[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


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                    1. ADVICE TO AUTHORS AND EDITORS

  1.1. This Style Manual is intended to facilitate Government 
printing. Careful observance of the following suggestions will 
aid in expediting your publication and also reduce printing 
costs.
  1.2. Changes on proofs add greatly to the expense of and 
delay the work. Therefore, copy must be carefully edited before 
being submitted to the Government Printing Office.
  1.3. Legible copy, not faint reproductions, must be 
furnished.
  1.4. Copy should be on one side only with each sheet numbered 
consecutively. If both sides of reprint copy are to be used, a 
duplicate set of copy must be furnished.
  1.5. To avoid unnecessary expense, it is advisable to have 
each page begin with a new paragraph.
  1.6. Proper names, signatures, figures, foreign words, and 
technical terms should be written plainly.
  1.7. The chemical symbols Al, Cl, Tl are sometimes mistaken 
for A1, C1, T1. Editors must indicate whether the second 
character is a letter or a figure.
  1.8. Footnote reference marks in text and tables should be
arranged consecutively from left to right across each page of 
copy.
  1.9. Photographs, drawings, and legends being used for 
illustrations should appear in the manuscript where they are to 
appear. They should be on separate sheets, as they are handled 
separately during typesetting.
  1.10. If a publication is composed of several parts, a scheme 
of the desired arrangement must accompany the first installment 
of copy.
  1.11. To reduce the possibility of costly blank pages, avoid 
use of new odd pages and halftitles whenever possible. 
Generally these refinements should be limited to quality 
bookwork.
  1.12. Samples should be furnished if possible. They should be 
plainly marked showing the desired type, size of type page, 
illustrations if any, paper, trim, lettering, and binding.
  1.13. In looseleaf or perforated-on-fold work, indicate folio 
sequence, including blank pages, by circling in blue. Begin 
with first text page (title). Do not folio separate covers or 
dividers.

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  1.14. Indicate on copy if separate or self-cover. When 
reverse printing in whole or in part is required, indicate if 
solid or tone.
  1.15. Avoid use of oversize fold-ins wherever possible. This 
can be done by splitting a would-be fold-in and arranging the 
material to appear as facing pages in the text. Where fold-ins 
are numerous and cannot be split, consideration should be given 
to folding and inserting these into an envelope pasted to the 
inside back cover.
  1.16. Every effort should be made to keep complete jobs of 
over 4 pages to signatures (folded units) of 8, 12, 16, 24, or 
32 pages. Where possible, avoid having more than two blank 
pages at the end.
  1.17. Indicate alternative choice of paper on the 
requisition. Where possible, confine choice of paper to general 
use items carried in inventory as shown in the GPO Paper 
Catalog.
  1.18. If nonstandard trim sizes and/or type areas are used, 
indicate head and back margins. Otherwise, GPO will determine 
the margins.
  1.19. Customers should submit copy for running heads and 
indicate the numbering sequence for folios, including the 
preliminary pages.
  1.20. All corrections should be made on first proofs 
returned, as later proofs are intended for verification only. 
All corrections must be indicated on the ``R'' set of proofs, 
and only that set should be returned to the Government Printing 
Office.
  1.21. Corrections should be marked in the margins of a proof 
opposite the indicated errors, not by writing over the print or 
between the lines. All queries on proofs must be answered.
  1.22. The following Government Printing Office and 
departmental publications relate to material included in the 
Style Manual. Most may be purchased from the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 
For lists of these and other such publications, request SB-077, 
Graphic Arts, and SB-087, Communication and Office Skills.

Word Division, a supplement to Government Printing Office Style Manual, 
    144 pages. 1987. GP 1.23/4:St 9/supp.976. S/N 021-000-00139-2.

    Basic rules for division of words; division into syllables of about 
    20,000 words.

Government Paper Specification Standards, Volume 11. 1999. Discontinued 
    as a subscription service. Sold as a single sales publication, 
    beginning with S/N 021-000-00174-1. O/N 99-20.

    Basic manual in looseleaf form. Should be of value and interest to 
    paper manufacturers, printing establishments, and others concerned 
    with paper standards. Contains standards to be used in testing and 
    definitive color standards for all mimeograph, duplicator, writing, 
    manifold, bond ledger, and index papers.

Technical and scientific guides

American National Standard Guidelines for Format and Production of 
    Scientific and Technical Reports, 16 pages. American National 
    Standards Institute, Inc. ANSI/NISO Z39.18-1995.


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    Prescribes the order and specifications of the elements of a 
    report. Takes into account the growing use of microform and 
    electronic storage and abstract services. Contains guidelines that 
    will help the researcher in locating, referencing, and comparing 
    source information. Covers type and page size, tables, formulas, 
    paper stock, and binding.

Data base publishing

Publishing From a Full Text Data Base. Graphic Systems Development 
    Division, Government Printing Office, 184 pages. Illustrated. 1983, 
    2d edition. S/N 021-000-00116-3.

    Describes GPO's concept of full text data base development and 
    discusses such factors as design, application, and job control.

Microfiche specifications

National Standard Microfiche of Documents, 15 pages. National 
    Micrographics Association. ANSI PH5.9-1975 (NMA MS5-1975).

    Specifications provided for microfiche intended for direct use by 
    the customer: ``distribution fiche.'' Offers definitions of some 
    terms.

Guide for Selecting Microfiche Requirements and Quality Attributes for 
    Microfiche Contract. Available from GPO, Manager of Quality Control 
    and Technical Department.

Correspondence style

U.S. Government Correspondence Manual, 92 pages. 1992. Book. S/N 022-
    000-212-1.

Also helpful to writers and editors are such publications as:

Bartlett, John. Familiar Quotations: A Collection of Passages, Phrases, 
    and Proverbs Traced to Their Sources in Ancient and Modern 
    Literature. Edited by Justin Kaplan. 16th ed., revised and 
    enlarged. Boston: Little, Brown, 1992.

The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press. 14th ed., 
    revised and expanded. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

New York Times Manual of Style and Usage. New York: Contains a 
    dictionary of names and terms primarily for newspaper writers.

Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, 
    Unabridged. Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. Merriam, 1964.

Words into Type. Based on studies by Marjorie E. Skillin, Robert M. 
    Gay, and other authorities. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: 
    Prentice-Hall, 1992.

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    1.23. Corrections made to proofs by authors, editors, or 
readers at departments should be indicated as follows:



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    Note.--The system of marking proofs can be made easier by the use 
of an imaginary vertical line through the center of the type area. The 
placement of corrections in the left-hand margin for those errors found 
in the left-hand portion of the proof and in the right-hand margin for 
right-side errors prevents overcrowding of marks and facilitates 
corrections.

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                             NOTES





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                        2. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

                              JOB PLANNING

  2.1. The use of computers has dramatically altered every 
phase of the printing industry beginning with the basic 
planning of each new job. New publications are evaluated by 
application specialists who review their requirements and 
design the necessary formats. Each format is made to conform 
exactly to the copy's specifications for page dimensions, line 
length, indentions, typefaces, etc. Upon completion, sample 
pages are produced and submitted to the customer. At this time, 
the customer agencies are requested to indicate precise details 
of any style changes because this set of pages serves as a 
guide for the copy preparer, the beginning of actual
production.
  2.2. In recent years, changes in the needs of the library 
community have led to a move toward uniform treatment of the 
component parts of publications. In developing standards to 
guide publishers of Government books, consideration has been 
given to the changing needs of those who seek to produce, 
reference, index, abstract, store, search, and retrieve data. 
Certain identifying elements shall be printed on all 
publications in accordance with this Manual and with standards 
developed by the (ANSI) American National Standards Institute, Inc.
  Publications such as books and pamphlets should contain:
  (a) Title and other title information;
  (b) Name of department issuing or creating publication;
  (c) Name of author(s) and editor(s) (department or 
individual);
  (d) Date of issuance;
  (e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and 
address);
  (f) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock 
numbers if applicable; and
  (g) The ISBN (International Standard Book Number).
  (See ANSI Standard Z39.15, Title Leaves of a Book.)
  Reports of a scientific or technical nature should contain:
  (a) Title and other title information;
  (b) Report number;

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NOTES:

  (1) This sample report cover is reduced in size.
  (2) In this sample, items are justified left. Other cover designs and 
typefaces are acceptable.
  (3) This sample page was prepared according to the guidelines of the 
American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42d St., New York, NY 
10036. Users of ANSI standards are cautioned that all standards are 
reviewed periodically and subject to revision.

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  (c) Author(s);
  (d) Performing organization;
  (e) Sponsoring department;
  (f) Date of issuance;
  (g) Type of report and period covered;
  (h) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and 
address); and
  (i) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock 
numbers if applicable.
  (See ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.18--1995, Scientific and 
Technical Reports--Elements, Organization, and Design.)
  Journals, magazines, periodicals, and similar publications 
should contain:
  (a) Title and other title information;
  (b) Volume and issue numbers;
  (c) Date of issue;
  (d) Publishing or sponsoring department;
  (e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and 
address);
  (f) International Standard Serial Number; and
  (g) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock 
numbers if applicable.
  (See ANSI Standard Z39.1, American Standard Reference Data 
and Arrangement of Periodicals.)

                                 MAKEUP

  2.3. When the following elements occur in Government 
publications, they should appear in the sequence listed below. 
The designation ``new odd page'' generally refers to bookwork 
and is not required in most pamphlet- and magazine-type 
publications.
  a. Frontispiece, faces title page.
  b. False title (frontispiece, if any, on back).
  c. Title page (new odd page).
  d. Back of title, blank, but frequently carries such useful 
bibliographic information as list of board members, 
congressional resolution authorizing publication, note of 
editions and printings, GPO imprint if departmental imprint 
appears on title page, sales notice, etc.
  e. Letter of transmittal (new odd page).
  f. Foreword, differs from a preface in that it is an 
introductory note written as an endorsement by a person other 
than the author

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(new odd page). An introduction differs from a foreword or a 
preface in that it is the initial part of the text; if the book 
is divided into chapters, it should be the first chapter.
  g. Preface, by author (new odd page).
  h. Acknowledgments (if not part of preface) (new odd page).
  i. Contents (new odd page), immediately followed by list of 
illustrations and list of tables, as parts of contents.
  j. Text, begins with page 1 (if halftitle is used, begins 
with p. 3).
  k. Glossary (new odd page).
  l. Bibliography (new odd page).
  m. Appendix (new odd page).
  n. Index (new odd page).
  2.4. Preliminary pages use small-cap Roman numerals. Pages in 
the back of the book (index, etc.), use lowercase Roman 
numerals.
  2.5. Booklets of 32 pages or less can be printed more 
economically with a self-cover. A table of contents, title 
page, foreword, preface, etc., is not usually necessary with so 
few pages. If some of this preliminary matter is necessary, it 
is more practical if combined; i.e., contents on cover; 
contents, title, and foreword on cover 2, etc.
  2.6. Widow lines (lines less than full width of measure) at 
top of pages are to be avoided, if possible, but are permitted 
if absolutely necessary to maintain uniform makeup and page 
depth. Rewording to fill the line is a much preferred 
alternative.
  2.7. Paragraphs may start on the last line of a page, 
whenever necessary. If it is found necessary to make a short 
page, the facing page should be of approximate equal depth.
  2.8. A blank space or sink of 6 picas should be placed at the 
head of each new odd or even page of 46-pica or greater depth; 
pages with a depth of from 36 to 45 picas, inclusive, will 
carry a 5-pica sink; pages less than 36 picas, 4 picas.
  2.9. When top centered folios are used, the folio on a new 
page is set 2 points smaller than the top folios. They are 
centered at the bottom and enclosed in parentheses.
  2.10. Where running heads with folios are used, heads are 
included in overall page depth. However, first pages of 
chapters and pages with bottom folios do not include the folios 
as part of the overall page depth.
  2.11. Jobs that have both running heads and bottom folios or 
just bottom folios will align all of the page numbers on the 
bottom in the margin, including those on preliminary pages. If 
at all possible avoid use of running heads in conjunction with 
bottom folios.

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  2.12. Contents, list of illustrations, preface, or any other 
matter that makes a page in itself will retain normal 6-pica 
sink.
  2.13. Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in 
continued lines over tables, unless special orders are given 
not to do so.
  2.14. When a table continues, its headnote is repeated 
without the word Continued.
  2.15. A landscape or broadside table that continues from an 
even to an odd page must be positioned to read through the 
center (gutter) of the publication when its size is not 
sufficient to fill both pages.
  2.16. A broadside table of less than page width will center 
on the page.
  2.17. Centerheads, whether in boldface, caps, caps and small 
caps, small caps, or italic, should have more space above than 
below. Uniform spacing should be maintained throughout the 
page.
  2.18. In making up a page of two or more columns, text 
preceding a page-width illustration will be divided equally 
into the appropriate number of columns above the illustration.
  2.19. Two or more short footnotes may be combined into one 
line, with 2 ems of space between.
  \1\ Preliminary.    \2\ Including imported cases.    \3\ Imported.
  2.20. All backstrips should read down (from top to bottom).

                            COPY PREPARATION

  2.21. At the beginning of each job the proper formats must be 
plainly marked. New Odd or New Page, Preliminary, Cover, Title, 
or Back Title should also be plainly indicated.
  2.22. Copy preparers must mark those things not readily 
understood when reading the manuscript. They must also mark the 
correct element identifier code for each data element, as well 
as indicate other matters of style necessary to give the 
publication good typographic appearance.
  2.23. Preparers must indicate the proper subformat at the 
beginning of each extension; verify folio numbers; and plainly 
indicate references, footnotes, cut-ins, etc. Unless otherwise 
marked, text matter will be set in 10-point solid and tables in 
7 point. In tables utilizing down rules, unless a specific 
weight is requested by the customer, hairline rules will be 
used. (See rule 13.3.)
  2.24. Quoted, or extract matter, and lists should be set 
smaller than text with space above and below. Quotation marks 
at the beginning and end of paragraphs should be omitted. If 
the same type size is used, quoted matter should be indented 2 
ems on both sides with space top and bottom, and initial and 
closing quotes should be omitted.

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capitalization

  2.25. Unusual use of capital and lowercase letters should be 
indicated by the customer to guarantee correct usage.

Datelines, addresses, and signatures

  2.26. Copy preparers must mark caps, small caps, italic, 
abbreviations, indentions, and line breaks where necessary. 
(For more detailed instructions, see the chapter ``Datelines, 
Addresses, and Signatures.'')

Decimals and common fractions

  2.27. In figure columns containing both decimals and common 
fractions, such decimals and/or fractions will not be aligned. 
The columns will be set flush right.

``Et cetera,'' ``etc.,'' and ``and so forth''

  2.28. In printing a speaker's language, the words and so 
forth or et cetera are preferred, but in FIC & punc. matter 
etc., is acceptable. If a quoted extract is set in type smaller 
than that of the preceding text and the speaker has summed up 
the remainder of the quotation with the words and so forth or 
et cetera, these words should be placed at the beginning of the 
next line, flush and lowercase, and an em dash should be used 
at the end of the extract.

Folioing and stamping copy

  2.29. Folio numbers should be placed in the upper right 
corner, preferably half an inch from the top.

Headings

  2.30. The element identifier codes to be used for all 
headings must be marked. Caps, caps and small caps, small caps, 
caps and lowercase, lowercase first up (first word and proper 
nouns capitalized), or italic must be prepared. (See rule 
3.49.)

Pickup

  2.31. The jacket number of a job from which matter is to be 
picked up must be indicated. New matter and pickup matter 
should conform in style.

Sidenotes and cut-in notes

  2.32. Sidenotes and cut-in notes are set each line flush left 
and ragged right, unless otherwise prepared, and are always set 
solid. Sidenotes are usually set in 6 point, 4\1/2\ picas wide. 
Footnotes to sidenotes and text should be set 21\1/2\ picas.
[[NOTE: Sec. 920. Abuse of the rule.]]   An alleged violation of the 
rule relating to admission to the floor presents a question of privilege 
(III, 2624, 2625; VI, 579), but not a higher question of privilege than 
an election case (III, 2626). In one case where an ex-Member was abusing 
the privilege * * *.

[[Page 13]]

Signs, symbols, etc.

  2.33. All signs, symbols, dashes, superiors, etc., must be 
plainly marked. Names of Greek letters must be indicated, as 
they are frequently mistaken for italic or symbols.
  2.34. Some typesetting systems produce characters that look 
the same as figures. A lowercase l resembles a figure 1 and a 
capital O looks like a figure 0. Questionable characters will 
be printed as figures unless otherwise marked.

Letters illustrating shape and form

  2.35. Capital letters of the text face will be used to 
illustrate shape and form, as U-shape(d), A-frame, T-bone, and 
T-rail.
  2.36. Plurals are formed by adding an apostrophe and the 
letter s to letters illustrating shape and form, such as T's 
and Y's. Golf tee(s) should be spelled, as shape is not 
indicated.
  2.37. A capital letter is used in U-boat, V-8, and other 
expressions which have no reference to shape or form.

``Follow literally'' and ``FIC & punc.''

  2.38. After submittal to the GPO, manuscript copy is rubber-
stamped ``Fol. lit.'' or ``FIC & punc.'' The difference between 
these two typesetting instructions is explained thus:
  Copy is followed when stamped ``Fol. lit.'' (follow 
literally). Copy authorized to be marked ``Fol. lit.'' must be 
thoroughly prepared by the requisitioning agency as to 
capitalization, punctuation (including compounding), 
abbreviations, signs, symbols, figures, and italic. Such copy, 
including even obvious errors, will be followed. The lack of 
preparation on copy so designated shall, in itself, constitute 
preparation. ``Fol. lit.'' does not include size and style of 
type or spacing.
  Obvious errors are corrected in copy marked ``FIC & punc.'' 
(follow, including capitalization and punctuation).
  2.39. In congressional hearings, the name of the interrogator 
or witness who continues speaking is repeated following a head 
set in boldface, a paragraph enclosed in parentheses, and a 
paragraph enclosed in brackets.
  In a head set in boldface, the title ``Mr.'' is not used, and 
``the Honorable'' preceding a name is shortened to ``Hon.'' 
Street addresses are also deleted. Example: ``Statement of Hon. 
John P. Blank, Member, American Bar Association, Washington, 
DC.''
  2.40. Paragraph or section numbers (or letters) followed by 
figures or letters in parentheses will close up, as ``section 
7(B)(1)(a),'' ``paragraph 23(a),'' ``paragraph b(7),'' 
``paragraph (a)(2)''; but section 9(a) (1) and (2); section 7 a 
and b. In case of an unavoidable

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break, division will be made after elements in parentheses, and 
no hyphen is used.
  2.41. Bill style.--Bill copy will be followed as supplied. 
Bills will be treated as FIC & Punc. This data is transmitted 
to the GPO via fiber optic transmission with element identifier 
codes in place, therefore, it is not cost effective to prepare 
the manuscript as per the GPO Style Manual and update the data 
once it is in type form.
  2.42. Copy preparer's instructions, which accompany each job, 
are written to cover the general style and certain 
peculiarities or deviations from style. These instructions must 
be followed.

Abbreviations

  2.43. In marking abbreviations to be spelled, preparers must 
show what the spelled form should be, unless the abbreviations 
are common and not susceptible of more than one construction. 
An unfamiliar abbreviation, with spelled-out form unavailable, 
is not changed.

                            TYPE COMPOSITION

  2.44. Operators and revisers must study carefully the rules 
governing composition.
  2.45. In correcting pickup matter, the operator must indicate 
plainly on the proof what portion, if any, was actually reset.
  2.46. Every precaution must be taken to prevent the soiling 
of proofs, as it is necessary for the reviser to see clearly 
every mark on the margin of a proof after it has been 
corrected.
  2.47. Corrections of queries intended for the author are not 
to be made. Such queries, however, are not to be carried on 
jobs going directly to press.

Leading and spacing

  2.48. Spacing of text is governed by the leading, narrow 
spacing being more desirable in solid than in leaded matter.
  2.49. A single justified word space will be used between 
sentences. This applies to all types of composition.
  2.50. Center or flush heads set in caps, caps and small caps, 
small caps, or boldface are keyed with regular justified spaces 
between words.
  2.51. Centerheads are set apart from the text by the use of 
spacing. The amount of space varies with each publication; 
however, more space is always inserted above a heading than 
below. In 10-point type, the spacing would be 10 points over 
and 8 points under a heading; in 8- and 6-point type, the 
spacing would be 8 points above and 6 points below.

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  2.52. Solid matter (text) is defined as those lines set 
without horizontal space between them. Leaded text is defined 
as lines separated by 1 or 2 points of space.
  2.53. Unless otherwise marked, flush heads are separated from 
text by 4 points of space above and 2 points of space below in 
solid matter, and by 6 points of space above and 4 points of 
space below in leaded matter.
  2.54. Full-measure numbered or lettered paragraphs and quoted 
extracts are not separated by space from adjoining matter.
  2.55. Extracts which are set off from the text by smaller 
type or are indented on both sides or indented 3 ems on the 
left side (courtwork only) are separated by 6 points of space 
in leaded matter and by 4 points of space in solid matter.
  2.56. Extracts set solid in leaded matter are separated from 
the text by 6 points.
  2.57. Flush lines following extracts are separated by 6 
points of space in leaded matter and by 4 points in solid 
matter.
  2.58. Footnotes are leaded if the text is leaded, and are 
solid if the text is solid.
  2.59. Legends are leaded if the text is leaded, and solid if 
the text is solid. Leaderwork is separated from text by 4 
points above and 4 points below.

Indentions

  2.60. In measures less than 30 picas, the paragraph indention 
is 1 em. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 3 ems, overs 
are 2 ems. Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples 
of 2 ems. Addresses are set flush left.
  2.61. In matter set 30 picas or wider, the paragraph 
indention is 2 ems. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 6 
ems, overs are 4 ems. Datelines and signatures are indented in 
multiples of 2 ems. Addresses are set flush left.
  2.62. In measures less than 30 picas, overruns in hanging 
indentions are 1 em more than the first line, except that to 
avoid conflict with a following indention (for example, of a 
subentry or paragraph), the overrun indention is made 1 em more 
than the following line.
  2.63. In matter set 30 picas or wider, overruns in hanging 
indentions are 2 ems more than the first line, except that to 
avoid conflict with a following indention (for example, of a 
subentry or paragraph), the overrun indention is made 2 ems 
more than the following line.
  2.64. Indention of matter set in smaller type should be the 
same, in points, as that of adjoining main-text indented 
matter.

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  2.65. Two-line centerheads are centered, but heads of three 
or more lines are set with a hanging indention.
  2.66. Overs in flush heads are indented 2 ems in measures 
less than 30 picas, and 3 ems in wider measures.

Legends for illustrations

  2.67. It is preferred that legends and explanatory data 
consisting of one or two lines are set centered, while those 
with more than two lines are set with a hanging indention. 
Legends are set full measure regardless of the width of the 
illustration. Paragraph style is acceptable.
  2.68. Legend lines for illustrations which appear broad or 
turn page (landscape) should be printed to read up; an even-
page legend should be on the inside margin and an odd-page 
legend on the outside margin.
  2.69. Unless otherwise indicated, legends for illustrations 
are set in 8-point roman, lowercase.
  2.70. Periods are used after legends and explanatory remarks 
beneath illustrations. However, legends without descriptive 
language do not use a period. (See rule 8.112.)
  2.71. At the beginning of a legend or standing alone, Figure 
preceding the identifying number or letter is set in caps and 
small caps and is not abbreviated.

           Figure 5, not Fig. 5          Figure A, not Fig. A

  2.72. If a chart carries both a legend and footnotes, the 
legend is placed above the chart.
  2.73. Letter symbols used in legends for illustrations are 
set in lowercase italic without periods.

                              PROOFREADING

  2.74. All special instructions, layouts, and style sheets 
must be sent to the Proof Section with the first installment of 
each job.
  2.75. If the proofreader detects inconsistent or erroneous 
statements, it is his or her duty to query them.
  2.76. If the grammatical construction of a sentence or clause 
is questioned by a proofreader and it seems desirable to change 
the form, he or she must indicate the proposed correction, add 
a query mark, and enclose all in a circle.
  2.77. All queries appearing on the copy must be carried to 
the author's set of proofs.
  2.78. Proofs that are illegible or are in any manner 
defective must be called to the attention of the deskperson.

[[Page 17]]

  2.79. The manner in which correction marks are made on a 
proof is of considerable importance. Straggling, unsymmetrical 
characters, disconnected marks placed in the margin above or 
below the lines to which they relate, irregular lines leading 
from an incorrect letter or word to a correction, large marks, 
marks made with a blunt pencil, indistinct marks, and frequent 
use of the eraser to obliterate marks hastily or incorrectly 
made are faults to be avoided.
  2.80. In reading proof of wide tables, the proofreader should 
place the correction as near as possible to the error. The 
transposition mark should not be used in little-known words or 
in figures. It is better to cancel the letters or figures and 
write them in the margin in the order in which they are to 
appear.
  2.81. To assure proper placement of footnotes, the 
proofreader and reviser must draw a ring around footnote 
references on the proofs, then check off each corresponding 
footnote number.
  2.82. Proofreaders must not make important changes in 
indentions or tables without consulting the referee.
  2.83. The marks of the copy preparer will be followed, as he 
or she is in a position to know more about the peculiarities of 
a job than one who reads but a small portion of it.
  2.84. Any mark which will change the proof from the copy as 
prepared must be circled in the margin.
  2.85. All instructions on copy must be carried on proof by 
readers.
  2.86. Folios of copy must be run by the proofreader and 
marked on the proof.
  2.87. All instructions, comments, and extraneous notes on 
both copy and proofs which are not intended to be set as part 
of the text must be circled.

                                REVISING

Galley revising

  2.88. The importance of revising proofs cannot be 
overemphasized. Although a reviser is not expected to read 
proof, it is not enough to follow the marks found on the proof. 
He or she should be alert to detect errors and inconsistencies 
and must see that all corrections have been properly made and 
that words or lines have not been transposed or eliminated in 
making the corrections.
  2.89. A reviser must not remodel the punctuation of the 
proofreaders or make any important changes. If an important 
change should be made, the reviser must submit the proposed 
change to the supervisor for a decision.
  2.90. In the body of the work, new pages must be properly 
indicated on the proof. (For new page information, see 
``Makeup.'')

[[Page 18]]

  2.91. All instructions and queries on proofs must be 
transferred to the revised set of proofs.

Page revising

  2.92. Page revising requires great diligence and care. The 
reviser must see that the rules governing the instructions of 
previous workers have been followed.
  2.93. The reviser is responsible for marking all bleed and 
offcenter pages.
  2.94. A blank page must be indicated at the bottom of the 
preceding page.
  2.95. Special care must be exercised in revising corrected 
matter. If it appears that a correction has not been made, the 
reviser should carefully examine each line on the page to see 
if the correction was inserted in the wrong place.
  2.96. The following rules must be carefully observed:
  a. See that the proof is clean and clear; request another if 
necessary.
  b. Verify that the galley proofs are in order and that the 
data on the galleys runs in properly to facilitate continuous 
makeup.
  c. Make sure that different sets of proofs of the same job 
are correctly marked in series (``R,'' ``2R,'' ``3R,'' etc.); 
where a sheet is stamped ``Another proof,'' carry the same 
designating ``R'' on the corresponding clean proof. Advance the 
``R,'' ``2R,'' ``3R,'' etc., on each set of page proofs 
returned from the originating office.
  d. Run the page folios, make sure they are consecutive and 
that the running heads, if used, are correct. Check connection 
pages. Verify correct sequence for footnote references and 
placement. It is imperative that footnotes appear or begin on 
the same page as their reference, unless style dictates that 
all footnotes are to appear together in one location.
  e. Watch for dropouts, doublets, and transpositions.
  f. Legend lines of full-page illustrations that appear broad 
should be printed to read up--the even-page legend on the 
binding or inside margin and the odd-page legend on the outside 
margin.
  g. If a footnote is eliminated, do not renumber the 
footnotes; change footnote to read ``Footnote eliminated.''
  2.97. If a footnote is added in proof, use the preceding 
number with a superior letter added, as \15\a.
  2.98. Where a table with footnotes falls at the bottom of a 
page containing footnotes to text, print the table footnotes 
above the text footnotes, separated by a rule 50 points long, 
flush left, with spacing on each side of the rule. (See also 
rule 13.77.)

[[Page 19]]

Press revising

  2.99. Press revising calls for the exercise of utmost care. 
The press reviser must be thoroughly familiar with the style 
and makeup of Government publications. He or she is required to 
OK all forms that go to press--bookwork, covers, jobwork, etc., 
and must see that all queries are answered. A knowledge of the 
bindery operations required to complete a book or job and 
familiarity with all types of imposition, folds, etc., is 
helpful. The reviser must be capable of ascertaining the proper 
head, back, and side margins for all work, to ensure proper 
trimming of the completed job.
  2.100. Although speed is essential when forms reach the press 
reviser, accuracy is still paramount and must not be 
sacrificed.

                         SIGNATURE MARKS, ETC.

  2.101. Unless otherwise indicated, signature marks are set in 
6-point lowercase and indented 3 ems.
  2.102. Figures indicating the year should follow the jacket 
number in signature marks:
125-327--00----4               116-529--00--vol. 1----3
116-529--00--pt. 5----3
  2.103. When the allmark (O) and signature or the imprint and 
signature appear on same page, the signature line is placed 
below the allmark or imprint. (See rule 2.117.)
  2.104. The allmark is placed below the page, bulletin, or 
circular number but above the signature line, if both appear on 
the same page.
  2.105. Imprints and signature lines appearing on short pages 
of text are placed at the bottom of the page.
  2.106. On a congressional job reprinted because of change, 
the House and Senate have approved the following styles:
House of Representatives:      Senate:
  17-234--00----2          17-235--00----2 (Star Print)

  2.107. The following forms are used for signature marks in 
House and Senate documents and reports printed on session
jackets:
H. Doc. 73, 00-1----2
S. Doc. 57, 00-2, pt. 1----2
H. Rept. 120, 00-2----8
S. Doc. 57, 00-1----2
S. Doc. 57, 00-2, vol. 1----2
S. Rept. 100, 00-2----9
  2.108. In a document or report printed on other than a 
session jacket, use the jacket number, year, and signature 
number only, omitting the document or report number. (See rule 
2.102.)
  2.109. For pasters, the jacket number, the year, and the page 
to be faced by the paster are used as follows (note 
punctuation):
      12-344----00 (Face p. 10)

[[Page 20]]

  2.110. On a paster facing an even page, the marks are placed 
on the lower right-hand side; on a paster facing an odd page, 
the marks are placed on the lower left-hand side.
  2.111. If more than one paster faces the same page, each is 
numbered as follows:
      12-344----00 (Face p. 19) No. 1
      12-344----00 (Face p. 19) No. 2
  2.112. When a paster follows the text, the allmark is placed 
on the last page of the text and never on the paster.

                 REPRINTS, IMPRINTS, AND SALES NOTICES

Reprints

  2.113. To aid bibliographic identification of reprints or 
revisions, the dates of the original edition and of reprint or 
revision should be supplied by the author on the title page or 
in some other suitable place. Thus:

First edition July 1990
Reprinted July 1995

First printed June 1990
Revised June 1995
Original edition May 1990
Reprinted May 1995
Revised July 1997

  
  2.114. The year in the imprint on cover, title page, or 
elsewhere is not changed from that in the original print, nor 
are the signatures changed, unless other mends are necessary.

Imprints

  2.115. Unless otherwise stipulated, the Government Printing 
Office imprint must appear on all printed matter, with the 
exception of certain classified work.
  2.116. The full GPO imprint is used on the title page of a 
congressional speech.
  2.117. The imprint and allmark are not used together on any 
page; if one is used, the other is omitted.
  2.118. The imprint is not used on a halftitle or on any page 
of a cover, with the exception of congressional hearings.
  2.119. If there is a title page, the imprint is placed on the 
title page; but if there is no title page, or if the title page 
is entirely an illustration, the imprint is placed on the last 
page of the text 4 ems from flush right and below the bottom 
folio.
  2.120. The Government Printing Office crest is used only on 
Government Printing Office publications. If it is printed on 
page ii, the full imprint is used on the title page; if it is 
printed on the title page, use the half imprint only, thus--
Washington : 2000.

[[Page 21]]

Sales notices

  2.121. The use of sales notices is discouraged.
  2.122. If there is a cover but no title page, the sales 
notice is printed on the cover. Unless otherwise indicated, if 
there is a title page, with or without a cover, the sales 
notice is printed at the bottom of the title page below a cross 
rule. If there is no cover or title page, the sales notice is 
printed at the end of the text, below the imprint, and the two 
are separated by a cross rule.

Imprint variations

  2.123. This is one style of an imprint that can appear on the 
title page.
         For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
                       Government Printing Office
            Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov  
             Phone: 202-512-1800  Fax: 202-512-2250
         Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001
                 www.access.gpo.gov/su--docs

  2.124. In the event that a title page is not used, the 
imprint is printed on the last page and positioned flush left 
below the text.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office
 Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov  Phone: 202-512-1800 
 Fax: 202-512-2250
 Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001
 www.access.gpo.gov/su--docs

  2.125. Outside-purchase publications are identified by an 
open star at the beginning of the imprint line. These lines are 
positioned 4 ems from the right margin.

                 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2000--456-789

  2.126. Publications purchased outside which are reprinted by 
the GPO use an em dash in lieu of the open star.

                     --U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2000--456-789

  2.127. Jobs set on outside purchase but printed by the GPO 
use an asterisk in lieu of the open star.

                       *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2000--456-789

   2.128. Publications produced from camera copy supplied to the 
GPO are identified by cc printed at the end of the line.

                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2000--123-456-cc

                                FRANKING

  2.129. The franking (mailing) privilege on covers for 
Government publications should be at least 1\1/8\ inches from 
the trim.

