[Federal Register Volume 79, Number 131 (Wednesday, July 9, 2014)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 38811-38840]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2014-15889]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[EPA-HQ-OAR-2013-0748; FRL-9906-56-OAR]
RIN 2060-AS04


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for 
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning and Revision of the Venting 
Prohibition for Certain Refrigerant Substitutes

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking.

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SUMMARY: Pursuant to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 
Significant New Alternatives Policy program, this action proposes to 
list a number of flammable refrigerants as acceptable substitutes, 
subject to use conditions, for ozone-depleting substances in several 
end-uses: Household refrigerators and freezers, stand-alone commercial 
refrigerators and freezers, very low temperature refrigeration, non-
mechanical heat transfer, vending machines, and room air conditioning 
units. This action also proposes to exempt from Clean Air Act Section 
608's prohibition on venting, release, or disposal the hydrocarbon 
refrigerant substitutes that we are proposing to list in this action as 
acceptable subject to use conditions in specific end-uses. We are 
proposing this exemption on the basis of current evidence that their 
venting, release, or disposal would not pose a threat to the 
environment.

DATES: Comments must be received on or before September 8, 2014. Any 
party requesting a public hearing must notify the contact listed below 
under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT by 5 p.m. eastern daylight time 
on July 24, 2014. If a hearing is held, it will take place on or about 
August 8, 2014 in Washington, DC and further information will be 
provided on EPA's Stratospheric Ozone Web site at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-
OAR-2013-0748, by one of the following methods:
     www.regulations.gov. Follow the on-line instructions for 
submitting comments.
     Email: A-And-R-Docket@epa.gov.
     Mail: Air and Radiation Docket, Environmental Protection 
Agency, Mail Code 6102T, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 
20460, Attention Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2013-0748.
     Hand Delivery: EPA Docket Center, (EPA/DC) EPA West, Room 
3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC, Attention Docket ID 
No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2013-0748. Such deliveries are only accepted during the 
Docket's normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be 
made for deliveries of boxed information.
    Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-
2013-0748. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included 
in the public docket without change and may be made available online at 
www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided, 
unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential 
Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is 
restricted by statute. Do not submit information that you consider to 
be CBI or otherwise protected through www.regulations.gov or email. The 
www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which 
means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you 
provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an email comment 
directly to EPA without going through www.regulations.gov, your email 
address will be automatically captured and included as part of the 
comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the 
Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you 
include your name and other contact information in the body of your 
comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your 
comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for 
clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic 
files should avoid the use of special characters and any form of 
encryption, and should be free of any defects or viruses. For 
additional instructions on submitting comments, go to Section I.B. of 
the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document.
    Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the 
www.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index, some 
information is not publicly available, i.e., CBI or other information 
whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such 
as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be 
publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket 
materials are available either electronically in www.regulations.gov or 
in hard copy at the Air and Radiation Docket, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 
3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC. The Public Reading 
Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, 
excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading 
Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the Air and 
Radiation Docket is (202) 566-1742.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard, Stratospheric 
Protection Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Mail Code 6205J, 
Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., 
Washington, DC 20460; telephone number (202) 343-9163; fax number (202) 
343-2338, email address: sheppard.margaret@epa.gov. Notices and 
rulemakings under EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) 
program are available on EPA's Stratospheric Ozone Web site at 
www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/regs.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

Table of Contents

I. General Information
    A. Background
    B. Does this action apply to me?
    C. What should I consider as I prepare my comments for EPA?
    D. What acronyms and abbreviations are used in the preamble?
II. How does the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program 
work?
    A. What are the statutory requirements and authority for the 
SNAP program?
    B. What is EPA's regulation implementing section 612?
    C. How do the regulations for the SNAP program work?
    D. Where do I find additional information about the SNAP 
program?
III. What substitutes in what end-uses are considered in this 
proposed rule?

[[Page 38812]]

    A. What listing decisions is EPA proposing in this action?
    B. What are ethane, isobutane, propane, HFC-32, R-441A, and the 
ASHRAE classifications for refrigerant flammability?
    C. What end-uses are included in EPA's proposed decision?
IV. What criteria did EPA consider in determining whether to propose 
to list the substitutes as acceptable and in determining appropriate 
use conditions and how does EPA consider those criteria?
    A. Effects on the Environment
    B. Flammability and Fire Safety
    C. Toxicity
V. Why is EPA proposing these specific use conditions?
    A. New Equipment Only; Not Intended for Use as a Retrofit 
Alternative
    B. Standards
    C. Charge Size
    D. Color-Coded Hoses and Piping
    E. Labeling
    F. Other Options Not Included
VI. How is EPA proposing to address venting, release, or disposal of 
the refrigerant substitutes proposed to be listed under section 608 
of the Clean Air Act?
    A. What are the statutory requirements concerning venting, 
release, or disposal of refrigerants and refrigerant substitutes 
under section 608 of the Clean Air Act?
    B. What are EPA's regulations concerning venting, releasing or 
disposing of refrigerant substitutes?
    C. What revision to the venting prohibition has EPA recently 
issued?
    D. What is EPA's proposed determination regarding whether 
venting of hydrocarbons to be listed as acceptable subject to use 
conditions in the end-uses proposed in this NPRM poses a threat to 
the environment?
    E. What is EPA proposing regarding venting, release, or disposal 
of refrigerant substitutes, other than hydrocarbons, included in our 
proposed decision?
VII. What recommendations does EPA have for safe use of the proposed 
flammable substitute refrigerants?
VIII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews
    A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review and 
Executive Order 13563: Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review
    B. Paperwork Reduction Act
    C. Regulatory Flexibility Act
    D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
    E. Executive Order 13132: Federalism
    F. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination with 
Indian Tribal Governments
    G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From 
Environmental Health and Safety Risks
    H. Executive Order 13211: Actions That Significantly Affect 
Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use
    I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act
    J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address 
Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income 
Populations
IX. References

I. General Information

A. Background

    This rule lists as acceptable subject to use conditions a number of 
flammable refrigerant substitutes that EPA believes present overall 
lower risk to human health and the environment compared to other 
available or potentially available alternatives in the same end-uses. 
The proposed refrigerants include one hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 
refrigerant--HFC-32--and four hydrocarbon refrigerants--ethane, 
isobutane, propane, and R-441A. This proposed rule, if finalized as 
proposed, would list one or more of these substitutes as acceptable 
subject to use conditions in a number of stationary air conditioning 
(AC) and refrigeration end-uses under the SNAP program, including: 
household refrigerators and freezers, retail food refrigeration, very 
low temperature refrigeration, non-mechanical heat transfer, vending 
machines, and residential and light commercial AC and heat pumps. The 
use conditions would set requirements to ensure that these substitutes 
do not present significantly greater risk in the end-use than other 
substitutes that are currently or potentially available.
    All of the end-uses proposed in this rule are for stationary 
refrigeration or AC; EPA previously addressed flammable refrigerants in 
motor vehicle air conditioning (MVAC). On June 13, 1995, at 60 FR 
31092, the Agency found all flammable substitutes to be unacceptable 
for use in MVAC unless specifically listed as acceptable subject to use 
conditions because of flammability risks and the lack of sufficient 
risk assessment and sufficient information to demonstrate safe use in 
that end-use at that time. 40 CFR Part 82, Subpart G, Appendix B. Some 
of these risks are unique to motor vehicles. In recent years, EPA has 
listed three low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants as 
acceptable subject to use conditions for motor vehicles (i.e., R-152a, 
R-1234yf, and R-744).\1\
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    \1\ Two of these refrigerants are flammable, although less 
flammable than hydrocarbons. Under 40 CFR part 82, Subpart G, 
Appendix B, all other flammable substitutes remain unacceptable for 
use in MVAC because EPA has not taken action to specifically list 
them as acceptable subject to use conditions.
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    This proposed rule responds to a number of SNAP submissions for 
four hydrocarbon refrigerants and HFC-32 and also lists some of these 
refrigerants as acceptable subject to use conditions in the same end-
uses. Additionally, this action proposes to exempt from Section 608's 
prohibition on venting, release, or disposal, the four hydrocarbon 
refrigerant substitutes that we are proposing to list as acceptable 
subject to use conditions in specific end-uses, on the basis of current 
evidence that their venting, release, or disposal does not pose a 
threat to the environment. Note that other environmental regulatory 
requirements still apply. For example, for those refrigerants that are 
volatile organic compounds (VOC) as defined in 40 CFR 50.100(s), i.e., 
isobutane, propane, and R-441A,\2\ a State might adopt additional 
control strategies if necessary for an ozone nonattainment area to 
attain the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone.
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    \2\ Both ethane and HFC-32 are not VOC under the definition at 
40 CFR 51.100(s).
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    With the exception of HFC-32, the refrigerants proposed acceptable 
subject to use conditions in this action are hydrocarbons or blends 
consisting solely of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon refrigerants have been 
in use for over 15 years in countries such as Germany, the United 
Kingdom, Australia, and Japan in household and commercial refrigerators 
and freezers. To a lesser extent, hydrocarbon refrigerants have also 
been used internationally in small AC units such as mini-splits and 
portable room air conditioners.
    Because hydrocarbon refrigerants have zero ozone depletion 
potential (ODP) and very low GWPs compared to most other refrigerants, 
many companies recently have expressed interest in using hydrocarbons 
in the United States. Also, some companies have reported improved 
energy efficiency with hydrocarbon refrigerants (A.S. Trust & Holdings, 
2012; A/S Vestfrost, 2012; CHEAA, 2013).
    In a final rule in the Federal Register on December 20, 2011 at 76 
FR 78832, EPA's SNAP program listed isobutane and R-441A as acceptable 
subject to use conditions in household refrigerators, freezers, and 
combination refrigerators and freezers and found propane acceptable 
subject to use conditions in retail food refrigerators and freezers 
(stand-alone units only). In this action, EPA is considering isobutane, 
propane, and R-441A for different end-uses.
    There is interest in use of HFC-32 (difluoromethane, Chemical 
Abstracts Service Registry Number [CAS Reg. No.] 75-10-5) in 
residential AC systems and heat pumps because it has a GWP of 675, 
which is lower than the GWPs of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-22 
(1,810) and most other HFC-based refrigerants (approximately 1,500 to 
4,000). It also has mild flammability compared to hydrocarbon 
refrigerants. Mini-split systems using HFC-32 are

[[Page 38813]]

now being sold in Japan and are being introduced in India and 
Indonesia.
    This action proposes to list one or more of these five lower-GWP 
refrigerant substitute options as acceptable subject to use conditions 
in the end-uses identified previously. This is a regular update to 
EPA's lists of acceptable substitutes through the SNAP program under 
the authority of Section 612 of the Clean Air Act.
    This action also responds to a call in the Climate Action Plan 
announced June 2013 for EPA to ``use its authority through the 
Significant New Alternatives Policy Program to encourage private sector 
investment in low-emissions technology by identifying and approving 
climate-friendly chemicals'' (Climate Action Plan, 2013). This rule 
proposes to approve a number of climate-friendly alternatives for 
various kinds of refrigeration and AC equipment, as discussed below. 
This is the first listing action EPA has taken since the Climate Action 
Plan was issued.
    This action, if finalized, would expand the menu of available 
climate-friendly alternatives. Many of these alternatives can 
substitute both for ozone-depleting substances and for high-GWP HFCs. 
Using low-GWP alternatives instead of high-GWP HFCs would reduce 
climate-damaging emissions. Use and emissions of HFCs is rapidly 
increasing because they are the primary substitutes for ozone-depleting 
substances in many of the largest end-uses, and because use is growing 
worldwide, mostly as a result of increased demand for refrigeration and 
AC, particularly in developing countries. Although they represent a 
small fraction of current total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, their 
warming impact is hundreds to thousands of times higher than that of 
CO2 and other GHGs and their emissions are projected to 
increase significantly over the next several decades, if left 
unregulated. In the United States, emissions of HFCs are expected to 
double from current levels of 1.5 percent of greenhouse gas emissions 
to 3 percent by 2020 and nearly triple by 2030.\3\
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    \3\ Climate Change and President Obama's Action Plan. June, 
2013. Available online at www.whitehouse.gov/share/climate-action-plan
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    HFCs are rapidly accumulating in the atmosphere. For example, the 
atmospheric concentration of HFC-134a, the most abundant HFC, has 
increased by about 10% per year from 2006 to 2012, and concentrations 
of HFC-143a and HFC-125 have risen over 13% and 16% per year from 2007-
2011, respectively (Montzka, 2012; NOAA, 2013).
    This action proposes to find acceptable, for specific end-uses and 
subject to use conditions, several alternatives that have GWPs 
significantly lower than both the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and 
HFC substitute refrigerants currently used in those end-uses. For 
example, this action, if finalized, would allow the use of isobutane 
(R-600a) and the hydrocarbon blend R-441A in stand-alone commercial 
refrigerators. The GWPs \4\ of these hydrocarbon refrigerants are less 
than 10, while HFCs typically used in this end-use--HFC-134a and R-404A 
(a blend of three HFCs)--have GWPs of 1,430 and approximately 3,920, 
respectively. In addition, this action proposes to find propane (R-290) 
acceptable for use in household refrigerator-freezers, subject to use 
conditions. The GWP of R-290 is 3.3 compared to the GWP of 1430 for 
HFC-134a, which is typically used in such equipment at present in the 
U.S. Finally, this action, if finalized, would allow for the use of 
propane, R-441A, and difluoromethane (HFC-32) in stand-alone room air 
conditioners. These alternatives have GWPs of 675 or less and could 
replace the use of R-410A (a blend of two HFCs), which has a GWP of 
approximately 2,090. ODS replaced in the end-uses in this rule include 
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12 (ODP \5\ of 1 and GWP of 10,900), R-13B1 
(also known as bromotrifluoromethane or halon 1301, with ODP of 10 and 
GWP of 7,140), CFC-113 (ODP of 0.8 and GWP of 6,130), R-502 (a blend of 
CFC-115 and HCFC-22, with ODP of 0.334 and GWP of 4,660), and HCFC-22 
(ODP of 0.055 and GWP of 1,810).
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    \4\ GWPs for HFC-134a, HFC-32, the component HFCs comprising R-
404A and R-410A, propane and ethane are listed in IPCC, 2007: 
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of 
Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the 
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. 
Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller 
(eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and 
New York, NY, USA. This document is accessible at www.ipcc.ch/
publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/contents.html. GWPs for isobutane 
and R-441A were provided by the submitters to EPA and they are 
consistent with available information for their components and the 
range of GWPs found for other hydrocarbons in IPCC, 2007. For 
refrigerant blends, EPA has taken the 100-year integrated time 
horizon GWP from IPCC, 2007 for the component compounds and 
multiplied them by the weight fraction of each component in the 
blend to obtain an approximate GWP. Unless otherwise stated, GWPs 
stated in this document are 100-year integrated time horizon values 
taken from IPCC, 2007.
    \5\ Unless otherwise stated, the ODP values used in this 
document are those published in appendices A and B to subpart A of 
40 CFR part 82. For refrigerant blends, EPA has taken the ODPs for 
the component compounds and multiplied them by the weight fraction 
of each component in the blend to obtain an approximate ODP.
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B. Does this action apply to me?

    This notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) would list the following 
flammable refrigerants as acceptable subject to use conditions for use 
in specific end-uses within the refrigeration and AC sector: ethane (R-
170), HFC-32 (R-32), isobutane (R-600a), propane (R-290), and the 
hydrocarbon blend R-441A. Types of residential and light commercial AC 
equipment addressed in this NPRM include window AC units; packaged 
terminal AC units and heat pumps; and portable room AC units. Types of 
refrigeration equipment include stand-alone commercial refrigerators 
and freezers (retail food refrigeration), very low temperature 
freezers, thermosiphons (non-mechanical transfer equipment), household 
refrigerators and freezers, and vending machines.
    Table 1 identifies the potential entities that may wish to use 
ethane, HFC-32, R-441A, isobutane, propane, and other flammable 
refrigerants in these end-uses.

  Table 1--Potentially Regulated Entities by North American Industrial
             Classification System (NAICS) Code or Subsector
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                             NAICS code  or    Description of regulated
         Category               subsector              entities
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Industry..................            325412  Pharmaceutical
                                               Preparations (e.g.,
                                               Capsules, Liniments,
                                               Ointments, Tablets)
                                               Manufacturing.
Industry..................            333415  Manufacturers of
                                               Refrigerators, Freezers,
                                               and Other Refrigerating
                                               or Freezing Equipment,
                                               Electric or Other; Heat
                                               Pumps Not Elsewhere
                                               Specified or Included
                                               (NESOI); and Parts
                                               Thereof.
Industry..................            443111  Appliance Stores:
                                               Household-type.
Industry..................            445120  Convenience Stores.

[[Page 38814]]

 
Industry..................            445110  Supermarkets and Other
                                               Grocery (except
                                               Convenience) Stores.
Industry..................            722211  Limited-Service
                                               Restaurants.
Industry..................            238220  Plumbing, Heating, and Air
                                               Conditioning Contractors.
Industry..................            811412  Appliance Repair and
                                               Maintenance.
Industry..................            423620  Household Appliances,
                                               Electric Housewares, and
                                               Consumer Electronics
                                               Merchant Wholesalers.
Industry..................            423740  Refrigeration Equipment
                                               and Supplies Merchant
                                               Wholesalers.
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    This table is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather a guide 
regarding entities likely to adopt the substitutes whose use would be 
regulated by this proposed action. If you have any questions about 
whether this action applies to a particular entity, consult the person 
listed in the preceding section, FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.

C. What should I consider as I prepare my comments for EPA?

1. Submitting Confidential Business Information (CBI)
    Do not submit confidential information to EPA through 
www.regulations.gov or email. Clearly mark the part or all of the 
information that you claim to be CBI. For CBI information in a disk or 
CD-ROM that you mail to EPA, mark the outside of the disk or CD-ROM as 
CBI and then identify electronically within the disk or CD-ROM the 
specific information that is claimed as CBI. In addition to one 
complete version of the comment that includes information claimed as 
CBI, a copy of the comment that does not contain the information 
claimed as CBI must be submitted for inclusion in the public docket. 
Information marked as CBI will not be disclosed except in accordance 
with procedures set forth in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 
2.
2. Tips for Preparing Your Comments
    When submitting comments, remember to:
     Identify the rulemaking by docket number and other 
identifying information (subject heading, Federal Register date, and 
page number).
     Follow directions. The agency may ask you to respond to 
specific questions or organize comments by referencing a CFR part or 
section number.
     Explain why you agree or disagree; suggest alternatives 
and substitute language for your requested changes.
     Describe any assumptions and provide any technical 
information and/or data that you used.
     If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain how 
you arrived at your estimate in sufficient detail to allow for it to be 
reproduced.
     Provide specific examples to illustrate your concerns, and 
suggest alternatives.
     Explain your views as clearly as possible, avoiding the 
use of profanity or personal threats.
     Make sure to submit your comments by the comment period 
deadline identified.

D. What acronyms and abbreviations are used in the preamble?

    Below is a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in this 
preamble.

