List of Interviews

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The following is a list of individuals who were interviewed by Commission Staff or members of the Commission. Affiliations listed reflect the individual's primary association with the Intelligence Community as of the date of the interview. The list does not include the numerous briefings provided to members of the Commission and Commission Staff by various U.S. Government officials both in the United States and abroad.

Kenneth Michael Absher, former Central Intelligence Agency official

Gordon Adams, Associate Director, National Security & International Affairs, Office of Management & Budget

Madeleine Albright, Ambassador to the United Nations

Dr. John Alger, Dean, School of Information Warfare and Strategy, National Defense University

Joseph Amato, former National Security Agency official

Duane P. Andrews, Vice President, SAIC; former Assistant Secretary of Defense, C 3I

Minoru Sam Araki, President, Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space Company, Inc., Lockheed Martin

Bernard Aronson, former Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs

Allen B. Ashby, Business Development Director, Boeing Space Systems

Norm Augustine, CEO, Lockheed Martin

Charles Battaglia, Staff Director, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

Frederick Berghoff, Chairman, National SIGINT Committee

Richard A. Best, Analyst in National Defense, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

Richard K. Betts, Professor, Columbia University

James Blaker, Special Assistant to the Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

James W. Boginis, Vice President, Management & Data Systems, Washington Special Projects Office, Lockheed Martin

Nancy Bone, Director, National Photographic Interpretation Center

James V. Boone, Vice President, TRW Corporation

Adm. Jeremy Boorda, USN, Chief of Naval Operations

L. Paul Bremer, III, former Ambassador and State Department official

Kenneth Brody, President & Chairman, Export-Import Bank

Rear Adm. Thomas A. Brooks, USN (Ret.), Vice President, AT&T Corporation

Robert Bryant, Assistant Director, National Security Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation

Jon H. Bryson, Vice President, National Systems Group, Aerospace Corporation

Greg Burns, Senior Program Manager, Interactive Television, Microsoft Corporation

George Bush, former President of the United States

Albert Carnesale, Provost and Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

Vice Adm. Arthur K. Cebrowski, USN, Director for Command, Control, Communications & Computer Systems (J-6), The Joint Staff

George G. Chadwick, CEO, Deskin Research Group

Richard Cheney, former Secretary of Defense

A. R. Cinquegrana, Deputy Inspector General for Investigations, Central Intelligence Agency

Richard A. Clarke, Special Assistant to President for Global Issues, National Security Council Staff

Duane Clarridge, former Central Intelligence Agency official

Eileen Claussen, Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Global & Environmental Affairs, National Security Council Staff

Tyrus W. Cobb, President & CEO, Business Executives for National Security

Vance Coffman, President & COO, Space & Strategic Missiles Sector, Lockheed Martin

Charles Cogan, former Central Intelligence Agency official

William E. Colby, former Director of Central Intelligence

Raymond Colloday, Vice President, Business Development & Advanced Programs, Lockheed Martin

Frank Conahan, Special Assistant to Comptroller General for National Security & International Affairs, General Accounting Office

Larry Cox, Vice President, Washington Operations, David Sarnoff Research Center

Rear Adm. Michael W. Cramer, USN, Director of Naval Intelligence

Lt. Gen. Donald Cromer, USAF (Ret.), President, Hughes Space and Communications Company

William Crowell, Deputy Director, National Security Agency

Charles Curtis, Under Secretary of Energy

W. Bowman Cutter, Deputy Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, National Economic Council

Brian Dailey, Vice President, Business Development/Washington Operations, Space & Strategic Missiles Sector, Lockheed Martin

Paul Daly, Assistant Administrator for Intelligence, Drug Enforcement Administration

Dennis Deconcini, former Senator and Chairman, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

Joan Dempsey, Director, National Military Intelligence Production Center, Defense Intelligence Agency

Jack Devine, Associate Deputy Director for Operations, Central Intelligence Agency

John P. Devine, former Deputy Director for Technology & Systems, National Security Agency

