School Facilities: Reported Condition and Costs to Repair Schools Funded
by Bureau of Indian Affairs (Letter Report, 12/31/97, GAO/HEHS-98-47).

Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO presented information on the
physical condition of Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) schools, focusing
on the: (1) amount of funding that BIA reports is needed to repair
educational facilities; (2) condition of BIA school buildings and
building features; (3) adequacy of school environmental conditions; and
(4) extent to which schools are physically capable of meeting the
functional requirements of education reform and computer and
communications technology.

GAO noted: (1) BIA reports that the cost of the total inventory of
repairs needed for BIA education facilities is $754 million; (2) this
includes the cost of repairs to all school buildings, including
dormitories for students and employee housing; and (3) data from GAO's
1994 National School Facilities Survey show that, compared to other
schools nationally, responding BIA schools: (a) are generally in poorer
physical condition; (b) have more unsatisfactory environmental factors;
(c) more often lack key facilities requirements for education reform;
and (d) are less able to support computer and communications technology.

--------------------------- Indexing Terms -----------------------------

 REPORTNUM:  HEHS-98-47
     TITLE:  School Facilities: Reported Condition and Costs to Repair 
             Schools Funded by Bureau of Indian Affairs
      DATE:  12/31/97
   SUBJECT:  Facility maintenance
             Facility repairs
             Educational facility construction
             Educational facilities
             Repair costs
             Safety standards
             Native American education
             Indian lands

             
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Cover
================================================================ COVER


Report to the Honorable
Byron L.  Dorgan, U.S.  Senate

December 1997

SCHOOL FACILITIES - REPORTED
CONDITION AND COSTS TO REPAIR
SCHOOLS FUNDED BY BUREAU OF INDIAN
AFFAIRS

GAO/HEHS-98-47

Condition of BIA Schools

(104896)


Abbreviations
=============================================================== ABBREV

  BIA - Bureau of Indian Affairs
  SMSA - standard metropolitan statistical area

Letter
=============================================================== LETTER


B-278570

December 31, 1997

The Honorable Byron L.  Dorgan
United States Senate

Dear Senator Dorgan: 

In 1995, we reported on the condition of the nation's school
buildings, but we did not separately describe the state of schools
funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).\1 On the basis of
schools' responses to our 1994 nationally representative survey
regarding the condition of school facilities, we estimated that the
nation's schools needed about $112 billion\2 to repair or upgrade
facilities to good overall condition.\3 Responses to our survey
indicated that about 33 percent of America's schools reported needing
extensive repair or replacement of one or more buildings; almost 60
percent reported problems with at least one major building feature,
such as plumbing; and about 50 percent reported unsatisfactory
environmental conditions.  Furthermore, many reported lacking
critical physical capabilities to meet the functional requirements of
education reform and key technology elements to support computers and
communications technology. 

BIA has invested millions of dollars in schools to create an
environment where Native American children can be educated and
prepared for the future.  Like other schools in the nation, the BIA
schools require maintenance and capital investment and must be
designed and equipped to meet the needs of today's students and
tomorrow's workers.  For these reasons, you asked for information on
the physical condition of BIA schools similar to that presented in
our earlier reports on the physical condition of the nation's
schools.  In response to your request and subsequent discussions with
your office, this report presents information on (1) the amount of
funding that BIA reports is needed to repair educational facilities,
(2) the condition of BIA school buildings and building features, (3)
the adequacy of school environmental conditions, and (4) the extent
to which schools are physically capable of meeting the functional
requirements of education reform and computer and communications
technology. 

To answer these questions, we obtained information from BIA about the
cost of repairing all BIA schools.  We also analyzed the responses of
BIA schools to our 1994 School Facilities Survey and compared
responding BIA schools with other groups of schools in the nation. 
In addition, we visited three BIA schools that had responded to our
survey, and seven additional BIA schools.  During our visits, we
observed schools; interviewed school and tribal officials; and
examined relevant documents related to facilities.  (See app.  I for
a more detailed discussion of our methodology.)

As was the case with the data reported in our previous reports, all
data are self-reported, and we did not independently verify their
accuracy. 


--------------------
\1 For more detailed discussion of the condition of the nation's
school buildings, including building features and environmental
conditions, and their ability to meet the functional requirements of
education reform and support technology, see School Facilities: 
Condition of America's Schools (GAO/HEHS-95-61, Feb.  1, 1995) and
School Facilities:  America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for
21st Century (GAO/HEHS-95-95, Apr.  4, 1995), respectively. 