AC--air conditioning
ACGIH--American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ACH--air changes per hour
AEGL--acute exposure guideline level
AHRI--Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute
ANSI--American National Standards Institute
ASHRAE--American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-
Conditioning Engineers
BTU--British thermal unit
CAA--Clean Air Act
CAS Reg. No.--Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Identification 
Number
CBI--Confidential Business Information
CFC--chlorofluorocarbon
CFR--Code of Federal Regulations
CMAQ--Community Multiscale Air Quality
DOE--the United States Department of Energy
EO--Executive Order
EPA--the United States Environmental Protection Agency
FR--Federal Register
GHG--greenhouse gas
GWP--global warming potential
HCFC--hydrochlorofluorocarbon
HFC--hydrofluorocarbon
ICF--ICF International, Inc.
ICR--Information Collection Request
IEC--International Electrotechnical Commission
IPCC--Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPR--industrial process refrigeration
kJ--kilojoule
kPa--kilopascal
lb--pound
LFL--lower flammability limit
MSDS--Material Safety Data Sheet
MVAC--motor vehicle air conditioning
NAAQS--National Ambient Air Quality Standard
NAICS--North American Industrial Classification System
NIOSH--the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety 
and Health
NOAEL--No Observed Adverse Effect Level
NPRM--Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
NTTAA--National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act
OEM--original equipment manufacturer
ODP--ozone depletion potential
ODS--ozone-depleting substance
OHA--Office of Hearing and Appeals
OMB--the United States Office of Management and Budget
OSHA--the United States Occupational Safety and Health 
Administration
PEL--permissible exposure limit
PFC--perfluorocarbon
PMS--Pantone Matching System
ppb--parts per billion
ppm--parts per million
PRA--Paperwork Reduction Act
PTAC--packaged terminal air conditioner
PTHP--packaged terminal heat pump
REL--recommended exposure limit
RFA--Regulatory Flexibility Act
SBA--the United States Small Business Administration
SNAP--Significant New Alternatives Policy
STEL--short term exposure limit
TLV--threshold limit value
TSCA--Toxic Substances Control Act
TWA--time-weighted average
UL--Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
UMRA--Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
VOC--volatile organic compounds

II. How does the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program 
work?

A. What are the statutory requirements and authority for the SNAP 
Program?

    Section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to develop a 
program for evaluating alternatives to ODS. EPA refers to this program 
as the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program. The major 
provisions of section 612 are the following:
1. Rulemaking
    Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate rules making it unlawful 
to replace any class I substance (chlorofluorocarbon, halon, carbon 
tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class 
II

[[Page 38815]]

substance (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) with any substitute that the 
Administrator determines may present adverse effects to human health or 
the environment where the Administrator has identified an alternative 
that (1) reduces the overall risk to human health and the environment 
and (2) is currently or potentially available.
2. Listing of Unacceptable/Acceptable Substitutes
    Section 612(c) requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes 
unacceptable for specific uses and to publish a corresponding list of 
acceptable alternatives for specific uses. The list of acceptable 
substitutes may be found at www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists, and the lists 
of ``unacceptable,'' ``acceptable subject to use conditions,'' and 
``acceptable subject to narrowed use limits'' substitutes are found in 
the appendices to Subpart G of 40 CFR part 82 as well as at 
www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/lists.
3. Petition Process
    Section 612(d) grants the right to any person to petition EPA to 
add a substance to, or delete a substance from, the lists published in 
accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 90 days to grant or deny 
a petition. Where the Agency grants the petition, EPA must publish the 
revised lists within an additional six months.
4. 90-Day Notification
    Section 612(e) directs EPA to require any person who produces a 
chemical substitute for a class I substance to notify the Agency not 
less than 90 days before new or existing chemicals are introduced into 
interstate commerce for significant new uses as substitutes for a class 
I substance. The producer must also provide the Agency with the 
producer's unpublished health and safety studies on such substitutes.
5. Outreach
    Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator shall seek to 
maximize the use of federal research facilities and resources to assist 
users of class I and II substances in identifying and developing 
alternatives to the use of such substances in key commercial 
applications.
6. Clearinghouse
    Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to set up a public 
clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product substitutes, and 
alternative manufacturing processes that are available for products and 
manufacturing processes which use class I and II substances.

B. What is EPA's regulation implementing section 612?

    On March 18, 1994, EPA published the original rulemaking (59 FR 
13044) which established the process for administering the SNAP program 
and issued EPA's first lists identifying acceptable and unacceptable 
substitutes in the major industrial use sectors (Subpart G of 40 CFR 
Part 82). These eight sectors--refrigeration and air conditioning; foam 
blowing; cleaning solvents; fire suppression and explosion protection; 
sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and inks; and tobacco 
expansion--are the principal industrial sectors that historically 
consumed the largest volumes of ODS.
    Section 612 of the CAA instructs EPA to list as acceptable those 
substitutes that present a lower overall risk to human health and the 
environment as compared with other substitutes that are currently or 
potentially available for a specific use.

C. How do the regulations for the SNAP program work?

    Under the SNAP regulations, anyone who plans to market or produce a 
substitute in one of the eight major industrial use sectors where class 
I or class II substances have been used must provide notice to the 
Agency, including health and safety information on the substitute, at 
least 90 days before introducing it into interstate commerce for 
significant new use as an alternative. 40 CFR 82.176(a). This 
requirement applies to the persons planning to introduce the substitute 
into interstate commerce,\6\ who typically are chemical manufacturers 
but may include importers, formulators, equipment manufacturers, and 
end users when they are responsible for introducing a substitute into 
commerce.\7\ The CAA and the SNAP regulations, 40 CFR 82.174(a), 
prohibit use of a substitute earlier than 90 days after notice has been 
provided to the Agency. EPA considers that notice has been received 
once EPA receives the submission and determines that the submission 
includes complete and adequate data. 40 CFR 82.180(a). At that point, 
the SNAP review begins.
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    \6\ As defined at 40 CFR 82.104, ``interstate commerce'' means 
the distribution or transportation of any product between one state, 
territory, possession or the District of Columbia, and another 
state, territory, possession or the District of Columbia, or the 
sale, use or manufacture of any product in more than one state, 
territory, possession or District of Columbia. The entry points for 
which a product is introduced into interstate commerce are the 
release of a product from the facility in which the product was 
manufactured, the entry into a warehouse from which the domestic 
manufacturer releases the product for sale or distribution, and at 
the site of United States Customs clearance.
    \7\ As defined at 40 CFR 82.172, ``end-use'' means processes or 
classes of specific applications within major industrial sectors 
where a substitute is used to replace an ODS.
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    The Agency has identified four possible decision categories for 
substitutes that are submitted for evaluation: acceptable; acceptable 
subject to use conditions; acceptable subject to narrowed use limits; 
and unacceptable \8\ (40 CFR 82.180(b)). Use conditions and narrowed 
use limits are both considered ``use restrictions'' and are explained 
below. Substitutes that are deemed acceptable with no use restrictions 
(no use conditions or narrowed use limits) can be used for all 
applications in the relevant end-uses within the sector. Substitutes 
that are acceptable subject to use restrictions may be used only in 
accordance with those restrictions.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \8\ The SNAP regulations also include ``pending,'' referring to 
submissions for which EPA has not reached a determination under this 
provision.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    After reviewing a substitute, the Agency may make a determination 
that a substitute is acceptable only if certain conditions are met in 
the way that the substitute is used to minimize risks to human health 
and the environment. EPA describes such substitutes as ``acceptable 
subject to use conditions.'' Entities that use these substitutes 
without meeting the associated use conditions are in violation of 
section 612 of the CAA and EPA's SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c).
    For some substitutes, the Agency may permit a narrowed range of use 
within an end-use or sector. For example, the Agency may limit the use 
of a substitute to certain end-uses or specific applications within an 
industry sector. EPA describes these substitutes as ``acceptable 
subject to narrowed use limits.'' A person using a substitute that is 
acceptable subject to narrowed use limits in applications and end-uses 
that are not consistent with the narrowed use limit is using the 
substitute in an unacceptable manner and is in violation of section 612 
of the CAA and EPA's SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c).
    The Agency publishes its SNAP program decisions in the Federal 
Register (FR). EPA publishes proposed decisions concerning substitutes 
that are deemed acceptable subject to use restrictions (use conditions 
and/or narrowed use limits), or substitutes deemed unacceptable, as 
proposed rulemakings to provide the public providing an opportunity to 
comment, before publishing final decisions.

[[Page 38816]]

    In contrast, EPA publishes decisions concerning substitutes that 
are deemed acceptable with no restrictions as ``notices of 
acceptability'' or ``determinations of acceptability,'' rather than as 
proposed and final rules. As described in the preamble to the rule 
initially implementing the SNAP program in the Federal Register at 59 
FR 13044 on March 18, 1994, EPA does not believe that rulemaking 
procedures are necessary to list alternatives that are acceptable 
without restrictions because such listings neither impose any sanction 
nor prevent anyone from using a substitute.
    Many SNAP listings include ``Comments'' or ``Further Information'' 
to provide additional information on substitutes. Since this additional 
information is not part of the regulatory decision, these statements 
are not binding for use of the substitute under the SNAP program. 
However, regulatory requirements so listed are binding under other 
regulatory programs (e.g., worker protection regulations promulgated by 
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). The 
``Further Information'' identified in the listing does not necessarily 
include all other legal obligations pertaining to the use of the 
substitute. While the items listed are not legally binding under the 
SNAP program, EPA encourages users of substitutes to apply all 
statements in the ``Further Information'' column in their use of these 
substitutes. In many instances, the information simply refers to sound 
operating practices that have already been identified in existing 
industry and/or building codes or standards. Thus many of the 
statements, if adopted, would not require the affected user to make 
significant changes in existing operating practices.

D. Where do I find additional information about the SNAP program?

    For copies of the comprehensive SNAP lists of substitutes or 
additional information on SNAP, refer to EPA's Ozone Depletion Web site 
at: www.epa.gov/ozone/snap. For more information on the Agency's 
process for administering the SNAP program or criteria for evaluation 
of substitutes, refer to the SNAP final rulemaking in the Federal 
Register at 59 FR 13044 on March 18, 1994, codified at 40 CFR Part 82, 
Subpart G. A complete chronology of SNAP decisions and the appropriate 
citations is found at: www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/chron.html.

III. What substitutes in what end-uses are considered in this proposed 
rule?

A. What listing decisions is EPA proposing in this action?

    In this action, EPA proposes to list the following refrigerants as 
acceptable substitutes, subject to use conditions, in the identified 
end-uses.
    1. Retail food refrigeration. EPA proposes to list isobutane (also 
referred to as R-600a) and the hydrocarbon blend R-441A as acceptable 
subject to use conditions as substitutes in retail food refrigeration 
(new stand-alone commercial refrigerators and freezers only). EPA 
proposes the following use conditions:
    i. The quantity of the substitute refrigerant (i.e., ``charge 
size'') must not exceed 150 grams (5.29 ounces);
    ii. These refrigerants may be used only in new equipment designed 
specifically and clearly identified for the refrigerant--i.e., none of 
these substitutes may be used as a conversion or ``retrofit'' \9\ 
refrigerant for existing equipment;
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \9\ Sometimes conversion refrigerant substitutes are 
inaccurately referred to as ``drop in'' replacements.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    iii. These refrigerants may be used only in stand-alone commercial 
refrigerators and freezers that meet all requirements listed in 
Supplement SB to the 10th edition of Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 
Standard 471, dated November 24, 2010. In cases where the proposed rule 
includes requirements more stringent than those of the 10th edition of 
UL Standard 471, the appliance must meet the requirements of the rule, 
as finalized;
    iv. The refrigerator or freezer must have red Pantone Matching 
System (PMS) 185 marked pipes, hoses, or other devices through 
which the refrigerant passes, to indicate the use of a flammable 
refrigerant. This color must be applied at all service ports and other 
parts of the system where service puncturing or other actions creating 
an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be 
expected and must extend a minimum of one (1) inch in both directions 
from such locations;
    v. The following markings, or the equivalent, must be provided and 
must be permanent:
    (a) ``DANGER--Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant 
Used. Do Not Use Mechanical Devices To Defrost Refrigerator. Do Not 
Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.'' This marking must be provided on or near 
any evaporators that can be contacted by the consumer.
    (b) ``DANGER--Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant 
Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture 
Refrigerant Tubing.'' This marking must be located near the machine 
compartment.
    (c) ``CAUTION--Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant 
Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service 
This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.'' This marking 
must be located near the machine compartment.
    (d) ``CAUTION--Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In 
Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant 
Used.'' This marking must be provided on the exterior of the 
refrigeration equipment.
    (e) ``CAUTION--Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of 
Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable 
Refrigerant Used.'' This marking must be provided near all exposed 
refrigerant tubing.
    With regard to the proposed use conditions, we note the following. 
First, regarding the use of red marking for pipes, hoses and other 
devices in proposed use condition iv., we discuss and solicit comment 
on direct color application on the applicable parts of the system, such 
as a red plastic sleeve, in Section V.D, ``Color-coded hoses and 
piping.'' Discussion of application of red coloring for equipment 
utilizing a process tube is also provided there. Second, regarding 
proposed use condition v., the difference between this proposed 
requirement and clauses SB6.1.2 to SB6.1.5 of UL Standard 471 is that 
all of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm (\1/4\ 
inch) high. In UL 471, the markings are required to be no less than 3.2 
mm (\1/8\ inch) high.
    2. Very low temperature refrigeration and non-mechanical heat 
transfer. EPA proposes to list ethane (also referred to as R-170), as 
acceptable, subject to use conditions, in very low temperature 
refrigeration equipment and in non-mechanical heat transfer, subject to 
the same use conditions as described above for isobutane and R-441A in 
stand-alone commercial refrigerators and freezers.
    3. Household refrigerators and freezers. EPA proposes to list 
propane (also referred to as R-290), as acceptable subject to use 
conditions as a substitute in household refrigerators and freezers and 
combination refrigerator/freezers subject to the following use 
conditions.
    i. The charge size for any household refrigerator, freezer, or 
combination refrigerator and freezer for each circuit using R-290 must 
not exceed 57 grams (2.01 ounces);

[[Page 38817]]

    ii. This refrigerant may be used only in new equipment specifically 
designed and clearly identified for the refrigerant--i.e., none of 
these substitutes may be used as a conversion or ``retrofit'' 
refrigerant for existing equipment;
    iii. This substitute may be used only in equipment that meets all 
requirements in Supplement SA to the 10th edition of UL Standard 250, 
dated August 25, 2000. (In cases where the proposed rule includes 
requirements more stringent than those of the 10th edition of UL 
Standard 250, the appliance must meet the requirements of the final 
SNAP listing);
    iv. The refrigerator or freezer must have red Pantone Matching 
System (PMS) 185 marked pipes, hoses, and other devices 
through which the refrigerant passes to indicate the use of a flammable 
refrigerant;
    v. Permanent markings must be provided on the equipment, as 
described above for stand-alone commercial refrigerators and freezers. 
All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm (\1/4\ 
inch) high. (The difference between this requirement and clauses 
SA6.2.1 to SA6.2.5 of UL Standard 250 is that in UL 250, the markings 
are required to be no less than 3.2 mm [\1/8\ inch] high instead of 6.4 
mm [\1/4\ inch]).
    4. Vending machines. EPA proposes to list R-441A, isobutane and 
propane as acceptable substitutes in vending machines, subject to the 
same use conditions described above for stand-alone commercial 
refrigerators and freezers, except that paragraph iii. would read as 
follows:
    Equipment must meet all requirements of Supplement SA to the 7th 
edition of UL Standard 541, ``Refrigerated Vending Machines,'' dated 
December 30, 2011 (instead of the 10th edition of UL 471).
    Note that in UL 541, the relevant references on equipment markings 
for flammable refrigerants in Supplement A are sections SA 6.1.2-SA 
6.1.5.
    5. Residential and light commercial AC and heat pumps. EPA proposes 
to list propane (also known as R-290), difluoromethane (also known as 
HFC-32 or R-32), and R-441A as acceptable subject to use conditions as 
substitutes in residential and light commercial AC for self-contained 
room air conditioners, including packaged terminal air conditioners 
(PTACs) and packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs), window AC units, and 
portable AC units designed for use in a single room.\10\ EPA proposes 
the following use conditions:
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    \10\ Packaged terminal air conditioners are intended for use in 
a single room and use no ducts to carry cooled air and no external 
refrigerant lines. Typical applications include motel or dormitory 
air conditioners.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    i. These refrigerants may be used only in new equipment designed 
specifically and clearly identified for the refrigerant--i.e., none of 
these substitutes may be used as a conversion or ``retrofit'' 
refrigerant for existing equipment;
    ii. These refrigerants may be used only in air conditioners that 
meet all requirements listed in Supplement SA to the 8th edition, dated 
August 2, 2012, of Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 484, ``Room 
Air Conditioners.'' If this rule is finalized as proposed, in cases 
where the final rule would include requirements more stringent than 
those of the 8th edition of UL Standard 484, the appliance would need 
to meet the requirements of the final rule in place of the requirements 
in the UL Standard;
    iii. UL 484 includes charge limits for room air conditioners and 
adherence to those charge limits would normally be confirmed by the 
installer. In addition to proposing the charge limits in the UL 484 
standard as a requirement, EPA is proposing the following charge size 
limits adherence to which must be confirmed by the original equipment 
manufacturer (OEM). In cases where the charge size limit listed is 
different from those determined by UL 484, the smaller of the two 
charge sizes would apply. For a review of how these charge size limits 
were derived, see ``Derivation of Charge Limits for Room Air 
Conditioners,'' EPA, 2014 in the docket. The charge size limit must be 
determined based on the type of equipment, the alternative refrigerant 
used, and the normal rated capacity of the unit. The proposed limits 
are presented in Tables 3 through 6 below in section V.C, ``Charge 
size,'' and in Tables A, B, C and D of the regulatory text at the end 
of this document.
    iv. The air conditioner must have red Pantone Matching System (PMS) 
185 marked pipes, hoses, or other devices through which the 
refrigerant passes to indicate the use of a flammable refrigerant. This 
color must be applied at all service ports and other parts of the 
system where service puncturing or other actions creating an opening 
from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected and 
must extend a minimum of one (1) inch in both directions from such 
locations;
    v. The following markings, or the equivalent, must be provided and 
must be permanent:
    (a) On the outside of the air conditioner: ``DANGER--Risk of Fire 
or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By 
Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.''
    (b) On the outside of the air conditioner: ``CAUTION--Risk of Fire 
or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local 
Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used.''
    (c) On the inside of the air conditioner near the compressor: 
``CAUTION--Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. 
Consult Repair Manual/Owner's Guide Before Attempting To Service This 
Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed.''
    (d) For portable air conditioners, packaged terminal air 
conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, on the outside of the 
product: ``WARNING: Appliance shall be installed, operated and stored 
in a room with a floor area larger than ``X'' m\2\ (Y ft\2\).'' The 
value ``X'' must be determined using the minimum room size in m\2\ 
calculated using Appendix F of UL 484. The evaporator must remain no 
higher than 0.6 m above the floor.
    (e) For window air conditioners, on the outside of the product: 
``WARNING: Appliance shall be installed, operated and stored in a room 
with a floor area larger than ``X'' m\2\ (Y ft\2\).'' The value ``X'' 
must be determined using the minimum room size in m\2\ calculated using 
Appendix F of UL 484. The evaporator must remain no higher than 1.06 m 
above the floor.
    All of these markings must be in letters no less than 6.4 mm (\1/4\ 
inch) high. (The difference between this requirement and clauses 
SA6.2.1 to SA6.2.5 of UL Standard 484 is that in UL 484, the markings 
are required to be no less than 3.2 mm [\1/8\ inch] high instead of 6.4 
mm [\1/4\ inch]).
    The regulatory text of our proposed decisions appears in tables at 
the end of this document. If finalized as proposed, this text would be 
codified at 40 CFR Part 82 Subpart G. The proposed regulatory text 
contains listing decisions for the end-uses discussed above. We note 
that there may be other legal obligations pertaining to the 
manufacture, use, handling, and disposal of hydrocarbons that are not 
included in the information listed in the tables (e.g., section 608 
prohibition on venting, releasing, or disposing of refrigerant 
substitutes or Department of Transportation requirements for transport 
of flammable gases).

[[Page 38818]]

    In summary, EPA is proposing to list ethane, isobutane, propane, 
HFC-32, and R-441A as acceptable subject to use conditions as 
substitute refrigerants in certain refrigeration and AC end-uses. If 
this proposal were to become final, it would be legal to use those 
refrigerants in the specified types of equipment under the conditions 
identified above. Use in the specified types of equipment that is not 
consistent with the use conditions, as finalized, would be a violation 
of CAA section 612 and EPA's implementing regulations. Both the 
equipment manufacturers and the end users should be familiar with these 
proposed use conditions and EPA would expect them to comply with any 
final use conditions.

B. What are ethane, isobutane, propane, HFC-32, R-441A, and the ASHRAE 
classifications for refrigerant flammability?

    Ethane, isobutane, and propane are hydrocarbons and R-441A is a 
hydrocarbon blend. Hydrocarbons are highly flammable organic compounds 
made up of hydrogen and carbon. Ethane has two carbons and a chemical 
formula of C2H6. Propane has three carbons and 
the formula C3H8. Isobutane has four carbons and 
the formula C4H10, also written as 
CH(CH3)2CH3 to distinguish it from n-
butane. The respective Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers (CAS 
Reg. Nos.) of ethane, propane, and isobutane are 74-84-0, 74-98-6, and 
75-28-5. As refrigerants, ethane, propane, and isobutane can be 
referred to by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air 
Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) designations R-170, R-290 and R-600a, 
respectively.
    R-441A, also known by the trade name ``HCR-188C,'' is a highly 
flammable hydrocarbon blend consisting of 55% propane, 36% n-butane, 6% 
isobutane, and 3% ethane by weight. HFC-32 is a mildly flammable 
organic compound made up of hydrogen, carbon, and fluorine with the 
chemical formula CF2H2 (CAS Reg. No. 75-10-5).
    The American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASHRAE Standard 
34-2010 assigns a safety group classification for each refrigerant 
which consists of two alphanumeric characters (e.g., A2 or B1). The 
capital letter indicates the toxicity and the numeral denotes the 
flammability. ASHRAE classifies Class A refrigerants as refrigerants 
for which toxicity has not been identified at concentrations less than 
or equal to 400 parts per million (ppm) by volume, based on data used 
to determine threshold limit value-time-weighted average (TLV-TWA) or 
consistent indices. Class B signifies refrigerants for which there is 
evidence of toxicity at concentrations below 400 ppm by volume, based 
on data used to determine TLV-TWA or consistent indices. The 
refrigerants are also assigned a flammability classification of 1, 2, 
or 3. Tests are conducted in accordance with ASTM E681 using a spark 
ignition source at 60 [deg]C and 101.3 kPa (ASHRAE, 2010). Figure 1 in 
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-2007 uses the same safety group but limits its 
concentration to 3400 ppm.
    The flammability classification ``1'' is given to refrigerants 
that, when tested, show no flame propagation. The flammability 
classification ``2'' is given to refrigerants that, when tested, 
exhibit flame propagation, have a heat of combustion less than 19,000 
kJ/kg (8,174 BTU/lb), and have a lower flammability limit (LFL) greater 
than 0.10 kg/m\3\. Refrigerants within flammability classification 2 
may optionally be designated in the lower flammability subclass ``2L'' 
if they have a maximum burning velocity of 10 cm/s or lower when tested 
at 23.0 [deg]C and 101.3 kPa. The flammability classification ``3'' is 
given to refrigerants that, when tested, exhibit flame propagation and 
that either have a heat of combustion of 19,000 kJ/kg (8,174 BTU/lb) or 
greater or an LFL of 0.10 kg/m\3\ or lower. For both toxicity and 
flammability classifications, refrigerant blends are designated based 
on the worst case of fractionation determined for the blend (which may 
be different when evaluating toxicity than when evaluating 
flammability).
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP09JY14.003

    Using these safety group classifications, ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-
2010 categorizes ethane, isobutane, propane, and R-441A in the A3 
Safety Group and categorizes HFC-32 in the A2L Safety Group.