[[Page 22]]

Bibliographies or references

  2.130. There are many styles available to bibliographers, for 
there are many classes of documents. A Government bulletin 
citation, according to one authority, would be treated as 
follows:
  Author's name (if the article is signed); title of article (in 
quotation marks); the publication (usually in italic), with correct 
references to volume, number, series, pages, date, and publisher (U.S. 
Govt. Print. Off.).
  Therefore the example would read:
  U.S. Department of the Interior, ``Highlights in history of forest and 
related natural source conservation,'' Conservation Bulletin, No. 41 
(serial number not italic), Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior (or 
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.), 1997. 1 p. (or p. 1).
  Another Government periodical citation would read as follows:
  Reese, Herbert Harshman, ``How To Select a Sound Horse,'' Farmers' 
Bulletin, No. 779, pp. 1-26 (1987), U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
  Clarity may be maintained by capitalizing each word in book 
titles, but only the first word in the title of articles.
  Other examples are:
  Preston W. Slosson, The Great Crusade and After: 1914-1928 (New York: 
Macmillan, 1930)
  Edward B. Rosa, ``The economic importance of the scientific work of 
the government,'' J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920)

or:

  Preston W. Slosson, The Great Crusade and After: 1914-1928 (New York: 
Macmillan, 1930)
  Edward B. Rosa, ``The Economic Importance of the Scientific Work of 
the Government,'' J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920)
  Note that the principal words in both book titles and titles 
of articles are capitalized. Consistency is more important in 
bibliographic style than the style itself.
  The science of bibliography is covered in many texts, and the 
following references are available for study:
  Bibliographic Procedures and Style: A Manual for Bibliographers in the 
Library of Congress. Superintendent of Documents, Washington, DC 20402.
  Better Report Writing, by Willis H. Waldo. Reinhold Publishing Corp., 
New York, 1995.
  Macmillan Handbook of English, by Robert F. Wilson. Macmillan Co., New 
York, 1992.
  A Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1993.
  Suggestions to Authors of the Reports of the U.S. Geological Survey. 
Superintendent of Documents, Washington, DC 20402.
  Words Into Type, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1994.



[[Page 23]]

 
                        3. CAPITALIZATION RULES

  (See also ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols'' and ``Capitalization 
                              Examples'')

  3.1. It is impossible to give rules that will cover every 
conceivable problem in capitalization; but by considering the 
purpose to be served and the underlying principles, it is 
possible to attain a considerable degree of uniformity. The 
list of approved forms given in chapter 4 will serve as a 
guide. Obviously such a list cannot be complete. The correct 
usage with respect to any term not included can be determined 
by analogy or by application of the rules.

Proper names

  3.2. Proper names are capitalized.
Rome
Brussels
John Macadam
Macadam family
Italy
Anglo-Saxon

Derivatives of proper names

  3.3. Derivatives of proper names used with a proper meaning 
are capitalized.
Roman (of Rome)        Johannean        Italian

  3.4. Derivatives of proper names used with acquired 
independent common meaning, or no longer identified with such 
names, are set lowercased. Since this depends upon general and 
long-continued usage, a more definite and all-inclusive rule 
cannot be formulated in advance.
roman (type)
brussels sprouts
venetian blinds
macadam (crushed rock)
watt (electric unit)
plaster of paris
italicize
anglicize
pasteurize

 Common nouns and adjectives in proper names

  3.5. A common noun or adjective forming an essential part of 
a proper name is capitalized; the common noun used alone as a 
substitute for the name of a place or thing is not capitalized.

      Massachusetts Avenue; the avenue
      Washington Monument; the monument
      Statue of Liberty; the statue
      Hoover Dam; the dam
      Boston Light; the light
      Modoc National Forest; the national forest
      Panama Canal; the canal
      Soldiers' Home of Ohio; the soldiers' home
      Johnson House (hotel); Johnson house (residence)
      Crow Reservation; the reservation

[[Page 24]]


      Federal Express; the express
      Cape of Good Hope; the cape
      Jersey City
      Washington City
  but city of Washington; the city
      Cook County; the county
      Great Lakes; the lakes
      Lake of the Woods; the lake
      North Platte River; the river
      Lower California
  but lower Mississippi
      Charles the First; Charles I
      Seventeenth Census; the 1960 census

  3.6. If a common noun or adjective forming an essential part 
of a name becomes separated from the rest of the name by an 
intervening common noun or adjective, the entire expression is 
no longer a proper noun and is therefore not capitalized.
      Union Station: union passenger station
      Eastern States: eastern farming States
      United States popularly elected government

  3.7. A common noun used alone as a well-known short form of a 
specific proper name is capitalized.
      the Capitol building in Washington, DC; but State capitol 
        building
      the Channel (English Channel)
      the Chunnel (tunnel below English Channel)
      the District (District of Columbia)
      the Soldiers' and Airmen's Home (District of Columbia 
        only)

  3.8. The plural form of a common noun capitalized as part of 
a proper name is also capitalized.
      Seventh and I Streets
      Lakes Erie and Ontario
      Potomac and James Rivers
      State and Treasury Departments
      British, French, and United States Governments
      Presidents Washington and Adams

  3.9. A common noun used with a date, number, or letter, 
merely to denote time or sequence, or for the purpose of 
reference, record, or temporary convenience, does not form a 
proper name and is therefore not capitalized. (See also rule 
3.38.)

abstract B
act of 1928
amendment 5
apartment 2
appendix C
article 1
book II
chapter III
chart B
class I
collection 6
column 2
drawing 6
exhibit D
figure 7
first district (not congressional)
flight 007
graph 8
group 7
history 301
mile 7.5
page 2
paragraph 4
part I
phase 3
plate IV
region 3
room A722
rule 8
schedule K
section 3
signature 4
spring 1926
station 27
table 4
title IV
treaty of 1919
volume X
war of 1914
ward 2

    

[[Page 25]]

  3.10. The following terms are lowercased, even with a name or 
number.
aqueduct
breakwater
buoy
chute
dike
dock
drydock
irrigation project
jetty
levee
lock
pier
reclamation project
ship canal
shipway
slip
spillway
turnpike
watershed
weir
wharf

Definite article in proper place names

  3.11. To achieve greater distinction or to adhere to the 
authorized form, the word the (or its equivalent in a foreign 
language) is capitalized when used as a part of an official 
name or title. When such name or title is used adjectively, the 
is not capitalized, nor is the supplied at any time when not in 
copy.
      British Consul v. The Mermaid (title of legal case)
      The Dalles (OR); The Weirs (NH); but the Dalles region; 
        the Weirs streets
      The Hague; but the Hague Court; the Second Hague 
        Conference
      El Salvador; Las Cruces; L'Esterel
      The National Mall; The Mall (Washington, DC only)
      The Gambia
  but the Congo, the Sudan, the Netherlands

  3.12. In common practice, rule 3.11 is disregarded in 
references to newspapers, periodicals, vessels, airships, 
trains, firm names, etc.
the Washington Post
the Times
the Atlantic Monthly
the Mermaid 
the U-3
the Los Angeles
the Federal Express
the National Photo Co.

Particles in names of persons

  3.13. In foreign names such particles as d', da, de, della, 
den, du, van, and von are capitalized unless preceded by a 
forename or title. Individual usage, if ascertainable, should 
be followed.
      Da Ponte; Cardinal da Ponte
      Den Uyl; Johannes den Uyl; Prime Minister den Uyl
      Du Pont; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
      Van Rensselaer; Stephen van Rensselaer
      Von Braun; Wernher von Braun
  but d'Orbigny; Alcide d'Orbigny; de la Madrid; Miguel de la 
        Madrid

  3.14. In anglicized names such particles are usually 
capitalized, even if preceded by a forename or title, but 
individual usage, if ascertainable, should be followed.
      Justice Van Devanter; Reginald De Koven
      Thomas De Quincey; William De Morgan
      Henry van Dyke (his usage)
      Samuel F. Du Pont (his usage); Irenee du Pont

  3.15. If copy is not clear as to the form of such a name (for 
example, La Forge or Laforge), the two-word form should be 
used.
      De Kalb County (AL, GA, IL, IN)
  but DeKalb County (TN)

[[Page 26]]

  3.16. In names set in capitals, de, von, etc., are also 
capitalized.

Names of organized bodies

  3.17. The full names of existing or proposed organized bodies 
and their shortened names are capitalized; other substitutes, 
which are most often regarded as common nouns, are capitalized 
only in certain specified instances to indicate preeminence or 
distinction.

National governmental units:

    U.S. Congress: 106th Congress; the Congress; Congress; the 
      Senate; the House; Committee of the Whole, the Committee; 
      but committee (all other congressional committees)
    Department of Agriculture: the Department; Division of 
      Publications, the Division; similarly all major 
      departmental units; but legislative, executive, and 
      judicial departments
    Bureau of the Census: the Census Bureau, the Bureau; but 
      the agency
    Environmental Protection Agency: the Agency
    Geological Survey: the Survey
    Government Printing Office: the Printing Office, the Office
    American Embassy, British Embassy: the Embassy; but the 
      consulate; the consulate general
    Treasury of the United States: General Treasury; National 
      Treasury; Public Treasury; the Treasury; Treasury notes; 
      New York Subtreasury, the subtreasury
    Department of Defense: Military Establishment; Armed 
      Forces; All-Volunteer Forces; but armed services
    U.S. Army: the Army; All-Volunteer Army; the Infantry; 81st 
      Regiment; Army Establishment; the Army Band; Army 
      officer; Regular Army officer; Reserve officer; Volunteer 
      officer; but army shoe; Grant's army; Robinson's brigade; 
      the brigade; the corps; the regiment; infantryman
    U.S. Navy: the Navy; the Marine Corps; Navy (Naval) 
      Establishment; Navy officer; but naval shipyard; naval 
      officer; naval station
    U.S. Air Force: the Air Force
    U.S. Coast Guard: the Coast Guard
    French Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Ministry; French 
      Army; British Navy
International organizations:
    United Nations: the Council; the Assembly; the Secretariat
    Permanent Court of Arbitration: the Court; the Tribunal 
      (only in the proceedings of a specific arbitration 
      tribunal)
    Hague Peace Conference of 1907: the Hague Conference; the 
      Peace Conference; the Conference
Common-noun substitutes:
    Virginia Assembly: the assembly; the senate; the house of 
      delegates
    California State Highway Commission: Highway Commission of 
      California; the highway commission; the commission
    Montgomery County Board of Health: the Board of Health, 
      Montgomery County; the board of health; the board
    Common Council of the City of Pittsburgh: the common 
      council; the council
    Buffalo Consumers' League: the consumers' league; the 
      league
    Republican Party: the party
    Southern Railroad Co.: the Southern Railroad; Southern Co.; 
      Southern Road; the railroad company; the company
    Riggs National Bank: the Riggs Bank; the bank
    Metropolitan Club: the club
    Yale School of Law: Yale University School of Law; School 
      of Law, Yale University; school of law

  3.18. The names of members and adherents of organized bodies 
are capitalized to distinguish them from the same words used 
merely in a descriptive sense.

[[Page 27]]

a Representative (U.S.)
a Republican
an Elk
a Federalist
a Shriner
a Socialist
an Odd Fellow
a Communist
a Boy Scout
a Knight (K.C., K.P., etc.)

Names of countries, domains, and administrative divisions

  3.19. The official designations of countries, national 
domains, and their principal administrative divisions are 
capitalized only if used as part of proper names, as proper 
names, or as proper adjectives. (See table on p. 228.)
United States: the Republic; the Nation; the Union; the Government; 
    also Federal, Federal Government; but republic (when not referring 
    specifically to one such entity); republican (in general sense); a 
    nation devoted to peace
New York State: the State, a State (a definite political subdivision of 
    first rank); State of Veracruz; Balkan States; six States of 
    Australia; State rights; but state (referring to a federal 
    government, the body politic); foreign states; church and state; 
    statehood; state's evidence
Territory (Canada): Yukon, Northwest Territories; the Territory(ies), 
    Territorial; but territory of American Samoa, Guam, Virgin Islands
Dominion of Canada: the Dominion; but dominion (in general sense)
Ontario Province, Province of Ontario: the Province, Provincial; but 
    province, provincial (in general sense)

  3.20. The similar designations commonwealth, confederation 
(federal), government, nation (national), powers, republic, 
etc., are capitalized only if used as part of proper names, as 
proper names, or as proper adjectives.
British Commonwealth, Commonwealth of Virginia: the Commonwealth; but a 
    commonwealth government (general sense)
Swiss Confederation: the Confederation; the Federal Council; the 
    Federal Government; but confederation, federal (in general sense)
French Government: the Government; French and Italian Governments: the 
    Governments; but government (in general sense); the Churchill 
    government; European governments
Cherokee Nation: the nation; but Greek nation; American nations
National Government (of any specific nation); but national customs
Allied Powers, Allies (in World Wars I and II); but our allies, weaker 
    allies; Central Powers (in World War I); but the powers; European 
    powers
Republic of South Africa: the Republic; but republic (in general sense)

Names of regions, localities, and geographic features

  3.21. A descriptive term used to denote a definite region, 
locality, or geographic feature is a proper name and is 
therefore capitalized; also for temporary distinction a coined 
name of a region is capitalized.
the North Atlantic States
the Gulf States
the Central States
the Pacific Coast States
the Lake States
East North Central States
Eastern North Central States
Far Western States
Eastern United States
the West
the Midwest
the Middle West
the Far West
the Eastern Shore
  (Chesapeake Bay)
the Badlands (SD and NE)
the Continental Divide
Deep South
Midsouth
the Far East
Far Eastern
the East
Middle East
Middle Eastern
Mideast
Mideastern (Asia)

[[Page 28]]


Near East (Balkans, etc.)
the Promised Land
the Continent (continental Europe)
the Western Hemisphere
the North Pole
the North and South Poles
the Temperate Zone
the Torrid Zone
the East Side
Lower East Side (sections of a city)
Western Europe, Central Europe (political entities)
  
but
lower 48 (States)
the Northeast corridor

  3.22. A descriptive term used to denote mere direction or 
position is not a proper name and is therefore not capitalized.
      north; south; east; west
      northerly; northern; northward
      eastern; oriental; occidental
      east Pennsylvania
      southern California
      northern Virginia
      west Florida; but West Florida (1763-1819)
      eastern region; western region
      north-central region
      east coast; eastern seaboard
      northern Italy
      southern France
  but East Germany; West Germany (former political entities)

Names of calendar divisions

  3.23. The names of calendar divisions are capitalized.
      January; February; March; etc.
      Monday; Tuesday; Wednesday; etc.
  but spring; summer; autumn (fall); winter

Names of historic events, etc.

  3.24. The names of holidays, ecclesiastic feast and fast 
days, and historic events are capitalized.
      Battle of Bunker Hill
      Christian Era; Middle Ages
      Feast of the Passover; the Passover
      Fourth of July; the Fourth
      Ramadan
      Reformation
      Renaissance
      Veterans Day
      War of 1812; World War II
  but war of 1914; Korean war; Vietnam war; gulf war

Trade names

  3.25. Trade names, variety names, and names of market grades 
and brands are capitalized. Common nouns following such names 
are not capitalized.
Snow Crop (trade name)
Choice lamb (market grade)
Yellow Stained cotton (market grade)
Red Radiance rose (variety)

[[Page 29]]



Scientific names

  3.26. The name of a phylum, class, order, family, or genus is 
capitalized. The name of a species is not capitalized, even 
though derived from a proper name. (See rule 11.9.)
Arthropoda (phylum), Crustacea (class), Hypoparia (order), Agnostidae 
  (family), Agnostus (genus)
Agnostus canadensis; Aconitum wilsoni; Epigaea repens (genus and 
  species)

  3.27. In scientific descriptions coined terms derived from 
proper names are not capitalized.
aviculoid
menodontine

  3.28. Any plural formed by adding s to a Latin generic name 
is capitalized.
Rhynchonellas
Spirifers

  3.29. In soil science the 24 soil classifications are 
capitalized.
Alpine Meadow
Bog
Brown

  3.30. Capitalize the names of the celestial bodies Sun and 
Moon, as well as the planets Earth, Mercury, Venus, Mars, 
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
  but the moons of Jupiter

Appellations

  3.31. An appellation of historical, political, etc., events 
used with or for a proper name is capitalized.
Big Four
Dust Bowl
Fall of Rome
Great Depression
Great Society
Holocaust
Hub (Boston)
Keystone State
New Deal
New Federalism
New Frontier
Prohibition
Third World
War on Poverty

Personification

  3.32. A vivid personification is capitalized.
      The Chair recognizes the gentlewoman from New York;
  but I spoke with the chair yesterday.
      For Nature wields her scepter mercilessly.
      All are architects of Fate,
        Working in these walls of Time.

Religious terms

  3.33. Words denoting the Deity except who, whose, and whom; 
names for the Bible and other sacred writings and their parts; 
names of confessions of faith and of religious bodies and their 
adherents; and words specifically denoting Satan are all 
capitalized.
Heavenly Father; the Almighty; Lord; Thee; Thou; He; Him; but himself; 
  [God's] fatherhood
Mass; red Mass; Communion
Divine Father; but divine providence; divine guidance; divine service
Son of Man; Jesus' sonship; the Messiah; but a messiah; messiahship; 
  messianic; messianize; christology; christological

[[Page 30]]

Bible, Holy Scriptures, Scriptures, Word; Koran; also Biblical; 
  Scriptural; Koranic
New Testament; Ten Commandments
Gospel (memoir of Christ); but gospel truth
Apostles' Creed; Augsburg Confession; Thirty-nine Articles
Episcopal Church; an Episcopalian; Catholicism; a Protestant
Christian; also Christendom; Christianity; Christianize
Black Friars; Brother(s); King's Daughters; Daughter(s); Ursuline 
  Sisters; Sister(s)
Satan; the Devil; but a devil; the devils; devil's advocate

Titles of persons

  3.34. Civil, religious, military, and professional titles, as 
well as those of nobility, immediately preceding a name are 
capitalized.
President Clinton
King George
Ambassador Acton
Lieutenant Fowler
Chairman Smith
Dr. Bellinger
Nurse Joyce Norton
Professor Leverett
Examiner Jones (law)
Vice-Presidential candidate Kemp
  but baseball player Ripken; maintenance man Flow; group chief 
        Collins

  3.35. To indicate preeminence or distinction in certain 
specified instances, a common-noun title immediately following 
the name of a person or used alone as a substitute for it is 
capitalized.
Title of a head or assistant head of state:
    William J. Clinton, President of the United States: the 
      President; the President-elect; the Executive; the Chief 
      Magistrate; the Commander in Chief; ex-President Bush; 
      former President Truman; similarly the Vice President; 
      the Vice-President-elect; ex-Vice-President Mondale
    James Gilmore, Governor of Virginia: the Governor of 
      Virginia; the Governor; similarly the Lieutenant 
      Governor; but secretary of state of Idaho; attorney 
      general of Maine
Title of a head or assistant head of an existing or a proposed National 
  governmental unit:
    Madeleine Albright, Secretary of State: the Secretary; 
      similarly the Acting Secretary; the Under Secretary; the 
      Assistant Secretary; the Director; the Chief or Assistant 
      Chief; the Chief Clerk; etc.; but Secretaries of the 
      military departments; secretaryship
Titles of the military:
    General of the Army(ies): United States only; Supreme 
      Allied Commander; Gen. Henry H. Shelton, Chairman, Joint 
      Chiefs of Staff; Joint Chiefs of Staff; Chief of Staff, 
      U.S. Air Force; the Chief of Staff; but the commanding 
      general; general (military title standing alone not 
      capitalized)
Titles of members of diplomatic corps:
    Walter S. Gifford, Ambassador Extraordinary and 
      Plenipotentiary: the American Ambassador; the British 
      Ambassador; the Ambassador; the Senior Ambassador; His 
      Excellency; similarly the Envoy Extraordinary and 
      Minister Plenipotentiary; the Envoy; the Minister; the 
      Charge d'Affaires; the Charge; Ambassador at Large; 
      Minister Without Portfolio; but the consul general; the 
      consul; the attache; etc.
Title of a ruler or prince:
    Elizabeth II, Queen of England: the Queen; the Crown; Her 
      Most Gracious Majesty; Her Majesty; similarly the 
      Emperor; the Sultan
    Charles, Prince of Wales: the Prince; His Royal Highness
Titles not capitalized:
    Charles F. Hughes, rear admiral, U.S. Navy: the rear 
      admiral
    Lloyd H. Elliott, president of George Washington 
      University: the president
    C.H. Eckles, professor of dairy husbandry: the professor
    Betty Acton, chairwoman of the committee; the chairman; the 
      chairperson; the chair

[[Page 31]]

  3.36. In formal lists of delegates and representatives of 
governments, all titles and descriptive designations 
immediately following the names should be capitalized if any 
one is capitalized.

  3.37. A title in the second person is capitalized.
Your Excellency
Your Highness
Your Honor
Mr. Chairman
Madam Chairman
Mr. Secretary
  
but not salutations:
  my dear General
  my dear sir

Titles of publications, papers, documents, acts, laws, etc.

  3.38. In the full or short English titles of periodicals, 
series of publications, annual reports, historic documents, and 
works of art, the first word and all important words are 
capitalized.
Statutes at Large; Revised Statutes; District Code; Bancroft's History; 
    Journal (House or Senate) (short titles); but the code; the 
    statutes
Atlantic Charter; Balfour Declaration; but British white paper
Chicago's American; but Chicago American Publishing Co.
Reader's Digest; but New York Times Magazine; Newsweek magazine
Monograph 55; Research Paper 123; Bulletin 420; Circular A; Article 15: 
    Uniform Code of Military Justice; Senate Document 70; House 
    Resolution 45; Presidential Proclamation No. 24; Executive Order 
    No. 24; Royal Decree No. 24; Public Law 89-1; Private and Union 
    Calendars; Calendar No. 80; Calendar Wednesday; Committee Print No. 
    32, committee print; but Senate bill 416; House bill 61
Annual Report of the Public Printer, 1998; but seventh annual report, 
    19th annual report
Declaration of Independence; the Declaration
Constitution (United States or with name of country); constitutional; 
    but New York State constitution: first amendment, 12th amendment
Kellogg Pact; North Atlantic Pact; Atlantic Pact; Treaty of Versailles; 
    Jay Treaty; but treaty of peace, the treaty (descriptive 
    designations); treaty of 1919
United States v. Four Hundred Twenty-two Casks of Wine (law)
The Blue Boy, Excalibur, Whistler's Mother (paintings)

  3.39. All principal words are capitalized in titles of 
addresses, articles, books, captions, chapter and part 
headings, editorials, essays, headings, headlines, motion 
pictures and plays (including television and radio programs), 
papers, short poems, reports, songs, subheadings, subjects, and 
themes. The foregoing are also quoted.

  3.40. In the short or popular titles of acts (Federal, State, 
or foreign) the first word and all important words are 
capitalized.
Revenue Act; Walsh-Healey Act; Freedom of Information Act; 
  Classification Act; but the act; Harrison narcotic law; Harrison 
  narcotic bill; interstate commerce law; sunset law

  3.41. The capitalization of the titles of books, etc., 
written in a foreign language is to conform to the national 
practice in that language.

First words

  3.42. The first word of a sentence, of an independent clause 
or phrase, of a direct quotation, of a formally introduced 
series of items or phrases following a comma or colon, or of a 
line of poetry, is capitalized.

[[Page 32]]

The question is, Shall the bill pass?
He asked, ``And where are you going?''
The vote was as follows: In the affirmative, 23; in the negative, 11; 
    not voting, 3.
                   Lives of great men all remind us
                      We can make our lives sublime.

  3.43. The first word of a fragmentary quotation is not 
capitalized.
She objected ``to the phraseology, not to the ideas.''

  3.44. The first word following a colon, an exclamation point, 
or a question mark is not capitalized if the matter following 
is merely a supplementary remark making the meaning clearer.
Revolutions are not made: they come.
Intelligence is not replaced by mechanism: even the televox must be 
    guided by its master's voice.
But two months dead! nay, not so much; not two.
What is this? Your knees to me? to your corrected son?

  3.45. The first word following Whereas in resolutions, 
contracts, etc., is not capitalized; the first word following 
an enacting or resolving clause is capitalized.
Whereas the Constitution provides * * *; and
Whereas Congress has passed a law * * *;
Whereas, moreover, * * *: Therefore be it
Whereas the Senate provided for the * * *: Now, therefore, be it
Resolved, That * * *; and be it further
Resolved (jointly), That * * * 
Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), That 
    * * *. (Concurrent resolution, Federal Government.)
Resolved by the Senate of Oklahoma (the House of Representatives 
    concurring therein), That * * *. (Concurrent resolution, using name 
    of State.)
Resolved by the senate (the house of representatives concurring 
    therein), That * * * . (Concurrent resolution, not using name of 
    State.)
Resolved by the Assembly and Senate of the State of California 
    (jointly), That * * *. (Joint resolution, using name of State.)
Resolved by the Washington Board of Trade, That * * * 
Provided, That * * * 
Provided further, That * * * 
Provided, however, That * * * 
And provided further, That * * * 
Ordered, That * * *
Be it enacted, That * * * 

Center and side heads

  3.46. Unless otherwise marked, centerheads are set in 
capitals, and sideheads are set in lowercase and only the first 
word and proper names are capitalized. In centerheads making 
two lines, wordbreaks should be avoided. The first line should 
be centered and set as full as possible.

  3.47. In heads set in caps, a small-cap c or ac, if 
available, is used in such names as McLean or MacLeod; 
otherwise a lowercase c or ac is used. In heads set in small 
caps, a thin space is used after the c or the ac.

  3.48. In such names as LeRoy, DeHostis, LaFollette, etc. 
(one-word forms only), set in caps, the second letter of the 
particle is

[[Page 33]]

made a small cap, if available; otherwise lowercase is used. In 
heads set in small caps, a thin space is used. (See rule 3.15.)

  3.49. In matter set in caps and small caps or caps and 
lowercase, capitalize all principal words, including parts of 
compounds which would be capitalized standing alone. The 
articles a, an, and the; the prepositions at, by, for, in, of, 
on, to, and up; the conjunctions and, as, but, if, or, and nor; 
and the second element of a compound numeral are not 
capitalized. (See also rule 8.129.)
      World en Route to All-Out War
      Curfew To Be Set for 10 o'Clock
      Man Hit With 2-Inch Pipe
      No-Par-Value Stock for Sale
      Yankees May Be Winners in Zig-Zag Race
      Ex-Senator Is To Be Admitted
      Notice of Filing and Order on Exemption From Requirements
  but Building on Twenty-first Street (if spelled)
      One Hundred and Twenty-three Years (if spelled)
      Only One-tenth of Shipping Was Idle
      Many 35-Millimeter Films in Production
      Built-Up Stockpiles Are Necessary (Up is an adverb here)
      His Per Diem Was Increased (Per Diem is used as a noun 
        here); Lower Taxes per Person (per is a preposition 
        here)
  3.50. If a normally lowercased short word is used in 
juxtaposition with a capitalized word of like significance, it 
should also be capitalized.
      Buildings In and Near the Minneapolis Mall

  3.51. In a heading set in caps and lowercase or in caps and 
small caps, a normally lowercased last word, if it is the only 
lowercased word in the heading, should also be capitalized.
      All Returns Are In

  3.52. The first element of an infinitive is capitalized.
      Controls To Be Applied
  but Aid Sent to Disaster Area

  3.53. In matter set in caps and small caps, such 
abbreviations as etc., et al., and p.m. are set in small caps; 
in matter set in caps and lowercase, these abbreviations are 
set in lowercase.
Planes, Guns, Ships, etc.
Planes, Guns, Ships, etc.

James Bros. et al. (no comma)
James Bros. et al.

In re the 8 p.m. Meeting
In re the 8 p.m. Meeting

  
  
  3.54. Paragraph series letters in parentheses appearing in 
heads set in caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or in caps 
and lowercase are to be set as in copy.
      section 1.580(f)(1)

[[Page 34]]

Addresses, salutations, and signatures

  3.55. The first word and all principal words in addresses, 
salutations, and signatures are capitalized. See Chapter 
``Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures.''

Interjections

  3.56. The interjection O is always capitalized. Interjections 
within a sentence are not capitalized.
      Sail on, O Ship of State!
      For lo! the days are hastening on.
      But, oh, how fortunate!

Historic or documentary accuracy

  3.57. Where historic, documentary, technical, or scientific 
accuracy is required, capitalization and other features of 
style of the original text should be followed.



[[Page 35]]


 
                       4. CAPITALIZATION EXAMPLES

 (Based on the rules in the preceding chapter, ``Capitalization Rules'')

A-bomb
abstract B, 1, etc.
Academy:
  Air Force; the Academy
  Andover; the academy
  Coast Guard; the Academy
  Merchant Marine; the Academy
  Military; the Academy
  National Academy of Sciences; the Academy of Sciences; the academy
  Naval; the Academy
  but service academies
accord, Paris peace (see Agreement)
accords, Helsinki
Act (Federal, State, or foreign),  short or popular title or with 
        number; the act:
  Appropriation
  Classification
  Economy
  Flood Control
  Lend-Lease Act; but lend-lease materials, etc.
  National Teacher Corps
  Organic Act of Virgin Islands
  Panama Canal
  Pay
  Public Act 145 (see also Public Act)
  Revenue
  River and Harbor Act of 1996
  Selective Training and Service
  Stock Piling
  Tariff
  Trademark
  Walsh-Healey Act; but Walsh-Healey law (or bill)
act, labor-management relations
Acting, if part of capitalized title
ACTION (independent Federal agency)\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \1\ Not an acronym. Capitalization represents agency's preference.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
Adjutant General, the (see The)
Administration, with name; capitalized standing alone if Federal unit:
  Farmers Home
  Food and Drug
  Maritime
  Veterans' (follow apostrophe)
  but Reagan administration; administration bill, policy, etc.
Administrative Law Judge Davis; Judge Davis; an administrative law judge
Administrator of Veterans' Affairs; the Administrator
Admiralty, British, etc.
Admiralty, Lord of the
Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF)
Adobe Acrobat Reader
Adviser, Legal (Department of State)
Africa:
  east
  East Coast
  north
  South
  South-West (Territory of)
  West Coast
African-American (see Black)
Agency, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    Federal unit:
  Central Intelligence; the Agency
  Chippewa (Indian); the agency
agent orange
Ages:
  Age of Discovery
  Dark Ages
  Elizabethan Age
  Golden Age (of Pericles only)
  Middle Ages
  but atomic age; Cambrian age; copper age; ice age; missile age; rocket 
    age; space age; stone age; etc.
Agreement, with name; the agreement:
  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT); the general agreement
  International Wheat Agreement; the wheat agreement; the coffee 
    agreement
  North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  Status of Forces; but status-of-forces agreements
  United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement; the free-trade agreement
  but the Geneva agreement; the Potsdam agreement; Paris peace agreement
Air Force:
  Air National Guard (see National)
  Base (with name); Air Force base (see Base; Station)
  Civil Air Patrol; Civil Patrol; the patrol
  Command (see Command)

[[Page 36]]

  One (Presidential plane)
  Reserve
  Reserve Officers' Training Corps
  WAF (see Women in the Air Force)
Airport: La Guardia; Reagan National; the airport
Alaska Native (collective term for Aleuts, Eskimos, and Indians of 
    Alaska): the Native; but a native of Alaska, Ohio, etc.
Alliance, Farmers', etc.; the alliance
Alliance for Progress; the Alliance
Alliance for Progress Program
alliances and coalitions (see also powers):
  Allied Powers; the powers (World Wars)
  Atlantic alliance
  Axis, the; Axis Powers; the powers
  Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg)
  Big Four (European); of the Pacific
  Big Three
  Central Powers; the powers (World War I)
  European Economic Community (see also Common Market)
  Fritalux (France, Italy, Benelux countries)
  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (see Organization)
  Western Powers
  Western Union (powers); the union
Allied (World Wars I and II):
  armies
  Governments
  Nations
  peoples
  Powers; the powers; but European powers
  Supreme Allied Commander
Allies, the (World Wars I and II); also members of Western bloc 
    (political entity); but our allies; weaker allies, etc.
Alzheimer's disease
Ambassador:
  British, etc.; the Ambassador; the Senior Ambassador; His Excellency
  Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary; the Ambassador; Ambassador at 
    Large; an ambassador
amendment:
  Social Security Amendments of 1954; 1954 amendments; the Social 
    Security amendments; the amendments
  Baker amendment
  to the Constitution (U.S.); first amendment, 14th amendment, etc.
American:
  Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-
    CIO); the federation
  Gold Star Mothers, Inc.; Gold Star Mothers; a Mother
  Legion (see Legion)
  National Red Cross; the Red Cross
  Veterans of World War II (AMVETS)
  War Mothers; War Mothers; a Mother
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
AmeriCorps Program
Amtrak (National Railroad Passenger Corporation)
Ancient Free and Accepted Masons; a Mason; a Freemason
Annex, if part of name of building; the annex
ANSI Z39.50
Antarctic Ocean (see Arctic; Ocean)
appellations:
  Bay State (Massachusetts)
  Big Four (powers, railroad, etc.)
  City of Churches (Brooklyn)
  Fair Deal
  Great Depression
  Great Society
  Holocaust
  Keystone State (Pennsylvania)
  New Deal
  New Federalism
  New Frontier
  the Hub (Boston)
  Third World
appendix 1, A, II, etc.; the appendix; but Appendix II, when part of 
    title: Appendix II: \2\ Education Directory
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \2\ The colon is preferred; a dash is permissible; but a comma is too 
weak.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
AppleShare
AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP)
appropriation bill  (see also bill):
  deficiency
  Department of Agriculture
  for any governmental unit
  independent offices
aquaculture; acquiculture
Arab States
Arabic numerals
Arboretum, National; the Arboretum
Archipelago, Philippine, etc.; the archipelago
Architect of the Capitol; the Architect
Archivist of the United States; the Archivist
Arctic:
  Circle
  Current (see Current)
  Ocean
  zone
  but subarctic
arctic  (descriptive adjective):
  clothing
  conditions
  fox
  grass
  night
  seas
Arctics, the
Area, if part of name; the area:
  Cape Hatteras Recreational
  White Pass Recreation; etc.

