[Constitution of the United States of America:  Analysis, and Interpretation - 1992 Edition ]
[Supreme Court Decisions Overruled by Subsequent Decision]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


[[Page 2243]]




________________________________________________________________________


 
                         SUPREME COURT DECISIONS
                    OVERRULED BY SUBSEQUENT DECISION

________________________________________________________________________

[[Page 2245]]

________________________________________________________________________
 
        SUPREME COURT DECISIONS OVERRULED BY SUBSEQUENT DECISION

        While the Supreme Court sometimes expressly overrules a prior 
decision, in a great many instances the overruling must be deduced from 
the principles of related cases. Obviously, there is a chance here for a 
difference of opinion and this will be reflected in any listing.
        The present compilation was initially based primarily upon the 
following sources:

        Justice Brandeis dissenting in Burnet v. Coronado Oil and Gas 
            Co., 285 U.S. 393, 406-409 nn.1-4 (1932).
        Emmet E. Wilson, ``Stare Decisis, Quo Vadis?'' 33 Geo. L.J. 251, 
            254 n.17, 265 (1945);
        William O. Douglas, ``Stare Decisis,'' 49 Colum. L. Rev. 735-43, 
            756-58 (1949);
        Albert R. Blaustein and Andrew H. Field, ``Overruling Opinions 
            in the Supreme Court,'' 57 Mich. L. Rev. 151, 184-94 (1958).

        Inasmuch as there is not complete agreement among them that all 
of the cases listed constitute reversals by the Supreme Court of prior 
decisions, the following symbols have been employed to indicate the 
authority for inclusion in each instance:
        An asterisk (*) designates reversals stated in express terms by 
            the Supreme Court;
        The letters B, D, and A indicate reversals listed respectively 
            by Justice Brandeis, Justice Douglas and Professor 
            Blaustein;
        Cases not bearing a symbol have been added by the editors of 
            this volume.


                Overruling Case                Overruled Case
*   1.  Hudson v. Guestier, 10 U.S. (6    Rose v. Himley, 8 U.S. (4 Cr.) 
        Cr.) 281, 285 (1810)              241 (1808)
B   2.  Gordon v. Ogden, 28 U.S. (3       Wilson v. Daniel, 3 U.S. (3 
        Pet.) 33, 34 (1830)               Dall.) 401 (1798)
A   3.  Greene v. Lessee of Neal, 31      Patton v. Easton, 14 U.S. (1 
        U.S. (6 Pet.) 291 (1832)          Wheat.) 476 (1816)
                                          Powell's Lessee v. Harmon, 27 
                                          U.S. (2 Pet.) 241 (1829)
B   4.  Louisville R.R. v. Letson, 43     Commercial and Railroad Bank 
        U.S. (2 How.) 497, 554-556        v. Slocomb, 39 U.S. (14 Pet.) 
        (1844)                            60 (1840)
                                        A Strawbridge v. Curtiss, 7 U.S. 
                                          (3 Cr.) 267 (1806); and 
                                          qualifying,
                                          Bank of the United States v. 
                                          Deveaux, 9 U.S. (5 Cr.) 61 
                                          (1809)
B*  5.  The Genessee Chief, 53 U.S.       The Thomas Jefferson, 23 U.S. 
        (12 How.) 443, 456 (1851)         (10 Wheat.) 428 (1825);
                                          The Orleans v. Phoebus, 36 
                                          U.S. (11 Pet.) 175 (1837)
B*  6.  Gazzam v. Phillip's Lessee, 61    Brown's Lessee v. Clements, 44 
        U.S. (20 How.) 372, 377-378       U.S. (3 How.) 650 (1845)
        (1858)
A   7.  Suydam v. Williamson, 65 U.S.     Williamson v. Berry, 49 U.S. 
        (24 How.) 427 (1861)              (8 How.) 495 (1850);

[[Page 2246]]