\2 Sampling error is plus or minus 6.61 percent. 

\3 "Good" condition means that only routine maintenance or minor
repair is required.  "Overall" condition includes both physical
condition and the ability of the schools to meet the functional
requirements of educational programs. 


   RESULTS IN BRIEF
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :1

BIA reports that the cost of the total inventory of repairs\4 needed
for BIA education facilities is $754 million.  This includes the cost
of repairs to all school buildings,\5 including dormitories for
students and employee housing.  Data from our 1994 National School
Facilities Survey show that, compared with other schools nationally,
responding BIA schools (1) are generally in poorer physical
condition, (2) have more unsatisfactory environmental factors, (3)
more often lack key facilities requirements for education reform, and
(4) are less able to support computer and communications technology. 


--------------------
\4 This does not include the costs of replacing school buildings. 
BIA's priority list for constructing education facilities includes
eight unfunded school replacement projects with a total estimated
cost of $112 million. 

\5 Any one school may have more than one building. 


   BACKGROUND
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :2

While most Native American children attend regular public schools,
about 10 percent attend BIA schools, which are funded by BIA and
operated either by BIA or by various tribes through grants or
contracts from BIA.  BIA schools are found in 23 states but are
highly concentrated in 5--North Dakota, South Dakota, Arizona, New
Mexico, and Washington--as figure 1 shows.  (See app.  II for
information on individual BIA schools by state.)

   Figure 1:  Locations of BIA
   Schools in School Year 1996-97

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)

Source:  Data are from BIA, Office of Indian Education Programs. 

BIA funded 173 schools\6 (including boarding schools) in school year
1996-97, with a total enrollment of 47,214.  The schools ranged in
size from 15 to 1,144 students, with about one-half enrolling fewer
than 200 pupils.  Enrollment in BIA schools is growing and overall
has increased 25 percent since 1987.  Most of this growth has
occurred in the last 5 years.  Growth in BIA's day schools,\7

which do not provide student housing, has increased more rapidly--47
percent since 1987, 24 percent since 1992. 

BIA officials told us that BIA schools are often located in isolated
areas and have to provide and maintain extensive campus
infrastructures because they are too far from population centers to
have access to town or city services.  For example, one school we
visited had to house and maintain a fire truck on campus because it
is too far from the nearest city to use its fire department.  In
addition, some schools must provide dormitory space for students
and/or housing for faculty and staff because they are so distant from
population centers.  BIA officials told us that this isolation may
also contribute to maintenance difficulties and costs when materials
have to be shipped long distances and construction/repair staff have
to be housed while on site. 

Officials also told us that about 25 percent of BIA school buildings
are at least 50 years old,\8 and many of these buildings are on the
National Historic Register.  BIA officials told us that this listing
often restricts the ability to make education-related renovations and
improvements. 


--------------------
\6 BIA also funded 14 peripheral dormitories. 

\7 In school year 1996-97, BIA's day schools enrolled 26,752
students. 

\8 In our previous work on school facilities, we found that building
age alone is not significant; rather, building condition depends on
how buildings are maintained.  See GAO/HEHS-95-61, Feb.  1, 1995. 


   BIA REPORTS NEEDING MILLIONS TO
   IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :3

BIA reports that, as of October 1997, the cost of the total inventory
of repairs needed for education facilities at all BIA schools is $754
million.  This includes $693 million for repairs to school buildings,
including dormitories for students.  It also includes $61.7 million
in repairs needed for education quarters such as employee housing. 

BIA's inventory of repairs needed--the facilities backlog--is an
amalgam of information collected by architects, engineers, and BIA
staff over the years.  The inventory describes in detail individual
work items required by national standards and codes such as the
Uniform Building Code, National Fire Codes, and National Electrical
Codes to repair the facilities.  The facilities backlog contains the
repair cost for deficiencies identified in a building or at a site. 
The deficiencies may involve safety and health, access for persons
with disabilities, or noncompliance with other building codes.  BIA
is currently developing a new Facilities Management Information
System and will be validating and reassessing the entire facilities
backlog and inventory.  The validation will include professional
estimates of the cost of all backlog repair items and a determination
of the relative economic values of repair versus replacement.  The
system development and validation projects are scheduled for
completion in fiscal year 1999. 

Our 1994 survey asked school officials to estimate the total cost of
all repairs, renovations, and modernizations required to put their
school buildings in good overall condition.\9 The amounts reported by
the 71 BIA schools responding to our survey were generally in
agreement with BIA's estimates of the costs required to address the
inventory of repairs needed at these schools. 


