[Constitution of the United States of America:  Analysis, and Interpretation - 1992 Edition ]
[Index]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


[[Page 2407]]

 
 
                                  INDEX

                                    A

                                                                    Page
Abandoned property, state laws.................................1630-1632
Abortion:
  Advertising of..............................................1115, 1672
  Constitutional right to......................................1669-1679
  Indigent women right to paid...........................1674-1675, 1925
  Parental consent to minor's.................................1672, 1678
  Spousal consent.............................................1672, 1678
Absentee voting.....................................................1897
Abstention doctrine..............................................798-800
Academic freedom........................................1091, 1094, 1113
Access to ballot, equal protection.............................1897-1901
Access to broadcasting, press..................................1123-1127
Access to courts by public, press..............................1105-1108
Access to prisons by public, press.............................1108-1111
Accusation, notice of, specificity.............................1420-1421
Addiction, drug, alcohol, punishment...........................1494-1495
Administrative agencies:
  Combination of functions.....................................1742-1743
  Decisionmaking, bias in......................................1742-1743
  Due process in....................................1354-1356, 1732-1734
  Presidential creation, status..................................441-442
  Rulemaking by....................................................78-82
Administrative Procedure Act...........................86, 668-670, 1743
Administrative regulations:
  Judicial review of....................................85-86, 1354-1356
  Modification of congressional legislation by.....................81-82
  Violations of, how punished.........................................89
Admiralty, federal court jurisdiction in:
  Airplane crashes and...............................................734
  Congress, powers..........................................344, 729-731
  Contracts, maritime............................................732-733
  Federal question jurisdiction and.........................743-744, 770
  Federal-state powers, exclusivity, concurrency.................737-743
  Jury trial and......................................731-742, 736, 1377
  Prize cases...................................................732, 734
  Proceedings in.................................................735-736
  Saving to suitors, state court jurisdiction..........735, 737-738, 793
  Seamen, rights as to contracts, maritime torts, etc...........732-734, 
                                                                 737-743
  Territorial reach of power.....................................736-737
  Types of cases under...........................................732-735
  Wrongful death, maritime, actions for..........................742-743
Adoption of children...........................................852, 1880
Advertising:
  Commercial speech............................................1113-1119
  Public issue advertising..........................1123-1124, 1136-1137
  Public forum, access.........................................1164-1171
  State regulation, equal protection................................1830
Advise and consent......................................513-516, 519-520

[[Page 2408]]

Advisory opinions..................................620-623, 649, 671-673
Advocacy, permissible governmental limitation.......1034-1048, 1067-1069
Affirmative action.............................................1861-1868
Affirmative defenses, criminal trials..........................1762-1764
Age classifications.................................................1812
Agriculture, production, marketing, commerce...........183-1888, 194-196
Air Force.  See Armed forces.
Airplanes, state taxation, jurisdiction...................230, 247, 1644
Airports, state regulation flight-times..............................251
Alcoholic beverages.  See Intoxicating liquors.
Alcoholism, criminal liability for.............................1494-1495
Alibi defense, burden of proof, discovery.....................1755, 1763
Alien and Sedition Acts........................266, 700, 1022, 1131-1132
Aliens:
  Attorneys, admission to bar.......................................1871
  Denaturalization....................................270-272, 1566-1567
  Deportation.........................280-281, 322, 1072-1073, 1352-1354
  Due process, entitled to....................1345, 1352-1354, 1358-1359
  Education, entitlement to....................................1874-1875
  Employment restrictions................................1358, 1869-1874
  Enemy..........................................................328-329
  Entry, exclusion, grounds......................266, 276-280, 1080-1081
  Equal protection......................1358, 1810-1812, 1814, 1869-1875
  Expatriation........................................272-276, 1566-1567
  Jury service......................................................1870
  Land holdings, state curbs.............................1570-1571, 1869
  Naturalization.................................................268-270
  Police, employment as.......................................1872, 1873
  Preemption of state powers.......................265, 278-279, 309-310
  State powers over entry of.....................................278-279
  Suits by, against, federal courts..............................774-776
  Teachers, employment as......................................1872-1873
  Voting............................................................1870
Alliances, States not to enter...................................359-360
Ambassadors, Public Ministers, Consuls:
  Defined, appointment, salary, etc..............................507-511
  Suits affecting, federal courts................................726-727
Amnesty.  See Pardons; President, powers.
Anonymity, unsigned materials, distribution....................1180-1181
Anti-injunction statute, state court proceedings........641-642, 801-802
Antitrust laws, monopolies:
  Communications media, application to..............................1122
  Federal, interstate commerce application.......................181-184
  Federal, use of interstate business to harm intrastate commerce, 
   application.......................................................183
  Labor unions, application to...................................184-185
  Lobbying activities, application to..........................1101-1102
  State, due process, equal protection...................1615-1616, 1835
Appeals, corrective process, civil proceedings......................1604
Appeals, corrective process, criminal trials:
  Appeals not necessarily required.............................1770-1772
  Burdening of appellate process.........................1771, 1916-1920
  Double jeopardy after appeal.................................1293-1295
  Indigents, imposition of fees, costs.........................1916-1920
  
[[Page 2409]]

  Prosecution appeals...............................1288-1290, 1296-1297
Appointments Clause..............................................512-516
Appointments.....................................................519-521
  Recess.........................................................521-522
Apportionment and districting.  See House of Representatives; 
 Legislatures, state.
Appropriations:
  Required for withdrawal of funds from Treasury.....................358
  Support of armies, limitations.....................................312
Arbitration, compulsory, due process................................1591
Arms, right to keep and bear...................................1193-1194
Armed forces:
  Appropriations for, limited...................................312, 358
  Civilians, discharged servicemen, dependents, court-martial 
   jurisdiction..................................................316-319
  Congress, power to raise and maintain..........................311-313
  Conscription, validity.........................................312-313
  Courts-martial, due process, judicial review, etc.......316, 1355-1356
  Offenses rising in, trial for..................................316-319
  Peacetime draft, validity......................................312-313
  Personnel, federal exemption of insurance, property, state 
   taxation, garnishment.........................................315-316
  Speech, other constitutional rights of servicemen..............314-315
Arraignment, delay in, effect on confession....................1323-1324
Arrest.........................................................1209-1210
Assembly and petition, rights of (see also Speech and Press)...1187-1191
Assembly, right of, privileges and immunities.......................1569
Association, freedom of.......99, 1046, 1056-1066, 1070-1073, 1081-1090, 
                                                         1094-1095, 1801
Associations, standing to sue........................................665
Atomic energy, liability for accidents..............................1368
Attainder, bills of.....................................347-350, 361-362
Attorneys (see also Counsel, assistance of):
  Admission, durational residency...................................1914
  Advertising by.........................................1115-1116, 1119
  Aliens, admission of..............................................1871
  Bar membership, oaths, loyalty inquiries.....347-348, 361, 1047, 1056, 
                                                                    1072
  Disbarment, due process...........................................1743
  Integrated bar, First Amendment...................................1065
  Solicitation of clients......................................1115-1116
  State regulation, attorney practicing in more than one State......1830
Automobiles:
  Bankruptcy, federal release, preemption............................286
  Jurisdiction, out-of-state motorists..............................1608
  License revocation, due process.............................1726, 1738
  Searches of..........................1208, 1215, 1237, 1238-1241, 1244
  Stolen, federal criminal jurisdiction...................202, 204, 1513

                                    B

Bail, right to, excessive......................................1467-1471
Ballot:
  Access to, candidates, parties...............................1897-1901
  Racial designation on.............................................1861
Bankruptcy:
  Congress, powers as to..............................283-284, 1366-1367
  Courts, conferral of jurisdiction on...........................613-615
  
[[Page 2410]]

  Debtors, eligible for relief...................................281-283
  Indigents, imposition of filing fees on...........................1922
  Municipal subdivisions, when eligible for relief...................284
  Retroactive regulation, due process.................283-284, 1366-1367
  State laws, federal recognition of.................................284
  State laws, preemption.........................................284-286
  State laws, validity in absence of federal.........................285
Banks:
  Chartering by Congress, effect of necessary and proper clause.....288, 
                                                                 341-342
  Depositors, privacy interest...........................1207, 1681-1682
  State regulation.............................................1618-1619
Baseball, not interstate commerce....................................162
Belief, freedom of..................................1007-1009, 1053-1056
Bicameralism.......................................................70-71
Bill of Rights:
  Application to States..........................................957-964
  Formulation and adoption.......................................955-957
  Meaning as applied to Federal Government, States...............963-964
Bills of attainder:
  Defined............................................................347
  Congress prohibited from passing...............................347-350
  Oaths as..............................................347-348, 361-362
  Presidential papers, seizure as................................349-350
  Prohibition of Communist holding union office as...............348-349
  States prohibited from passing.................................361-362
  United States, not limited by as regards States................760-761
Bills of credit, States not to emit..............................360-361
Birth control, state restrictions, justiciability, validity.....662-663, 
                                                         1504-1505, 1681
Blood samples, taking of, search and seizure......1224, 1261, 1247, 1368
Blue ribbon juries, validity........................................1412
Blue Sky Laws, business regulation..................................1618
Borrowing power (federal):
  Bonds, terms of ownership, federal regulations in conflict with 
   state laws....................................................288-289
  Relation to coinage, monetary powers..................259-260, 288-289
  Savings bonds, inheritance, federal regulation.................930-931
Bricker Amendment...............................................483, 507
Bridges across navigable streams, state powers.......................212
Broadcasting, regulation, First Amendment............79-80, 84, 169-170, 
                                                               1113-1126
Burden of proof, due process........................1701-1704, 1761-1765
Business affected with a public interest.......................1594-1597
Business regulation and due process............................1614-1624
Busing, school desegregation........................1845-1846, 1852-1853
Butter, renovated, state regulation, commerce........................278

                                    C

Campaign finance restrictions, First Amendment.................1094-1101
Candidacy for elective office:
  Constitutional guarantees.........874, 1636-1637, 1892-1893, 1897-1902
  Loyalty oaths.....................................................1074
Capital punishment:
  Constitutionality............................................1474-1493
  Murder, punishment for.......................................1477-1478
  Racial discrimination, statistical disparity in imposition...1857-1858
  
[[Page 2411]]

  Rape, punishment for.........................................1487-1488
  Standards, legislative.......................................1477-1483
  Unintended taking of life.........................................1488
Capitol grounds, Washington, picketing on...........................1165
Carriers:
  federal regulation, ICC........................................176-178
  state regulation, taxation, commerce clause....................220-240
Cases and controversies, federal courts:
  Actual disputes, requisite to..............650, 652-654, 654, 658, 670
  Adverseness of parties....................................650, 651-654
  Collusive, feigned suits.......................................652-653
  Mootness.......................................................679-683
  Real interest of litigant..........649, 650, 652-653, 655-657, 670-676
  Ripeness.......................................................676-679
  Standing.......................................................654-670
  Stockholder suits..............................................653-654
Censorship.  See Speech and press, freedom of expression.
Census of persons................................................114-116
Child labor, state, federal bans................199, 202-203, 1512, 1587
Children:
  Civil commitment of...............................................1785
  Corporal punishment, schools..........................1499, 1731, 1738
  Custody, control, natural parent......................1701, 1731, 1890
  Exposure to obscenity, protection from................1152, 1154, 1161
  Illegitimates................................................1886-1891
  Pornography, use of children in..............................1159-1160
  sex crime victim, testimony..................................1427-1428
Cigarettes, state regulations, advertising.................248-249, 1114
Citizens of the United States, defined.........................1565-1567
Citizenship:
  Corporations not citizens.........................................1567
  Denaturalization, expatriation......................270-276, 1566-1567
  Desertion in time of war, loss of citizenship...........273, 275, 1411
  Discrimination between natural-born and naturalized............270-272
  Marriage to foreign citizens, loss of...................273, 274, 1566
  National, state citizenship, distinction..........................1566
  Naturalized citizens, classes, privileges, etc.................267-272
  Renunciation of..........................................272-276, 1567
  Voting in foreign elections, loss of....................274, 275, 1566
Civil commitment, institutionalization..............1690-1692, 1783-1785
Civil trials, juries in........................................1451-1464
Civil rights jurisdiction of federal courts......................719-721
Class actions..........................................682-683, 762, 764
Clear and present danger.......................................1034-1053
Coal, federal regulation, mining.................188-189, 925, 1383-1384
Coastal zones:
  Ownership of minerals in.......................................882-883
  State regulations of use.........................212-213, 226, 872-874
Collective bargaining, governmental promotion..........187-188, 189-192, 
                                                               1591-1594
Comity, accommodation between federal-state judicial systems.........798
Comity clause:
  Access to courts...............................................875-876
  
