[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 3 - Capitalization rules ]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


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                        3. CAPITALIZATION RULES

  (See also ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols'' and ``Capitalization 
                              Examples'')

  3.1. It is impossible to give rules that will cover every 
conceivable problem in capitalization; but by considering the 
purpose to be served and the underlying principles, it is 
possible to attain a considerable degree of uniformity. The 
list of approved forms given in chapter 4 will serve as a 
guide. Obviously such a list cannot be complete. The correct 
usage with respect to any term not included can be determined 
by analogy or by application of the rules.

Proper names

  3.2. Proper names are capitalized.
Rome
Brussels
John Macadam
Macadam family
Italy
Anglo-Saxon

Derivatives of proper names

  3.3. Derivatives of proper names used with a proper meaning 
are capitalized.
Roman (of Rome)        Johannean        Italian

  3.4. Derivatives of proper names used with acquired 
independent common meaning, or no longer identified with such 
names, are set lowercased. Since this depends upon general and 
long-continued usage, a more definite and all-inclusive rule 
cannot be formulated in advance.
roman (type)
brussels sprouts
venetian blinds
macadam (crushed rock)
watt (electric unit)
plaster of paris
italicize
anglicize
pasteurize

 Common nouns and adjectives in proper names

  3.5. A common noun or adjective forming an essential part of 
a proper name is capitalized; the common noun used alone as a 
substitute for the name of a place or thing is not capitalized.

      Massachusetts Avenue; the avenue
      Washington Monument; the monument
      Statue of Liberty; the statue
      Hoover Dam; the dam
      Boston Light; the light
      Modoc National Forest; the national forest
      Panama Canal; the canal
      Soldiers' Home of Ohio; the soldiers' home
      Johnson House (hotel); Johnson house (residence)
      Crow Reservation; the reservation

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      Federal Express; the express
      Cape of Good Hope; the cape
      Jersey City
      Washington City
  but city of Washington; the city
      Cook County; the county
      Great Lakes; the lakes
      Lake of the Woods; the lake
      North Platte River; the river
      Lower California
  but lower Mississippi
      Charles the First; Charles I
      Seventeenth Census; the 1960 census

  3.6. If a common noun or adjective forming an essential part 
of a name becomes separated from the rest of the name by an 
intervening common noun or adjective, the entire expression is 
no longer a proper noun and is therefore not capitalized.
      Union Station: union passenger station
      Eastern States: eastern farming States
      United States popularly elected government

  3.7. A common noun used alone as a well-known short form of a 
specific proper name is capitalized.
      the Capitol building in Washington, DC; but State capitol 
        building
      the Channel (English Channel)
      the Chunnel (tunnel below English Channel)
      the District (District of Columbia)
      the Soldiers' and Airmen's Home (District of Columbia 
        only)

  3.8. The plural form of a common noun capitalized as part of 
a proper name is also capitalized.
      Seventh and I Streets
      Lakes Erie and Ontario
      Potomac and James Rivers
      State and Treasury Departments
      British, French, and United States Governments
      Presidents Washington and Adams

  3.9. A common noun used with a date, number, or letter, 
merely to denote time or sequence, or for the purpose of 
reference, record, or temporary convenience, does not form a 
proper name and is therefore not capitalized. (See also rule 
3.38.)

abstract B
act of 1928
amendment 5
apartment 2
appendix C
article 1
book II
chapter III
chart B
class I
collection 6
column 2
drawing 6
exhibit D
figure 7
first district (not congressional)
flight 007
graph 8
group 7
history 301
mile 7.5
page 2
paragraph 4
part I
phase 3
plate IV
region 3
room A722
rule 8
schedule K
section 3
signature 4
spring 1926
station 27
table 4
title IV
treaty of 1919
volume X
war of 1914
ward 2

    

