[United States Government Manual] [June 01, 2006] [Pages 577-586] [From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]
[[Page 577]] SELECTED MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS ------------------------------------------------------------------------ MULTILATERAL INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN WHICH THE UNITED STATES PARTICIPATES Explanatory note: The United States participates in the organizations named below in accordance with the provisions of treaties, other international agreements, congressional legislation, or executive arrangements. In some cases, no financial contribution is involved. Various commissions, councils, or committees subsidiary to the organizations listed here are not named separately on this list. These include the international bodies for narcotics control, which are subsidiary to the United Nations. I. United Nations, Specialized Agencies, and International Atomic Energy Agency Food and Agricultural Organization International Agency for Research in Cancer International Atomic Energy Agency International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agriculture Development International Labor Organization International Maritime Organization International Telecommunication Union United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Universal Postal Union World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological Organization II. Peacekeeping United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (Golan Heights) United Nations Force in Cyprus United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon United Nations International Criminal Tribunal--Rwanda United Nations International Criminal Tribunal--Yugoslavia United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission United Nations Mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo United Nations Mission in Kosovo United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara United Nations Observer Mission in Angola United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone United Nations Prevention Deployment Force United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slovenia III. Inter-American Organizations Border Environment Cooperation Commission Inter-American Center of Tax Administrators Inter-American Indian Institute Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture [[Page 578]] Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Organization of American States Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Pan American Institute of Geography and History Pan American Railway Congress Association Postal Union of the Americas and Spain and Portugal (PUASP) IV. Regional Organizations Asia Pacific Energy Research Center Colombo Plan Council Great Lakes Fishery Commission International Energy Agency North Atlantic Assembly North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Nuclear Energy Agency Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) South Pacific Commission V. Other International Organizations Center for International Forestry Research Commission for Labor Cooperation Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Global Biodiversity Information Facility Hague Conference on Private International Law International Agreement on the Maintenance of Certain Lights in the Red Sea International Bureau for the Permanent Court of Arbitration International Bureau for the Protection of Industrial Property International Bureau for the Publication of Customs Tariffs International Bureau of Weights and Measures International Center for Agriculrural Research in the Dry Areas International Center for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) International Coffee Organization International Committee of the Red Cross International Cotton Advisory Committee International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) International Council of Scientific Unions and Its Associated Unions (20) International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics International Development Law Institute International Fertilizer Development Center International Grain Council International Human Frontier Science Program Organization International Hydrographic Organization International Institute for Cotton International Institute for the Unification of Private Law International Mobile Satellitte Organization International North Pacific Fisheries Commission International Organization for Legal Metrology (IOLM) International Organization for Migration International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions International Plant Genetics Resources Institute International Rubber Study Group International Science and Technology Center International Seed Testing Association International Service for National Agriculture Research International Sugar Council International Tropical Timber Organization International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers International Whaling Commission Interparliamentary Union Iran-United States Claims Tribunal Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization Multinational Force Observers Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Pacific Aviation Safety Office Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty [[Page 579]] Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe Science and Technology Center in Ukraine Sierra Leone Special Court World Heritage Fund World Customs Organization World Trade Organization (WTO) VI. Special Voluntary Programs African Institute for Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) International Center for Research in Agroforestry International Council of Science International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics International Federation of the Red Cross International Food Policy Research Institute International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture International Organization for Migration (IOM) Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund Organization of American States Fund for Strengthening Democracy Organization of American States Special Development Assistance Fund Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel Ramsar Convention on Wetlands United Nations Afghanistan Emergency Trust Fund United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) United Nations Development Program (UNDP) United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) United Nations/Food and Agricultural Organization World Food Program (WFP) United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Program (UNHCR) United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) United Nations Voluntary Fund for the Victims of Torture World Health Organization Special Programs African Development Bank Headquarters (temporary): Angle des Trois Rues, Avenue Du Ghana, Rue Pierre De Coubertin, Rue Hedi Nouira, BP. 323, 1002 Tunis Belvedere, Tunisia. Internet, www.afdb.org. E-mail, email@example.com. President: Omar Kabbaj The African Development Bank (AFDB) was established in 1964 and, by charter amendment, opened its membership to non-African countries in 1982. Its mandate is to contribute to the economic development and social progress of its regional members. Bank members total 77, including 53 African countries and 24 nonregional countries. With the September 1999 ratification of the agreement on the fifth general capital increase, Bank ownership is 60 percent African and 40 percent nonregional. The African Development Fund (AFDF), the concessional lending affiliate, was established in 1973 to complement AFDB operations by providing concessional financing for high-priority development projects in the poorest African countries. The Fund's membership consists of 25 nonregional member countries, South Africa, and AFDB, which represents its African members and is allocated half of the votes. In February 2003, security concerns resulted in AFDB headquarters temporarily relocating to Tunis, Tunisia. Asian Development Bank Headquarters: 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City, 0401 Metro Manila, Philippines. Phone, 632-632-4444. Fax, 632-636-2444. Internet, www.adb.org. President: Tadao Chino The Asian Development Bank commenced operations on December [[Page 580]] 19, 1966. It now has 63 member countries--45 from Asia and 18 from outside the region. The purpose of the Bank is to foster sustainable economic development, poverty alleviation, and cooperation among its developing member countries in the Asia/Pacific region. For further information, contact the Asian Development Bank, P.O. Box 789, 0980 Manila, Philippines. E-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org. Or contact the ADB North American Representative Office, 815 Connecticut Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20006. Phone, 202-728-1500. E-mail, email@example.com. Inter-American Defense Board 2600 Sixteenth Street NW., Washington, DC 20441. Phone, 202-939-6600. Internet, www.jid.org. E-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org. Chairman: Maj. Gen. Keith M. Huber, USA The Inter-American Defense Board is the oldest permanently constituted, international military organization in the world. It was founded by Resolution XXXIX of the Meeting of Foreign Ministers at Rio de Janeiro in January 1942. Senior army, navy, and air force officers from 27 member nations staff the various agencies of the Board. Its four major components are the Council of Delegates, the decisionmaking body; the International Staff; the Inter-American Defense College; and the Secretariat, which provides administrative and logistical support. The Board studies and recommends to member governments measures necessary for close military collaboration in preparation for the collective defense and security of the hemisphere. It also acts as a technical military adviser for the Organization of American States, and is involved in projects such as disaster relief planning and demining programs in Central and South America. The Inter-American Defense College, founded in 1962, prepares senior military officers and civilian functionaries for positions in their respective governments. The College's multidisciplinary program uses four annual seminars to focus on the Western Hemisphere's most pressing defense and security issues. Inter-American Development Bank Headquarters: 1300 New York Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20577. Phone, 202-623-1000. Internet, www.iadb.org. President: Enrique V. Iglesias The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) was established in 1959 to help accelerate economic and social development in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is based in Washington, DC. The Bank has 28 member countries in the Western Hemisphere and 18 outside of the region. Inter-American Investment Corporation Headquarters: 1350 New York Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20577. Phone, 202-623-3900 Chairman of Board of Directors: Enrique V. Iglesias General Manager: Jacques Rogozinski The Inter-American Investment Corporation (IIC), an affiliate of the Inter-American Development Bank, was established in 1984 to promote the economic development of its Latin American and Caribbean members by financing small- and medium-size private enterprises. IIC makes direct loans and equity investments and grants lines of credit to local financial intermediaries. It is based in Washington, DC. IIC has 37 member countries, of which 27 are in the Western Hemisphere, including the United States, and 10 are outside the region. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Headquarters: 1818 H Street NW., Washington, DC 20433. Phone, 202-473- 1000 President: Paul D. Wolfowitz The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), also known as the World Bank, officially came into existence on December 27, 1945. [[Page 581]] The Bank's purpose is to promote economic, social, and environmental progress in developing nations by reducing poverty so that their people may live better and fuller lives. The Bank lends funds at market- determined interest rates, provides advice, and serves as a catalyst to stimulate outside investments. Its resources come primarily from funds raised in the world capital markets, its retained earnings, and repayments on its loans. International Development Association The International Development Association (IDA) came into existence on September 24, 1960, as an affiliate of IBRD. The Association's resources consist of subscriptions and supplementary resources in the form of general replenishments, mostly from its more industrialized and developed members; special contributions by its richer members; repayments on earlier credits; and transfers from IBRD's net earnings. The Association promotes economic development, reduces poverty, and raises the standard of living in the least developed areas of the world. It does this by financing their developmental requirements on concessionary terms, which are more flexible and bear less heavily on the balance of payments than those of conventional loans, thereby furthering the objectives of IBRD and supplementing its