[[Page 2412]]

  Access to resources, distinction between residents and 
   nonresidents..................................................871-874
  Corporations, not eligible for protection of.......................871
  Privileges and immunities of state citizens, scope of..........867-870
  Sport hunting, fishing versus livelihood..............869-870, 872-874
  Taxation, discrimination in....................................876-877
Commerce.  See Interstate Commerce; Foreign Commerce.
Commerce Court...................................................600-602
Commercial speech and First Amendment..........................1113-1119
Communications industries, governmental regulation.............1113-1127
Communist Party:
  Compelled registration of.........................1069-1070, 1317-1318
  Disqualification for membership in...........................1070-1073
  Punishment for membership in.................................1070-1071
Community antenna television (CATV), regulations, copyright.....79, 181, 
                                                                     299
Commuters, taxation..................................................876
Compacts among States............................................403-407
Compulsory process, criminal trials.................................1429
Computers and privacy...............................................1683
Condemnation.  See Taking of property by government.
Confessions, due process, self-incrimination...................1321-1340
Confidentiality, restraint on publication......................1148-1149
Confrontation, administrative proceedings...........................1743
Confrontation of witnesses, criminal trials:
  Absent witness, prosecution responsibility to produce.......1421-1422, 
                                                                    1425
  Background and purpose.......................................1421-1423
  Cross-examination, relation to........................1421, 1426, 1743
  Confession, use at joint trial....................................1423
  Hearsay rule, relation to..............................1421, 1422-1426
  Witness plea of self-incrimination................................1423
Congress (see also Contempt; Elections; House of Representatives; 
 Impeachment; Investigations; Public officers of the United 
 States; Senate):
  Adjournments, temporary............................................121
  Appointing power of President, incursion on....................513-515
  Bills, how enacted, authentication....................135-141, 691-692
  Concurrent resolutions, uses...................................141-144
  Congressional veto.............................................141-144
  Journal of proceedings, contents, evidence, publication, purpose
                                                                     125
  Judicial direction, immunity, limits on.....100-103, 127-133, 578-583, 
                                                            689, 696-698
  Members of Senate or House of Representatives:
    Attendance, compulsion of....................................125-127
    Compensation for services before departments............124, 134-135
    Compensation, how fixed, beginning of............................123
    Compensation, intervening election before change.......126-127, 1997
    Conduct prescribed, punishment, expulsion....................124-125
    Conflict of interest.............................................124
    Elections, each House to judge...................................122
    Elections, state, federal regulation.....109, 114-116, 118-121, 513, 
                                                    1094-1101, 1946-1950
    Exclusion......................................110-113, 124, 694-696
    Expulsion...................................................121, 124
    Freedom from arrest..............................................127
    Impeachment, inapplicable to.....................................584
    
[[Page 2413]]

    Incompatible offices.............................................135
    Ineligibility for certain offices............................134-135
    Qualification, when fulfilled, exclusivity...................110-114
    Privilege of speech or debate, Members, employees...........127, 133
    Service in military, reserves, National Guard....................135
    Term changed....................................................1973
  Power to define constitutional rights.............1933-1936, 1946-1950
  Powers in relation to courts...........602, 605-606, 619-620, 638-639, 
                                               641-644, 779-792, 801-802
  Powers in relation to Executive:
    Amnesty, pardon..............................................468-469
    Conduct of foreign relations, cooperation with President
                                                                 540-548
    Declaration of war..................................307-311, 447-453
    Demand for papers............................................532-534
    Executive officers, control, direction of...........522-532, 559-564
    Imposition of binding obligations on.........................572-578
    Impoundment..................................................555-559
    Military forces abroad, congressional control of 
     presidential discretion.....................................447-453
    Removal powers, restriction..................................522-532
    Veto, when effective, how overridden.........................138-141
    Quorum, how computed, effect of absence.................100, 122-123
    Resolutions, etc., how made effective, status................141-144
    Revenue bills, origin, amendment.............................136-137
    Rules of procedure, determination............................123-124
    Yea-and-nay votes, entry into journal..................121, 125, 136
Congressional employees, judicial direction of..............105, 132-133
Congressional districting.  See House of Representatives; States.
Congressional investigations.  See Investigations, congressional.
Congressional Pay Amendment..................126-127, 900-903, 906, 1997
Congressional veto...............................................141-144
Conscientious objection to military service........1000-1001, 1012, 1349
Conscription, Selective Service..................................312-313
Conservation, state interests, effectuation...........220, 234, 872-874, 
                                                               1624-1628
Constitution of the United States, amendment of:
  Congress, proposal by..........................................898-899
  Convention to propose, how obtained............................899-900
  Judicial review of.................898, 901-902, 904, 905-906, 911-913
  President, state governors, approval not required.............899, 910
  Ratification...................................................900-911
  Scope of power.................................................897-898
  Time limits for ratification, who determines..........900-911, 911-913
Constitutional fact, theory of, judicial review..................789-791
Constitutional torts..................................582-583, 751, 1544
Contempt:
  Administrative agencies, enforcement of orders.................634-635
  Congress, power to restrict courts.............................625-627
  Due process limitations on.....................................629-634
  Federal courts, powers of......................................623-635
  First Amendment, limitations of.......................103-105, 627-629
  Impartial tribunal, right to...................................631-634
  Injunctions, court orders, violations of as........................634
  
[[Page 2414]]

  Jury trial, right to.....................................630-631, 1411
  Pardoning power of President.......................................624
  Punishment, limitations...................................623-625, 631
  Summary punishment, notice and hearing.........................629-630
Content regulation, First Amendment............................1127-1163
Contraceptives, access to.....................1504-1505, 1681, 1685-1686
Contractors with Federal Government, state taxation..............934-936
Contract, freedom of...........................................1581-1894
Contracts, impairment:
  by States......................................................366-398
  by Federal Government........................................1365-1366
Convict-made goods, barred from commerce.................201, 1359, 1513
Copyright, nature and scope of power, state power................293-302
Corporal punishment in schools..........................1499, 1731, 1738
Corporations:
  Chartered by Congress, basis of power, state regulation, 
   taxation........................................342-343, 717, 930-931
  Charters, termination by State....................................1614
  Charters, when contracts, immune from impairment...............377-385
  Citizenship, privileges and immunities, national citizenship, 
   not available....................................................1567
  Due process of law, protected as ``persons''...........1345, 1578-1579
  Equal protection of law, entitled to.........................1802-1803
  Expression, rights of.............................1026-1029, 1113-1119
  Federally licensed, state controls............................224, 246
  Foreign, appointment of agent for service of process........1609, 1711
  Foreign, equal protection limitation on taxation, regulation 
                                                    1803-1804, 1824-1825
  Foreign, state control of admission, licensing, operation, 
   taxation..................................224, 228-231, 236-237, 1615
  Foreign, suability, service of process..............838-839, 1710-1716
  Liability of officers, stockholders, state regulations.......852, 1542
  Railroads, chartered by two States.................................406
  Stockholders' actions, derivative actions, security for costs.....1696
  Suits by, federal courts, state laws preventing, burdening....224, 765
Costs, damages, penalties, state courts, due process...........1698-1699
Counsel, assistance of, civil proceedings......................1744-1745
Counsel, assistance of, criminal proceedings:
  Background, basis............................................1429-1430
  Appointment of, right established in federal courts....1430, 1431-1432
  Appointment of, right established in state courts............1430-1435
  Arraignment..................................................1440-1441
  Capital cases, special circumstances rule..............1431, 1432-1433
  Commitment proceedings............................................1447
  Critical stage analysis...........................1440-1441, 1444-1447
  Custodial interrogation...........................1327-1332, 1441-1444
  Defendant access to counsel.......................................1437
  Defendant right to self-representation............................1440
  Effective assistance of counsel..............................1437-1440
  Grand jury witness...........................................1274-1276
  Lineups, identifications.....................................1444-1447
  Misdemeanors......................................................1434
  Parole hearings..............................................1776-1780
  Post-conviction proceedings.......................................1447
  
[[Page 2415]]

  Preliminary hearings.........................................1440-1441
  Prison disciplinary hearings.................................1772-1776
  Probation revocation.........................................1776-1780
  Retained counsel, right to........................................1435
  Summation of counsel, right to....................................1437
  Waiver, standards............................................1431-1432
Counterfeiting, punishment of...................................287, 341
County governing bodies, apportionment.........................1903-1905
County unit system, election of candidates, validity................1911
Court of Claims......................................................610
Court of Customs and Patent Appeals..................................610
Courthouses, jails, picketing around................................1165
Courts, federal:
  Abolition of by Congress...........................................600
  Accommodation with state courts................................798-803
  Actual dispute requirement.................650, 652-654, 654, 658, 670
  Admiralty, maritime cases........................170-173, 343, 728-743
  Adverseness of parties required...........................650, 651-654
  Advisory opinions not rendered..............618, 620-623, 649, 671-673
  Ambassadors, ministers, suits affecting........................726-728
  Ancillary, inherent powers............................618-619, 623-647
  Appellate jurisdiction, congressional power....................779-792
  Attorneys in, admission, disbarment................................646
  Award of execution, necessity for.........................621-623, 673
  Bankruptcy courts..............................................613-615
  Cases and controversies, attributes............................647-698
  Cases arising under Constitution, laws, treaties, federal 
   questions.....................................................713-726
  Cases between a State and citizens of another State............757-761
  Cases between a State or its citizens and a foreign state or its 
   citizens......................................................774-776
  Cases between citizens of different States; diversity 
   jurisdiction..................................................761-773
  Cases between citizens of same State claiming land under grants 
   of different States...............................................773
  Cases between States...........................................752-757
  Circuit courts.................................................599-600
  Civil rights statutory jurisdiction............................719-721
  Class actions in.....................................682-683, 762, 764
  Common law, federal..............................718-719, 760, 767-774
  Concurrent jurisdiction with state courts......................792-821
  Concurrent jurisdiction with Supreme Court of original 
   jurisdiction matters..........................................776-779
  Congress, powers over....602-604, 605-606, 619, 636, 641-643, 779-792, 
                                                                 801-802
  Collective bargaining agreements, suits on.....................718-719
  Contempt power.................................................623-634
  Corporations, citizens for diversity purposes..................764-766
  Declaratory judgments.................................622-623, 673-676
  District of Columbia, citizenship of residents for diversity 
   purposes.............................................335-336, 762-763
  District of Columbia, courts of................................611-613
  Diversity of citizenship jurisdiction..........................761-773
  Domestic relations cases in........................................764
  Duty to decide constitutional cases............................705-708
  Executive privilege, judicial review...........................532-539
  Exhaustion of state remedies.............................640, 800, 805
  Federal question jurisdiction..................................713-726
  
[[Page 2416]]