Arnold Donahue, former Chief, Intelligence Branch, Office of Management and Budget

Peggy H. Donnelly, Director, Agency Information Staff, Central Intelligence Agency

Darwin R. Drewyer, III, former Director of Personnel, Central Intelligence Agency

McClellan (Guy) DuBois, Director, Operations and Tasking Directorate, Central Imagery Office

Lawrence Eagleburger, former Secretary of State

Lt. Gen. Albert J. Edmonds, USAF, Director, Defense Information Systems Agency

Dawn R. Eilenburger, Director, Equal Employment Opportunity Office, Central Intelligence Agency

Fritz Ermarth, former Chairman, National Intelligence Council

Lt. Gen. Howell Estes, III, USAF, Director of Operations (J-3), The Joint Staff

Martin Faga, Senior Vice President, MITRE Corporation; former Director, National Reconnaissance Office

Lt. Gen. Lincoln D. Faurer, USAF (Ret.), former Director, National Security Agency

Gen. Ronald Fogleman, USAF, Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force

Gary Foster, former Deputy Director for Planning and Coordination, Central Intelligence Agency

Robert Gallager, Office of Intelligence Liaison, Department of Commerce

Robert L. Gallucci, Ambassador-at-Large

Robert M. Gates, former Director of Central Intelligence

Toby T. Gati, Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence & Research

Robert Gelbard, Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics & Law Enforcement Affairs

Richard Genet, Program Director, Imagery & Information Systems, GDE Systems

Regina Genton, Director for Intelligence Programs, National Security Council Staff

Clair George, former Deputy Director for Operations, Central Intelligence Agency

Roy Godson, Professor, Georgetown University

Daniel Goldin, Director, National Aeronautics & Space Administration

Allan E. Goodman, Professor, Georgetown University

Gary W. Goodrich, Associate Deputy Director for Science & Technology, Central Intelligence Agency

Jamie Gorelick, Deputy Attorney General of the United States

Art Grant, staff member, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

Capt. William Gravell, USN, Chief of Information Warfare, (J6), The Joint Staff

David Gries, former Central Intelligence Agency official

Richard Haass, former Senior Director for Near East and South Asian Affairs, National Security Council Staff

Keith R. Hall, Executive Director, Intelligence Community Affairs; former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Intelligence & Security)

Morton H. Halperin, Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Democracy, National Security Council Staff

John Harney, former Assistant Director for Policy and Liaison, National Security Agency

Jeffrey K. Harris, Director, National Reconnaissance Office & Assistant Secretary of Air Force for Space

Richard L. Haver, Executive Director, Intelligence Community Affairs

Charles Hawkins, former Assistant to Secretary of Defense for Intelligence Oversight

Leo Hazlewood, Executive Director, Central Intelligence Agency

Donald J. Healey, former Central Intelligence Agency official

Terry Heil, Senior Vice President, E-Systems Corporation

Richard M. Helms, former Director of Central Intelligence

Jan P. Herring, The Futures Group

Philip B. Heymann, Professor of Criminal Law, Harvard Law School and former U.S. Deputy Attorney General

Michael Higgins, Technical Director, SAIC

Jimmie Hill, Deputy Director, National Reconnaissance Office

James Hirsch, former Deputy Director for Science & Technology, Central Intelligence Agency

Frederick P. Hitz, Inspector General, Central Intelligence Agency

Col. Douglas Hotard, USAF, Director, Information Warfare, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for C 3I

Maj. Gen. Patrick M. Hughes, USA, Director for Intelligence (J-2), The Joint Staff

Samuel P. Huntington, Professor, Harvard University

William Hyland, former Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

Karl F. Inderfurth, U.S. Delegation to the United Nations

Adm. Bob R. Inman, USN (Ret.), former Deputy Director of Central Intelligence; former Director, National Security Agency

Rear Adm. Lowell Jacoby, USN, Director for Intelligence (J-2), U.S. Pacific Command

Walter Jajko, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Intelligence Oversight