[[Page 37]]

Area--Continued
  but area 2; free trade area; Metropolitan Washington area; bay area; 
    nonsmoking area
Arlington:
  Memorial Amphitheater; the Memorial Amphitheater; the amphitheater
  Memorial Bridge (see Bridge)
  National Cemetery (see Cemetery)
Arm, Cavalry, Infantry, etc. (military); the arm
Armed Forces (synonym for overall Military Establishment); British Armed 
    Forces; the Armed Forces of the United States
armed services
armistice
Armory, Springfield, etc.; the armory
Army, American or foreign, if part of name; capitalized standing alone 
    only if referring to U.S. Army:
  Active; Active-Duty
  Adjutant General, the
  All-Volunteer
  Band (see Band)
  branches; Gordon Highlanders; Royal Guards; etc.
  Brigade, 1st, etc.; the brigade; Robinson's brigade
  Command (see Command)
  Command and General Staff College (see College)
  Company A; A Company; the company
  Confederate (referring to Southern Confederacy); the Confederates
  Continental; Continentals
  Corps (see Corps)
  District of Washington (military); the district
  Division, 1st, etc.; the division
  Engineers (the Corps of Engineers); the Engineers; but Army engineer
  Establishment
  Field Establishment
  Field Forces (see Forces)
  Finance Department; the Department
  1st, etc.
  General of the Army; but the general
  General Staff; the Staff
  Headquarters, 1st Regiment
  Headquarters of the; the headquarters
  Hospital Corps (see Corps)
  Medical Museum (see Museum)
  Organized Reserves; the Reserves
  Regiment, 1st, etc.; the regiment
  Regular Army officer; a Regular
  Revolutionary (American, British, French, etc.)
  service
  Surgeon General, the (see Surgeon General)
  Volunteer; the Volunteers; a Volunteer
army:
  Lee's army; but Clark's 5th Army
  mobile
  mule, shoe, etc.
  of occupation; occupation army
  Red
Arsenal, Rock Island, etc.; the arsenal
article 15; but Article 15, when part of title: Article 15: Uniform Code 
    of Military Justice
Articles
  of Confederation (U.S.)
  of Impeachment; the articles
Assembly of New York; the assembly (see also Legislative Assembly)
Assembly (see United Nations)
Assistant, if part of capitalized title; the assistant
assistant, Presidential (see Presidential)
Assistant Secretary (see Secretary)
Associate Justice (see Supreme Court)
Association, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    Federal unit:
  American Association for the Advancement of Science; the association
  Federal National Mortgage (Fannie Mae); the Association
  Young Women's Christian; the association
Astrophysical Observatory (see Observatory)
Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM)
Atlantic:
  Charter (see Charter)
  coast
  community
  Coast States
  Destroyer Flotilla; the destroyer flotilla; the flotilla
  Fleet (see Fleet)
  mid-Atlantic
  North
  Pact (see Pact)
  seaboard
  slope
  South
  time, standard time (see time)
  but cisatlantic; transatlantic
Attorney General (U.S. or foreign country); but attorney general of 
    Maine, etc.
attorney, U.S.
Authority, capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal unit:
  National Shipping; the Authority
  Port of New York; the port authority; the authority
  St. Lawrence Seaway Authority of Canada; the authority
  Tennessee Valley; the Authority
Auto Train (Amtrak)
autumn
Avenue, Constitution, etc.; the avenue
Award: Academy, Distinguished Service, Merit, Mother of the Year, etc.; 
    the award (see also decorations, etc.)
Axis, the (see alliances)
Ayatollah

[[Page 38]]

Badlands (SD and NE)
Balkan States (see States)
Baltic States (see States)
Band, if part of name; the band:
  Army, Marine, Navy
  Eastern, etc. (of Cherokee Indians)
Bank, if part of name; the bank; capitalized standing alone if referring 
    to international bank:
  Export-Import Bank of the United States; Ex-Im Bank; the Bank
  Farm Loan Bank of Dallas; Dallas Farm Loan Bank; farm loan bank; farm 
    loan bank at Dallas
  Farmers & Mechanics, etc.
  Federal home loan bank at Cumberland
  Federal Land Bank of Louisville; Louisville Federal Land Bank; land 
    bank at Louisville; Federal land bank
  Federal Reserve Bank of New York; Richmond Federal Reserve Bank; but 
    Reserve bank at Richmond; Federal Reserve bank; Reserve bank; 
    Reserve city
  First National, etc.
  German Central; the Bank
  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Bank
  International Monetary; the Bank
  International World; the Bank
  but blood bank, central reserve, soil bank
Bar, if part of name; Maryland (State) Bar Association; Maryland (State) 
    bar; the State bar; the bar association
Barracks, if part of name; the barracks:
  Carlisle
  Disciplinary (Leavenworth)
  Marine (District of Columbia)
  but A barracks; barracks A; etc.
Base, Andrews Air Force; Air Force base; the base (see also Naval); but 
    Sandia Base
Basin (see geographic terms)
Battery, the (New York City)
Battle, if part of name; the battle:
  of Gettysburg; but battle at Gettysburg; etc.
  of the Bulge; of the Marne; of the Wilderness; of Waterloo; etc.
battlefield, Bull Run, etc.
battleground, Manassas, etc.
Bay, San Francisco Bay area; the bay area
Belt, if part of name; the belt:
  Bible
  Corn
  Cotton
  Dairy
  Farm
  Ice
  Oil
  Rust
  Sun
  Wheat
  but money belt
Beltway, capitalized with name; the beltway
Bench (see Supreme Bench)
Benelux (see alliances)
Bible; Biblical; Scriptures; Ten Commandments; etc. (see also book)
Bible Belt (see Belt)
Bicentennial
  Commission; the Commission
  the Bicentennial
  celebration, ceremony
  State bicentennial
  a bicentennial (general sense)
bill, Kiess; Senate bill 217; House bill 31 (see also appropriation 
    bill)
Bill of Rights (historic document); but GI bill of rights
Bizonia; bizonal; bizone
Black (synonym for African-American)
Black Caucus (see Congressional)
bloc (see Western)
block (grants)
Bluegrass region, etc.
B'nai B'rith
Board, if part of name; capitalized standing alone only if referring to 
    Federal or international board:
  Employees' Compensation Appeals
  Federal Maritime
  Federal Reserve (see Federal)
  General (Navy)
  Loyalty Review
  Macy Board, etc. (Federal board with name of person)
  Military Production and Supply (NATO)
  National Labor Relations
  of Directors (Federal unit); but board of directors (nongovernmental)
  of Health of Montgomery County; Montgomery County Board of Health; the 
    board of health; the board
  of Managers (of the Soldiers' Home)
  of Regents (Smithsonian)
  of Visitors (Military and Naval Academies)
  on Geographic Names
  Railroad Retirement
Bolshevik; Bolsheviki (collective plural); Bolshevist; bolshevism
bond:
  Government
  savings
  series EE
  Treasury
  war
book:
  books of the Bible
  First Book of Samuel; etc.
  Good Book (synonym for Bible)
book 1, I, etc.; but Book 1, when part of title: Book 1: The Golden 
    Legend
Boolean logic
Boolean operator
Boolean search
Border Patrol (U.S.)
border, United States-Mexican

[[Page 39]]

Borough, if part of name: Borough of the Bronx; the borough
Botanic Garden (National); the garden (not Botanical Gardens)
Bowl, Dust, Ice, Rose, etc.; the bowl
Boxer Rebellion (see Rebellion)
Boy Scouts (the organization); a Boy Scout; a Scout; Scouting; Eagle 
    Scout; Explorer Scout
Branch, if part of name; capitalized standing alone only if referring to 
    a Federal unit:
  Accounts Branch
  Public Buildings Branch
  but executive, judicial, or legislative branch
Bridge, if part of name; the bridge:
  Arlington Memorial; Memorial
  Francis Scott Key; Key
  M Street
  but Baltimore & Ohio Railroad bridge
Brother(s) (adherent of religious order)
Budget of the United States (publication); the Budget (Office implied); 
    the budget
budget:
  department
  estimate
  Federal
  message
  performance-type
  President's
Building, if part of name; the building:
  Capitol (see Capitol Building)
  Colorado
  House (or Senate) Office
  Investment
  New House (or Senate) Office
  Old House Office
  Pentagon
  the National Archives; the Archives
  Treasury; Treasury Annex
bulletin board service (BBS)
Bulletin 420; Farmers' Bulletin No. 420
Bureau, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    Federal or international unit:
  of Customs (name changed to U.S. Customs Service)
  of Engraving and Printing
  of Indian Affairs
  of Social Hygiene, New York; the bureau; etc.

C-SPAN
Cabinet, American or foreign, if part of name or standing alone (see 
    also foreign cabinets):
  British Cabinet; the Cabinet
  the President's Cabinet; the Cabinet; Cabinet officer, member
cache
Calendar, if part of name; the calendar:
  Consent; etc.
  House
  No. 99; Calendars Nos. 1 and 2
  of Bills and Resolutions
  Private
Calendar--Continued
  Senate
  Unanimous Consent
  Union
  Wednesday (legislative)
Cambrian age (see Ages)
Camp Lejeune; David, etc.; the camp
Canal, with name; the canal:
  Cross-Florida Barge
  Isthmian
  Panama
  Zone (Isthmian); the zone (see also Government)
Cape (see geographic terms)
Capital, Capital City, National Capital (Washington, DC); but the 
    capital (State)
Capitol Building (with State name); the capitol
Capitol, the (Washington, DC):
  Architect of
  Building
  caucus room
  Chamber
  Cloakroom
  dome
  Grounds
  Halls (House and Senate)
  Halls of Congress
  Hill; the Hill
  Police (see Police)
  Power Plant
  Prayer Room
  Press Gallery, etc.
  rotunda
  Senate wing
  stationery room
  Statuary Hall
  the well (House or Senate)
  west front
catch-22
caucus: Republican; but Black Caucus (incorporated name); Sun Belt 
    Caucus; Decimal Caucus
CD-ROM
Cemetery, if part of name: Arlington National; the cemetery
Census:
  Nineteenth Decennial (title); Nineteenth Census (title); the census
  1980 census
  1980 Census of Agriculture; the census of agriculture; the census
  the 14th and subsequent decennial censuses
Center, if part of name; the Center (Federal); the center (non-Federal):
  Agricultural Research, etc.; the Center (Federal)
  Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts; the Kennedy Center; the Center 
    (Federal)
  the Lincoln Center; the center (non-Federal)
central Asia, etc.
Central America
Central Europe
central processing unit (CPU)

[[Page 40]]

Central States
central time (see time)
century, first, 21st, etc.
Chair, the, if personified
Chairman:
  of the Board of Directors; the Chairman (Federal); but chairman of the 
    board of directors (non-Federal)
  of the Committee of the Whole House; the Chairman
  of the Federal Trade Commission; the Chairman
chairman (congressional):
  of the Appropriations Committee
  of the Subcommittee on Banking
  but Chairman Davis
Chamber of Commerce; the chamber:
  of Ada; Ada Chamber of Commerce; the chamber of commerce
  of the United States; U.S. Chamber of Commerce; the chamber of 
    commerce; national chamber
Chamber, the (Senate or House)
channel 3 (TV); the channel
Chaplain (House or Senate); but Navy chaplain
chapter 5, II, etc.; but Chapter 5, when part of title: Chapter 5: 
    Research and Development; Washington chapter, Red Cross
Charge d'Affaires, British, etc.; the Charge d'Affaires; the Charge
chart 2, A, II, etc.; but Chart 2, when part of legend: Chart 2.--Army 
    strength
Charter, capitalized with name; the charter:
  Atlantic
  United Nations
cheese: Camembert, Cheddar, Parmesan, Provolone, Roquefort, etc.
Chief, if referring to head of Federal unit; the Chief:
  Forester (see Forester)
  Intelligence Office
  Justice (U.S. Supreme Court); but chief justice (of a State)
  Magistrate (the President)
  of Division of Publications
  of Engineers (Army)
  of Naval Operations
  of Staff
Chief Clerk, if referring to head of Federal unit
Chief Judge, if referring to Federal unit
Christian; Christian name, etc.; Christendom; Christianity; 
    Christianize; but christen
church and state
church calendar:
  Christmas
  Easter
  Lent
  Whitsuntide (Pentecost)
Church, if part of name of organization or building
Circle, if part of name; the circle:
  Arctic
  Logan
  but great circle
Circular 420
cities, sections of, official or popular names:
  East Side
  French Quarter (New Orleans)
  Latin Quarter (Paris)
  North End
  Northwest Washington, etc. (District of Columbia); the Northwest; but 
    northwest (directional)
  the Loop (Chicago)
City, if part of corporate or popular name; the city:
  Hub (Boston)
  Kansas City; the two Kansas Citys
  Mexico City
  New York City; but city of New York
  Twin Cities
  Washington City; but city of Washington
  Windy City (Chicago)
  but Reserve city (see Bank)
civil action No. 46
civil defense
Civil Service Commission (obsolete) (now Office of Personnel Management)
Civil War (see War)
Clan, if part of tribal name; Clan MacArthur; the clan
class 2, A, II, etc.; but Class 2 when part of title: Class 2: Leather 
    Products
Clerk, the, of the House of Representatives; of the Supreme Court of the 
    United States
clerk, the, of the Senate
client
client/server
coal sizes: pea, barley, buckwheat, stove, etc.
coalition; coalition force; coalition members, etc.
coast: Atlantic, east, gulf, west, etc.
Coast Guard, U.S.; the Coast Guard; Coastguardsman Smith; but a 
    coastguardsman; a guardsman; Reserve
Coastal Plain (Atlantic and Gulf)
Code  (in shortened title of a publication); the code:
  District
  Federal Criminal
  Internal Revenue (also Tax Code)
  International (signal)
  of Federal Regulations
  Penal; Criminal; etc.
  Pennsylvania State
  Radio
  Television
  Uniform Code of Military Justice
  United States
  ZIP Code (copyrighted)
  but civil code; flag code; Morse code
codel (congressional delegation)
collection, Brady, etc.; the collection
collector of customs

[[Page 41]]

College, if part of name; the college:
  Armed Forces Staff
  Command and General Staff
  Gettysburg
  National War
  of Bishops
  but electoral college
college degrees: bachelor of arts, master's, etc.
Colonials (American Colonial Army); but colonial times, etc.
Colonies, the:
  Thirteen
  Thirteen American
  Thirteen Original
  but 13 separate Colonies
colonists, the
Command, capitalize with name; the command:
  Air Materiel
  GHQ Far East
  Joint Far Eastern
  Potomac River Naval
  Zone of Interior
Commandant, the (Coast Guard or Marine Corps only)
Commandos, the; Commando raid; a commando
Commission (if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
        Federal or international commission):
  Alaska Road
  International Boundary, United States, Alaska, and Canada
  of Fine Arts
  on Civil Rights
  Public Buildings
Commissioner, if referring to Federal or international commission; the 
    Commissioner:
  Land Bank; but land bank commissioner loans
  of Customs
  of Immigration and Naturalization
  of the Five Civilized Tribes, etc.
  U.S. (International Boundary Commission, etc.)
  but a U.S. commissioner
Committee (or Subcommittee) (if part of name; the Committee, if 
        referring to international or noncongressional Federal committee 
        or to the Committee of the Whole, the Committee of the Whole 
        House, or the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the 
        Union):
  American Medical Association Committee on Education; the committee on 
    education; the committee
  Appropriations, etc.; the committee; Subcommittee on Appropriations; 
    the subcommittee; subcommittee of the Appropriations Committee
  Democratic National; the national committee; the committee; Democratic 
    national committeeman
  Democratic policy committee; the committee
  Interagency Advisory Committee on Domestic Transport and Storage and 
    Post Utilization; the Committee
  Joint Committee on Taxation; the Joint Committee; the committee; but a 
    joint committee
  of Defense Ministers (NATO); the Committee (see also Organization, 
    North Atlantic Treaty)
  of One Hundred, etc.; the committee
  on Finance; the committee
  on Public Safety; the committee
  President's Advisory Committee on Management; the Committee
  Republican National; the national committee; the committee; Republican 
    national committeeman
  Republican policy committee; the committee
  Senate policy committee
  Subcommittee No. 5, etc.; the subcommittee
  Subcommittee on Immigration; the subcommittee
  but Baker committee
  ad hoc committee
  conference committee
Committee Print No. 32; Committee Prints Nos. 8 and 9; committee print
Common Cause
Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
Commonwealth of Australia, Virginia, etc.; British Commonwealth; the 
    Commonwealth
Commune (of Paris)
Communist; communism; communistic
Compact Disk Interactive (CD-I)
Compact Disk--Read Only Memory (CD-ROM)
Compact Disk--Recordable (CD-R)
compact, U.S. marine fisheries, etc.; the compact
Company, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    unit of Federal Government:
  Alaska Railroad Company; the Company
  Panama Railroad Company; the Company
  Procter & Gamble Co.; the company
COM port
Comptroller of the Currency; the Comptroller
Comptroller General (U.S.); the Comptroller
Comsat
Concord
conelrad
Confederacy (of the South)
Confederate:
  Army
  Government
  soldier
  States
Confederation, Swiss; the Confederation

[[Page 42]]

Conference, if referring to governmental (U.S.) or international 
    conference:
  Bretton Woods; the Conference
  Judicial Conference of the United States; U.S. Judicial Conference; 
    Judicial Conference; the Conference
  Tenth Annual Conference of the United Methodist Churches; the 
    conference
Congress (convention), if part of name; capitalized standing alone if 
    referring to international congress:
  International Good Roads; Good Roads; the Congress
  of Parents and Teachers, National; the congress
Congress (legislature), if referring to national congress:
  of Bolivia, etc.; the Congress
  of the United States; First, Second, 11th, 82d, etc.; the Congress
Congressional:
  Black Caucus; the Black Caucus; the caucus
  Directory, the directory
  District, First, 11th, etc.; the First District; the congressional 
    district; the district
  Library; the Library
  Medal of Honor (see decorations)
  but congressional action, committee, etc.
Congressman; Congresswoman; Congressman at Large; Member of Congress; 
    Member; membership
Constitution, with name of country; capitalized standing alone when 
    referring to a specific national constitution; but New York State 
    Constitution; the constitution
constitutional
consul, British, etc.
consul general, British, etc.
consulate, British, etc.
Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and Telephony 
    (CCITT)
Consumer Price Index (official title); the price index; the index; but a 
    consumers' price index (descriptive)
Contadora group
Continent, only if following name; American Continent; the continent; 
    but the Continent (continental Europe)
Continental:
  Army; the Army
  Congress; the Congress
  Divide (see Divide)
  Outer Continental Shelf
  Shelf; the shelf; a continental shelf
continental:
  Europe, United States, etc.
  not worth a continental [dollar]
Continentals (Revolutionary soldiers)
Contra
Convention, governmental (U.S.), international, or national political; 
    the convention:
  Constitutional (United States, 1787); the Convention
  Democratic National; Democratic
  Genocide (international)
  19th Annual Convention of the American Legion
  on International Civil Aviation
  Universal Postal Union; Postal Union
  also International Postal; Warsaw
copper age (see Ages)
Corn Belt (see Belt)
Corporation, if part of name; the Corporation, if referring to unit of 
    Federal Government:
  Commodity Credit
  Federal Deposit Insurance
  National Railroad Passenger (Amtrak)
  Rand Corp.; the corporation (see also abbreviations)
  St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation
  Union Carbide Corp.; the corporation
  Virgin Islands
Corps, if part of name; the corps, all other uses:
  Adjutant General's
  Army Hospital
  Artillery
  Chemical
  Counterintelligence
  Enlisted Reserve
  Finance
  Foreign Service Officer (see Foreign Service)
  Job
  Judge Advocate General's
  Marine (see Marine Corps)
  Medical
  Military Police
  Nurse
  of Cadets (West Point)
  of Engineers; Army Engineers; the Engineers; but Army engineer; the 
    corps
  Officers' Reserve
  Ordnance
  Peace; Peace Corpsman; the corpsman
  Quartermaster
  Reserve Officers' Training (ROTC)
  VII Corps, etc.
  Signal
  Teachers; but Teacher Corps Act
  Transportation
  Women's Army (WAC); a Wac; the Wacs
  Youth
  but diplomatic corps
corpsman; hospital corpsman
corridor, Northeast
Cotton Belt (see Belt)
Council, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    Federal or international unit (see also United Nations):
  Boston City; the council

[[Page 43]]

  Choctaw, etc.; the council
  Her Majesty's Privy Council; the Privy Council; the Council
  National Security; the Council
  of Foreign Ministers (NATO); the Council
  of the Organization of American States; the Council
  Philadelphia Common; the council
counsel; general counsel
County, Prince George's; county of Prince George's; County Kilkenny, 
    etc.; Loudoun and Fauquier Counties; the county
Court (of law) capitalized if part of name; capitalized standing alone 
        if referring to the Supreme Court of the United States, to the 
        Court of Impeachment (U.S. Senate), or to an international 
        court:
  Circuit Court of the United States for the Tenth Circuit; Circuit 
    Court for the Tenth Circuit; the circuit court; the court; the tenth 
    circuit
  Court of Appeals for the State of North Carolina, etc.; the Tenth 
    Circuit Court of Appeals; the court of appeals; the court
  Court of Claims; the court
  Court of Customs and Patent Appeals; the court
  Court of Impeachment, the Senate; the Court
  District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of 
    Missouri; the district court; the court
  Emergency Court of Appeals, United States; the court
  International Court of Justice; the Court
  Permanent Court of Arbitration; the Court
  Superior Court of the District of Columbia; the superior court; the 
    court
  Supreme Court of the United States (see Supreme Court)
  Supreme Court of Virginia, etc.; the supreme court; the court
  Tax Court; the court
  U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia; the court
Covenant, League of Nations; the covenant
Creed, Apostles'; the Creed
Crown, if referring to a ruler; but crown colony, lands, etc.
cruise missile
Current, if part of name; the current:
  Arctic
  Humboldt
  Japan
  North Equatorial
customhouse; customs official
czar; czarist

database
database management system (DBMS)
Dairy Belt (see Belt)
Dalles, The; but the Dalles region
Dam (see geographic terms)
Dark Ages (see Ages)
Daughters of the American Revolution; a Real Daughter; King's Daughters; 
    a Daughter
daylight saving time
days (see holidays)
Declaration, capitalized with name:
  of Independence; the Declaration
  of Panama; the declaration
decorations, medals, etc., awarded by United States or any foreign 
    national government; the medal, the cross, the ribbon (see also 
    Award):
  Air Medal
  Bronze Star Medal
  Commendation Ribbon
  Congressional Medal of Honor
  Croix de Guerre
  Distinguished Flying Cross
  Distinguished Service Cross
  Distinguished Service Medal
  Good Conduct Medal
  Iron Cross
  Legion of Merit
  Medal for Merit
  Medal of Freedom
  Medal of Honor
  Purple Heart
  Silver Star Medal
  Soldier's Medal
  Victoria Cross
  Victory Medal
  but oakleaf cluster
  also Carnegie Medal; Olympic Gold Medal; but gold medal
Decree (see Executive; Royal Decree)
Deep South
Defense Establishment (see Establishment)
De Gaulle Free French; Free French; but General de Gaulle; de Gaullist
Deity, words denoting, capitalized
Delegate (U.S. Congress)
delegate (to a conference); the delegate; the delegation
Delta, Mississippi River; the delta
Department, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    a Federal or international unit:
  of Agriculture
  of the Treasury
  Yale University Department of Economics; the department of economics; 
    the department
Department of New York, American Legion
department:
  executive
  judicial
  legislative
Depot, if part of name; the depot (see also Station)
Depression, Great
Deputy, if part of capitalized title; but the deputy

[[Page 44]]

derivatives of proper names:

alaska seal (fur)               india ink
angora wool                     india rubber
angstrom unit                   italic type
apache (Paris)                  jamaica ginger
argyle wool                     japan varnish
artesian well                   jersey fabric
astrakhan fabric                johnin test
axminster rug                   joule
babbitt metal                   kafircorn
benday process                  knickerbocker
bohemian set                    kraft paper
bologna sausage                 lambert
bordeaux mixture                leghorn hat
bourbon whiskey                 levant leather
bowie knife                     levantine silk
braille                         lilliputian
brazil nut                      logan tent
brazilwood                      london purple
brewer's yeast                  lufbery circle
bristolboard                    lyonnaise potatoes
britannia metal                 macadamized road
britanniaware                   mach (no period)
brussels carpet                   number
brussels sprouts                madras cloth
bunsen burner                   maginot line
burley tobacco                    (nonliteral)
canada balsam                   manila paper
  (microscopy)                  maraschino cherry
carlsbad twins                  mason jar
  (petrography)                 maxwell
cashmere shawl                  melba toast
castile soap                    mercerized fabric
cesarean section                merino sheep
chantilly lace                  molotov cocktail
chesterfield coat               morocco leather
china clay                      morris chair
chinese blue                    murphy bed
climax basket                   navy blue
collins (drink)                 nelson, half nelson,
congo red                         etc.
cordovan leather                neon light
coulomb                         newmarket cloak
curie                           newton
decauville rail                 nissen hut
degaussing                      norfolk jacket
  apparatus                     oriental rug
delftware                       osnaburg cloth
derby hat                       oxford shoe
diesel engine,                  panama hat
  dieselize                     parianware
dotted swiss                    paris green
epsom salt                      parkerhouse roll
fedora hat                      pasteurized milk
fletcherize                     persian lamb
frankfurt sausage               petri dish
frankfurter                     pharisaic
french chalk                    philistine
french dressing                 photostat
french-fried                    pitman arm
   potatoes                     pitot tube
fuller's earth                  plaster of paris
gargantuan                      prussian blue
gauss                           quisling
georgette crepe                 quixotic idea
german silver                   quonset hut
gilbert                         rembert wheel
glauber salt                    roentgen
gothic type                     roman candle
graham bread                    roman cement
harderian gland                 roman type
harveyized steel                russia leather
herculean task                  russian bath
hessian fly                     rutherford
holland cloth                   sanforize
hoolamite detector              saratoga chips
hudson seal (fur) 
saratoga chips                  turkey red
scotch plaid, but               turkish towel
  Scotch tape                   utopia, utopian
  (trademark)                   vandyke collar
shanghai                        vaseline
siamese twins                   venetian blind
simon pure                      venturi tube
spanish omelet                  victoria (carriage)
stillson wrench                 vienna bread
stubs wire                      virginia reel
surah silk                      wedgwoodware
swiss cheese, but               wheatstone bridge
  Swiss watch                   wilton rug
taintor gate                    woodruff key
timothy grass                   zeppelin


desktop management interface (DMI)
deutsche mark
dial-up
Diet, Japanese (legislative body)
diplomatic corps (see also Corps; service)
 Director, if referring to head of Federal or international unit; the 
    Director:
  District Director of Internal Revenue
  of Coast and Geodetic Survey
  of Fish and Wildlife Service
  Office of Management and Budget
  of the Mint
  but director, board of directors (nongovernmental)
Director General of Foreign Service; the Director General; the Director
diseases and related terms:
  AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
  Alzheimer's disease
  cerebral palsy
  Down's syndrome
  German measles
  Hodgkin's disease
  Lyme disease
  Marfan's syndrome
  Meniere's syndrome
  myasthenia gravis
  Parkinson's disease
  Reye's syndrome
  spina bifida
Distinguished Service Medal, etc. (see decorations)
District, if part of name; the district:
  Alexandria School District No. 4; school district No. 4
  Chicago Sanitary; the sanitary district
  Congressional (with number)
  Federal (see Federal)
  1st Naval; naval district
  Los Angeles Water; the water district
  Manhattan Engineer (atomic)
  but customs district No. 2; first assembly district
District of Columbia; the District:
  Anacostia Flats; the flats
  Arlington Memorial Bridge; the Memorial Bridge; the bridge
  District jail; the jail; DC jail
  Ellipse, the
  General Hospital; the hospital
  Highway Bridge; 14th Street Bridge; the bridge

[[Page 45]]

  Mall, The National; The Mall
  Mayor (when pertaining to the District of Columbia only)
  Metropolitan Police; Metropolitan policeman; the police
  Monument Grounds; the grounds
  Monument, Washington; the monument
  police court
  Public Library; the library
  Reflecting Pool; the pool
  Tidal Basin; the basin
  Washington Channel; the channel
Divide, Continental (Rocky Mountains); the divide
Divine Father; but divine guidance, divine providence, divine service
Division, Army, if part of name: 1st Cavalry Division; 1st Air Cavalry 
    Division; the division
Division, if referring to Federal governmental unit; the Division:
  Buick Division; the division; a division of General Motors
  Passport; the Division
  but Trinity River division (reclamation); the division
Dixie; Dixiecrat
docket No. 66; dockets Nos. 76 and 77
Doctrine, Monroe; the doctrine; but Truman, Eisenhower doctrine
doctrine, fairness
Document, if part of name; the document:
  Document No. 130
  Document Numbered One Hundred and Thirty
Document Style and Semantics Language (DSSL)
Domain Name Service (DNS)
Dominion of Canada, of New Zealand, etc.; the Dominion; but British 
    dominions; a dominion; dominion status
dots per inch (dpi)
Draconian
drawing II, A, 3, etc.; but Drawing 2 when part of title: Drawing 2.--
    Hydroelectric Power Development
Dust Bowl (see Bowl)

e-mail (lowercase within a sentence)
E-mail (uppercase ``E'' to start a sentence)
Earth (planet)
East:
  Coast (Africa)
  Europe (political entity)
  Middle, Mideast (Asia)
  Near (Balkans)
  Side of New York
  South Central States
  the East (section of United States); also Communist political entity
east:
  Africa
  coast (U.S.)
  Pennsylvania
Eastern:
  Europe (political entity)
  Far (Orient) (see Far East)
  Gulf States
  Hemisphere (see Hemisphere)
  Middle, Mideastern (Asia)
  North Central States
  Shore (Chesapeake Bay)
  States
  United States
eastern:
  France
  seaboard
  time, eastern standard time (see time)
  Wisconsin
easterner
EE-bond
electoral college; the electors
Elizabethan Age (see Ages)
Emancipation Proclamation (see Proclamation)
Embassy, British, etc.; the Embassy
Emperor, Japanese, etc.; the Emperor
Empire, Ottoman; the empire
Engine Company, Bethesda; engine company No. 6; No. 6 engine company; 
    the company
Engineer officer, etc. (of Engineer Corps); the Engineers
Engineers, Chief of (Army)
Engineers, Corps of (see Corps)
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; the Envoy; the 
    Minister
Equator, the; equatorial
Establishment, if part of name; the establishment:
  Army
  Army Field
  Defense
  Federal
  Military
  Naval; but naval establishments
  Navy
  Postal
  Regular
  Reserve
  Shore
  but civil establishment; legislative establishment
Estate, Girard (a foundation); the estate
estate, third (the commons); fourth (the press); etc.
Eurodollar
European theater of operations; the European theater; the theater
Excellency, His; Their Excellencies
Exchange, New York Stock; the stock exchange; the exchange
Executive (President of United States):
  Chief
  Decree No. 100; Decree 100; but Executive decree; direction
  Document No. 95
  Mansion; the mansion; the White House
  Office; the Office
  Order No. 34; Order 34; but Executive order
  power

[[Page 46]]

executive:

  agreement                document
  branch                   paper
  communication            privilege
  department

exhibit 2, A, II, etc.; but Exhibit 2, when part of title: Exhibit 2: 
    Capital Expenditures, 1935-49
Expedition, Byrd; Lewis and Clark; the expedition
Experiment Station (see Station)
Explorer I, etc.
Exposition, California-Pacific International, etc.; the exposition
Express, if part of name: Federal Express, the
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC)
Extensible Markup Language (XML)

Fair Deal
Fair, World's, etc.; the fair; Texas State Fair
fall (season)
Falls, Niagara; the falls
Far East, Far Eastern (the Orient); Far West (U.S.); but far western
Farm, if part of name; the farm:
  Johnson Farm; but Johnson's farm
  San Diego Farm
  Wild Tiger Farm
Farm Belt (see Belt)
Fascist; Fascisti; fascistic; fascism
Father of his Country (Washington)
Fathers (Founding)
Fed, the (no period)
Federal  (synonym for United States or other sovereign power):
  District (Mexico)
  Establishment
  Government (of any national government)
  grand jury; the grand jury
  land bank (see Bank)
  Register (publication); the Register
  Reserve bank (see Bank)
  Reserve Board, the Board; also Federal Reserve System, the System; 
    Federal Reserve Board Regulation W, but regulation W
  but a federal form of government
Federal Bulletin Board (FBB)
Federal Depository Gateways
federally
fellow, fellowship (academic); (lowercase with name)
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
Field, Byrd, Stewart, etc.; the field
figure 2, A, II, etc. (illustration); but Figure 2, when part of legend: 
    Figure 2.--Market scenes
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
firewall
firm names:
  ACDelco
  Aluminium, Ltd.
  America Online
  Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.
  Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  Bristol Myers Squibb Co.
  Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co.
  Champion International Corp.
  Coldwell Banker
  Colgate-Palmolive Co.
  Curtiss-Wright Corp.
  DeVilbiss Air Power Co.
  Dow Jones & Co., Inc.
  Dun & Bradstreet
  E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
  Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc.
  Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. (A&P)
  Hamilton Beach/Proctor Silex, Inc.
  Hartmarx Corp.
  Hewlett-Packard
  Houghton Mifflin Co.
  Ingersoll-Rand Co.
  Intel Corp.
  Johns-Manville Corp.
  Kennecott Exploration Co.
  Kmart
  Libbey-Owens-Ford Co.
  Macmillan Co.
  MCI Worldcom
  Merck Sharp & Dohme
  Merrill Lynch & Co.
  Microsoft
  Olin Corp.
  J.C. Penney Co., Inc.
  Phelps Dodge Corp.
  Pfizer Inc.
  PricewaterhouseCoopers
  Procter & Gamble Co.
  Rand McNally & Co.
  Rolls-Royce
  Sears, Roebuck & Co.
  Smith Corona Corp.
  SmithKline Beecham
  Sun Microsystems
  Sunoco Inc.
  3M
  Trans World Airlines
  Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
  Unisys Corp.
  US Airways
  USX Corporation
  Wal-Mart
  Weyerhaeuser Co.
  Xerox Corp.
First Family (Presidential)
First Lady (wife of President)
First World War (see War)
flag code
flag, U.S.:
  Old Flag, Old Glory
  Stars and Stripes
  Star-Spangled Banner
flags, foreign:
  Tricolor (French)
  Union Jack (British)
  United Nations
Fleet, if part of name; the fleet:
  Atlantic
  Channel
  Grand
  High Seas

[[Page 47]]

  Marine Force
  Naval Reserve
  Pacific, etc. (naval)
  6th Fleet, etc.
  U.S.
floor (House or Senate)
flyway; Canadian flyway, etc.
Force(s), if part of name; the force(s):
  Active Forces
  Active-Duty
  Air (see also Air Force)
  All-Volunteer
  Armed Forces (synonym for overall U.S. Military Establishment)
  Army Field Forces; the Field Forces
  Fleet Marine
  Navy Battle (see Navy)
  Navy Scouting (see Navy); Reserve Force
  Rapid Deployment
  7th Task; the task force; but task force report (Hoover Commission)
  United Nations Emergency; the Emergency Force; the Force; but United 
    Nations police force
foreign cabinets:
  Foreign Office; the Office
  Minister of Foreign Affairs; Foreign Minister; the Minister
  Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Ministry
  Premier
  Prime Minister
Foreign Legion (French); the legion
Foreign Service; the Service:
  officer
  Officer Corps; the corps
  Reserve officer; the Reserve officer
  Reserve Officer Corps; the Reserve Corps; the corps
  Staff officer; the Staff officer
  Staff Officer Corps; the Staff Corps; the corps
Forest, if part of name; the national forest; the forest:
  Angeles National
  Black
  Coconino and Prescott National Forests
  but State and National forests (see System)
Forester (Chief of Forest Service); the Chief; also Chief Forester
form 2, A, II, etc.; but Form 2, when part of title: Form 1040: 
    Individual Income Tax Return; but withholding tax form
Format Output Specifications Instance (FOSI)
Fort McHenry, etc.; the fort
Foundation, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    Federal unit:
  Chemical; the foundation
  Ford; the foundation
  Infantile Paralysis; the foundation
  National Science; the Foundation
  Russell Sage; the foundation
Founding Fathers; Founders/Founder (of this Nation, Country)
four freedoms
Framers (of the U.S. Constitution; of the Bill of Rights)
free world
Frisco (for San Francisco; no apostrophe)
Fritalux (see alliances)
Fund, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    international or United Nations fund:
  Common Market Fund; the Fund
  Development Loan Fund; the Fund (U.S. Government corporation)
  International Monetary; the Fund
  Rockefeller Endowment; the fund
  Special Projects (United Nations); the Fund
  but civil service retirement fund; highway trust fund; mutual security 
    fund; national service life insurance fund; revolving fund

Gadsden Purchase
Gallery of Art, National (see National)
Gallup Poll; the poll
gateway
Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP)
Geiger counter
General Board (of Navy) (see Board)
General Order No. 14; General Orders No. 14; a general order
General Schedule
gentile
Geographer, the (State Department)
geographic terms (terms, such as those listed below,\3\ are capitalized 
        if part of name; are lowercased in general sense (rivers of 
        Virginia and Maryland)):
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \3\ List compiled with cooperation of the U.S. Board on Geographic 
Names.