                                          Williamson v. Irish 
                                          Presbyterian Congregation, 49 
                                          U.S. (8 How.) 565 (1850);
                                          Williamson v. Ball, 49 U.S. (8 
                                          How.) 566 (1850)
*   8.  Mason v. Eldred, 73 U.S. (6       Sheehy v. Mandeville, 10 U.S. 
        Wall.) 231, 238 (1868)            (6 Cr.) 253 (1810)
BD  9.  The Belfast, 74 U.S. (7 Wall.)    Allen v. Newberry, 62 U.S. (21 
        624, 641 (1869)                   How.) 244 (1858) (in part)
BD  10. Knox v. Lee (Legal Tender         Hepburn v. Griswold, 75 U.S. 
        Cases), 79 U.S. (12 Wall.)        (8 Wall.) 603 (1870)
        457, 553 (1871)
D   11. Trebilcock v. Wilson, 79 U.S.     Roosevelt v. Meyer, 68 U.S. (1 
        (12 Wall.) 687 (1871)             Wall.) 512 (1863)
B*  12. Hornbuckle v. Toombs, 85 U.S.     Noonan v. Lee, 67 U.S. (2 
        (18 Wall.) 648, 652-653 (1874)    Black) 499 (1863);
                                          Orchard v. Hughes, 68 U.S. (1 
                                          Wall.) 73, 77 (1864);
                                          Dunphy v. Kleinsmith, 78 U.S. 
                                          (11 Wall.) 610 (1871)
D*  13. Union Pac. Ry. v. McShane, 89     Kansas Pac. Ry. v. Prescott, 
        U.S. (22 Wall.) 444 (1874)        83 U.S. (16 Wall.) 603 (1873) 
                                          (in part)
D*  14. County of Cass v. Johnston, 95    Harshman v. Bates County, 92 
        U.S. 360 (1877)                   U.S. 569 (1875)
D*  15. Fairfield v. County of            Town of Concord v. Savings-
        Gallatin, 100 U.S. 47 (1879)      Bank, 92 U.S. 625 (1875)
D*  16. Tilghman v. Proctor, 102 U.S.     Mitchell v. Tilghman, 86 U.S. 
        707 (1880)                        (19 Wall.) 287 (1873)
D   17. Kilbourn v. Thompson, 103 U.S.    Anderson v. Dunn, 19 U.S. (6 
        168, 192-200 (1881)               Wheat.) 204 (1821)
*   18. United States v. Phelps, 107      Shelton v. The Collector, 72 
        U.S. 320, 323 (1883)              U.S. (5 Wall.) 113, 118 (1867)
BD* 19. Kountze v. Omaha Hotel Co.,       Stafford v. The Union Bank of 
        107 U.S. 378, 387 (1883)          Louisiana, 57 U.S. (16 How.) 
                                          135 (1853)
*   20. Morgan v. United States, 113      Texas v. White, 74 U.S. (7 
        U.S. 476, 496 (1885)              Wall.) 700 (1869)
D   21. Wabash, St.L. & P. Ry. v.         Peik v. Chicago & N.W. Ry., 94 
        Illinois, 118 U.S. 557 (1886)     U.S. 164 (1877) 
                                          (``substantially though not 
                                          expressly overruled'')
D   22. Philadelphia Steamship Co. v.     State Tax on Railway Gross 
        Pennsylvania, 122 U.S. 326        Receipts, 82 U.S. (15 Wall.) 
        (1887)                            284 (1873) (``basic grounds of 
                                          decision repudiated'')
D   23. In re Ayers, 123 U.S. 443         Osborn v. Bank of the United 
        (1887)                            States, 22 U.S. (9 Wheat.) 738 
                                          (1824)
BD* 24. Leloup v. Port of Mobile, 127     Osborne v. Mobile, 83 U.S. (16 
        U.S. 640, 647 (1888)              Wall.) 479 (1873)
*   25. Leisy v. Hardin, 135 U.S. 100,    Pierce v. New Hampshire, 46 
        118 (1890)                        U.S. (5 How.) 504 (1847)
*   26. Brenham v. German-American        Rogers v. Burlington, 10 U.S. 
        Bank, 144 U.S. 173, 187 (1892)    (3 Wall.) 654 (1866);
                                          Mitchell v. Burlington, 71 
                                          U.S. (4 Wall.) 270 (1867)
*   27. Roberts v. Lewis, 153 U.S.        Giles v. Little, 104 U.S. 291 
        367, 377 (1894)                   (1881)

[[Page 2247]]

B   28. Pollock v. Farmers' Loan &        Hylton v. United States, 3 
        Trust Co., 158 U.S. 601 (1895)    U.S. (3 Dall.) 171 (1796)
*   29. Garland v. Washington, 232        Crain v. United States , 162 
        U.S. 642, 646 (1914)              U.S. 625 (1896)
*   30. United States v. Nice, 241        Matter of Heff, 197 U.S. 488 
        U.S. 591, 601 (1916)              (1905)
B   31. Pennsylvania R.R. v. Towers,      Lake Shore & Mich. So. Ry. v. 
        245 U.S. 6, 17 (1917)             Smith, 173 U.S. 684 (1899) (in 
                                          part)
B*  32. Rosen v. United States, 245       United States v. Reid, 53 U.S. 
        U.S. 467, 470 (1918)              (12 How.) 361 (1851)
*   33. Boston Store v. American          Henry v. Dick Co. , 224 U.S. 1 
        Graphophone Co., 246 U.S. 8,      (1912)
        25 (1918); and Motion Picture 
        Co. v. Universal Film Co., 243 
        U.S. 502, 518 (1917)
*   34. Terrel v. Burke Constr. Co.,      Doyle v. Continental Ins. Co., 
        257 U.S. 529, 533 (1922)          94 U.S. 535 (1877); Security 
                                          Mut. Life Ins. Co. v. Prewitt, 
                                          202 U.S. 246 (1906)
*   35. Lee v. Chesapeake & Ohio Ry.,     Ex parte Wisner, 203 U.S. 449 
        260 U.S. 653, 659 (1923)          (1906); and qualifying,
                                          In re Moore, 209 U.S. 490 
                                          (1908)
*   36. Alpha Cement Co. v.               Baltic Mining Co. v. 
        Massachusetts, 268 U.S. 203,      Massachusetts, 231 U.S. 68 
        218 (1925)                        (1913)
A   37. Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. v.          Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. v. 
        Leitch, 276 U.S. 429 (1928)       Leitch, 275 U.S. 507 (1927)
        (rehearing)
*   38. Gleason v. Seaboard Ry., 278      Friedlander v. Texas & Pac. 
        U.S. 349, 357 (1929)              Ry., 130 U.S. 416 (1889) (in 
                                          part)
*   39. Farmers Loan Co. v. Minnesota,    Blackstone v. Miller, 188 U.S. 
        280 U.S. 204, 209 (1930)          189 (1903)
*   40. East Ohio Gas Co. v. Tax          Pennsylvania Gas Co. v. Public 
        Comm'n, 283 U.S. 465, 472         Serv. Comm'n, 252 U.S. 23 
        (1931)                            (1920)
*   41. Chicago & E.I.R.R. v.             Erie R.R. v. Collins, 253 U.S. 
        Industrial Comm'n, 284 U.S.       77 (1920);
        296 (1932)                        Erie R.R. v. Szary, 253 U.S. 
                                          86 (1920)
A   42. Fox Film Corp. v. Doyal, 286      Long v. Rockwood, 277 U.S. 142 
        U.S. 123 (1932)                   (1928)
    43. New York ex rel. Northern         Macallen Co. v. Massachusetts, 
        Finance Corp. v. Lynch, 290       279 U.S. 620 (1929)
        U.S. 601 (1933)
        See also:
        United States v. City of 
        Detroit, 355 U.S. 466, 472 n.2 
        (1958)
A*  44. Funk v. United States, 290      * Stein v. Bowman, 38 U.S. (13 
        U.S. 371, 373, 386 (1933);        Pet.) 209 (1839) (in part);
        See also:                       * Hendrix v. United States, 219 
        Hawkins v. United States, 358     U.S. 79 (1911);
        U.S. 74, 76 (1958)              A Logan v. United States, 144 
                                          U.S. 263 (1892);
                                        * Jin Fuey Moy v. United States, 
                                          254 U.S. 189 (1920)
*   45. West Coast Hotel Co. v.           Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 
        Parrish, 300 U.S. 379 (1937)      261 U.S. 525 (1923)
                                        A Morehead v. New York ex rel. 
                                          Tipaldo, 298 U.S. 587 (1936)