C. What end-uses are included in EPA's proposed decision?

1. Household Refrigerators, Freezers, and Combination Refrigerator/
Freezers
    Household refrigerators, freezers, and combination refrigerator/
freezers are intended primarily for residential use, although they may 
be used outside the home. Household freezers only offer storage space 
at freezing temperatures, unlike household refrigerators. Products with 
both a refrigerator and freezer in a single unit are most common. Wine 
coolers used in residential settings are considered part of this end-
use. EPA previously found the flammable

[[Page 38819]]

hydrocarbon refrigerants isobutane and R-441A acceptable subject to use 
conditions in this end-use. December 20, 2011, at 76 FR 78832, codified 
at Appendix R of Subpart G of 40 CFR part 82.
2. Retail Food Refrigeration--Stand-Alone Commercial Refrigerators and 
Freezers
    Retail food refrigeration includes the refrigeration systems, 
including cold storage cases, designed to chill food or keep it at a 
cold temperature for commercial sale. In this proposed rule, we are 
considering the use of hydrocarbons only in stand-alone equipment. A 
stand-alone appliance is one utilizing a sealed hermetic compressor and 
for which all refrigerant-containing components, including but not 
limited to the compressor, condenser, and evaporator, are assembled 
into a single piece of equipment before delivery to the ultimate 
consumer or user. Such equipment does not require the addition or 
removal of refrigerant when placed into initial operation. Stand-alone 
equipment is used to chill or to store chilled beverages or frozen 
products (e.g., reach-in beverage coolers, stand-alone ice cream 
cabinets, and wine coolers in commercial settings). This proposed rule 
does not apply to large commercial refrigeration systems such as, but 
not limited to, multiplex direct expansion refrigeration systems 
typically found in supermarkets. Such equipment typically requires 
larger charge sizes than those considered in this proposed rule. This 
proposal also does not apply to walk-in coolers, a type of equipment 
that typically requires larger charges than those considered in this 
proposed rule. EPA has already listed propane as acceptable subject to 
use conditions for use in stand-alone commercial refrigerators and 
freezers. December 20, 2011, at 76 FR 78832, codified at Appendix R to 
Subpart G of 40 CFR part 82.
3. Very Low Temperature Refrigeration and 4. Non-Mechanical Heat 
Transfer Equipment
    Very low temperature refrigeration equipment is intended to 
maintain temperatures considerably lower than for refrigeration of 
food--for example, -80 [deg]C (-170 [deg]F) or lower. Examples of very 
low temperature refrigeration equipment include medical freezers and 
freeze-dryers, which generally require extremely reliable refrigeration 
cycles to maintain low temperatures and must meet stringent technical 
standards. In some cases, very low temperature refrigeration equipment 
may use a refrigeration system with two refrigerant loops or with a 
direct expansion refrigeration loop coupled with an alternative 
refrigeration technology (e.g., Stirling cycle). This allows a greater 
range of temperatures and may reduce the overall refrigerant charge.
    There is no U.S. standard that we are aware of that applies 
specifically to very low temperature refrigeration or non-mechanical 
heat transfer. The submitter of information for use of ethane in very 
low temperature refrigeration has indicated that Underwriters 
Laboratories, Inc. has tested their equipment for compliance with the 
UL 471 standard for commercial refrigeration equipment, which addresses 
stand-alone commercial refrigerators and freezers. We are proposing 
compliance with the UL 471 standard as one of the conditions for use of 
ethane in very low temperature refrigeration equipment. This submission 
also addressed the use of ethane in a type of non-mechanical heat 
transfer equipment called a thermosiphon. Non-mechanical heat transfer 
involves cooling systems that rely on convection to remove heat from an 
area, rather than mechanical refrigeration. A thermosiphon is a type of 
heat transfer system that relies on natural convection currents, as 
opposed to using a mechanical pump. This proposal would allow use of 
ethane in non-mechanical heat transfer uses, provided that they meet 
the use conditions, including the requirements of Supplement B to the 
UL 471 standard and a charge limit of 150 g.\11\
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    \11\ EPA expects that equipment designed for cooling the engine 
compartment of heavy duty vehicles, a potential non-mechanical heat 
transfer application, does not meet the requirements of UL 471 and 
thus, would not meet the requirements of this rule. Similar issues 
may exist for some other non-mechanical heat transfer equipment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Vending Machines
    Vending machines are self-contained units for refrigerating 
beverages or food which dispense goods that must be kept cold or 
frozen. This end-use differs from other retail food refrigeration 
because goods are dispensed, rather than allowing the consumer to reach 
in to grab a beverage or food product. The design of the refrigeration 
system of a vending machine is similar to that of a self-contained 
commercial refrigerator or freezer. Typically the difference lies in 
how payment for goods is made and in the selection mechanisms found in 
vending machines but not in self-contained commercial refrigerator-
freezers, and possibly the outer casing (e.g., glass doors and open, 
reach-in designs are generally used in self-contained commercial 
refrigerator-freezers whereas glass wall and other types of casings are 
used for vending machines). The standard UL 541 applies to vending 
machines. It contains a Supplement SA specifically addressing flammable 
refrigerants that is very similar to the Supplement SB in the UL 471 
standard for commercial refrigerators and freezers.
6. Residential and Light Commercial AC and Heat Pumps
    This end-use includes equipment for cooling air in individual 
rooms, in single-family homes, and sometimes in small commercial 
buildings. This end-use differs from commercial comfort AC, which uses 
chillers that cool water that is then used to cool air throughout a 
large commercial building, such as an office building or hotel. 
Examples of equipment for residential and light commercial AC and heat 
pumps include:
     Central air conditioners, also called unitary AC or 
unitary split systems. These systems include an outdoor unit with a 
condenser and a compressor, refrigerant lines, an indoor unit with an 
evaporator, and ducts to carry cooled air throughout a building. 
Central heat pumps are similar but offer the choice to either heat or 
cool the indoor space. These systems are not addressed in this rule.
     Multi-split air conditioners. These systems include one or 
more outdoor unit(s) with a condenser and a compressor and multiple 
indoor units, each of which is connected to the outdoor unit by 
refrigerant lines. These systems are not addressed in this rule.
     Mini-split air conditioners. These systems include an 
outdoor unit with a condenser and a compressor and a single indoor unit 
that is connected to the outdoor unit by refrigerant lines. Cooled air 
exits directly from the indoor unit rather than being carried through 
ducts. These systems are not addressed in this rule.
     Window air conditioners. These are self-contained units 
that fit in a window with the condenser extending outside the window. 
These types of units would be regulated under this rule if it becomes 
final.
     Packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal 
heat pumps. These are self-contained units that consist of a separate, 
un-encased combination of heating and cooling assemblies mounted 
through a wall. These types of units would be regulated under this rule 
if it becomes final.
     Portable room air conditioners. These are self-contained 
units used inside rooms that are designed to be

[[Page 38820]]

moved easily from room to room, usually having wheels. They may contain 
an exhaust hose that can be placed through a window or door to eject 
heat to the outside. These types of units would be regulated under this 
rule if it becomes final.
    Of these types of equipment, window air conditioners, packaged 
terminal air conditioners, packaged terminal heat pumps, and portable 
room air conditioners are self-contained equipment with the condenser, 
compressor, evaporator, and tubing all within casing in a single unit. 
These units all fall under the scope of the UL 484 standard for Room 
Air Conditioners. In contrast, unitary split systems, multi-split 
systems and mini-split systems have an outdoor condenser that is 
separated from an indoor unit. Compared to split systems, self-
contained equipment typically has smaller charge sizes, has fewer 
locations that are prone to leak, and is less likely to require 
servicing by a technician, thereby causing refrigerant releases. A 
lower risk of refrigerant releases and a potential for smaller releases 
and lower concentration releases would result in lower risk that 
flammable refrigerant could be ignited. Thus, self-contained air 
conditioners and heat pumps using a flammable refrigerant have lower 
risk for fire than split systems using a flammable refrigerant.

IV. What criteria did EPA consider in determining whether to propose to 
list the substitutes as acceptable and in determining the proposed use 
conditions and how does EPA consider those criteria?

    Section 612(c) of the Clean Air Act directs EPA to publish a list 
of acceptable replacement substances (``substitutes'') for class I and 
class II substances for specific uses. EPA compares the risks to human 
health and the environment of a substitute to the risks associated with 
other substitutes that are currently or potentially available. EPA also 
considers whether the substitute for class I and class II ODS ``reduces 
the overall risk to human health and the environment'' compared to the 
ODS historically used in the end-use. The criteria we review are listed 
at 40 CFR 82.180(a)(7). These criteria are: (i) Atmospheric effects and 
related health and environmental impacts; (ii) general population risks 
from ambient exposure to compounds with direct toxicity and to 
increased ground-level ozone; (iii) ecosystem risks; (iv) occupational 
risks; (v) consumer risks; (vi) flammability; and (vii) cost and 
availability of the substitute.
    EPA evaluated each of the criteria for each substitute in each end-
use for which we are proposing action and then for each substitute we 
considered overall risk to human health and the environment in 
comparison to other available or potentially available alternatives in 
the same end-uses. Based on our evaluations, we may reach different 
conclusions on the same substitute in different end-uses, because of 
different risk profiles (e.g., different exposure levels and usage 
patterns) and different sets of available or potentially available 
substitutes for each end-use.
    As noted previously on May 17, 2013, at 78 FR 29035, environmental 
and human health exposures can vary significantly depending on the 
particular application of a substitute--and over time, information 
available regarding a substitute can change. SNAP's comparative risk 
framework does not imply fundamental tradeoffs with respect to 
different types of risk, either to the environment or to human health. 
EPA recognizes that during the nearly two-decade history of the SNAP 
program, new information about alternatives already found acceptable 
and new alternatives have emerged. To the extent possible, EPA 
considers current information that improves our understanding of the 
risk factors for the environment and human health in the context of the 
available or potentially available alternatives for a given use.

A. Effects on the Environment

    The SNAP program considers a number of environmental criteria when 
evaluating substitutes: Ozone depletion potential (ODP); climate 
effects, primarily based on global warming potential (GWP); local air 
quality impacts, particularly potential impacts on smog formation from 
emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC); and ecosystem effects, 
particularly from negative impacts on aquatic life. These and other 
environmental and health risks are discussed below.
    The ODP is the ratio of the impact on stratospheric ozone of a 
chemical compared to the impact of an identical mass of CFC-11. Thus, 
the ODP of CFC-11 is defined to be one (1.0). Other CFCs and HCFCs have 
ODPs that range from 0.01 to one (1.0).
    All refrigerant substitutes in this proposal have an ODP of zero, 
lower than the ODP of the ozone depleting substances that they replace: 
CFC-12 (ODP = 1.0); HCFC-22 (ODP = 0.055); R-13B1 (ODP = 10) and R-502 
(ODP = 0.334). The most commonly used substitutes in the end-uses 
addressed in this proposal also have an ODP of zero (e.g., R-404A, R- 
134a, R-410A, and R-407C).\12\ Some less common alternatives for these 
end-uses, such as R-401A, R-414A and other blends containing HCFC-22 or 
HCFC-142b,\13\ have ODPs ranging from 0.01 to 0.047. Thus, the 
refrigerant substitutes in this proposal have ODPs lower than or 
identical to the ODPs of other available substitutes and of the 
substances they replace.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \12\ We assume that substitutes containing no chlorine, bromine, 
or iodine have an ODP of zero.
    \13\ Under EPA's phaseout regulations, virgin HCFC-22, HCFC-
142b, and blends containing HCFC-22 or HCFC-142b may only be used to 
service existing appliances. Consequently, virgin HCFC-22, HCFC-142b 
and blends containing HCFC-22 or HCFC-142b may not be used to 
manufacture new pre-charged appliances or appliance components or to 
charge new appliances assembled onsite.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The GWP is a means of quantifying the potential integrated climate 
forcing of various greenhouse gases relative to carbon dioxide. All of 
the hydrocarbon refrigerants in this proposal have a relatively low 
100-year integrated GWP of less than ten. HFC-32 has a GWP of 675. For 
comparison, some other commonly used, acceptable refrigerants in these 
end-uses are R-134a, R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A with GWPs of about 
1,430, 3,920, 1,770, and 2,090, respectively. In very low temperature 
refrigeration, a common refrigerant is R-508B, with a GWP of 13,400. 
The GWPs of the ozone-depleting substances that they replace are: CFC-
12 (GWP = 10,900); HCFC-22 (GWP = 1,810); R-13B1/halon 1301 (GWP = 
7,140) and R-502 (GWP = 4,660) (IPCC, 2007). The GWPs of the 
substitutes reviewed in this proposal are significantly lower than 
those of other refrigerants currently being used in the residential and 
light commercial AC and heat pump end-use. As stated above, EPA 
considers overall risk to human health and the environment compared to 
ODS as well as alternatives that are available and potentially 
available in a given end-use. Therefore, the GWP of 675 for HFC-32 may 
not be considered low in other end-uses that have a larger variety of 
options available with lower GWPs. Among the acceptable substitutes 
listed in this end-use, only ammonia absorption and the non-vapor 
compression technologies evaporative cooling and desiccant cooling 
would have lower GWPs. Given technical limits on the effective use of 
the non-vapor compression technologies in different climates and the 
higher toxicity of ammonia than that of the alternatives proposed here, 
the proposed substitutes still reduce risk overall compared to the 
available and potentially available substitutes in this end-use.
    The GHG impacts of these refrigerants also depend upon the energy 
use of

[[Page 38821]]

appliances, since the ``indirect'' GHG emissions associated with 
electricity consumption typically exceed those from refrigerants over 
the full lifecycle of refrigerant-containing products. (ORNL, 1997). If 
appliances using the refrigerants being considered in this proposal are 
less energy efficient than the appliances they replace, then it is 
possible that these appliances would result in higher lifecycle GHG 
emissions than appliances using a higher GWP refrigerant or refrigerant 
substitute. Conversely, higher energy efficiency of these appliances 
would lead to even lower lifecycle GHG emissions. While we have not 
undertaken a comprehensive assessment of all sources of GHG emissions 
associated with substituting ODS and other commonly used refrigerants 
with the proposed refrigerants, we note that for most of the types of 
equipment covered here, energy efficiency standards exist.\14\ Thus, 
total energy use with alternative refrigerants can be expected to be no 
higher than that required by the standards for those classes of 
equipment.\15\ Further, testing data, peer-reviewed journal articles 
and other information provided by the submitters for these substitute 
refrigerants indicated that equipment using these refrigerants is 
likely to have a higher coefficient of performance and use less energy 
than equipment currently being manufactured that uses common ODS and 
HFC refrigerants that are listed as acceptable under SNAP. This implies 
that equipment that uses the refrigerants proposed to be listed will 
have the same or lower climate impacts than other available substitutes 
(Daikin, 2011; A.S. Trust & Holdings, 2012; A/S Vestfrost, 2012; CHEAA, 
2013).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \14\ For example, Department of Energy (DOE) standards apply to 
portable air conditioners, room air conditioners, PTACs and PTHPs, 
household refrigerators and freezers, refrigerated beverage vending 
machines, and commercial refrigeration equipment. See https://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/standards_test_procedures.html.
    \15\ Refrigeration or air conditioning equipment in the 
applicable covered equipment class would still be subject to DOE's 
standards, regardless of the refrigerant that the equipment uses. If 
a manufacturer believes that its design is subjected to undue 
hardship by DOE's regulations, the manufacturer may petition DOE's 
Office of Hearing and Appeals (OHA) for exception relief or 
exemption from the standard pursuant to OHA's authority under 
section 504 of the DOE Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7194), as 
implemented at subpart B of 10 CFR part 1003. OHA has the authority 
to grant such relief on a case-by-case basis if it determines that a 
manufacturer has demonstrated that meeting the standard would cause 
hardship, inequity, or unfair distribution of burdens.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In addition to global impacts on the atmosphere, EPA evaluated 
potential impacts of the proposed substitutes on local air quality. 
Ethane and HFC-32 are exempt from the definition of VOC under CAA 
regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of State 
Implementation Plans (SIPs) to attain and maintain the national ambient 
air quality standards. The other proposed refrigerants, isobutane, 
propane, and components of R-441A, including isobutane, n-butane and 
propane, are VOC. Potential emissions of VOC from all substitutes for 
all end-uses in the refrigeration and AC sector are addressed by the 
venting prohibition under Section 608 of the CAA. Under that 
prohibition, refrigerant substitutes (and thus the VOC they contain) 
may only be emitted where EPA issues a final determination exempting a 
refrigerant substitute from the venting prohibition on the basis that 
venting, releasing or disposing of such substance does not pose a 
threat to the environment, as proposed elsewhere in this action (see 
Section VI, ``How is EPA proposing to address venting, release, or 
disposal of the refrigerant substitutes proposed to be listed under 
section 608 of the Clean Air Act?'' below). EPA estimates that 
potential emissions of hydrocarbons when used as refrigerant 
substitutes in all end-uses in the refrigeration and AC sector have 
little impact on local air quality, with the possible exception of 
unsaturated hydrocarbons such as propylene (ICF, 2014a). However, for 
those refrigerants that are VOC as defined in 40 CFR 50.100(s), a State 
could adopt additional control strategies if necessary for an ozone 
nonattainment area to attain the National Ambient Air Quality Standard 
(NAAQS) for ozone.
    EPA analyzed a number of scenarios to consider the potential 
impacts on local air quality if hydrocarbon refrigerants were used 
widely. We used EPA's Vintaging Model to estimate the hydrocarbon 
emissions from these scenarios and EPA's Community Multiscale Air 
Quality (CMAQ) model to assess their potential incremental 
contributions to ground-level ozone concentrations (ICF, 2014a). That 
analysis assumed that the most reactive hydrocarbon proposed to be 
acceptable (isobutane) was used in all refrigeration and AC uses, and 
that all refrigerant used was emitted to the atmosphere even though 
isobutane is not being proposed as acceptable for use in all 
refrigeration and AC uses. In that extreme scenario, the model 
predicted that the maximum increase in the 8-hour average ground-level 
ozone concentration would be 0.72 ppb in Los Angeles. Further, in the 
analysis, the additional ground-level ozone did not result in exceeding 
the NAAQS where an area was in compliance without the additional 
refrigerant emissions. Given the potential sources of uncertainty in 
the modeling, the conservativeness of the assumptions, and the finding 
that the incremental VOC emissions from this refrigerant emissions 
would not cause any area that otherwise would meet the NAAQS to exceed 
it, we believe that the use of isobutane consistent with the use 
conditions will not result in significantly greater risk to the 
environment than other substitutes that are currently or potentially 
available. Further, propane, ethane, and n-butane, the remaining 
component of R-441A, are less reactive than isobutane and we reach a 
similar conclusion for those refrigerants.
    EPA also analyzed the potential impacts of the uses of hydrocarbon 
refrigerants proposed to be acceptable under this rule. In this less 
conservative analysis, EPA looked at a set of end-uses that would be 
more likely to use hydrocarbon refrigerants between now and 2030. The 
analysis assumed use of hydrocarbon refrigerants in those uses for 
which UL currently has standards in place, for which the SNAP program 
has already listed the uses as acceptable subject to use conditions, or 
for which the SNAP program is reviewing a submission, including those 
in this rule.\16\ In addition, the air quality analysis assumed several 
different hydrocarbons \17\ would be used based upon those under review 
by the SNAP program in the end-uses for which they were submitted. For 
example, we assumed use of propane, R-441A, and another hydrocarbon 
refrigerant under review in room air conditioners and isobutane, 
propane, and R-441A in vending machines, stand-alone retail food 
refrigeration equipment, and household refrigerators and freezers, but 
no use of hydrocarbons in chillers used for AC of large buildings. (For 
further

[[Page 38822]]

information on the specific assumptions, see ICF, 2014a, in the docket 
for this rulemaking.) Based on this still conservative but more 
probable assessment of refrigerant use, we found that even if all the 
refrigerant in appliances in end-uses addressed in this proposed rule 
were to be emitted, there would be a worst-case impact of 0.15 ppb 
ozone in the Los Angeles area, which is the area with the highest level 
of ozone pollution in the United States. In the other cities examined 
in the analysis, Houston and Atlanta, impacts were smaller (no more 
than 0.03 and 0.01 ppb, respectively) (ICF, 2014a). These impacts did 
not cause any areas to exceed the NAAQS that otherwise would have met 
the NAAQS without the additional refrigerant emissions. Because of the 
relatively low air quality impacts of these refrigerants if they are 
released to the atmosphere in limited amounts, EPA believes that these 
refrigerants do not have a significantly greater impact on human health 
and the environment based on their effects on local air quality than 
other refrigerants listed as acceptable in the end-uses proposed in 
this rule.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \16\ The analysis included stand-alone commercial refrigerators, 
freezers, and coolers; vending machines; refrigerated transport; 
water coolers; commercial ice machines; household refrigerators and 
freezers; and room air conditioners (window AC, packaged terminal AC 
and packaged terminal heat pumps). The analysis did not expressly 
break out very low temperature refrigeration or non-mechanical heat 
transfer from commercial refrigerators and freezers.
    \17\ Refrigerants in this scenario included propane, isobutane, 
and R-441A in the end-uses where they are proposed to be acceptable 
subject to use conditions, among others. Ethane was not expressly 
included, since the type of equipment using ethane is not broken out 
separately in the analysis. However, ethane is less reactive than 
the other refrigerants included in the analysis, so this omission is 
expected to result in a slight overestimation of impacts, if any.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The substitutes in this proposal are all highly volatile. They 
typically evaporate or partition to air, rather than contaminating 
surface waters. Effects on aquatic life of the substitutes are expected 
to be small and pose no greater risk of aquatic or ecosystem effects 
than those of other available substitutes for these uses.
    Based on EPA's analysis, the overall environmental risks, including 
ODP, GWP, local air quality effects and ecosystem impacts are lower 
than or comparable to those of other acceptable substitutes in the same 
end-uses.

