[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual] [Chapter 3 - Capitalization rules ] [From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov] [[Page 23]] 3. CAPITALIZATION RULES (See also ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols'' and ``Capitalization Examples'') 3.1. It is impossible to give rules that will cover every conceivable problem in capitalization; but by considering the purpose to be served and the underlying principles, it is possible to attain a considerable degree of uniformity. The list of approved forms given in chapter 4 will serve as a guide. Obviously such a list cannot be complete. The correct usage with respect to any term not included can be determined by analogy or by application of the rules. Proper names 3.2. Proper names are capitalized. Rome Brussels John Macadam Macadam family Italy Anglo-Saxon Derivatives of proper names 3.3. Derivatives of proper names used with a proper meaning are capitalized. Roman (of Rome) Johannean Italian 3.4. Derivatives of proper names used with acquired independent common meaning, or no longer identified with such names, are set lowercased. Since this depends upon general and long-continued usage, a more definite and all-inclusive rule cannot be formulated in advance. roman (type) brussels sprouts venetian blinds macadam (crushed rock) watt (electric unit) plaster of paris italicize anglicize pasteurize Common nouns and adjectives in proper names 3.5. A common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a proper name is capitalized; the common noun used alone as a substitute for the name of a place or thing is not capitalized. Massachusetts Avenue; the avenue Washington Monument; the monument Statue of Liberty; the statue Hoover Dam; the dam Boston Light; the light Modoc National Forest; the national forest Panama Canal; the canal Soldiers' Home of Ohio; the soldiers' home Johnson House (hotel); Johnson house (residence) Crow Reservation; the reservation [[Page 24]] Federal Express; the express Cape of Good Hope; the cape Jersey City Washington City but city of Washington; the city Cook County; the county Great Lakes; the lakes Lake of the Woods; the lake North Platte River; the river Lower California but lower Mississippi Charles the First; Charles I Seventeenth Census; the 1960 census 3.6. If a common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a name becomes separated from the rest of the name by an intervening common noun or adjective, the entire expression is no longer a proper noun and is therefore not capitalized. Union Station: union passenger station Eastern States: eastern farming States United States popularly elected government 3.7. A common noun used alone as a well-known short form of a specific proper name is capitalized. the Capitol building in Washington, DC; but State capitol building the Channel (English Channel) the Chunnel (tunnel below English Channel) the District (District of Columbia) the Soldiers' and Airmen's Home (District of Columbia only) 3.8. The plural form of a common noun capitalized as part of a proper name is also capitalized. Seventh and I Streets Lakes Erie and Ontario Potomac and James Rivers State and Treasury Departments British, French, and United States Governments Presidents Washington and Adams 3.9. A common noun used with a date, number, or letter, merely to denote time or sequence, or for the purpose of reference, record, or temporary convenience, does not form a proper name and is therefore not capitalized. (See also rule 3.38.) abstract B act of 1928 amendment 5 apartment 2 appendix C article 1 book II chapter III chart B class I collection 6 column 2 drawing 6 exhibit D figure 7 first district (not congressional) flight 007 graph 8 group 7 history 301 mile 7.5 page 2 paragraph 4 part I phase 3 plate IV region 3 room A722 rule 8 schedule K section 3 signature 4 spring 1926 station 27 table 4 title IV treaty of 1919 volume X war of 1914 ward 2 [[Page 25]] 3.10. The following terms are lowercased, even with a name or number. aqueduct breakwater buoy chute dike dock drydock irrigation project jetty levee lock pier reclamation project ship canal shipway slip spillway turnpike watershed weir wharf Definite article in proper place names 3.11. To achieve greater distinction or to adhere to the authorized form, the word the (or its equivalent in a foreign language) is capitalized when used as a part of an official name or title. When such name or title is used adjectively, the is not capitalized, nor is the supplied at any time