--------------------
\9 We asked respondents to rate the overall condition of their school
buildings on a six-point scale:  excellent, good, adequate, fair,
poor, or replace.  See GAO/HEHS-95-61, Feb.  1, 1995. 


   MOST BIA SCHOOLS RESPONDING TO
   OUR SURVEY REPORTED LESS THAN
   ADEQUATE CONDITIONS
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :4

Sixty-two percent of the BIA schools responding to our survey
reported having at least one building in need of extensive repair or
replacement.  As shown in table 1, a greater number of the responding
BIA schools reported having buildings in less than adequate condition
than did rural/small town schools, central city schools, or all
schools nationally. 



                          Table 1
          
          Percentage of Schools With Buildings in
                Less Than Adequate Condition

                                 National estimates for
                              ----------------------------
                    Respondi      Rural/     Central   All
                      ng BIA  small town        city  scho
Type of building     schools   schools\a   schools\b   ols
------------------  --------  ----------  ----------  ----
Original buildings        46          24          31    26
Attached and/or           41          16          22    18
 detached
 permanent
 additions to
 original
 buildings
Temporary                 51          31          29    28
 buildings
At least one              62          30          38    33
 building in less
 than adequate
 condition
----------------------------------------------------------
\a Rural/small town is defined as either a rural area (a place with a
population of less than 2,500 and defined as rural by the Bureau of
the Census) or a small town (a place not within a standard
metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) with a population of less than
25,000 but greater than or equal to 2,500 and defined as urban by the
Bureau of the Census). 

\b Central city is defined as a large central city (a central city of
a SMSA with population greater than or equal to 400,000 or a
population density greater than or equal to 6,000 per square mile) or
a mid-size central city (a central city of an SMSA but not designated
a large central city). 

Officials at the three responding schools that we visited told us
that although some repairs and improvements had been made, overall
conditions had not changed materially since our 1994 survey.  For
example, one school was completing a new permanent addition that will
provide classrooms for kindergarten, first, and second grades, but
most of its students will remain in temporary buildings, that is,
portable classrooms. 

In addition, our survey data generally showed that the responding BIA
schools reported more inadequate building features and environmental
conditions than did schools nationally.  These data also showed that
the responding BIA schools more often reported that they met the
requirements and needs for educational reform "not well at all."\10
However, with regard to technology elements, the responding BIA
schools were generally more comparable to schools nationally,
particularly central city schools. 


--------------------
\10 Survey respondents rated the ability of their school facilities
to meet the financial requirements of key education reform activities
on the following scale:  very well, moderately well, somewhat well,
and not well at all. 


      BUILDING FEATURES
---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.1

As shown in table 2, relatively more responding BIA schools reported
building features such as roofs; plumbing; and heating, ventilation,
and air-conditioning systems to be inadequate than did other schools. 
Almost four-fifths of the responding BIA schools reported having at
least one inadequate building feature.  In comparison, about one-half
to two-thirds of the other groups of schools reported at least one
inadequate building feature. 



                          Table 2
          
           Percentage of Schools With Inadequate
                     Building Features

                                 National estimates for
                              ----------------------------
                    Respondi      Rural/     Central   All
                      ng BIA  small town        city  scho
Building feature     schools     schools     schools   ols
------------------  --------  ----------  ----------  ----
Roofs                     49          24          33    27
Framing, floors,          46          17          22    18
 and foundations
Exterior walls,           56          22          34    27
 finishes,
 windows, and
 doors
Interior finishes         42          21          30    24
 and trims
Plumbing                  53          29          34    30
Heating,                  66          33          42    36
 ventilation, and
 air-conditioning
Electrical power          36          23          32    26
Electrical                46          22          29    25
 lighting
Life safety codes         59          16          22    19
At least one              79          52          66    57
 inadequate
 building feature
----------------------------------------------------------
During our visits to three responding schools, school officials told
us that some repairs had been made, but conditions had not changed
substantially.  These repairs were often referred to as "Band-Aids"
that kept the school operating but did not permanently correct the
deficiency.  Officials from the responding schools as well as the
other BIA schools we visited complained that the operations and
maintenance funds budgeted for their school were insufficient to
properly maintain their facilities.  For example, several schools
were using outdated, difficult to maintain heating systems, but funds
were not budgeted for boiler replacements. 


      ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.2

Generally, the responding BIA schools also reported more
unsatisfactory environmental conditions than did schools nationwide. 
As table 3 shows, on almost every environmental factor, about twice
as many responding BIA schools as all schools nationally reported
having unsatisfactory environmental conditions.  Almost all of the
BIA schools reported having at least one unsatisfactory environmental
condition, exceeding even the problems reported by central city
schools.  For example, several of the schools that we visited
reported outdated or inadequate heating systems.  These systems are
difficult and costly to repair and are not energy efficient,
officials told us. 



                          Table 3
          
                 Percentage of Schools With
          Unsatisfactory Environmental Conditions

                               National estimates for
                          --------------------------------
                Respondi      Rural/     Central
Environmental     ng BIA  small town        city       All
factor           schools     schools     schools   schools
--------------  --------  ----------  ----------  --------
Lighting              30          11          20        16
Heating               44          17          23        19
Ventilation           52          24          32        27
Indoor air            38          17          22        19
 quality
Acoustics for         49          27          32        28
 noise control
Flexibility of        67          52          60        54
 instructional
 space
Energy                61          39          46        41
 efficiency
Physical              57          24          26        24
 security of
 buildings
At least one          94          54          65        50
 unsatisfactory
 environmental
 condition
----------------------------------------------------------

      EDUCATIONAL REFORM
      REQUIREMENTS
---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.3

Responding BIA schools also more often reported that their facilities
met the requirements and needs for educational reform "not well at
all." As table 4 shows, for many important educational reform
activities--such as large-group instruction, laboratory science, and
library/media center--substantially more of the responding BIA
schools than other groups of schools reported that their facilities
met the needs for educational reform "not well at all." For example,
one school we visited was originally designed for 250 students but
now has 354.  A school official told us that in order to accommodate
the increased enrollment, the school has had to convert storage space
to other uses. 



                          Table 4
          
            Percentage of Schools Reporting They
          Meet the Functional Requirements of Some
           Key Educational Reform Activities "Not
                        Well at All"

                               National estimates for
                          --------------------------------
                Respondi      Rural/     Central
                  ng BIA  small town        city       All
Activity         schools     schools     schools   schools
--------------  --------  ----------  ----------  --------
Instructional activities
----------------------------------------------------------
Laboratory            63          37          48        42
 science
Large-group           72          40          39        38
 instruction
Storage of            59          31          30        31
 student
 assessment
 materials
Display               51          28          27        28
 student
 assessment
 materials
Library/media         25          13          14        13
 center
Small-group           12           8          12        10
 instruction

Support activities
----------------------------------------------------------
Day care              80          82          76        78
Before-/              67          66          54        59
 after-school
 care
Social and            52          28          27        27
 health care
 services
Parent support        43          23          24        24
 activities
Private areas         42          23          30        26
 for
 counseling
 and testing
Teacher               28          12          15        13
 planning
----------------------------------------------------------

      TECHNOLOGY ELEMENTS
---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.4

Finally, as table 5 shows, many of the responding BIA schools
reported having insufficient capability in each of several
communications technology elements needed to meet the functional
requirements of modern educational technology.  However, in this
particular regard, these BIA schools were more comparable with other
schools in the nation.  For example, a little more than one-half of
both the BIA schools and other schools reported insufficiency of
telephone lines for modems, and more than 80 percent of all groups of
schools reported insufficiency of fiber optic cable. 



                          Table 5
          
              Percentage of Schools Reporting
              Insufficient Technology Elements

                               National estimates for
                          --------------------------------
                Respondi      Rural/     Central
Technology        ng BIA  small town        city       All
element          schools     schools     schools   schools
--------------  --------  ----------  ----------  --------
Computers for         31          21          32        25
 instructional
 use
Computer              37          25          38        29
 printers for
 instructional
 use
Computer              62          46          61        52
 networks for
 instructional
 use
Modems                70          54          65        58
Telephone             59          52          61        56
 lines for
 modems
Telephones in         75          58          67        61
 instructional
 areas
Television            26          13          19        16
 sets
VCR/laser disk        34          31          39        34
 players
Cable                 68          30          33        32
 television
Conduits/             74          56          67        61
 raceways for
 computer/
 computer
 network
 cables
Fiber optic           88          84          90        87
 cable
Electrical            60          40          55        46
 wiring for
 computers/
 communication
 s technology
Electrical            41          28          43        35
 power for
 computers/
 communication
 s technology
----------------------------------------------------------
During our visits to BIA schools and interviews with BIA officials,
we were told that BIA schools had been acquiring additional computers
for the past several years and, in many instances, had installed
networks.  Officials told us that many of the schools either have
Internet access or expect to be connected in the near future.  On the
basis of these reports, it appears that our 1994 survey data on
computers and communications technology may be somewhat outdated. 