Robert Jervis, Professor, Columbia University

Frederick M. Kaiser, Specialist in American National Government, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

Joseph Kammerer, Director for Planning, National Security & International Affairs Division, General Accounting Office

Ambassador Mickey Kantor, United States Trade Representative

Barry Kelly, former Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Intelligence Programs, National Security Council Staff

Richard J. Kerr, former Deputy Director of Central Intelligence

Robert Kimmitt, former Under Secretary of State for Policy and former Ambassador

Ken Kobayashi, General Manager, Systems Applications, Hughes Space and Communications Company

Ken Kodama, staff member, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Dr. Annette Krygiel, Director, Central Imagery Office

Ellen Laipson, Director for Near East & South Asian Affairs, National Security Council Staff

Melvin Laird, former Secretary of Defense

John Larabee, Director, International and Commercial Affairs/OSA, National Reconnaissance Office

Donald Latham, Vice President, Loral Corporation; former Assistant Secretary of Defense, C 3I

Maj. Gen. Jack Leide, USA, Director, National Military Intelligence Collection Center, Defense Intelligence Agency

Edward Levine, staff member, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

Winston Lord, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs

Mark Lowenthal, Staff Director, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Brad Lucas, Deputy Director, Operations and Tasking Directorate, Central Imagery Office

John Lueders, Principal, Booz Allen & Hamilton, Inc.

Peter A. Marino, Senior Vice President, E-Systems Corporation

Henry Marsden, Acting Deputy Director for Supply Reduction, Office of National Drug Control Policy

David Martin, Reporter, CBS News

Ernest R. May, Professor, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

Kirk McConnell, staff member, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Tidal W. McCoy, Vice President for Government Relations, Thiokol Corporation

J. Kenneth McDonald, former Chief, History Staff, Central Intelligence Agency

Lt. Gen. Paul E. Menoher, USA, Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, U.S. Army

Maj. Gen. Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF, Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, U.S. Air Force

John N. Moore, Professor, University of Virginia

Gen. Thomas Moorman, USAF, Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force

L. A. Motley, former Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs and former Ambassador

Senator Daniel P. Moynihan, United States Senator

Dennis Nagy, Director, C 4I Integration Support Activity, Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense C 3I

William A. Nitze, Assistant Administrator for International Activities, Environmental Protection Agency

Edmund Nowinski, Director, Imagery Systems Acquisition and Operations Directorate, National Reconnaissance Office

Maj. Gen. Philip Nuber, USAF, Director, Defense Mapping Agency

Dr. Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Assistant Secretary of Defense, International Security Affairs; former Chairman, National Intelligence Council

Robert Oakley, former Ambassador and State Department official

Lt. Gen. William Odom, USA (Ret.), former Director, National Security Agency

Anthony Oettinger, Professor, Harvard University

Lionel Olmer, former Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade

Michael J. O'Neil, Chief of Staff, Central Intelligence Agency

Marvin Ott, Professor, National Defense University

Gardner Peckham, Foreign Policy & National Security Affairs Advisor to Speaker of the House of Representatives

Edwin J. Pechous, retired senior government official (CIA)

Walter Pforzheimer, former Legislative Counsel, Central Intelligence Agency

Richard Pipes, Professor, Harvard University

Kevin Powers, Deputy General Counsel, National Security Agency

Hugh E. Price, former Deputy Director for Operations, Central Intelligence Agency

Anthony Quainton, Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security

Harry Howe Ransom, Professor, Vanderbilt University

Paul J. Redmond, Assistant Deputy Director for Operations/CI, Central Intelligence Agency

Condoleeza Rice, former Special Assistant to the President & Director for Soviet & East European Affairs, National Security Council Staff

Elizabeth R. Rindskopf, former General Counsel, Central Intelligence Agency

Alice Rivlin, Director, Office of Management and Budget

Stephen Robinson, Deputy General Counsel, Federal Bureau of Investigation

Rita Rodriguez, Director, Export-Import Bank

Lt. Gen. Ervin Rokke, USAF, President, National Defense University

Michael L. Romey, Special Assistant to the Secretary (National Security) Department of the Treasury