when not in copy. British Consul v. The Mermaid (title of legal case) The Dalles (OR); The Weirs (NH); but the Dalles region; the Weirs streets The Hague; but the Hague Court; the Second Hague Conference El Salvador; Las Cruces; L'Esterel The National Mall; The Mall (Washington, DC only) The Gambia but the Congo, the Sudan, the Netherlands 3.12. In common practice, rule 3.11 is disregarded in references to newspapers, periodicals, vessels, airships, trains, firm names, etc. the Washington Post the Times the Atlantic Monthly the Mermaid the U-3 the Los Angeles the Federal Express the National Photo Co. Particles in names of persons 3.13. In foreign names such particles as d', da, de, della, den, du, van, and von are capitalized unless preceded by a forename or title. Individual usage, if ascertainable, should be followed. Da Ponte; Cardinal da Ponte Den Uyl; Johannes den Uyl; Prime Minister den Uyl Du Pont; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Van Rensselaer; Stephen van Rensselaer Von Braun; Wernher von Braun but d'Orbigny; Alcide d'Orbigny; de la Madrid; Miguel de la Madrid 3.14. In anglicized names such particles are usually capitalized, even if preceded by a forename or title, but individual usage, if ascertainable, should be followed. Justice Van Devanter; Reginald De Koven Thomas De Quincey; William De Morgan Henry van Dyke (his usage) Samuel F. Du Pont (his usage); Irenee du Pont 3.15. If copy is not clear as to the form of such a name (for example, La Forge or Laforge), the two-word form should be used. De Kalb County (AL, GA, IL, IN) but DeKalb County (TN) [[Page 26]] 3.16. In names set in capitals, de, von, etc., are also capitalized. Names of organized bodies 3.17. The full names of existing or proposed organized bodies and their shortened names are capitalized; other substitutes, which are most often regarded as common nouns, are capitalized only in certain specified instances to indicate preeminence or distinction. National governmental units: U.S. Congress: 106th Congress; the Congress; Congress; the Senate; the House; Committee of the Whole, the Committee; but committee (all other congressional committees) Department of Agriculture: the Department; Division of Publications, the Division; similarly all major departmental units; but legislative, executive, and judicial departments Bureau of the Census: the Census Bureau, the Bureau; but the agency Environmental Protection Agency: the Agency Geological Survey: the Survey Government Printing Office: the Printing Office, the Office American Embassy, British Embassy: the Embassy; but the consulate; the consulate general Treasury of the United States: General Treasury; National Treasury; Public Treasury; the Treasury; Treasury notes; New York Subtreasury, the subtreasury Department of Defense: Military Establishment; Armed Forces; All-Volunteer Forces; but armed services U.S. Army: the Army; All-Volunteer Army; the Infantry; 81st Regiment; Army Establishment; the Army Band; Army officer; Regular Army officer; Reserve officer; Volunteer officer; but army shoe; Grant's army; Robinson's brigade; the brigade; the corps; the regiment; infantryman U.S. Navy: the Navy; the Marine Corps; Navy (Naval) Establishment; Navy officer; but naval shipyard; naval officer; naval station U.S. Air Force: the Air Force U.S. Coast Guard: the Coast Guard French Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Ministry; French Army; British Navy International organizations: United Nations: the Council; the Assembly; the Secretariat Permanent Court of Arbitration: the Court; the Tribunal (only in the proceedings of a specific arbitration tribunal) Hague Peace Conference of 1907: the Hague Conference; the Peace Conference; the Conference Common-noun substitutes: Virginia Assembly: the assembly; the senate; the house of delegates California State Highway Commission: Highway Commission of California; the highway commission; the commission Montgomery County Board of Health: the Board of Health, Montgomery County; the board of health; the board Common Council of the City of Pittsburgh: the common council; the council Buffalo Consumers' League: the consumers' league; the league Republican Party: the party Southern Railroad Co.: the Southern Railroad; Southern Co.; Southern Road; the railroad company; the company Riggs National Bank: the Riggs Bank; the bank Metropolitan Club: the club Yale School of Law: Yale University School of Law; School of Law, Yale University; school of law 3.18. The names of members and adherents of