    Archipelago                    Branch (stream)
    Area                           Brook
    Arroyo                         Butte
    Atoll                          Canal; the canal
    Bank                             (Panama)
    Bar                            Canyon
    Basin, Upper                   Cape
      (Lower) Colorado             Cascade
      River, etc. (legal           Cave
      entity); but                 Cavern
      Hansen flood-                Channel; but 
      control basin;                  Mississippi River
      Missouri River                  channel(s)
      basin (drainage);            Cirque
      upper Colorado               Coulee
      River storage                Cove
      project                      Crag
    Bay                            Crater
    Bayou                          Creek
    Beach                          Crossroads
    Bench                          Current (ocean fea-
    Bend                              ture)
    Bight                          Cut
    Bluff                          Cutoff
    Bog                            Dam
    Borough (boro)                 Delta
    Bottom                         Desert


[[Page 48]]

    Divide                         Neck
    Dome (not geologic)            Needle
    Draw (stream)                  Notch
    Dune                           Oasis
    Escarpment                     Ocean
    Estuary                        Oxbow
    Falls                          Palisades
    Fault                          Park
    Flat(s)                        Pass
    Floodway                       Passage
    Ford                           Peak
    Forest                         Peninsula
    Fork (stream)                  Plain
    Gap                            Plateau
    Geyser                         Point
    Glacier                        Pond
    Glen                           Pool
    Gorge                          Port (water body)
    Gulch                          Prairie
    Gulf                           Range (mountain)
    Gut                            Rapids
    Harbor                         Ravine
    Head                           Reef
    Hill                           Reservoir
    Hogback                        Ridge
    Hollow                         River
    Hook                           Roads (anchorage)
    Horn                           Rock
    Hot Spring                     Run (stream)
    Icefield                       Sea
    Ice Shelf                      Seaway
    Inlet                          Shoal
    Island                         Sink
    Isle                           Slough
    Islet                          Sound
    Keys (Florida only)            Spit
    Knob                           Spring
    Lagoon                         Spur
    Lake                           Strait
    Landing                        Stream
    Ledge                          Summit
    Lowland                        Swamp
    Marsh                          Terrace
    Massif                         Thoroughfare
    Mesa                           Trench
    Monument                       Trough
    Moraine                        Valley
    Mound                          Volcano
    Mount                          Wash
    Mountain                       Waterway
    Narrows                        Woods

Geological Survey (see Survey)
GI bill of rights
Girl Scouts (organization); a Girl Scout; a Scout; Scouting
G-man
Gold Star Mothers (see American)
Golden Age (see Ages)
Golden Rule
gopher
Gospel, if referring to the first four books of the New Testament; but 
    gospel truth
Government:
  British, etc.; the Government
  Canal Zone; the government
  department, officials, -owned, publications, etc. (U.S. Government)
  National and State Governments
  Printing Office (see Office)
  U.S.; National; Federal
Government Information Locator Service (GILS)
Government information product
government:
  Churchill
  Communist
  District (of Columbia)
  European governments
  Federal, State, and municipal governments
  insular; island
  military
  seat of
  State
  State and Provincial governments
  Territorial
governmental
Governor:
  of Louisiana, etc.; the Governor; a Governor; State Governor(s); 
    Governors' conference
  of Puerto Rico; the Governor
  of the Federal Reserve Board; the Governor
Governor General of Canada; the Governor General
GPO Access
grade, market (see market grades)
grand jury (see Federal)
Grange, the (National)
grant, Pell
graph 2, A, II, etc.; but Graph 2, when part of title: Graph 2.--
    Production levels
Graphical Device Interface (GDI)
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Graphics Interchange Format (GIF)
Great:
  Basin
  Beyond
  Depression
  Divide
  Lakes; the lakes; lake(s) traffic
  Plains; but southern Great Plains
  Rebellion (see Rebellion)
  Seal (any nation)
  Society
  War (see War)
  White Way (New York City)
great circle (navigation)
Greater Los Angeles, Greater New York
gross national product (GNP)
Group:
  G 7 (Group of 7) (representatives of the seven leading industrial 
    nations)
  Helsinki Monitoring; the group
  Military Advisory Group; the group
  Standing (see Organization)
group 2, II, A, etc.; but Group 2, when part of title: Group II: List of 
    Counties by States
guaranteed annual wage (GAW)
Guard, National (see National)
guardsman (see Coast Guard; National Guard)
Gulf:
  Coast States; but gulf coast

[[Page 49]]

  of Mexico; the gulf
  States
  Stream; the stream

Hall (U.S. Senate or House)
Halls of Congress
H-bomb; H-hour
Headquarters:
  Alaska Command; the command headquarters
  4th Regiment Headquarters; regimental headquarters
  32d Division Headquarters; the division headquarters
hearing examiner
Heaven (Deity); heaven (place)
Heimlich maneuver
hell (place)
Hells (no apostrophe) Canyon
Hemisphere, Eastern; Western; etc.; the hemisphere
High Church
High Commissioner
High Court (see Supreme Court)
High School, if part of name: Western; the high school
Highway Bridge (Washington, DC); the bridge
Highway No. 40; Route 40; State Route 9; the highway
Hill (the Capitol)
His Excellency the Duke of Argyll, etc.; His Excellency; Their 
    Excellencies
His Majesty; Her Majesty; Their Majesties
Hispanic
historic events and epochs:
  Reformation, the
  Renaissance, the
  Restoration, the (English)
  Revolution of July (French)
  Revolution, the (American, 1775; French, 1789; English, 1688)
holidays and some special days:
  Admission Day
  All Fools' (April Fools') Day
  Arbor Day
  Armed Forces Day
  Christmas Day, Eve
  Columbus Day
  D-day; D-plus-4-day
  Father's Day
  Flag Day
  Founders' Day
  Fourth of July
  Halloween
  Hanukkah
  Hogmanay
  Inauguration Day (Federal)
  Independence Day (Fourth of July)
  Labor Day
  Lincoln's Birthday
  Lord's day
  M-day (mobilization day)
  Martin Luther King, Jr., Day
  Memorial Day (also Decoration Day)
  Mother's Day
  New Year's Day, Eve
  Presidents Day
  Rosh Hashanah
  St. Valentines Day
  Thanksgiving Day
  V-E Day; V-J Day
  Veterans (no apostrophe) Day
  Washington's Birthday
  Yom Kippur
  but election day; primary day
Holocaust (World War II); a holocaust
Holy Scriptures; Holy Writ (Bible)
Home (see Naval; Soldiers')
home page
Hospice, if part of name
Hospital, if part of name; the hospital:
  District of Columbia General
  5th Regiment
  Freedmen's
  St. Elizabeths (no apostrophe)
  but naval (marine or Army) hospital
hospital corpsman (see corpsman)
House, if part of name:
  Johnson house (private residence)
  Lee (hotel); the house
  of Representatives; the House (U.S.)
  of the Woods (palace); the house
  Office Building (see Building)
  Ohio (State); the house
  but both Houses; lower (or upper) House (Congress)
House of Representatives (U.S.), titles of officers standing alone 
    capitalized:
  Chairman (Committee of the Whole)
  Chaplain
  Clerk; but legislative clerk, etc.
  Doorkeeper
  Official Reporter(s) of Debates
  Parliamentarian
  Postmaster
  post office
  Sergeant at Arms
  Speaker pro tempore
  Speaker; speakership
HUD (Department of Housing and Urban Development)
Hudson's Bay Co.
Hurricane Dale, Danny, Darcy, etc.
HyperText-browser for Telnet accessible sites (HYTELNET)
HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
HyperText Transfer Protocol Daemon (HTTPD)

ice age (see Ages)
Indians:
  Absentee Shawnee
  Alaska (see Native)
  Eastern (or Lower) Band of Cherokee; the band
  Five Civilized Tribes; the tribes
  Native Americans
  Shawnee Tribe; the tribe
  Six Nations (Iroquois Confederacy)
Initiative, Caribbean Basin; but strategic defense initiative

[[Page 50]]

Inquisition, Spanish; the Inquisition
inspector general
Institute, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    Federal or international organization:
  National Cancer; the Cancer Institute; the Institute
  National Institutes of Health; the Institutes
  of International Law; the Institute
  Woman's Institute; the institute
Institution, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    Federal unit:
  Brookings; the institution
  Carnegie; the institution
  Smithsonian; the Institution
insular government; island government
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
intercoastal waterway (see waterway)
interdepartmental
interface
International Court of Justice; the Court
international:
  banks (see Bank)
  dateline
  boundary
  law
  Morse code (see Code)
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Internet, Intranet
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Internet Protocol (IP)
Internet service provider (ISP)
Interstate 95; I-95; the interstate
Intracoastal Waterway; the waterway (see also waterway)
intrastate
Irish potato
Iron Cross (see decorations)
Iron Curtain; the curtain
Isthmian Canal (see Canal)
Isthmus of Panama; the isthmus
Ivory Coast

Japan Current (see Current)
Java
Java applets
JavaBeans
JavaScript
Jersey cattle
Job Corps
Joint Chiefs of Staff; Chiefs of Staff
Joint Committee on Printing (see Committee)
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)
Journal clerk; the clerk
Journal (House or Senate)
Judge Advocate General, the
judge; chief judge; circuit judge; district judge; but Judge Bryan
Justice; Justice O'Connor
just in time (JIT)
judiciary, the

Kennedy round
Kermit
King of England, etc.; the King
Koran, the; Koranic
Krugerrand

Laboratory, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
    Federal unit: Forest Products; the Laboratory; but laboratory (non-
    Federal)
Lake: Erie, of the Woods, Salt; the lake
Lane, if part of name: Maiden; the lane
Latter-day Saints
law, Walsh-Healey, etc.; law 176; law No. 176; copyright law; Ohm's, 
    etc.
League, Urban; the league
Legation, Finnish, etc.; the Legation
Legion:
  American; the Legion; a Legionnaire;
  French Foreign; the legion
Legislative Assembly, if part of name: of New York; of Puerto Rico, 
    etc.; the legislative assembly; the assembly
legislative branch, clerk, session, etc.
Legislature:
  National Legislature (U.S. Congress); the Legislature
  Ohio Legislature; Legislature of Ohio; the State legislature; the 
    legislature
Letters Patent No. 378,964; but patent No. 378,964; letters patent
Liberty Bell; Liberty ship
Librarian of Congress; the Librarian
Library:
  Army; the library
  Harry S. Truman; the library
  of Congress; the Library
  Hillsborough Public; the library
Lieutenant Governor of Idaho, etc.; the Lieutenant Governor
Light, if part of name; the light:
  Boston
  Buffalo South Pier Light 2; but light No. 2; light 2
  but Massachusetts Bay lights
Lighthouse (see Light Station)
Lightship, if part of name; the lightship:
  Grays Reef Lightship
  North Manitou Shoal Lightship
Light Station, if part of name; the light station; the station:
  Minots Ledge Light Station
  Watch Hill Light Station
Line(s), if part of name; the line(s):
  Burlington Lines (railroad)
  Greyhound Line (bus)
  Holland-America Line (steamship)
  Maginot (fortification)
line:
  DEW (Distant Early Warning)
  Mason-Dixon line or Mason and Dixon's line
  Pinetree
  State
Link Access Procedure for Modems (LAPM)

[[Page 51]]

listserv
Little Inch; Big Inch (pipelines)
local area network (LAN)
Local: Teamsters Local Union No. 15; but local No. 15
local time, local standard time (see time)
locator service
Loop, the (see cities)
Louisiana Purchase
Low Church
Lower, if part of name:
  California (Mexico)
  Colorado River Basin
  Egypt
  Peninsula (of Michigan)
lower:
  48 (States)
  House of Congress
  Mississippi

MacTCP
MacWais
Mafia
Magna Carta
Majesty, His, Her (see His Majesty)
Majority Leader Lott; but the majority leader (U.S. Congress)
Mall, The National; The Mall (District of Columbia)
Mansion, Executive (see Executive)
map 3, A, II, etc.; but Map 2, when part of title: Map 2.--Railroads of 
    Middle Atlantic States
mariculture
Marine Corps; the corps:
  Marines (the corps); but marines (individuals)
  Organized Reserve; the Reserve
  also a marine; a woman marine; the women marines (individuals); 
    soldiers, sailors, coastguardsmen, and marines
Maritime Provinces (Canada) (see Province)
market grades and classes:
  U.S. grade A
  barley: Western, Mixed, Malting Two-rowed
  beans: Red Kidney, U.S. No. 2 Pea
  cattle: Prime, Choice, Good
  corn: Yellow, White, Mixed, Dent
  cotton: Middling, Strict Good Ordinary, Strict Low Middling, Good 
    Ordinary, etc.
  hay: Timothy Light Clover Mixed, Upland Prairie
  oats: White, Red, Mixed
  soybeans: Yellow, Black, Mixed
  tobacco: Flue-cured, Fire-cured, Cigar-wrapper
  wheat: Hard Red Spring, Red Durum, Durum, Hard Red Winter, White, 
    Mixed, etc.
  wool: Grade 60's or one-half blood
Marshal (see Supreme Court)
marshal (U.S.)
medals (see decorations)
Medicaid
Medicare Act; Medicare plan
Medicare Program
MediCal
Medicare-plus
Medigap
Member, if referring to Senator, Representative, Delegate, or Resident 
    Commissioner of U.S. Congress; also Member at Large; Member of 
    Parliament, etc.; but membership; member of U.S. congressional 
    committee
Memorial: Jefferson, Lincoln, Vietnam, etc.; the memorial
Merchant Marine Reserve; the Reserve; but U.S. merchant marine; the 
    merchant marine
methods of access
Metroliner
Metropolitan Washington, etc.; but Washington metropolitan area
MHz
midcontinent region
Middle Ages (see Ages)
Middle Atlantic States
Middle East; Mideast; Mideastern; Middle Eastern (Asia)
middle Europe
Middle West, Midwest (section of United States)
Middle Western States; Midwestern States; but midwestern farmers, etc.
Midsouth (section of United States)
Military Academy (see Academy)
Military Establishment (see Establishment)
Militia, if part of name; the militia:
  1st Regiment Ohio
  Indiana
  Naval
  of Ohio
  Organized
milkshed, Ohio, etc. (region)
millennium
millions of instructions per second (MIPS)
Minister Plenipotentiary; the Minister; Minister Without Portfolio (see 
    also foreign cabinets)
Ministry (see foreign cabinets)
Minority Leader Thomas A. Daschle; but the minority leader (U.S. 
    Congress)
Mint, Philadelphia, etc.; the mint
minutemen (colonial)
missiles: capitalize such missile names as Hawk, Hound Dog, Redeye, 
    Scud, Trident, etc.; but cruise missile, air-to-air missile, 
    surface-to-air missile, etc.
Mission, if part of name; the mission:
  Gospel Mission
  Mission 66
  but diplomatic mission; military mission; Jones mission
Monument:
  Bunker Hill; the monument
  Grounds; the grounds (Washington Monument)

[[Page 52]]

  National (see National)
  Washington; the monument (District of Columbia)
Moon
Mountain States
mountain time, mountain standard time (see time)
Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG)
Mr. Chairman; Mr. Secretary; etc.
MS-DOS
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
Museum, capitalize with name; the museum:
  Army Medical; the Medical Museum
  Field
  National
  National Air; the Air Museum

Narrowband ISDN (N-ISDN)
Nation (synonym for United States); but a nation; nationwide; also 
    French nation, Balkan nations
Nation, Creek; Osage; etc.; the nation
nation, in general, standing alone
National, in conjunction with capitalized name:
  Academy of Sciences (see Academy)
  and State institutions, etc.
  Archives and Records Administration
  Capital (Washington); the Capital; but national capital area
  Endowment for the Arts; the Endowment
  Gallery of Art; the National Gallery; the gallery
  Grange; the Grange
  Guard, Ohio, etc.; Air National; the National Guard; the Guard; a 
    guardsman; but a National Guard man; National Guardsman
  Institute (see Institute)
  Legislature (see Legislature)
  Monument, Muir, etc.; the national monument; the monument
  Museum (see Museum)
  Naval Medical Center (Bethesda, MD)
  Park, Yellowstone, etc.; Yellowstone Park; the national park; the park
  Treasury; the Treasury
  War College
  Woman's Party; the party
  Zoological Park (see Zoological)
national:
  agency check (NAC)
  anthem, customs, spirit, etc.
  British, Mexican, etc.
  defense agencies
  stockpile
  water policy
Native, Alaska; but Ohio native, etc. (see Alaska)
Naval, if part of name:
  Academy (see Academy)
  Base, Guam Naval; the naval base
  District, 1st Naval (see District)
  Establishment (see Establishment)
  Home (Philadelphia); the home
  Militia; the militia
  Observatory (see Observatory)
  Potomac River Naval Command (see Command)
  Reserve; the Reserve; a reservist
  Reserve Force; the force
  Reserve officer; a Reserve officer
  Shipyard (if preceding or following name): Brooklyn Naval Shipyard; 
    Naval Shipyard, Brooklyn; but the naval shipyard
  Station (if preceding or following name): Key West Naval Station; 
    Naval Station, Key West; the station
  Volunteer Naval Reserve
  War College; the War College; the college
naval, in general sense:
  command (see Command)
  district (see District)
  expenditures, maneuvers, officer, service, stores, etc.
  petroleum reserves; but Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (Buena Vista 
    Hills Naval Reserve); reserve No. 2
navel orange
Navy, American or foreign, if part of name; capitalized standing alone 
    only if referring to U.S. Navy:
  Admiral of the; the admiral
  Battle Force; the Battle Force; the force
  Establishment; the establishment
  Hospital Corps; hospital corpsman; the corps
  Regular
  regulation 56
  Scouting Force; the scouting force; the force
  Seabees (construction battalion); a Seabee
  7th Task Force (see Force)
navy yard
Nazi; nazism
Near East (Balkans, etc.)
network
network address translation module (NAT)
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
Negro (see Black)
New Deal; anti-New Deal
New, if part of name: New Willard
New England States
New World; but new world order
Nine Power Treaty; the treaty
North:
  Atlantic
  Atlantic Pact (see Pact)
  Atlantic States
  Atlantic Treaty (see Treaty)
  Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (see Organization)
  Equatorial Current (see Current)
  Korea

[[Page 53]]

  Pole
  Slope (Alaska)
  Star (Polaris)
  the North (section of United States)
north:
  Africa
  Ohio, Virginia, etc.
north-central region, etc.
Northeast corridor
northern Ohio
Northern States
northerner
Northwest Pacific
Northwest Territory (1799)
Northwest, the (section of the United States)
Northwest Washington (see cities)
Northwestern:
  States
  United States
numbers  capitalized if spelled out as part of a name:
  Air Force One (Presidential plane)
  Charles the First
  Committee of One Hundred
  Nineteenth Census (see Census)

Observatory, capitalized with name:
  Astrophysical; the Observatory
  Lick; the observatory (nongovernmental)
  Naval; the Observatory
Occident, the; occidental
Ocean, if part of name; the ocean:
  Antarctic
  Arctic
  Atlantic
  North Atlantic, etc.
  Pacific
  South Pacific, etc.
  Southwest Pacific, etc.
Oceanographer (the Hydrographer), Navy
Office, if referring to unit of Federal Government; the Office:
  Executive
  Foreign (see foreign cabinets)
  General Accounting; the Accounting Office; the Office
  Government Printing; the Printing Office; the Office
  Naval Oceanographic
  of Alien Property
  of Chief of Naval Operations
  of General Counsel
  of Management and Budget
  of Personnel Management (formerly Civil Service Commission)
  of the Secretary (Defense); Secretary's Office
  Patent and Trademark
  but New York regional office (including branch, division, or section 
    therein); the regional office; the office
officer:
  Army
  Marine; but naval and marine officers
  Navy; Navy and Marine officers
  Regular Army; Regular; a Regular
  Reserve
  WAC, WAVE
Old Dominion (Virginia)
Old South
Old World
Olympic games; Olympiad; XXIII Olympic games
ombudsman, Maryland (State)
online
Operation Deep Freeze, Snowdrop, etc.; but Deep Freeze operation
optical character recognition (OCR)
Order of Business No. 56 (congressional calendar)
Ordnance:
  Corps (see Corps)
  Department; the Department
  Depot (see Depot)
Organization, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring 
    to international unit:
  International Labor
  North Atlantic Treaty (NATO):
    Chiefs of Staff
    Committee of Defense Ministers
    Council
    Council of Foreign Ministers
    Defense Committee
    Military Committee
    Military Production and Supply
      Board
    Mutual Defense Assistance Program
    Pact (see Pact)
    Regional Planning Group;
      the Group
    Standing Group; the Group
  of American States (formerly Pan American Union)
  United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization 
    (Unesco/) (formerly UNESCO)
Organized:
  Marine Corps Reserve; Marine Reserve; the Reserve
  Militia; the militia
  Naval Militia; the Naval Militia; the militia
  Reserve Corps; the Reserve
Orient, the; oriental
Outer Continental Shelf (see Continental)

Pacific  (see also Atlantic):
  Basin
  coast
  Coast (or slope) States
  Northwest
  rim
  seaboard
  slope
  South
  States
  time, Pacific standard time (see time)
  but cispacific; transpacific

[[Page 54]]

Packet Internet Groper (PING)
Pact, capitalized with name; lowercased standing alone:
  Atlantic; Atlantic Defense
  Baghdad
  Four Power
  Kellogg
  North Atlantic; North Atlantic Defense
page description language (PDL)
pan-American games; but Pan American Day
Pan American Union (see Organization of American States)
Panel, the Federal Service Impasses (Federal), etc.; the Panel
Panhandle of Texas; Texas Panhandle; the panhandle; etc.
papers, Woodrow Wilson, etc.; the papers; but white paper
Parish, Caddo, etc.; but parish of Caddo (Louisiana civil division); the 
    parish
Park, Fairmount, etc.; the park (see also National)
Park Police, U.S.; park policeman
Park, Zoological (see Zoological)
Parkway, George Washington Memorial; the memorial parkway; the parkway
Parliament, Houses of; the Parliament
Parliamentarian (U.S. Senate or House)
part 2, A, II, etc.; but Part 2, when part of title: Part 2: Iron and 
    Steel Industry
Pass, Brenner, capitalized if part of name; the pass
patent (see Letters Patent)
Patrol, U.S. Border; the Border Patrol
Peninsula Upper (Lower) (Michigan); the peninsula
Penitentiary, Albany, etc.; the penitentiary
permanent access service
personal computer (PC)
petrodollar
phase 2; phase I
Philippine Republic (see Republic)
Pilgrim Fathers (1620); the Pilgrims; a Pilgrim
Place, if part of name: Jefferson Place; the place
Plains (Great Plains), the
plan:
  Colombo
  controlled materials
  5-year
  Marshall (European Recovery Program)
  Reorganization Plan No. 6 (Hoover Commission); plan No. 1
Planetarium, Fels, Hayden; the planetarium
Plant, Rockford Arsenal; the plant; but United States Steel plant
plate 2, A, II, etc.; but Plate 2, when part of title: Plate 2.--Rural 
    Structures
Plaza, Union Station (Washington, DC); the plaza
Pledge of Allegiance
Point 4 Program; point 4
Point of Presence (POP)
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
Pole: North, South; the pole; subpolar
Pole Star (Polaris); polar star
Police, if part of name; the police:
  Capitol
  Park, U.S.
  White House
political action committee (PAC)
political parties and adherents  (Party, if part of name; the party):
  Communist; a Communist
  Conservative; a Conservative
  Democratic; a Democrat
  Independent; an Independent
  Liberal; a Liberal
  Libertarian; a Libertarian
  National Woman's; Woman's Party
  Progressive; a Progressive
  Republican; Grand Old Party; but grand old Republican Party; a 
    Republican
  Socialist; a Socialist
Pool, Northwest Power, etc.; the pool
Pope; but papal, patriarch, pontiff, primate
Port, if part of name; Port of Norfolk; Norfolk Port; the port (see 
    Authority)
Post Office, Chicago, etc.
P.O. Box (with number); but post office box (in general sense)
Postal Union (see Union)
Postmaster General
PostScript
Powers, if part of name; the powers (see also alliances):
  Allied (World Wars I and II)
  Axis (World War I)
  Big Four
  Western
  but European powers
precinct; first, 11th precinct
Premier (see foreign cabinets)
Preserve, Wichita National Forest Game, etc.; Wichita Game Preserve; 
    Wichita preserve
Presidency (office of the head of Government)
President:
  of the United States; the Executive;
    the Chief Magistrate; the Commander in Chief; the President-elect; 
    ex-President; former President; also preceding name
  of any other country; the President
  of Federal or international unit
  but president of the Erie Railroad; president of the Federal Reserve 
    Bank of New York
Presidential assistant, authority, order, proclamation, candidate, 
    election, timber, year, etc.
Prime Minister (see foreign cabinets)

[[Page 55]]

Prison, Auburn, etc.; the prison
private key
Privy Council, Her Majesty's (see Council)
Prize, Nobel, Pulitzer, etc.; the prize
Proclamation, Emancipation; Presidential Proclamation No. 24; 
    Proclamation No. 24; the proclamation; but Presidential proclamation
Program, if part of name:
  European Recovery
  Food-for-Peace
  Head Start
  Mutual Assistance
  Mutual Defense Assistance
  Point 4
  Social Security
  Universal Military Training
project:
  Central Valley
  Manhattan
  McNary Dam
  Rochester atomic energy
  University of California atomic energy
Project Farside, Head Start, Sidewinder, Vanguard, etc.; but Head Start 
    project; Vanguard project
proposition 13
Prosecutor; Special Prosecutor (Federal)
Province, Provincial, if referring to an administrative subdivision: 
    Ontario Province; Province of Ontario; Maritime Provinces (Canada); 
    the Province
Proving Ground, Aberdeen, etc.; the proving ground
Public Act 26; Public Law 9; Public 37; Public Resolution 3; but public 
    enemy No. 1
Public Printer; the Government Printer; the Printer
public utility district (see District)
Pueblo, Santa Clara; the pueblo
Puerto Rico:
  government
  Governor of; the Governor
  Legislative Assembly of; the legislative assembly
  Provisional Regiment; but Puerto Rico regiment
  Resident Commissioner
Purchase, Gadsden, Louisiana, etc.
Puritan; puritanical
Pyrrhic victory

Quad Cities (Davenport, Rock Island, Moline, and East Moline)
queue
query

Radio Free Europe
Railroad, Alaska; the Railroad
Ranch, King, etc.; the ranch
Random-Access Memory (RAM)
Range, Cascade, etc. (mountains); the range
README file
Rebellion, if part of name; the rebellion:
  Boxer
  Great (Civil War)
  War of the
  Whisky
Reconstruction period (post-Civil War)
Red army
Red Cross, American (see American)
Reds, the; a Red (political)
redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID)
Reformation, the
Reformatory, Elmira, etc.; the reformatory
Refuge, Blackwater Migratory Bird, etc.; Blackwater Bird Refuge; 
    Blackwater refuge
region, north-central, etc.; first region, 10th region; region 7; 
    midcontinent
Register of the Treasury; the Register
Regular Army, Navy; a Regular (see also officer)
regulation:
  ceiling price regulation 8
  56 (Navy)
  supplementary regulation 22
  Veterans Regulation 8; but veterans regulations
  W (see also Federal Reserve Board)
Reign of Terror (France, 1792)
religious terms:
  Bahai
  Baptist
  Brahman
  Buddhist
  Catholic; Catholicism; but catholic (universal)
  Christian
  Christian Science
  Evangelical United Brethren
  Jewish
  Latter-day Saints
  Muslim (preferred) or Moslem: Shiite; Sunni
  New Thought
  Protestant; Protestantism
  Seventh-day Adventists
  Seventh-Day Baptists
  Zoroastrian
remote procedure call (RPC)
Renaissance, the (era)
reorganization plan (see plan)
Report, if part of name (with date or number); the annual report; the 
    report:
  Annual Report of the Secretary of Defense for the year ended September 
    30, 1991
  1991 Report of the Chief of the Forest Service
  Grace Commission report
  President's Economic Report; the Economic Report
  Railroad Retirement Board Annual Report, 1991; but annual report of 
    the Railroad Retirement Board
  Report No. 31
  United States Reports (publication)
Reporter, the (U.S. Supreme Court)

[[Page 56]]

Representative; Representative at Large (U.S. Congress); U.N.
Republic, capitalized if part of name; capitalized standing alone if 
    referring to a specific government:
  Czech
  French
  Irish
  of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  of Panama
  of the Philippines; Philippine Republic
  Slovak (Slovakia)
  United States
  also the American Republics; South American Republics; the Latin 
    American Republics; the Republics
Reservation  (forest, military, or Indian), if part of name; the 
        reservation:
  Great Sioux
  Hill Military
Reserve, if part of name; the Reserve (see also Air Force; Army Corps; 
    Coast Guard; Foreign Service; Marine Corps; Merchant Marine; Naval; 
    National Guard):
  Active
  Air Force
  Army
  bank (see Bank)
  Board, Federal (see Federal)
  city (see Bank)
  components
  Enlisted
  Establishment
  Inactive
  Naval
  officer
  Officers' Training Corps
  Ready
  Retired
  Standby
  Strategic
  Volunteer Naval
Reserves, the; reservist
Resident Commissioner (see Member; Puerto Rico)
Resolution, with number; the resolution:
  House Joint Resolution 3
  Public Resolution 6
  Resolution 42
  Senate Concurrent Resolution 18
  War Powers Resolution (short title)
  but Tonkin resolution
Revised Statutes (U.S.); Supplement to the Revised Statutes; the 
    statutes
Revolution, Revolutionary (if referring to the American, French, or 
    English Revolution) (see also War)
Rich Text Format (RTF)
rim; the Pacific rim
Road, if part of name: Benning; the road
Roman numerals, common nouns used with, not capitalized:
  book II; chapter II; part II; etc.
  but Book II: Modern Types (complete heading); Part XI: Early Thought 
    (complete heading)
route No. 12466; mail route 1742; railway mail route 1144; but Route 40, 
    State Route 9 (highways)
Royal Decree No. 24; Decree 24; the royal decree
rule 21; rule XXI; but Rule 21, when part of title: Rule 21: Renewal of 
    Motion
Ruler of the Universe (Deity)
Rules:
  of the House of Representatives; but rules of the House; House rule X
  Standing Rules of the Senate (publication); but rules of the Senate
  also Commission rules