[[Page 2248]]

A   46. Railroad Comm'n v. Pacific Gas    Railroad Comm'n v. Pacific Gas 
        Co., 302 U.S. 388 (1938)          Co., 301 U.S. 669 (1937)
        (rehearing)
*   47. Helvering v. Producers Corp.,     Gillespie v. Oklahoma, 257 
        303 U.S. 376 (1938)               U.S. 501 (1922);
                                          Burnet v. Coronado Oil & Gas 
                                          Co., 285 U.S. 393 (1932)
D*  48. Erie R.R. v. Tompkins, 304        Swift v. Tyson, 41 U.S. (16 
        U.S. 64, 69, 79 (1938)            Pet.) 1 (1842)
*   49. Graves v. New York ex rel.      A Dobbins v. Commissioners of 
        O'Keefe, 306 U.S. 466 (1939)      Erie County, 41 U.S. (16 Pet.) 
                                          435 (1842);
                                          Collector v. Day, 78 U.S. (11 
                                          Wall.) 113 (1871);
                                          New York ex rel. Rogers v. 
                                          Graves, 299 U.S. 401 (1937);
                                        A Brush v. Commissioners, 300 
                                          U.S. 352 (1937)
A   50. Rochester Tel. Corp. v. United    Procter & Gamble v. United 
        States, 307 U.S. 125 (1939)       States, 225 U.S. 282 (1912)
D*  51. O'Malley v. Woodrough, 307      A Evans v. Gore, 253 U.S. 245 
        U.S. 277 (1939)                   (1920)
                                          Miles v. Graham, 268 U.S. 501 
                                          (1925)
*   52. Madden v. Kentucky, 309 U.S.      Colgate v. Harvey, 296 U.S. 
        83 (1940)                         404 (1935)
*   53. Helvering v. Hallock, 309 U.S.    Helvering v. St. Louis Trust 
        106 (1940)                        Co., 296 U.S. 39 (1935);
                                          Becker v. St. Louis Trust Co., 
                                          296 U.S. 48 (1935)
D   54. Tigner v. Texas, 310 U.S. 141     Connolly v. Union Sewer Pipe 
        (1940)                            Co., 184 U.S. 540 (1902)
*   55. United States v. Darby, 312       Hammer v. Dagenhart, 247 U.S. 
        U.S. 100 (1941)                   251 (1918);
                                          Carter v. Carter Coal Co., 298 
                                          U.S. 238 (1936) (limited)
*   56. United States v. Chicago, M.      United States v. Lynah, 188 
        St. P. & P.R.R., 312 U.S. 592     U.S. 445 (1903) (in part);
        (1941)
                                        A United States v. Heyward, 250 
                                          U.S. 633 (1919)
*   57. Nye v. United States, 313 U.S.    Toledo Newspaper Co. v. United 
        33 (1941)                         States, 247 U.S. 402 (1918)
*   58. California v. Thompson, 313       Di Santo v. Pennsylvania, 273 
        U.S. 109 (1941)                   U.S. 34 (1927)
D   59. United States v. Classic, 313     Newberry v. United States, 256 
        U.S. 299 (1941)                   U.S. 232 (1921)
*   60. Olsen v. Nebraska, 313 U.S.       Ribnik v. McBride, 277 U.S. 
        236 (1941)                        350 (1928)
*   61. Alabama v. King & Boozer, 314     Panhandle Oil Co. v. Knox, 277 
        U.S. 1 (1941)                     U.S. 218 (1928);
                                          Graves v. Texas Company, 298 
                                          U.S. 393 (1936)
D   62. Toucey v. N.Y. Life Ins. Co.,     Supreme Tribe of Ben-Hur v. 
        314 U.S. 118 (1941)               Cauble, 255 U.S. 356 (1921)
A   63. Edwards v. California, 314        City of New York v. Miln, 36 
        U.S. 160 (1941)                   U.S. (11 Pet.) 102 (1837)

[[Page 2249]]