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  3.10. The following terms are lowercased, even with a name or 
number.
aqueduct
breakwater
buoy
chute
dike
dock
drydock
irrigation project
jetty
levee
lock
pier
reclamation project
ship canal
shipway
slip
spillway
turnpike
watershed
weir
wharf

Definite article in proper place names

  3.11. To achieve greater distinction or to adhere to the 
authorized form, the word the (or its equivalent in a foreign 
language) is capitalized when used as a part of an official 
name or title. When such name or title is used adjectively, the 
is not capitalized, nor is the supplied at any time when not in 
copy.
      British Consul v. The Mermaid (title of legal case)
      The Dalles (OR); The Weirs (NH); but the Dalles region; 
        the Weirs streets
      The Hague; but the Hague Court; the Second Hague 
        Conference
      El Salvador; Las Cruces; L'Esterel
      The National Mall; The Mall (Washington, DC only)
      The Gambia
  but the Congo, the Sudan, the Netherlands

  3.12. In common practice, rule 3.11 is disregarded in 
references to newspapers, periodicals, vessels, airships, 
trains, firm names, etc.
the Washington Post
the Times
the Atlantic Monthly
the Mermaid 
the U-3
the Los Angeles
the Federal Express
the National Photo Co.

Particles in names of persons

  3.13. In foreign names such particles as d', da, de, della, 
den, du, van, and von are capitalized unless preceded by a 
forename or title. Individual usage, if ascertainable, should 
be followed.
      Da Ponte; Cardinal da Ponte
      Den Uyl; Johannes den Uyl; Prime Minister den Uyl
      Du Pont; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
      Van Rensselaer; Stephen van Rensselaer
      Von Braun; Wernher von Braun
  but d'Orbigny; Alcide d'Orbigny; de la Madrid; Miguel de la 
        Madrid

  3.14. In anglicized names such particles are usually 
capitalized, even if preceded by a forename or title, but 
individual usage, if ascertainable, should be followed.
      Justice Van Devanter; Reginald De Koven
      Thomas De Quincey; William De Morgan
      Henry van Dyke (his usage)
      Samuel F. Du Pont (his usage); Irenee du Pont

  3.15. If copy is not clear as to the form of such a name (for 
example, La Forge or Laforge), the two-word form should be 
used.
      De Kalb County (AL, GA, IL, IN)
  but DeKalb County (TN)

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  3.16. In names set in capitals, de, von, etc., are also 
capitalized.

Names of organized bodies

  3.17. The full names of existing or proposed organized bodies 
and their shortened names are capitalized; other substitutes, 
which are most often regarded as common nouns, are capitalized 
only in certain specified instances to indicate preeminence or 
distinction.

National governmental units:

    U.S. Congress: 106th Congress; the Congress; Congress; the 
      Senate; the House; Committee of the Whole, the Committee; 
      but committee (all other congressional committees)
    Department of Agriculture: the Department; Division of 
      Publications, the Division; similarly all major 
      departmental units; but legislative, executive, and 
      judicial departments
    Bureau of the Census: the Census Bureau, the Bureau; but 
      the agency
    Environmental Protection Agency: the Agency
    Geological Survey: the Survey
    Government Printing Office: the Printing Office, the Office
    American Embassy, British Embassy: the Embassy; but the 
      consulate; the consulate general
    Treasury of the United States: General Treasury; National 
      Treasury; Public Treasury; the Treasury; Treasury notes; 
      New York Subtreasury, the subtreasury
    Department of Defense: Military Establishment; Armed 
      Forces; All-Volunteer Forces; but armed services
    U.S. Army: the Army; All-Volunteer Army; the Infantry; 81st 
      Regiment; Army Establishment; the Army Band; Army 
      officer; Regular Army officer; Reserve officer; Volunteer 
      officer; but army shoe; Grant's army; Robinson's brigade; 
      the brigade; the corps; the regiment; infantryman
    U.S. Navy: the Navy; the Marine Corps; Navy (Naval) 
      Establishment; Navy officer; but naval shipyard; naval 
      officer; naval station
    U.S. Air Force: the Air Force
    U.S. Coast Guard: the Coast Guard
    French Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Ministry; French 
      Army; British Navy
International organizations:
    United Nations: the Council; the Assembly; the Secretariat
    Permanent Court of Arbitration: the Court; the Tribunal 
      (only in the proceedings of a specific arbitration 
      tribunal)
    Hague Peace Conference of 1907: the Hague Conference; the 
      Peace Conference; the Conference
Common-noun substitutes:
    Virginia Assembly: the assembly; the senate; the house of 
      delegates
    California State Highway Commission: Highway Commission of 
      California; the highway commission; the commission
    Montgomery County Board of Health: the Board of Health, 
      Montgomery County; the board of health; the board
    Common Council of the City of Pittsburgh: the common 
      council; the council
    Buffalo Consumers' League: the consumers' league; the 
      league
    Republican Party: the party
    Southern Railroad Co.: the Southern Railroad; Southern Co.; 
      Southern Road; the railroad company; the company
    Riggs National Bank: the Riggs Bank; the bank
    Metropolitan Club: the club
    Yale School of Law: Yale University School of Law; School 
      of Law, Yale University; school of law