Sabbath; Sabbath Day
sanitary district (see District)
savings bond (see bond)
schedule 2, A, II, etc.; but Schedule 2, when part of title; Schedule 2: 
    Open and Prepay Stations
School, if part of name; the school:
  any school of U.S. Armed Forces
  Hayes
  Pawnee Indian
  Public School 13; P.S. 13
school district (see District)
Scriptures; Holy Scriptures (the Bible)
Seabees (see Navy)
seaboard, Atlantic, eastern, etc.
seasons:
  autumn (fall)
  spring
  summer
  winter
seaway (see geographic terms; Authority; Corporation)
Second World War (see War)
Secretariat (see United Nations)
Secretaries of the Army and the Navy; but Secretaries of the military 
    departments; secretaryship
Secretary, head of national governmental unit:
  of Defense; of State; etc.; the Secretary
  of State for Foreign Affairs (British); for the Colonies; etc.; the 
    Secretary
  of the Smithsonian Institution; the Secretary
  also the Assistant Secretary; the Executive Secretary
  but secretary of the Interstate Commerce Commission; secretary of 
    state of Iowa
Secretary General: the Secretary General:
  Organization of American States
  South Pacific Commission
  United Nations
section 2, A, II, etc.; but Section 2, when part of title: Section 2: 
    Test Construction Theory
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Selective Service (see Service; System)

[[Page 57]]

Senate (U.S.), titles of officers standing alone capitalized:
  Chaplain
  Chief Clerk
  Doorkeeper
  Official Reporter(s)
  Parliamentarian
  Postmaster
  President of the
  President pro tempore
  Presiding Officer
  Secretary
  Sergeant at Arms
Senate, Ohio (State); the senate
Senator (U.S. Congress); but lowercased if referring to a State senator, 
    unless preceding a name
senatorial
Sergeant at Arms (U.S. Senate or House)
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
Sermon on the Mount
server
Service, if referring to Federal unit; the Service:
  Customs
  Employment
  Extension
  Fish and Wildlife
  Foreign (see Foreign Service)
  Forest
  Immigration and Naturalization
  Internal Revenue
  Marshalls
  Mediation and Conciliation
  National Park
  Postal
  Secret (Treasury)
  Selective (see also System); but selective service, in general sense; 
    selective service classification 1-A, 4-F, etc.
  Senior Executive
  Soil Conservation
service:
  airmail
  Army
  city delivery
  consular
  customs (see Service)
  diplomatic
  employment (State)
  extension (State)
  general delivery
  naval
  Navy
  parcel post
  postal field
  railway mail (see Division)
  rural free delivery; rural delivery; free delivery
  special delivery
  star route
Shelf, Continental (see Continental)
ship of state (unless personified)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Simple Wide Area Information System (SWAIS)
Sister(s) (adherent of religious order)
Six Nations (see Indians)
Smithsonian Institution (see Institution)
Social Security Administration, application, check, pension, trust fund, 
    system, etc.
Socialist; socialism; socialistic (see also political parties)
Society, if part of name; the society:
  American Cancer Society, Inc.
  Boston Medical
  of the Cincinnati
soil bank
soil classifications:

   Alpine Meadow               Prairie
   Bog                         Ramann's Brown
   Brown                       Red
   Chernozem (Black)           Rendzina
   Chestnut                    Sierozem (Gray)
   Desert                      Solonchak
   Gray-Brown                  Solonetz
     Podzolic                  Soloth
   Half Bog                    Terra Rossa
   Laterite                    Tundra
   Pedalfer                    Wiesenboden
   Pedocal                     Yellow
   Podzol


Soldiers' Home, if part of name: Ohio Soldiers' Home; the soldiers' 
    home; etc.
Solicitor for the Department of Labor, etc.; the Solicitor
Solicitor General (Department of Justice)
Son of Man (Christ)
Sons of the American Revolution (organization); a Son; a Real Son
South:
  American Republics (see Republic)
  American States
  Atlantic
  Atlantic States
  Deep South (U.S.)
  Korea
  Midsouth (U.S.)
  Pacific
  Pole
  the South (section of United States); Southland
Southeast Asia
southern California, southeastern California, etc.
Southern States
Southern United States
southerner
Southwest, the (section of United States)
space shuttle; the shuttle
space station
Spanish-American War (see War)
SPAR, popular name, made up of initial letters of motto semper paratus--
    always ready; a Spar
special agent
specialist
Special Order No. 12; Special Orders, No. 12; a special order

[[Page 58]]

Spirit of '76 (painting); but spirit of '76 (in general sense)
sputnik; but Sputnik I, etc.
Square, Lafayette, etc.; the square
Staff, Foreign Service (see Foreign Service); Air
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
standard time (see time)
Star of Bethlehem
Star-Spangled Banner (see flag)
star wars
State:
  government
  legislature (see Legislature)
  line, Iowa, Ohio-Indiana, etc.
  New York
  of Israel
  of Pennsylvania
  of Veracruz
  of the Union Message/Address
  out-of-State (adjective); but out-of-stater
  prison
  rights; States rights
  Vatican City
state:
  church and
  of the art: state-of-the-art technology
  statehood, statehouse, stateside, statewide
  downstate, tristate, upstate, instate, substate, multistate
  welfare
State's attorney
state's evidence
States:
  Arab
  Balkan
  Baltic
  communistic
  Eastern; but eastern industrial States
  East North Central
  East South Central
  Eastern Gulf
  Eastern North Central, etc.
  Far Western
  Gulf; Gulf Coast
  Lake
  Latin American
  lower 48
  Middle
  Middle Atlantic
  Middle Western
  Midwestern
  Mountain
  New England
  North Atlantic
  Northwestern, etc.
  Organization of American
  Pacific
  Pacific Coast
  rights
  South American
  South Atlantic
  Southern
  the six States of Australia; a foreign state
  Thirteen Original; original 13 States
  Western; but western Gulf; western farming States
Station, if part of name; the station; not capitalized if referring to 
    surveying or similar work:
  Grand Central
  Key West Naval (see Naval)
  Nebraska Experiment Station; Experiment Station, Nebraska; Nebraska 
    station
  Syracuse Air Force
  television station WSYR-TV
  Union; Union Depot; the depot
  WAMU station; station WMAL; radio station WSM; broadcasting station 
    WJSV
station 9; substation A
Statue of Liberty; the statue
Statutes at Large (U.S.) (see also Revised Statutes)
Stealth: bomber, fighter
stockpile, national
stone age (see Ages)
storage facility
Stream, Gulf (see Gulf; geographic terms)
Street, if part of name; the street:
  I Street (not Eye Street)
  Fifteen-and-a-Half
  U Street (not You Street)
  110th Street
subcommittee (see Committee)
Subtreasury, New York, etc.; subtreas-ury at New York; the subtreasury
subtropical, subtropic(s) (see tropical)
summit meeting; Earth summit
Sun
Super Bowl
Superfund; the fund
Superintendent, if referring to head of Federal unit; the 
    Superintendent:
  of Documents (Government Printing Office)
  of the Naval (or Military) Academy
Supplement to the Revised Statutes (see Revised Statutes)
Supreme Bench; the Bench; also High Bench; High Tribunal
Supreme Court (U.S.); the Court; also High Court; titles of officers 
    standing alone capitalized:
  Chief Justice
  Clerk
  Marshal
  Reporter
  but Ohio Supreme Court; the supreme court
Surgeon General, the (Air Force, Army, Navy, and Public Health Service)
Survey, if part of name of Federal unit; the Survey: Coast and Geodetic; 
    Geological; National Wilderness Preservation
System, if referring to Federal unit; the System:
  Alaska Communication; the system
  Federal Credit; the System

[[Page 59]]

  Federal Home Loan Bank; the System
  Federal Reserve; the System
  National Forest; the System
  National Highway; the System
  National Park; the System
  National System of Interstate and Defense Highways; National System of 
    Interstate Highways; Interstate System of Highways; Interstate 
    Highway System; the Interstate System; the National System; the 
    system; but highway system; Federal road system
  National Trails; the System
  National Wild and Scenic Rivers; the System
  New York Central System; the system
  Regional Metro System; Metro system
  Selective Service (see also Service)
  but Amtrak railway system; Amtrak system; the system
  also Federal land bank system

table 2, II, A, etc.; but Table 2, when part of title: Table 2: Degrees 
    of Land Deterioration
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
task force (see Force; Report)
Team, USAREUR Field Assistance, etc.; the team
television station (see Station)
Telnet
Ten Commandments
Territorial, if referring to a political subdivision
Territory:
  Northwest (1799); the territory
  Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; Pacific Islands Trust 
    Territory; the trust territory; the territory
  Yukon, Northwest Territories; the Territory(ies), Territorial (Canada)
  but territory of: American Samoa, Guam, Virgin Islands
The, part of name, capitalized:
  The Dalles; The Gambia; The Hague; The Weirs; but the Dalles Dam; the 
    Dalles region; the Federal Bulletin Board; the Hague Conference; the 
    Weirs streets
  but the Adjutant General; the National Archives; the Archives; the 
    Times; the Mermaid; the Federal Express
Third World
Thirteen American Colonies, etc. (see Colonies)
Thirteen Original States
Thruway, New York; the thruway
time:
  Atlantic, Atlantic standard
  central, central standard
  Draconian (period of time)
  eastern, eastern daylight, eastern daylight saving (no s), eastern 
    standard
  Greenwich civil, etc.
  local, local standard
  mountain, mountain standard
  Pacific, Pacific standard
  universal
Time Division Multiplexing Access (TDMA)
title 2, II, A, etc.; but Title 2, when part of title: Title 2: General 
    Provisions
Tomb:
  Grant's; the tomb
  of the Unknowns; of the Unknown Soldier; Unknown Soldier's Tomb; the 
    tomb (see also Unknown Soldier)
Tower, Eiffel, etc.; the tower
Township, Union; township of Union
trade names and trademarks:

  Acrilan                              Formica
  Airwick                              Fathometer
  Alemite                              Fiberglas
  Alpha (protein)                        (fiberglass in
  Alumel                                 general sense)
  Alundum                              Fig Newtons
  Ameripol                             Freon
  Anchor (fence)                       Frigidaire
  Artgum

                                       Gameboy
  Bactratycin                          Geon
  Bakelite                             Glyptal
  Band-Aid                             Go Kart
  Belleekware                          Gyropilot
  Benzedrine                           Gyrosyn
  Bessemer (steel)
  Blendor (Waring)                     Halon (gas)
  Blue Rock (clay                      Hercolyn
   target)                             Hersheypark
                                       Hush Puppies
  Calgon                                 (shoes)
  Calrod                               Hydroseal
  Carbitol
  Carborundum                          Inconel
  Catalin                              Invar
  Caterpillar (tread)                  Iron-Clad
  Celanese
  Celastic                             Java
  Cellosolve                           Jeep
  Cellucotton
    (surgical 
    dressing)                          Kepone 
  Celluloid (plastics)                   (chlordecone)
  Celotex                              Kiddie Kar
  Chevron                              Kleenex
    (machinery                         Klieglight
    packing)                           Kodak
  Chlorex                              Kodapak
  Chromel (alloy)                      Koroseal
  CinemaScope                          Kovar
  Claratin
  Coca-Cola                            Lastex
  Coke                                 LaserWriter
  Corex                                Laundromat
  Crawlers                             Leatherette
  Cyclone (fence)                      Lexide
                                       Library (paste)
  Dacron                               Lift Gate
  Deepfreeze (home                     Lollypop
    freezer)                           Lucite
  De-Ion                               Lux
  Dulux
  Duraloy                              Masonite
  Duraplex                             MasterCard
                                       Methocel
  Electro-Silicon                      Micarta
  Elektron                             Modutrol
  Emulphor                             Monel (metal)

[[Page 60]]

  Nekal                                Steel-Flex
  Nichrome                             Stellite
  Nicofume                             Steri-Pad (surgical
  Nonex                                   dressing)
  NutraSweet                           Stiflex
                                       Styrofoam
  Orlon                                Sylphon
                                       Synpor
  Paraplex                             Syntron
  Peg Board
  Pentium                              Tabasco sauce
  Perbunan                             Talon (fastener)
  Permutit                             Technicolor
  Phosphor bronze                      Teflon
  Photronic                            TelePrompter
  Phytin                               Terramycin
    (pharmaceutical                    Thermit
    product)                           Thermofax
  Ping-Pong                            Thermos (vacuum 
  Plexiglas                              bottle)
  Pliolite                             Thiokol
  Pliowax                              Transite
  Polane                               Tylenol
  Polaroid
  Porocel                              Uformite
  Portland cement                      U-Haul
  Primacord                            UNIX
  Prozac
  Push-Back (theater                   Vacumatic
    chairs)                            Varsol
  Pyralin                              Vaseline
  Pyrex glass                          Velcro
                                       Verichrome
  Refinite                             ViewSonic
  Revertex                             Vistac
  Rocklath (plaster-                   Vistanex (-Medium)
     board)                            Vultex
  Rockwell (tester)
                                       Walkman
  Scotch (pressure-                    Windbreaker
    sensitive tape,                    Windows NT
    etc.)                              Word Perfect
  Shakeproof
  Sheetrock                            Xerox
  Slim Jims
  Snow Crop                            Yahoo!
  Solvesso
  Speed-Nut                            ZIP Code (Postal)
    (fastener)                         Zipper (heels)


Trade Representative (U.S.)
transatlantic; transpacific; trans-Siberian, etc.; but Transjordan; 
    Trans-Alaska
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Treasurer, Assistant, of the United States; the Assistant Treasurer; but 
    assistant treasurer at New York, etc.
Treasurer of the United States; the Treasurer
Treasury notes; Treasurys
Treasury, of the United States; General; National; Public; Register of 
    the
Treaty, if part of name; the treaty:
  Jay Treaty
  North Atlantic; North Atlantic Defense
  of Versailles
  but treaty of 1919
triad
tribe (see Indians)
Tribunal, standing alone capitalized only in minutes and official 
    reports of a specific arbitration; also High Tribunal; the Tribunal 
    (Supreme Court); Copyright Royalty Tribunal, the tribunal
Tris (chemical)
Tropic of Cancer, of Capricorn; the Tropics
tropical; neotropic, neotropical, sub- tropic(s), subtropical
Trust, Power, etc.
trust territory (see Territory)
Tunnel, Lincoln, etc.; the tunnel; but irrigation, railroad, etc., 
    tunnel
Turnpike, Pennsylvania, etc.; the turnpike
Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul)

U-boat
Under Secretary, if referring to officer of Federal Government; the 
    Under Secretary:
  of Agriculture
  of State
  of the Treasury
Uniform Code of Military Justice (see Code)
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Name/Number (URN)
Union  (if part of proper name; capitalized standing alone if synonym 
        for United States or if referring to international unit):
  International Typographical; the Typographical Union; the union
  Pan American (see Organization of American States)
  Station; but union passenger station; union freight station
  Teamsters Union; the Teamsters; the union; also  the Auto Workers, 
    etc.
  Universal Postal; the Postal Union; the Union
  Western (see alliances)
  Woman's Christian Temperance
  but a painters union; printers union
Unit, if referring to Federal branch; the Unit:
  Alcohol Tax
  Income Tax
United Nations:
  Charter; the charter
  Conference on International Organization; the Conference
  Economic and Social Council; the Council
  Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (Unesco) 
    (see Organization)
  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); the Organization
  General Assembly; the Assembly
  International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF); the Fund

[[Page 61]]

  International Court of Justice; the Court
  International Labor Organization (see Organization)
  Little Assembly; the Assembly
  Permanent Court of Arbitration (see Court)
  Secretariat, the
  Secretary General
  Security Council; the Council
  Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development (SUNFED)
  Trusteeship Council; the Council
  World Employment Conference
  World Health Organization (WHO); the Organization
universal:
  military training (see Program)
  time (see time)
Universal Postal Union (see Union)
University, if part of name: Stanford; the university
Unknown Soldier; Unknown of World War II; World War II Unknown; Unknown 
    of Korea; Korea Unknown; the Unknowns (see also Tomb)
Upper, if part of name:
  Colorado River Basin
  Egypt
  Peninsula (of Michigan)
  but upper House of Congress
Uruguay round
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
U.S.S.R. (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics):
  Cominform (Communist Information Bureau)
  Communist International
  Communist States
  New Independent State
  Politburo
  Red army
  Reds, the; a Red
  Soviet, if part of name; capitalized standing alone if referring to 
      central governmental unit:
    Government; but Communist government
    Moscow
    National
    of Labor and Defense
    S.S.S.R. (Siberian Soviet Socialist Republics)
    but a soviet; sovietic; sovietism; sovietize

Valley, Shenandoah, etc.; the valley; but the valleys of Virginia and 
    Maryland
V-E Day; V-J Day (see holidays);       V-chip
veteran, World War
Veterans Day (see holidays)
vice consul, British, etc.
Vice President (same as President)
Victoria Cross (see decorations)
virtual LAN (VLAN)
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
Voice of America; the Voice
Voice of Democracy Contest; the contest
volume 2, A, II, etc.; but Volume 2, when part of title: Volume 2: Five 
    Rivers in America's Future
Volunteer Naval Reserve (see Reserve)

WAC (see Corps)
WAF (women in the Air Force; a Waf, Wafs (individuals)
WAIS Client Software
War, if part of formal name:
  Between the States
  Civil
  First World War; World War I; World War; Great War; Second World War; 
    World War II; but world war III
  for Independence (1776)
  French and Indian (1754-63)
  Mexican
  of the Nations
  of the Rebellion; the rebellion
  of the Revolution; the Revolution
  of 1812; but war of 1914
  Philippine Insurrection
  Revolutionary
  Seven Years'
  Six-Day (Arab-Israeli)
  Spanish
  Spanish-American
  the two World Wars
  also post-World War II
war, descriptive or undeclared:
  cold, hot
  European
  French and Indian wars
  Indian
  Korean
  Persian Gulf; gulf
  third world; world war III
  Vietnam
  with Mexico
  with Spain
War College, National (see College)
War Mothers (see American)
ward 1, 2, etc.; first, 11th, etc.
Washington's Farewell Address
water district (see District)
waterway, inland, intercoastal, etc.; but Intracoastal Waterway
WAVES (women accepted for volunteer emergency service); a Wave
Web
Web broadcasting
Web browser
Webcasting
WebTV
Web site
Week, Fire Prevention; etc.
welfare state
West:
  Bank (Jordan)
  Coast (Africa); but west coast (U.S.)
  End, etc. (section of city)
  Europe (political entity)

[[Page 62]]

  Far West; Far Western States
  Florida (1763-1819)
  Middle (United States); Midwest
  South Central States, etc.
  the West (section of United States; also world political entity)
west, western Pennsylvania
Western:
  bloc
  civilization
  countries
  Europe(an) (political entity)
  Hemisphere; the hemisphere
  ideas
  North Central States
  Powers
  States
  Union (see alliances)
  United States
  World
  but far western; western farming States (U.S.)
westerner
What you see is what you get. (WYSIWYG)
Wheat Belt (see Belt)
whip, the (of political party in Congress)
Whisky Rebellion (see Rebellion)
White (synonym for Caucasian)
White House:
  Blue Room
  East Room
  Oval Office
  Police (see Police)
  Red Room
  Rose Garden
  State Dining Room
white paper, British, etc.
Wide Area Information Server (WAIS)
wide area network (WAN)
Wilderness, capitalized with name; San Joaquin Wilderness, CA; the 
    wilderness; but the Wilderness (Virginia battlefield)
WinWAIS
woman marine, etc. (see Marine Corps)
Women's Army Corps (see Corps)
Wood, if part of name:
  Belleau Wood
  House of the Woods (palace)
World: New, Old, Third; but free world
World Bank; the Bank
World Series
World War (see War)
World War II veteran
World Wide Web (WWW), the Web

Xmodem
x ray (note: no hyphen)

Year, International Geophysical; the Geophysical Year; the Year
year:
  calendar
  fiscal
Ymodem
Young Men's Christian Association (see Association)
Your Excellency; Your Honor; Your Majesty; etc.
Youth Corps; the Corps

ZIP Code number; ZIP+4
Z39.50
Zmodem
Zone, if part of name; the zone:
  Bizonia; bizonal
  British (in Germany)
  Canal (Panama)
  Eastern, Western (Germany)
  Frigid
  Hot (infectious area)
  New York Foreign Trade; Foreign Trade Zone No. 1; but the foreign 
    trade zone
  of Interior (see Command)
  Temperate, Torrid; the zone
  Trizonia; trizonal
  but Arctic, eastern standard time, enterprise, polar, tropical zone, 
    etc.
Zoological Park (National); the zoo; the park



[[Page 63]]

 
                              5. SPELLING

   (See also ``Compounding Examples'' and ``Abbreviations and Letter 
                               Symbols'')

  5.1. The Government Printing Office uses Webster's Third New 
International Dictionary as its guide for the spelling of words 
not appearing in the Manual. Colloquial and dialect spellings 
are not used unless required by the subject matter or specially 
requested. The tendency of some producers of computer-assisted 
publications to rely on the limited capability of some spell-
checking programs adds importance to the Manual's list.

Preferred and difficult spellings

  5.2. In addition to indicating the preferred forms of words 
with variant spellings, the list also contains other words 
frequently misspelled or causing uncertainty. (See also ``Word 
Division,'' a supplement to the Style Manual.)

    A
abattoir
aberration
abetter
  abettor (law)
abridgment
absorb (take in)
  adsorb
    (adhesion)
abysmal
a cappella
accede (yield)
  exceed (surpass)
accepter
  acceptor (law)
accessory
accommodate
accordion
accouter
accursed
acetic (acid)
  ascetic (austere)
acknowledgment
acousticam
adaptermit
adjurermp
adjusterace
ad nauseamghfare
advisernch
  advisor (law)
adz Valley
aegisolcano
affect (influence,
    v.)erway
  effect (result,
    finish, n., v.)
afterward(s)
  afterword
aging
aid (n., v.)
aide
aide-de-camp
albumen (egg)
  albumin
    (chemistry)
align
allottee
all ready
    (prepared)
  already
    (previous)
all right
altogether
    (completely)
  all together
    (collectively)
aluminum
ambidextrous
ameba
ampoule
analog
analogous
anemia
anesthetic
aneurysm
anomalous
anonymous
antediluvian
antibiotics (n.)
  antibiotic (adj.)
anyway (adv.)
anywise (adv.)
appall, -ed, -ing
appareled, -ing
aquatic
aqueduct
archeology
arrester
artifact
artisan
ascendance, -ant
ascent (rise)
  assent (consent)
assassinate
atheneum
attester
autogiro
awhile (for
    some time)
  a while (a short
    time)
ax
aye

    B
backward
baloney
    (nonsense)
  bologna
    (sausage)
bandanna
bargainer
  bargainor (law)
baritone
bark (boat)
barreled, -ing
bastille
bathyscaph
battalion
bazaar
behoove
beneficent
benefited, -ing
bettor (wagerer)
beveled, -ing
biased, -ing
blessed
bloc (group)
  block (grants)
blond (masc., fem.)
bluing
born (birth)
  borne (carried)
bouillon (soup)
  bullion (metal)
boulder
bourgeoisie
breach (gap)
  breech (lower
    part)
brier
briquet, -ted, -ting
Britannia
broadax
bronco
brunet (masc., fem.)
buccaneer
buncombe
bunion
bur
burned
bus, bused, buses, busing
butadiene


[[Page 64]]


    C
caffeine
calcareous
calcimine
caldron
calender (paper finish)
caliber
caliper
calk (spike)
  caulk (seal)
calligraphy
callus (n.)
  callous (adj.)
calorie
canceled, -ing
cancellation
candor
canister
cannot
canoeing
cantaloup
canvas (cloth)
  canvass (solicit)
capital (city, money)
  capitol
    (building)
carabao (sing., pl.)
carat (gem weight)
  caret (omission
    mark)
  karat (gold
    weight)
carbureted, -ing
carburetor
Caribbean
caroled, -ing
carotene
cartilage
caster (roller)
  castor (oil)
casual
    (informal)
  causal (cause)
catalog, -ed, -ing
cataloger
catsup
caviar
caviled, -er, -ing
center
centipede
cesarean
chairmaned
chaise longue
chancellor
channeled, -ing
chaperon
chautauqua
chauvinism
chiffonier
chile con carne
chili (pepper)
chiseled, -ing
chlorophyll
cigarette
citable
cite (quote)
  site (place)
clamor
climactic (climax)
  climatic
    (climate)
cocaine
coconut
cocoon
coleslaw
colloquy
colossal
combated, -ing
commenter
  commentor (law)
commingle
commiserate
complement
    (complete)
  compliment
    (praise)
confectionery
confidant (masc.,
    fem.)
  confident (sure)
confirmer
  confirmor (law)
conjurer
connecter
  connector (road)
connoisseur
consecrator
consensus
consignor
consulter
consummate
contradicter
control, -lable, -ling
converter
conveyor
cookie
coolie
cornetist
corollary
corvette
councilor (of
    council)
  counselor
    (adviser)
counseled, -ing
cozy
crawfish
creneled, -ing
crystaled, -ing
crystalline
crystallize
cudgeled, -ing
cyclopedia
czar

    D
darndest
debarkation
decaffeinated
decalog
defense
deliverer
  deliveror (law)
demagog
demarcation
dependent
descendant (n., adj.)
desecrater
desiccate
desuetude
detractor
develop, -ment
device
    (contrivance)
  devise (convey)
dextrous
diagramed, -ing
diagrammatic
dialed, -ing
dialog
diaphragm
diarrhea
dickey
dieresis
dieretic
dietitian
diffuser
dike
dilettante
dinghy (boat)
diphtheria
discreet (prudent)
  discrete
    (distinct)
disheveled, -ing
disk
dispatch
dissension
distention
distill, -ed, -ing, -ment
distributor
diverter
divorcee
doctoral
doctrinaire
doggerel
dossier
doweled, -ing
downward
dreadnought
dreamed
drought
dueled, -ing
duffelbag
dullness
dumfound
dwelt
dyeing (coloring)
  dying (death)
  
    E
eastward
ecstasy
edema
edgewise
electronics (n.)
  electronic (adj.)
eleemosynary
elicit (to draw)
  illicit (illegal)
embarrass
embed
embellish
emboweled, -ing
emboweler
emigrant (go
    from)
  immigrant (go
    into)
emigree
eminent(famous)
  imminent
    (soon)
employee
enameled, -ing
encage
encase
encave
enclasp
enclose
enclosure
encumber
encumbrance
encyclopedia
endorse, -ment
endwise
enfeeble
enforce, -ment
engraft
enroll, -ed, -ing, -ment
enshade
ensheathe
ensnare
ensure (guarantee)
  insure (protect)
entrench
entrepreneur
entrust
entwine
envelop (v.)
  envelope (n.)
enwrap
eon
epaulet, -ed, -ing
epiglottis
epilog
equaled, -ing
erysipelas
escaloped, -ing
escapable
esophagus
esthetic
etiology
evacuee
evanescent
eviscerate
evocative
exhibitor
exhilarate
exonerate
exorbitant

[[Page 65]]


expellent
expose (n.,
    exposure)
  expose (v., to
    lay open)
exsiccate
extant (in
    existence)
  extent (range)
extoll, -ed, -ing
eying
eyrie

    F
falderal
fantasy
farther (distance)
  further (degree)
favor
fecal
feces
fetal
fetish
fetus
fiber
fiche (microfiche)
filigree
finable
finagle
financier
fiord
flammable (not inflammable)
flection
fledgling
flexitime
flier
flotage
flotation
fluorescent
focused, -ing
forbade
forbear (endurance)
  forebear
    (ancestor)
foresee
forgettable
forgo (relinquish)
  forego (precede)
format, formatted,
  formatting
forswear
fortissimo
forward (ahead)
  foreword
    (preface)
fricassee

fuchsia

fueler

fulfill, -ed, -ing, -ment

fulsome

fungus (n., adj.)

funneled, -ing

furor

fuse (all meanings)
fuselage
fusillade

    G
gaiety
gaily
galosh
gamboled, -ing
garrote
gauge
gazetteer
gelatin
genealogy
generalissimo
germane
glamorous
glamour
glycerin
gobbledygook
goodbye
graveled, -ing
gray
grievous
groveled, -ing
gruesome
guarantee (n., v.)
  guaranty (n.,
    law)
guerrilla
    (warfare)
  gorilla (ape)
guesstimate
guttural
gypsy

    H
hallelujah
hara-kiri
harass
harebrained
healthful
  (for health)
healthy (with
  health)
heinous
hemoglobin
hemorrhage
heterogeneous
hiccup
highfalutin
hijack
homeopath
homogeneity
homolog
hors d'oeuvre
hypocrisy
hypotenuse

    I
idiosyncrasy
idyl
imminent
    (soon)
  eminent
    (famous)
impaneled, -ing
impasse
imperiled, -ing
impostor
impresario
imprimatur
inculcate
indict (to accuse)
  indite (to
    compose)
inequity
    (unfairness)
  iniquity (sin)
inferable
infold
ingenious
    (skillful)
  ingenuous
    (simple)
innocuous
innuendo
inoculate
inquire, inquiry
install, -ed, -ing, -ment
installation
instill, -ed, -ing
insure (protect)
  ensure
    (guarantee)
intelligentsia
interceptor
interment (burial)
  internment
    (jail)
intern
intervener
  intervenor (law)
intransigent (n., adj.)
iridescent
italic

    J
jalopy
jalousie
jerry-(built)
  jury-(rigged)
jeweled, -ing, -er
jewelry
judgeship
judgment
jujitsu
juxtaposition

    K
kerneled, -ing
kerosene
kidnaped, -ing
kidnaper
kilogram
knapsack
kopek
kumquat

    L
labeled, -ing
lacquer
landward
lath (wood)
  lathe (machine)
laureled
leukemia
leveled, -ing
leveler
liaison
libelant
libeled, -ing
libelee
libeler
license
licenser (issuer)
  licensor
    (grantor)
licorice
likable
lilliputian
linage (lines)
  lineage
    (descent)
liquefy
liquor
  liqueur
liter
livable
loath (reluctant)
  loathe (detest)
lodestar
lodestone
lodgment
logistics (n.)
  logistic (adj.)
louver
luster
lyonaise

    M
madam
Mafia
maim
maize (corn)
  maze
    (labyrinth)
maneuver
manifold
manikin
mantel (shelf)
  mantle (cloak)
manywise (adv.)
marbleize
marijuana
marshaled, -ing
marshaler
marveled, -ing
marvelous
material (goods)
  materiel
    (military)
meager
medaled, -ing
medalist
medieval
metaled, -ing
metalize

[[Page 66]]


meteorology
    (weather)
  metrology
    (weights and
    measures)
meter
mil (\1/1000\ inch)
  mill (\1/1000\
    dollar)
mileage
miliary (tuberculosis)
milieu
milk cow
millenary (1,000)
  millinery (hats)
millennium
minable
missilry
misspell
miter
moccasin
modeled, -ing
modeler
mold
mollusk
molt
moneys
monogramed, -ing
monolog
mortise
movable
mucilage
mucus (n.)
  mucous (adj.)
Muslim
mustache

    N
naphtha
Navajo
nazism
neophyte
niacin
nickel
Nisei
niter
nonplused
northward
Novocain
numskull

    O
obbligato
obloquy
ocher
octet
offal
offense
omelet
ophthalmology
opossum
orangutan
orbited, -ing
ordinance (law)
  ordnance
    (military)
organdie
overseas or oversea

    P
pajamas
paleontology
paneled, -ing
paraffin
paralleled, -ing
parallelepiped
parceled, -ing
partisan
pastime
patrol, -led, -ling
peccadillo
pedant (n.)
  pedantic (adj.)
peddler
penciled, -ing
pendant (n.)
  pendent (u.m.)
percent
peremptory
    (decisive)
  preemptory
    (preference)
perennial
periled, -ing
permittee
perquisite
    (privilege)
  prerequisite
    (requirement)
personal
    (individual)
  personnel
    (staff)
perspective
    (view)
  prospective
    (expected)
petaled, -ing

Pharaoh
pharmacopeia

phenix

phlegm

phony

phosphorus (n.)
  phosphorous
    (adj.)
photostated
pickax
picnicking
pipet
plaque
plastics (n.)
  plastic (adj.)
pledger
  pledgor (law)
plenitude
pliers
plow
poleax
pollination
pommeled, -ing
pontoon
porcelaneous
practice (n., v.)
precedence
    (priority)
  precedents
    (usage)
pretense
preventive
principal (chief)
  principle
    (proposition)
privilege
proffer
programmed, -mer,-ming
programmatic
prolog
promissory
pronunciation
propel, -led, -ling
propellant (n.)
  propellent (adj.)
prophecy (n.)
  prophesy (v.)
ptomaine
pubic (anatomy)
pulmotor
pusillanimous