  Finality of judgment requirement...............................620-623
  Foreign states, suing in, sued in..............................774-776
  Immunity from state court restraint............................797-798
  Immunity from suit, United States, foreign states.........746, 774-775
  Impeachment of judges.......................584-586, 587-588, 589, 598
  Injunctions, judicial power, congressional control...567-568, 602-603, 
                                               641-643, 785-786, 801-802
  Judgments, finality of, requisite..............................620-623
  Judicial review................................................698-713
  Judicial self-restraint, rules of..............................705-713
  Jurisdictional amount................................762, 780, 782-783
  Legislative courts.............................................604-617
  Mandamus, issuance by.................................636-637, 701-703
  Nonjudicial functions, power of Congress to vest in......606, 620-623, 
                                                                 671-673
  Pendent jurisdiction...........................................721-723
  Political questions...........491, 571-572, 548-553, 590-591, 687-698, 
                                     892-893, 901, 904, 905-909, 911-913
  President, discretionary acts, review..............................688
  President, subordinates, power over................................561
  President, use of troops to enforce court orders......565-566, 566-569
  Probate cases in...................................................764
  Redistricting power of.................................1906, 1910-1911
  Referees, masters, etc., appointment...............................646
  Removal of state court cases to..................343, 716-717, 819-821
  Retroactivity of decisions.....................................683-687
  Rule making powers......................................75-76, 644-645
  Specialized jurisdiction.......................................602-604
  Standing.......................................................654-670
  State court proceedings, restraint of..........................804-809
  State law in.................................718-719, 737-743, 767-773
  States, immunity from suits in...............................1521-1545
  States, judgments against, enforcement.........................756-757
  States, suits against by citizens of another State.............757-761
  States, suits against by United States...................745-746, 1531
  States, suits between..........................................752-757
  States, suits on behalf of citizens............................759-761
  Stockholder suits..............................................753-754
  Suits between citizens of different States.....................761-773
  United States, suits to which a party..........................743-756
  Writs and processes, congressional control............636-641, 801-802
Courts, State:
  Access to, due process, equal protection.........1695, 1696, 1922-1923
  Admiralty, common law remedies...................735-736, 737-743, 792
  Autonomy of....................................................794-798
  Closure to public and press..................................1105-1108
  Consuls, suable in, limitations................................726-728
  Discrimination through enforcement of private actions........1790-1792
  Disobedience of Supreme Court mandates.........................794-795
  Federal courts, accommodation with.............................798-803
  Federal courts, inability to restrain..............................798
  Federal laws, duty to enforce................795-797, 920-921, 943-944
  Immunity in, congressional conferral................919-920, 1314-1315
  
[[Page 2417]]

  Indian reservations, crimes on, jurisdiction.......................885
  Jurisdiction, how obtained...................................1705-1723
  Naturalization of aliens in...................................265, 944
  Nonresident witnesses, attendance in...............................875
  Nonresidents, access to.......................................765, 875
  Restraints of proceedings in by federal courts.................804-809
Courts-martial, jurisdiction, review, due process......316-319, 326-327, 
                                                               1355-1356
Crimes, federal, congressional definition, no common law.......341, 1400
Crimes, infamous, how determined....................................1219
Criminal procedure, state, due process.........................1745-1783
Criminal prosecutions, federal......................1273-1279, 1399-1400
Criminal trials, federal, place of trial.......................1419-1420
Creationism, required teaching in public schools.....................996
Cross-examination..............................................1743-1744
Cruel and unusual punishments:
  Alcoholism, punishment as crime..............................1494-1495
  Background, interpretation...................................1472-1473
  Capital punishment...........................................1474-1493
  Citizenship, divestiture of.......................................1474
  Corporal punishment, schoolchildren, not applicable...............1499
  Drug addiction as crime...........................................1494
  Prison conditions............................................1497-1499
  Proportionality..............................................1493-1497
  Recidivist statutes..........................................1495-1496

                                    D

Death penalty.  See Capital punishment.
Debt pooling, adjustment, banning of business.................1622, 1831
Debtor-creditor relations, due process...................1726, 1736-1737
Declaratory judgments in federal courts:
  Civil liberties litigation, use in....................673-676, 804-809
  Establishment.............................................623, 673-676
  Validity of...............................................623, 673-676
Defamation:
  Free speech protections......................................1136-1145
  Labor disputes, protection, state jurisdiction.....................257
Defenses in civil actions, limitations on, due process..............1697
De jure-de facto distinction, state action.....................1788-1789
Delegation doctrine, legislative power....................73-89, 644-645
Deportation.  See Aliens.
Desegregation of schools.......................................1840-1854
Detainers, observance of by other States, effect.....................853
Die, right to..................................................1692-1693
Disclosure, mandatory reporting.........1069-1070, 1057-1058, 1063-1064, 
                                                               1317-1321
Discovery in administrative proceedings.............................1744
Discovery in criminal proceedings.............................1755, 1760
Discovery, press, defamation cases.............................1143-1144
District of Columbia:
  Background of clause...........................................333-334
  Citizens of, diversity jurisdiction...................335-336, 762-763
  Commerce of, congressional power...................................164
  Courts...........................................336-337, 611-613, 637
  ``Home Rule''..................................................334-335
  
[[Page 2418]]

  Presidential electors, vote for..............................1987-1988
  Residents of, rights...............................................336
  Retrocession.......................................................334
  Seat of government, congressional powers.......................336-337
Districting.  See House of Representatives; States; Legislatures.
Diversity jurisdiction, federal courts:
  Admiralty, maritime cases..........................................773
  Background, reasons for........................................761-762
  Citizens of District of Columbia......................335-336, 762-763
  Citizenship, how determined, natural persons, corporations.....763-766
  Class actions in..............................................762, 764
  Law applied in.................................................767-773
  Manufactured diversity.........................................766-767
  State, meaning of in clause....................................762-763
  Total, minimal diversity...........................................764
Divorce:
  Access to courts to obtain, filing fees...........................1922
  Durational residency qualification................................1913
  Out-of-state decrees, jurisdiction.............................840-846
Door-to-door solicitation, protections.........................1182-1183
Double jeopardy:
  Acquittal, reprosecution.....................................1288-1291
  Application to States........................................1280-1281
  Collateral estoppel...............................................1301
  Conviction, reprosecution....................................1293-1295
  Dual sovereign doctrine......................................1281-1282
  Government appeals, when permitted.....1288-1290, 1291-1293, 1294-1295
  Mistrials....................................................1284-1288
  Offense, same, multiple, how determined......................1297-1302
  Punishment, double...........................................1297-1299
  Same evidence rule................................................1298
  Same transaction test........................................1301-1302
  Sentences, increase after appeal.............................1295-1297
  State-municipal prosecution barred................................1282
Draft card burning............................................1079, 1184
Dramatic productions, public, when protected.............1079, 1162-1163
Driver's license, suspension, revocation......................1726, 1738
Drug testing...................................................1248-1250
Dual federalism
Dual sovereign rule, double jeopardy, self-incrimination......1281-1282, 
                                                                    1311
Due process of law, Fifth Amendment:
  Administrative hearings......................................1348-1352
  Administrative proceedings, judicial review..................1354-1356
  Aliens, entry, deportation........................1352-1354, 1358-1359
  Criminal trials..............................................1344-1347
  Discrimination, equality.....................................1356-1359
  Economic regulation..........................................1359-1361
  Fair hearing.................................................1348-1352
  Hearsay...........................................................1421
  Indians, governance................................................264
  Legislative power, limitation on.............................1344-1345
  Notice and hearing................................1348-1352, 1741-1742
  
[[Page 2419]]

  Police power......................................................1359
  Public utilities, regulation.................................1359-1360
  Railroad regulation..........................................1360-1361
  Retroactive legislation......................................1364-1366
  Segregation in District of Columbia schools.......................1357
  States, not protected by against United States....................1345
  Substantive due process......................................1356-1369
  Takings, excessive regulation................................1380-1395
  Taxation.....................................................1361-1363
Due process of law, Fourteenth Amendment:
  Abortion.....................................................1669-1679
  Application of Bill of Rights to States........................957-964
  Business enterprises, rates, charges, conditions of service, 
   etc.........................................................1594-1597
  Civil commitment..................................1690-1692, 1783-1785
  Civil proceedings, jurisdiction, service of process..........1705-1723
  Compelled services, expenditures by railroads, other 
   corporations................................................1610-1612
  Criminal procedure...........................................1745-1783
  Defenses in judicial proceedings..................................1697
  Economic regulation..........................................1572-1578
  Emergency conditions justifying summary process...................1740
  Exculpatory evidence, prosecution required to disclose.......1758-1761
  Family relationships.........................................1688-1689
  Fraudulent business practices, regulation....................1616-1618
  Government structure..............................................1637
  Guilty pleas, criminal proceedings...........................1757-1758
  Identification in criminal proceedings.................1444-1447, 1752
  Judicial proceedings, dispensed with.........................1733-1734
  Judicial review of rate and service regulation...............1597-1607
  Jurisdiction, state courts, requisites.......................1705-1723
  Labor management relations...................................1591-1594
  Liberty, meaning, how determined.......................1581, 1723-1732
  Liberty of contract..........................................1581-1594
  Marriage, protected status..................1582, 1685-1686, 1688-1689
  Natural resources, protection................................1624-1628
  Parole, granting, revocation.................................1776-1780
  Personal liberties, substantive protection...................1666-1693
  Persons defined..............................................1578-1579
  Plea bargaining..............................................1757-1758
  Police power......................................1579-1580, 1632-1636
  Police power, exercise as property taking.........................1580
  Presumptions.................................................1761-1765
  Process, service of..........................................1722-1723
  Prisoners, discipline, transfer........................1772-1776, 1730
  Privacy, protected interest..................................1679-1689
  Proof of crime...............................................1761-1765
  Property, meaning, how determined.................1572-1578, 1723-1732
  Prosecutorial misconduct.....................................1758-1761
  Public utilities, regulation.................................1594-1614
  Railroads, rate, safety regulation...........................1607-1614
  Real property, ownership, rights.............................1628-1632
  Reputation, as protected interest...........................1727, 1729
  Requirements of due process..................................1740-1745
  
[[Page 2420]]

  Sentencing...................................................1765-1769
  Taxing, state power..........................................1637-1666
  Zoning.......................................................1628-1630
Durational residency requirements...................1893-1894, 1911-1914

                                    E

Economic controls, wartime, peacetime............................445-457
Economic regulation, due process, equal protection............1572-1637, 
                                                               1821-1840
Education:
  Aliens, illegals, barred...............................1874-1875, 1925
  Fundamental interest, not....................................1923-1925
  Racial discrimination........................................1840-1854
  Religious, public aid..........................................977-991
  Property tax funding.........................................1923-1925
  Scholarships, aliens barred.......................................1925
  Teachers, aliens barred......................................1872-1873
Elections (see also Congress; Equal protection of the laws; House 
 of Representatives; President; Public officers of the United 
 States; Voter qualifications):
  Absentee voting...................................................1897
  Access to ballot, independent candidates, parties............1897-1901
  Apportionment and districting..............105-108, 114-116, 1902-1911
  Campaign contribution limitations.................1063-1064, 1095-1098
  Congressional power to regulate.....118-121, 122, 1929-1930, 1943-1950
  Corporations, spending limits................................1098-1101
  Expenditures limitations.....................................1094-1101
  Property qualifications...........................................1898
  Presidential, congressional powers over........................426-433
  State officers, federal use of, penalty..................119, 120, 944
Electoral College................................................426-433
Electronic surveillance, search and seizure....................1250-1257
Emergency Court of Appeals.........................602-603, 643-644, 785
Eminent domain:
  Consequential damages........................................1378-1379
  Contracts, frustration of performance........................1377-1378
  Corporation, franchise, taking of.................................1377
  Courts, role of..............................................1379-1380
  Destruction of property in wartime.............................329-330
  Destruction of property to save other property...............1390-1391
  Delegation of power to private parties............................1371
  Historic preservation, public use.................................1386
  Interest, compensation.......................................1376-1377
  Just compensation............................................1374-1377
  Police power, taking, no taking........................1382-1395, 1580
  Public use...................................................1371-1374
  Regulation, when a taking..............................1380-1395, 1580
  Source of power...................................................1369
  States, limited by clause....................................1370-1371
  States, property of, subject to federal taking....................1370
Emoluments......................................................359, 435
Employment, private, racial discrimination.......................207-208
Employment, public:
  Discharge, interest in retaining, when protected............1073-1078, 
                                                    1084-1090, 1723-1732
  Loyalty oaths................................................1073-1078
  
[[Page 2421]]