  3.18. The names of members and adherents of organized bodies 
are capitalized to distinguish them from the same words used 
merely in a descriptive sense.

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a Representative (U.S.)
a Republican
an Elk
a Federalist
a Shriner
a Socialist
an Odd Fellow
a Communist
a Boy Scout
a Knight (K.C., K.P., etc.)

Names of countries, domains, and administrative divisions

  3.19. The official designations of countries, national 
domains, and their principal administrative divisions are 
capitalized only if used as part of proper names, as proper 
names, or as proper adjectives. (See table on p. 228.)
United States: the Republic; the Nation; the Union; the Government; 
    also Federal, Federal Government; but republic (when not referring 
    specifically to one such entity); republican (in general sense); a 
    nation devoted to peace
New York State: the State, a State (a definite political subdivision of 
    first rank); State of Veracruz; Balkan States; six States of 
    Australia; State rights; but state (referring to a federal 
    government, the body politic); foreign states; church and state; 
    statehood; state's evidence
Territory (Canada): Yukon, Northwest Territories; the Territory(ies), 
    Territorial; but territory of American Samoa, Guam, Virgin Islands
Dominion of Canada: the Dominion; but dominion (in general sense)
Ontario Province, Province of Ontario: the Province, Provincial; but 
    province, provincial (in general sense)

  3.20. The similar designations commonwealth, confederation 
(federal), government, nation (national), powers, republic, 
etc., are capitalized only if used as part of proper names, as 
proper names, or as proper adjectives.
British Commonwealth, Commonwealth of Virginia: the Commonwealth; but a 
    commonwealth government (general sense)
Swiss Confederation: the Confederation; the Federal Council; the 
    Federal Government; but confederation, federal (in general sense)
French Government: the Government; French and Italian Governments: the 
    Governments; but government (in general sense); the Churchill 
    government; European governments
Cherokee Nation: the nation; but Greek nation; American nations
National Government (of any specific nation); but national customs
Allied Powers, Allies (in World Wars I and II); but our allies, weaker 
    allies; Central Powers (in World War I); but the powers; European 
    powers
Republic of South Africa: the Republic; but republic (in general sense)

Names of regions, localities, and geographic features

  3.21. A descriptive term used to denote a definite region, 
locality, or geographic feature is a proper name and is 
therefore capitalized; also for temporary distinction a coined 
name of a region is capitalized.
the North Atlantic States
the Gulf States
the Central States
the Pacific Coast States
the Lake States
East North Central States
Eastern North Central States
Far Western States
Eastern United States
the West
the Midwest
the Middle West
the Far West
the Eastern Shore
  (Chesapeake Bay)
the Badlands (SD and NE)
the Continental Divide
Deep South
Midsouth
the Far East
Far Eastern
the East
Middle East
Middle Eastern
Mideast
Mideastern (Asia)