organized bodies are capitalized to distinguish them from the same words used merely in a descriptive sense. [[Page 27]] a Representative (U.S.) a Republican an Elk a Federalist a Shriner a Socialist an Odd Fellow a Communist a Boy Scout a Knight (K.C., K.P., etc.) Names of countries, domains, and administrative divisions 3.19. The official designations of countries, national domains, and their principal administrative divisions are capitalized only if used as part of proper names, as proper names, or as proper adjectives. (See table on p. 228.) United States: the Republic; the Nation; the Union; the Government; also Federal, Federal Government; but republic (when not referring specifically to one such entity); republican (in general sense); a nation devoted to peace New York State: the State, a State (a definite political subdivision of first rank); State of Veracruz; Balkan States; six States of Australia; State rights; but state (referring to a federal government, the body politic); foreign states; church and state; statehood; state's evidence Territory (Canada): Yukon, Northwest Territories; the Territory(ies), Territorial; but territory of American Samoa, Guam, Virgin Islands Dominion of Canada: the Dominion; but dominion (in general sense) Ontario Province, Province of Ontario: the Province, Provincial; but province, provincial (in general sense) 3.20. The similar designations commonwealth, confederation (federal), government, nation (national), powers, republic, etc., are capitalized only if used as part of proper names, as proper names, or as proper adjectives. British Commonwealth, Commonwealth of Virginia: the Commonwealth; but a commonwealth government (general sense) Swiss Confederation: the Confederation; the Federal Council; the Federal Government; but confederation, federal (in general sense) French Government: the Government; French and Italian Governments: the Governments; but government (in general sense); the Churchill government; European governments Cherokee Nation: the nation; but Greek nation; American nations National Government (of any specific nation); but national customs Allied Powers, Allies (in World Wars I and II); but our allies, weaker allies; Central Powers (in World War I); but the powers; European powers Republic of South Africa: the Republic; but republic (in general sense) Names of regions, localities, and geographic features 3.21. A descriptive term used to denote a definite region, locality, or geographic feature is a proper name and is therefore capitalized; also for temporary distinction a coined name of a region is capitalized. the North Atlantic States the Gulf States the Central States the Pacific Coast States the Lake States East North Central States Eastern North Central States Far Western States Eastern United States the West the Midwest the Middle West the Far West the Eastern Shore (Chesapeake Bay) the Badlands (SD and NE) the Continental Divide Deep South Midsouth the Far East Far Eastern the East Middle East Middle Eastern Mideast Mideastern (Asia) [[Page 28]] Near East (Balkans, etc.) the Promised Land the Continent (continental Europe) the Western Hemisphere the North Pole the North and South Poles the Temperate Zone the Torrid Zone the East Side Lower East Side (sections of a city) Western Europe, Central Europe (political entities) but lower 48 (States) the Northeast corridor 3.22. A descriptive term used to denote mere direction or position is not a proper name and is therefore not capitalized. north; south; east; west northerly; northern; northward eastern; oriental; occidental east Pennsylvania southern California northern Virginia west Florida; but West Florida (1763-1819) eastern region; western region north-central region east coast; eastern seaboard northern Italy southern France but East Germany; West Germany (former political entities) Names of calendar divisions 3.23. The names of calendar divisions are capitalized. January; February; March; etc. Monday; Tuesday; Wednesday; etc. but spring; summer; autumn (fall); winter Names of historic events, etc. 3.24. The names of holidays, ecclesiastic feast and fast days, and historic events are capitalized. Battle of Bunker Hill Christian Era; Middle Ages Feast of the Passover; the Passover Fourth of July; the Fourth Ramadan Reformation Renaissance Veterans Day War of 1812; World War II but war of 1914; Korean war; Vietnam war; gulf war Trade names 3.25. Trade names, variety names, and names of market grades and brands are capitalized. Common nouns following such names