  Patronage systems............................................1062-1063
  Political activities.........................................1081-1084
  Residency requirements............................................1914
  Speech rights................................................1084-1090
  Unions, dues systems, objectors..............................1065-1066
Enterprise concept, FLSA coverage....................................194
Entrapment...............................................1291, 1750-1752
Equal footing doctrine, admitting States to Union................881-886
Equal protection of the laws:
  Affirmative action................................1861-1868, 1883-1885
  Alienage.........................1358-1359, 1810-1812, 1814, 1869-1875
  Apportionment and districting................................1902-1911
  Ballot, racial distinction on.....................................1861
  Ballots, access to, candidates, parties......................1897-1901
  Compelling state interest doctrine...........................1809-1814
  Economic legislation, classification.........................1829-1834
  Education, not a fundamental interest........................1923-1925
  Education, racial discrimination in..........................1840-1854
  Electoral process............................................1892-1911
  Enforcement, congressional powers............................1928-1936
  Federal power, restrained by concept.........................1356-1359
  Housing, racial discrimination in.................................1748
  Illegitimacy.................................................1886-1891
  Indigency....................................................1916-1925
  Judicial system, racial discrimination in.........................1860
  Juries, racially discriminatory selection....................1854-1857
  Marriage, family.......................................1860, 1914-1916
  Motive vs. effects test......................................1815-1820
  Persons protected............................................1802-1803
  Police power regulations.....................................1821-1839
  Property tax assessments..........................................1828
  Public accommodations, racial discrimination......................1861
  Public facilities, racial discrimination.....................1859-1860
  Restrained review under clause...............................1804-1809
  Sex, classification by.......................................1875-1886
  Social welfare legislation...................................1836-1838
  State action......................................1786-1802, 1929-1933
Equal Rights Amendment................................904-906, 913, 1877
Equal time, broadcasters, newspaper right to reply.............1123-1127
Evolution, teaching in public schools................................996
Espionage laws....................................1023, 1067, 1132, 1189
Establishment.  See Religion, freedom of.
Excessive fines.....................................................1471
Exclusionary rule, search and seizure, confessions............1257-1270, 
                                                               1340-1343
Executive agreements:
  Arbitration agreements.............................................498
  Binding effects internationally................................493-494
  Commitments abroad by..............................................504
  Congress, prior authorization of...............................495-498
  Disposition of United States property by...........................503
  Domestic effect of.............................................504-507
  Foreign policy, expression of..................................500-504
  
[[Page 2422]]

  President, conclusion solely on own authority..................500-504
  Treaties, authorization by.....................................498-500
  United Nations Charter.............................................499
Executive orders.................................................572-576
Executive privilege..............................................532-539
Ex parte injunctions, expression.........................1031-1033, 1168
Expatriation..........................................272-276, 1566-1567
Ex post facto laws:
  Criminal laws, restricted to...................................350-351
  Defined, Congress not to pass..................................350-351
  Denial of future privileges........................................363
  Deportation....................................................351-352
  Extradition, relation to...........................................351
  Fair warning, possible exception..............................351, 363
  Oaths as.......................................................365-366
  Procedure, changes in.....................................351, 363-365
  Punishment, changes in.........................................351-352
  Punishment, what constitutes...................................382-383
Exposure, purpose of legislative investigation.....................95-96
Expropriation of property of United States citizens abroad.......570-572
Extradition, fugitive from one State to be returned by another...878-881

                                    F

Fair Labor Standards Act.........192-194, 791, 923-925, 1512, 1530, 1536
Fairness doctrine, broadcasting equal time.............79, 84, 1123-1124
Fair trial--free press conflict.........1031-1033, 1105, 1404-1406, 1345
Family interests, protected............1688-1689, 1681, 1685-1686, 1860, 
                                                               1914-1916
Featherbedding, prohibition, validity...............................1558
Federal common law..................................................1400
Federal Employers Liability Act..........179, 796, 1462-1464, 1532, 1536
Federal question jurisdiction, federal courts:
  Admiralty and.............................................743-744, 770
  Civil rights statutes and......................................719-721
  Common law, federal, as..............................719, 759, 767-773
  Corporations chartered by Congress, jurisdiction...............717-718
  Defined........................................................714-716
  Jurisdictional amount...............................583, 714, 719, 784
  Pendent jurisdiction...............................................721
  Protective jurisdiction............................................722
  Removal from state to federal court............................716-717
  Specialized federal jurisdictional statutes....................718-719
Federal lands, congressional powers..............................888-891
Federalism..........................145-149, 155-158, 921-930, 1509-1518
Felony-murder, death penalty for.........................1481, 1488-1489
Fighting words, proscription, protection.......................1133-1134
Filing fees:
  Bankruptcy........................................................1922
  Candidacy, political rights.................................1898, 1921
  Civil actions, commencement............................1696, 1922-1923
  Criminal appeals, post-conviction relief.....................1916-1920
  Divorce...........................................................1922
Filled milk, prohibition............................................1359
Fines, excessive..............................................1471, 1920

[[Page 2423]]

Fingerprints, criminal investigations...................1218, 1247, 1368
Fish and game, state laws conserving..................872-873, 1627-1628
Flag desecration, prohibition, protected activity..............1183-1187
Flag salute, compulsory.............................1011-1012, 1053-1054
Food and drugs, federal, state regulation.......198, 235-236, 1633-1634, 
                                                                    1831
Food stamps, eligibility.......................................1602-1603
Foreign commerce:
  Federal law...........................................167-169, 196-199
  State law......................................................240-243
Forfeiture.......................1033, 1282-1283, 1570, 1634, 1663, 1721
Foster families, due process protection.......................1689, 1731
Full faith and credit:
  Adoption decrees...................................................852
  Alimony, child custody decrees.................................846-850
  Building and loan associations, foreign........................859-861
  Common law, statutory, constitutional, scope of recognition....854-863
  Congress, power to effectuate.................................832, 866
  Corporations, suits against, stockholders, creditors, 
   policyholders, law applied........................................858
  Divorce decrees, domicile......................................840-851
  Fraternal benefit societies, foreign suits.....................858-859
  Fraud, defense, enforcement foreign judgments..................853-854
  Garnishment decrees................................................852
  Insurance, foreign, local reserves requirement.................859-861
  Insurance, foreign, suits against, law applied.................859-861
  Judgments, effect in forum State, limits.......................832-839
  Judgments, foreign courts..........................................866
  Judgments, jurisdiction required, enforcement..................837-850
  Judgments, penal, limit on enforcement.............................853
  Probate decrees................................................851-852
  Statutes of limitations, foreign judgments.........................863
  Stockholder's liability, law applied by forum..................858-859
  Tax exemption, no extraterritorial operation.......................854
  Taxes, judgment for, enforcement...................................852
  Tort and contract actions, law applied.........................856-858
  Workmen's compensation laws, application in local forum........861-863
Fundamental rights......958-964, 1036, 1058, 1118, 1158, 1188, 1809-1815

                                    G

Garbage, State restriction on interstate movement....................236
Gasoline stations, integrated operations.............................236
Geographic distinctions in regulatory laws..........................1831
Gerrymandering...............1861, 1906-1911, 1936, 1942-1943, 1948-1950
Grand jury:
  Discovery of minutes of...........................................1275
  Indictment by, Federal cases, exceptions.....................1273-1279
  Indictment by, States.......................................1274, 1753
  Investigative function of....................................1274-1276
  Selection of, nondiscrimination........................1277, 1854-1857
  Witnesses before, rights.....................................1274-1276
Grandfather clauses, denial of suffrage on basis of race.......1940-1941
Group libel laws...............................................1135-1136
Guaranty Clause..................................................891-893
Guilty pleas:
  Acceptance of, waiver of rights, circumstances...............1757-1758
  
[[Page 2424]]

  Plea bargaining..............................................1757-1758
Guilt beyond reasonable doubt.................................1761, 1762

                                    H

Habeas corpus:
  Appeal, not substitute for.........................................641
  Congressional control over..............345-346, 638-639, 781, 786-790
  Constitutional issues reviewable.........639, 641, 809-819, 1266, 1272
  Courts-martial, habeas review of convictions.......................318
  Custody, meaning...............................................639-640
  Exhaustion of State remedies.........................640, 810-813, 818
  Expansion, contraction of scope......................639, 641, 809-819
  Innocence, relevance to issuance of writ......................814, 818
  Post conviction relief, Federal prisoners.....................638, 641
  Res judicata, inapplicability..................................810-812
  Statutory authorization for, necessity.............................640
  Use to effect goals other than release.......................658, 1804
Harmless error..................1309, 1416, 1423, 1445, 1483, 1484, 1756
Hatch Act................................................517, 1082, 1504
Highways, State, use in interstate commerce.................225-226, 238
Historic sites, landmarks, preservation.............................1386
Hit and run statutes, compulsory stop and identification............1319
Homes, regulation of solicitors, canvassers....................1182-1183
Homosexuals, constitutional protection.........................1686-1687
Hostile audience, effect on right of expression.....................1168
Hours of labor.  See Labor-management relations.
House of Representatives (see also Congress; Elections):
  Apportionment of seats in......................................114-116
    Reduction for denial of suffrage................................1810
  Districting for election to:
    Congressional regulation....................................106, 115
    Equally populated districts required.........................106-108
  Impeachment, powers...........................................116, 583
  Revenue bills originate in.....................................136-137
  Vacancies in, election to fill.....................................116
Housing discrimination..............208, 1790-1793, 1816-1817, 1858-1859
Hydroelectric power, federal development.........................173-175

                                    I

Ideological obscenity..........................................1149-1150
Illegitimacy, classification, discrimination on basis of......1810-1812, 
                                                               1886-1891
Immunity:
  Self-incrimination, grant of to compel answers...............1312-1315
  State courts, federal power to grant in................920, 1311, 1314
Immunity from suit:
  President, executive officers.........................578-583, 748-751
  state judges......................................................1542
  state officers...............................................1537-1545
Impartial jury, criminal trials, right to................1412-1418, 1742
Impeachment:
  Chief Justice, when presides at trial.........................117, 583
  Criminal prosecution, before or after..............................590
  Grounds for....................................................586-587
  
[[Page 2425]]

  Judgment on conviction.............................................117
  Judges, subject to...............................584-586, 587-588, 589
  Officers subject to............................................584-586
  Pardoning power of President inapplicable..........................465
Impeachment of witnesses in criminal trials, use of otherwise 
 inadmissible evidence...................................1266, 1338-1339
Impoundment of appropriated funds................................555-559
Income tax.....................................................1954-1964
Incompatible offices.................................................135
Incorporation doctrine, Bill of Rights...........................957-964
Indecent speech, broadcast..........................................1126
Indians.  See Native Americans.
Indigency:
  Abortion...............................................1674-1675, 1925
  Access to courts.............................................1922-1923
  Candidacy, voting rights..........................................1921
  Criminal appeals.............................................1916-1920
  Criminal sentences................................................1920
  Educational opportunity......................................1923-1925
  Equal protection standard for classifications.....1810-1812, 1813-1814
  Informers, criminal investigations.....................1218-1220, 1366
Injunctions:
  Congressional power over issuance....567-569, 641-644, 75-786, 801-802
  Declaratory judgments and.............................673-676, 806-809
  Enjoining federal statutory enforcement...............641-644, 785-786
  Labor disputes, Norris-LaGuardia Act...........642-643, 785, 1591-1592
  Restraining expression, ex parte proceedings...........1031-1033, 1168
  State court proceedings, restraint of..........................804-809
Insanity:
  Proof, burden, standard.....................................1763, 1769
  Trial, sentence, execution...................................1769-1770
Instructions in criminal trials...............................1756, 1761
Insular cases, Constitution abroad.........................324-325, 1399
Insurance, federal, State regulation.......155, 156, 242-243, 1619-1622, 
                                                                    1822
International agreements without Senate approval.  See Executive 
 agreements.
International law:
  Offenses against, powers of Congress as to, triable by military 
   commissions...................................................303-305
  Prizes of war, application to......................................326
  President as enforcer of.......................................570-571
Interstate commerce:
  Congressional powers...........................................160-208
    Agriculture as commerce........................162-163, 188, 194-196
    Depression, 1930s, effect of.................................187-196
    Federalism limits on.......................166-167, 203-209, 921-930
    Illegal commerce, prohibition...........................167, 199-202
    Interstate vs. foreign commerce..............................167-169
    Intrastate actions ``affecting'' commerce..........192-194, 195-196, 
                                                        205-207, 207-209
    Labor relations...........................179-180, 187, 189, 190-194
    Manufacturing as commerce.........162-163, 181-185, 187-188, 190-194
    Mining as commerce.........................162-163, 188-189, 205-206
    Navigation, waterways, flood control.........................170-175
    Production of goods as commerce..............................187-196
    