activities. International Finance Corporation Headquarters: 2121 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20433. Phone, 202-473-3800. Internet, www.ifc.org. President: Paul D. Wolfowitz Executive Vice President: Peter Woicke The International Finance Corporation (IFC), an affiliate of the World Bank, was established in July 1956, to promote productive private enterprise in developing member countries. The Corporation pursues its objective principally through direct debt and equity investments in projects that establish new businesses or expand, modify, or diversify existing businesses. It also encourages cofinancing by other investors and lenders. Additionally, advisory services and technical assistance are provided by IFC to developing member countries in areas such as capital market development, privatization, corporate restructuring, and foreign investment. International Monetary Fund 700 Nineteenth Street NW., Washington, DC 20431. Phone, 202-623-7000. Fax, 202-623-4661. Internet, www.imf.org. Managing Director and Chairman of the Executive Board: Rodrigo de Rato y Figaredo First Deputy Managing Director: Anne O. Krueger Deputy Managing Directors: Augustin Carstens, Takatoshi Kato The Final Act of the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, signed at Bretton Woods, NH, on July 22, 1944, set forth the original Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The Agreement became effective on December 27, 1945, when the President, authorized by the Bretton Woods Agreements Act (22 U.S.C. 286), accepted membership for the United States in IMF, the Agreement having thus been accepted by countries whose combined financial commitments (quotas) equaled approximately 80 percent of IMF's total commitments. The inaugural meeting of the Board of Governors was held in March 1946, and the first meeting of the Executive Directors was held May 6, 1946. On May 31, 1968, the Board of Governors approved an amendment to the Articles of Agreement for the establishment of a facility based on Special Drawing Rights (SDR) in IMF and for modification of certain IMF rules and practices. The amendment became effective on July 28, 1969, and the Special Drawing Account became operative on August 6, 1969. United States acceptance of the amendment and participation in the Special Drawing Account were authorized by the Special Drawing Rights Act (22 U.S.C. 286 et seq.). On April 30, 1976, the Board of Governors approved a second [[Page 582]] amendment to the Articles of Agreement, which entered into force on April 1, 1978. This amendment gave members the right to adopt exchange arrangements of their choice while placing certain obligations on them regarding their exchange rate policies, over which IMF was to exercise firm surveillance. The official price of gold was abolished and the SDR account was promoted as the principal reserve asset of the international monetary system. United States acceptance of this amendment was authorized by the Bretton Woods Agreements Act Amendments (22 U.S.C. 286e-5). On June 28, 1990, the Board of Governors approved a third amendment to the Articles of Agreement, which became effective on November 11, 1992. Under this amendment, a member's voting rights and certain related rights may be suspended by a 70-percent majority of the executive board if the member, having been declared ineligible to use the general resources of the Fund, persists in its failure to fulfill any of its obligations under the Articles. As of January 31, 2006, IMF had 184 member countries. Total quotas at the end of January 2006 were SDR 213 billion (about $310 billion). The purposes of IMF are to promote international monetary cooperation through a permanent forum for consultation and collaboration on international monetary problems; to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade; to promote exchange rate stability; to assist in the establishment of an open multilateral system of payments for current transactions between members; and to give confidence to members by making IMF resources temporarily available to them under adequate safeguards. In accordance with these purposes, IMF seeks to help its members correct imbalances in their international balances of payments. It periodically examines the economic developments and policies of its member countries, offers policy advice, and at member's request and upon executive board approval, provides financial assistance through a variety of financial facilities designed to address specific problems. These lending mechanisms include stand-by and extended arrangements, a supplemental reserve facility to provide short-term assistance for difficulties related to crises of market confidence, a facility to provide compensatory and contigency financing to countries suffering temporary declines in their export earnings, a concessional (low- interest rate) poverty reduction and growth facility to support structural adjustment and promote growth in the poorest countries, and emergency assistance for countries recovering from natural disasters or armed conflict. IMF also provides technical assistance and training to its members. As of January 31, 2006, IMF usable resources were SDR 152.1 billion ($221 billion), and one-year forward commitment capacity was SDR 117.3 billion ($170.6 billion). For further information, contact the Chief, Public Affairs Division, External Relations Department, International Monetary Fund, 700 Nineteenth Street NW., Washington, DC 20431. Phone, 202-623-7300. Fax, 202-623-6278. E-mail, email@example.com. Internet, www.imf.org. International Organization for Migration Headquarters: 17 Route des Morillons, Grand-Saconnex, Geneva. Mailing address, P.O. Box 71, CH-1211, Geneva 19, Switzerland. Phone, 011-41-22- 717-9111. Fax, 011-41-22-798-6150. Internet, www.iom.int. Director General: Brunson McKinley (United States) Deputy Director General: Ndioro Ndiaye (Senegal) Washington Office: Suite 700, 1752 N Street NW., Washington, DC 20036. Phone, 202-862-1826. Fax, 202-862-1879. E-mail, MRFWashington@iom.int. Regional Representative: Frances Sullivan (United States) New York Office: Suite 1610, 122 E. 42d Street, New York, NY 10168. Phone, 212-681-7000. Fax, 212-867-5887. E-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org Chief of Mission: Michael Gray (United States) [[Page 583]] Permanent Observer to the United Nations: Luca Dall'Oglio (Italy) The International Organization for Migration (IOM) was formed in 1951 as the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) to help solve the postwar problems of