B. Flammability and Fire Safety

    The flammability risks of the proposed substitutes are of potential 
concern because household and retail food refrigerators and freezers 
and room AC units have traditionally used refrigerants that are not 
flammable. Without appropriate use conditions, the flammability risk 
posed by these refrigerants could be higher than non-flammable 
refrigerants because individuals may not be aware that their actions 
could potentially cause a fire, and existing equipment has not been 
designed specifically to minimize flammable risks. In this section, we 
discuss the risks posed by the refrigerants considered in this rule and 
explain the proposed use conditions we believe are necessary to 
mitigate risks to ensure that the overall risk to human health and the 
environment posed by these proposed substitutes is not greater than the 
overall risk posed by other substitutes in the same end-uses. In 
addition, we discuss why the flammability risks have led us to propose 
that these substitutes are only acceptable for use in new equipment 
specifically designed for these flammable refrigerants.
    Because of their flammable nature, ethane, isobutane, propane, HFC-
32, and R-441A could pose a significant safety concern for workers and 
consumers in the end-uses addressed in this proposal if they are not 
handled correctly. In the presence of an ignition source (e.g., static 
electricity spark resulting from closing a door, using a torch during 
service, or a short circuit in wiring that controls the motor of a 
compressor), an explosion or a fire could occur when the concentration 
of refrigerant exceeds its lower flammability limit (LFL). The LFLs of 
the proposed substitutes are: ethane--30,000 ppm; HFC-32--139,000 ppm; 
isobutane--18,000 ppm; propane--21,000 ppm; and R-441A--20,500 ppm. 
Therefore, to use these substitutes safely, it is important to minimize 
the presence of potential ignition sources and to reduce the likelihood 
that the levels of ethane, HFC-32, isobutane, propane, or R-441A will 
exceed the LFL. Under the proposed listing decision, these substitutes 
would be acceptable for use only in new equipment (refrigerators, 
freezers and air conditioners) specifically designed for the 
refrigerant. We expect that the original equipment manufacturers, who 
would be storing large quantities of the refrigerant, are familiar with 
and use proper safety precautions to minimize the risk of explosion, 
because of the OSHA and building code requirements under which they 
operate. We are proposing to include in the ``Further Information'' 
section of the SNAP listings recommendations that these facilities be 
equipped with proper ventilation systems and be properly designed to 
reduce possible ignition sources.
    To determine whether flammability would be a concern for 
manufacturing and service personnel or for consumers, EPA analyzed a 
plausible worst-case scenario to model a catastrophic release of the 
proposed refrigerants. The worst-case scenario analysis for each 
refrigerant revealed that even if the unit's full charge is emitted 
within one minute, none of these refrigerants reached their respective 
LFLs of 1.8% for isobutane, 2.1% for propane, 2.05% for R-441A, or 3.0% 
for ethane, provided that the charge sizes were no greater than those 
specified in the relevant standard from Underwriters Laboratories (ICF, 
2014b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k). Thus, there would not be an excessive risk of 
fire or explosion, even under those worst-case assumptions, so long as 
the charge meets the use conditions in this proposed rule. Detailed 
analysis of the modeling results are discussed below in the next 
section regarding ``Toxicity.'' EPA also reviewed the submitters' 
detailed assessments of the probability of events that might create a 
fire and engineering risk and approaches to avoid sparking from the 
refrigeration equipment. Further information on these analyses and 
EPA's risk assessments are available in public docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2013-
0748 at www.regulations.gov. Although the analysis showed no potential 
for the released refrigerant from one piece of equipment to reach the 
LFL, manufacturing and service personnel or consumers may not be 
familiar with refrigeration or AC equipment containing a flammable 
refrigerant. Therefore, use conditions are necessary to ensure people 
handling such equipment are aware that equipment contains a flammable 
refrigerant and to ensure safe handling. This allows the flammable 
refrigerants to be used without increasing overall risk to human health 
and the environment.

C. Toxicity

    In evaluating potential toxicity impacts of ethane, HFC-32, 
isobutane, propane, and R-441A on human health, EPA considered both 
occupational and consumer risks. EPA investigated the risk of 
asphyxiation and of exposure to toxic levels of refrigerant for a 
worst-case scenario and a typical use scenario for each refrigerant. In 
the worst-case scenario of a catastrophic leak, we modeled release of 
the unit's full charge within one minute into a confined space to 
estimate concentrations that might result. We considered a 
conservatively small space appropriate to each end-use, such as a small 
convenience store of 244 m\3\ for retail food refrigeration, a small 
galley kitchen of 18 m\3\ for a household refrigerator/freezer, or a 
small bedroom of 41 m\3\ for a room air conditioner.
    To evaluate toxicity of all five refrigerants, EPA estimated the 
maximum time-weighted average (TWA) exposure both for a short-term 
exposure scenario, with a 15-minute and 30-minute TWA exposure, and for 
an 8-hour time weighted average that would be more typical of 
occupational exposure for a technician servicing the equipment. We 
compared these short-term and long-term exposure values to relevant 
industry and government workplace exposure limits for ethane, HFC-32, 
isobutane, propane, and

[[Page 38823]]

components of R-441A, (including potential impurities in the 
substitutes). The modeling results indicate that both the short-term 
(15-minute and 30-minute) and long-term (8-hour) worker exposure 
concentrations would be below the relevant workplace exposure limits, 
such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 
permissible exposure limit (PEL), the National Institute for 
Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit 
(REL), the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' 
(ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV), or in the case of HFC-32, the 
manufacturer's recommended workplace exposure limit. In some cases 
where there was not an established short-term exposure limit (STEL), we 
considered information on short-term exposure such as the no observed 
adverse effect level (NOAEL) from available toxicity studies or the 
National Research Council's Acute Emergency Guideline Limits 
(AEGL).\18\ The respective workplace exposure limits we considered for 
the various compounds, including components of the refrigerant blend R-
441A, are as follows:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \18\ The AEGL limit is an emergency guideline for exposures to 
the general population (including susceptible populations) and is 
not time-weighted. It also considers the chemical's flammability in 
addition to its toxicity. EPA develops a set of AEGL values for a 
chemical for five exposure periods (10 and 30 minutes, 1 hour, 4 
hours and 8 hours). For each exposure period, three different AEGL 
values are developed to address different levels of toxicological 
impacts. Of relevance for the modeled scenario is the AEGL-1 (10,000 
ppm), which is defined as: ``the airborne concentration, expressed 
as parts per million or milligrams per cubic meter (ppm or mg/m\3\) 
of a substance above which it is predicted that the general 
population, including susceptible individuals, could experience 
notable discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic nonsensory 
effects. However, the effects are not disabling and are transient 
and reversible upon cessation of exposure.'' While permanent 
toxicological effects are not expected up to the AEGL-2 value, this 
limit is not relevant for this analysis because at that level, 
flammability would be a greater concern.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

     n-Butane, a component in R-441A: 800 ppm REL on 10-hr TWA; 
6,900 ppm AEGL-1 over 30 minutes
     Ethane: 1000 ppm TLV on 8-hour TWA
     HFC-32: 1000 ppm manufacturer's exposure guideline on 8-
hour TWA; 3000 ppm over 15 minutes
     Isobutane: 800 ppm REL on 10-hr TWA; 18,000 ppm NOAEL over 
30 minutes
     Propane: 1000 ppm PEL on 8-hr TWA; 6,900 ppm AEGL-1 over 
30 minutes
    For equipment with which consumers might come into contact, such as 
retail food refrigerators and freezers, vending machines, household 
refrigerators and freezers, and room air conditioners, EPA performed a 
consumer exposure analysis. In this analysis, we examined potential 
catastrophic release of the entire charge of the substitute in one 
minute under a worst-case scenario. We did not examine exposure to 
consumers in very low temperature refrigeration, as equipment for this 
end-use would typically be used in the workplace, such as in 
laboratories, and not in a home or public space. The analysis was 
undertaken to determine the 15-minute or 30-minute TWA exposure levels 
for the substitute, which were then compared to the toxicity limits to 
assess the risk to consumers.
    EPA considered toxicity limits for consumer exposure that reflect a 
short-term exposure such as might occur at home or in a store or other 
public setting where a member of the general public could be exposed 
and could then escape. Specific toxicity limits that we used in our 
analysis of consumer exposure include:
     n-Butane: 6,900 ppm AEGL-1 over 30 minutes
     HFC-32: cardiotoxic NOAEL of 350,000 ppm over 5 minutes
     Isobutane: 18,000 ppm NOAEL over 30 minutes
     Propane: 6,900 ppm AEGL-1 over 30 minutes
    The analysis of consumer exposure assumed that 100 percent of the 
unit's charge would be released over one minute, at which time the 
concentration of refrigerant would peak in an enclosed space, and then 
steadily decline. Refrigerant concentrations were modeled under two air 
change scenarios, believed to represent the baseline of potential flow 
rates for a home or other public space, assuming flow rates of 2.5 and 
4.5 air changes per hour (ACH) (Sheldon, 1989). The highest 
concentrations of the refrigerant occur in the lower stratum of the 
room when assuming the lower ventilation level of 2.5 ACH. Calculating 
the TWA exposure using 2.5 ACH results in a higher concentration than 
calculating the TWA exposure using 4.5 ACH. Even under the very 
conservative assumptions used in the consumer exposure modeling, the 
estimated 15-minute or 30-minute consumer exposures to the proposed 
refrigerants are much lower than the relevant toxicity limits and thus 
should not pose a toxicity risk any greater than that of other 
acceptable refrigerants in the proposed end-uses.
    For further information, including EPA's risk screens and risk 
assessments as well as fault tree analyses from the submitters of the 
substitutes, see docket number EPA-HQ-OAR-2013-0748 at 
www.regulations.gov.

V. Why is EPA proposing these specific use conditions?

    EPA is proposing to list ethane, isobutane, propane, HFC-32, and R-
441A as acceptable subject to use conditions in the specified end-uses, 
as described above in section III.A., ``What listing decisions is EPA 
proposing in this action?.'' EPA is proposing these uses in new 
equipment designed and manufactured specifically to use these 
alternatives. The use conditions include conditions consistent with 
industry standards, limits on charge size, and requirements for 
warnings and markings on equipment to inform consumers and technicians 
of potential flammability hazards. The proposed listings with the 
specific use conditions are intended to allow for the use of these 
flammable refrigerants in a manner that will ensure they do not pose a 
greater risk to human health or the environment than other substitutes 
that are currently or potentially available. We seek comment on the 
proposed listing as well as the specific use conditions discussed 
below.

A. New Equipment Only; Not Intended for Use as a Retrofit Alternative

    EPA is proposing that the flammable refrigerants considered in this 
proposal be limited to use only in new equipment that has been designed 
and manufactured specifically for use with the listed alternative 
refrigerant. We are proposing that these substitutes may be used only 
in new equipment \19\ that is designed to address concerns unique to 
flammable refrigerants. The flammable refrigerants were not submitted 
under the SNAP program to be used in retrofitted equipment, and no 
information was provided on how to address hazards of flammable 
refrigerants when used in equipment that was designed for non-flammable 
refrigerants. Introduction into interstate commerce of these 
refrigerants for use in existing equipment without giving timely and 
adequate notice to EPA would be in violation of section 612(e) of the 
CAA and the SNAP regulations at 40 CFR Part 82, Subpart G. In addition, 
if the rule is finalized as proposed, use of these refrigerants in 
existing equipment would be in violation of

[[Page 38824]]

section 612(c) of the CAA and the corresponding SNAP regulations at 40 
CFR Part 82, Subpart G.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \19\ This is intended to mean a completely new refrigeration 
circuit containing a new evaporator, condenser and refrigerant 
tubing. We are aware that for some types of equipment, e.g., vending 
machines, it is possible to detach easily and replace the 
refrigeration circuit from the outer casing of the equipment. In 
such a situation, replacing the old refrigeration circuit with a new 
one within the old casing would be considered ``new'' equipment and 
not a retrofit of the old, existing equipment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

B. Standards

    EPA is proposing that the flammable refrigerants be used only in 
equipment that meets all requirements in the relevant supplements for 
flammable refrigerants in certain applicable UL Standards for 
refrigeration and AC equipment. Specifically, the standards cited 
include UL 471 10th edition for commercial refrigerators and freezers 
(including stand-alone freezers for very low temperature 
refrigeration), UL 250 10th edition (for household refrigerators and 
freezers), UL 541 7th edition for refrigerated vending machines, and UL 
484 8th edition for room air conditioners.
    UL has tested equipment for flammability risk in both household and 
retail food refrigeration. Further, UL has developed acceptable safety 
standards including requirements for construction, for markings, and 
for performance tests concerning refrigerant leakage, ignition of 
switching components, surface temperature of parts, and component 
strength after being scratched. These standards were developed in an 
open and consensus-based approach, with the assistance of experts in 
the AC and refrigeration industry as well as experts involved in 
assessing the safety of products. While similar standards exist from 
other bodies such as the International Electrotechnical Commission 
(IEC), we are proposing to rely on UL standards as those that are most 
applicable and recognized by the U.S. market. This proposed approach is 
the same as that in our previous rule on flammable refrigerants 
(December 20, 2011 at 76 FR 78832).

C. Charge Size

    EPA is proposing use conditions that limit the amount of 
refrigerant allowed in each type of appliance. As before, we believe it 
is necessary to set limits on charge size in order for these 
refrigerants not to pose a risk to human health or the environment that 
is greater than the risk posed by other available substitutes. These 
limits will reduce the risk to workers and consumers since under worst-
case scenario analyses, a leak of the proposed charge sizes did not 
result in concentrations of the refrigerant that met or exceeded the 
LFL, as explained above in Section IV.B, ``Flammability and fire 
safety.''
    EPA is proposing limitations on refrigerant charge size for 
household and stand-alone commercial refrigerators and freezers, 
vending machines, and room AC units that reflect the UL 250, UL 471, UL 
541 and UL 484 standards. As discussed above in paragraph B of this 
section, we believe UL standards are most applicable to the U.S. market 
and offer requirements developed by a consensus of experts. EPA is 
proposing a charge size not to exceed 57 grams (2.01 ounces) for 
household refrigerators and freezers, not to exceed 150 grams (5.29 
ounces) for retail food refrigeration in stand-alone units, and not to 
exceed 150 grams (5.29 ounces) for vending machines. We are proposing a 
varying charge size limit for room AC units as discussed below. To 
place these quantities in a familiar context, EPA estimates the charge 
size of a disposable lighter is equal to 30 grams (1.06 ounces).
    The UL 250 standard for household refrigerators and freezers limits 
the amount of refrigerant that may leak to 50 grams (1.76 ounces). EPA 
is proposing a charge size of 57 grams (2.01 ounces) to allow for up to 
7 grams (0.25 ounces) of refrigerant that might be solubilized in the 
oil (and assumed not to leak or immediately vaporize with the 
refrigerant in the case of a leak). EPA bases this estimate on 
information received from a manufacturer of hydrocarbon-based 
refrigerator-freezers (see EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0286-0033 on 
www.regulations.gov).
    UL standards 541 (retail food refrigeration) and 471 (vending 
machines) limit the amount of refrigerant leaked to 150 grams (5.29 
ounces). Furthermore, the charge size limit for A3 refrigerants (for 
retail food refrigeration) is in line with the IEC 60335-2-89 standard 
for commercial appliances, which has a charge size limit of 150 grams 
(5.29 ounces).
    As noted above, EPA is proposing a varying charge size for room AC 
units. We are proposing that the maximum charge must be no greater than 
the amount calculated for a given sized space according to Appendix F 
to Supplement SA of UL Standard 484. This section of the UL standard 
uses a formula for charge of a fixed room air conditioner based upon 
the size of the space where the refrigerant may escape and the lower 
flammability limit of the refrigerant. The formula is as follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP09JY14.004

Where:

Mmax is the maximum charge size allowed for the space, in 
kg,
LFL is the lower flammability limit of the refrigerant in kg/m\3\,
h0 is the installation height of the indoor unit in m 
(0.6 m for an AC unit on the floor, 1.0 m for an AC unit in a 
window, 1.8 m for a wall-mounted AC unit, and 2.2 m for a ceiling-
mounted AC unit), and
A is the floor area of the room, in m\2\.

The equipment manufacturer would then design AC units to be used in 
rooms with a minimum size and would label the minimum room size on the 
equipment. Table 2 below gives examples of room sizes and appropriate 
charge sizes for the three refrigerants proposed to be listed for use 
in room AC units, assuming a typical height of 1.0 m for a window-
mounted unit.
    In addition to the formula mentioned above, UL 484 has a 
requirement that the maximum charge for a room air conditioner may not 
exceed the amount calculated using the following formula:

m2 = (26 m3) x LFL

Where:

m2 is the maximum charge size allowed, in kg,
26 m\3\ is a constant, and
LFL is the lower flammability limit of the refrigerant in kg/m\3\.

    That formula sets maximum limits on refrigerant in a room air 
conditioner, as shown in Table 2. With the A3 refrigerants, the maximum 
value is 1 kg.