[[Page 2426]]

    Prohibition of commerce.................................167, 196-203
    State lines crossing, commerce as traffic....................181-187
    Tariffs..........................................................198
  State powers, taxation and regulation..........................209-240
    Balancing test, modern standard..............................233-234
    Congressional authorization of impermissible state 
     action......................................................216-220
    Dormant commerce clause, development and theories............209-215
    Foreign commerce.............................................240-243
    Regulation of commerce.....................220-221, 224-227, 233-240
    State proprietary activity exception.............................216
    Taxation of commerce................................220-223, 227-233
      Apportionment.........................................223, 231-232
      Benefit relationship...........................................233
      Discrimination........................................223, 232-233
      Nexus......................................................229-231
Interstate Commerce Commission......................78-80, 176-178, 1300
Interstate compacts.  See States, Agreements with other States.
Intoxicating liquors:
  First Amendment, conflicts with regulation...................1982-1983
  Importation from abroad, state powers........................1980-1981
  Equal protection, 21st Amendment and..............................1982
  Prohibition, federal, adoption, repeal............1967-1969, 1977-1984
  State laws, interstate commerce, bans, regulation........276-278, 279, 
                                                               1977-1981
  Wartime prohibition, federal......................................1513
Inverse condemnation.  See Taking of property.
Investigations, congressional:
  Bill of Rights, applicability to...............................100-103
  Contempt sanction, source, procedure...........................103-105
  Defenses of witnesses...........................................96-100
  Exercises of power:
    Investigation of Executive.....................................92-93
    Investigation of Members..........................................93
    Legislative purposes.......................................91, 93-96
  Limitations on:
    Authorization, sufficiency of.................................96-100
    Pertinency of inquiry......................................92, 94-96
    Legislative power, extent...............................90-91, 93-96
    Purpose........................................................90-91
  Quorum, lack of, effect............................................100
Involuntary servitude..........................................1551-1558

                                    J

Jails, picketing of.................................................1165
Japanese-Americans, relocation of, World War II....324, 327-328, 442-443
Jones Act........................................................741-743
Journalist's privilege.........................................1102-1104
Judges, criminal trials, partiality..................631-634, 1742, 1754
Judges, federal (see also Courts, federal; Supreme Court of the 
 United States):
  Abolition of courts, provision for sitting judges..................600
  Article I judges, lack of guarantees...........................604-617
  Article III judges, guarantees......584-586, 600-602, 605-606, 610-615
  Bankruptcy judges, status......................................613-615
  
[[Page 2427]]

  Compensation, guarantee, taxation..............................600-602
  Impeachment of.......................................584-586, 587, 589
  Legislative courts, status.....................................604-617
  Removal, other than by impeachment.................................586
  Self-restraint of, rules.......................................705-712
  Tenure....................................................584-586, 598
Judicial process, when requisite of due process.....................1695
Judicial review:
  Avoidance of constitutional questions in.......................707-708
  Clear mistake, rule of construction............................708-709
  Establishment, origin..........................................698-704
  Excluded considerations in exercise of.........................709-710
  Framers, views on..............................................698-700
  Limitations on exercise........................................705-713
  Modes of Constitutional interpretation.........................705-706
  National supremacy, importance of..............................703-704
  Necessity of as due process right............................1597-1602
  Presumption of constitutionality...................................710
  Self-restraint in exercise of..................................712-713
  Stare decisis in...............................................711-712
Judiciary Act of 1789.......598, 599, 625, 636, 637, 639, 641, 700, 701, 
             703, 713, 716, 717, 723, 726, 728-729, 735, 744, 762, 767, 
                          769, 776, 777, 778, 782-783, 784,785, 793, 819
Juries:
  Blue ribbon juries, validity......................................1412
  Composition, size, unanimity of verdict......................1408-1410
  Discrimination, racial, selection......................1413, 1854-1857
  Impartiality requirement...............................1412-1418, 1742
  Vicinage requirement.........................................1419-1420
  Women, exclusion, exceptions................................1412, 1413
Jurisdiction, defined, distinguished from judicial power........618-619, 
                                                                 648-698
Jurisdiction, state courts, how obtained.......................1705-1723
Jury service, paid time off private employment......................1588
Jury trial, civil cases:
  Admiralty....................................................736, 1455
  Background of right..........................................1451-1452
  Common-law cases, application................................1454-1457
  Composition, size............................................1452-1453
  Courts in which applicable........................................1453
  Directed verdicts............................................1461-1462
  Equity cases, no jury trial, exceptions......................1457-1460
  Function of..................................................1452-1453
  Judge, role of, comment on evidence, etc.....................1460-1461
  Mixed equity-law cases.......................................1457-1460
  Racial discrimination, jury selection........................1797-1798
  States, not bound.................................................1453
  Unanimity of jurors...............................................1452
  Waiver.......................................................1453-1454
Jury trial, criminal cases:
  Application to States.............................................1407
  Background, rationale........................................1406-1407
  Capital sentencing, racial discrimination....................1857-1858
  Civil proceedings............................................1410-1412
  
[[Page 2428]]

  Contempt trials..........................................630-631, 1411
  Juvenile trials...................................................1412
  Petty offenses....................................................1410
  Racial discrimination, jury selection.............1798-1799, 1854-1857
  Waiver.......................................................1407-1408
Just compensation requirement..................................1374-1377
Justiciability...................................................648-698
Juveniles:
  offenders, processing of, due process........................1780-1783
  death penalty................................................1491-1492

                                    L

Labor-management relations:
  Blacklisting, prohibition.........................................1591
  Child labor.........................................199, 202-203, 1587
  Compulsory arbitration............................................1591
  Employer free speech.........................................1121-1122
  Federal regulation.............................................187-196
  Freedom of assembly to discuss rights........................1189-1191
  Hours of labor, women, ``hazardous' occupations...................1586
  Hours, wages, federal regulation..................................1587
  Injunctions, federal courts, labor disputes.............661, 785, 1592
  Liberty of contract..........................................1581-1594
  Picketing, regulation, free speech...........................1173-1174
  Preemption, federal-state power................................254-260
  President, powers over in wartime..............................443-444
  Racial discrimination by unions...................................1593
  Right-to-work laws, state.........................................1593
  Wages, payment regulated.....................................1587-1588
  Workers' compensation laws.....................738, 861-863, 1588-1590
Labor unions:
  Dues money, use of by unions.................................1065-1066
  Governmental promotion, regulation..................187-196, 1591-1594
  Officers, loyalty oaths................................1044-1045, 1055
  Picketing, boycotts, speech..................................1173-1174
  Political activities of, limited..................................1102
  Speech rights of members.....................................1064-1066
  Unfair labor practices, state regulation.......................254-260
Landlord-tenant disputes, jury trials...............................1454
Leaflets, pamphlets, distribution, speech......................1180-1181
Legal tender.  See money.
Legislative buildings, grounds, picketing................1165, 1175-1176
Legislative courts...............................................604-617
Legislative veto.  See Congressional veto.
Legislatures, state, apportionment and distributing............1902-1911
Lend lease..................................................497-498, 547
Letters of marque and reprisal..................................305, 359
Libel.  See Defamation.
Liberty of contract............................................1581-1594
Limitations period.  See Statutes of limitation.
Lineups, criminal identification procedures.........1444-1447, 1752-1753
Litigation, promotion of, carrying on, First Amendment.........1056-1061
Loansharking, federal prohibition....................................206

[[Page 2429]]

Lobbying, Government regulation................................1101-1102
Logan Act........................................................541-542
Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act..............739-741
Lotteries, barring from interstate commerce......200-201, 290-291, 1513, 
                                                                    1636
Loyalty oaths, constitutionality of...................677-678, 1073-1078
Loyalty-security programs, government employment.....517-518, 1055-1056, 
                                              1073-1078, 1084-1085, 1351

                                    M

Mail (see also Post Roads):
  Congress, powers as to...................................289-292, 1359
  Exclusion of materials from, censorship......290-292, 1152, 1154, 1359
  Implementation of other powers.....................................292
  Right to receive...............................................291-292
  State regulations, taxes, affecting service....................292-293
Marriage:
  Contract clause, marriage contracts not within.....................388
  Fundamental right, privacy, attributes.....1667, 1680-1681, 1688-1689, 
                                                                    1860
  Interracial ban, validity...................................1667, 1860
Married-unmarried persons, classification, validity.................1837
Martial law, nature of, when invoked...............324, 456-462, 566-567
Membership in organizations, disqualifications for, oaths related 
 to,inquiries respecting.................1064-1056, 1057-1058, 1070-1078
Mental illness................................1490, 1690-1692, 1783-1785
Mental retardation............................1491, 1690-1692, 1783-1785
Military forces, use abroad to protect citizens, property, 
 President, Congress....................................447-453, 570-572
Militia:
  Powers of Congress as to.......................................331-333
  States, powers as to...........................................332-333
  Relation to right to bear arms...............................1193-1194
Military law.....................................................316-319
Milk, price, purity, marketing......................195, 1633-1634, 1831
Miranda warning................................................1330-1340
Miscegenation.................................................1667, 1860
Money:
  Bills of credit.......................................159-160, 360-361
  Coinage and borrowing power, relation.........................159, 287
  Coins, defacement, exportation, power of Congress..................287
  Counterfeiting................................................287, 341
  Gold, currency, gold clauses in contracts, abrogation........159, 287, 
                                                               1365-1366
  Legal tender, power of States as to................................361
  Legal tender, treasury notes as....................................159
  State bank notes, federal tax on...................................342
Mootness in legal disputes.......................................679-683
Mortgages, state moratory laws, validity.........................395-397
Motive vs. intent test of equal protection.....................1815-1820
Motor vehicles, regulation, taxation.................225, 226, 1826-1827
Multimember electoral district, validity.......................1906-1911
Multiple taxation, interstate commerce...........................231-232
Murder, death penalty for......................................1472-1493

                                    N

National Industrial Recovery Act.............................83, 187-188

[[Page 2430]]

National Labor Relations Act.....................................190-192
National security
  Electronic surveillance justified by.........................1255-1257
National supremacy, scope of clause..............................917-943
Native Americans:
  Commerce with, congressional powers............................260-265
  Due process constraints on governance of..............262-263, 492-493
  Lessees of Indian lands, State taxation............................942
  ``Not taxed,'' counting for apportionment....................114, 1927
  State taxation of, reservation activities......................262-263
  Treaties with.............................................261, 492-493
  Tribes not foreign states..........................................775
Natural resources, state laws respecting.........235, 871-874, 1624-1628
Navigable waters (see also Admiralty; Courts, federal):
  Congress, regulatory powers, improvement..................161, 170-175
  Diversion of, States, municipalities, federal suits................923
  Riparian ownership, governmental reservation.................171, 1382
  State regulation, validity.........................................226
Navy.  See Armed forces.
Necessary and proper clause, congressional power.......165-166, 339-344, 
                                              480-482, 512, 636, 728-731
Newsgathering as commerce............................................162
Newspapers (see also Speech and press):
  Contempt for publication.......................................627-629
  Exclusion from mails...............................................290
  Government regulation of business of.........................1113-1127
  Right of reply laws...............................................1127
  Search and seizure of newspaper offices.....................1104, 1223
Nobility, titles of, not to be granted, accepted.....................359
Noise, permissible state interest in limiting expression.......1181-1182
No-knock entrances to search........................................1227
Nonresident of State, obtaining jurisdiction over..............1705-1722
Notice of accusation...........................................1420-1421
Nude dancing, protected expression.............................1162-1163
Nudity in films, protected expression..........................1160-1163