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Near East (Balkans, etc.)
the Promised Land
the Continent (continental Europe)
the Western Hemisphere
the North Pole
the North and South Poles
the Temperate Zone
the Torrid Zone
the East Side
Lower East Side (sections of a city)
Western Europe, Central Europe (political entities)
  
but
lower 48 (States)
the Northeast corridor

  3.22. A descriptive term used to denote mere direction or 
position is not a proper name and is therefore not capitalized.
      north; south; east; west
      northerly; northern; northward
      eastern; oriental; occidental
      east Pennsylvania
      southern California
      northern Virginia
      west Florida; but West Florida (1763-1819)
      eastern region; western region
      north-central region
      east coast; eastern seaboard
      northern Italy
      southern France
  but East Germany; West Germany (former political entities)

Names of calendar divisions

  3.23. The names of calendar divisions are capitalized.
      January; February; March; etc.
      Monday; Tuesday; Wednesday; etc.
  but spring; summer; autumn (fall); winter

Names of historic events, etc.

  3.24. The names of holidays, ecclesiastic feast and fast 
days, and historic events are capitalized.
      Battle of Bunker Hill
      Christian Era; Middle Ages
      Feast of the Passover; the Passover
      Fourth of July; the Fourth
      Ramadan
      Reformation
      Renaissance
      Veterans Day
      War of 1812; World War II
  but war of 1914; Korean war; Vietnam war; gulf war

Trade names

  3.25. Trade names, variety names, and names of market grades 
and brands are capitalized. Common nouns following such names 
are not capitalized.
Snow Crop (trade name)
Choice lamb (market grade)
Yellow Stained cotton (market grade)
Red Radiance rose (variety)

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Scientific names

  3.26. The name of a phylum, class, order, family, or genus is 
capitalized. The name of a species is not capitalized, even 
though derived from a proper name. (See rule 11.9.)
Arthropoda (phylum), Crustacea (class), Hypoparia (order), Agnostidae 
  (family), Agnostus (genus)
Agnostus canadensis; Aconitum wilsoni; Epigaea repens (genus and 
  species)

  3.27. In scientific descriptions coined terms derived from 
proper names are not capitalized.
aviculoid
menodontine

  3.28. Any plural formed by adding s to a Latin generic name 
is capitalized.
Rhynchonellas
Spirifers

  3.29. In soil science the 24 soil classifications are 
capitalized.
Alpine Meadow
Bog
Brown

  3.30. Capitalize the names of the celestial bodies Sun and 
Moon, as well as the planets Earth, Mercury, Venus, Mars, 
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
  but the moons of Jupiter

Appellations

  3.31. An appellation of historical, political, etc., events 
used with or for a proper name is capitalized.
Big Four
Dust Bowl
Fall of Rome
Great Depression
Great Society
Holocaust
Hub (Boston)
Keystone State
New Deal
New Federalism
New Frontier
Prohibition
Third World
War on Poverty

Personification

  3.32. A vivid personification is capitalized.
      The Chair recognizes the gentlewoman from New York;
  but I spoke with the chair yesterday.
      For Nature wields her scepter mercilessly.
      All are architects of Fate,
        Working in these walls of Time.

