule 
falls within the categorical exclusion.

K. Paperwork Reduction Act

    This rule contains information collection requirements that are 
subject to public comment and review by the Office of Management and 
Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-
3521). The preamble to the proposed rule (77 FR 29286) discussed the 
information collection burden of the proposed rule and specifically 
requested comments on the accuracy of our estimates. Sections 8 and 9 
of ASTM F833-13b contain requirements for marking, labeling, and 
instructional literature. These requirements fall within the definition 
of ``collection of information,'' as defined in 44 U.S.C. 3502(3).
    OMB has assigned control number 3041-0164 to this information 
collection. The Commission did not receive any comments regarding the 
information collection burden of this proposal. However, the final rule 
makes modifications regarding the information collection burden because 
the number of estimated manufacturers subject to the information 
collection burden is now estimated at 85 manufacturers rather than the 
86 manufacturers initially estimated in the proposed rule due to firms 
entering and exiting the U.S. stroller market. Additionally, the 
average number of stroller models supplied by all of the firms has 
increased from six to eight models.
    Accordingly, the estimated burden of this collection of information 
is modified, as follows:

                                                       Table 1--Estimated Annual Reporting Burden
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                        Number of       Frequency of     Total annual      Hours per       Total burden
                           16 CFR Section                              respondents       responses        responses         response          hours
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1227...............................................................              85                8              680                1              680
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

L. Preemption

    Section 26(a) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2075(a), provides that where a 
consumer product safety standard is in effect and applies to a product, 
no state or political subdivision of a state may either establish or 
continue in effect a requirement dealing with the same risk of injury 
unless the state requirement is identical to the federal standard. 
Section 26(c) of the CPSA also provides that states or political 
subdivisions of states may apply to the Commission for an exemption 
from this preemption under certain circumstances. Section 104(b) of the 
CPSIA refers to the rules to be issued under that section as ``consumer 
product safety rules,'' thus, implying that the preemptive effect of 
section 26(a) of the CPSA would apply. Therefore, a rule issued under 
section 104 of the CPSIA will invoke the preemptive effect of section 
26(a) of the CPSA when it becomes effective.

M. Certification and Notice of Requirements (NOR)

    Section 14(a) of the CPSA imposes the requirement that products 
subject to a consumer product safety rule under the CPSA, or to a 
similar rule, ban, standard or regulation under any other Act enforced 
by the Commission, must be certified as complying with all applicable 
CPSC-enforced requirements. 15 U.S.C. 2063(a). Section 14(a)(2) of the 
CPSA requires that certification of children's products subject to a 
children's product safety rule be based on testing conducted by a CPSC-
accepted third party conformity assessment body. Section 14(a)(3) of 
the CPSA requires the Commission to publish a NOR for the accreditation 
of third party conformity assessment bodies (or laboratories) to assess 
conformity with a children's product safety rule to which a children's 
product is subject. The ``Safety Standard for Carriages and 
Strollers,'' to be codified at 16 CFR part 1227, is a children's 
product safety rule that requires the issuance of an NOR.
    The Commission published a final rule, Requirements Pertaining to 
Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies, 78 FR 15836 (March 12, 2013), 
which is codified at 16 CFR part 1112 (referred to here as part 1112). 
This rule became effective on June 10, 2013. Part 1112 establishes 
requirements for accreditation of third party conformity assessment 
bodies (or laboratories) to test for conformance with a children's 
product safety rule in accordance with Section 14(a)(2) of the CPSA. 
Part 1112 also codifies a list of all of the NORs that the CPSC had 
published at the time part 1112 was issued. All NORs issued after the 
Commission published part 1112, such as the standard for carriages and 
strollers, require the Commission to amend part 1112. Accordingly, this 
rule amends part 1112 to include the standard for carriages and 
strollers in the list with the other children's product safety rules 
for which the CPSC has issued NORs.
    Laboratories applying for acceptance as a CPSC-accepted third party 
conformity assessment body to test to the new standard for carriages 
and strollers would be required to meet the third party conformity 
assessment body accreditation requirements in 16 CFR part 1112, 
Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies. 
When a laboratory meets the requirements as a CPSC-accepted third party 
conformity assessment body, the laboratory can apply to the CPSC to 
have 16 CFR part 1227, Safety Standard for Carriages and Strollers, 
included in its scope of accreditation of CPSC safety rules listed for 
the laboratory on the CPSC Web site at: www.cpsc.gov/labsearch.
    CPSC staff conducted an analysis of the potential impacts on small 
entities of the proposed rule establishing accreditation requirements, 
as required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and the agency prepared 
an Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (IRFA). Requirements 
Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies. 77 FR 31086, 
31123-26. Specifically, the NOR for the standard for carriages and 
strollers would not have a significant adverse impact on small 
laboratories.