                                                        Table 2--Maximum Refrigerant Charge Sizes
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                           Then its lower                          And the maximum charge, in kg, to use
                                                                     flammability limit is . .                      in a room of this size \20\ is . . .
                                                                                 .
                                                                    ---------------------------    The maximum    --------------------------------------
                                                                                                 allowable charge                             12 ft x 10
                 If you are using this refrigerant                                                in kg for room   1.7 m x 1.7  6 ft x 8 ft   ft x 10 ft
                                                                        In % by                  air conditioner    m x 2.5 m   x 8 ft (384  (1200 ft\3\/
                                                                        volume      In kg/m\3\       is . . .       (7.2 m\3\)   ft\3\/10.9   34.0 m\3\)
                                                                                                                     A = 2.89    m\3\) A =    A = 11.15
                                                                                                                       m\2\      4.46 m\2\       m\2\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HFC-32.............................................................         14.4         0.306              7.956        0.971        1.192        1.900
Propane (R-290)....................................................          2.1         0.038              0.986        0.071        0.087        0.139

[[Page 38825]]

 
R-441A.............................................................          2.05        0.041              1.000        0.078        0.095        0.152
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Although using a formula to determine the maximum charge size and 
minimum room size is appropriate from an engineering perspective, it 
does not ensure that a consumer will select an appropriate AC unit for 
the size of their room. It is likely that some consumers may be unaware 
of the exact size of the room to be cooled and thus may select an 
inappropriately sized AC unit that increases the flammability risk. A 
consumer may believe that a larger, more powerful AC unit will provide 
better, faster cooling and therefore may select an inappropriately 
sized AC unit that increases the flammability risk. To address these 
concerns, EPA proposes to supplement the charge size guidelines in 
Appendix F of UL 484 with a use condition that restricts the maximum 
refrigerant charge of equipment based upon the cooling capacity needed, 
in British thermal units (BTU) per hour. Equipment manufacturers would 
be responsible for designing equipment below a maximum charge size 
consistent with the intended cooling capacity. This would allow the 
manufacturer, who has greater understanding of the issue than a 
consumer, to address the issue in a manner under the manufacturer's 
control. Placing the burden on the manufacturer also provides a better 
means for EPA to ensure compliance and thus to ensure that the risk to 
human health will not be greater than that posed by other available 
substitutes.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \20\ Although the height of the room does not affect the 
calculation, typical heights are shown here for reference.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    We believe that these requirements, in combination with the other 
use conditions and commonly found informational materials, provide 
sufficient safeguards against instances of consumers selecting 
inappropriately-sized equipment. For instance, packaging, technical 
literature and sales display material will often guide a consumer in 
choosing the correct capacity for a given room size.
    EPA has based its proposed charge limits upon appropriate capacity 
needs for an area to be cooled and the requirements for refrigerant 
charge relative to room size in Appendix F of UL 484, discussed above. 
A document in the docket describes this relationship in tables in a 
spreadsheet (EPA, 2014). The proposed charge limits for each 
refrigerant by equipment type and mounting location are as follows:

                                                                   Table 3--Maximum Design Charge Sizes for Window AC Units *
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Maximum design charge size (kg)
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Refrigerant                                                                         Associated cooling capacity (BTU/hr)
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     5,000    6,000    7,000    8,000    9,000    10,000   12,000   14,000   18,000   21,000   23,000   24,000   30,000   34,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R-32..............................................................     1.73     2.12     2.74     3.00     3.24     3.47     3.68     4.07     4.59     5.48     6.01     6.49     6.72     7.76
R-290.............................................................     0.13     0.16     0.20     0.22     0.24     0.26     0.27     0.30     0.34     0.40     0.44     0.48     0.50     0.57
R-441A............................................................     0.14     0.17     0.22     0.24     0.26     0.28     0.30     0.33     0.37     0.44     0.49     0.53     0.54     0.63
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Assumes the evaporator is at least 1 m, but not more than 1.8 m, above the floor. Cooling capacities between those in the table are to be linearly interpolated between the next smaller and
  larger capacities listed in the table.


                                           Table 4--Maximum Design Charge Sizes for Packaged Terminal AC Units and Heat Pumps and Portable AC Units *
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Maximum design charge size (kg)
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Refrigerant                                                                         Associated cooling capacity (BTU/hr)
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     5,000    6,000    7,000    8,000    9,000    10,000   12,000   14,000   18,000   21,000   23,000   24,000   30,000   34,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R-32..............................................................     1.04     1.27     1.65     1.80     1.95     2.08     2.21     2.44     2.75     3.29     3.60     3.89     4.03     4.65
R-290.............................................................     0.08     0.09     0.12     0.13     0.14     0.15     0.16     0.18     0.20     0.24     0.27     0.29     0.30     0.34
R-441A............................................................     0.08     0.10     0.13     0.15     0.16     0.17     0.18     0.20     0.22     0.27     0.29     0.32     0.33     0.38
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Assumes the evaporator is at least 0.6 m, but not more than 1.0 m, above the floor. Cooling capacities between those in the table are to be linearly interpolated between the next smaller and
  larger capacities listed in the table.


[[Page 38826]]


                                                                Table 5--Maximum Design Charge Sizes for Wall-Mounted AC Units *
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Maximum design charge size (kg)
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Refrigerant                                                                         Associated cooling capacity (BTU/hr)
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     5,000    6,000    7,000    8,000    9,000    10,000   12,000   14,000   18,000   21,000   23,000   24,000   30,000   34,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R-32..............................................................     3.12     3.82     4.94     5.41     5.84     6.24     6.62     7.32     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96
R-290.............................................................     0.23     0.28     0.36     0.40     0.43     0.46     0.49     0.54     0.61     0.73     0.80     0.86     0.89     1.00
R-441A............................................................     0.25     0.31     0.40     0.44     0.47     0.51     0.54     0.59     0.67     0.80     0.88     0.95     0.98     1.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Assumes the evaporator is at least 1.8 m, but not more than 2.2 m, above the floor. Cooling capacities between those in the table are to be linearly interpolated between the next smaller and
  larger capacities listed in the table.


                                                               Table 6--Maximum Design Charge Sizes for Ceiling-Mounted AC Units *
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                   Maximum design charge size (kg)
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Refrigerant                                                                         Associated cooling capacity (BTU/hr)
                                                                   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                     5,000    6,000    7,000    8,000    9,000    10,000   12,000   14,000   18,000   21,000   23,000   24,000   30,000   34,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R-32..............................................................     3.82     4.67     6.03     6.61     7.14     7.63     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96
R-290.............................................................     0.28     0.34     0.44     0.49     0.53     0.56     0.60     0.66     0.74     0.89     0.97     1.00     1.00     1.00
R-441A............................................................     0.31     0.38     0.49     0.54     0.58     0.62     0.66     0.73     0.82     0.98     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Assumes the evaporator is at least 2.2 m above the floor. Cooling capacities between those in the table are to be linearly interpolated between the next smaller and larger capacities listed
  in the table.

    In cases where the rated capacity exceeds the maximum shown on the 
table, the maximum charge size in the table for that refrigerant 
applies. In cases where the normal rated capacity lies between two 
values listed next to each other in the table, the maximum charge size 
would be determined based on a linear interpolation between the two 
respective charge sizes. We assume that room air conditioners will be 
at least 5,000 BTU/hr in capacity; this corresponds to cooling a floor 
area of roughly 100 square feet or 9.3 m\2\ and it is the lowest value 
observed at a popular retailer's Web site (www.homedepot.com). We 
request comment on whether there should be lower, higher, or additional 
intermediate capacity values added to these tables.
    EPA is requesting comment on the approach of adding a requirement 
for manufacturers to design with a maximum charge size consistent with 
the design cooling capacity. We also request comment on other potential 
methods for supplementing the formulas for calculating charge size in 
the UL 484 standard in order to reduce potential risks of a consumer 
using a room air conditioner with an inappropriately high charge that 
could result in a higher risk of fire.

D. Color-Coded Hoses and Piping

    EPA proposes that equipment must have distinguishing color-coded 
hoses and piping to indicate use of a flammable refrigerant. This will 
help technicians immediately identify the use of a flammable 
refrigerant, thereby potentially reducing the risk of using sparking 
equipment or otherwise having an ignition source nearby. The AC and 
refrigeration industry currently uses distinguishing colors as means 
for identifying different refrigerants. Likewise, distinguishing 
coloring has been used elsewhere to indicate an unusual and potentially 
dangerous situation, for example in the use of orange-insulated wires 
in hybrid electric vehicles. Currently, no industry standard exists for 
color-coded hoses or pipes for ethane, HFC-32, isobutane, propane, or 
R-441A. EPA is proposing that all such refrigerator tubing be colored 
red Pantone Matching System (PMS) 185 to match the red band 
displayed on the container of flammable refrigerants under the Air 
Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Guideline 
``N'' 2012, ``2012 Guideline for Assignment of Refrigerant Container 
Colors.'' This proposal mirrors the existing requirement for the use of 
hydrocarbons in residential and commercial refrigerator-freezers 
(December 20, 2011, at 76 FR 78832). EPA wants to ensure that there is 
adequate notice that a flammable refrigerant is being used within a 
particular piece of equipment or appliance. One mechanism to 
distinguish hoses and pipes is to add a colored plastic sleeve or cap 
to the service tube. The colored plastic sleeve or cap would have to be 
forcibly removed in order to access the service tube. This would signal 
to the technician that the refrigeration circuit that she/he was about 
to access contained a flammable refrigerant, even if all warning labels 
were somehow removed. This sleeve would be of the same red color (PMS 
185) and could also be boldly marked with a graphic to 
indicate the refrigerant was flammable. This could be a cost-effective 
alternative to painting or dying the hose or pipe. EPA is taking 
comment on this mechanism of distinguishing the pipe and hose by adding 
a colored plastic sleeve or cap to the pipe or hose.
    EPA is particularly concerned with ensuring adequate and proper 
notification for servicing and disposal of appliances containing 
flammable refrigerants. EPA believes the use of color-coded hoses, as 
well as the use of warning labels discussed below, would be reasonable 
and would be consistent with other general industry practices. This 
proposed approach is the same as that adopted in our previous rule on 
flammable refrigerants (December 20, 2011, at 76 FR 78832). EPA is 
interested in receiving information on how this requirement has been 
implemented for those end-uses that are already subject to the earlier 
rule, codified in Appendix R to Subpart G of 40 CFR Part 82.

E. Labeling

    As a use condition, EPA is proposing to require labeling of 
household and retail refrigerators and freezers, vending machines, non-
mechanical heat transfer equipment, very low temperature refrigeration 
equipment, and room air conditioners. EPA is proposing the warning 
labels on the equipment contain letters at least \1/4\ inch high. The 
label must be permanently affixed to the equipment. Warning label 
language requirements are found in Section III.A of this proposal, 
``What listings is EPA proposing in this action?'' The warning label 
language is similar to or exactly the same as that required in UL 
standards: for household refrigerators

[[Page 38827]]

and freezers in UL 250 in section SA6.1, for vending machines in UL 541 
in section SA6.1, for commercial refrigerators and freezers in UL 471 
in section SB6.1, and for room AC units in UL 484 in section SA6.1.
    EPA believes that it would be difficult to see warning labels with 
the minimum lettering height requirement of \1/8\ inch in these UL 
standards. Therefore, as in the requirements in our previous 
hydrocarbon refrigerants rule (December 20, 2011, at 76 FR 78832), EPA 
is proposing the minimum height for lettering must be \1/4\ inch as 
opposed to \1/8\ inch, which will make it easier for technicians, 
consumers, retail storeowners, and first responders to view the warning 
labels. We also understand that UL is considering revising its 
standards to be consistent with this requirement, which already applies 
to equipment using propane in commercial stand-alone refrigerators and 
freezers and equipment using isobutane or R-441A in household 
refrigerators, freezers, and combination refrigerator/freezers.

F. Other Options Not Included

    EPA considered requiring separate servicing fittings for use with 
flammable refrigerants to avoid mixing flammable and non-flammable 
refrigerants. We previously considered this option and proposed this as 
a use condition in a separate rulemaking in the Federal Register at 75 
FR 25799 on May 10, 2010. In the associated final rule at 76 FR 78848 
on December 20, 2011, the Agency did not require separate servicing 
fittings but did include this option as a recommendation rather than a 
use condition. The types of equipment addressed in this rule are self-
contained pieces of equipment with a hermetically sealed refrigerant 
circuit that is only rarely serviced. These are the same as or similar 
to the equipment addressed in the December 20, 2011, rule, and thus 
with regards to separate servicing fittings we are proposing to again 
list this as a recommendation rather than as a use condition. We have 
heard some concern about mixing of refrigerant during servicing of 
appliances, particularly for AC equipment that is not self-contained. 
However, this rule is proposing to address only equipment that is self-
contained. Moreover, we do not have new information that would lead us 
to a different decision than in the December 20, 2011, final rule for 
hydrocarbon refrigerants in household and stand-alone commercial 
refrigerators and freezers.
    We also considered requiring only one use condition for each 
refrigerant and end-use--to meet the appropriate standard from 
Underwriters Laboratories. We understand that UL may incorporate 
certain elements of this proposal, particularly the proposed charge 
limit and the type font height for labels, into the UL 250 standard for 
household refrigerators and freezers. If those provisions were the only 
changes incorporated in a revised version of Supplement A of the UL 250 
standard, EPA could remove the use conditions for charge size and for 
labeling requirements, as they would already be incorporated by 
reference through the use condition to follow the UL 250 standard. 
However, at this time, those changes have not been incorporated into UL 
250. Therefore, EPA is proposing those use conditions as well as 
compliance with other aspects of UL 250.

VI. How is EPA proposing to address venting, release, or disposal of 
the refrigerant substitutes proposed to be listed under section 608 of 
the Clean Air Act?

A. What are the statutory requirements concerning venting, release, or 
disposal of refrigerants and refrigerant substitutes under section 608 
of the Clean Air Act?

    Section 608 of the Act as amended, titled National Recycling and 
Emission Reduction Program, requires EPA to establish regulations 
governing the use and disposal of ODS used as refrigerants, such as 
certain CFCs and HCFCs, during the service, repair, or disposal of 
appliances and industrial process refrigeration (IPR), including AC and 
refrigeration equipment. EPA's authority to propose the actions in this 
NPRM is based in part on section 608 of the Clean Air Act. Section 
608(c)(1) provides that, effective July 1, 1992, it is:

unlawful for any person, in the course of maintaining, servicing, 
repairing, or disposing of an appliance or industrial process 
refrigeration, to knowingly vent or otherwise knowingly release or 
dispose of any class I or class II substance used as a refrigerant 
in such appliance (or industrial process refrigeration) in a manner 
which permits such substance to enter the environment.

    Section 608(c)(1) further exempts from this self-effectuating 
prohibition ``[d]e minimis releases associated with good faith attempts 
to recapture and recycle or safely dispose'' of such a substance. EPA 
interprets releases to meet the criteria for exempted de minimis 
releases if they occur when the recycling and recovery requirements of 
regulations promulgated under sections 608 and 609 are followed. 40 CFR 
82.154(a)(2).
    Effective November 15, 1995, section 608(c)(2) of the Act extends 
the prohibition in section 608(c)(1) to knowingly venting or otherwise 
knowingly releasing or disposing of any refrigerant substitute for 
class I or class II substances by any person maintaining, servicing, 
repairing, or disposing of appliances or IPR. This prohibition applies 
to any substitute unless the Administrator determines that such 
venting, releasing, or disposing ``does not pose a threat to the 
environment.'' Thus, section 608(c) provides EPA authority to 
promulgate regulations to interpret, implement, and enforce this 
prohibition on venting, releasing, or disposing of class I or class II 
substances and their refrigerant substitutes, which we refer to as the 
``venting prohibition'' in this NPRM.

B. What are EPA's regulations concerning venting, releasing or 
disposing of refrigerant substitutes?

    Regulations promulgated under Section 608 of the Act, published on 
May 14, 1993 (58 FR 28660), established a recycling program for ozone-
depleting refrigerants recovered during the servicing and maintenance 
of AC and refrigeration appliances. In the same 1993 rule, EPA also 
promulgated regulations implementing the section 608(c) prohibition on 
knowingly venting, releasing, or disposing of class I or class II 
controlled substances. These regulations were designed to substantially 
reduce the use and emissions of ozone-depleting refrigerants.
    EPA issued a final rule on March 12, 2004, at 69 FR 11946 and a 
second rule on April 13, 2005, at 70 FR 19273 clarifying how the 
venting prohibition in section 608(c) applies to substitutes for CFC 
and HCFC refrigerants (e.g., hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and 
perfluorocarbons (PFCs) in part or whole) during the maintenance, 
service, repair, or disposal of appliances. These regulations are 
codified at 40 CFR Part 82, Subpart F. The regulation at 40 CFR 
82.154(a) now states in part that:

    (1) ``Effective June 13, 2005, no person maintaining, servicing, 
repairing, or disposing of appliances may knowingly vent or 
otherwise release into the environment any refrigerant or substitute 
from such appliances, with the exception of the following 
substitutes in the following end-uses:
    i. Ammonia in commercial refrigeration, or in [IPR] or in 
absorption units;
    ii. Hydrocarbons in [IPR] (processing of hydrocarbons);
    iii. Chlorine in [IPR] (processing of chlorine and chlorine 
compounds);

[[Page 38828]]

    iv. Carbon dioxide in any application;
    v. Nitrogen in any application; or
    vi. Water in any application.
    (2) The knowing release of a refrigerant or non-exempt 
substitute subsequent to its recovery from an appliance shall be 
considered a violation of this prohibition. De minimis releases 
associated with good faith attempts to recycle or recover 
refrigerants or non-exempt substitutes are not subject to this 
prohibition. . . .''

    As explained in EPA's earlier rulemaking concerning refrigerant 
substitutes, EPA has not promulgated regulations requiring 
certification of refrigerant recycling/recovery equipment intended for 
use with substitutes to date (70 FR 19275; April 13, 2005). However, as 
EPA noted, the lack of a current regulatory provision should not be 
considered as an exemption from the venting prohibition for substitutes 
that are not expressly exempted in Section 82.154(a). EPA has also 
noted that, in accordance with section 608(c) of the Act, the 
regulatory prohibition at Section 82.154(a) reflects the statutory 
references to de minimis releases of substitutes as they pertain to 
good faith attempts to recover and recycle or safely dispose of non-
exempted substitutes (70 FR 19275; April 13, 2005).

C. What revision to the venting prohibition has EPA recently issued?

    On May 23, 2014 at 79 FR 29682, EPA revised the venting prohibition 
for refrigerant substitutes.\21\ Those changes exempt from that 
prohibition three hydrocarbon refrigerant substitutes listed as 
acceptable subject to use conditions in the specified end-uses under 
the SNAP program: isobutane (R-600a) and R-441A, which were listed as 
acceptable, subject to use conditions, as refrigerant substitutes in 
household refrigerators, freezers, and combination refrigerators and 
freezers, and propane (R-290), which was listed as acceptable, subject 
to use conditions, as a refrigerant substitute in retail food 
refrigerators and freezers (stand-alone units only). That final rule 
does not apply to blends of hydrocarbons with other refrigerants or 
containing any amount of any CFC, HCFC, HFC, or PFC.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \21\ EPA is describing that final rule in this NPRM simply for 
ease of reference and as a reminder of EPA's most recent rule on 
this subject; EPA is not here changing any aspect of that final rule 
or reopening the opportunity for comments on that final rule.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    EPA determined that for the purposes of CAA section 608(c)(2), the 
venting, release or disposal of such hydrocarbon refrigerant 
substitutes in the specified end-uses does not pose a threat to the 
environment, considering both the inherent characteristics of these 
substances and the limited quantities used in the relevant 
applications. EPA additionally concluded that other authorities, 
controls and practices that apply to such refrigerants help to mitigate 
environmental risk from the release of those three hydrocarbon 
refrigerant substitutes. For example, state and local air quality 
agencies may include VOC emissions reduction strategies in state 
implementation plans developed to meet and maintain the NAAQS that 
would apply to hydrocarbon refrigerants.

D. What is EPA's proposed determination regarding whether venting of 
hydrocarbons to be listed as acceptable subject to use conditions in 
the end-uses proposed in this NPRM poses a threat to the environment?