are not capitalized. Snow Crop (trade name) Choice lamb (market grade) Yellow Stained cotton (market grade) Red Radiance rose (variety) [[Page 29]] Scientific names 3.26. The name of a phylum, class, order, family, or genus is capitalized. The name of a species is not capitalized, even though derived from a proper name. (See rule 11.9.) Arthropoda (phylum), Crustacea (class), Hypoparia (order), Agnostidae (family), Agnostus (genus) Agnostus canadensis; Aconitum wilsoni; Epigaea repens (genus and species) 3.27. In scientific descriptions coined terms derived from proper names are not capitalized. aviculoid menodontine 3.28. Any plural formed by adding s to a Latin generic name is capitalized. Rhynchonellas Spirifers 3.29. In soil science the 24 soil classifications are capitalized. Alpine Meadow Bog Brown 3.30. Capitalize the names of the celestial bodies Sun and Moon, as well as the planets Earth, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. but the moons of Jupiter Appellations 3.31. An appellation of historical, political, etc., events used with or for a proper name is capitalized. Big Four Dust Bowl Fall of Rome Great Depression Great Society Holocaust Hub (Boston) Keystone State New Deal New Federalism New Frontier Prohibition Third World War on Poverty Personification 3.32. A vivid personification is capitalized. The Chair recognizes the gentlewoman from New York; but I spoke with the chair yesterday. For Nature wields her scepter mercilessly. All are architects of Fate, Working in these walls of Time. Religious terms 3.33. Words denoting the Deity except who, whose, and whom; names for the Bible and other sacred writings and their parts; names of confessions of faith and of religious bodies and their adherents; and words specifically denoting Satan are all capitalized. Heavenly Father; the Almighty; Lord; Thee; Thou; He; Him; but himself; [God's] fatherhood Mass; red Mass; Communion Divine Father; but divine providence; divine guidance; divine service Son of Man; Jesus' sonship; the Messiah; but a messiah; messiahship; messianic; messianize; christology; christological [[Page 30]] Bible, Holy Scriptures, Scriptures, Word; Koran; also Biblical; Scriptural; Koranic New Testament; Ten Commandments Gospel (memoir of Christ); but gospel truth Apostles' Creed; Augsburg Confession; Thirty-nine Articles Episcopal Church; an Episcopalian; Catholicism; a Protestant Christian; also Christendom; Christianity; Christianize Black Friars; Brother(s); King's Daughters; Daughter(s); Ursuline Sisters; Sister(s) Satan; the Devil; but a devil; the devils; devil's advocate Titles of persons 3.34. Civil, religious, military, and professional titles, as well as those of nobility, immediately preceding a name are capitalized. President Clinton King George Ambassador Acton Lieutenant Fowler Chairman Smith Dr. Bellinger Nurse Joyce Norton Professor Leverett Examiner Jones (law) Vice-Presidential candidate Kemp but baseball player Ripken; maintenance man Flow; group chief Collins 3.35. To indicate preeminence or distinction in certain specified instances, a common-noun title immediately following the name of a person or used alone as a substitute for it is capitalized. Title of a head or assistant head of state: William J. Clinton, President of the United States: the President; the President-elect; the Executive; the Chief Magistrate; the Commander in Chief; ex-President Bush; former President Truman; similarly the Vice President; the Vice-President-elect; ex-Vice-President Mondale James Gilmore, Governor of Virginia: the Governor of Virginia; the Governor; similarly the Lieutenant Governor; but secretary of state of Idaho; attorney general of Maine Title of a head or assistant head of an existing or a proposed National governmental unit: Madeleine Albright, Secretary of State: the Secretary; similarly the Acting Secretary; the Under Secretary; the Assistant Secretary; the Director; the Chief or Assistant Chief; the Chief Clerk; etc.; but Secretaries of the military departments; secretaryship Titles of the military: General of the Army(ies): United States only; Supreme Allied Commander; Gen. Henry H. Shelton, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff; Joint Chiefs of Staff; Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force; the Chief of Staff; but the commanding general; general (military title standing alone not capitalized) Titles of members of diplomatic corps: Walter S. Gifford, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: the American Ambassador; the