    Q
quarreled, -ing
quartet
quaternary
questionnaire
queue

    R
raccoon
racket (all meanings)
rapprochement
rarefy
rarity
ratable
rational (adj.)
  rationale (n.)
rattan
raveled, -ing
reconnaissance
reconnoiter
recyclable
referable
refusenik
registrar
reinforce
relater
  relator (law)
remodeler
renaissance
reparable
repellant (n.)
  repellent (adj.)
requester
  requestor (law)
rescission
responder (electronics)
responser (electronics)
reveled, -er, -ing
rhyme, rhythmic
RIFing, RIFed, RIFs
rivaled, -ing
roweled, -ing
ruble

    S
saccharin (n.)
  saccharine (adj.)
sacrilegious
salable
sandaled, -ing
savable
savanna
savior
  Saviour (Christ)
scalloped, -ing
schizophrenia
scion (horticulture)
scurrilous
seismology
selvage (edging)
  salvage (save)
sentineled, -ing
separate (v., adj.)
sepulcher
seriatim
settler
  settlor (law)
sewage (waste)
  sewerage (drain
    system)
sextet
Shakespearean
shellacking
shoveled, -ing
shriveled, -ing
sideward
signaled, -ing
siphon
site (place)
  cite (quote)
sizable
skeptic
skillful
skulduggery
sleight (deft)
  slight (meager)
smolder
sniveled, -ing
snorkel
soliloquy
sometime
    (formerly)
  some time
    (some time
    ago)
  sometimes (at
    times)
southward

[[Page 67]]


spacious (space)
  specious
    (plausible)
specter
spirituous (liquor)
spirochete
spoliation
staunch
stationary (fixed)
  stationery
    (paper)
statue (sculpture)
  stature (height)
  statute (law)
stenciled, -ing
stenciler
stifling
stratagem
stubbornness
stultify
stupefy
subpoena, -ed
subtlety
succor
sulfur (also
    derivatives)
  sulfanilamide
  sulfureted, -ing
supererogation
surfeit
surreptitious
surveillance
swiveled, -ing
sylvan
synonymous
syrup

    T
taboo
tactician
tasseled, -ing
tattoo
taxied, -ing
technique
teetotaler
tercentenary
theater
therefor (for it)
  therefore (for
    that reason)
thiamine
thralldom
thrash (beat)
  thresh (grain)
threshold
tie, tied, tying
timber (wood)
  timbre (tone)
tinseled, -ing
titer
tonsillitis
tormenter
totaled, -ing
toward
toweled, -ing
toxemia
trafficking
trammeled, -ing
tranquilize(r)
tranquillity
transcendent
transferable
transferor
transferred
transonic
transponder (electronics)
transshipment
traveled, -ing
traveler
travelog
triptych
trolley
troop (soldiers)
  troupe (actors)
troweled, -ing
tryptophan
tularemia
tunneled, -ing
tunneler
turquoise
typify
tyrannical
tyro

    U
unctuous
unwieldy
upward
uremia
usable

    V
vacillate
valance (drape)
  valence
    (chemistry)
veld
veranda
vermilion
vicissitude
victualed, -ing
victualer
vilify
villain
visa, -ed, -ing
vitamin
vitrify
volcanism
voluntarism
votable
vying

    W
wainscoting
warranter
  warrantor (law)
warranty
weeviled, -ing
welder
westward
whimsey
whiskey, -s
willful
withe
woeful
woolen
woolly
worshiped, -er, -ing
    
    
    

Anglicized and foreign words

  5.3. Diacritical marks are not used with anglicized words.
abaca
aide memoire
a la carte
a la king
a la mode
angstrom
aperitif
applique
apropos
auto(s)-da-fe

blase
boutonniere
brassiere

cabana
cafe
cafeteria
caique
canape
cause celebre
chateau
cliche
cloisonne
comedienne
comme ci
  comme ca
communique
confrere
consomme
cortege
coulee
coup de grace
coup d'etat
coupe
creme
crepe
crepe de chine
critique
critiquing

debacle
debris
debut
debutante
decollete
dejeuner
denouement
depot
dos-a-dos
eclair
eclat
ecru
elan
elite
entree
etude

facade
faience
faux pas
fete
fiance (masc., fem.)
frappe

garcon
glace
grille
gruyere

habitue

ingenue

jardiniere
laissez faire
litterateur

materiel
matinee
melange
melee
menage
mesalliance
metier
moire

naive
naivete
nee

opera bouffe
opera comique

papier mache
piece de resistance
pleiade
porte cochere
porte lumiere
portiere
pousse cafe
premiere
protege (masc., fem.)
puree

rale
recherche
regime
risque (masc., fem.)
role
rotisserie
roue

saute
seance
senor
smorgasbord
soiree
souffle
suede

table d'hote
tete-a-tete
tragedienne

vicuna
vis-a-vis

[[Page 68]]


  5.4. Foreign words carry the diacritical marks as an 
essential part of their spelling.

a l'americaine
attache
beton
blesse
caleche
canada
canon
charge
charge d'affaires
conge
credit foncier
credit mobilier
cure
deja vu
detente
dona
entrepot
expose
longeron
manana
mate
mere
nacre
outre
passe (masc., fem.)
pate
pere
pina
precis
raisonne
resume
touche

Plural forms

  5.5. Nouns ending in o immediately preceded by a vowel add s 
to form the plural; nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant 
add es to form the plural, except as indicated in the following 
list.

albinos
armadillos
avocados
banjos
cantos
cascos
centos
didos
duodecimos
dynamos
escudos
falsettos
gauchos
ghettos
halos
indigos
infernos
juntos
kimonos
lassos
magnetos
mementos
merinos
mestizos
octavos
octodecimos
pianos
piccolos
pomelos
provisos
quartos
salvos
sextodecimos
sextos
siroccos
solos
tangelos
tobaccos
twos
tyros
virtuosos
zeros

   5.6. When a noun is hyphenated with an adverb or 
preposition, the plural is formed on the noun.
comings-in
fillers-in
goings-on
hangers-on
listeners-in
lookers-on
markers-up
passers-by
swearers-in
  5.7. When neither word is a noun, the plural is formed on the 
last word.
also-rans
come-ons
go-betweens
higher-ups
run-ins
tie-ins
  5.8. In forming the plurals of compound terms, the 
significant word takes the plural form.
Significant word first:
  adjutants general
  aides-de-camp
  ambassadors at large
  attorneys at law
  attorneys general
  billets-doux
  bills of fare
  brothers-in-law
  charges d'affaires
  chiefs of staff
  commanders in chief
  comptrollers general
  consuls general
  courts-martial
  crepes suzette
  daughters-in-law
  governors general
  grants-in-aid
  heirs at law
  inspectors general
  men-of-war
  ministers-designate
  mothers-in-law
  notaries public
  pilots-in-command
  postmasters general
  presidents-elect
  prisoners of war
  reductions in force
  rights-of-way
  secretaries general
  sergeants at arms
  sergeants major
  solicitors general
  surgeons general

Significant word in middle:
  assistant attorneys general
  assistant chiefs of staff
  assistant comptrollers general
  assistant surgeons general

[[Page 69]]


Significant word last:
  assistant attorneys
  assistant commissioners
  assistant corporation counsels
  assistant directors
  assistant general counsels
  brigadier generals
  deputy judges
  deputy sheriffs
  general counsels
  judge advocates
  judge advocate generals
  lieutenant colonels
  major generals
  provost marshals
  provost marshal generals
  quartermaster generals
  trade unions
  under secretaries
  vice chairmen
Both words equally significant:
  Bulletins Nos. 27 and 28
    not Bulletin Nos. 27 and 28
    but Bulletin No. 27 or 28
  coats of arms
  masters at arms
  men buyers
  men employees
  secretaries-treasurers
  women aviators

No word significant in itself:
  forget-me-nots
  hand-me-downs
  jack-in-the-pulpits
  man-of-the-earths
  pick-me-ups
  will-o'-the-wisps

5.9. Nouns ending with ful form the plural by adding s at the 
end; if it is necessary to express the idea that more than one 
container was filled, the two elements of the solid compound 
are printed as separate words and the plural is formed by 
adding s to the noun.

      five bucketfuls of the mixture (one bucket filled five 
        times)
      five buckets full of earth (separate buckets)
      three cupfuls of flour (one cup filled three times)
      three cups full of coffee (separate cups)

  5.10. The following list comprises other words the plurals of 
which may cause difficulty.

addendum, addenda
adieu, adieus
agendum, agenda
alga, algae
alumnus, alumni (masc.); alumna, alumnae (fem.)
antenna, antennas (antennae, zoology)
appendix, appendixes
aquarium, aquariums
automaton, automatons
axis, axes
bandeau, bandeaux
basis, bases
bateau, bateaux
beau, beaus
cactus, cactuses
calix, calices
cargo, cargoes
chassis (singular and plural)
cherub, cherubs
cicatrix, cicatrices
Co., Cos.
coccus, cocci
consortium, consortia
corrigendum, corrigenda
crisis, crises
criterion, criteria
curriculum, curriculums
datum (singular), data (plural,
  but singular in collective sense)
desideratum, desiderata
dilettante, dilettanti
dogma, dogmas
ellipsis, ellipses
equilibrium, equilibriums (equilibria, scientific)
erratum, errata
executrix, executrices
flambeau, flambeaus
focus, focuses
folium, folia
forum, forums
formula, formulas
fungus, fungi
genius, geniuses
genus, genera
gladiolus (singular and plural)
helix, helices
hypothesis, hypotheses
index, indexes (indices, scientific)
insigne, insignia
italic, italic
Kansas Citys
lacuna, lacunae
larva, larvae
larynx, larynxes
lens, lenses
lira, lire
locus, loci
madam, mesdames
Marys
matrix, matrices
maximum, maximums

[[Page 70]]


medium, mediums or media
memorandum, memorandums
minimum, minimums
minutia, minutiae
monsieur, messieurs
nucleus, nuclei
oasis, oases
octopus, octopuses
opus, opera
parenthesis, parentheses
phenomenon, phenomena
phylum, phyla
plateau, plateaus
podium, podiums
proces-verbal, proces-verbaux
radius, radii
radix, radixes
referendum, referendums
sanatorium, sanatoriums
sanitarium, sanitariums
septum, septa
sequela, sequelae
seraph, seraphs
seta, setae
ski, skis
stadium, stadiums
stimulus, stimuli
stratum, strata
stylus, styluses
syllabus, syllabuses
symposium, symposia
synopsis, synopses
tableau, tableaus
taxi, taxis
terminus, termini
testatrix, testatrices
thesaurus, thesauri
thesis, theses
thorax, thoraxes
vertebra, vertebras
  (vertebrae, zoology)
virtuoso, virtuosos
vortex, vortexes

Endings ``ible'' and ``able''

  5.11. The following words end in ible; other words in this 
class end in able.

abhorrible
accendible
accessible
addible
adducible
admissible
appetible
apprehensible
audible
avertible
bipartible
circumscriptible
coctible
coercible
cognoscible
cohesible
collapsible
collectible(s)
combustible
comestible
commonsensible
compactible
compatible
competible
compossible
comprehensible
compressible
conducible
conductible
confluxible
congestible
contemptible
controvertible
conversible
    (convertible)
  conversable
    (oral)
convertible
convincible
corrigible
corrodible
corrosible
corruptible
credible
crucible
cullible
decoctible
deducible
deductible
defeasible
defectible
defensible
delible
deprehensible
depressible
descendible
destructible
diffrangible
diffusible
digestible
dimensible
discernible
discerpible
discerptible
discussible
dispersible
dissectible
distensible
distractible
divertible
divestible
divisible
docible
edible
educible
effectible
effervescible
eligible
eludible
erodible
evasible
eversible
evincible
exemptible
exhaustible
exigible
expansible
explosible
expressible
extensible
fallible
feasible
fencible
flexible
fluxible
forcible
frangible
fungible
fusible
gullible
horrible
ignitible
illegible
immersible
immiscible
impartible
impatible
impedible
imperceptible
impermissible
imperscriptible
impersuasible
implausible
impossible
imprescriptible
imputrescible
inaccessible
inadmissible
inapprehensible
inaudible
incircumscriptible
incoercible
incognoscrible
incombustible
incommiscible
incompatible
incomprehensible
incompressible
inconcussible
incontrovertible
inconvertible
inconvincible
incorrigible
incorrodible
incorruptible
incredible
indefeasible
indefectible
indefensible
indelible
indeprehensible
indestructible
indigestible
indiscernible
indivertible
indivisible
indocible
inducible
ineffervescible
ineligible
ineludible
inevasible
inexhaustible
inexpansible
inexpressible
infallible

[[Page 71]]


infeasible
inflexible
infractible
infrangible
infusible
innascible
inscriptible
insensible
instructible
insubmergible
insuppressible
insusceptible
intactible
intangible
intelligible
interconvertible
interruptible
intervisible
invendible
invertible
invincible
invisible
irascible
irreducible
irrefrangible
irremissible
irreprehensible
irrepressible
irresistible
irresponsible
irreversible
legible
mandible
marcescible
misicible
negligible
nexible
omissible
ostensible
partible
passible (feeling)
  passable (open)
perceptible
perfectible
permissible
persuasible
pervertible
plausible
possible
prehensible
prescriptible
producible
productible
protrusible
putrescible
receptible
redemptible
reducible
reflectible
reflexible
refrangible
remissible
renascible
rendible
reprehensible
repressible
reproducible
resistible
responsible
reversible
revertible
risible
runcible
sconcible
seducible
sensible
sponsible
suasible
subdivisible
submergible
submersible
subvertible
suggestible
supersensible
suppressible
susceptible
suspensible
tangible
tensible
terrible
thurible
traducible
transmissible
transvertible
tripartible
unadmissible
uncorruptible
unexhaustible
unexpressible
unintelligible
unresponsible
unsusceptible
vendible
vincible
visible
vitrescible

Endings ``ise,'' ``ize,'' and ``yze''

  5.12. A large number of words have the termination ise, ize, 
or yze. The letter l is followed by yze if the word expresses 
an idea of loosening or separating, as analyze; all other words 
of this class, except those ending with the suffix wise and 
those in the following list, end in ize.

advertise
advise
affranchise
apprise (to inform)
  apprize (to appraise)
arise
chastise
circumcise
comprise
compromise
demise
despise
devise
disenfranchise
disfranchise
disguise
emprise
enfranchise
enterprise
excise
exercise
exorcise
franchise
improvise
incise
merchandise
misadvise
mortise
premise
prise (to force)
  prize (to value)
reprise
revise
rise
supervise
surmise
surprise
televise

Endings ``cede,'' ``ceed,'' and ``sede''

  5.13. Only one word ends in sede (supersede); only three end 
in ceed (exceed, proceed, succeed); all other words of this 
class end in cede (precede, secede, etc.).

Doubled consonants

  5.14. A single consonant following a single vowel and ending 
a monosyllable or a final accented syllable is doubled before a 
suffix beginning with a vowel.
bag, bagging
get, getting
red, reddish
rob, robbing
corral, corralled
input, inputting
format, formatting
transfer, transferred

    but
    total, totaled
    travel, traveled

[[Page 72]]


  5.15. If the accent in a derivative falls upon an earlier 
syllable than it does in the root word, the consonant is not 
doubled.
refer, reference
prefer, preference
infer, inference

Indefinite articles

  5.16. The indefinite article a is used before a consonant and 
an aspirated h; an is used before a silent h and all vowels 
except u   pronounced as in visual and o pronounced as in one.
a historic occasion
a hotel
a human being
a humble man
a union
an herbseller
an hour
an honor
an onion
an oyster

but
an H-U-D directive
a HUD directive
  5.17. When a group of initials begins with b, c, d, g, j, k, 
p, q, t, u, v, w, y, or z, each having a consonant sound, the 
indefinite article a is used.
a BLS compilation
a CIO finding
a GAO limitation
a WWW search

  5.18. When a group of initials begins with a, e, f, h, i, l, 
m, n, o, r, s, or x, each having a vowel sound, the indefinite 
article an is used.
an AEC report
an FCC (ef) ruling
an NSC (en) proclamation
an RFC (ahr) loan

  5.19. Use of the indefinite article a or an before a 
numerical expression is determined by the consonant or vowel 
sound of the beginning syllable.
an 11-year-old
a onetime winner
a III (three) group
an VIII (eight) classification
a IV-F (four ef) category (military draft)
a 4-H Club

Geographic names

  5.20. The spelling of geographic names must conform to the 
decisions of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). In the 
absence of such a decision, the U.S. Directory of Post Offices 
is to be used.

  5.21. If the decisions or the rules of the BGN permit the use 
of either the local official form or the conventional English 
form, it is the prerogative of the originating office to select 
the form which is most suitable for the matter in hand; 
therefore, in marking copy or reading proof, it is required 
only to verify the spelling of the particular form used. The 
Government Printing Office preference is for the conventional 
English form. Copy will be followed as to accents, but these 
should be consistent throughout the entire job.

[[Page 73]]

Nationalities, etc.

  5.22. The table beginning on page 233 shows forms to be used 
for nouns and adjectives denoting nationality.
  5.23. In designating the natives of the several States, the 
following forms will be used.
Alabamian
Alaskan
Arizonan
Arkansan
Californian
Coloradan
Connecticuter
Delawarean
Floridian
Georgian
Hawaiian
Idahoan
Illinoisan
Indianian
Iowan
Kansan
Kentuckian
Louisianian
Mainer
Marylander
Massachusettsan
Michiganian
Minnesotan
Mississippian
Missourian
Montanan
Nebraskan
Nevadan
New Hampshirite
New Jerseyan
New Mexican
New Yorker
North Carolinian
North Dakotan
Ohioan
Oklahoman
Oregonian
Pennsylvanian
Rhode Islander
South Carolinian
South Dakotan
Tennessean
Texan
Utahn
Vermonter
Virginian
Washingtonian
West Virginian
Wisconsinite
Wyomingite

  5.24. Observe the following forms:
      African-American
      Alaska Native (Aleuts, Eskimos, Indians of Alaska)
      Amerindian
      Native American (American Indian)
      Puerto Rican
      Part-Hawaiian (legal status)
  but part-Japanese, etc.

Native American words

  5.25. Words, including tribal and other proper names of 
Indian, Aleut, Hawaiian, and other groups, are to be followed 
literally as to spelling and the use of spaces, hyphens, etc.

Transliteration

  5.26. In the spelling of nongeographic words transliterated 
from Chinese, Japanese, or any other language that does not 
have a Latin alphabet, copy is to be followed literally.


[[Page 74]]

                            NOTES





[[Page 75]]

 
                      6. COMPOUNDING RULES

                (See also ``Compounding Examples'')

  6.1. A compound word is a union of two or more words, either 
with or without a hyphen. It conveys a unit idea that is not as 
clearly or quickly conveyed by the component words in 
unconnected succession. The hyphen is a mark of punctuation 
that not only unites but separates the component words, and 
thus facilitates understanding, aids readability, and ensures 
correct pronunciation. When compound words must be divided at 
the end of a line, such division should be made leaving 
prefixes and combining forms of more than one syllable intact.

  6.2. In applying the rules in this chapter and in using the 
list of examples in the following chapter, ``Compounding 
Examples,'' the fluid nature of our language should be kept in 
mind. Word forms constantly undergo modification. Two-word 
forms, which often acquired the hyphen first, frequently bypass 
the hyphen stage and instantly assume a one-word form.

  6.3. The rules, therefore, are somewhat flexible. Exceptions 
must necessarily be allowed. Current language trends continue 
to point to closing up certain words which, through either 
frequent use or widespread dissemination through modern media 
exposure, have become fixed in the reader's mind as units of 
thought. The tendency to merge two short words continues to be 
a natural progression toward better communication.

General rules

  6.4. In general, omit the hyphen when words appear in regular 
order and the omission causes no ambiguity in sense or sound.

banking hours
blood pressure
book value
census taker
day laborer
eye opener
fellow citizen
living costs
palm oil
patent right
real estate
rock candy
training ship
violin teacher

  6.5. Words are usually combined to express a literal or 
nonliteral (figurative) unit idea that would not be as clearly 
expressed in unconnected succession.

afterglow
bookkeeping
cupboard
forget-me-not
gentleman
newsprint
right-of-way
whitewash

  6.6. A derivative of a compound retains the solid or 
hyphenated form of the original compound unless otherwise 
indicated.

coldbloodedness
footnoting
ill-advisedly
outlawry
praiseworthiness
railroader
Y-shaped

[[Page 76]]


  6.7. A hyphen is used to avoid doubling a vowel or tripling a 
consonant, except after the short prefixes co, de, pre, pro, 
and re, which are generally printed solid. (See also rules 6.29 
and 6.32.)

cooperation
deemphasis
preexisting
anti-inflation
micro-organism
semi-independent
brass-smith
Inverness-shire
thimble-eye
ultra-atomic
shell-like
hull-less
but 
co-occupant
cross section
  

Solid compounds

  6.8. Print solid two nouns that form a third when the 
compound has only one primary accent, especially when the 
prefixed noun consists of only one syllable or when one of the 
elements loses its original accent.

airship
bathroom
bookseller
cupboard
dressmaker
  
fishmonger
footnote
  
locksmith
workman
  

  6.9. Print solid a noun consisting of a short verb and an 
adverb as its second element, except when the use of the solid 
form would interfere with comprehension.

blowout
breakdown
builddown
cooldown
flareback
giveaway
hangover
holdup
makeready
markoff
pickup
  
runoff
setup
showdown
throwaway
tradeoff
  
but
cut-in
phase-in
run-in
sit-in
tie-in

  6.10. Compounds beginning with the following nouns are 
usually printed solid.

book
eye
horse
house
mill
play
school
shop
snow
way
wood
work

  6.11. Compounds ending in the following are usually printed 
solid, especially when the prefixed word consists of one 
syllable.

berry
bird
blossom
board
boat
book
borne
bound
box
boy
brained
bug
bush
craft
field
fish
flower
fly
girl
grower
headed
hearted
holder
hopper
house
keeper
keeping
land
light
like
line
load
maid
maker
making
man
master
mate
mill
mistress
monger
over
owner
  but #ownership
person
picker
picking
piece
plane
power
proof
roach
room
shop
site
skin
smith
stone
store
tail
tight
time (not clock)
ward
ware
water
way
wear
weed
wide
wise
woman
wood
work
worker
working
worm
worthy
writer
writing
yard

  6.12. Print solid any, every, no, and some when combined with 
body, thing, and where. When one is the second element, print 
as

[[Page 77]]

two words if meaning a single or particular person or thing. To 
avoid mispronunciation, print no one as two words at all times.

      anybody
      anything
      anywhere
      anyone
    everybody
    everything
    everywhere
    everyone
    nobody
    nothing
    nowhere
    no one
    somebody
    something
    somewhere
    someone

  but any one of us may stay; every one of the pilots is 
        responsible; every body was accounted for

  6.13. Print compound personal pronouns as one word.

      herself
      himself
      itself
    myself
    oneself
    ourselves
    themselves
    thyself
  
    yourself
    yourselves
  

  6.14. Print as one word compass directions consisting of two 
points, but use a hyphen after the first point when three 
points are combined.

 northeast
 southwest
north-northeast
south-southwest
  also north-south alignment

Unit modifiers

  6.15. Print a hyphen between words, or abbreviations and 
words, combined to form a unit modifier immediately preceding 
the word modified, except as indicated in rule 6.16 and 
elsewhere throughout this chapter. This applies particularly to 
combinations in which one element is a present or past 
participle.
agreed-upon standards
Baltimore-Washington road
collective-bargaining talks
contested-election case
contract-bar rule
cost-of-living increase
drought-stricken area
English-speaking nation
fire-tested material
Federal-State-local cooperation
German-English descent
guided-missile program
hearing-impaired class
high-speed line
large-scale project
law-abiding citizen
long-term loan
line-item veto
long-term-payment loan
low-cost housing
lump-sum payment
most-favored-nation clause
multiple-purpose uses
no-par-value stock
one-on-one situation
part-time personnel
rust-resistant covering
service-connected disability
state-of-the-art technology
supply-side economics
tool-and-die maker
up-or-down vote
U.S.-owned property; U.S.-flag ship
1-inch diameter; 2-inch-diameter pipe
a 4-percent increase, the 10-percent rise
  
but
4 percent citric acid
4 percent interest. (Note the absence of an article: a, an, or the. The 
  word of is understood here.)

  6.16. Where meaning is clear and readability is not aided, it 
is not necessary to use a hyphen to form a temporary or made 
compound. Restraint should be exercised in forming unnecessary 
combinations of words used in normal sequence.

atomic energy power
bituminous coal industry
child welfare plan
civil rights case

[[Page 78]]


civil service examination
durable goods industry
flood control study
free enterprise system
ground water levels
high school student
elementary school grade
income tax form
interstate commerce law
land bank loan
land use program
life insurance company
mutual security funds
national defense appropriation
natural gas company
per capita expenditure
Portland cement plant
production credit loan
public at large
public utility plant
real estate tax
small businessman
Social Security pension
soil conservation measures
special delivery mail
parcel post delivery
speech correction class
  
but no-hyphen rule (readability aided); not no hyphen rule

  6.17. Print without a hyphen a compound predicate adjective 
or predicate noun the second element of which is a present 
participle.

The duties were price fixing.
The effects were far reaching.
The shale was oil bearing.
The area is used for beet raising.

  6.18. Print without a hyphen a compound predicate adjective 
the second element of which is a past participle. Omit the 
hyphen in a predicate modifier of comparative or superlative 
degree.

The area is drought stricken.
The paper is fine grained.
Moderately fine grained wood.
The boy is freckle faced.
This material is fire tested.
The cars are higher priced.
The reporters are better informed.

  6.19. Print without a hyphen a two-word modifier the first 
element of which is a comparative or superlative.

better drained soil
best liked books
higher level decision
highest priced apartment
larger sized dress
better paying job
lower income group
but
uppercrust society
lowercase, uppercase type
upperclassman
bestseller (noun)
lighter-than-air craft
higher-than-market price

  6.20. Do not use a hyphen in a two-word unit modifier the 
first element of which is an adverb ending in ly, nor use 
hyphens in a three-word unit modifier the first two elements of 
which are adverbs.

eagerly awaited moment
wholly owned subsidiary
unusually well preserved specimen
very well defined usage
longer than usual lunch period
not too distant future
most often heard phrase
but
ever-normal granary
ever-rising flood
still-new car
still-lingering doubt
well-known lawyer
well-kept secret

  6.21. Proper nouns used as unit modifiers, either in their 
basic or derived form, retain their original form; but the 
hyphen is printed when combining forms.

Latin American countries
North Carolina roads
a Mexican-American
South American trade
Spanish-American pride
Winston-Salem festival
African-American program
Anglo-Saxon period
Franco-Prussian War
Seventh-day Adventists

[[Page 79]]


but
Minneapolis-St. Paul region
North American-South American sphere
French-English descent
Washington-Wilkes-Barre route
  or Washington/Wilkes-Barre route

  6.22. Do not confuse a modifier with the word it modifies.

elderly clothesman
old-clothes man
competent shoemaker
wooden-shoe maker
field canning factory
tomato-canning factory
gallant serviceman
service men and women
light blue hat (weight)
light-blue hat (color)
average taxpayer
income-tax payer
American flagship (military)
American-flag ship
well-trained schoolteacher
elementary school teacher
preschool children (kindergarten)
pre-school children (before school)
rezoned wastesite
hazardous-waste site

but
common stockholder
stock ownership
small businessman
working men and women
steam powerplant site
meat packinghouse owner
  6.23. Where two or more hyphenated compounds have a common 
basic element and this element is omitted in all but the last 
term, the hyphens are retained.
      2- to 3- and 4- to 5-ton trucks
      2- by 4-inch boards, but boards 2 to 6 inches wide
      8-, 10-, and 16-foot boards
      6.4-, 3.1-, and 2-percent pay raises
      moss- and ivy-covered walls, not moss and ivy-covered 
        walls
      long- and short-term money rates, not long and short-term 
        money rates
  but twofold or threefold, not two or threefold
      goat, sheep, and calf skins, not goat, sheep, and 
        calfskins
      intrastate and intracity, not intra-state and -city
      American owned and managed companies
      preoperative and postoperative examination

  6.24. Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifier consisting of a 
foreign phrase.

ante bellum days
bona fide transaction
ex officio member
per capita tax
per diem employee
prima facie evidence

  6.25. Do not print a hyphen in a unit modifier containing a 
letter or a numeral as its second element.

abstract B pages
article 3 provisions
class II railroad
grade A milk
point 4 program
ward D beds

  6.26. Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifier enclosed in 
quotation marks unless it is normally a hyphenated term, but 
quotation marks are not to be used in lieu of a hyphen.

``blue sky'' law
``good neighbor'' policy
``tie-in'' sale

but
right-to-work law
line-item veto

  6.27. Print combination color terms as separate words, but 
use a hyphen when such color terms are unit modifiers.

bluish green
dark green
orange red
bluish-green feathers
iron-gray sink
silver-gray body



[[Page 80]]


  6.28. Do not use a hyphen between independent adjectives 
preceding a noun.

big gray cat
a fine old southern gentleman

Prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms

  6.29. Print solid combining forms and prefixes, except as 
indicated elsewhere.
afterbirth
Anglomania
antedate
antislavery
biweekly
bylaw
circumnavigation
cisalpine
cooperate
contraposition
countercase
deenergize
demitasse
excommunicate
extracurricular
foretell
heroicomic
hypersensitive
hypoacid
inbound
infrared
interview
intraspinal
introvert
isometric
macroanalysis
mesothorax
metagenesis
microphone
misstate
monogram
multicolor
neophyte
nonneutral
offset
outbake
overactive
pancosmic
paracentric
particoated
peripatetic
planoconvex
polynodal
postscript
preexist
proconsul
pseudoscholastic
reenact
retrospect
semiofficial
stepfather
subsecretary
supermarket
thermocouple
transonic
transship
tricolor
ultraviolet
unnecessary
underflow

  6.30. Print solid combining forms and suffixes, except as 
indicated elsewhere.
portable
coverage
operate
plebiscite
twentyfold
spoonful
kilogram
geography
manhood
selfish
pumpkin
meatless
outlet
wavelike
procurement
innermost
partnership
lonesome
homestead
northward
clockwise

  6.31. Print solid words ending in like, but use a hyphen to 
avoid tripling a consonant or when the first element is a 
proper name.

lifelike
lilylike
girllike
bell-like
Scotland-like
MacArthur-like

  6.32. Use a hyphen or hyphens to prevent mispronunciation, to 
ensure a definite accent on each element of the compound, or to 
avoid ambiguity.

anti-hog-cholera serum
co-occurrence
co-op
mid-decade
multi-ply (several plies)
non-civil-service position
non-tumor-bearing tissue
pre-midcourse review
pre-position (before)
pro-choice
pro-life
re-cover (cover again)
re-creation (create again)
re-lay (lay again)
re-sorting (sort again)
re-treat (treat again)
un-ionized
un-uniformity

but 
rereferred
rereviewed

[[Page 81]]


  6.33. Use a hyphen to join duplicated prefixes.

re-redirect
sub-subcommittee
super-superlative

  6.34. Print with a hyphen the prefixes ex, self, and quasi.

ex-governor
ex-serviceman
ex-son-in-law
ex-vice-president
self-control
self-educated
quasi-academic
quasi-argument
quasi-corporation
quasi-young
  
but 
selfhood
selfsame

  6.35. Unless usage demands otherwise, use a hyphen to join a 
prefix or combining form to a capitalized word. (The hyphen is 
retained in words of this class set in caps.)

anti-American
pro-British
un-American
non-Government
neo-Nazi
post-World War II
  or post-Second World War
non-Federal
  
but 
nongovernmental
overanglicize
transatlantic

Numerical compounds

  6.36. Print a hyphen between the elements of compound numbers 
from twenty-one to ninety-nine and in adjective compounds with 
a numerical first element.
twenty-one
twenty-first
6-footer
6-foot-11-inch man
24-inch ruler
3-week vacation
8-hour day
10-minute delay
20th-century progress
3-to-1 ratio
5-to-4 vote
.22-caliber cartridge
2-cent-per-pound tax
four-in-hand tie
three-and-twenty
two-sided question
multimillion-dollar fund
10-dollar-per-car tax
thirty- (30-) day period
  
but 
one hundred and twenty-one
100-odd
foursome
threescore
foursquare
$20 million airfield
second grade children

  6.37. Print without a hyphen a modifier consisting of a 
possessive noun preceded by a numeral. (See also rule 8.14.)

1 month's layoff
1 week's pay
2 hours' work
  
3 weeks' vacation
1 minute's delay
  
but a 1-minute delay

  6.38. Print a hyphen between the elements of a fraction, but 
omit it between the numerator and the denominator when the 
hyphen appears in either or in both.

one-thousandth
two-thirds
two one-thousandths
twenty-three thirtieths
twenty-one thirty-seconds
three-fourths of an inch

[[Page 82]]


  6.39. A unit modifier following and reading back to the word 
or words modified takes a hyphen and is printed in the 
singular.

      motor, alternating-current, 3-phase, 60-cycle, 115-volt
      glass jars: 5-gallon, 2-gallon, 1-quart
      belts: 2-inch, 1\1/4\-inch, \1/2\-inch, \1/4\-inch

Civil and military titles

  6.40. Do not hyphenate a civil or military title denoting a 
single office, but print a double title with a hyphen.

ambassador at large
assistant attorney general
commander in chief
comptroller general
Congressman at Large
major general
sergeant at arms
notary public
secretary general
secretary-treasurer
treasurer-manager
under secretary
  but under-secretaryship
vice president
  but vice-presidency

  6.41. The adjectives elect and designate, as the last element 
of a title, require a hyphen.

President-elect (Federal)
Vice-President-elect (Federal)
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development-designate
ambassador-designate
minister-designate

Scientific and technical terms

  6.42. Do not print a hyphen in scientific terms (names of 
chemicals, diseases, animals, insects, plants) used as unit 
modifiers if no hyphen appears in their original form.

carbon monoxide poisoning
guinea pig raising
hog cholera serum
methyl bromide solution
stem rust control
equivalent uranium content
whooping cough remedy
  
 but
Russian-olive plantings
Douglas-fir tree

  6.43. Chemical elements used in combination with figures use 
a hyphen, except with superior figures.

Freon-12
polonium-210
uranium-235
 U235
Sr90
92U234

  6.44. Note use of hyphens and closeup punctuation in chemical 
formulas.

      9-nitroanthra(1,9,4,10)bis(1)oxathiazone-2,7-bisdioxide
      Cr-Ni-Mo
      2,4-D

  6.45. Print a hyphen between the elements of technical or 
contrived compound units of measurement.

candela-hour
crop-year
horsepower-hour
light-year
passenger-mile
staff-hour
work-year
  
but kilowatthour

[[Page 83]]



Improvised compounds

  6.46. Print with a hyphen the elements of an improvised 
compound.

blue-pencil (v.)
18-year-old (n., u.m.)
know-it-all (n.)
know-how (n.)
lick-the-finger-and-test-the-wind economics
make-believe (n., u.m.)
one-man-one-vote principle
roll-on/roll-off ship
George ``Pay-As-You-Go'' Miller
stick-in-the-mud (n.)
let-George-do-it attitude
how-to-be-beautiful course
hard-and-fast rule
penny-wise and pound-foolish policy
first-come-first-served basis
  but a basis of first come, first
     served

  6.47. Use hyphens in a prepositional-phrase compound noun 
consisting of three or more words.

cat-o'-nine-tails
government-in-exile
grant-in-aid
jack-in-the-box
  
man-of-war
mother-in-law
mother-of-pearl
patent-in-fee
  
but
coat of arms
heir at law
next of kin
officer in charge

  6.48. When the corresponding noun form is printed as separate 
words, the verb form is always hyphenated.

cold-shoulder
blue-pencil
cross-brace

  6.49. Print a hyphen in a compound formed of repetitive or 
conflicting terms and in a compound naming the same thing under 
two aspects.

boogie-woogie
comedy-ballet
dead-alive
devil-devil
even-stephen
farce-melodrama
fiddle-faddle
hanky-panky
murder-suicide
nitty-gritty
pitter-patter
razzle-dazzle
walkie-talkie
willy-nilly
young-old
  
but 
bowwow
dillydally
hubbub
nitwit
riffraff

  6.50. Use a hyphen in a nonliteral compound expression 
containing an apostrophe in its first element.

asses'-eyes
ass's-foot
bull's-eye
cat's-paw
crow's-nest

  6.51. Use a hyphen to join a single capital letter to a noun 
or a participle.

H-bomb
I-beam
T-shaped
U-boat
C-chip
C-section
V-necked
  
S-iron
T-square
X-ed out
  
but 
x ray
x raying
S turns

  6.52. Print idiomatic phrases without hyphens.

come by
inasmuch as
insofar as
Monday week
nowadays


[[Page 84]]

                            NOTES




[[Page 85]]


 
                     7. COMPOUNDING EXAMPLES

  7.1. The following examples are based on the rules for 
compounding found in chapter 6. Obviously, this list or any 
other list of compound words could not possibly be a complete 
reference due to sheer volume. However, an analogy of the words 
listed with like prefixes and suffixes together with an 
application of the rules will result in easier handling of 
those compound words not listed.