[[Page 13216]]

Based upon the number of laboratories in the United States that have 
applied for CPSC acceptance of the accreditation to test for 
conformance to other juvenile product standards, we expect that only a 
few laboratories will seek CPSC acceptance of their accreditation to 
test for conformance with the standard for carriages and strollers. 
Most of these laboratories already will have been accredited to test 
for conformance to other juvenile product standards, and the only cost 
to them would be the cost of adding the standard for carriages and 
strollers to their scope of accreditation. As a consequence, the 
Commission certifies that the NOR for the standard for carriages and 
strollers will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of 
small entities.

List of Subjects

16 CFR Part 1112

    Administrative practice and procedure, Audit, Consumer protection, 
Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Third party conformity 
assessment body.

16 CFR Part 1227

    Consumer protection, Imports, Incorporation by reference, Infants 
and children, Labeling, Law enforcement, and Toys.

    For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Commission amends 
Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations as follows:

PART 1112--REQUIREMENTS PERTAINING TO THIRD PARTY CONFORMITY 
ASSESSMENT BODIES

0
1. The authority citation for part 1112 continues to read as follows:

    Authority:  15 U.S.C. 2063; Pub. L. 110-314, section 3, 122 
Stat. 3016, 3017 (2008).

0
2. Amend Sec.  1112.15 by adding paragraph (b)(36) to read as follows:


Sec.  1112.15  When can a third party conformity assessment body apply 
for CPSC acceptance for a particular CPSC rule and/or test method?

* * * * *
    (b)(36) 16 CFR part 1227, Safety Standard for Carriages and 
Strollers.
* * * * *

0
3. Add part 1227 to read as follows:

PART 1227--SAFETY STANDARD FOR CARRIAGES AND STROLLERS

Sec.
1227.1 Scope.
1227.2 Requirements for carriages and strollers.


    Authority:  The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, 
Pub. L. 110-314, Sec.  104, 122 Stat. 3016 (August 14, 2008); Pub. 
L. 112-28, 125 Stat. 273 (August 12, 2011).


Sec.  1227.1  Scope.

    This part establishes a consumer product safety standard for 
carriages and strollers.


Sec.  1227.2  Requirements for carriages and strollers.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each 
carriage and stroller must comply with all applicable provisions of 
ASTM F833-13b, Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for 
Carriages and Strollers, approved on November 1, 2013. The Director of 
the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference in 
accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a 
copy from ASTM International, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, P.O. Box 0700, West 
Conshohocken, PA 19428; http://www.astm.org/cpsc.htm. You may inspect a 
copy at the Office of the Secretary, U.S. Consumer Product Safety 
Commission, Room 820, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814, 
telephone 301-504-7923, or at the National Archives and Records 
Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this 
material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal regulations/ibr_locations.html.
    (b) Comply with ASTM F833-13b standard with the following changes:
    (1) Instead of complying with section 7.12.1 of ASTM F833-13b, 
comply with the following:
    (i) 7.12.1 Secure the front wheels of the unit in their normal 
standing position so that the unit cannot move forward. Attach the 
tray(s) or grab bar(s) in the position that creates the bounded 
opening(s). Position any adjustable features (that is, grab bar, calf 
supports, foot rests, etc.) that may affect the bounded opening(s) to 
create an opening(s) size that is most likely to cause failure.
    (ii) [Reserved]
    (2) Instead of complying with section 7.12.3 of ASTM F833-13b, 
comply with the following:
    (i) 7.12.3 If necessary, reattach/reposition tray(s) grab bar(s), 
then perform the torso probe test per 7.12.4. Position any adjustable 
features (that is, grab bar, calf supports, foot rests, etc.) that may 
affect the bounded opening(s), to create the opening(s) size that is 
most likely to cause failure.
    (ii) [Reserved]

    Dated: March 5, 2014.
Todd A. Stevenson,
Secretary, Consumer Product Safety Commission.
[FR Doc. 2014-05065 Filed 3-7-14; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6355-01-P