Steven P. Rosen, Professor, Harvard University

Maj. Gen. Robert A. Rosenberg, USAF (Ret.), Executive Vice President, SAIC

Nicholas Rostow, former Legal Advisor, National Security Council

Harvey M. Sapolsky, Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Steven Schanzer, Director, Intelligence Systems Secretariat, Community Management Staff

Michael P. Schulhof, President & CEO, Sony Corporation of America

Lt. Gen. Brent Scowcroft, USAF (Ret.), former Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

Rear Adm. Sumner Shapiro, USN (Ret.), former Director of Naval Intelligence

Rear Adm. Edward Sheafer, USN (Ret.), former Director of Naval Intelligence; former Deputy Director, Defense Intelligence Agency

Brian Sheridan, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Drug Enforcement Policy & Support

Abram Shulsky, RAND Corporation

Walter Slocombe, Under Secretary of Defense for Policy

Albert Smith, President, Space Division, Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space Company, Inc., Lockheed Martin

David A. Spetrino, Intelligence Liaison to the U.S. Trade Representative

Gen. B. E. Spivy, USA (Ret.), former Director, Strategic Plans & Policy (J-5),
The Joint Staff

Richard Stolz, former Deputy Director for Operations, Central Intelligence Agency

Wayne Strand, Deputy Director, Imagery Systems Acquisition and Operations Directorate, National Reconnaissance Office

Chris Straub, staff member, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

Dr. Terry A. Streaeter, President, GDE Systems, Inc.

Adm. William O. Studeman, USN, Acting Director of Central Intelligence and Deputy Director of Central Intelligence; former Director, National Security Agency

Mary Sturtevant, staff member, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

Gen. Gordon R. Sullivan, USA (Ret.), former Chief of Staff of the Army

Peter Tarnoff, Under Secretary of State for Policy

George J. Tenet, Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Intelligence Programs, National Security Council Staff

Eric Thoemmes, staff member, Senate Armed Services Committee

Maj. Gen. Jack E. Thomas, USAF (Ret.), Consultant on Intelligence to the Office of the Secretary of Defense

Alvin Toffler, Author

Amy Tozzi, Senior Training Officer, Central Intelligence Agency

Lt. Gen. Bernard E. Trainor, USMC (Ret.), Director of National Security Executive Programs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

Gregory F. Treverton, former Vice Chairman, National Intelligence Council

Adm. Stansfield Turner, USN (Ret.), former Director of Central Intelligence

Lt. Gen. Paul K. Van Riper, USMC, former Assistant Chief of Staff, Command, Control, Communications, Computer and Intelligence; Director of Intelligence, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps

Maj. Gen. Don Walker, USAF, Director, Space Systems Acquisition and Operations Directorate, National Reconnaissance Office

Richard B. Wallace, Deputy Director, Center for Information Strategy & Policy, SAIC

Judge William H. Webster, former Director of Central Intelligence; former Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation

H. Bradford Westerfield, Professor, Yale University

Jon Wiant, Chief, National HUMINT Requirements Tasking Center

Rear Adm. Thomas A. Wilson, USN, Vice Director for Intelligence (J-2), The Joint Staff

Donald C. Winter, Vice President, Space & Electronics, TRW

Ira Wolf, former Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Japan and China

Bob Woodward, The Washington Post

R. James Woolsey, former Director of Central Intelligence

William Working, Chief of Staff, Central Imagery Office

Leneice N. Wu, Coordinator of Division Research, Foreign Affairs & National Defense Division, Library of Congress

Eugene F. Yeates, Senior Vice President, SAIC;former Executive Director, President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board

Milton Zaslow, former Deputy Director for Telecommunications & Computer Services, National Security Agency

Philip Zelikow, former Director for European Affairs, National Security Council Staff

Robert Zoellick, former Department of State and Department of Treasury official