Religious terms

  3.33. Words denoting the Deity except who, whose, and whom; 
names for the Bible and other sacred writings and their parts; 
names of confessions of faith and of religious bodies and their 
adherents; and words specifically denoting Satan are all 
capitalized.
Heavenly Father; the Almighty; Lord; Thee; Thou; He; Him; but himself; 
  [God's] fatherhood
Mass; red Mass; Communion
Divine Father; but divine providence; divine guidance; divine service
Son of Man; Jesus' sonship; the Messiah; but a messiah; messiahship; 
  messianic; messianize; christology; christological

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Bible, Holy Scriptures, Scriptures, Word; Koran; also Biblical; 
  Scriptural; Koranic
New Testament; Ten Commandments
Gospel (memoir of Christ); but gospel truth
Apostles' Creed; Augsburg Confession; Thirty-nine Articles
Episcopal Church; an Episcopalian; Catholicism; a Protestant
Christian; also Christendom; Christianity; Christianize
Black Friars; Brother(s); King's Daughters; Daughter(s); Ursuline 
  Sisters; Sister(s)
Satan; the Devil; but a devil; the devils; devil's advocate

Titles of persons

  3.34. Civil, religious, military, and professional titles, as 
well as those of nobility, immediately preceding a name are 
capitalized.
President Clinton
King George
Ambassador Acton
Lieutenant Fowler
Chairman Smith
Dr. Bellinger
Nurse Joyce Norton
Professor Leverett
Examiner Jones (law)
Vice-Presidential candidate Kemp
  but baseball player Ripken; maintenance man Flow; group chief 
        Collins

  3.35. To indicate preeminence or distinction in certain 
specified instances, a common-noun title immediately following 
the name of a person or used alone as a substitute for it is 
capitalized.
Title of a head or assistant head of state:
    William J. Clinton, President of the United States: the 
      President; the President-elect; the Executive; the Chief 
      Magistrate; the Commander in Chief; ex-President Bush; 
      former President Truman; similarly the Vice President; 
      the Vice-President-elect; ex-Vice-President Mondale
    James Gilmore, Governor of Virginia: the Governor of 
      Virginia; the Governor; similarly the Lieutenant 
      Governor; but secretary of state of Idaho; attorney 
      general of Maine
Title of a head or assistant head of an existing or a proposed National 
  governmental unit:
    Madeleine Albright, Secretary of State: the Secretary; 
      similarly the Acting Secretary; the Under Secretary; the 
      Assistant Secretary; the Director; the Chief or Assistant 
      Chief; the Chief Clerk; etc.; but Secretaries of the 
      military departments; secretaryship
Titles of the military:
    General of the Army(ies): United States only; Supreme 
      Allied Commander; Gen. Henry H. Shelton, Chairman, Joint 
      Chiefs of Staff; Joint Chiefs of Staff; Chief of Staff, 
      U.S. Air Force; the Chief of Staff; but the commanding 
      general; general (military title standing alone not 
      capitalized)
Titles of members of diplomatic corps:
    Walter S. Gifford, Ambassador Extraordinary and 
      Plenipotentiary: the American Ambassador; the British 
      Ambassador; the Ambassador; the Senior Ambassador; His 
      Excellency; similarly the Envoy Extraordinary and 
      Minister Plenipotentiary; the Envoy; the Minister; the 
      Charge d'Affaires; the Charge; Ambassador at Large; 
      Minister Without Portfolio; but the consul general; the 
      consul; the attache; etc.
Title of a ruler or prince:
    Elizabeth II, Queen of England: the Queen; the Crown; Her 
      Most Gracious Majesty; Her Majesty; similarly the 
      Emperor; the Sultan
    Charles, Prince of Wales: the Prince; His Royal Highness
Titles not capitalized:
    Charles F. Hughes, rear admiral, U.S. Navy: the rear 
      admiral
    Lloyd H. Elliott, president of George Washington 
      University: the president
    C.H. Eckles, professor of dairy husbandry: the professor
    Betty Acton, chairwoman of the committee; the chairman; the 
      chairperson; the chair

[[Page 31]]

  3.36. In formal lists of delegates and representatives of 
governments, all titles and descriptive designations 
immediately following the names should be capitalized if any 
one is capitalized.

  3.37. A title in the second person is capitalized.
Your Excellency
Your Highness
Your Honor
Mr. Chairman
Madam Chairman
Mr. Secretary
  
but not salutations:
  my dear General
  my dear sir

Titles of publications, papers, documents, acts, laws, etc.