                                    O

Oath of office, application, powers of Congress as to............943-948
Oaths, loyalty, affirmative, disclaimer............1044, 1056, 1073-1078
Obligation of contracts, States not to impair....................366-398
Obscenity, pornography.........................................1149-1160
Oil and gas (see also Carriers; Taxation, state):
  Interstate transportation, production for interstate sale, 
   federal, state powers.............................................180
  Rates, federal regulation....................................1359-1360
  State protective laws........................................1624-1625
One person, one vote...........................................1902-1911
Opticians, ophthalmologists, regulation, classification.......1622-1623, 
                                                                    1831
Original jurisdiction............................................776-779
Original package doctrine.......................................240, 399
Origination Clause..........................................135, 136-137
Overbreadth.....1050-1051, 1061, 1083, 1084, 1087, 1113, 1119, 1133-1134

                                    P

Packers and Stockyard Act............................................185

[[Page 2431]]

Pardons and amnesties............................................463-469
Parent-child conflict.............................1672, 1678, 1689, 1785
Parks, use of for expression, public forums....................1164-1165
Passports, denial, suspension, due process..........................1071
Patents and copyrights...........................................293-302
Patronage systems, validity under First Amendment..............1062-1063
Penumbral rights protected..........................................1504
Pendent jurisdiction.............................................721-722
Peonage, validity under Thirteenth Amendment, congressional power 
 to abolish....................................................1555-1557
Peremptory challenges of jurors, racial discrimination.........1856-1857
Permit systems, parades, demonstrations........................1167-1168
Person:
  Due Process..................................................1578-1579
  Fourth Amendment, persons covered by.........................1204-1205
  Privileges and immunities....................................1565-1567
Petitioning Congress, right of......................................1569
Petitioning government, redress of grievances............1137, 1187-1191
Pharmacies, regulation, right to advertise....................1622, 1115
Picketing, free expression.....................................1173-1181
Piracy, power of Congress to define and punish...................303-305
Plea bargaining, validity, safeguards..........................1757-1758
Pocket Veto......................................................139-140
Police power:
  Federal, commerce clause basis.................................203-209
  State, federal restrictions on.................................200-203
  State, due process limitations...............................1579-1580
Political activity as element of free expression....1061-1064, 1081-1084
Political parties, racial discrimination by........1797, 1941-1942, 1945
Political question doctrine......................................687-698
Poll taxes, qualification to vote, validity............1473, 1894, 1921, 
                                                               1989-1990
Polygamy.......................................................1007-1009
Pornography.  See Obscenity, pornography.
Ports of entry, powers of Congress, no preference....................357
Post Roads...........................................................289
Postal service.  See Mail.
Poverty, indigency, classification on basis of....1813-1814, 1836, 1839, 
                                                               1916-1925
Preemption............................243-260, 284-286, 300-302, 918-919
Pregnancy, classifications based on.....................1602, 1876, 1886
Presentation of bills and resolutions............................141-143
President:
  Cabinet as adviser of..............................................488
  Compensation, restriction on...................................435-436
  Creation of office.............................................413-415
  Disability, inability...................................435, 1991-1993
  Election, electoral college..............................426-433, 1548
  Executive orders...............................................440-447
  Executive privilege............................................532-539
  House of Representatives, when selects...................426-428, 1547
  Immunity from judicial direction.............534-538, 578-683, 688-689
  Impeachment of...................................583-586, 588, 589-590
  Messages to Congress...........................................539-540
  Oath of office, effect, time of....................................436
  Qualifications.................................................433-434
  
[[Page 2432]]

  Succession to, vacancy..................................435, 1991-1993
  Term, tenure.......................425-426, 1973-1976, 1985, 1991-1993
President, powers:
  Appoint, remove officers, congressional power to limit.......418, 423, 
                                                   425, 512-519, 522-531
  Commander-in-Chief.............................................437-461
  Courts, use of to enforce laws.....................................568
  Domestic disturbances in States, suppression..............461-462, 895
  Executive agencies, creation, status...........................441-442
  Executive, diplomatic agents of................................509-512
  Executive, enumeration, construction...........................415-422
  Exercise of, in person, by agents.....................559-564, 582-583
  Faithful execution of laws, duty, powers.......................553-572
  Foreign envoys, reception by President....................540, 546-547
  Foreign relations, conduct of..................................540-553
  Impoundment of appropriated funds..............................555-559
  Legislative role...................................................540
  Martial law, declaration..............................456-461, 566-569
  Military forces, use abroad, protect citizens, property.......447-453, 
                                                                 570-572
  Pardons, amnesties....................................463-468, 788-889
  Recognition of foreign governments........................540, 544-546
  Remove officers................................................522-531
  Seizure of factories...........................................572-578
  Subordinates, control, protection..............................522-532
  Veto, pocket veto..............................................138-141
  War...................................................305-311, 437-453
Presumption of innocence.......................................1761-1762
Presumptions, evidentiary, due process..............1701-1704, 1761-1765
Preventive detention...........................................1469-1471
Price controls.  See Rent and price controls.
Primary elections, subject to federal regulation....119, 1941-1942, 1945
Prior restraints, doctrine of..................................1029-1031
Prison inmates:
  Access to courts..................................................1773
  Access to legal materials.........................................1773
  Basis of rights...................................................1774
  Counsel, right to...........................................1447, 1775
  Courts, federal, powers, restraints..........................1773-1774
  Cruel and unusual punishment...........................1497-1499, 1773
  Discipline, transfers between prisons.............................1776
  First Amendment rights.......................................1108-1111
  News media access............................................1110-1111
  Parole, probation revocation.................................1776-1780
  Racial segregation of.............................................1773
  Religious freedom of..............................................1773
  Voting by...................................................1897, 1927
Privacy:
  Abortion.....................................................1669-1679
  Contraceptive use protected......................1504-1505, 1668, 1681
  Fourth Amendment protection of....................1205-1209, 1681-1682
  Home, protections in.........................................1683-1686
  Marital, family rights.......................................1679-1689
  Protection of limited by First Amendment.....................1145-1147
  
[[Page 2433]]

Privileges and immunities of national citizenship...1568-1561, 1931-1932
Privileges and immunities of state citizens.  See Comity clause.
Probable cause.................................................1217-1220
Probation, parole..............................................1776-1780
Profanity, public, governmental power to proscribe.............1133-1134
Professional sports, interstate commerce.............................162
Prohibition, intoxicating liquors........................1967-1969, 1977
Proof of crime, burden.........................................1761-1765
Property qualifications for voters, candidates...........1894-1896, 1898
Property tax support of public education.......................1923-1925
Prosecutorial misconduct, due process..........................1758-1761
Public accommodations, racial discrimination..........207-208, 1859-1860
Public employees, speech, political rights.....................1081-1090
Public forum...................................................1164-1171
Public lands.....................................................888-890
Public officers of the United States (see also President):
  Appointment, confirmation......................................512-521
  Commissions of, issuance...........................................521
  Creation, qualifications, conduct, congressional regulation.......507, 
                                                                 512-519
  Disqualification for rebellion....................................1928
  Foreign emoluments.................................................359
  Impeachment of.................................................583-589
  Inferior officers, employees...................................513-515
  Loyalty-security programs...........................517-518, 1084-1085
  Political activities of.............................516-517, 1081-1084
  Recess appointments............................................521-522
  Removal........................................................522-531
  Salaries, congressional termination in order to remove.........347-348
  Strikes by.........................................................518
  Suits against, immunity...............................582-583, 748-751
  Withdrawal of, confirmation........................................520
Public trials, criminal cases.......................1105-1108, 1404-1406
Public use, taking of property.................................1371-1374
Public utilities, federal, state regulation, due process......1359-1360, 
                                                               1597-1614
Publicity:
  Prejudicial, criminal trials................................1414, 1755
  Right to personal............................................1147-1148
Puerto Rico................................................890-891, 1871
Punishment of crime, unequal sentences, disproportionality....1493-1497, 
                                                                    1838
Punitive damages..............................................1471, 1698

                                    Q

Quorum, lack of, legislative investigation...........................100

                                    R

Racial discrimination.........................1356-1359, 1809, 1839-1868
Radio.  See Broadcasting.
Railroad Retirement Act..........................................189-190
Railroads (see also Carriers; Labor-management relations):
  Compelled services, expenditures........................381, 1610-1612
  Federal rate regulation, due process.........................1360-1361
  Full crew laws...............................................225, 1613
  Interconnection of tracks, authorization...........................176
  Intrastate rates, federal regulation...............................178
  
[[Page 2434]]

  Property, state taxation, apportionment............................222
  Rate regulation, state..............................224-225, 1597-1607
  Safety regulations.................................225, 162-1613, 1623
  State owned railroads, federal regulation......................923-924
Rape:
  death penalty for............................................1487-1488
  child witness and defendant's right to confrontation.........1427-1428
  victim's privacy interest.........................................1146
Rational basis standard of review..............................1805-1809
Real property, state regulation, zoning, succession to........1380-1395, 
                                                               1628-1632
Reapportionment of congressional districts among states.......1902, 1904
Reapportionment, state legislative districts...................1902-1911
Recess appointments..............................................521-522
Registration, compelled, self-incrimination....................1317-1321
Registration laws, convicted felons, notice....................1749-1750
Religion, freedom of:
  Background, history............................................969-971
  Belief-conduct distinction...................................1007-1009
  Bus transportation, parochial school students............978, 985, 987
  Child benefit theory......................................978, 984-985
  Child labor laws..................................................1008
  Chaplains in Congress, armed forces..........................996, 1002
  Christian Nation rhetoric....................................971, 1009
  Church disputes, judicial role.................................974-977
  Colleges, universities, religious, assistance to...............988-989
  Compulsory school attendance laws.................................1014
  Compulsory vaccination............................................1008
  Conscience, freedom of..................................969, 971, 1005
  Conscientious objection, military service..............1000-1001, 1012
  Construction grants, colleges..................................988-989
  Criminal law, general applicability, religious practices.....1008-1009
  Disqualification of clergy for public office......................1019
  Entanglement test................973-974, 982, 983, 984, 989, 990, 998
  Establishment of religion clause..............................977-1005
  Evolution, teaching, public school, ban............................996
  Financial assistance to church-related schools.................977-991
  Flag salute, public schools.......................1011-1012, 1053-1054
  Free exercise clause.........................................1005-1019
  Grants to religious organizations for public purposes..........990-991
  Imposition of secular requirements, religious objections.....1011-1019
  Mandated school tests, etc, public purchase........................984
  Neutrality.....................................................974-977
  Oaths.......................................................1009, 1019
  Parks, other public places, use by religious groups...............1011
  Peyote use, criminal proscription.................................1017
  Polygamy, bigamy..................................................1009
  Prayers, Bible readings, public schools........................993-996
  Primary purpose and effect tests......................973-974, 979-991
  Released time..................................................991-993
  Religious People rhetoric..........................................993
  School supplies, loans to students............................982, 985
  Social Security taxes, exemption denied...........................1015
  
[[Page 2435]]

  Street proselytizing.........................................1010-1011
  Sunday closing laws...........................................999-1000
  Tax credits, parochial school students.........................986-988
  Tax exemptions, religious property.............................997-998
  Textbooks, loans to private school students...................978, 985
  Tuition grants, parochial school students......................985-986
  Unemployment compensation, denial to Sabbatarians, other 
   religious objectors.........................................1012-1014
Removal, cases from state to federal court:
  Cases concerning federal officers, employees.......................819
  Civil rights cases.............................................819-821
  Generally, validity, circumstances...............343, 716-717, 819-821
  States may not limit, burden.......................................765
Removal, power of President to remove officers...................522-532
Rent and price controls..................330-331, 602-603, 643-644, 1365
Reply, right of.....................................................1127
Republican form of government, nature, scope.....................891-893
Reputation, protected interest......................................1729
Required records doctrine......................................1315-1317
Residency, actual, required.........................869, 1702-1703, 1914
Residency, durational, state requirements......................1911-1914
Residential picketing...............................................1176
Restrictive covenant cases..........................663, 1790-1792, 1858
Retroactivity of judicial decisions..............................683-687
Reverse discrimination.  See Affirmative action.
Right-privilege distinction...................1073, 1084-1085, 1725-1726
Right-to-work laws, state, preemption....................255, 1593, 1834
Rights retained by the people, Ninth Amendment.................1503-1505
Ripeness, justiciability.........................................676-679