   AGENCY COMMENTS
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :5

In commenting on our draft report, the Department of the Interior
generally agreed with our findings.  Interior suggested several
corrections in the numbers of schools and enrollment counts, which we
incorporated in the report.  Interior also emphasized the unique
situation faced by BIA schools.  It pointed out that, because of
their locations, many BIA schools require extensive infrastructure,
such as sewer lines and sewer lagoons, waterlines and elevated water
storage tanks, fuel storage tanks, and electrical back-up generators. 
BIA funds the operation and maintenance of this infrastructure. 
Interior's comments appear in appendix III. 


---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :5.1

As agreed with your office, unless you release its contents earlier,
we will make no further distribution of this report until 30 days
after the date of this letter.  At that time, we will send copies to
the Secretary of the Interior and other interested parties. 

The major contributors to this report were D.  Catherine Baltzell,
Assistant Director, and Wayne M.  Dow, Evaluator-in-Charge.  Please
call me at (202) 512-7014 if you or your staff have any questions
about this report. 

Sincerely yours,

Carlotta C.  Joyner
Director, Education and
 Employment Issues


METHODOLOGY
=========================================================== Appendix I

In the spring of 1994, we undertook a survey to determine the
physical condition of America's 80,000 schools.  All Bureau of Indian
Affairs (BIA) schools were included in our survey sample.  We
surveyed a nationally representative sample of about 10,000 public
schools in over 5,000 school districts.  We asked about (1) the
physical condition of buildings and major building features, such as
roofs, framing, floors, and foundations; (2) the status of
environmental conditions, such as lighting, heating, and ventilation;
(3) the ability of schools to meet selected functional requirements
of education reform, such as having space for small- and large-group
instruction; and (4) the sufficiency of data, voice, and video
technologies and the infrastructure to support these technologies.\11

Findings from the 1994 survey have been statistically adjusted
(weighted) to produce estimates that are representative nationally,
as appropriate.  (The sampling errors for the national estimates
contained in this report do not exceed plus or minus 5 percentage
points unless otherwise stated.) However, although all BIA-funded
schools were included in our sample, only 41 percent, or 71,
responded to the survey.  This response rate is too low to permit us
to make estimates for all BIA schools.  Therefore, we have not
weighted the BIA data, but rather have reported only on the
responding BIA schools. 

We augmented the 1994 survey with more recent visits to selected
school districts and schools.  In September 1997, we visited three
BIA schools that had responded to our survey, and seven additional
BIA schools.  During our visits, we observed schools; interviewed
school and tribal officials; and examined relevant documents related
to facilities.  We also interviewed BIA officials, and examined data
from BIA's Facilities Management System. 

All data are self-reported, and we did not independently verify their
accuracy.  We conducted our study of BIA schools between August 1997
and December 1997 in accordance with generally accepted government
auditing standards. 


--------------------
\11 See School Facilities:  America's Schools Report Differing
Conditions (GAO/HEHS-96-103, June 14, 1996) for a copy of the survey
and discussion of the sampling strategy. 


BIA SCHOOLS FOR SCHOOL YEAR
1996-97, BY STATE
========================================================== Appendix II

                                                           Percentage change
                                                        -----------------------
                                            Enrollment                            Number of
                                                     ,      Since FY   Since FY    portable
Name                City          Grades       FY 1997          1987       1992  classrooms
------------------  ------------  --------  ----------  ------------  ---------  ----------
Arizona
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Casa Blanc Day      Bapchule      K-4              332           148         36           6
School

Wide Ruins          Chambers      K-6              242            69         30           3
Boarding School

Black Mesa          Chinle        K-8               93            79         16           2
Community School

Cottonwood Day      Chinle        K-8              250            -7         30           0
School

Low Mountain        Chinle        K-5              245            83         28           2
Boarding School

Rough Rock          Chinle        K-12             349            -9        -25          \a
Community School

Cibecue Community   Cibecue       K-12             468           138         75          13
School

Blackwater          Coolidge      K-2               63            19          0           1
Community School

Dennehotso          Dennehotso    K-8              342            36         13           1
Boarding School

Theodore Roosevelt  Fort Apache   6-8              110            31         41           0
School