*   64. State Tax Comm'n v. Aldrich,      First Nat'l Bank v. Maine, 284 
        316 U.S. 174 (1942)               U.S. 312 (1932)
*   65. Williams v. North Carolina,       Haddock v. Haddock, 201 U.S. 
        317 U.S. 287 (1942)               562 (1906)
*   66. Brady v. Roosevelt S.S. Co.,      Johnson v. Fleet Corp., 280 
        317 U.S. 575 (1943)               U.S. 320 (1930)
*   67. Jones v. Opelika, 319 U.S. 103    Jones v. Opelika, 316 U.S. 584 
        (1943) (re-argument);             (1942)
A       Murdock v. Pennsylvania, 319 
        U.S. 105 (1943)
D   68. Oklahoma Tax Comm'n v. United     Childers v. Beaver, 270 U.S. 
        States, 319 U.S. 598 (1943)       555 (1926)
*   69. West Virginia Bd. of Educ. v.     Minersville Dist. v. Gobitis, 
        Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943)     310 U.S. 586 (1940)
D   70. FPC v. Hope Gas Co., 320 U.S.     United Railways v. West, 280 
        591 (1944)                        U.S. 234 (1930) (in part)
D   71. Mercoid Corp. v. Mid-Continent    Leeds & Catlin Co. v. Victor 
        Co., 320 U.S. 661 (1944)          Talk. Mach. (No. 2), 213 U.S. 
                                          325 (1909) (limited)
D   72. Mahnich v. Southern S.S. Co.,     Plamals v. Pinar Del Rio, 277 
        321 U.S. 96 (1944)                U.S. 151 (1928) (in part)
*   73. Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S.      Grovey v. Townsend, 295 U.S. 
        649 (1944)                        45 (1935)
D   74. United States v. South-Eastern    Paul v. Virginia, 75 U.S. (8 
        Underwriters' Ass'n, 322 U.S.     Wall.) 168 (1869)
        533 (1944)
*   75. Girouard v. United States, 328    United States v. Schwimmer, 
        U.S. 61 (1946)                    279 U.S. 644 (1929);
                                          United States v. MacIntosh, 
                                          283 U.S. 605 (1931);
                                          United States v. Bland, 283 
                                          U.S. 636 (1931)
A   76. Halliburton Co. v. Walker, 329    Halliburton Co. v. Walker, 326 
        U.S. 1 (1946) (rehearing)         U.S. 696 (1946)
A   77. MacGregor v. Westinghouse Co.,    MacGregor v. Westinghouse Co., 
        329 U.S. 402 (1947)               327 U.S. 758 (1946)
        (rehearing)
*   78. Angel v. Bullington, 330 U.S.     David Lupton's Sons v. Auto. 
        183 (1947)                        Club of Am., 225 U.S. 489 
                                          (1912) (rendered obsolete by 
                                          prior change in law)
A   79. Zap v. United States, 330 U.S.    Zap v. United States, 328 U.S. 
        800 (1947) (rehearing)            624 (1946)
A   80. Thibaut v. Car and General        Thibaut v. Car and General 
        Ins. Corp., 332 U.S. 828          Ins. Corp., 332 U.S. 751 
        (1947) (on rehearing)             (1947)
D   81. Sherrer v. Sherrer, 334 U.S.      Andrews v. Andrews, 188 U.S. 
        343 (1948)                        14 (1903) (in part)
    82. Lincoln Fed. Labor Union v.       Adair v. United States, 208 
        Northwestern, 335 U.S. 525        U.S. 161 (1908)
        (1949);
        See also:
A       Phelps Dodge Corp. v. NLRB,       Coppage v. Kansas, 236 U.S. 1 
        313 U.S. 177 (1941)               (1915)

[[Page 2250]]

A*  83. Commissioner v. Estate of         May v. Heiner, 281 U.S. 238 
        Church, 335 U.S. 632, 637         (1930)
        (1949)
A   84. Ott v. Mississippi Barge Line,    St. Louis v. Ferry Company, 78 
        336 U.S. 169 (1949)               U.S. (11 Wall.) 423 (1870);
                                          Old Dominion S.S. Co. v. 
                                          Virginia, 198 U.S. 299 (1905);
                                          Ayer & Lord Co. v. Kentucky, 
                                          202 U.S. 409 (1906)
*   85. Oklahoma Tax Comm'n v. Texas      Choctaw & Gulf R.R. v. 
        Co., 336 U.S. 342 (1949)          Harrison, 235 U.S. 292 (1914);
                                          Indian Oil Co. v. Oklahoma, 
                                          240 U.S. 522 (1916);
                                          Howard v. Gipsy Oil Co., 247 
                                          U.S. 503 (1918);
                                          Large Oil Co. v. Howard, 248 
                                          U.S. 549 (1919);
                                          Oklahoma v. Barnsdall Corp., 
                                          296 U.S. 521 (1936)
*   86. Cosmopolitan Co. v.               Hust v. Moore-McCormack Lines, 
        McAllister, 337 U.S. 783          328 U.S. 707 (1946)
        (1949)
*   87. United States v. Rabinowitz,      Trupiano v. United States, 334 
        339 U.S. 56, 66, 85 (1950)        U.S. 699 (1948);
                                          McDonald v. United States, 335 
                                          U.S. 451 (1948)
A*  88. Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v.           Mutual Film Corp. v. Ohio 
        Wilson, 343 U.S. 495, 502         Indus. Comm'n, 236 U.S. 230 
        (1952)                            (1915)
*   89. Brown v. Board of Education,      Cumming v. Board of Education, 
        347 U.S. 483, 491, 494-495        175 U.S. 528 (1899);
        (1954)
                                          Gong Lum v. Rice, 275 U.S. 78 
                                          (1927)
A   90. In re Isserman, 348 U.S. 1        In re Isserman, 345 U.S. 286 
        (1954) (on rehearing)             (1953)
A   91. Gayle v. Browder, 352 U.S. 903    Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 
        (1956)                            537 (1896)
*   92. Reid v. Covert, 354 U.S. 1        Kinsella v. Krueger, 351 U.S. 
        (1957)                            470 (1956);
                                          Reid v. Covert, 351 U.S. 487 
                                          (1956)
*   93. Vanderbilt v. Vanderbilt, 354     Thompson v. Thompson, 226 U.S. 
        U.S. 416, 419 (1957);             551 (1913)
        See also:
*       Armstrong v. Armstrong, 350 
        U.S. 568, 581 (1956)
*   94. Ladner v. United States, 358      Ladner v. United States, 355 
        U.S. 169 (1958) (on rehearing)    U.S. 282 (1958)
*   95. United States v. Raines, 362      United States v. Reese, 92 
        U.S. 17, 27 (1960)                U.S. 214, 220-221 (1876)
*   96. Elkins v. United States, 364      Weeks v. United States, 232 
        U.S. 206, 210, 212-213, 283       U.S. 383, 398 (1914) (in 
        (1960);                           part);
        Rios v. United States, 364        Center v. United States, 267 
        U.S. 253 (1960)                   U.S. 575 (1925);
                                          Byars v. United States, 273 
                                          U.S. 28, 33 (1927) (in part);
                                          Feldman v. United States, 322 
                                          U.S. 487, 492 (1944) (in part)