    For purposes of section 608(c)(2) of the CAA, EPA considers two 
factors in determining whether or not venting, release, or disposal of 
a substitute refrigerant during the maintenance, servicing, repairing, 
or disposing of appliances poses a threat to the environment. See 69 FR 
11948 (March 12, 2004). First, EPA determines whether venting, release, 
or disposal of the substitute refrigerant poses a threat to the 
environment because of the inherent characteristics of the refrigerant, 
such as global warming potential. Second, EPA determines whether and to 
what extent such venting, release, or disposal actually takes place 
during the maintenance, servicing, repairing, or disposing of 
appliances, and to what extent such venting, release, or disposal is 
controlled by other authorities, regulations, or practices. To the 
extent that such releases are adequately controlled by other 
authorities, EPA defers to those authorities.
1. Potential Environmental Impacts
    EPA has evaluated the potential environmental impacts of releasing 
into the environment the hydrocarbon refrigerant substitutes that we 
are proposing to list under the SNAP program as acceptable subject to 
use conditions in the end-uses proposed--i.e., ethane in very low 
temperature refrigeration and non-mechanical heat transfer; isobutane 
in retail food refrigeration (stand-alone equipment only) and vending 
machines; propane in household refrigerators and freezers, vending 
machines and room AC units; and R-441A in retail food refrigeration 
(stand-alone equipment only), vending machines and room AC units. In 
particular, we assessed the potential impact of the release of 
additional hydrocarbons on local air quality and their ability to 
decompose in the atmosphere, their ODP and their GWPs, as well as 
potential impacts on ecosystems (see Section IV above, ``What criteria 
did EPA consider in determining whether to list the substitutes as 
acceptable and in determining appropriate use conditions and how does 
EPA consider those factors?''). As explained in that section, the ODP 
of these hydrocarbons is zero, the GWPs are less than 10, and effects 
on aquatic life from these hydrocarbons are expected to be small. As to 
potential effects on local air quality, based on the analysis and 
modeling results described above, EPA concludes that the four saturated 
hydrocarbon refrigerant substitutes proposed to be listed as acceptable 
subject to use conditions in specific end-uses--ethane, isobutane, 
propane, and R-441A--are expected to have little impact on local air 
quality. In addition, when examining all hydrocarbon substitute 
refrigerants in those uses for which UL currently has standards in 
place, for which the SNAP program has already listed the uses as 
acceptable subject to use conditions, or for which the SNAP program is 
reviewing a submission, including those in this rule, we found that 
even if all the refrigerant in appliances in end-uses addressed in this 
proposed rule were to be emitted, there would be a worst-case impact of 
less than 0.2% of the NAAQS for ground-level ozone in the Los Angeles 
area. In light of its evaluation of potential environmental impacts, 
EPA concludes that the four hydrocarbon refrigerant substitutes in the 
end-uses at issue in this proposal are not expected to pose a threat to 
the environment on the basis of the limited quantities used in the 
relevant end-uses and applications and on the basis of the inherent 
characteristics of these substances (ICF, 2014a).
2. Toxicity and Flammability
    As discussed above in sections IV.B., ``Flammability and fire 
safety'' and IV.C., ``Toxicity,'' EPA's SNAP program evaluated the 
potential for fire risk from flammability and toxicity risks from 
exposure to the substitute refrigerants in this proposal. EPA is 
providing some of that information in this section as well.
    Hydrocarbons, including ethane, propane, isobutane and the 
hydrocarbon blend R-441A, are classified as A3 refrigerants by ASHRAE 
Standard 34-2010, indicating that they have low toxicity and high 
flammability. Hydrocarbons considered in this proposal have lower 
flammability limits (LFLs) ranging from 1.8% to 3.0% (18,000 ppm to 
30,000 ppm). To address flammability risks, EPA is issuing

[[Page 38829]]

recommendations for their safe use (see section VII, ``What 
recommendations does EPA have for safe use of the proposed flammable 
substitute refrigerants?'' below) and specified use conditions. The 
SNAP program's analysis suggests that the use conditions proposed in 
this rule mitigate flammability risks.
    Like most refrigerants, hydrocarbons can displace oxygen at high 
concentrations and cause asphyxiation. Various industry and regulatory 
standards exist to address asphyxiation and toxicity risks. The SNAP 
program's analysis of asphyxiation and toxicity risks suggests that the 
use conditions proposed in this rule mitigate potential asphyxiation 
and toxicity risks. Furthermore, the Agency believes that the 
flammability risks and occupational exposures to hydrocarbons are 
adequately regulated by OSHA, building, and fire codes at a local and 
national level.
3. Authorities, Controls, and Practices
    EPA believes that existing authorities, controls, and practices 
would help mitigate environmental risk from the release of these 
hydrocarbon refrigerants. Analyses performed for both this proposed 
rule and the SNAP rules issued in 1994 and 2011 (March 17, 1994, at 59 
FR 13044 and December 20, 2011, at 76 FR 38832, respectively) indicate 
that existing regulatory requirements and industry practices designed 
to limit and control these substances adequately control the emission 
of the hydrocarbon refrigerants proposed to be listed in this action. 
As explained below, EPA concludes that the limits and controls under 
other authorities, regulations or practices adequately control the 
release of and exposure to the four hydrocarbon substitute refrigerants 
and mitigate risks from any possible release.
    This conclusion is relevant to the second factor mentioned above in 
the overall determination of whether venting, release, or disposal of a 
substitute refrigerant poses a threat to the environment--that is, a 
consideration of the extent that such venting, release, or disposal is 
adequately controlled by other authorities, regulations, or practices. 
As such, this conclusion is another part of the determination that the 
venting, release, or disposal of these four hydrocarbon refrigerants 
would not pose a threat to the environment.
    Industry service practices and OSHA standards and guidelines 
address hydrocarbon refrigeration equipment, include monitoring 
efforts, engineering controls, and operating procedures. OSHA 
requirements that apply during servicing include continuous monitoring 
of explosive gas concentrations and oxygen levels. In general, 
hydrocarbon emissions from refrigeration systems are likely to be 
significantly smaller than those emanating from the industrial process 
and storage systems, which are controlled for safety reasons. Further, 
the SNAP rule listing hydrocarbons as acceptable subject to use 
conditions for use in household and commercial stand-alone 
refrigerators and freezers (December 20, 2011, at 76 FR 78832), we 
noted that the amount of refrigerant from a refrigerant loop is limited 
(57 g for household refrigerators and freezers, and 150 g for 
commercial stand-alone refrigerators and freezers), indicating that 
hydrocarbon emissions from such uses are likely to be relatively small. 
Similar charge limits are proposed to apply to very low temperature 
refrigeration equipment, non-mechanical heat transfer equipment, and 
vending machines, with larger but still limited charges for room air 
conditioners (1000 g for hydrocarbon refrigerants).
    Hydrocarbons that are also VOC may be regulated as VOC under 
sections of the Clean Air Act that address nonattainment, attainment 
and maintenance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for 
ground level ozone, including those sections addressing development of 
State Implementation Plans and those addressing permitting of VOC 
sources.
    The release and/or disposal of many refrigerant substitutes, 
including hydrocarbons, are controlled by other authorities including 
those established by OSHA and NIOSH guidelines, various standards, and 
state and local building codes. To the extent that release during 
maintaining, repairing, servicing or disposing of appliances is 
controlled by regulations and standards of other authorities, EPA 
believes these practices and controls for the use of hydrocarbons are 
sufficiently protective. These practices and controls could help 
mitigate the risk to the environment that may be posed by the venting, 
release or disposal of these four hydrocarbon refrigerants during the 
maintaining, servicing, repairing, or disposing of appliances. This 
conclusion addresses the second factor in the analysis described above 
and is thus part of the determination that the venting, release, or 
disposal of these hydrocarbon refrigerant substitutes does not pose a 
threat to the environment.
4. Conclusion
    EPA has reviewed the potential environmental impacts of four 
hydrocarbon refrigerant substitutes in the end-uses that we are 
proposing to list subject to use conditions under SNAP, as well as the 
authorities, controls and practices in place for those hydrocarbon 
refrigerant substitutes. Specifically, EPA concludes that these four 
hydrocarbon refrigerant substitutes in the proposed end-uses and 
subject to the proposed use conditions are not expected to pose a 
threat to the environment based on the inherent characteristics of 
these substances and the limited quantities used in the relevant 
applications. EPA additionally concludes that existing authorities, 
controls, and practices help mitigate environmental risk from the 
release of those four hydrocarbons in the proposed end-uses and subject 
to the proposed use conditions. In light of these conclusions and those 
described or identified above in this section, we are proposing to 
determine, in accordance with 608(c)(2), that based on current evidence 
and risk analyses, the venting, release or disposal of these four 
hydrocarbon refrigerant substitutes in the end-uses proposed does not 
pose a threat to the environment. Furthermore, EPA is proposing to 
exempt from the venting prohibition at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1) these 
additional uses for which hydrocarbons are being proposed to be found 
acceptable subject to use conditions under the SNAP program.
    EPA seeks information or data on whether there currently is an 
industry standard for recovery units for flammable refrigerants and 
whether there are commercially available recovery units that are 
specifically designed to be compatible with ethane, isobutane, propane, 
and R-441A. At this time, EPA is unaware of any recovery units that are 
designed specifically for recovering hydrocarbons and which are readily 
available in the U.S. Further, we are not aware of relevant U.S. 
standards for such recovery units. However, to the extent that these 
hydrocarbons are recovered rather than vented as would be allowed in 
the specified end-uses if this proposal became final, EPA recommends 
the use of recovery equipment designed for flammable refrigerants, when 
such equipment and relevant U.S. standards for it become available, in 
accordance with applicable safe handling practices.

[[Page 38830]]

E. What is EPA proposing regarding venting, release, or disposal of 
refrigerant substitutes, other than hydrocarbons, included in our 
proposed decision?

    Today's proposed rulemaking would regulate the use of HFC-32 in 
room AC units. All HFCs are currently subject to the venting 
prohibition. EPA is not proposing to extend the exemption to HFC-32 or 
any refrigerant blends that contain HFC-32 or any other HFC. Further, 
the exemption to the venting prohibition proposed in this NPRM does not 
extend to blends of hydrocarbons and other types of compounds, e.g., 
blends of HFCs and hydrocarbons. Such refrigerant substitutes would 
still be subject to the statutory and regulatory venting prohibition.

VII. What recommendations does EPA have for safe use of the proposed 
flammable substitute refrigerants?

    EPA recommends that only technicians specifically trained in 
handling flammable refrigerant substitutes service or dispose of 
refrigeration and AC equipment containing these substances. Technicians 
should know how to minimize the risk of fire and the procedures for 
using flammable refrigerant substitutes safely. Releases of large 
quantities of refrigerant substitutes during servicing and 
manufacturing, especially in enclosed, poorly ventilated spaces or in 
areas where large amounts of refrigerant are stored, could cause an 
explosion if an ignition source exists nearby. For these reasons, it is 
important that only properly trained technicians handle flammable 
refrigerant substitutes when maintaining, servicing, repairing, or 
disposing of household and retail food refrigerators and freezers, very 
low temperature freezers, non-mechanical heat transfer equipment (e.g., 
thermosiphons), and room air conditioners. In addition, EPA recommends 
that if hydrocarbon refrigerant substitutes were vented, released, or 
disposed of (rather than recovered), as would be allowed in the 
specified end-uses if this proposal became final, the release should be 
in a well-ventilated area, such as outside of a building.
    We are aware that at least one organization, Refrigeration Service 
Engineers Society (RSES), has developed a technician training program 
in collaboration with refrigeration equipment manufacturers and users 
that addresses safe use of flammable refrigerant substitutes. In 
addition, EPA has reviewed several training programs provided as part 
of SNAP submissions from persons interested in flammable refrigerant 
substitutes. EPA intends to update the CAA Section 608 technician 
certification test bank provided to approved organizations that 
administer the certification exams in accordance with 40 CFR 82.161 to 
specifically include questions concerning flammable refrigerant 
substitutes.
    EPA considered proposing a use condition requiring training in 
handling flammable refrigerant substitutes for technicians who service 
or dispose of refrigeration and AC equipment containing these 
substitutes. However, we do not have sufficient information on the core 
elements that should be part of such a training program to ensure that 
a training requirement would improve safety. Some examples of potential 
core elements that EPA might consider include:
     EPA's relevant use conditions for flammable refrigerants;
     relevant OSHA requirements for flammable gases; relevant 
industry standards (e.g., UL, ASHRAE, NFPA);
     MSDS information, including first aid and physical and 
chemical characteristics of flammable refrigerants; and
     requirements and procedures for safe storage and handling 
of flammable refrigerants.
EPA requests comment on whether we should establish a use condition 
requiring training in handling flammable refrigerant substitutes for 
technicians servicing or disposing of equipment containing such 
substitutes, and if so, what should be the mandatory elements of such 
training.

VIII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review and Executive 
Order 13563: Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review

    Under Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), 
this action is a ``significant regulatory action.'' It raises novel 
legal or policy issues arising out of legal mandates, the President's 
priorities, or the principles set forth in the Executive Order. 
Accordingly, EPA submitted this action to the Office of Management and 
Budget (OMB) for review under EO 12866 and 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 
21, 2011) and any changes made in response to OMB recommendations have 
been documented in the docket for this action.

B. Paperwork Reduction Act

    This action does not impose any new information collection burden. 
This proposed rule is an Agency determination. It contains no new 
requirements for reporting or recordkeeping. The Office of Management 
and Budget (OMB) has previously approved the information collection 
requirements contained in the existing regulations in Subpart G of 40 
CFR Part 82 under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 
U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and has assigned OMB control number 2060-0226. This 
Information Collection Request (ICR) included five types of respondent 
reporting and recordkeeping activities pursuant to SNAP regulations: 
Submission of a SNAP petition, filing a SNAP/TSCA Addendum, 
notification for test marketing activity, recordkeeping for substitutes 
acceptable subject to use restrictions, and recordkeeping for small 
volume uses. The OMB control numbers for EPA's regulations are listed 
in 40 CFR part 9 and 48 CFR Chapter 15.C.

C. Regulatory Flexibility Act

    The Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) generally requires an agency 
to prepare a regulatory flexibility analysis of any rule subject to 
notice and comment rulemaking requirements under the Administrative 
Procedure Act or any other statute unless the agency certifies that the 
rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial 
number of small entities. Small entities include small businesses, 
small organizations, and small governmental jurisdictions. For purposes 
of assessing the impacts of this rule on small entities, small entity 
is defined as: (1) A small business as defined by the Small Business 
Administration's (SBA) regulations at 13 CFR 121.201; (2) a small 
governmental jurisdiction that is a government of a city, county, town, 
school district or special district with a population of less than 
50,000; and (3) a small organization that is any not-for-profit 
enterprise which is independently owned and operated and is not 
dominant in its field.
    After considering the economic impacts of this proposed rule on 
small entities, I certify that this action will not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. In 
determining whether a rule has a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities, the impact of concern is any 
significant adverse economic impact on small entities, since the 
primary purpose of the regulatory flexibility analyses is to identify 
and address regulatory alternatives ``which minimize any significant 
economic impact of the rule on small entities.'' 5 U.S.C. 603 and 604.

[[Page 38831]]

Thus, an agency may certify that a rule will not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities if the rule 
relieves regulatory burden, or otherwise has a positive economic effect 
on all of the small entities subject to the rule. The use conditions of 
this proposed rule, if finalized, would apply to manufacturers of 
household and commercial refrigerators and freezers, vending machines, 
non-mechanical heat transfer equipment, very low temperature 
refrigeration equipment for laboratories and room air conditioners that 
choose to use these refrigerants. Today's action, if finalized, would 
allow equipment manufacturers the additional options of using ethane, 
HFC-32, isobutane, propane, and R-441A in the specified end-uses but 
does not mandate such use. Because refrigeration and AC equipment for 
these refrigerants are not manufactured yet in the U.S. for the 
proposed end-uses (with the exception of limited test-marketing), no 
change in business practice would be required to meet the use 
conditions, resulting in no adverse impact compared to the absence of 
this rule. Proposed provisions that would allow venting of hydrocarbon 
refrigerants in the uses addressed by this rule would reduce regulatory 
burden. Thus, the rule would not impose any new costs on small entities 
if finalized as proposed. EPA continues to be interested in the 
potential impacts of the proposed rule on small entities and welcomes 
comments on issues related to such impacts.

D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    This action contains no Federal mandates under the provisions of 
Title II of the Unfunded Mandate Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA), 2 U.S.C. 
1531-1538 for State, local, or tribal governments or the private 
sector. This action imposes no enforceable duty on any State, local, or 
tribal governments or the private sector. The enforceable requirements 
of this proposed rule related to integrating risk mitigation devices, 
markings, and procedures for maintaining safety of refrigeration and AC 
equipment using flammable refrigerants affect only a small number of 
manufacturers of refrigeration and AC equipment and their technicians. 
Therefore, this rule is not subject to the requirements of sections 202 
and 205 of the UMRA. This action is also not subject to the 
requirements of section 203 of UMRA because it contains no regulatory 
requirements that might significantly or uniquely affect small 
governments. This regulation applies equipment manufacturers and not to 
governmental entities. Today's action, if finalized, would allow 
equipment manufacturers the additional options of using ethane, HFC-32, 
isobutane, propane, and R-441A in the specified end-uses. Because 
refrigeration and AC equipment for these refrigerants are not 
manufactured yet in the U.S. for the proposed end-uses, no change in 
business practice would be required to meet the use conditions. This 
proposed rule does not mandate a switch to these substitutes; 
consequently, there is no direct economic impact on entities from this 
rulemaking.

E. Executive Order 13132: Federalism

    This action does not have federalism implications. It will not have 
substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between 
the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power 
and responsibilities among the various levels of government, as 
specified in Executive Order 13132. This regulation applies directly to 
facilities that use these substances and not to governmental entities. 
Thus, Executive Order 13132 does not apply to this action. In the 
spirit of Executive Order 13132, and consistent with EPA policy to 
promote communications between EPA and State and local governments, EPA 
specifically solicits comments on this proposed action from State and 
local officials.

F. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Indian 
Tribal Governments

    This action does not have tribal implications, as specified in 
Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000). It will not have 
substantial direct effects on tribal governments, on the relationship 
between the Federal government and Indian tribes, or on the 
distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal 
government and Indian tribes, as specified in Executive Order 13175. 
EPA specifically solicits additional comment on this proposed action 
from tribal officials.

G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental 
Health and Safety Risks

    This action is not subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, 
April 23, 1997) because it is not economically significant as defined 
in E.O. 12866, and because the Agency does not believe the 
environmental health or safety risks addressed by this action present a 
disproportionate risk to children. This proposed rule provides both 
regulatory restrictions and recommended guidelines based upon risk 
screens conducted in order to reduce risk of fire and explosion. This 
proposed rule, if finalized, would provide refrigerant substitutes that 
have no ODP and lower GWP than other substitutes currently listed as 
acceptable. The reduction in ODS and GHG emissions would assist in 
restoring the stratospheric ozone layer and provide climate benefits. 
The public is invited to submit comments or identify peer-reviewed 
studies and data that assess effects of early life exposure to the 
refrigerant substitutes addressed in this action.

H. Executive Order 13211: Actions That Significantly Affect Energy 
Supply, Distribution, or Use

    This action is not a ``significant energy action'' as defined in 
Executive Order 13211, (66 FR 28355 (May 22, 2001)) because it is not 
likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, 
distribution, or use of energy. Preliminary information indicates that 
these new systems may be more energy efficient than currently available 
systems in some climates.

I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act

    Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement 
Act of 1995 (``NTTAA''), Public Law 104-113, (15 U.S.C. 272 note) 
directs EPA to use voluntary consensus standards in its regulatory 
activities unless to do so would be inconsistent with applicable law or 
otherwise impractical. Voluntary consensus standards are technical 
standards (e.g., materials specifications, test methods, sampling 
procedures, and business practices) that are developed or adopted by 
voluntary consensus standards bodies. The NTTAA directs EPA to provide 
Congress, through OMB, explanations when the Agency decides not to use 
available and applicable voluntary consensus standards. This proposed 
rule involves technical standards. EPA proposes to use current editions 
of the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standards 250, 471, 541 and 484, 
which include requirements for safety and reliability for flammable 
refrigerants. This proposed rule regulates the safety and deployment of 
new substitutes for household and commercial refrigerators and 
freezers, vending machines, non-mechanical heat transfer equipment, 
very low temperature refrigeration equipment, and room air 
conditioners.
    EPA welcomes comment on this aspect of the proposed rulemaking and, 
specifically invites the public to identify potentially applicable 
voluntary consensus standards and to explain why

[[Page 38832]]

such standards should be used in this regulation.

J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address Environmental 
Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

    Executive Order (E.O.) 12898 (59 FR 7629 (Feb. 16, 1994)) 
establishes Federal executive policy on environmental justice. Its main 
provision directs Federal agencies, to the greatest extent practicable 
and permitted by law, to make environmental justice part of their 
mission by identifying and addressing, as appropriate, 
disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental 
effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority 
populations and low-income populations in the United States.
    EPA has determined that this proposed rule will not have 
disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental 
effects on minority or low-income populations because it increases the 
level of human health and environmental protection for all affected 
populations without having any disproportionately high and adverse 
human health or environmental effects on any population, including any 
minority or low-income population. This proposed rule, if finalized, 
would provide refrigerant substitutes that have no ODP and lower GWP 
than other substitutes currently listed as acceptable. The reduction in 
ODS and GHG emissions would assist in restoring the stratospheric ozone 
layer and provide climate benefits.

IX. References

    This preamble references the following documents, which are also in 
the Air Docket at the address listed in Section I.B.1. Unless specified 
otherwise, all documents are available electronically through the 
Federal Docket Management System, Docket  EPA-HQ-OAR-2013-
0748.