refugees and displaced persons in Europe and to assist in orderly trans-Atlantic migration. It adopted its current name in 1989 to reflect its progressively global outreach. Since its creation, IOM has assisted more than 12 million refugees and migrants in over 125 countries. As of December 2005, 116 governments are members of IOM, and 21 others have observer status. IOM has observer status at the United Nations. IOM's guiding principle is that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and societies. In carrying out its mandate, IOM helps migrants, governments, and civil society plan and operate international and national migration programs at the request of its member states and in cooperation with other international orgaanizations. Its major objectives are the processing and movement of migrants and refugees to countries offering them permanent resettlement opportunities; the promotion of orderly migration to meet the needs of both emigration and immigration communities; counter-trafficking activities; the transfer of technology through migration in order to promote the economic, educational, and social advancement of developing countries; the provision of a forum for states and other partners to exchange views; the promotion of cooperation and coordination on migration issues; and technical cooperation and advisory services on migration policies and legislation. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency Headquarters: 1818 H Street NW., Washington, DC 20433. Phone, 202-458- 9292. Internet, www.miga.org. President: Paul D. Wolfowitz Executive Vice President: Yukiko Omura The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), an affiliate of the World Bank, was formally constituted in April 1988. Its basic purpose is to facilitate the flow of foreign private investment for productive purposes to developing member countries by offering long-term political risk insurance in the areas of expropriation, transfer restriction, breach of contract, and war and civil disturbance; and by providing advisory and consultative services. The Agency cooperates with national investment insurance schemes, such as OPIC, and with private insurers. Organization of American States Headquarters: Seventeenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20006. Phone, 202-458-3000. Fax, 202-458-3967. Internet, www.oas.org. Secretary General: Jose Miguel Insulza Assistant Secretary General: Albert Ramdi The Organization of American States (OAS) brings together the countries of the Western Hemisphere to strengthen cooperation and advance commmon interests. At the core of the OAS mission is a commitment to democracy. Building on this foundation, OAS works to promote good governance, strengthen human rights, foster peace and security, expand trade, and address the complex problems caused by poverty, drugs, and corruption. Though decisions made by its political bodies and programs carried out by its General Secretariat, OAS promotes greater inter-American cooperation and understanding. OAS member states have intensified their cooperation since the end of the cold war, taking on new and important challenges. In 1994, the region's 34 democratically elected presidents and prime ministers met in Miami for the First Summit of the Americas, where they established broad political, economic and social development goals. They have continued to meet periodically since then to examine common interests and priorities. Through the ongoing Summits of the Americas process, the region's leaders have entrusted the OAS [[Page 584]] with a growing number of responsibilities to help advance the countries' shared vision. With four official languages--English, Spanish, Portugese, and French--the OAS reflects the rich diversity of peoples and cultures across the Americas. The OAS has 35 member states, the independent nations of North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. Since 1962, Cuba has been barred from participation by resolution of the Eight Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs. Countries from all around the world are permanent observers, closely following the issues that are critical to the Americas and often providing key financial support for OAS programs. The member states set major policies and goals through the General Assembly, which gathers the hemisphere's foreign ministeres once a year in regular session. The Permanent Council, made up of ambassadors appointed by member states, meets regularly, at OAS headquarters in Washington, DC, to guide ongoing policies and actions. The chairmanship of the Permanent Council rotates every three months, in alphabetical order of countries. Each member state has an equal voice, and most decisions are made through consensus. Also under the OAS umbrella are several specialized agencies that have considerable autonomy. Those agencies are the Pan American Health Organization in Washington, DC; the Inter-American Children's Institute in Montevideo, Uruguay; the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture in San Jose, Costa Rica; and the Pan American Institute of Geography and History and the Inter-American Indian Institute, both in Mexico City. In 1948, 21 nations of the hemisphere signed the OAS Charter at the Ninth International Conference of American States. They were Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (barred from participation), Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States of America, Uruguay and Venezuela. Subsequently, 14 other American States joined the OAS by signing and ratifying the Charter. They were Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, Grenada, Suriname, Dominica and Saint Lucia, Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, Canada, and Belize and Guyana. This brings to 35 the number of member states. For further information, contact the Director, Department of Press and Communications, OAS, 1889 F Street NW., Washington, DC 20006. Phone, 202-458-3760. Fax, 202-458-6421. United Nations United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Phone, 212-963-1234. Internet, www.un.org. Secretary-General: Kofi A. Annan United Nations Office at Geneva: Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland Director-General: Sergi Ordzhonikidze United Nations Office at Vienna: Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 500, A-1400, Vienna, Austria Director-General: Antonio Maria Costa Washington, DC, Office: U.N. Information Centre, Suite 400, 1775 K Street NW., Washington, DC 20006. Phone, 202-331-8670. Fax, 202-331- 9191. Internet, www.unicwash.org. Director: Will Davis The United Nations is an international organization that was set up in accordance with the Charter \1\ drafted by governments represented at the Conference on International Organization meeting at San Francisco. The Charter was signed on June 26, 1945, and came into force on October 24, 1945, when the required number of ratifications and accessions had been made by the signatories. Amendments increasing membership of the Security Council and the Economic and Social [[Page 585]] Council came into effect on August 31, 1965. \1\ Charter of the United Nations, together with the Statute of the International Court of Justice (Department of State Publication No. 2353, International Organization and Conference Series III, 21), June 26, 1945. Available for sale from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone, 202-512-1800. The United Nations now consists of 191 member states, of which 51 are founding members. The purposes of the United Nations set out in the Charter are to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character and in promoting respect for human rights; and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends. The principal organs of the United Nations are as follows: General Assembly All states that are members of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly. Its functions are to consider and discuss any matter within the scope of the Charter of the United Nations and to make recommendations to the members of the United Nations and other organs. It approves the budget of the organization, the expenses of which are borne by the members as apportioned by the General Assembly. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations likely to endanger international peace and security, may initiate studies, and may receive and consider reports from other organs of the United Nations. Under the ``Uniting for Peace'' resolution adopted by the General Assembly in November 1950, if the Security Council fails to act on an apparent threat to or breach of the peace or act of aggression because of lack of unanimity of its five permanent members, the Assembly itself may take up the matter within 24 hours--in emergency special session--and recommend collective measures, including, in case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression, use of armed force when necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. The General Assembly normally meets in regular annual session from September through December. It also has met in special sessions and emergency special sessions. Security Council The Security Council consists of 15 members, of which 5--the People's Republic of China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America--are permanent members. The 10 nonpermanent members are elected for 2-year terms by the General Assembly. The primary responsibility of the Security Council is to act on behalf of the members of the United Nations in maintenance of international peace and security. Measures that may be employed by the Security Council are outlined in the Charter. The Security Council, together with the General Assembly, also elects the judges of the International Court of Justice and makes a recommendation to the General Assembly on the appointment of the Secretary-General of the organization. The Security Council first met in London on January 17, 1946, and is so organized as to be able to function continuously. Economic and Social Council This organ is responsible, under the authority of the General Assembly, for the economic and social programs of the United Nations. Its functions include making or initiating studies, reports, and recommendations on international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters; promoting respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all; calling international conferences and preparing draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly on matters within its competence; negotiating agreements with the specialized agencies and defining their relationship with the United Nations; coordinating the activities of the specialized agencies; and consulting with nongovernmental organizations concerned with matters within its competence. The Council consists of 54 members of the United Nations elected by the General Assembly for 3-year terms; 18 are elected each year. [[Page 586]] The Council usually holds two regular sessions a year. It has also held a number of special sessions. Trusteeship Council The Trusteeship Council was initially established to consist of any member states that administered trust territories, permanent members of the Security Council that did not administer trust territories, and enough other nonadministering countries elected by the General Assembly for 3-year terms to ensure that membership would be equally divided between administering and nonadministering members. Under authority of the General Assembly, the Council considered reports from members administering trust territories, examined petitions from trust territory inhabitants, and provided for periodic inspection visits to trust territories. With the independence of Palau, the last remaining U.N. trust territory, the Trusteeship Council formally suspended operations after nearly half a century. The council will henceforth meet only on an extraordinary basis, as the need may arise. International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It has its seat at The Hague, The Netherlands. All members of the United Nations are ipso facto parties to the Statute of the Court. Nonmembers of the United Nations may become parties to the Statute of the Court on conditions prescribed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. The jurisdiction of the Court comprises all cases that the parties refer to it and all matters specially provided for in the Charter of the United Nations or in treaties and conventions in force. The Court consists of 15 judges known as ``members'' of the Court. They are elected for 9-year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council, voting independently, and may be reelected. Secretariat The Secretariat consists of a Secretary-General and ``such staff as the Organization may require.'' The Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council, is the chief administrative officer of the United Nations. He acts in that capacity for the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and the Trusteeship Council. Under the Charter, the Secretary-General ``may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.''