British Ambassador; the Ambassador; the Senior Ambassador; His Excellency; similarly the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; the Envoy; the Minister; the Charge d'Affaires; the Charge; Ambassador at Large; Minister Without Portfolio; but the consul general; the consul; the attache; etc. Title of a ruler or prince: Elizabeth II, Queen of England: the Queen; the Crown; Her Most Gracious Majesty; Her Majesty; similarly the Emperor; the Sultan Charles, Prince of Wales: the Prince; His Royal Highness Titles not capitalized: Charles F. Hughes, rear admiral, U.S. Navy: the rear admiral Lloyd H. Elliott, president of George Washington University: the president C.H. Eckles, professor of dairy husbandry: the professor Betty Acton, chairwoman of the committee; the chairman; the chairperson; the chair [[Page 31]] 3.36. In formal lists of delegates and representatives of governments, all titles and descriptive designations immediately following the names should be capitalized if any one is capitalized. 3.37. A title in the second person is capitalized. Your Excellency Your Highness Your Honor Mr. Chairman Madam Chairman Mr. Secretary but not salutations: my dear General my dear sir Titles of publications, papers, documents, acts, laws, etc. 3.38. In the full or short English titles of periodicals, series of publications, annual reports, historic documents, and works of art, the first word and all important words are capitalized. Statutes at Large; Revised Statutes; District Code; Bancroft's History; Journal (House or Senate) (short titles); but the code; the statutes Atlantic Charter; Balfour Declaration; but British white paper Chicago's American; but Chicago American Publishing Co. Reader's Digest; but New York Times Magazine; Newsweek magazine Monograph 55; Research Paper 123; Bulletin 420; Circular A; Article 15: Uniform Code of Military Justice; Senate Document 70; House Resolution 45; Presidential Proclamation No. 24; Executive Order No. 24; Royal Decree No. 24; Public Law 89-1; Private and Union Calendars; Calendar No. 80; Calendar Wednesday; Committee Print No. 32, committee print; but Senate bill 416; House bill 61 Annual Report of the Public Printer, 1998; but seventh annual report, 19th annual report Declaration of Independence; the Declaration Constitution (United States or with name of country); constitutional; but New York State constitution: first amendment, 12th amendment Kellogg Pact; North Atlantic Pact; Atlantic Pact; Treaty of Versailles; Jay Treaty; but treaty of peace, the treaty (descriptive designations); treaty of 1919 United States v. Four Hundred Twenty-two Casks of Wine (law) The Blue Boy, Excalibur, Whistler's Mother (paintings) 3.39. All principal words are capitalized in titles of addresses, articles, books, captions, chapter and part headings, editorials, essays, headings, headlines, motion pictures and plays (including television and radio programs), papers, short poems, reports, songs, subheadings, subjects, and themes. The foregoing are also quoted. 3.40. In the short or popular titles of acts (Federal, State, or foreign) the first word and all important words are capitalized. Revenue Act; Walsh-Healey Act; Freedom of Information Act; Classification Act; but the act; Harrison narcotic law; Harrison narcotic bill; interstate commerce law; sunset law 3.41. The capitalization of the titles of books, etc., written in a foreign language is to conform to the national practice in that language. First words 3.42. The first word of a sentence, of an independent clause or phrase, of a direct quotation, of a formally introduced series of items or phrases following a comma or colon, or of a line of poetry, is capitalized. [[Page 32]] The question is, Shall the bill pass? He asked, ``And where are you going?'' The vote was as follows: In the affirmative, 23; in the negative, 11; not voting, 3. Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime. 3.43. The first word of a fragmentary quotation is not capitalized. She objected ``to the phraseology, not to the ideas.'' 