Greasewood Springs  Ganado        K-8              384           -13         10           0
Community School

Kinlichee Boarding  Ganado        K-6              139            15         -1           1
School

Nazlini Boarding    Ganado        K-6              131            -9         -1           0
School

Hotevilla Bacavi    Hotevilla     K-7              132            33         15           3
Community School

Pine Springs        Houck         K-4               89            89         33           0
Boarding School

Kaibeto Boarding    Kaibeto       K-8              455             8         35           0
School

Chilchinbeto Day    Kayenta       K-8              126            -5         -7           0
School

Kayenta Boarding    Kayenta       K-8              444            -3         19           3
School

Hopi High School    Keams Canyon  7-12             476           -15         -9           1

Keams Canyon        Keams Canyon  K-6              115           -21         95           0
Boarding School

Hopi Day School     Kykotsmovi    K-6               86           -16         41           0

Rocky Ridge         Kykotsmovi    K-8              206            -2        -15           1
Boarding School

Gila Crossing Day   Laveen        K-6              111           -24         12           3
School

Lukachukai          Lukachukai    K-8              421             1          7           0
Boarding School

Chinle Boarding     Many Farms    K-8              513           -12         -7           0
School

Many Farms High     Many Farms    9-12             351           -25         -2          23
School

Polacca Day School  Polacca       K-6              177             3         38           7

Cove Day School     Red Valley    K-6               74            14         19           0

Red Rock Day        Red Valley    K-8              238            -7          6          \a
School

Rock Point          Rock Point    K-12             547            25         16           0
Community School

Salt River Day      Scottsdale    K-6              228            24         51           2
School

Second Mesa Day     Second Mesa   K-6              241             1         10           8
School

San Simon School    Sells         K-8              286           -11        -10           0

Santa Rosa          Sells         K-8              331           -27         -7           2
Boarding School

Tohono O'Odham      Sells         9-12             166            \b        -17           0
High School

Shonto Preparatory  Shonto        K-8              656           -13          5           0
School

Hunters Point       St Michaels   K-5              124            -2          8           0
Boarding School

Havasupai School    Supai         K-8               95            25          8           2

T'iis Nazbas        Teecnospos    K-8              357           -18        -13           0
Community School

Tonalea (Red Lake)  Tonalea       K-8              310            -9          7           3
Day School

Greyhills High      Tuba City     9-12             434            -4         -3           0
School

Moencopi Day        Tuba City     K-6              179           281         52           4
School

Tuba City Boarding  Tuba City     K-8            1,110            23         28           1
School

Santa Rosa Ranch    Tucson        K-8              127            28          3           2
School

John F. Kennedy     White River   K-8              185            23          6           3
Day School

Dilcon Boarding     Winslow       K-8              417           -28         -6           0
School

Leupp Boarding      Winslow       K-12             421            13          7           0
School

Little Singer       Winslow       K-6               99           102         29           0
Community School

Seba Dalkai         Winslow       K-6              165           -22         -5           0
Boarding School


California
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sherman Indian      Riverside     9-12             518            -2         36           0
High School

Noli School         Santa         6-12              47            \b         \b           0
                    Jacinto


Florida
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ahfachkee Day       Clewiston     K-12              80            67         33           0
School

Miccosukee Indian   Miami         K-12              82            58          5          \a
School


Iowa
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sac & Fox           Tama          K-8               80             8         27           3
Settlement School


Idaho
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coeur D'Alene       De Smet       K-8               80            45         82          \a
Tribal School

Shoshone-Bannock    Fort Hall     7-12             186           389         88          \a
School


Kansas
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kickapoo Nation     Powhattan     K-12             100            25         35          \a
School

Louisiana

Chitimacha Day      Jeanerette    K-8               53            51         13           1
School


Maine
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Indian Island       Old Town      K-8               89             3        -12           1
School

Beatrice Rafferty   Perry         K-8              109           -19        -17          \a
School

Indian Township     Princeton     K-8              134            41         -6           2
School


Michigan
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bahweting           Sault Sainte  K-8              175            \b         \b           1
Anishinabe          Marie

Hannahville Indian  Wilson        K-12             157            85        112           0
School


Minnesota
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bug-O-Nay-Ge Shig   Cass Lake     K-12             430            40        -16           0
School

Fond Du Lac         Cloquet       K-12             141            62        -15           5
Ojibway School

Nay Ah Shing        Onamina       K-12             323           773        546           0
School

Circle of Life      White Earth   K-12             168           102         24           2
Survival School