  7.2. In order to keep the list from becoming cumbersome, 
certain restrictions had to be adopted.

  7.3. The listing of hyphenated compounds ending in ed was 
kept to a minimum. The rationale was to provide one or two 
examples under a keyword rather than needless repetition.

  7.4. Similarly, many two-word forms which create no 
difficulty were omitted.

  7.5. Care was exercised to achieve fuller coverage of solid 
compounds, particularly when the adopted form is different than 
that of Webster's Third New International Dictionary. This 
dictionary is our guide for spelling with the exception of 
those words listed in rule 5.2. It is not our guide to 
compounding.

  7.6. A distinction exists between words used in a literal 
sense and a nonliteral sense. With few exceptions, two-word 
forms invariably convey a literal meaning, while one-word forms 
usually express a nonliteral interpretation. For example, a 
person may have an interesting sideline or hobby, but be forced 
to sit on the side line during periods of inactivity.

  7.7. Distinction should also be made in the compounding of 
two words to form an adjective modifier and the use of the same 
words as a predicate adjective; e.g., ``crystal-clear water,'' 
but ``the water is crystal clear''; ``fire-tested material,'' 
but ``the material is fire
tested.''

  7.8. Caution should be exercised when distinguishing whether 
a succession of words is being used as a compound or whether 
they simply appear together. Consider, for example, ``We know 
someone should do it and who that some one ought to be.''

  7.9. For better appearance, it may sometimes be necessary to 
treat alike words which would have different forms when they 
appear separately; e.g., bumblebee and queen bee, farmhand and 
ranch hand. In juxtaposition, these and similar words should be

[[Page 86]]

made uniform by being printed as two words. This is only a 
temporary expedient and does not supersede the list.

  7.10. Combining forms and prefixes are usually printed solid. 
For greater readability, the hyphen is sometimes used to avoid 
doubling a vowel (anti-inflation, naso-orbital); to facilitate 
a normally capitalized word (mid-April, non-European); to 
assure distinct pronunciation of each element of a compound or 
ready comprehension of intended meaning (contra-ion, un-
ionized); or to join a combining form or prefix to a hyphenated 
compound (equi-gram-molar, pro-mother-in-law).

  7.11. As nouns and adjectives, holdup, calldown, layout, 
makeup, and similar words should be printed solid. Their er 
derivatives (holder-up, caller-down, layer-out, and maker-up) 
require hyphens. Such compounds as run-in, run-on, and tie-in 
resist quick comprehension when solid. They are therefore 
hyphenated.

  7.12. Words spelled alike but pronounced differently, such as 
tear-dimmed and tearsheet, wind tunnel and windup, are listed 
under the same keyword.

  7.13. Words printed flush in the following list combine with 
the words which follow to indicate solid or hyphenated 
compounds. A spacemark (#) appearing before an indented entry 
indicates a two-word form, but two-word forms appearing in the 
adjective position usually take a hyphen.

  7.14. To indicate word function, several abbreviations have 
been appended. They are: adv., adverb; n., noun; v., verb; 
u.m., unit modifier; pref., prefix; c.f., combining form; and 
conj., conjunction.

                                  - A -

A
  BC(s) (n.)
 -B-C (u.m.)
 -bomb
 -day
 -flat
 -frame
 -pole
 -sharp
a
  borning, etc.
  foot
  while (adv.)
abdomino (c.f.)
  all one word
able
 -bodied (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
about-face
above
 -cited (u.m.)
  deck
 -found (u.m.)
 -given (u.m.)
  ground (u.m.)
 -mentioned (u.m.)
 -named (u.m.)
 -said (u.m.)
 -water (u.m.)
 -written (u.m.)
absentminded
ace-high (u.m.)
acid
  fast
 -treat (v.)
  works
ack-ack
acre
 -foot
 -inch
actino (c.f.)
  all one word
addle
  brain
  head
  pate
add-on (n., u.m.)
adeno (c.f.)
  all one word
aero (c.f.)
 -otitis
  rest one word
afore
  all one word
after (c.f.)
  all one word
agar-agar
age
  less
  long
 -old (u.m.)
 -stricken (u.m.)
 -weary (u.m.)
agribusiness
ague
 -faced (u.m.)
 -plagued (u.m.)
 -sore (u.m.)
aide-de-camp
air
  bag
  base
  bill
  blast
 -blasted (u.m.)
  blown
  brake
  brush
  burst
  cargo
 -clear (u.m.)
  coach
 -condition (all forms)
 -cool (v.)
 -cooled (u.m.)
  course
  crew
 -dried (u.m.)
 -driven (u.m.)
  drome
  drop
 -dry (u.m., v.)
  fare
 -floated (u.m.)
  flow
  foil
 -formed (u.m.)
  frame
  freight
  gap
  glow
  hammer
  head
  hole
  hose
  lane
  lift
 #line (line for air)
  line (aviation)
  liner
  link
  locked
  mail
  mark (v.)
  marker
  mass
  minded
  park
  path
  photo
  port (all meanings)
 #raid
  scoop
  ship
  show
  sick
 -slaked (u.m.)
  sleeve
  space
  speed
  stream
  strike
  strip
 #time (radio and TV)

[[Page 87]]


  wave
  woman
  worthy
alder-leaved
    (u.m.)
ale
  cup
 -fed (u.m.)
  glass
alkali#land
all
 -absorbing (u.m.)
 -aged (u.m.)
 -American
 -clear (n., u.m.)
 -fired (u.m.)
 -flotation (mining)
 #fours
 #in
 -inclusive (u.m.)
  mark (printing)
 -out (u.m.)
 -possessed (u.m.)
 -round (u.m.)
  spice
 -star (u.m.)
  time (u.m.)
  wise
alleyway
allo (c.f.)
  all one word
almsgiver
along
  ship
  shore
  side
alpen
  glow
  stock
alpha
 -cellulose
 -iron
 -naphthol
also-ran (n., u.m.)
alto
  cumulus
  relievo
  stratus
amber
 -clear (u.m.)
 -colored (u.m.)
 -tipped (u.m.)
ambi (c.f.)
  all one word
amidships
amino
 #acid
  as prefix, all one word
ampere
 -foot
 -hour
  meter
 -minute
 -second
amphi (pref.)
  all one word
amylo (c.f.)
  all one word
anchor
  hold
 #light
  plate
angel
  cake
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -faced (u.m.)
  food
angio (c.f.)
  all one word
angle
  hook
  meter
  wing
  worm
Anglo (c.f.)
 -American, etc.
  rest one word
anhydr(o) (c.f.)
  all one word
ankle
  bone
 -deep (u.m.)
  jack
ant
  eater
  hill
ante (pref.)
 #bellum, etc.
 -Christian, etc.
 #mortem
  mortem (nonliteral)
  rest one word
antero (c.f.)
  all one word
anthra (c.f.)
  all one word
anthropo (c.f.)
  all one word
anti (pref.)
 -American, etc.
 -choice
  christ
  god
 -hog-cholera (u.m.)
 -icer, -imperial,
    -inflation, etc.
 -life
 -missile-missile (u.m.)
  missile, personnel, trust, etc.
 -New#Deal, etc.
  rest one word
antro (c.f.)
  all one word
anvil
 -faced (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
any
  body
  how
  one
 #one (one thing or one of a group)
  place (adv.)
aorto (c.f.)
  all one word
apo (pref.)
  all one word
apple
  cart
  jack
  juice
  sauce
 -scented (u.m.)
April-fool (v.)
aqua
  culture
  lung
  marine
  meter
  puncture
  tint
  tone
aquo (c.f.)
 -ion
  rest one word
arc
 -over (n., u.m.)
 -weld (v.)
arch (pref.)
  band
  bishop
  duke
  enemy
 -Protestant
archeo (c.f.)
  all one word
archi (pref.)
  all one word
archo (c.f.)
  all one word
areo (c.f.)
  all one word
aristo (c.f.)
  all one word
arithmo (c.f.)
  all one word
arm
  band
  bone
  chair
  hole
  lift
  pit
  plate
  rack
  rest
 -shaped (u.m.)
armor
 -clad (u.m.)
 -piercing (u.m.)
  plate
 -plated (u.m.)
  smith
arm's-length (u.m.)
arrow
  head
 -leaved (u.m.)
  plate
 -shaped (u.m.)
  shot
 -toothed (u.m.)
arseno (c.f.)
  all one word
art-colored (u.m.)
arterio (c.f.)
  all one word
arthro (c.f.)
  all one word
artillery
  man
  woman
asbestos
 -covered (u.m.)
 -packed (u.m.)
ash
  bin
  can
 -colored (u.m.)
 -free (u.m.)
 -gray (u.m.)
 #heap
  pan
  pile
  pit
  tray
assembly
 #line
  man
 #room
astro (c.f.)
  all one word
attorney#at#law
audio
  frequency
  gram
  meter
  tape
  visual
auri (c.f.)
 -iodide
  rest one word
authorship
auto (c.f.)
 -logon
  matic#backup
 -objective
 -observation
 -omnibus
 -ophthal-moscope
  rest one word
awe
 -bound (u.m.)
 -filled (u.m.)
 -inspired (u.m.)
  some
ax
 -adz
 -grinding (u.m.)
  hammer
  head
 -shaped (u.m.)
axletree
axo (c.f.)
  all one word
azo (c.f.)
 -orange
 -orchil
 -orseilline
  rest one word

                                  - B -

B-flat
baby
 #boomer
  face (n.)
 #food
  sit (v.)
  sitter
back
  ache
  band
  bite (v.)
  biter
  bone
  breaker
  cap
  chain
  charge
 -country (u.m.)
  cross
  date
  down (n., u.m.)
  drop
  face
  feed
  fill
  fire
  flap
  flash
  flow
 -focus (v.)
  furrow
  ground
  hand
  haul
 -in (n., u.m.)
  lash
  list (v.)
  log
  lotter
  packer (n.)
  paddle (v.)
  pay
  payment
  pedal (v.)
  plate
  rest
  road
  run
  saw
  scatter
  set
  shift
  slide
  space
  spin
  spread
  staff
  stage
  stairs
  stamp
  stay
  stitch
  stop
  strap
 -streeter
  stretch (n.)
  string
  strip (book)
  stroke
 -swath (v.)
  swept
  swing
  tack
  talk
  tender

[[Page 88]]


  tenter
 -titrate (v.)
  track (v.)
  trail
  up (n., u.m.)
  wall
  wash
  water
backer
 -down
 -off
 -up
bag
  boy, girl
 -cheeked
    (u.m.)
  pipe
 -shaped (u.m.)
baggage
  man
 #rack
 #room
 #train
bailout (n., u.m.)
bake
  oven
  pan
  shop
bald
  faced
  head (n.)
  pate
ball
  field
 #game
 -like
  park (nonliteral)
 #park (literal)
  player
  point (n., u.m.)
  stock
ballot#box
band
  aid
  box
  cutter
  saw
  stand
  string
 -tailed (u.m.)
  wagon
  width
bandy
  ball
 -legged (u.m.)
bangup (n., u.m.)
bank
  book
  note
 #paper
  side (stream)
bantamweight
bar
 #bit
  code
  keeper
  maid
  post
  tender
 -wound (u.m.)
bare
 -armed (u.m.)
  back
  bone
  faced
  foot
  handed
  legged
  necked
  worn
barge-laden (u.m.)
bark
  cutter
  peel
 -tanned (u.m.)
barley
  corn
  mow
 #water
barnstormer
barrel
  head
 -roll (v.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
base
  ball
  ball#bat
  line
 #line (surveying)
 -minded (u.m.)
basi (c.f.)
  all one word
basketball
bas-relief
bat
  blind
 -eyed (u.m.)
  fowl
  wing
batch#file
bath
  mat
  robe
 #towel
  tub
batswing (cloth)
battercake
battle
  ax
 -fallen (u.m.)
  front
  ground
 -scarred (u.m.)
  ship
  stead
  wagon
baud#rate
baybolt
beach
  comber
  head
  wagon
bead
  flush
  roll
beak
  head
  iron
 -shaped (u.m.)
beam
  filling
 -making (u.m.)
bean
  bag
  cod
 -fed (u.m.)
  pole
  pot
  setter
 -shaped (u.m.)
  stalk
bear
  baiting
  herd
  hide
  hound
  off (n., u.m.)
  trap
beater
 -out
 -up
beauty
 -blind (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 #shop
beaverpelt
bed
  board
  chair
  chamber
  clothes
  cord
  cover
 -fallen (u.m.)
  fast
  fellow
  frame
  lamp
  linen
  pad
  pan
  plate
  post
  quilt
  rail
 #rest
  ridden
  rock
  sheet
  sick
  side
  sore
  space
  spread
  spring
  stand
  stead
  straw
  time
bee
  bread
 -eater
  herd
  hive
  keeper
  line
  way
beechnut
beef
  eater
 #extract
 -faced (u.m.)
  head
  steak
  tongue
bees
  wax
  wing
beet
  field
 #sugar
beetle
 -browed (u.m.)
  head
  stock
before
 -cited (u.m.)
  hand
 -mentioned (u.m.)
 -named (u.m.)
behindhand
bell
 -bottomed (u.m.)
  crank
 -crowned (u.m.)
  hanger
  hop
  mouthed
  ringer
  wether
belly
  ache
  band
  buster
  button
  fed (u.m.)
  pinch
belowstairs
belt
 -driven (u.m.)
  saw
bench
  fellow
 -hardened (u.m.)
  made (u.m.)
  mark (nonliteral)
 #mark (surveying)
  warmer
bentwing (n., u.m.)
benzo (c.f.)
  all one word
berry-brown (u.m.)
best
 #man
  seller (n.)
beta
 -glucose
  tron
between
  decks
  whiles
bi (pref.)
 -iliac
  rest one word
big
 -eared (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  head (ego)
  horn (sheep)
 -horned (u.m.)
 -leaguer
  mouthed
  name (top rank) (n., u.m.)
bill
  back
  beetle
  broker
  fold
  head
  hook
  poster
  sticker
billet
 -doux
  head
billingsgate
bio (c.f.)
 -aeration
 -osmosis
  rest one word
birchbark
bird
  bath
  bander
  cage
  call
  catcher
 #dog (literal)
  dog (nonliteral)
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -faced (u.m.)
  life
  lime
  lore
  mouthed
  seed
  shot
  watcher
bird's
 -eye
 #nest (literal) (n.)
 -nest (n., u.m., v.)
birth
  bed
 #date
  day
  mark
  place
  right
 #year
biscuit-shaped (u.m.)
bismuto (c.f.)
  all one word
bit
  stock
 -mapped
bitter
 -ender
  head
  sweet
 -tongued (u.m.)
black
  ball (nonliteral)
 -bordered (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  face
  fire
  guard
  jack
  leg
  list
  mail
  mark
 #market (n.)
 -market (u.m., v.)
 -marketeer
 -marketer
  out (n., u.m.)
  plate (printing)
  print
 -robed (u.m.)
 #sheep (all meanings)
  shirted
  snake
  strap (n.)
 -tie (u.m.)
  top
 #widow

[[Page 89]]


blast
  hole
  plate
blasto (c.f.)
  all one word
bleach
  ground
  works
blear
  eye
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -witted (u.m.)
blepharo (c.f.)
  all one word
blight-resistant (u.m.)
blind
 -bomb (v.)
 -flying (u.m.)
  fold
 -loaded (u.m.)
 #man
  spot
  stitch
  story
blink-eyed (u.m.)
blithe-looking (u.m.)
blitz
  buggy
  krieg
block
  buster
  head
  hole (v.)
  ship
blood
 -alcohol (u.m.)
  bath
  beat
  curdling
 -drenched (u.m.)
 -giving (u.m.)
  guilty
 -hot (u.m.)
  hound
  letting
  mobile
 -red (u.m.)
  ripe
  shed
  shot
  spiller
  spot
  stain
  stock
  stream
  sucker
  thirsty
 -warm (u.m.)
bloody
 -nosed (u.m.)
 -red (u.m.)
blossom
 -bordered (u.m.)
 -laden (u.m.)
blow
  back
  by (n., u.m.)
  cock
  down (n., u.m.)
  gun
  hard (n.)
  hole
  iron
  lamp
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  pipe
  spray
  through (u.m.)
  torch
  tube
  up (n., u.m.)
blue
 -annealed (u.m.)
  beard (n.)
  blood
  bonnet
  book (nonliteral)
  bottle
  coat (n.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  gill
  grass
 -gray (u.m.)
 -green (u.m.)
 -hot (u.m.)
  jack
  jacket
  nose
 -pencil (v.)
  point (oyster)
  print
  stocking
  streak (nonliteral)
  tongue (n.)
blunder
  buss
  head
blunt
 -edged (u.m.)
 -spoken (u.m.)
boar
  spear
  staff
board
 #foot
  rack
  walk
boat
  builder
  crew
  head
  hook
  house
  loader
  owner
 #people
  setter
  shop
  side
  swain
  wright
  yard
bob
  cat
  sled
  stay
  tail
  white
bobby
  pin
 -soxer
body
  bearer
  bending
  builder
 -centered
    (u.m.)
  guard
 -mind
  plate
bog
 -eyed (u.m.)
  land
  man
  trot (v.)
boil
  down (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
boiler
 -off
 -out
  plate
  works
boiling#house
bold
  face (printing)
 -spirited (u.m.)
bolt
  cutter
  head
  hole
 -shaped (u.m.)
  strake
bomb
  drop
  fall
  shell
  sight
  thrower
 -throwing (u.m.)
bone
  ache
 #ash
  black
  breaker
 -bred (u.m.)
 -dry (u.m.)
 -eater
 -hard (u.m.)
  head
  lace
  meal
  set
  shaker
 -white (u.m.)
boobytrap
boogie-woogie
book
  binder
  case
  dealer
 #end
  fair
 -fed (u.m.)
  fold
 -learned (u.m.)
 -lined (u.m.)
  list
  lore
  lover
  mark
  mobile
  plate
  rack
  rest
  sale
  seller
  shelf
  stack
  stall
  stamp
  stand
  stitch
 -stitching (u.m.)
 -taught (u.m.)
  wright

boom
  town
  truck

boondoggling

boot
  black
  hose
  jack
  lace
  last
  leg
  lick
  strap

bore
  hole
  safe
  sight

bosom
 -deep (u.m.)
 -folded (u.m.)
 -making (u.m.)

bottle
 -fed (u.m.)
  neck
 -nosed (u.m.)

bottom#land

boughpot

bow
  back
  bent
  grace
  head
  knot
  legged
 -necked (u.m.)
  pin
  shot
  sprit
  stave
  string
  wow

box
  car
  haul
  head (printing)
  truck

boxer
 -off
 -up

brachio (c.f.)
  all one word

brachy (c.f.)
  all one word

brain
  cap
  child
 -cracked (u.m.)
  pan
  sick
 -spun (u.m.)
  storm
 -tired (u.m.)
  wash

brake
  drum
  head
  meter
  shoe
brandnew (u.m.)

brandy
 -burnt (u.m.)
  wine
brass
 -armed (u.m.)
 -bold (u.m.)
 -smith
  works
brave
  hearted
 -looking (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
brazen
 -browed (u.m.)
  face
bread
  basket
  crumb
  earner
  fruit
 #knife
  liner
  plate
  seller
  stuff
 #tray
  winner
break
  away (n., u.m.)
  ax
  back (n., u.m.)
  bone (fever)
 #circuit
  down (n., u.m.)
 -even (u.m.)
  fast
  fast#room
  front
 -in (n., u.m.)
  neck
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  point
  through (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
  wind (n.)
breaker
 -down
 -off
 -up
breast
  band
  beam
  bone
 -deep (u.m.)
 -fed (u.m.)
 -high (u.m.)
  hook
  mark
  piece
  pin
  plate
  plow
  rail
  rope
  work
breath
 -blown (u.m.)
 -tainted (u.m.)
  taking
breech
  block
  cloth
  loader
 -loading (u.m.)
  lock
  pin
  plug
  sight

[[Page 90]]


breeze
 -borne (u.m.)
 -lifted (u.m.)
 -swept (u.m.)
  way
bribe
 -free (u.m.)
  giver
  taker
bric-a-brac
brick
  bat
 -built (u.m.)
 -colored (u.m.)
  kiln
  layer
  liner
  mason
 -red (u.m.)
  setter
  work
  yard
bride
  bed
  bowl
  cake
  chamber
  cup
  groom
  knot
  lace
  maiden
  stake
bridge
  builder
  head
  pot
  tree
 #wall
  work
briefcase
bright
 -colored (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
brilliant
 -cut (u.m.)
 -green (u.m.)
brine-soaked (u.m.)
bringer-up
bristle
  cone (u.m.)
 -pointed (u.m.)
broad
  acre
  ax
  band (radio) (n., u.m.)
 -beamed (u.m.)
  brim
  cast
  cloth
  head
 #jump
  leaf (n.)
 -leaved (u.m.)
  loom
  minded
 -mouthed (u.m.)
  share (n., v.)
  sheet (n.)
  side
  sword
  wife
  woven
broken
 -down (u.m.)
 -legged (u.m.)
 -mouthed (u.m.)
bromo (c.f.)
  all one word
bronchio (c.f.)
  all one word
broncho (c.f.)
  all one word
broncobuster
bronze
 -clad (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
 -red (u.m.)
broom
 #handle
 -leaved (u.m.)
 -making (u.m.)
  stick
brother
 -german
  hood
 -in-law
brow
  beat
  point
  post
brown
  back
 -eyed (u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  print
brush
  ball
 #holder
  off (n., u.m.)
 -treat (v.)
brusher
 -off
 -up
buck
  eye
 -eyed (u.m.)
  horn
  hound
  passer
  plate
  pot
  saw
  shot
  skinned
  stall
  stay
  stove
  tooth
  wagon
  wash
bucket-shaped (u.m.)
buff
 -tipped (u.m.)
  ware
 -yellow (u.m.)
bug
  bear
  bite
 -eyed (u.m.)
build
  down (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
built
 -in (u.m.)
 -up (u.m.)
bulb-tee (u.m.)
bulbo (c.f.)
  all one word
bulk
  head
 -pile (v.)
  weigh (v.)
bull
  baiting
  dog
  doze
 -faced (u.m.)
  fight
  frog
  head
 -mouthed
    (u.m.)
  neck
  nose
  pen
  ring
 #terrier
  toad
 -voiced (u.m.)
  whack
  whip
bullet
  head
  maker
  proof
bull's
 -eye
    (nonliteral)
 -foot
bumble
  bee
  foot
  kite
bung
  hole
  start
burn
 -in (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
burned-over (u.m.)
burner-off
burnt
 -out (u.m.)
 -up (u.m.)
bus
  boy
 #conductor
  driver
  fare
  girl
  line
  load
bush
  beater
  buck
  fighter
 -grown (u.m.)
  hammer
 -leaguer
  ranger
  whacker
  wife
bustup (n., u.m.)
busy
  body
 -fingered (u.m.)
  head
butt
 -joint (v.)
  saw
  stock
  strap
 -weld (v.)
butter
  ball
 -colored (u.m.)
  fat
  fingers
  head
  milk
  mouth
  nut
  print
 -rigged (u.m.)
  scotch
 -smooth (u.m.)
  wife
 -yellow (u.m.)
button
 -eared (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
  hold
  hole
  hook
  mold
buzzerphone
by
 -and-by
 -by
 -the-way (n., u.m.)
 -your-leave (n., u.m.)
  rest one word

                                  - C -

C
 -sharp
 -star
 -tube
cab
  driver
  fare
 #owner
  stand
cabbagehead
cabinet
  maker
  making
cable-laid (u.m.)
caco (c.f.)
  all one word
cage#bird
cake
  baker
  bread
 -eater
  mixer
 -mixing (u.m.)
  pan
  walk
calci (c.f.)
  all one word
calk-weld (v.)
call
  back (n., u.m.)
  box
  down (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  note
 -off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 -over (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
camshaft
camel
  back (rubber)
 -backed (u.m.)
  driver
 -faced (u.m.)
camel's-hair (u.m.)
camp
  fire
  ground
  stool
can
  capper
  not
 #opener
canalside
candle
  bomb
 -foot
  holder
 -hour
  lighter
  lit
 -meter
 -shaped (u.m.)
  stand
  stick
  wick
  wright
candystick
cane
 -backed (u.m.)
  brake
  crusher
  cutter
 #sugar
canker
 -eaten (u.m.)
 -mouthed (u.m.)
cannonball
canvas-covered (u.m.)
cap
 -flash (v.)
  nut
  screw
  sheaf
  shore
car
  barn
  break
  builder
  fare
  goose
  hop
  jacker
  lot
 -mile
  owner
  pool
  port
  sick
  wash
carbo (c.f.)
  all one word

[[Page 91]]


carbol (c.f.)
  all one word
carcino (c.f.)
  all one word
card
  case
 -index (u.m., v.)
  player
  sharp
  stock
cardio (c.f.)
 -aortic
  rest one word
care
  free
  giver
 -laden (u.m.)
  taker
 -tired (u.m.)
  worn
carpet
  bagger
  beater
 #cleaner
 -cleaning (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
  fitter
  layer
 -smooth (u.m.)
 -sweeping (u.m.)
  weaver
 -weaving (u.m.)
  web
  woven
carpo (c.f.)
 -olecranal
  rest one word
carriage-making (u.m.)
carrot
 -colored (u.m.)
  head (nonliteral)
  juice
  top (nonliteral)
carry
  all (n., u.m.)
  around (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
  forward (n.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
cart
  load
  wheel (coin)
  whip
  wright
case
  bearer
  finding
  hammer
  harden
  load
  mated
  worker
caser-in
cashflow
cast
  away (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
 -by (u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 -ridden (u.m.)
 -weld (v.)
caster
 -off
 -out
castlebuilder
    (nonliteral)
cat
  back
  beam
  bird
  call
 -eyed (u.m.)
  face (n.)
  fall
  gut
  head
  hole
  hook
 -ion
  like
  nap
  nip
 -o'-nine-tails
  stitch
  walk
CAT scan
catch
  all (n., u.m.)
 -as-catch-can (u.m.)
  cry
  penny
  plate
  up (n., u.m.)
  weight
  word
cater
  corner
  wauling
cat's
 -eye (nonliteral)
 -paw (nonliteral)
cattle
 #boat
  feed
 -raising (u.m.)
  yak
cauliflower
 -eared (u.m.)
 #ware
causeway
cave
  dweller
 -dwelling (u.m.)
 #fish
 -in (n., u.m.)
cease-fire (n., u.m.)
cedar-colored (u.m.)
celi (c.f.)
  all one word
celio (c.f.)
  all one word
cement
 -covered (u.m.)
  mason
 -temper (v.)
census
 #taker
 -taking
center
 #field (sports)
  head (printing)
  line
  most
 #piece
 -second
centi (c.f.)
  all one word
centimeter-gram-
    second
centri (c.f.)
  all one word
centro (c.f.)
  all one word
cephalo (c.f.)
  all one word
cerato (c.f.)
  all one word
cerebro (c.f.)
 -ocular
  rest one word
certificate holder
cervico (c.f.)
 -occipital
 -orbicular
  rest one word
cess
  pipe
  pit
  pool
chaffcutter
chain
 #belt
 -driven (u.m.)
 #gang
  stitch
chair
  fast
  mender
  person
 -shaped (u.m.)
  warmer
chalk
  cutter
  line
 -white (u.m.)
chamber
  maid
  woman
changeover
chapfallen
chapelgoing
char
  broiler
  coal
  pit
charge
 #book
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
chartbook
chattermark
cheapskate
check
  bite
  forger
  hook
 -in (n., u.m.)
  list
  mark
  nut
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  passer (n.)
  point
  rack
  rail
  rein
  ring
  roll
  rope
  row
  sheet
  strap
  string
  up (n., u.m.)
  washer
  weigher
  writer
checker
 -in
 -off
 -out
 -up
cheek
  bone
  strap
cheerleader
cheese
  burger
  cake
  cloth
  curd
  cutter
  head
  lip
  parer
  plate
chemico (c.f.)
  all one word
chemo (c.f.)
  all one word
cherry
 -colored (u.m.)
  stone (nonliteral)
 #stone (literal)
chestnut
 -colored (u.m.)
 -red (u.m.)
chicken
  bill
 -billed (u.m.)
 #breast
  breasted
 #coop
 #farm
  feed
  heart
  pox
 #yard
chief
 #justice
 -justiceship
 #mate
child
  bearing
  bed
  birth
  care
  crowing
  hood
  kind
  life
 -minded (u.m.)
  ridden
  wife
chill-cast (u.m., v.)
chin
  band
 -bearded (u.m.)
 -chin
  cloth
  cough
 -high (u.m.)
  rest
  strap
china
 -blue (u.m.)
 #shop
  ware
Chinatown
chipmunk
chiro (c.f.)
  all one word
chisel
 -cut (u.m.)
 -edged (u.m.)
 #maker
chitchat
chitter-chatter
chloro (c.f.)
  all one word
chock
  ablock
 -full (u.m.)
chocolate
 -brown (u.m.)
 -coated (u.m.)
 #maker
choir
  boy
 #master
choke
  bore
  damp
  out (n., u.m.)
  point
  strap
chole (c.f.)
  all one word
chondro (c.f.)
 -osseous
  rest one word
chop
 -chop
  stick
chowchow
Christ
 -given (u.m.)
 -inspired (u.m.)
  like
chromo (c.f.)
  all one word
chrono (c.f.)
  all one word
chuck
  hole
  plate
  wagon
chucklehead
chunkhead
church
  goer
  like
  work
  yard
churn
 -butted (u.m.)
  milk
cigar
  case
  cutter
 -shaped (u.m.)
cigarette
 #holder
 #maker
 -making (u.m.)
cine (c.f.)
  all one word
circuitbreaker
circum (pref.)
  arctic, pacific, etc.
 -Saturnal, etc.
  rest one word

[[Page 92]]


cirro (c.f.)
  all one word
cis (pref.)
  alpine
  atlantic
 -trans (u.m.)
  rest one word
city
 -born (u.m.)
 -bred (u.m.)
  folk
 #man
  scape
clam
  bake
  shell
clampdown (n., u.m.)
clap
  net
  trap
clasphook
class
  book
 -conscious (u.m.)
 #consciousness
 #day
  work
claw
  bar
 -footed (u.m.)
  hammer
  hatchet
 -tailed (u.m.)
clay
  bank
 -colored (u.m.)
  pan
  pit
  works
clean
 -cut (u.m.)
  handed
  out (n., u.m.)
 -shaved (u.m.)
 -smelling (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
clear
  cole
 -cut (u.m.)
  cut (forestry)
    (n., v.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  headed
 -sighted (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
  wing
clearinghouse
cleft
 -footed (u.m.)
 -graft (v.)
client/server
cliff
  dweller
 -dwelling (u.m.)
  hanger
  side
  top
 -worn (u.m.)
climbpath
clinch-built (u.m.)
clink-clank
clinker-built
    (u.m.)
clip
 -clop
 -edged (u.m.)
  sheet
clipper-built (u.m.)
cloak
 -and-dagger (n., u.m.)
  room
clock
  case
  face
 -minded (u.m.)
  setter
 #speed
  watcher
clod
  head
  hopping
  pate
close
  bred
 -connected (u.m.)
  cross
 -cut (u.m.)
  down (n.)
 -fertilize (v.)
  fisted
  handed
 -knit
  minded
  mouthed
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
closed
 -circuit (u.m.)
 #end
 #shop
cloth-backed (u.m.)
clothes
  bag
  basket
  brush
 #closet
  horse
  pin
  press
  rack
 #tree
cloud
  base
  burst
  cap
 -hidden (u.m.)
clover
  bloom
  leaf
  seed
  sick
club
 #car
  foot
  hand
  haul
  mobile
  ridden
  room
  root
 -shaped (u.m.)
co (pref.)
 -op
  exist, operate, etc.
  processor
  rest one word
coach
 -and-four
  builder
  whip
coal
  bag
  bed
  bin
 -black (u.m.)
  breaker
 #car
  dealer
  digger
 -faced (u.m.)
  hole
 -laden (u.m.)
 #loader
 #mine
  pit
  rake
  sack (astron. only)
  shed
  ship
 #tar
 #truck
  yard
coastside
coat
  hanger
  rack
  tailed
cob
  head
  meal
  shed
  web
cock
  bill
  brain
  crow
  eye
  fight
  head
  pit
 #robin
  spur
  sure
 -tailed (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
cockleshell
cockscomb
cod
  bank
  fishing
  head
 #liver
  pitchings
  smack
code
 #name
 -named (u.m.)
coffee
  break
  cake
 -colored (u.m.)
 -growing
    (u.m.)
  pot
  room
cofferdam
coffin-headed (u.m.)
cogwheel
coin-operated
    (u.m.)
cold
  blooded
 -chisel (v.)
  cuts
 -draw (v.)
  finch
 -flow (v.)
 -forge (v.)
  frame
 -hammer (v.)
 -hammered (u.m.)
  pack
 -press (v.)
 -roll (v.)
 -rolled (u.m.)
 -short (u.m.)
 -shortness
 -shoulder (v.)
  type (printing)
 #war
 #wave
 -work (v.)
cole
  seed
  slaw
coli (c.f.)
  all one word
collar
  bag
  band
  bone
colo (c.f.)
  all one word
color
  bearer
  blind
 #blindness
  fast
 -free (u.m.)
 #line
  type (printing) (n.)
 -washed (u.m.)
comb-toothed (u.m.)
come
 -along (tool)
  back (n., u.m.)
 -between (n.)
  down (n.)
 -off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
 -out (n.)
 -outer
  uppance
comic#book
command
 -line
 #prompt
commander#in #chief
common
 -carrier
 #law
  place
 #sense (n.)
  sense (u.m.)
  weal
  wealth
companionship
compressed#file
comptime
cone
 -shaped (u.m.)
  speaker
conference#room
Congressman#at #Large
contra (pref.)
 -acting
 -approach
 -ion
  rest one word
cook
  book
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  shack
  stove
coolheaded
cooped
 -in (u.m.)
 -up (u.m.)
cop
 #out (v.)
  out (n.)
copper
 -bottomed (u.m.)
 -colored (u.m.)
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
 #mine
  nose
  plate
 -plated (u.m.)
  smith
  works
copy
  cat
  cutter
  desk
 #editor
  fitter
  holding
  reader
  right
  writer
coral
 -beaded (u.m.)
 -red (u.m.)
cork
 -lined (u.m.)
  screw
corn
  bin
  bread
  cake
  cob
  cracker
  crib
  crusher
  cutter
  dodger
 -fed (u.m.)
  husk
  loft
  meal
 #pone
  stalk
  starch
corner
  bind
  post
corpsmember
cost
 #effective (n.)
 -effectiveness
  wise
costo (c.f.)
  all one word
cotton
 -clad (u.m.)