[[Page 2251]]

*   97. James v. United States, 366       Commissioner v. Wilcox, 327 
        U.S. 213, 215, 221, 223, 241      U.S. 404 (1946)
        (1961)
*   98. Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643,       Wolf v. Colorado, 338 U.S. 25 
        653-655 (1961);                   (1949) (in part)
        See also:
        Ker v. California, 374 U.S.       Irvine v. California, 347 U.S. 
        23, 45, 53, 59 (1963)             128 (1954) (in part)
*   99. Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186,      Colegrove v. Green, 328 U.S. 
        277, 280 (1962)                   549 (1946) (in part);
*   100.Wesberry v. Sanders, 376 U.S.     Colegrove v. Barrett, 330 U.S. 
        1 (1964)                          804 (1947)
*   101.Smith v. Evening News Ass'n,      Westinghouse Employees v. 
        371 U.S. 195, 199 (1962);         Westinghouse Corp., 348 U.S. 
        See also:                         437 (1955) (in part)
        Truck Drivers Union v. Riss & 
        Co., 372 U.S. 517, 520 (1963)
*   102.Construction Laborers v.          Building Union v. Ledbetter 
        Curry, 371 U.S. 542, 552, 554     Co., 344 U.S. 178 (1952) (in 
        (1963)                            part)
*   103.Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S.    Betts v. Brady, 316 U.S. 455 
        335 (1963)                        (1942)
*   104.Gray v. Sanders, 372 U.S. 368,    Cook v. Fortson, Turman v. 
        383 (1963)                        Duckworth, 329 U.S. 675 
                                          (1946);
                                          South v. Peters, 339 U.S. 276 
                                          (1950);
                                          Cox v. Peters, 342 U.S. 936 
                                          (1952);
                                          Hartsfield v. Sloan, 357 U.S. 
                                          916 (1958)
*   105.Fay v. Noia, 372 U.S. 391, 435    Darr v. Burford, 339 U.S. 200 
        (1963)                            (1950) (in part)
*   106.Ferguson v. Skrupa, 372 U.S.      Adams v. Tanner, 244 U.S. 590 
        726, 731 (1963)                   (1917)
    107.Schneider v. Rusk, 377 U.S.       Mackenzie v. Hare, 239 U.S. 
        163 (1964)                        299 (1915)
*   108.Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1, 6    Twining v. New Jersey, 211 
        (1964)                            U.S. 78 (1908)
                                          Adamson v. California, 332 
                                          U.S. 46 (1947)
*   109.Murphy v. Waterfront Comm'n,      Jack v. Kansas, 199 U.S. 372 
        378 U.S. 52, 57, 77 (1964)        (1905);
                                          United States v. Murdock, 284 
                                          U.S. 141 (1931);
                                          Feldman v. United States, 322 
                                          U.S. 487 (1944);
                                          Knapp v. Schweitzer, 357 U.S. 
                                          371 (1958);
                                          Mills v. Louisiana, 360 U.S. 
                                          230 (1959)
*   110.Jackson v. Denno, 378 U.S.        Stein v. New York, 346 U.S. 
        368, 391 (1964)                   156 (1953)
    111.Escobedo v. Illinois, 378 U.S.    Crooker v. California, 357 
        478, 491-492 (1964)               U.S. 433 (1958);
                                          Cicenia v. LaGay, 357 U.S. 504 
                                          (1958)
*   112.Pointer v. Texas, 380 U.S.        West v. Louisiana, 194 U.S. 
        400, 406 (1965)                   258 (1904)
    113.Gold v. DiCarlo, 380 U.S. 520     Tyson & Bro. v. Banton, 273 
        (1965)                            U.S. 418 (1927)

[[Page 2252]]