Mississippi
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Red Water           Carthage      K-8              109            22         31           2
Elementary School

Conehatta           Conehatta     K-8              199            30         39           0
Elementary School

Boque Chitto        Philadelphia  K-8              126             8         -5           1
Elementary School

Choctaw Central     Philadelphia  9-12             402            \b         59           0
High School

Choctaw Central     Philadelphia  7-8              142            \b         11           1
Middle School

Pearl River         Philadelphia  K-6              464            \b         40           3
Elementary School

Tucker Elementary   Philadelphia  K-8               89            -7        -19           0
School

Standing Pine       Walnut Grove  K-6               80            60         23           0
Elementary School


Montana
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Busby School        Busby         K-12             190            -7         27           0

Two Eagle River     Pablo         7-12             138           151         55           0
School


Nevada
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Duckwater Shoshone  Duckwater     K-8               15             0        -25           0
Elementary

Pyramid Lake High   Nixon         9-12              48            -4         41           2
School


New Mexico
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sky City Community  Acoma         K-8              312             5         30           1
School\c

Dzilth-Na-O-Dith-   Bloomfield    K-8              344             4         -4           4
Hle Community
School

Dibe Yazhi          Crownpoint    K-8              244            18         32           0
Habitiin Olta Inc.

Lake Valley Navajo  Crownpoint    K-8              119             1         -2           0
School

Mariano Lake        Crownpoint    K-6              261           101         39           3
Community School

T' iists' oozi'     Crownpoint    K-8              573            28         34           0
Bi' O' lta

Tse' ii' ahi'       Crownpoint    K-4              168           167         47           3
Community School

Na' Neelzhiin Ji'   Cuba          K-8              393            16          7           0
Olta (Torreon)

Ojo Encino Day      Cuba          K-8              240            20         17           0
School

Pueblo Pintado      Cuba          K-8              345            70         33           3
Community School

Santa Clara Day     Espanola      K-6              129            13         -4           2
School

Navajo Preparatory  Farmington    9-12             174           -21         10           0
School

Wingate Elementary  Fort Wingate  K-8              670            28         36           6
School

Wingate High        Fort Wingate  9-12             634           -14          4           1
School

Nenahnezad          Fruitland     K-7              392           -12         -6           2
Community School

Bread Springs Day   Gallup        K-3              159            66         28           3
School

Isleta Elementary   Isleta        K-6              210           -23         -5          10
School\c

Jemez Day School    Jemez Pueblo  K-6              181            -1         -8           1

Laguna Elementary   Laguna        K-5              370            \b          3           7
School\c

Laguna Middle       Laguna        6-8              191            \b        198           0
School\c

To' hajiilee-he     Canoncito     K-12             376            22         12           2
(Canoncito)\c

Alamo Navajo        Magdalena     K-12             371             2          5           0
School

Mescalero Apache    Mescalero     K-12             439            \b        121           4
School

Crystal Boarding    Navajo        K-6              168            24         -2           0
School

Tohaali Community   Newcomb       K-8              263           -37         -5           0
School

Pine Hill Schools   Pine Hill     K-12             501            37         34           3

Baca Community      Prewitt       K-4              166            54         14           2
School

San Felipe Pueblo   San Felipe    K-6              349            15         10           4
Elementary          Pueblo
School\c

Ohkay Owingeh       San Juan      K-6               59           -16         37          \a
Community           Pueblos

Sanostee Day        Sanostee      K-3              110            31         38           4
School

San Ildefonso Day   Santa Fe      K-6               24           -29        -23           2
School

Santa Fe Indian     Santa Fe      7-12             545            13         -4           0
School\c

\TeTsu Geh Oweenge  Sante Fe      K-6               56            24         12           3
Day School\c

Atsa' Biya' a' zh   Shiprock      K-6              181           202         97           2
Community

Beclabito Day       Beclabito     K-4               99            -6        -12           4
School

Shiprock Northwest  Shiprock      9-12             159            49          2           0
High School

Taos Day School     Taos          K-7              164            82         40           0

Dlo' Ay Azhi        Thoreau       K-6              151            34         30           1
Community School

Chuska/Tohatchi     Tohatchi      K-8              635            13         15           0
Consolidated
School

Chi-Ch' il-tah/     Vanderwagon   K-8              261            61         17           0
Jones Ranch

Zia Day School      Zia Pueblo    K-6               84             6         -6           3


North Carolina
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cherokee Central    Cherokee      K-12           1,128            19         15          10
School