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI), 2012. 
AHRI Guideline N-2012: Assignment of Refrigerant Container Colors. 
2012.
ASHRAE, 2010. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American 
Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers 
(ASHRAE). Standard 34-2010 (supersedes ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-
2007): Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants. 2010.
A.S. Trust & Holdings, 2012. Significant New Alternatives Policy 
Program Submission to the United States Environmental Protection 
Agency for R-441A in retail food refrigeration.
A/S Vestfrost, 2012. Significant New Alternatives Policy Program 
Submission to the United States Environmental Protection Agency for 
isobutane in retail food refrigeration.
Climate Action Plan, 2013. The President's Climate Action Plan. 
Executive Office of the President. June, 2013. Available online at 
www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/image/president27sclimateactionplan.pdf.
Chinese Household Electrical Appliance Association (CHEAA), 2013. 
Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Submission to the United 
States Environmental Protection Agency for Propane (R-290) in 
residential and light commercial air conditioning and dehumidifiers.
Daikin, 2011. Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Submission 
to the United States Environmental Protection Agency for HFC-32 in 
residential and light commercial air conditioning.
EPA, 2014. Derivation of Charge Limits for Room Air Conditioners. 
Staff memo to Air Docket. 2014.
ICF, 2014a. Assessment of the Potential Impact of Hydrocarbon 
Refrigerants on Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations.
ICF, 2014b. Risk Screen on Substitutes for CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R-502 
in Retail Food Refrigeration; Substitute: Isobutane (R-600a)
ICF, 2014c. Risk Screen on Substitutes for CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R-502 
in Retail Food Refrigeration; Substitute: R-441A.
ICF, 2014d. Risk Screen on Substitute for CFC-12, CFC-13, R-13B1, 
and R-503 in Very Low Temperature Refrigeration and Non-Mechanical 
Heat Transfer; Substitute: Ethane (R-170).
ICF, 2014e. Risk Screen on Substitutes for CFC-12 and R-502 in 
Vending Machines; Substitute: R-441A.
ICF, 2014f. Risk Screen on Substitutes for CFC-12 and R-502 in 
Vending Machines; Substitute: Isobutane (R-600a).
ICF, 2014g. Risk Screen on Substitutes for CFC-12 and R-502 in 
Vending Machines; Substitute: Propane (R-290).
ICF, 2014h. Risk Screen on Substitutes for CFC-12 and HCFC-22 in 
Household Refrigerators and Household Freezers.; Substitute: Propane 
(R-290).
ICF, 2014i. Risk Screen on Substitutes for HCFC-22 in Residential 
and Light Commercial Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps; Substitute: 
Propane (R-290).
ICF, 2014j. Risk Screen on Substitutes for HCFC-22 in Residential 
and Light Commercial Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps; Substitute: 
HFC-32 (Difluoromethane).
ICF, 2014k. Risk Screen on Substitutes for HCFC-22 in Residential 
and Light Commercial Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps; Substitute: R-
441A.
IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. 
Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of 
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, 
M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. 
Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United 
Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. This document is accessible at 
www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/contents.html.
Montzka, S.A., 2012. HFCs in the Atmosphere: Concentrations, 
Emissions and Impacts, ASHRAE/NIST Conference 2012.
NOAA, 2013. NOAA emissions data on HFCs. Available online at ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/hfcs/.
ORNL, 1997. J. Sand, S. Fischer, and V. Baxter, ``Energy and Global 
Warming Impacts of HFC Refrigerants and Emerging Technologies,'' 
1997, Oak Ridge National Lab.
Sheldon, 1989. Sheldon, L.S., et al. 1989. ``An Investigation of 
Infiltration and Indoor Air Quality.'' New York State Energy 
Research & Development Authority, Report 90-11. As cited in ICF, 
2014h, Risk screen for propane in household refrigerators and 
freezers.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 250. UL 250: Household Refrigerators 
and Freezers. 10th edition. Supplement SA: Requirements for 
Refrigerators and Freezers Employing a Flammable Refrigerant in the 
Refrigerating System. August 2000.
UL 471. Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers. 10th edition. 
Supplement SB: Requirements for Refrigerators and Freezers Employing 
a Flammable Refrigerant in the Refrigerating System. November 2010.
UL 484. Room Air Conditioners. 8th edition. Supplement SA: 
Requirements for Refrigerated Venders Employing a Flammable 
Refrigerant in the Refrigerating System. August 2012.
UL 541. Refrigerated Vending Machines. 7th edition. Supplement SA: 
Requirements for Room Air Conditioners Employing a Flammable 
Refrigerant in the Refrigerating System. December 2011.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Recycling, Reporting 
and recordkeeping requirements, Stratospheric ozone layer.

    Dated: June 26, 2014.
Gina McCarthy,
Administrator.
    For the reasons stated in the preamble, 40 CFR part 82 is proposed 
to be amended as follows:

PART 82--[AMENDED]

0
1. The authority citation for part 82 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7414, 7601, 7671-7671q.

0
2. In Sec.  82.154, add paragraph (a)(1)(iii) to read as follows:


Sec.  82.154  Prohibitions.

    (a) * * *
    (1) * * *

[[Page 38833]]

    (iii) Effective [DATE 60 DAYS AFTER DATE OF PUBLICATION OF FINAL 
RULE IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER], isobutane (R-600a) and R-441A as 
substitutes in retail food refrigerators and freezers (stand-alone 
units only); propane (R-290) as a substitute in household 
refrigerators, freezers, and combination refrigerators and freezers; 
ethane (R-170) as a substitute in very low temperature refrigeration 
equipment and equipment for non-mechanical heat transfer; R-441A, 
propane, and isobutane as substitutes in vending machines; and propane 
and R-441A in self-contained room air conditioners for residential and 
light commercial air conditioning and heat pumps.
* * * * *

Appendix R to Subpart G of Part 82--[Amended]

0
3. Revise Appendix R to subpart G of part 82 to read as follows:

Appendix R to Subpart G of Part 82--Substitutes Subject to Use 
Restrictions Listed in the December 20, 2011, Final Rule, Effective 
February 21, 2012, and in the [DATE OF PUBLICATION OF FINAL RULE IN THE 
FEDERAL REGISTER] Final Rule, Effective [DATE 60 DAYS AFTER DATE OF 
PUBLICATION OF FINAL RULE IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER]

                                                Substitutes That Are Acceptable Subject to Use Conditions
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              End-use                    Substitute             Decision                   Use conditions                    Further information
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Household refrigerators, freezers,  Isobutane (R-600a)..  Acceptable subject    These refrigerants may be used only  Applicable OSHA requirements at 29
 and combination refrigerators and  Propane.............   to use conditions.    in new equipment designed            CFR part 1910 must be followed,
 freezers (New equipment only).     (R-290).............                         specifically and clearly             including those at 29 CFR 1910.106
                                    R-441A..............                         identified for the refrigerant       (flammable and combustible
                                                                                 (i.e., none of these substitutes     liquids), 1910.110 (storage and
                                                                                 may be used as a conversion or       handling of liquefied petroleum
                                                                                 ``retrofit'' refrigerant for         gases), 1910.157 (portable fire
                                                                                 existing equipment designed for a    extinguishers), and 1910.1000
                                                                                 different refrigerant).              (toxic and hazardous substances).
                                                                                These refrigerants may be used only  Proper ventilation should be
                                                                                 in a refrigerator or freezer, or     maintained at all times during the
                                                                                 combination refrigerator and         manufacture and storage of
                                                                                 freezer, that meets all              equipment containing hydrocarbon
                                                                                 requirements listed in Supplement    refrigerants through adherence to
                                                                                 SA to the 10th edition of the        good manufacturing practices as
                                                                                 Underwriters Laboratories (UL)       per 29 CFR 1910.106. If
                                                                                 Standard for Household               refrigerant levels in the air
                                                                                 Refrigerators and Freezers, UL       surrounding the equipment rise
                                                                                 250, dated August 25, 2000. In       above one-fourth of the lower
                                                                                 cases where the final rule           flammability limit, the space
                                                                                 includes requirements more           should be evacuated and re-entry
                                                                                 stringent than those of the 10th     should occur only after the space
                                                                                 edition of UL 250, the appliance     has been properly ventilated.
                                                                                 must meet the requirements of the   Technicians and equipment
                                                                                 final rule in place of the           manufacturers should wear
                                                                                 requirements in the UL Standard.     appropriate personal protective
                                                                                The quantity of the substitute        equipment, including chemical
                                                                                 refrigerant (i.e., ``charge          goggles and protective gloves,
                                                                                 size'') must not exceed 57 grams     when handling these refrigerants.
                                                                                 (2.01 ounces) in any refrigerator,   Special care should be taken to
                                                                                 freezer, or combination              avoid contact with the skin since
                                                                                 refrigerator and freezer for each    these refrigerants, like many
                                                                                 circuit.                             refrigerants, can cause freeze
                                                                                                                      burns on the skin.
                                                                                                                     A class B dry powder type fire
                                                                                                                      extinguisher should be kept
                                                                                                                      nearby.
                                                                                                                     Technicians should only use spark-
                                                                                                                      proof tools when working on
                                                                                                                      refrigerators and freezers with
                                                                                                                      these refrigerants.
                                                                                                                     Any recovery equipment used should
                                                                                                                      be designed for flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants.
                                                                                                                     Any refrigerant releases should be
                                                                                                                      in a well-ventilated area, such as
                                                                                                                      outside of a building.
                                                                                                                     Only technicians specifically
                                                                                                                      trained in handling flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants should service
                                                                                                                      refrigerators and freezers
                                                                                                                      containing these refrigerants.
                                                                                                                      Technicians should gain an
                                                                                                                      understanding of minimizing the
                                                                                                                      risk of fire and the steps to use
                                                                                                                      flammable refrigerants safely.

[[Page 38834]]

 
Household refrigerators, freezers,  Isobutane (R-600a)..  Acceptable subject    As provided in clauses SA6.1.1 and   Room occupants should evacuate the
 and combination refrigerators and  Propane.............   to use conditions.    SA6.1.2 of UL Standard 250, 10th     space immediately following the
 freezers (New equipment only).     (R-290).............                         edition, the following markings      accidental release of this
                                    R-441A..............                         must be attached at the locations    refrigerant.
                                                                                 provided and must be permanent:     If a service port is added then
                                                                                (a) On or near any evaporators that   household refrigerators, freezers,
                                                                                 can be contacted by the consumer:    and combination refrigerator and
                                                                                 ``DANGER--Risk of Fire or            freezers using these refrigerants
                                                                                 Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant     should have service aperture
                                                                                 Used. Do Not Use Mechanical          fittings that differ from fittings
                                                                                 Devices To Defrost Refrigerator.     used in equipment or containers
                                                                                 Do Not Puncture Refrigerant          using non-flammable refrigerant.
                                                                                 Tubing.''.                           ``Differ'' means that either the
                                                                                (b) Near the machine compartment:     diameter differs by at least \1/
                                                                                 ``DANGER--Risk of Fire or            16\ inch or the thread direction
                                                                                 Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant     is reversed (i.e., right-handed
                                                                                 Used. To Be Repaired Only By         vs. left-handed). These different
                                                                                 Trained Service Personnel. Do Not    fittings should be permanently
                                                                                 Puncture Refrigerant Tubing.''.      affixed to the unit at the point
                                                                                (c) Near the machine compartment:     of service and maintained until
                                                                                 ``CAUTION--Risk of Fire or           the end-of-life of the unit, and
                                                                                 Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant     should not be accessed with an
                                                                                 Used. Consult Repair Manual/         adaptor.
                                                                                 Owner's Guide Before Attempting To
                                                                                 Service This Product. All Safety
                                                                                 Precautions Must Be Followed.''.
                                                                                   (d) On the exterior of the
                                                                                    refrigerator: ``CAUTION--Risk
                                                                                    of Fire or Explosion. Dispose
                                                                                    of Properly In Accordance With
                                                                                    Federal Or Local Regulations.
                                                                                    Flammable Refrigerant Used.''.
                                                                                   (e) Near any and all exposed
                                                                                    refrigerant tubing: ``CAUTION--
                                                                                    Risk of Fire or Explosion Due
                                                                                    To Puncture Of Refrigerant
                                                                                    Tubing; Follow Handling
                                                                                    Instructions Carefully.
                                                                                    Flammable Refrigerant Used.''.
                                                                                All of these markings must be in
                                                                                 letters no less than 6.4 mm (\1/4\
                                                                                 inch) high.
                                                                                The refrigerator, freezer, or
                                                                                 combination refrigerator and
                                                                                 freezer must have red,
                                                                                 Pantone[supreg] Matching System
                                                                                 (PMS) 185 marked pipes,
                                                                                 hoses, or other devices through
                                                                                 which the refrigerant is serviced
                                                                                 (typically known as the service
                                                                                 port) to indicate the use of a
                                                                                 flammable refrigerant. This color
                                                                                 must be present at all service
                                                                                 ports and where service puncturing
                                                                                 or otherwise creating an opening
                                                                                 from the refrigerant circuit to
                                                                                 the atmosphere might be expected
                                                                                 (e.g., process tubes). The color
                                                                                 mark must extend at least 2.5
                                                                                 centimeters (1 inch) from the
                                                                                 compressor and must be replaced if
                                                                                 removed.
Retail food refrigerators and       Isobutane (R-600a)..  Acceptable subject    As provided in clauses SB6.1.2 to    Room occupants should evacuate the
 freezers (stand-alone units only)  Propane.............   to use conditions.    SB6.1.5 of UL Standard 471, 10th     space immediately following the
 (New equipment only).              (R-290).............                         edition, the following markings      accidental release of this
                                    R-441A..............                         must be attached at the locations    refrigerant.
                                                                                 provided and must be permanent:     If a service port is added then
                                                                                (a) Attach on or near any             retail food refrigerators and
                                                                                 evaporators that can be contacted    freezers using these refrigerants
                                                                                 by the consumer: ``DANGER--Risk of   should have service aperture
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Flammable         fittings that differ from fittings
                                                                                 Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use         used in equipment or containers
                                                                                 Mechanical Devices To Defrost        using non-flammable refrigerant.
                                                                                 Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture        ``Differ'' means that either the
                                                                                 Refrigerant Tubing.''.               diameter differs by at least \1/
                                                                                (b) Attach near the machine           16\ inch or the thread direction
                                                                                 compartment: ``DANGER--Risk of       is reversed (i.e., right-handed
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Flammable         vs. left-handed). These different
                                                                                 Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired     fittings should be permanently
                                                                                 Only By Trained Service Personnel.   affixed to the unit at the point
                                                                                 Do Not Puncture Refrigerant          of service and maintained until
                                                                                 Tubing.''.                           the end-of-life of the unit, and
                                                                                                                      should not be accessed with an
                                                                                                                      adaptor.

[[Page 38835]]

 
                                                                                   (c) Attach near the machine
                                                                                    compartment: ``CAUTION--Risk of
                                                                                    Fire or Explosion. Flammable
                                                                                    Refrigerant Used. Consult
                                                                                    Repair Manual/Owner's Guide
                                                                                    Before Attempting To Service
                                                                                    This Product. All Safety
                                                                                    Precautions Must be Followed.''.
                                                                                   (d) Attach on the exterior of
                                                                                    the refrigerator: ``CAUTION--
                                                                                    Risk of Fire or Explosion.
                                                                                    Dispose of Properly In
                                                                                    Accordance With Federal Or
                                                                                    Local Regulations. Flammable
                                                                                    Refrigerant Used.''.
                                                                                   (e) Attach near any and all
                                                                                    exposed refrigerant tubing:
                                                                                    ``CAUTION--Risk of Fire or
                                                                                    Explosion Due To Puncture Of
                                                                                    Refrigerant Tubing; Follow
                                                                                    Handling Instructions
                                                                                    Carefully. Flammable
                                                                                    Refrigerant Used.''.
                                                                                All of these markings must be in
                                                                                 letters no less than 6.4 mm (\1/4\
                                                                                 inch) high.
                                                                                The refrigerator or freezer must
                                                                                 have red, Pantone[supreg] Matching
                                                                                 System (PMS) 185 marked
                                                                                 pipes, hoses, and other devices
                                                                                 through which the refrigerant is
                                                                                 serviced, typically known as the
                                                                                 service port, to indicate the use
                                                                                 of a flammable refrigerant. This
                                                                                 color must be present at all
                                                                                 service ports and where service
                                                                                 puncturing or otherwise creating
                                                                                 an opening from the refrigerant
                                                                                 circuit to the atmosphere might be
                                                                                 expected (e.g., process tubes).
                                                                                 The color mark must extend at
                                                                                 least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch)
                                                                                 from the compressor and must be
                                                                                 replaced if removed.
Very low temperature refrigeration  Ethane (R-170)......  Acceptable subject    This refrigerant may be used only    Applicable OSHA requirements at 29
 Non-mechanical heat transfer (New                         to use conditions.    in new equipment specifically        CFR part 1910 must be followed,
 equipment only).                                                                designed and clearly identified      including those at 29 CFR 1910.94
                                                                                 for the refrigerant (i.e., the       (ventilation) and 1910.106
                                                                                 substitute may not be used as a      (flammable and combustible
                                                                                 conversion or ``retrofit''           liquids), 1910.110 (storage and
                                                                                 refrigerant for existing equipment   handling of liquefied petroleum
                                                                                 designed for other refrigerants).    gases), and 1910.1000 (toxic and
                                                                                These substitutes may only be used    hazardous substances).
                                                                                 in equipment that meets all         Proper ventilation should be
                                                                                 requirements in Supplement SB to     maintained at all times during the
                                                                                 the 10th edition of the              manufacture and storage of
                                                                                 Underwriters Laboratories (UL)       equipment containing hydrocarbon
                                                                                 Standard for Commercial              refrigerants through adherence to
                                                                                 Refrigerators and Freezers, UL       good manufacturing practices as
                                                                                 471, dated November 24, 2010. In     per 29 CFR 1910.106. If
                                                                                 cases where the final rule           refrigerant levels in the air
                                                                                 includes requirements more           surrounding the equipment rise
                                                                                 stringent than those of the 10th     above one-fourth of the lower
                                                                                 edition of UL 471, the appliance     flammability limit, the space
                                                                                 must meet the requirements of the    should be evacuated and re-entry
                                                                                 final rule in place of the           should occur only after the space
                                                                                 requirements in the UL Standard..    has been properly ventilated.
                                                                                The charge size for the retail food  Technicians and equipment
                                                                                 refrigerator or freezer must not     manufacturers should wear
                                                                                 exceed 150 grams (5.29 ounces) in    appropriate personal protective
                                                                                 each circuit.                        equipment, including chemical
                                                                                                                      goggles and protective gloves,
                                                                                                                      when handling ethane. Special care
                                                                                                                      should be taken to avoid contact
                                                                                                                      with the skin since ethane, like
                                                                                                                      many refrigerants, can cause
                                                                                                                      freeze burns on the skin.
                                                                                                                     A class B dry powder type fire
                                                                                                                      extinguisher should be kept
                                                                                                                      nearby.
                                                                                                                     Technicians should only use spark-
                                                                                                                      proof tools when working on
                                                                                                                      refrigerators and freezers with
                                                                                                                      flammable refrigerants.
                                                                                                                     Any recovery equipment used should
                                                                                                                      be designed for flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants.
                                                                                                                     Any refrigerant releases should be
                                                                                                                      in a well-ventilated area, such as
                                                                                                                      outside of a building.