*   114.Swift & Co. v. Wickham, 382       Kesler v. Department of Pub. 
        U.S. 111 (1965)                   Safety, 369 U.S. 153 (1962) 
                                          (in part)
*   115.Harris v. United States, 382      Brown v. United States, 359 
        U.S. 162 (1965)                   U.S. 41 (1959)
*   116.Harper v. Virginia Bd. of         Breedlove v. Suttles, 302 U.S. 
        Elections, 383 U.S. 663 (1966)    277 (1937)
                                          Butler v. Thompson, 341 U.S. 
                                          937 (1951)
*   117.Spevack v. Klein, 385 U.S. 511    Cohen v. Hurley, 366 U.S. 177 
        (1967)                            (1961)
    118.Keyishian v. Board of Regents,    Adler v. Board of Education, 
        385 U.S. 589 (1967)               342 U.S. 485 (1952)
*   119.Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253     Perez v. Brownell, 356 U.S. 44 
        (1967)                            (1958)
*   120.Warden v. Hayden, 387 U.S. 294    Gouled v. United States, 255 
        (1967)                            U.S. 298 (1921)
*   121.Camara v. Municipal Court, 387    Frank v. Maryland, 359 U.S. 
        U.S. 523 (1967)                   360 (1959)
    122.Berger v. New York, 388 U.S.      Olmstead v. United States, 277 
        41 (1967)                         U.S. 438 (1928) (in part)
*   123.Katz v. United States, 389        Olmstead v. United States, 277 
        U.S. 347 (1967)                   U.S. 438 (1928);
                                          Goldman v. United States, 316 
                                          U.S. 129 (1942)
*   124.Peyton v. Rowe, 391 U.S. 54       McNally v. Hill, 293 U.S. 131 
        (1968)                            (1934)
*   125.Bruton v. United States, 391      Delli Paoli v. United States, 
        U.S. 123 (1968)                   352 U.S. 232 (1957)
    126.Duncan v. Louisiana, 391 U.S.     Maxwell v. Dow, 176 U.S. 581 
        145 (1968)                        (1900)
*   127.Carafas v. LaVallee, 391 U.S.     Parker v. Ellis, 362 U.S. 574 
        234 (1968)                        (1960)
*   128.Lee v. Florida, 392 U.S. 378      Schwartz v. Texas, 344 U.S. 
        (1968)                            199 (1952)
*   129.Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co.,     Hodges v. United States, 203 
        392 U.S. 409, 441-443 (1968)      U.S. 1 (1906)
*   130.Moore v. Ogilvie, 394 U.S. 814    MacDougall v. Green, 335 U.S. 
        (1969)                            281 (1948)
*   131.Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S.     Whitney v. California, 274 
        444 (1969)                        U.S. 357 (1927)
*   132.Chimel v. California, 395 U.S.    Harris v. United States, 331 
        752 (1969)                        U.S. 145 (1947)
                                          United States v. Rabinowitz, 
                                          339 U.S. 56 (1950)
*   133.Benton v. Maryland, 395 U.S.      Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 
        784 (1969)                        319 (1937)
    134.Ashe v. Swenson, 397 U.S. 436     Hoag v. New Jersey, 356 U.S. 
        (1970)                            464 (1958)
*   135.Boys Markets v. Retail Clerks     Sinclair Refining Co. v. 
        Union, 398 U.S. 235 (1970)        Atkinson, 370 U.S. 195 (1962)
*   136.Price v. Georgia, 398 U.S.        Brantley v. Georgia, 217 U.S. 
        323, 329-330 (1970)               284 (1910)
*   137.Moragne v. States Marine          The Harrisburg, 119 U.S. 199 
        Lines, 398 U.S. 375 (1970)        (1886)
*   138.Williams v. Florida, 399 U.S.     Thompson v. Utah, 170 U.S. 343 
        78 (1970)                         (1898) (in part);

[[Page 2253]]

                                          Rassmussen v. United States, 
                                          197 U.S. 516 (1905) (in part)
*   139.Blonder-Tongue Labs v.            Triplett v. Lowell, 297 U.S. 
        University of Ill. Found., 402    638 (1936)
        U.S. 313 (1971)
*   140.Perez v. Campbell, 402 U.S.       Kesler v. Department of Pub. 
        637 (1971)                        Safety, 369 U.S. 153 (1962);
                                          Reitz v. Mealey, 314 U.S. 33 
                                          (1941)
*   141.Griffin v. Breckenridge, 403      Collins v. Hardyman, 341 U.S. 
        U.S. 88 (1971)                    651 (1951) (in part)
*   142.Dunn v. Blumstein, 405 U.S.       Pope v. Williams, 193 U.S. 621 
        330 (1972)                        (1904)
*   143.Andrews v. Louisville &           Moore v. Illinois Cent. R.R., 
        Nashville R.R., 406 U.S. 320      312 U.S. 630 (1941)
        (1972)
*   144.Lehnhausen v. Lake Shore Auto     Quaker City Cab Co. v. 
        Parts Co., 410 U.S. 356 (1973)    Pennsylvania, 277 U.S. 389 
                                          (1928)
*   145.Braden v. 30th Judicial           Ahrens v. Clark, 335 U.S. 188 
        Circuit Court, 410 U.S. 484       (1948)
        (1973)
*   146.Miller v. California, 413 U.S.    A Book Named ``John Cleland's 
        15 (1973)                         Memoirs of a Woman of 
                                          Pleasure'' v. Attorney 
                                          General, 83 U.S. 413 (1966)
*   147.North Dakota Pharmacy Bd. v.      Liggett Co. v. Baldridge, 278 
        Snyder's Drug Stores, 414 U.S.    U.S. 105 (1928)
        156 (1973)
*   148.Edelman v. Jordan, 415 U.S.       Shapiro v. Thompson, 394 U.S. 
        651 (1974)                        618 (1969) (in part);
                                          State Dep't of Health & 
                                          Rehabilitation Services v. 
                                          Zarate, 407 U.S. 918 (1972);
                                          Sterrett v. Mothers' & 
                                          Children's Rights 
                                          Organization, 409 U.S. 809 
                                          (1973);
                                          Wyman v. Bowens, 397 U.S. 49 
                                          (1970)
*   149.Mitchell v. W. T. Grant Co.,      Fuentes v. Shevin, 407 U.S. 67 
        416 U.S. 600 (1974)               (1972) (in part)
*   150.Taylor v. Louisiana, 419 U.S.     Hoyt v. Florida, 368 U.S. 57 
        522 (1975)                        (1971) (in effect)
*   151.United States v. Reliable         The Schooner Catherine v. 
        Transfer Co., 421 U.S. 397        Dickinson, 58 U.S. (17 How.) 
        (1975)                            170 (1854)
*   152.Michelin Tire Corp. v. Wages,     Low v. Austin, 80 U.S. (13 
        423 U.S. 276 (1976)               Wall.) 29 (1872)
*   153.Dove v. United States, 423        Durham v. United States, 401 
        U.S. 325 (1976)                   U.S. 481 (1971)
*   154.Hudgens v. NLRB, 424 U.S. 507     Amalgamated Food Employees 
        (1976)                            Union v. Logan Valley Plaza, 
                                          391 U.S. 308 (1968)
*   155.Virginia Bd. of Pharmacy v.       Valentine v. Chrestensen, 316 
        Virginia Citizens Consumer        U.S. 52 (1942)
        Council, 425 U.S. 748 (1976)
*   156.National League of Cities v.      Maryland v. Wirtz, 392 U.S. 
        Usery, 426 U.S. 833 (1976)        183 (1968)
*   157.Machinists & Aerospace Workers    UAW v. WERB, 336 U.S. 245 
        v. WERC, 427 U.S. 132 (1976)      (1949)
*   158.City of New Orleans v. Dukes,     Morey v. Doud, 354 U.S. 457 
        427 U.S. 297 (1976)               (1957)
*   159.Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S.        McGautha v. California, 402 
        153, 195 n.47 (1976)              U.S. 183 (1971)