  3.38. In the full or short English titles of periodicals, 
series of publications, annual reports, historic documents, and 
works of art, the first word and all important words are 
capitalized.
Statutes at Large; Revised Statutes; District Code; Bancroft's History; 
    Journal (House or Senate) (short titles); but the code; the 
    statutes
Atlantic Charter; Balfour Declaration; but British white paper
Chicago's American; but Chicago American Publishing Co.
Reader's Digest; but New York Times Magazine; Newsweek magazine
Monograph 55; Research Paper 123; Bulletin 420; Circular A; Article 15: 
    Uniform Code of Military Justice; Senate Document 70; House 
    Resolution 45; Presidential Proclamation No. 24; Executive Order 
    No. 24; Royal Decree No. 24; Public Law 89-1; Private and Union 
    Calendars; Calendar No. 80; Calendar Wednesday; Committee Print No. 
    32, committee print; but Senate bill 416; House bill 61
Annual Report of the Public Printer, 1998; but seventh annual report, 
    19th annual report
Declaration of Independence; the Declaration
Constitution (United States or with name of country); constitutional; 
    but New York State constitution: first amendment, 12th amendment
Kellogg Pact; North Atlantic Pact; Atlantic Pact; Treaty of Versailles; 
    Jay Treaty; but treaty of peace, the treaty (descriptive 
    designations); treaty of 1919
United States v. Four Hundred Twenty-two Casks of Wine (law)
The Blue Boy, Excalibur, Whistler's Mother (paintings)

  3.39. All principal words are capitalized in titles of 
addresses, articles, books, captions, chapter and part 
headings, editorials, essays, headings, headlines, motion 
pictures and plays (including television and radio programs), 
papers, short poems, reports, songs, subheadings, subjects, and 
themes. The foregoing are also quoted.

  3.40. In the short or popular titles of acts (Federal, State, 
or foreign) the first word and all important words are 
capitalized.
Revenue Act; Walsh-Healey Act; Freedom of Information Act; 
  Classification Act; but the act; Harrison narcotic law; Harrison 
  narcotic bill; interstate commerce law; sunset law

  3.41. The capitalization of the titles of books, etc., 
written in a foreign language is to conform to the national 
practice in that language.

First words

  3.42. The first word of a sentence, of an independent clause 
or phrase, of a direct quotation, of a formally introduced 
series of items or phrases following a comma or colon, or of a 
line of poetry, is capitalized.

[[Page 32]]

The question is, Shall the bill pass?
He asked, ``And where are you going?''
The vote was as follows: In the affirmative, 23; in the negative, 11; 
    not voting, 3.
                   Lives of great men all remind us
                      We can make our lives sublime.

  3.43. The first word of a fragmentary quotation is not 
capitalized.
She objected ``to the phraseology, not to the ideas.''

  3.44. The first word following a colon, an exclamation point, 
or a question mark is not capitalized if the matter following 
is merely a supplementary remark making the meaning clearer.
Revolutions are not made: they come.
Intelligence is not replaced by mechanism: even the televox must be 
    guided by its master's voice.
But two months dead! nay, not so much; not two.
What is this? Your knees to me? to your corrected son?

  3.45. The first word following Whereas in resolutions, 
contracts, etc., is not capitalized; the first word following 
an enacting or resolving clause is capitalized.
Whereas the Constitution provides * * *; and
Whereas Congress has passed a law * * *;
Whereas, moreover, * * *: Therefore be it
Whereas the Senate provided for the * * *: Now, therefore, be it
Resolved, That * * *; and be it further
Resolved (jointly), That * * * 
Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), That 
    * * *. (Concurrent resolution, Federal Government.)
Resolved by the Senate of Oklahoma (the House of Representatives 
    concurring therein), That * * *. (Concurrent resolution, using name 
    of State.)
Resolved by the senate (the house of representatives concurring 
    therein), That * * * . (Concurrent resolution, not using name of 
    State.)
Resolved by the Assembly and Senate of the State of California 
    (jointly), That * * *. (Joint resolution, using name of State.)
Resolved by the Washington Board of Trade, That * * * 
Provided, That * * * 
Provided further, That * * * 
Provided, however, That * * * 
And provided further, That * * * 
Ordered, That * * *
Be it enacted, That * * * 