[[Page 38836]]

 
                                                                                                                     Only technicians specifically
                                                                                                                      trained in handling flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants should service
                                                                                                                      refrigerators and freezers
                                                                                                                      containing these refrigerants.
                                                                                                                      Technicians should gain an
                                                                                                                      understanding of minimizing the
                                                                                                                      risk of fire and the steps to use
                                                                                                                      flammable refrigerants safely.
Very low temperature refrigeration  Ethane (R-170)......  Acceptable subject     As provided in clauses SB6.1.2 to   Room occupants should evacuate the
 Non-mechanical heat transfer (New                         to use conditions.     SB6.1.5 of UL Standard 471, 10th    space immediately following the
 equipment only).                                                                  edition, the following markings    accidental release of this
                                                                                  must be attached at the locations   refrigerant.
                                                                                   provided and must be permanent:   If a service port is added then
                                                                                (a) Attach on or near any             refrigeration equipment using this
                                                                                 evaporators that can be contacted    refrigerant should have service
                                                                                 by the consumer: ``DANGER--Risk of   aperture fittings that differ from
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Flammable         fittings used in equipment or
                                                                                 Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use         containers using non-flammable
                                                                                 Mechanical Devices To Defrost        refrigerant. ``Differ'' means that
                                                                                 Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture        either the diameter differs by at
                                                                                 Refrigerant Tubing.''.               least \1/16\ inch or the thread
                                                                                (b) Attach near the machine           direction is reversed (i.e., right-
                                                                                 compartment: ``DANGER--Risk of       handed vs. left-handed). These
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Flammable         different fittings should be
                                                                                 Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired     permanently affixed to the unit at
                                                                                 Only By Trained Service Personnel.   the point of service and
                                                                                 Do Not Puncture Refrigerant          maintained until the end-of-life
                                                                                 Tubing.''.                           of the unit, and should not be
                                                                                (c) Attach near the machine           accessed with an adaptor.
                                                                                 compartment: ``CAUTION--Risk of     Example of non-mechanical heat
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Flammable         transfer using this refrigerant
                                                                                 Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair     would be use in a secondary loop
                                                                                 Manual/Owner's Guide Before          of a thermosiphon.
                                                                                 Attempting To Service This
                                                                                 Product. All Safety Precautions
                                                                                 Must be Followed.''.
                                                                                   (d) Attach on the exterior of
                                                                                    the refrigerator: ``CAUTION--
                                                                                    Risk of Fire or Explosion.
                                                                                    Dispose of Properly In
                                                                                    Accordance With Federal or
                                                                                    Local Regulations. Flammable
                                                                                    Refrigerant Used.''.
                                                                                   (e) Attach near any and all
                                                                                    exposed refrigerant tubing:
                                                                                    ``CAUTION--Risk of Fire or
                                                                                    Explosion Due To Puncture Of
                                                                                    Refrigerant Tubing; Follow
                                                                                    Handling Instructions
                                                                                    Carefully. Flammable
                                                                                    Refrigerant Used.''.
                                                                                All of these markings must be in
                                                                                 letters no less than 6.4 mm (\1/4\
                                                                                 inch) high.
                                                                                The refrigeration equipment must
                                                                                 have red, Pantone[supreg] Matching
                                                                                 System (PMS) 185 marked
                                                                                 pipes, hoses, and other devices
                                                                                 through which the refrigerant is
                                                                                 serviced, typically known as the
                                                                                 service port, to indicate the use
                                                                                 of a flammable refrigerant. This
                                                                                 color must be present at all
                                                                                 service ports and where service
                                                                                 puncturing or otherwise creating
                                                                                 an opening from the refrigerant
                                                                                 circuit to the atmosphere might be
                                                                                 expected (e.g., process tubes).
                                                                                 The color mark must extend at
                                                                                 least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch)
                                                                                 from the compressor and must be
                                                                                 replaced if removed.
Vending Machines (New equipment     Isobutane (R-600a)..  Acceptable subject    These refrigerants may be used only  Applicable OSHA requirements at 29
 only).                             Propane.............   to use conditions.    in new equipment specifically        CFR part 1910 must be followed,
                                    (R-290).............                         designed and clearly identified      including those at 29 CFR 1910.94
                                    R-441A..............                         for the refrigerants (i.e., none     (ventilation) and 1910.106
                                                                                 of these substitutes may be used     (flammable and combustible
                                                                                 as a conversion or ``retrofit''      liquids), 1910.110 (storage and
                                                                                 refrigerant for existing equipment   handling of liquefied petroleum
                                                                                 designed for other refrigerants).    gases), and 1910.1000 (toxic and
                                                                                                                      hazardous substances).

[[Page 38837]]

 
                                                                                Where it is possible to easily       Proper ventilation should be
                                                                                 detach and replace the old           maintained at all times during the
                                                                                 refrigeration circuit from the       manufacture and storage of
                                                                                 outer casing of the equipment.       equipment containing hydrocarbon
                                                                                 with a new one containing a new      refrigerants through adherence to
                                                                                 evaporator, condenser and            good manufacturing practices as
                                                                                 refrigerant tubing within the old    per 29 CFR 1910.106. If
                                                                                 casing, this is considered ``new''   refrigerant levels in the air
                                                                                 equipment and not a retrofit of      surrounding the equipment rise
                                                                                 the old, existing equipment.         above one-fourth of the lower
                                                                                These substitutes may only be used    flammability limit, the space
                                                                                 in equipment that meets all          should be evacuated and re-entry
                                                                                 requirements in Supplement SA to     should occur only after the space
                                                                                 the 7th edition of the               has been properly ventilated.
                                                                                 Underwriters Laboratories (UL)      Technicians and equipment
                                                                                 Standard for Refrigerated Vending    manufacturers should wear
                                                                                 Machines, UL 541, dated December,    appropriate personal protective
                                                                                 2011. In cases where the final       equipment, including chemical
                                                                                 rule includes requirements more      goggles and protective gloves,
                                                                                 stringent than those of the 7th      when handling propane. Special
                                                                                 edition of UL 541, the appliance     care should be taken to avoid
                                                                                 must meet the requirements of the    contact with the skin since
                                                                                 final rule in place of the           ethane, like many refrigerants,
                                                                                 requirements in the UL Standard.     can cause freeze burns on the
                                                                                The charge size for the               skin.
                                                                                 refrigeration equipment must not    ...................................
                                                                                 exceed 150 grams (5.29 ounces) in   Technicians should only use spark-
                                                                                 each circuit.                        proof tools when working on
                                                                                                                      refrigeration equipment with
                                                                                                                      flammable refrigerants.
                                                                                                                     Any recovery equipment used should
                                                                                                                      be designed for flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants.
                                                                                ...................................
                                                                                                                     Any refrigerant releases should be
                                                                                                                      in a well-ventilated area, such as
                                                                                                                      outside of a building.
                                                                                                                     Only technicians specifically
                                                                                                                      trained in handling flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants should service
                                                                                                                      refrigeration equipment containing
                                                                                                                      this refrigerant. Technicians
                                                                                                                      should gain an understanding of
                                                                                                                      minimizing the risk of fire and
                                                                                                                      the steps to use flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants safely.
Vending Machines (New equipment     Isobutane (R-600a)..  Acceptable subject     As provided in clauses SA6.1.2 to   Room occupants should evacuate the
 only).                             Propane.............   to use conditions.      SA6.1.5 of UL Standard 541, 7th    space immediately following the
                                    (R-290).............                           edition, the following markings    accidental release of this
                                    R-441A..............                          must be attached at the locations   refrigerant.
                                                                                   provided and must be permanent:   If a service port is added then
                                                                                (a) Attach on or near any             refrigeration equipment using this
                                                                                 evaporators that can be contacted    refrigerant should have service
                                                                                 by the consumer: ``DANGER--Risk of   aperture fittings that differ from
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Flammable         fittings used in equipment or
                                                                                 Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use         containers using non-flammable
                                                                                 Mechanical Devices To Defrost        refrigerant. ``Differ'' means that
                                                                                 Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture        either the diameter differs by at
                                                                                 Refrigerant Tubing.''.               least \1/16\ inch or the thread
                                                                                (b) Attach near the machine           direction is reversed (i.e., right-
                                                                                 compartment: ``DANGER--Risk of       handed vs. left-handed). These
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Flammable         different fittings should be
                                                                                 Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired     permanently affixed to the unit at
                                                                                 Only By Trained Service Personnel.   the point of service and
                                                                                 Do Not Puncture Refrigerant          maintained until the end-of-life
                                                                                 Tubing.''.                           of the unit, and should not be
                                                                                (c) Attach near the machine           accessed with an adaptor.
                                                                                 compartment: ``CAUTION--Risk of
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Flammable
                                                                                 Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair
                                                                                 Manual/Owner's Guide Before
                                                                                 Attempting To Service This
                                                                                 Product. All Safety Precautions
                                                                                 Must be Followed.''.
 
 

[[Page 38838]]

 
                                                                                   (d) Attach on the exterior of
                                                                                    the refrigerator: ``CAUTION--
                                                                                    Risk of Fire or Explosion.
                                                                                    Dispose of Properly In
                                                                                    Accordance With Federal or
                                                                                    Local Regulations. Flammable
                                                                                    Refrigerant Used.''.
                                                                                   (e) Attach near any and all
                                                                                    exposed refrigerant tubing:
                                                                                    ``CAUTION--Risk of Fire or
                                                                                    Explosion Due To Puncture Of
                                                                                    Refrigerant Tubing; Follow
                                                                                    Handling Instructions
                                                                                    Carefully. Flammable
                                                                                    Refrigerant Used.''.
                                                                                All of these markings must be in
                                                                                 letters no less than 6.4 mm (\1/4\
                                                                                 inch) high.
                                                                                The refrigeration equipment must
                                                                                 have red, Pantone[supreg] Matching
                                                                                 System (PMS) 185 marked
                                                                                 pipes, hoses, and other devices
                                                                                 through which the refrigerant is
                                                                                 serviced, typically known as the
                                                                                 service port, to indicate the use
                                                                                 of a flammable refrigerant. This
                                                                                 color must be present at all
                                                                                 service ports and where service
                                                                                 puncturing or otherwise creating
                                                                                 an opening from the refrigerant
                                                                                 circuit to the atmosphere might be
                                                                                 expected (e.g., process tubes).
                                                                                 The color mark must extend at
                                                                                 least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch)
                                                                                 from the compressor and must be
                                                                                 replaced if removed.
Residential and light-commercial    HFC-32..............  Acceptable subject    These refrigerants may be used only  Applicable OSHA requirements at 29
 air conditioning and heat pumps--  Propane.............   to use conditions.    in new equipment specifically        CFR part 1910 must be followed,
 self-contained room air            (R-290).............                         designed and clearly identified      including those at 29 CFR 1910.94
 conditioners only (New equipment   R-441A..............                         for the refrigerants (i.e., none     (ventilation) and 1910.106
 only).                                                                          of these substitutes may be used     (flammable and combustible
                                                                                 as a conversion or ``retrofit''      liquids), 1910.110 (storage and
                                                                                 refrigerant for existing equipment   handling of liquefied petroleum
                                                                                 designed for other refrigerants).    gases), and 1910.1000 (toxic and
                                                                                These substitutes may only be used    hazardous substances).
                                                                                 in equipment that meets all         Proper ventilation should be
                                                                                 requirements in Supplement SA and    maintained at all times during the
                                                                                 Appendixes B through F of the 8th    manufacture and storage of
                                                                                 edition of the Underwriters          equipment containing hydrocarbon
                                                                                 Laboratories (UL) Standard for       refrigerants through adherence to
                                                                                 Room Air Conditioners, UL 484,       good manufacturing practices as
                                                                                 dated August 3, 2012. In cases       per 29 CFR 1910.106. If
                                                                                 where the final rule includes        refrigerant levels in the air
                                                                                 requirements more stringent than     surrounding the equipment rise
                                                                                 those of the 8th edition of UL       above one-fourth of the lower
                                                                                 484, the appliance must meet the     flammability limit, the space
                                                                                 requirements of the final rule in    should be evacuated and re-entry
                                                                                 place of the requirements in the     should occur only after the space
                                                                                 UL Standard.                         has been properly ventilated.
                                                                                The charge size for the entire air   Technicians and equipment
                                                                                 conditioner must not exceed the      manufacturers should wear
                                                                                 maximum refrigerant mass             appropriate personal protective
                                                                                 determined according to Appendix F   equipment, including chemical
                                                                                 of UL 484, 8th edition for the       goggles and protective gloves,
                                                                                 room size where the air              when handling propane. Special
                                                                                 conditioner is used. The charge      care should be taken to avoid
                                                                                 size for these three refrigerants    contact with the skin since
                                                                                 must in no case exceed 7960 g        propane, like many refrigerants,
                                                                                 (280.8 oz or 17.55 lb) of HFC-32;    can cause freeze burns on the
                                                                                 1000 g (35.3 oz or 2.21 lbs) of      skin.
                                                                                 propane; or 1000 g (35.3 oz or      A class B dry powder type fire
                                                                                 2.21 lb) of R-441A. The              extinguisher should be kept
                                                                                 manufacturer must design a charge    nearby.
                                                                                 size for the entire air             Technicians should only use spark-
                                                                                 conditioner that does not exceed     proof tools when working on air
                                                                                 the amount specified for the         conditioning equipment with
                                                                                 unit's cooling capacity, as          flammable refrigerants.
                                                                                 specified in Table A, B, C, or D    Any recovery equipment used should
                                                                                 of this appendix.                    be designed for flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants.
                                                                                                                     Any refrigerant releases should be
                                                                                                                      in a well-ventilated area, such as
                                                                                                                      outside of a building.
                                                                                                                     Only technicians specifically
                                                                                                                      trained in handling flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants should service
                                                                                                                      refrigeration equipment containing
                                                                                                                      this refrigerant. Technicians
                                                                                                                      should gain an understanding of
                                                                                                                      minimizing the risk of fire and
                                                                                                                      the steps to use flammable
                                                                                                                      refrigerants safely.

[[Page 38839]]

 
Residential and light-commercial    HFC-32..............  Acceptable subject    As provided in clauses SA6.1.2 to    Room occupants should evacuate the
 air conditioning and heat pumps--  Propane.............   to use conditions.    SA6.1.5 of UL 484, 8th edition,      space immediately following the
 self-contained room air            (R-290).............                         the following markings must be       accidental release of this
 conditioners only (New equipment   R-441A..............                         attached at the locations provided   refrigerant.
 only).                                                                          and must be permanent:              If a service port is added then air
                                                                                (a) On the outside of the air         conditioning equipment using this
                                                                                 conditioner: ``DANGER--Risk of       refrigerant should have service
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Flammable         aperture fittings that differ from
                                                                                 Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired     fittings used in equipment or
                                                                                 Only By Trained Service Personnel.   containers using non-flammable
                                                                                 Do Not Puncture Refrigerant          refrigerant. ``Differ'' means that
                                                                                 Tubing.''.                           either the diameter differs by at
                                                                                (b) On the outside of the air         least \1/16\ inch or the thread
                                                                                 conditioner: ``CAUTION--Risk of      direction is reversed (i.e., right-
                                                                                 Fire or Explosion. Dispose of        handed vs. left-handed). These
                                                                                 Properly In Accordance With          different fittings should be
                                                                                 Federal Or Local Regulations.        permanently affixed to the unit at
                                                                                 Flammable Refrigerant Used.''.       the point of service and
                                                                                (c) On the inside of the air          maintained until the end-of-life
                                                                                 conditioner near the compressor:     of the unit, and should not be
                                                                                 ``CAUTION--Risk of Fire or           accessed with an adaptor.
                                                                                 Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant    Air conditioning equipment in this
                                                                                 Used. Consult Repair Manual/         category includes:
                                                                                 Owner's Guide Before Attempting To  Window air conditioning units.
                                                                                 Service This Product. All Safety    Portable room air conditioners.
                                                                                 Precautions Must be Followed.''.    Packaged terminal air conditioners
                                                                                                                      and heat pumps.
                                                                                   (d) On the outside of each
                                                                                    portable air conditioner:
                                                                                    ``WARNING: Appliance shall be
                                                                                    installed, operated and stored
                                                                                    in a room with a floor area
                                                                                    larger the ``X'' m\2\ (Y
                                                                                    ft\2\).'' The value ``X'' on
                                                                                    the label must be determined
                                                                                    using the minimum room size in
                                                                                    m\2\ calculated using Appendix
                                                                                    F of UL 484, 8th edition. For R-
                                                                                    441A, use a lower flammability
                                                                                    limit of 0.041 kg/m\3\ in
                                                                                    calculations in Appendix F of
                                                                                    UL 484, 8th edition.
                                                                                   (e) All of these markings must
                                                                                    be in letters no less than 6.4
                                                                                    mm (\1/4\ inch) high.
                                                                                The air conditioning equipment must
                                                                                 have red, Pantone[supreg] Matching
                                                                                 System (PMS) 185 marked
                                                                                 pipes, hoses, and other devices
                                                                                 through which the refrigerant is
                                                                                 serviced, typically known as the
                                                                                 service port, to indicate the use
                                                                                 of a flammable refrigerant. This
                                                                                 color must be present at all
                                                                                 service ports and where service
                                                                                 puncturing or otherwise creating
                                                                                 an opening from the refrigerant
                                                                                 circuit to the atmosphere might be
                                                                                 expected (e.g., process tubes).
                                                                                 The color mark must extend at
                                                                                 least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch)
                                                                                 from the compressor and must be
                                                                                 replaced if removed.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: The use conditions in this appendix contain references to certain standards from Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL). The standards are
  incorporated by reference, and the referenced sections are made part of the regulations in part 82:
1. UL 250: Household Refrigerators and Freezers. 10th edition. Supplement SA: Requirements for Refrigerators and Freezers Employing a Flammable
  Refrigerant in the Refrigerating System. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. August 25, 2000.
2. UL 471. Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers. 10th edition. Supplement SB: Requirements for Refrigerators and Freezers Employing a Flammable
  Refrigerant in the Refrigerating System. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. November 24, 2010.
3. UL 541. Refrigerated Vending Machines. 7th edition. Supplement SA: Requirements for Room Air Conditioners Employing a Flammable Refrigerant in the
  Refrigerating System. December 30, 2011
4. UL 484. Room Air Conditioners. 8th edition. Supplement SA: Requirements for Refrigerated Venders Employing a Flammable Refrigerant in the
  Refrigerating System and Appendixes B through F. August 3, 2012.
The Director of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of UL
  Standards 250, 471, 484 and 541 may be purchased by mail at: COMM 2000; 151 Eastern Avenue; Bensenville, IL 60106; Email: 2000.com">orders@comm-2000.com;
  Telephone: 1-888-853-3503 in the U.S. or Canada (other countries dial +1-415-352-2168); Internet address: http://ulstandardsinfonet.ul.com/ or
  www.comm-2000.com.
You may inspect a copy at U.S. EPA's Air and Radiation Docket; EPA West Building, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC or at the
  National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For questions regarding access to these standards, the telephone number of EPA's Air and
  Radiation Docket is 202-566-1742. For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.


[[Page 38840]]


                                            Table A--Maximum Design Charge Sizes for Window Air Conditioners
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                        Maximum design charge size (kg)
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     Refrigerant                                                      Associated cooling capacity (BTU/hr)
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        5,000    6,000    7,000    8,000    9,000    10,000   12,000   14,000   18,000   21,000   23,000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R-32.................................................     1.73     2.12     2.74     3.00     3.24     3.47     3.68     4.07     4.59     5.48     6.01
R-290................................................     0.13     0.16     0.20     0.22     0.24     0.26     0.27     0.30     0.34     0.40     0.44
R-441A...............................................     0.14     0.17     0.22     0.24     0.26     0.28     0.30     0.33     0.37     0.44     0.49
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: For use with self-contained air conditioning units or heat pumps with an evaporator at least 0.6 and no more than 1.0 m above the floor. Cooling
  capacities between those in the table are to be linearly interpolated between the next smaller and larger capacities listed in the table.


     Table B--Maximum Design Charge Sizes for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners, Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, and Portable Air Conditioning Units
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                        Maximum design charge size (kg)
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     Refrigerant                                                      Associated cooling capacity (BTU/hr)
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        5,000    6,000    7,000    8,000    9,000    10,000   12,000   14,000   18,000   21,000   23,000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R-32.................................................     1.04     1.27     1.65     1.80     1.95     2.08     2.21     2.44     2.75     3.29     3.60
R-290................................................     0.08     0.09     0.12     0.13     0.14     0.15     0.16     0.18     0.20     0.24     0.27
R-441A...............................................     0.08     0.10     0.13     0.15     0.16     0.17     0.18     0.20     0.22     0.27     0.29
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: For use with self-contained air conditioning units or heat pumps with an evaporator no more than 0.6 m above the floor. Cooling capacities between
  those in the table are to be linearly interpolated between the next smaller and larger capacities listed in the table.


                                             Table C--Maximum Design Charge Sizes for Wall-Mounted AC Units
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                        Maximum design charge size (kg)
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     Refrigerant                                                      Associated cooling capacity (BTU/hr)
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        5,000    6,000    7,000    8,000    9,000    10,000   12,000   14,000   18,000   21,000   23,000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R-32.................................................     3.12     3.82     4.94     5.41     5.84     6.24     6.62     7.32     7.96     7.96     7.96
R-290................................................     0.23     0.28     0.36     0.40     0.43     0.46     0.49     0.54     0.61     0.73     0.80
R-441A...............................................     0.25     0.31     0.40     0.44     0.47     0.51     0.54     0.59     0.67     0.80     0.88
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: For use with self-contained air conditioners or heat pumps with an evaporator at least 1.0 and no more than 1.8 m above the floor. Cooling
  capacities between those in the table are to be linearly interpolated between the next smaller and larger capacities listed in the table.


                                            Table D--Maximum Design Charge Sizes for Ceiling-Mounted AC Units
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                        Maximum design charge size (kg)
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     Refrigerant                                                      Associated cooling capacity (BTU/hr)
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        5,000    6,000    7,000    8,000    9,000    10,000   12,000   14,000   18,000   21,000   23,000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R-32.................................................     3.82     4.67     6.03     6.61     7.14     7.63     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96     7.96
R-290................................................     0.28     0.34     0.44     0.49     0.53     0.56     0.60     0.66     0.74     0.89     0.97
R-441A...............................................     0.31     0.38     0.49     0.54     0.58     0.62     0.66     0.73     0.82     0.98     1.00
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: For use with self-contained air conditioners or heat pumps with an evaporator more than 1.8 m above the floor. Cooling capacities between those in
  the table are to be linearly interpolated between the next smaller and larger capacities listed in the table.

[FR Doc. 2014-15889 Filed 7-8-14; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P