[[Page 2254]]

*   160.Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. 190,     Goesaert v. Cleary, 335 U.S. 
        210 n.23 (1976)                   464 (1948)
*   161.Oregon ex rel. State Land Bd.     Bonelli Cattle Co. v. Arizona, 
        v. Corvallis Sand & Gravel        414 U.S. 313 (1973)
        Co., 429 U.S. 363 (1977)
*   162.Complete Auto Transit v.          Spector Motor Service v. 
        Brady, 430 U.S. 274 (1977)        O'Connor, 340 U.S. 602 (1951)
*   163.Continental T. V. v. GTE          United States v. Arnold, 
        Sylvania, 433 U.S. 36 (1977)      Schwinn & Co., 388 U.S. 365 
                                          (1967)
*   164.Shaffer v. Heitner, 433 U.S.      Pennoyer v. Neff, 95 U.S. 714 
        186 (1977)                        (1878)
*   165.Department of Revenue v.          Puget Sound Stevedoring Co. v. 
        Washington Stevedoring Cos.,      State Tax Comm'n, 302 U.S. 90 
        435 U.S. 734 (1978)               (1937);
                                          Joseph v. Carter & Weekes 
                                          Stevedoring Co., 330 U.S. 422 
                                          (1947)
*   166.Monell v. New York City Dep't     Monroe v. Pape, 365 U.S. 167 
        of Social Services, 436 U.S.      (1961) (in part);
        658 (1978)                        City of Kenosha v. Bruno, 412 
                                          U.S. 507 (1973) (in part);
                                          Moor v. County of Alameda, 411 
                                          U.S. 693 (1973) (in part);
                                          Aldinger v. Howard, 427 U.S. 1 
                                          (1976)
*   167.Burks v. United States, 437       Bryan v. United States, 338 
        U.S. 1 (1978)                     U.S. 552 (1950) (in part);
                                          Sapir v. United States, 348 
                                          U.S. 373 (1955) (in part);
                                          Yates v. United States, 354 
                                          U.S. 298 (1957) (in part);
                                          Forman v. United States, 361 
                                          U.S. 416 (1960) (in part)
*   168.United States v. Scott, 437       United States v. Jenkins, 420 
        U.S. 82 (1978)                    U.S. 358 (1975)
    169.Duren v. Missouri, 439 U.S.       Hoyt v. Florida, 368 U.S. 57 
        357 (1978)                        (1961)
    170.Hughes v. Oklahoma, 441 U.S.      Geer v. Connecticut, 161 U.S. 
        322 (1979)                        519 (1896)
    171.Trammel v. United States, 445     Hawkins v. United States, 358 
        U.S. 40 (1980)                    U.S. 74 (1958)
*   172.United States v. Salvucci, 448    Jones v. United States, 362 
        U.S. 83 (1980)                    U.S. 257 (1964)
    173.Commonwealth Edison Co. v.        Heisler v. Thomas Colliery 
        Montana, 453 U.S. 609 (1981)      Co., 260 U.S. 245 (1922)
*   174.United States v. Ross, 456        Robbins v. California, 453 
        U.S. 798 (1982)                   U.S. 420 (1981)
*   175.Sporhase v. Nebraska ex rel.      Hudson County Water Co. v. 
        Douglas, 458 U.S. 941 (1982)      McCarter, 209 U.S. 349 (1908)
*   176.Illinois v. Gates, 462 U.S.       Aguilar v. Texas, 378 U.S. 108 
        213 (1983).                       (1964);
                                          Spinelli v. United States, 393 
                                          U.S. 410 (1969).
    177.Pennhurst State School & Hosp.    Rolston v. Missouri Fund 
        v. Halderman, 465 U.S. 89         Comm'rs, 120 U.S. 390 (1887) 
        (1984).                           (in part);
                                          Siler v. Louisville & 
                                          Nashville R.R. 213 U.S. 175 
                                          (1909) (in part);

[[Page 2255]]