                                    S

Safety regulations, interstate commerce, impact on...................176
Savings bonds, federal overriding of state regulations...............931
Schools (see also Education, racial discrimination; Teachers):
  Ban on private schools, compulsory public education..........1666-1667
  Foreign language, ban on teaching............................1666-1667
  Free speech in...............................................1090-1094
  Prayers and religious exercises in.............................992-996
  School buildings, picketing of..............................1165, 1166
  Searches of students in......................................1246-1247
Scrupled jurors, capital punishment, exclusion...........1415-1416, 1474
Searches and seizures:
  Administrative inspections...................................1211-1216
  Airport stops................................................1233-1234
  Alcohol, firearms inspections.....................................1211
  Arrests, other detentions....................................1209-1210
  Automobiles, expectation of privacy in....1208, 1215, 1237, 1238-1241, 
                                                                    1244
  Background, scope............................................1199-1205
  Border searches..............................................1243-1244
  Consent searches.............................................1242-1243
  Corporate records, when protected.................................1226
  Electronic surveillance................................1206, 1250-1257
  Exclusionary rule............................................1257-1270
  
[[Page 2436]]

  Execution of warrants........................................1226-1228
  Fingerprints, other objective evidence......................1210, 1224
  First Amendment considerations...............................1221-1223
  Habeas corpus, when search and seizure issues reviewable.....815, 1266
  Home visits, welfare case workers.................................1214
  Informants, tips, when sufficient for probable cause.........1218-1220
  Interests protected..........................................1205-1209
  Legislative investigations.........................................103
  Mere evidence rule...........................................1223-1224
  National security electronic surveillance....................1255-1257
  Neutral magistrate, issuance of warrants.....................1216-1217
  No-knock entrances................................................1227
  Noncriminal searches and inspections.........................1211-1216
  Open fields doctrine.........................................1245-1246
  Particularity in warrants....................................1221-1223
  Plain view doctrine...............................................1246
  Privacy, protection of.......................................1205-1209
  Probable cause...............................................1217-1220
  Property, protection of......................................1205-1206
  Random stops, check points, automobiles.....................1215, 1244
  Reasonableness, meaning......................................1201-1204
  Search incident to arrest....................................1234-1238
  Standing to contest search and seizure.......................1269-1270
  Stop and frisk...............................................1229-1234
  Subpoenas, likened to search warrants........................1225-1226
  Testimonial evidence..............................................1226
  Warrantless searches..............................1201-1204, 1228-1250
  Warrants, use, obtaining.....................................1215-1228
  Wired informers...................................................1242
  Wiretapping............................................1206, 1250-1257
Seditious libel.....................................1022-1023, 1131-1133
Segregation.  See Racial discrimination.
Self-incrimination:
  Alibi defense, compelled pretrial disclosure......................1310
  Comment on defendant's failure to testify, defendant's silence 
                                                               1308-1310
  Compelled waiver..................................................1308
  Compulsion required, nature of...............................1307-1308
  Confessions..................................................1321-1340
  Corporations, privilege not available to..........................1305
  Delay in arraignment.........................................1323-1324
  Discharge from employment for asserting...........................1308
  Dual sovereign rule...............................................1311
  Exclusionary rule............................................1340-1343
  Gambling, firearms, registration, reporting..................1317-1318
  Hit-and-run reporting statutes....................................1319
  Immunity grants to compel testimony..........................1312-1315
  Infamy, harm to reputation, not protected.........................1311
  Interrogation, police questioning............................1321-1340
  Legislative investigations.....................................101-102
  Miranda warnings.............................................1330-1340
  Nontestimonial compulsion....................................1306-1307
  Presumptions......................................................1310
  
[[Page 2437]]

  Prison disciplinary hearings......................................1309
  Registration requirements....................................1317-1318
  Reporting and disclosure.....................................1317-1321
  Required records doctrine....................................1315-1317
  Tax returns..................................................1317-1318
  Testifying defendants, waiver.....................................1308
  Writings, compelled production....................................1306
Senators, United States, direct election.......................1965-1966
Sentencing, convicted criminal defendants:
  Appeals, corrective process..................................1770-1772
  Capital cases................................................1474-1493
  Counsel, assistance of...........................1447, 1765-1766, 1767
  Deferred, probation, reimposition.................................1767
  Disproportionate length......................................1493-1497
  Habitual offenders................................1495-1496, 1765-1766
  Insane defendants............................................1769-1770
  Jury sentencing, bifurcation, capital cases..................1478-1479
  Presentence reports, disclosure..............................1766-1767
  Resentencing on retrial, limitations..............................1768
Separate but equal.............................................1840-1842
Separation of powers, doctrine of....69-71,63-70, 105, 127-133, 140-141, 
             153-156, 305-307, 347, 415-422, 440-441, 447-453, 494-495, 
          500-504, 522-531, 535-539, 548-553, 555-559, 561-563, 572-578, 
             578-583, 590-591, 600-602, 604-606, 609, 613-614, 645-646, 
                                                   683, 687-698, 779-792
Sex, classification on basis of, discrimination:
  Age of majority...................................................1878
  Alimony......................................................1879-1880
  Benign, favoring women.......................................1883-1885
  Equal protection standards........................1810-1811, 1877-1878
  Government benefits..........................................1881-1882
  Jury service......................................................1879
  Liquor regulations................................................1879
  Military service.......................................1882-1883, 1884
  Pensions, benefits................................................1881
  Pregnancy.........................................................1886
  Unwed fathers/mothers distinction.................................1881
Sex, materials about, pornography..............................1149-1163
Sexual privacy.................................................1679-1689
Sexual psychopath laws, commitment..................................1784
Shopping centers, picketing in.................................1171-1173
Sit-ins.............................................................1165
Slavery and involuntary servitude..............................1551-1558
Social Security benefits, termination...............................1735
Soldiers, quartering in homes in peacetime..........................1195
Sound trucks, demonstrations...................................1181-1182
Sovereign immunity from suits:
  Eleventh Amendment...........................................1521-1545
  Foreign States.................................................774-775
  Suability of officers..........................................748-751
  United States..................................................746-748
Special prosecutor...............................................527-531
Speech or debate, privilege of Members of Congress...............127-133

[[Page 2438]]

Speech and press, freedom of expression:
  Absolutist view of protection accorded.......................1048-1050
  Adoption, background.........................................1020-1025
  Advertising..................................................1113-1119
  Advocacy.......1025, 1034-1040, 1042-1043, 1052, 1067-1069, 1070-1071, 
                                                               1079-1080
  Aliens, exclusion of.........................................1080-1081
  Anonymity, printed materials.................................1180-1181
  Antitrust laws, communications media..............................1122
  Application to States..............................958-964, 1020, 1024
  Association, freedom of......................................1056-1066
  Bad tendency test............................................1037-1038
  Balancing....................................................1044-1048
  Beliefs, affiliation..............................1053-1056, 1070-1073
  Benefits, privileges, withdrawal.......................1054-1056, 1073
  Books, periodicals..............................1033, 1114, 1153, 1153
  Children........................1090-1094, 1152, 1154, 1159-1160, 1161
  Clear and present danger.....................................1034-1053
  Commercial speech............................................1113-1119
  Communications industries, regulation........................1113-1127
  Contempt of court...................................1040-1042, 640-642
  Content of expression, limitation based on.............1081, 1127-1163
  Contributions, campaign funds.....................1063-1064, 1094-1101
  Disorder, unrest, speech result...................................1168
  Door to door solicitation....................................1182-1183
  Draft card burning..........................................1079, 1184
  Elections.........................................1061-1064, 1094-1101
  Entertainment................................................1160-1163
  Fairness doctrine, broadcasting..............................1123-1124
  Fighting words...............................................1133-1134
  Flag desecration, burning......................................1183-87
  Flag salute, compulsory, schools.............................1053-1054
  Group libel..................................................1135-1136
  Hostile audience..................................................1168
  Importation.................................................1080, 1154
  Injunctions, ex parte..................................1031-1033, 1168
  Journalist's privilege.......................................1102-1104
  Labor relations..............................................1121-1122
  Leaflets, pamphlets, distribution............................1180-1181
  Legislative investigations...................................1078-1079
  Less restrictive means test.......................................1051
  Libel........................................................1136-1145
  Libraries, schools, removal of books..............................1092
  License taxes.........................................1029, 1049, 1120
  Licensing, professional, bar membership...............1047, 1056, 1072
  Litigation as expression.....................................1056-1061
  Live performances, plays, nudity.............................1162-1163
  Lobbying.....................................................1101-1102
  Mails.....................................1047, 1080, 1152, 1154, 1155
  Membership, disclosure......................1057-1058, 1070-1073, 1078
  Motion pictures.........................1033, 1114, 1153-54, 1160-1163
  National security..........1029-1031, 1036-1038, 1042-1048, 1055-1056, 
                                                               1066-1081
  Newspapers.....1029, 1031-1033, 1031-1033, 1040-1041, 1104, 1110-1111, 
                       1114, 1119-1120, 1121-1122, 1127, 1136, 1148-1149
          
[[Page 2439]]

  Oaths.......................................1044, 1055-1056, 1073-1078
  Obscenity, pornography.................................1033, 1149-1163
  Organizations, members, conflicts between....................1064-1066
  Overbreadth..................................................1050-1051
  Patronage systems............................................1062-1063
  Permit systems.........................................1030, 1167-1168
  Picketing....................................................1173-1179
  Political campaigns, contributions, expenditures............1063-1064, 
                                                               1094-1101
  Political candidates, loyalty oaths...............................1074
  Political parties, associational rights.....................1063, 1063
  Preferred position...........................................1048-1050
  Prior restraint..............................................1029-1031
  Privacy, protection of as First Amendment problem............1145-1147
  Private places, public attributes............................1171-1173
  Private employment, restrictions on...............................1072
  Profane and abusive language.................................1133-1134
  Public employees, expression rights..........................1081-1090
  Public employees, political activities.......................1081-1084
  Public forum, public places..................................1164-1171
  Radio and television.........................................1123-1126
  Residential picketing.............................................1176
  Right-privilege distinction............................1051, 1084-1085
  Sedition, seditious libel....................................1131-1133
  Sound trucks.................................................1181-1182
  Speech-conduct distinction........................................1050
  Students.....................................................1090-1094
  Symbolic speech..............................................1183-1187
  Syndicalism laws..........................1038- 1039, 1052, 1067, 1132
  Taxation.....................................................1119-1121
  Tax exemptions, denial for speech.................................1073
  Vagueness.........................................1050-1051, 1076-1077
  War effort, interference with.....................1036-1038, 1079-1080
Speedy trial, criminal cases...................................1400-1403
Spending for general welfare.....................................153-159
Standing to contest discriminatory jury selection...................1855
Standing to sue in federal courts................................654-670
Stare decisis, doctrine of in courts.............................711-712
State action, Fourteenth, Fifteenth Amendments:
  Basis of doctrine......................................1786-1787, 1944
  Congressional enforcement, whether limited by.....1929-1933, 1944-1946
  Courts, enforcement of private discrimination................1790-1792
  Discriminatory custom, official enforcement.......................1790
  Lessee of property in public building.............................1794
  Private clubs, liquor licenses....................................1795
  Private discrimination, encouragement by official action.....1792-1793
  Public function...................................................1797
  Public requirement of private discrimination, action..............1795
  Repeal of antidiscrimination laws, erection of barriers to 
   public,
    prevention of discrimination...............................1792-1793
  State laws, actions contrary to..............................1786-1787
  Tax privileges, public funds, discrimination by recipients...1799-1800
States:
  Admiralty, maritime matters, state legislation.................737-743
  
[[Page 2440]]