North Dakota
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ojibwa Indian       Belcourt      K-8              340            -3         -1          25
School\c

Turtle Mountain     Belcourt      K-8            1,144            28         16           0
Elementary and
Middle School

Turtle Mountain     Belcourt      9-12             572            57         25           2
High School

Theodore Jamerson   Bismarck      K-8              108            35         14           0
Elementary

Dunseith Day        Dunseith      K-8              237            45         44           0
School\c

Tate Topa Tribal    Fort Totten   K-8              464            21         13           4
School

Standing Rock       Fort Yates    K-12             597            32          7           7
Community School

Twin Buttes Day     Halliday      K-8               35           -24          6           6
School

Mandaree Day        Mandaree      K-12             250            37         20           1
School

White Shield        Roseglen      K-12             179            35         13           1
School

Trenton School      Trenton       K-12              77            \b         \b           0

Circle of Nations   Wahpeton      4-8              198           -33        -18           1
School


Oklahoma
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Riverside Indian    Anadarko      4-12             355            14         11           3
School

Sequoyah High       Tahlequah     9-12             297            49         41           0
School


Oregon
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chemawa Indian      Salem         9-12             341            -5         -1           0
School


South Dakota
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tiospa Zina Tribal  Agency        K-12             432           118         79          \a
School              Village

American Horse      Allen         K-8              187            43          8           0
School

Rock Creek Day      Bullhead      K-8               84            -6          1           2
School

Cheyenne-Eagle      Eagle Butte   K-12           1,009            12         17           3
Butte School

Flandreau Indian    Flandreau     9-12             500           -14        -17           4
School

Crow Creek Sioux    Fort          K-5              198            32          6           4
Tribal Elem.        Thompson

Swift Bird Day      Gettysburg    K-8               54            32        -16          \a
School

Takini School       Howes         K-12             309            \b         20           5

Little Wound Day    Kyle          K-12             818            60         20           4
School

Little Eagle Day    Little Eagle  K-8              100            -3         20           1
School

Lower Brule Day     Lower Brule   K-12             350            28          6           2
School

Wounded Knee        Manderson     K-8              203            12        -10           0
School District

Marty Indian        Marty         K-12             301             9         10           0
School

Promise Day School  Mobridge      K-8               19           -32         73          \a

Loneman Day School  Oglala        K-8              397           111         58           2

Pierre Indian       Pierre        1-8              253            35         54           3
Learning Center

Pine Ridge School   Pine Ridge    K-12             863            51         16           0

Porcupine Day       Porcupine     K-8              152           103         79           0
School

St. Francis Indian  St. Francis   K-12             583            33         22           0
School

Crow Creek          Stephan       6-12             352           133         56           6
Reservation High

Crazy Horse School  Wanblee       K-12             358            21         12           0

Enemy Swim Day      Waubay        K-8               81           224        153           3
School

White Horse Day     White Horse   K-8               37           -23         -3          \a
School


Utah
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aneth Community     Montezuma     K-6              278            24         28           0
School              Creek

Navajo Mountain     Tonalea       K-8              131           -10          7           0
Boarding School


Washington
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Muckleshoot Tribal  Auburn        K-8              102           437        108           2
School

Lummi High School   Bellingham    9-12              84            \b         \b           6

Lummi Tribal        Bellingham    K-8              225           196         39           7
School System

Quileute Tribal     La Push       K-12              79            52         98           3
School

Wah-He-Lute Indian  Olympia       K-9               51            82          9          \a
School

Paschal Sherman     Omak          K-8              166            78         20           3
Indian School

Chief Leschi        Puyallup      K-12             759           420         93           0
School System

Yakima Tribal       Toppenish     7-12              89            78         98           1
School


Wisconsin
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lac Courte          Hayward       K-12             300            91         56           0
Oreilles Ojibway
School

Menominee Tribal    Neopit        K-8              251            \b         27           0
School

Oneida Tribal       Oneida        K-12             587           299        125           0
School


Wyoming
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
St. Stephens        St. Stephens  K-12             286           -11        -18           1
Indian School

===========================================================================================
Total                                           47,214            25         18         302
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note:  Schools listed in this table exclude peripheral dormitories. 

\a Not reported. 

\b Not applicable. 

\c School visited by GAO. 




(See figure in printed edition.)Appendix III
COMMENTS FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF
THE INTERIOR
========================================================== Appendix II



(See figure in printed edition.)


*** End of document. ***