                                          Atchison, T. & S.F. Ry. v. 
                                          O'Connor, 223 U.S. 280 (1912) 
                                          (in part);
                                          Greene v. Louisville & 
                                          Interurban R.R., 244 U.S. 499 
                                          (1917) (in part);
                                          Johnson v. Lankford, 245 U.S. 
                                          541 (1918) (in part);
                                          Numerous other cases fall more 
                                          or less under the Pennhurst 
                                          doctrine. See 465 U.S., 109-
                                          111 nn.17-21, 117-121 
                                          (maj.op.), and id., 130-37, 
                                          159-163, 165-166 nn.50 & 52 
                                          (dissent) (listing 28 cases).
*   178.United States v. One              Coffey v. United States, 116 
        Assortment of 89 Firearms, 465    U.S. 436 (1886).
        U.S. 354 (1984).
*   179.Limbach v. Hooven & Allison       Hooven & Allison Co. v. Evatt, 
        Co., 466 U.S. 353 (1984).         324 U.S. 652 (1945).
    180.Copperweld Corp. v.               United States v. Yellow Cab 
        Independence Tube Corp., 467      Co., 332 U.S. 218 (1947);
        U.S. 752 (1984).
                                          Kiefer-Stewart Co. v. Jos. E. 
                                          Seagram & Sons, 340 U.S. 211 
                                          (1951).
*   181.Garcia v. San Antonio Metro.      National League of Cities v. 
        Transit Auth., 469 U.S. 528       Usery, 426 U.S. 833 (1976).
        (1985).
*   182.United States v. Miller, 471      Ex parte Bain, 121 U.S. 1 
        U.S. 130 (1985).                  (1887) (in part).
*   183.Daniels v. Williams, 474 U.S.     Parratt v. Taylor, 451 U.S. 
        327 (1986).                       527 (1981) (in part).
    184.United States v. Lane, 474 U.     McElroy v. United States, 164 
        S. 438 (1986).                    U.S. 76 (1896).
*   185.Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S.      Swain v. Alabama, 380 U.S. 202 
        79 (1986).                        (1965) (in part).
*   186.Puerto Rico v. Branstad, 483      Kentucky v. Dennison, 65 U.S. 
        U.S. 219 (1987).                  (24 How.) 66 (1861).
*   187.Solorio v. United States, 483     O'Callahan v. Parker, 395 U.S. 
        U.S. 435 (1987).                  258 (1969).
*   188.Welch v. Texas Dep't of           Parden v. Terminal Ry., 377 
        Highways and Transp., 483 U.S.    U.S. 184 (1964) (in part).
        468 (1987).
*   189.Gulfstream Aerospace Corp. v.     Enelow v. New York Life Ins. 
        Mayacamas Corp., 485 U.S. 271     Co., 293 U.S. 379 (1935);
        (1988).                           Ettelson v. Metropolitan Life 
                                          Ins. Co., 317 U.S. 188 (1942).
*   190.South Carolina v. Baker, 485      Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & 
        U.S. 505 (1988).                  Trust Co., 157 U.S. 429 
                                          (1895).
*   191.Thornburgh v. Abbott, 490 U.S.    Procunier v. Martinez, 416 
        401 (1989).                       U.S. 396 (1974) (in part).
*   192.Rodriguez de Quijas v.            Wilko v. Swann, 346 U.S. 427 
        Shearson/American Express, 490    (1953).
        U.S. 477 (1989).
*   193.Alabama v. Smith, 490 U.S. 794    Simpson v. Rice, 395 U.S. 711 
        (1989).                           (1969).
*   194.Healy v. Beer Institute, 491      Joseph E. Seagram & Sons v. 
        U.S. 324 (1989).                  Hostetter, 384 U.S. 35 (1966).

[[Page 2256]]

    195.W.S. Kirkpatrick & Co. v.         American Banana Co. v. United 
        Environmental Tectronics          Fruit Co., 213 U.S. 347 
        Corp., 493 U.S. 400 (1990).       (1909).
*   196.Collins v. Youngblood, 497        Kring v. Missouri, 107 U.S. 
        U.S. 37 (1990).                   221 (1883);
                                          Thompson v. Utah, 170 U.S. 343 
                                          (1898).
    197.Arizona v. Fulminante, 499        Chapman v. California, 386 
        U.S. 279 (1991)                   U.S. 18 (1967) (in part).
*   198.California v. Acevedo, 500        Arkansas v. Sanders, 442 U.S. 
        U.S. 565 (1991)                   743 (1979).
*   199.Exxon Corp. v. Central Gulf       Minturn v. Maynard, 58 U.S. 
        Lines, Inc. 500 U.S. 603          (17 How.) 476 (1855).
        (1991).
    200.Coleman v. Thompson, 501 U.S.     Fay v. Noia, 372 U.S. 391 
        722 (1991).                       (1963).
*   201.Payne v. Tennessee, 501 U.S.      Booth v. Maryland, 482 U.S. 
        808 (1991).                       496 (1987);
                                          South Carolina v. Gathers, 490 
                                          U.S. 805 (1989).
*   202.Keeney v. Tamayo-Reyes, 112 S.    Townsend v. Sain, 372 U.S. 293 
        Ct. 1715 (1992).                  (1963) (in part).
*   203.Quill Corp. v. North Dakota,      National Bellas Hess, Inc. v. 
        112 S. Ct. 1904 (1992).           Department of Revenue, 386 
                                          U.S. 753 (1967) (in part).
*   204.Planned Parenthood of S.E.        City of Akron v. Akron Center 
        Pennsylvania v. Casey, 112 S.     for Reproductive Health, 462 
        Ct. 2791 (1992).                  U.S. 416 (1983) (in part);
                                          Thornburgh v. American College 
                                          of Obstetricians and 
                                          Gynecologists, 476 U.S. 747 
                                          (1986) (in part).