  Admission of to Union..........................................881-886
  Agreements with other States..............................360, 403-407
  Bills of attainder, not to pass................................361-362
  Bills of credit, not to emit...................................360-361
  Boundary disputes between, suits...............................752-753
  Citizens of.......................................................1566
  Compact clause.................................................403-407
  Contracts, not to impair obligations...........................366-398
  Disputes over water rights between.............................753-755
  Electors, presidential, power to control.......................429-433
  Employees, federal labor laws applied to............166, 194, 921-930, 
                                                               1514-1516
  Equal footing, admission on terms of...........................881-885
  Ex post facto laws, not to pass................................362-365
  Immunity from federal taxation.....................1415-149, 1510-1511
  Immunity from suit...........................................1521-1545
  Imposts, not to lay................................................399
  Instrumentalities, activities, federal regulation, taxation 
                                                               1514-1518
  Legislatures, apportionment, districting.....................1902-1911
  Officers of:
    Federal laws, duty to enforce................................944-948
    Injunctions, restraint of enforcement of invalid laws.......801-802, 
                                                      804-809, 1537-1544
    Political activities of, federal restraints on....156-157, 1081-1084
    Salaries, federal taxation.................................1510-1511
  Reserved powers..............................................1509-1518
  Tonnage duties, limitations........................................402
  Treaties, alliances, confederations................................360
Statutes of limitations, due process constraints...............1699-1700
Sterilization, compulsory.....................................1813, 1839
Stop and frisk.................................................1229-1234
Strict scrutiny........................1081, 1118, 1161, 1186, 1809-1814
Suffrage, as fundamental right...........................1813, 1892-1911
Sunday closing laws.......................................999-1000, 1012
Supermajority requirements in referenda.............................1911
Supremacy Clause.................................................917-942
Supreme Court of the United States:
  Adequate state ground, preclusion of review of state court 
   decisions.....................................................724-726
  Advisory opinions not rendered.........599, 600, 620-623, 649, 671-673
  Appeal, certiorari.............................................723-724
  Appellate jurisdiction, congressional exceptions...............779-792
  Concurrent jurisdiction with lower federal courts..............792-794
  Disobedience of orders by state courts.........................794-795
  Finality rule, review..........................................723-724
  Impeachment of Justices of.....................................583-591
  Legislative courts, appellate jurisdiction over....................606
  Original jurisdiction of.....................726-728, 752-757, 776-779
  Rule making authority...............................................76
  Size, internal organization, sessions..........................598-599
  State court decisions, review of...............................723-727
  Supervisory power over lower federal courts....625, 626-627, 631, 633, 
                                                               1262-1263
Suspect classifications........................................1809-1814

                                    T

Taking of property by government...............................1369-1395

[[Page 2441]]

Tariffs.  See Taxation, federal.
Tax benefits, suits to compel withdrawal..............656-657, 1799-1800
Tax records, privacy interests................................1247, 1307
Taxation, federal:
  Capital gains, computing income tax on.......................1960-1961
  Corporate dividends, when taxable............................1955-1958
  Corporate earnings, when taxable.............................1958-1960
  Customs, import duties.........................................152-153
  Deductions, exemptions.......................................1962-1963
  Destruction by.................................................151-152
  Direct, apportionment, defined......................352-356, 1953-1954
  Discriminatory, due process..................................1361-1363
  District of Columbia...........................................355-356
  Due process..................................................1361-1363
  Excises, defined, uniformity...................................352-353
  Exports from States............................................356-357
  Federal judges, salaries, subject to......................144-145, 600
  Gift........................................................1362, 1364
  Graduated income.............................................354, 1362
  Illegal income....................................................1962
  Income..............................................352-355, 1953-1964
  Inheritance....................................................354-355
  Punishment of state law violations by.............................1514
  Regulation by..................................................150-151
  Retroactive..................................................1363-1364
  State instrumentalities, activities, income of...............1514-1518
  State officers, salaries................................145, 1510-1511
  Tariffs......................................77, 152-153, 198, 496-497
  Uniformity................................................144, 352-356
Taxation, state:
  Airplanes, fuel....................................................230
  Assessments, notice and hearing...................1641-1642, 1660-1662
  Burden, excessive............................................1638-1639
  Carriage of persons, interstate commerce......................212, 221
  Chain stores, graduated...............................1655, 1822, 1823
  Collection of................................................1662-1664
  Competing taxpayers, differential treatment.......................1823
  Congress, legislation on state taxation of interstate commerce 
                                                            216-220, 230
  Contacts test......................................................223
  Corporations, foreign, domestic, different tax treatment..........876, 
                                                               1824-1825
  Corporations, foreign, engaged in interstate commerce.........221-223, 
                                                      228-231, 1656-1657
  Corporations, individuals, differential tax treatment........1823-1824
  Corporations, personalty.....................................1649-1650
  Corporations, stock, when taxable.................................1655
  Estate and inheritance.......................................1639-1640
  Exemptions, revocation................................372-374, 385-388
  Exports...............................................240-242, 398-401
  Favoritism of certain industries..................................1823
  Federal employees, salary......................................936-937
  Forfeiture of land for taxes......................................1663
  Franchise.........................................................1640
  Franchise, corporation, interstate commerce...........222-223, 228-229
  Freight, transported interstate...........................213, 221-223
  
[[Page 2442]]

  Garbage, trash as commerce....................................215, 233
  Gift.........................................................1639-1640
  Gross receipts, companies in interstate commerce..........221-223, 229
  Imports, foreign, domestic.....................................392-401
  Income............................................................1640
  Income, nonresidents.........................................876, 1825
  Income, source outside taxing State...............................1825
  Income, where earned..............................................1640
  Inheritance, estate, gift, transfer..........................1650-1654
  Instrumentalities of Federal Government........................932-945
  Insurance.....................................218-219, 1657-1659, 1822
  Interest on unpaid taxes..........................................1663
  Interstate and foreign commerce................................209-242
    Dormant commerce clause doctrine.............................209-220
    Apportionment, interstate business............223, 228-229, 231-232, 
                                                               1550-1552
    Congressional authorization..................................216-220
    Discrimination, impermissible.................222, 223, 229, 232-233
    Nexus requirement............................................229-230
    State proprietary exception......................................216
  Jurisdiction to tax..........................................1642-1659
  Laches.......................................................1665-1666
  Land, taxes on...............................................1641-1642
  Liens for taxes...................................................1663
  Motor vehicles................................223, 230, 232, 1826-1827
  Multiple taxation test...............................223, 229, 231-232
  Notice and hearing, when required............................1659-1662
  Peddlers, drummers, imports...................................214, 216
  Personality, tangible, intangible............................1643-1650
  Privilege, corporation, measure..............................1654-1655
  Privilege taxes on importers.......................................400
  Property, assessments, equal protection...........................1828
  Property, distinction among kinds............................1827-1828
  Public purpose in taxation........................................1638
  Real property................................................1641-1642
  Remedies, contest taxes, limits...................................1665
  Retroactive.......................................................1639
  Sales...................................................230, 232, 1823
  Severance.........................................................1640
  Solicitation of out-of-state orders............................228-231
  Special assessments..........................................1828-1829
  Suits to restrain collection.......................................801
  Transfer.....................................................1650-1654
  Vessels, ferries, operated interstate..........................210-213
Taxing and spending power.................144-159, 1532, 1984, 1112-1113
Teachers, First Amendment rights..............1037, 1076-1078, 1084-1085
Televising of criminal trials.......................................1405
Television.  See Broadcasting.
Territories:
  Acquisition of by conquest, provision for..........................454
  Constitutional guarantees in.......................................888
  Congress, powers as to.........................................888-891
  Courts of........................................604-605, 608, 890-891
  
[[Page 2443]]

  Diversity of citizenship, suits in federal courts..................763
Textbooks:
  Loans to religious school students............................978, 985
  Loans to segregated private schools...............................1801
Three-judge federal courts...........................................803
Titles of nobility...................................................359
Tonnage duties, States not to lay....................................402
Topless dancing..........................................1162-1163, 1983
Trademarks and advertisements, patents or copyrights.................302
Trade names, restraint on use.......................................1116
Trade secrets, state protection......................................301
Trading stamps, regulation, bar...............................1618, 1835
Transcripts, criminal trials, indigents.............................1919
Transportation, racial discrimination in, banned.........207, 1593, 1859
Travel, international, right of................................420, 1071
Travel, interstate, burdening, forbidding.....236, 1813, 1893, 1912-1914
Treason, definition, evidentiary requirements, penalty......586, 821-828
Treaties (see also Executive agreements; National supremacy; 
 Native Americans; President, powers):
  Aliens, rights derived from....................................472-474
  Congress, implementation, when required...................472, 474-477
  Congressional legislation concerning......................340, 480-482
  Constitutional limitations on power............................482-487
  Executive monopoly of negotiation..................................470
  Implementation, repeal, termination by Congress.......471-582, 487-491
  Interpretation, political question..........491, 688, 690-691, 696-697
  Law of the land, effect on state laws..........................472-474
  Self-executing, when......................................471, 479-480
  States not to enter into...........................................391
  Statutes, federal, conflict....................................478-479
  Termination, lapse, how, by whom...............................487-491
Treatment, right of mentally ill to............................1690-1692

                                    U

Unconstitutional conditions.............................1034, 1073, 1725
United States:
  Immunity from suit, waiver.....................................746-748
  Instrumentalities, corporations, immunity from suit............748-751
  Liability for torts of employees...............................747-748
  Officers of, state taxation, regulation........................936-937
  Property of, ceded by States, powers, conditions...............888-890
  Property of, disposition, congressional authorization..........880-890
  Property of, jurisdiction over, limits, duration...............337-339
  Property of, residents on, rights........................337-338, 1894
Utilities, advertising, regulation..................................1116
Utility service cutoffs, due process..........................1729, 1796

                                    V

Vagrancy laws, vagueness, validity.............................1748-1749
Vagueness in statutes..............................1050, 1055, 1747-1749
Venue, change of, criminal trials...................................1414
Vessels:
  Interstate commerce................................................172
  
[[Page 2444]]

  Navigable waters, State licensing, regulation......................226
  Taxation, State jurisdiction......................................1644
Veto.  See President, powers.
Vietnam War, litigation over in Federal courts..............310-311, 779
Voter qualifications:
  Age..............................................1892, 1935-1936, 1995
  Durational residency..............................1893-1894, 1935-1936
  Literacy...................................1892, 1934, 1942, 1946-1948
  Military service, discrimination based on.........................1894
  Poll tax...............................................1894, 1989-1990
  Property holding.............................................1894-1896
  Race..........109, 118-119, 621, 1861, 1933-1936, 1939-1950, 1989-1990
  Residency....................................................1893-1894
  Residents of federal enclave.................................338, 1894
  Sex..........................................................1971-1972
Voting, paid time off work for, validity............................1588
Voting Rights Act..........109, 118-119, 621, 1861, 1933-1936, 1939-1950

                                    W

War (see also Delegation of power; International law; President; 
 Japanese-Americans, relocation):
  Constitutional rights in wartime...............................324-331
  Declaration of, by Congress....................................307-311
  Eminent domain, property destroyed, liability..................329-330
  Legislation during, following..................................319-322
  Powers as to, source, scope....................................305-307
  President versus Congress....................305-307, 447-453, 570-572
  Prizes of war, laws applicable.....................................326
Water, state conservation laws............................219, 235, 1626
Waterways, transportation, commerce..............................170-175
Welfare assistance, status as property...................1726, 1735-1736
Wheat, production of for own consumption, federal regulation........164, 
                                                                 195-196
White primary cases..........................1794, 1797, 1941-1942, 1945
Wiretapping....................................................1250-1257
Women.  See Sex, classification on basis of.
Workmen's compensation laws.  See Labor-management relations.
Wrongful death actions, maritime accidents.......................742-743

                                    Y

``Yellow-dog'' contracts.......................................191, 1591

                                    Z

Zoning:
  Adult theatres, bookstores........................................1161
  Restrictions on property generally...........................1628-1632
  Takings, claims of...........................................1384-1395