Center and side heads

  3.46. Unless otherwise marked, centerheads are set in 
capitals, and sideheads are set in lowercase and only the first 
word and proper names are capitalized. In centerheads making 
two lines, wordbreaks should be avoided. The first line should 
be centered and set as full as possible.

  3.47. In heads set in caps, a small-cap c or ac, if 
available, is used in such names as McLean or MacLeod; 
otherwise a lowercase c or ac is used. In heads set in small 
caps, a thin space is used after the c or the ac.

  3.48. In such names as LeRoy, DeHostis, LaFollette, etc. 
(one-word forms only), set in caps, the second letter of the 
particle is

[[Page 33]]

made a small cap, if available; otherwise lowercase is used. In 
heads set in small caps, a thin space is used. (See rule 3.15.)

  3.49. In matter set in caps and small caps or caps and 
lowercase, capitalize all principal words, including parts of 
compounds which would be capitalized standing alone. The 
articles a, an, and the; the prepositions at, by, for, in, of, 
on, to, and up; the conjunctions and, as, but, if, or, and nor; 
and the second element of a compound numeral are not 
capitalized. (See also rule 8.129.)
      World en Route to All-Out War
      Curfew To Be Set for 10 o'Clock
      Man Hit With 2-Inch Pipe
      No-Par-Value Stock for Sale
      Yankees May Be Winners in Zig-Zag Race
      Ex-Senator Is To Be Admitted
      Notice of Filing and Order on Exemption From Requirements
  but Building on Twenty-first Street (if spelled)
      One Hundred and Twenty-three Years (if spelled)
      Only One-tenth of Shipping Was Idle
      Many 35-Millimeter Films in Production
      Built-Up Stockpiles Are Necessary (Up is an adverb here)
      His Per Diem Was Increased (Per Diem is used as a noun 
        here); Lower Taxes per Person (per is a preposition 
        here)
  3.50. If a normally lowercased short word is used in 
juxtaposition with a capitalized word of like significance, it 
should also be capitalized.
      Buildings In and Near the Minneapolis Mall

  3.51. In a heading set in caps and lowercase or in caps and 
small caps, a normally lowercased last word, if it is the only 
lowercased word in the heading, should also be capitalized.
      All Returns Are In

  3.52. The first element of an infinitive is capitalized.
      Controls To Be Applied
  but Aid Sent to Disaster Area

  3.53. In matter set in caps and small caps, such 
abbreviations as etc., et al., and p.m. are set in small caps; 
in matter set in caps and lowercase, these abbreviations are 
set in lowercase.
Planes, Guns, Ships, etc.
Planes, Guns, Ships, etc.

James Bros. et al. (no comma)
James Bros. et al.

In re the 8 p.m. Meeting
In re the 8 p.m. Meeting

  
  
  3.54. Paragraph series letters in parentheses appearing in 
heads set in caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or in caps 
and lowercase are to be set as in copy.
      section 1.580(f)(1)

[[Page 34]]

Addresses, salutations, and signatures

  3.55. The first word and all principal words in addresses, 
salutations, and signatures are capitalized. See Chapter 
``Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures.''

Interjections

  3.56. The interjection O is always capitalized. Interjections 
within a sentence are not capitalized.
      Sail on, O Ship of State!
      For lo! the days are hastening on.
      But, oh, how fortunate!

Historic or documentary accuracy

  3.57. Where historic, documentary, technical, or scientific 
accuracy is required, capitalization and other features of 
style of the original text should be followed.