3.44. The first word following a colon, an exclamation point, or a question mark is not capitalized if the matter following is merely a supplementary remark making the meaning clearer. Revolutions are not made: they come. Intelligence is not replaced by mechanism: even the televox must be guided by its master's voice. But two months dead! nay, not so much; not two. What is this? Your knees to me? to your corrected son? 3.45. The first word following Whereas in resolutions, contracts, etc., is not capitalized; the first word following an enacting or resolving clause is capitalized. Whereas the Constitution provides * * *; and Whereas Congress has passed a law * * *; Whereas, moreover, * * *: Therefore be it Whereas the Senate provided for the * * *: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That * * *; and be it further Resolved (jointly), That * * * Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), That * * *. (Concurrent resolution, Federal Government.) Resolved by the Senate of Oklahoma (the House of Representatives concurring therein), That * * *. (Concurrent resolution, using name of State.) Resolved by the senate (the house of representatives concurring therein), That * * * . (Concurrent resolution, not using name of State.) Resolved by the Assembly and Senate of the State of California (jointly), That * * *. (Joint resolution, using name of State.) Resolved by the Washington Board of Trade, That * * * Provided, That * * * Provided further, That * * * Provided, however, That * * * And provided further, That * * * Ordered, That * * * Be it enacted, That * * * Center and side heads 3.46. Unless otherwise marked, centerheads are set in capitals, and sideheads are set in lowercase and only the first word and proper names are capitalized. In centerheads making two lines, wordbreaks should be avoided. The first line should be centered and set as full as possible. 3.47. In heads set in caps, a small-cap c or ac, if available, is used in such names as McLean or MacLeod; otherwise a lowercase c or ac is used. In heads set in small caps, a thin space is used after the c or the ac. 3.48. In such names as LeRoy, DeHostis, LaFollette, etc. (one-word forms only), set in caps, the second letter of the particle is [[Page 33]] made a small cap, if available; otherwise lowercase is used. In heads set in small caps, a thin space is used. (See rule 3.15.) 3.49. In matter set in caps and small caps or caps and lowercase, capitalize all principal words, including parts of compounds which would be capitalized standing alone. The articles a, an, and the; the prepositions at, by, for, in, of, on, to, and up; the conjunctions and, as, but, if, or, and nor; and the second element of a compound numeral are not capitalized. (See also rule 8.129.) World en Route to All-Out War Curfew To Be Set for 10 o'Clock Man Hit With 2-Inch Pipe No-Par-Value Stock for Sale Yankees May Be Winners in Zig-Zag Race Ex-Senator Is To Be Admitted Notice of Filing and Order on Exemption From Requirements but Building on Twenty-first Street (if spelled) One Hundred and Twenty-three Years (if spelled) Only One-tenth of Shipping Was Idle Many 35-Millimeter Films in Production Built-Up Stockpiles Are Necessary (Up is an adverb here) His Per Diem Was Increased (Per Diem is used as a noun here); Lower Taxes per Person (per is a preposition here) 3.50. If a normally lowercased short word is used in juxtaposition with a capitalized word of like significance, it should also be capitalized. Buildings In and Near the Minneapolis Mall 3.51. In a heading set in caps and lowercase or in caps and small caps, a normally lowercased last word, if it is the only lowercased word in the heading, should also be capitalized. All Returns Are In 3.52. The first element of an infinitive is capitalized. Controls To Be Applied but Aid Sent to Disaster Area 3.53. In matter set in caps and small caps, such abbreviations as etc., et al., and p.m. are set in small caps; in matter set in caps and lowercase, these abbreviations are set in lowercase. Planes, Guns, Ships, etc. Planes, Guns, Ships, etc. James Bros. et al. (no comma) James Bros. et al. In re the 8 p.m. Meeting In re the 8 p.m. Meeting 3.54. Paragraph series letters in parentheses appearing in heads set in caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or in caps and lowercase are to be set as in copy. section 1.580(f)(1) [[Page 34]] Addresses, salutations, and signatures 3.55. The first word and all principal words in addresses, salutations, and signatures are capitalized. See Chapter ``Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures.'' Interjections 3.56. The interjection O is always capitalized. Interjections within a sentence are not capitalized. Sail on, O Ship of State! For lo! the days are hastening on. But, oh, how fortunate! Historic or documentary accuracy 3.57. Where historic, documentary, technical, or scientific accuracy is required, capitalization and other features of style of the original text should be followed.