[[Page 93]]


 -covered (u.m.)
 -growing (u.m.)
 #mill
  mouth (snake)
  packer
  picker, ing
  seed
  sick
countdown (n., u.m.)
counter
 #check (banking)
 #septum
 -off
  act, propaganda, top, etc.
  as combining form, one word
country
 -born (u.m.)
 -bred (u.m.)
  folk
  people
  side
  wide
county
 #seat
  wide
court
  bred
 -martial
  ship
cousin
 -german
  hood
 -in-law
cover
  alls
  let
  side
  up (n., u.m.)
cow
  barn
  bell
  catcher
 -eyed (u.m.)
  gate
  hand
  herd
  hide
  hitch
  lick
  path
  pen
 #pony
  pox
  puncher
  shed
  sucker
crab
  cake
  catcher
  eater
  faced
  hole
  meat
  stick
crack
  down (n., u.m.)
  house (slang)
  jaw
  pot
 -the-whip (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
cradle
  side
 #snatcher
  song
cranio (c.f.)
  all one word
crank
  case
 -driven (u.m.)
  pin
  pit
  shaft
crapehanger
crashdive (v.)
crawlup (n., u.m.)
crazy
  bone
  cat
cream
  cake
 -colored (u.m.)
creditworthiness
creek
  bed
  side
creep
  hole
  mouse
crepe#de#chine
crestfallen
crew
  cut
  member
cribstrap
crime
  fighter
  solver
  wave
crisscross
crook
  all one word
crooked
 -foot (n.)
 -legged (u.m.)
 -nosed (u.m.)
crop
 -bound (u.m.)
 -haired (u.m.)
  head
  mark
 -year
cross
 -appeal
  arm
  band
  bar
  beam
  bearer
  bedded
  belt
  bench
 -bidding
  bill (bird)
 #bill (legal)
  bind
  bolt
  bond
  bones
  bred
  breed
 -bridge (v.)
 -brush (v.)
 -carve (v.)
 -channel (u.m.)
 -check
 -claim
 -compound (v.)
 -connect (v.)
 -country (u.m.)
 -cultivate (v.)
  current
 -curve (math.) (n.)
  cut
 -date (v.)
 -drain (v.)
 -dye (v.)
 -dyeing (n.)
 -examine (v.)
 -eye (n., u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  fall
  feed
 -fertile (u.m.)
 -fertilize (v.)
 -fiber (u.m.)
  file
  fire
  flow
  foot
 -grained (u.m.)
  hair
  hand
  hatch
  haul
  head
 -immunity
 -index (u.m.)
 -interrogate (v.)
 -interrogatory
 -invite (v.)
  legged
  legs
 -level (v.)
 -license (v.)
  lift (v.)
  lock
  lots
  mark
  member
  patch
  path
  plow (v.)
 -pollinate (v.)
 -purpose (n.)
 -question
  rail
 -reaction
 -refer (v.)
 -reference
  road
  row
 -service
 -shaft
 -slide
 -staff
 -sterile
 -stitch
 -stone
 -stratification
 -sue (v.)
 -surge (v.)
  talk
  tie
  town
  track
  trail
  tree
  under (n., u.m.)
 -vote
  walk
  web
  wind
  word
crow
  bait
  bar
  foot
crownbar
crow's
 -foot (nonliteral)
 -nest (nonliteral)
crybaby
crypto (c.f.)
 -Christian, etc.
  rest one word
crystal
 -clear (u.m.)
 -girded (u.m.)
 -smooth (u.m.)
cubbyhole
cumulo (c.f.)
  all one word
cup
  bearer
  cake
  ful
  head
curb
  side
  stoner
cure-all (n., u.m.)
curly
  head
  locks (n.)
currycomb
cussword
custom
 -built (u.m.)
 -made (u.m.)
 -tailored (u.m.)
cut
  away (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
  glass
 -in (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  rate (u.m.)
  throat
 -toothed (u.m.)
 -under (u.m.)
 -up (n., u.m.)
cutter
 -built (u.m.)
 -down
  head
 -off
 -out
 -rigged (u.m.)
 -up
cuttlebone
cyano (c.f.)
  all one word
cyclecar
cyclo (c.f.)
 -olefin
  rest one word
cysto (c.f.)
  all one word
cyto (c.f.)
  all one word

                                  - D -

D
 -day
 -major
 -plus-4-day
dairy
 -fed (u.m.)
 -made (u.m.)
daisy#chain
damp
  proofing
 -stained (u.m.)
damping-off (n., u.m.)
dancehall
danger#line
dare
 -all (n., u.m.)
  devil
  say
dark
 -eyed (u.m.)
  horse (nonliteral)
  room (n.)
 -skinned (u.m.)
dash
  plate
  wheel
data
  bank
  base
date
  lined
  mark
daughter-in-law
dawn
 -gray (u.m.)
  streak
day
  beam
  bed
  break
 -bright (u.m.)
  care

  dawn

  dream

 -fly (aviation) (v.)

 -flying (u.m.)

  going

  lighted
  lit

  long (u.m.)

  mark

  side

  star

 -to-day (u.m.)

  worker

de (pref.)
 -air
  icer

[[Page 94]]


 -ink
 -ion
  centralize, energize, etc.
  rest one word
dead
 -alive
  beat (n.)
  born
 -burn (v.)
 #center
 -cold (u.m.)
 -dip (v.)
 -drunk (u.m.)
 -ender
  eye (n.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  fall
  head
 -heated (u.m.)
 -heater
 -heavy (u.m.)
  latch
 #load
  lock
  pan
 -roast (v.)
  weight (n., u.m.)
  wood
death
  bed
  blow
  day
 -divided (u.m.)
 -doom (v.)
 #house
 -struck (u.m.)
  trap
  watch
 -weary (u.m.)
decisionmaking
deckhand
deep
 -affected (u.m.)
 -cut (u.m.)
 -felt (u.m.)
 -freeze (u.m., v.)
 -frying (u.m.)
  going
 -grown (u.m.)
 -laid (u.m.)
  most
  mouthed
 -rooted (u.m.)
 #sea
 -seated (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
 -sunk (u.m.)
 -voiced (u.m.)
  water (u.m.)
deer
  drive (n.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  food
  herd
  horn
  hound
  meat
  stalker
  stand
dehydr(o) (c.f.)
  all one word
demi (pref.)
 -Christian, etc.
 -incognito
  rest one word
dermato (c.f.)
  all one word
desk
 #room
 top (n., u.m.)
dessert
 #fork
 #knife
 spoon
deutero (c.f.)
  all one word
devil
 -devil
  dog (a marine)
 -inspired (u.m.)
 -ridden (u.m.)
dew
  beam
  cap
 -clad (u.m.)
  claw
  damp
 -drenched (u.m.)
  drop
  fall
 -fed (u.m.)
 -laden (u.m.)
  lap
  point
dextro (c.f.)
  all one word
di (pref.)
  all one word
dia (pref.)
  all one word
dialog#box
dial-up
diamond
  back
 -backed (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
diazo (c.f.)
 -oxide
  rest one word
dice
  cup
  play
die
 -away (u.m.)
  back
  case
 -cast (u.m., v.)
  caster
 -cut (u.m., v.)
  cutter
  hard (n., u.m.)
  head
 #proof (philately) (n.)
  setter
  sinker
 -square (u.m.)
  stock
diesel
 -driven (u.m.)
 -electric (u.m.)
dillydally
dim
 -lighted (u.m.)
  lit
  out (n., u.m.)
diner-out
ding
  bat
  dong
dining#room
dinitro (c.f.)
 #spray
  rest one word
dip
 -dye (v.)
 -grained (u.m.)
  head
  stick
dipper-in
direct
 -connected
    (u.m.)
 -indirect
direction-finding (u.m.)
dirt
 -cheap (u.m.)
  fast
 -incrusted (u.m.)
  plate
dirty
 -faced (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
 #work
dis (pref.)
  all one word
dish
  cloth
 #cover
  pan
  rack
  rag
 #towel
  washer
  wiper
disk
 #drive
  jockey
  pack
  plow
 -shaped (u.m.)
ditch
  bank
  digger
  rider
  side
dive
 -bomb (v.)
 #bomber
do
 -all (n., u.m.)
 -gooder
 -little (n., u.m.)
 -nothing (n., u.m.)
dock
  hand
  head
  side
  worker
dog
  bite
 -bitten (u.m.)
  breeder
  cart
  catcher
 #days
 -drawn (u.m.)
 -ear (v.)
 -eared (u.m.)
  face (soldier)
 -faced (u.m.)
  fall
  fight
  food
 -headed (u.m.)
  hole
  leg
 #owner
  race
  shore
  sled
 -tired (u.m.)
  tooth
 -toothed (u.m.)
  trick
  trot
  watch
 -weary (u.m.)
doll
  face
 -faced (u.m.)
dollyhead
donkey
  back
 -drawn (u.m.)
 -eared (u.m.)
doomsday
door
  bed
  bell
  case
  check
  frame
  head
  jamb
  keeper
  knob
  mat
  nail
 #opener
  plate
  post
 -shaped (u.m.)
  sill
  step
  stop
dope
  fiend
  passer
  pusher
  sheet
dorsi (c.f.)
  all one word
dorso (c.f.)
 -occipital
  rest one word
dot
 -matrix
 #pitch
double
 -barrel (n., u.m.)
 -barreled (u.m.)
 -bitt (v.)
 -breasted (u.m.)
 -charge (v.)
  check (n., v.)
  checked (u.m., v.)
 -chinned (u.m.)
 -click
  cross (nonliteral)
  deal (v.)
 -decker
  dipper (nonliteral)
 -duty (u.m.)
 -dye (v.)
 -edged (u.m.)
 -ender
 -entendre
  handed
 -headed (u.m.)
  header
 -jointed
 -leaded (u.m.)
 -quick (u.m.)
 -sided
 #space (v.)
 #take
  talk
  tone (printing)
  tree
 -trouble
 -up (u.m., v.)
 #work
dough
  boy
 -colored (u.m.)
  face
 -faced (u.m.)
  head
  mixer
  nut
down
  beat
  by
  cast
  check
  coast
  come
 -covered (u.m.)
  crier
  cry
  curved
  cut
  dale
  draft
  drag
  face
  fall
  feed
  filled
  flow
  fold
  grade
  gradient
  growth
  hanging
  haul
  hearted
  hill
  lead
  load
  lock (n.)
  look
  most
  payment
  pour
  rate
  right
  river
  rush
  shore
  side
  sitting
  slip
  slope
 -soft (u.m.)
  spout
  stage
  stairs
  state
  stream
  street
  stroke
  sun (adv.,
    u.m.)

[[Page 95]]


  swing
  take
  throw
  thrust
  time
  town
  trampling
  trend
  trodden
  turn
  valley
  weigh
  weight
  wind
draft
  age (allowance)
 #age
 -exempt (u.m.)
drag
  bar
  bolt
  net
  pipe
  rope
  saw
  staff
  wire
dragger
 -down
 -in
 -out
 -up
dragon
 -eyed (u.m.)
  fly
 #piece
drain
  cleaner
  pipe
  plug
  tile
drainage
 #area
 #basin
  way
draw
 -arch (n.)
  arm
  back
  bar
  beam
  bench
  bolt
  bore
  bridge
  cut
  down (n., u.m.)
  file
  gate
  gear
  glove
  head
  horse
  knife
  knot
  link
  loom
  net
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  pin
  plate
  point
  sheet
  span
  stop
  string
  tongs
  tube
drawer
 -down
 -in
 -off
 -out
drawing
 #board
 #room
dream
 -haunted (u.m.)
  land
  lore
  world
dredge#net
dressup (n., u.m.)
dressing#room
drift
 #boat
  bolt
  meter
 -mining (u.m.)
 #net
  pin
  wind
drill
  case
 -like
  stock
drip
  cock
 -drip
 -dry (u.m., v.)
  sheet
  stick
drive
  away (n., u.m.)
  belt
  bolt
  by (n., u.m.)
  cap
  head
 -in (n., u.m.)
  pipe
  screw
 #shaft
  way
drop
  away (n., u.m.)
  bolt
  cloth
 -down
 -forge (v.)
  front
  hammer
  head
  kick
  leaf (n., u.m.)
  leg
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  sonde
  stitch
drug
 -addicted (u.m.)
  mixer
  passer
  pusher
  seller
 #user
drum
  beat
  fire
  head
  stick
 -up (n., u.m.)
dry
 -burnt (u.m.)
 #cell
  clean
 -cure (v.)
  dock
 -dye (v.)
 -farm (v.)
  farming (n., u.m.)
  gulch (nonliteral)
  lot
 -pack (u.m., v.)
 -rotted (u.m.)
 -salt (v.)
  wash
duck
  bill
 -billed (u.m.)
  blind
  foot (tool)
 -footed (u.m.)
  pin
  pond
  walk
due
 -in (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
duffelbag
dug
  out (n.)
 -up (u.m.)
dull
 -edged (u.m.)
  head
 -looking (u.m.)
 -witted (u.m.)
dumdum
dumb
  bell
  head
  waiter
dump
  car
  cart
  site
dunderhead
duo (c.f.)
  all one word
dust
  bag
  bin
  brush
  cloth
 -covered (u.m.)
  fall
 -gray (u.m.)
 -laden (u.m.)
  pan
  storm
duty
  bound
 -free (u.m.)
dwelling#house
dye
  mixer
  stuff
  works
dys (pref.)
  all one word

                                  - E -

e-mail
eagle
 #eye
 -eyed (u.m.)
ear
  ache
  cap
  drop
  drum
  flap
  guard
  hole
  lap
  mark
 #muff
  phone
 -piercing (u.m.)
  plug
  ring
  screw
  shot
  sore
  splitting
  tab
  wax
  wig
  witness
earth
  bank
  born
 -bred (u.m.)
  fall
  fast
 -fed (u.m.)
  fill
  grubber
 #house
  kin
  lit
  mover
  nut
  quake
 -shaking (u.m.)
  slide
 -stained (u.m.)
  wall
east
  bound
 -central (u.m.)
  going
 -northeast
 #side
 -sider
 -southeast
Eastertime
easy
  going
  mark (n.)
 -rising (u.m.)
 -spoken (u.m.)
eavesdrop
ebbtide
edge
 #plane
  shot
  ways
  wise
eel
  cake
  catcher
  fare
  pot
  pout
  spear
egg
  beater (all meanings)
  cup
  eater
  fruit
  head (nonliteral)
  hot (n.)
  nog
  plant
 -shaped (u.m.)
  shell
 -white (u.m.)
eight
 -angled (u.m.)
 #ball
  fold
  penny (nail)
 -ply (u.m.)
  score
 -wheeler
elbowchair
elder
 #brother
 -leaved (u.m.)
electro (c.f.)
 -optics
 -osmosis
 -ultrafiltration
  rest one word
embryo (c.f.)
  all one word
empty
  handed
 -looking
    (u.m.)
en
 #banc
 #gros
 #route
encephalo (c.f.)
  all one word
end
 -all (n., u.m.)
  bell
  brain
  gate
  lap
  long
 -match (v.)
  matcher
 -measure (v.)
  most
 -shrink (v.)
  ways
ender
 -on
 -up
endo (c.f.)
  all one word
engine
 #shop
 -sized (u.m.)
  work
 #worker
 #yard
entero (c.f.)
  all one word
entry
 #book
  way

[[Page 96]]


envelope
 #holder
 #maker
epi (pref.)
  all one word
equi (c.f.)
 -gram-molar
  rest one word
ere
  long
  now
errorproof
erythro (c.f.)
  all one word
even
  glow
  handed
  minded
 -numbered (u.m.)
  song
 -tempered (u.m.)
ever
 -abiding (u.m.)
  bearing
  blooming
 -constant (u.m.)
 -fertile (u.m.)
  glade
  going
  green
  lasting
  more
 -normal (u.m.)
 -present (u.m.)
 -ready (u.m.)
  sporting (biol.)
  which
every
  day (n., u.m.)
 #day (each day)
  how
  one (all)
 #one (distributive)
 #time
evil
  doer
 #eye
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -faced (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
  minded (u.m.)
  sayer
  speaker
  wishing
ex
 #cathedra
  cathedral
  communicate
 -Governor
 #libris
 #officio
 #post#facto
 #rights
 -serviceman
 -trader
 -vice-president
extra
 -alimentary
 -American
  bold
 -Britannic
 -condensed (u.m.)
  curricular
 -fine (u.m.)
  hazardous
  judicial
 -large (u.m.)
 -long (u.m.)
  marginal
  mural
  ordinary
  polar
 -strong (u.m.)
  territorial
  vascular
eye
 #appeal
  ball
  bank
  bar
  blink
 -blurred (u.m.)
  bolt
  brow
 -conscious (u.m.)
  cup
  flap
  glance
  glass
  hole
  lash
  lens
  lid
  mark
 -minded (u.m.)
 #opener
  peep
  pit
  point
  service
  shade
  shield
  shot
  sick
  sight
  sore
  spot
 -spotted (u.m.)
  stalk
  strain
  string
  tooth
  wash
 #weariness
  wink
  witness

                                  - F -

F
 -flat
 -horn
 -sharp
fable
 #book
  teller
face
  about (n., u.m., v.)
 -arbor (v.)
  cloth
 -harden (v.)
 -hardened (u.m.)
  lifting
  mark
 -off (n.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  plate
  up (n., u.m.)
fact
  book
  finding
  sheet
fade
  away (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
fail-safe
faint
  heart
 -voiced (u.m.)
fair
  ground
 -lead (n., u.m.)
  minded
  play
 -skinned (u.m.)
 #trade
fairy
  folk
  hood
  tale
faithbreaker
fall
  away (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
 #guy
 -in (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 -plow (v.)
 -sow (v.)
  trap
fallow#land
false
 -bottomed (u.m.)
 #face
 -faced (u.m.)
  hood
 -tongued (u.m.)
fame
 -crowned (u.m.)
 -thirsty (u.m.)
fan
  back
  bearer
 #belt
  fare
  fold
  foot
 -jet
 -leaved (u.m.)
  marker
 -shaped (u.m.)
 -tailed (u.m.)
fancy
 -free (u.m.)
 -loose (u.m.)
 -woven (u.m.)
 -wrought (u.m.)
far
 -aloft (u.m.)
  away (n., u.m.)
 -borne (u.m.)
 -distant (u.m.)
 -eastern (u.m.)
 -famed (u.m.)
  fetched
  flung (u.m.)
  gone
 -off (u.m.)
 #out
 -reaching (u.m.)
  seeing
 -seen (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
  sight
farm
 -bred (u.m.)
  hand
  hold
  owner
  people
  place
  stead
  worker
fashion
 -led (u.m.)
 #piece (naut.)
 #plate
 -setting (u.m.)
fast
 -anchored (u.m.)
  back
 -dyed (u.m.)
  going
  hold
 -moving (u.m.)
 -read (v.)
 -reading (u.m.)
 #time (daylight saving)
fat
  back
 -bellied (u.m.)
 -free (u.m.)
  head
 -soluble (u.m.)
father
 -confessor
 -in-law
  land
fault
  finder
  line
  slip
faux#pas
fax
 -and-voice# mailbox
 #modem
 -on-demand
fear
 -free (u.m.)
  nought
 -pursued (u.m.)
 -shaken (u.m.)
feather
  bed (v.)
  bedding
  bone
  brain
  edge
 -footed (u.m.)
  head
 -leaved (u.m.)
  stitch
 -stitched (u.m.)
 -stitching
 -tongue (v.)
  weight
  wing (moth)
fed-up (u.m.)
feeble
 -bodied (u.m.)
  minded
feed
  back (n., u.m.)
  bag
  bin
  box
  crusher
  cutter
  head
  lot
  mixer
  pipe
  rack
  store
  stuff
feeder
 -in
 -up
fellow
  craft
  ship
  rest two words
felt
  cutter
 -lined (u.m.)
  packer
fenbank
fence
  post
 #row
fern
 -clad (u.m.)
  leaf
 -leaved (u.m.)
ferro (c.f.)
 -carbon-titanium
 -uranium
  rest one word
ferry
  boat
 #car
 #slip
fever
  less
 -stricken (u.m.)
  trap
 -warm (u.m.)
fiber
 -faced (u.m.)
  glass
 #optics
  stitch
Fiberglas
    (copyright)
fibro (c.f.)
 -osteoma
  rest one word
fickleminded
fiddle
  back
 -faddle
  head
 -shaped (u.m.)
  stick
  string

[[Page 97]]


field
  ball
  glass
  goal
 -strip
fierce
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
fiery
 -flaming (u.m.)
 -hot (u.m.)
 -red (u.m.)
 -tempered (u.m.)
fig
  bar
  eater
  leaf
  shell
figure
  head
 -of-eight (u.m.)
 #work (printing)
file
  card
 -hard (u.m.)
  name
  setter
 -soft (u.m.)
fill
 -in (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 -up (n., u.m.)
filler
  cap
 -in
 -out
 -up
film
  cutter
  goer
  going
 #paper
  slide
  strip
 -struck (u.m.)
fin
  back
 -shaped (u.m.)
fine
 -cut (u.m., v.)
 -draw (v.)
 -drawn (u.m.)
 -featured (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
finger
  breadth
 -cut (u.m.)
  hold
  hole
  hook
  mark
  nail
  parted
  post
  print
  shell
  spin
  stall
  tip
fire
  arm
  back (n.)
  ball
  bell
  bolt
  bomb
  brand
  brat
  break
  brick
 -burnt (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
  coat
  cracker
  crest
 -cure (v.)
  damp
 #drill
 -eater
  fall
  fang
  fighter
  guard
 -hardened (u.m.)
  horse
  hose
  lit
  pit
  place
  plow
  plug
 -polish (v.)
  power
  proof
 -red (u.m.)
 -resistant (u.m.)
  safe
  side
  spout
  trap
  truck
  wall
  warden
firm
 -footed (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
 -up (n., u.m.)
first
 #aid
 -aider
 -born (u.m.)
 -class (u.m.)
  comer
  hand (u.m.)
 -made (u.m.)
 -named (u.m.)
 -nighter
 -rate (u.m.)
 -rater
fish
  back
  bed
 -bellied (u.m.)
  bolt
  bone
  bowl
  cake
  eater
  eye
 -eyed (u.m.)
  fall
 #farm
 -fed (u.m.)
  food
  garth
  hook
 -joint (v.)
  kill
 #ladder
  meal
  mouth
  plate
  pond
  pool
  pot
  pound
  trap
  weir
  works
fisher
  folk
  man
  people
fishyback (n., u.m.)
fit
  out (n.)
  strip
five
  bar
  fold
 -ply (u.m.)
 -pointed (u.m.)
 -reeler
  score
flag
  bearer
  pole
  post
 -raising (u.m.)
  ship
 -signal (v.)
  staff
  stick
flame
 -colored (u.m.)
 -cut (v.)
  out (n.)
  proof
  thrower
flannelmouth
flap
  cake
  doodle
 -eared (u.m.)
  jack
flare
  back (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  path
  up (n., u.m.)
flash
  back (n., u.m.)
  bulb
  card
  cube
  gun
  lamp
  pan
  point
flat
  back
    (book-
    binding)
  bed (printing)
 -bottomed (u.m.)
  car
 -compound (v.)
  fold
  foot (n.)
  hat
  head
  iron
  nose
  out (n., u.m.)
 -rolled (u.m.)
  sawn
  top
 -topped (u.m.)
  woods
flax
  drop
 -leaved (u.m.)
 -polled (u.m.)
  seed
flea
  bite
 -bitten (u.m.)
fleet
  foot
 -footed (u.m.)
  wing
flesh
  brush
  hook
 -pink (u.m.)
  pot
fleur-de-lis
flextime
flight
  crew
 -hour
  path
 -test (v.)
flimflam
flip
 -flap
 -flop
 -up (n., u.m.)
flood
  cock
  flow
  gate
  lamp
  lighting
  mark
 #plain
  tide
  wall
  water
floor
  beam
  cloth
  head
  lamp
  mat
  mop
 #show
  space
  stain
  walker
 #wax
 -waxing (u.m.)
flophouse
floppy#disk
flour
  bag
  bin
 #mill
  sack
 #sifter
flow
  chart
  meter
  off (n., u.m.)
  sheet
  through (n., u.m.)
flower
  bed
  bud
 -crowned (u.m.)
 #grower
 -hung (u.m.)
 #piece
  pot
 -scented (u.m.)
 #shop
flue-cure (v.)
fluid
 -compressed (u.m.)
  extract (pharm.) (n.)
  glycerate
fluo (c.f.)
  all one word
fluoro (c.f.)
  all one word
flush
 -cut (u.m.)
 -decked (u.m.)
 -decker
  gate
fluvio (c.f.)
  all one word
fly
  away
  back
  ball
 -bitten (u.m.)
  blow
  blown
 -by-night (n., u.m.)
  catcher
  eater
 -fish (v.)
 -fisher
 -fisherman
 #fishing
  flap
 -free (u.m.)
  leaf
  paper
  sheet
  speck
 -specked (u.m.)
  tier
  trap
  weight
  wheel
  winch
flying
 #boat
 #fish
foam
  bow
 -crested (u.m.)
 -white (u.m.)
fog
  bound
  bow
  dog
  eater
 -hidden (u.m.)
  horn
 #light
 -ridden (u.m.)
fold
 -in
  up (n., u.m.)
folk
 #dance
  lore
  song
follow
 -on
  through (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
follower-up

[[Page 98]]


food
 -fasted (u.m.)
 -fasting (v.)
  packer
  store
  stuff
foolhardy
foolscap
foot
 -and-mouth (u.m.)
  ball
  band
  bath
  blower
  board
  brake
  breadth
  bridge
  candle
  fall
 -free (u.m.)
  gear
 -grain
  hill
  hold
  lambert
  licker
  light(s)
  lining
  locker
  loose
  mark
  note
  pad
  path
  pick
  plate
 -pound
 -pound-second
  print
  race
  rail
  rest
  rope
  scald
 -second
  slogger
  sore
  stalk
  stall
  step
  stick
  stock
  stool
 -ton
  walk
  wall
 -weary (u.m.)
  worn
for (pref.)
  all one word
fore
 -age
 -and-aft (n., u.m.)
 -and-after (n.)
 -edge
 -end
 -exercise
  word
  rest one word
forest
 -clad (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
 #land
  side
fork
  head
  lift
 -pronged (u.m.)
  tail
 -tailed (u.m.)
form
  fitting
 #work (printing)
forth
  coming
  right
  with
fortune
 #hunter
  teller
forty-niner
foul
 #line
 -looking (u.m.)
  mouthed
 -spoken (u.m.)
 -tongued (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
fountainhead
four
 -bagger
 -eyed (u.m.)
  flusher
  fold
 -footed (u.m.)
 -in-hand (n., u.m.)
 -masted (u.m.)
 -master
  penny (nail)
 -ply (u.m.)
  score
  some
  square
 -wheeler
fox
 -faced (u.m.)
  hole
  hound
 #hunting
  skinned
  tailed
  trot
fracto (c.f.)
  all one word
frameup (n., u.m.)
free
  booter
  born
  drop
 -for-all (n., u.m.)
 -grown (u.m.)
  hand (drawing)
  handed
  hold
  lance
  loader
 -minded
  masonry
 #post
 -spoken (u.m.)
  standing (u.m.)
  thinker
  trader
  wheel (u.m., v.)
  wheeler (n.)
 #will (n.)
  will (u.m.)
freedom#fighter
freeze
  down (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
freight
 #house
 -mile
 #room
fresh
 -looking (u.m.)
 -painted (u.m.)
  water
frog
  belly
  eater
 -eyed (u.m.)
  face
  mouth
  nose
  pond
  tongue (medicine)
front
 -end (u.m.)
 -focused (u.m.)
  runner
  stall
 -wheel (u.m.)
fronto (c.f.)
 -occipital
 -orbital
  rest one word
frost
  bite
  bow
 -free (u.m.)
 -hardy (u.m.)
 -heaving (u.m.)
 -killed (u.m.)
  lamp
  line
fruit
  cake
 #fly
  growing
 #shop
  stalk
frying#pan
fuel
 #line
 #oil
full
  back
 -bellied (u.m.)
  blood
 -bound (u.m.)
 -duplex
  face
 -fashioned (u.m.)
 -flowering (u.m.)
 -grown (u.m.)
 -handed (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
 -lined (u.m.)
 #load
  mouth
 -strength (u.m.)
 -text
 -time (u.m.)
fundraising
funlover
funnel
  form
 -shaped (u.m.)
fur
 -clad (u.m.)
  coat
 -lined (u.m.)
 -trimmed (u.m.)
fuse
  box
 #gauge
  plug

                                  - G -

G
 -major
 -man
 -minor
 -sharp
gabfest
gad
  about (n., u.m.)
  fly
gaff-topsail
gag
 -check (v.)
  root
 #rule
gaugepin
gain
  say
 -sharing (u.m.)
galact(o) (c.f.)
  all one word
gallbladder
galley#proof (printing)
galvano (c.f.)
  all one word
game
  bag
  cock
gang
  boss
  plank
  saw
gapeseed
garnet-brown (u.m.)
gas
  bag
  bomb
 -driven (u.m.)
  field
 -fired (u.m.)
  firing
  fitter
 -heated (u.m.)
 -laden (u.m.)
  lamp
  lighted
  line (auto)
 #line (people queue)
  lock
 #main
 #mask
  meter
  works
gastro (c.f.)
 -omental
  rest one word
gate
  house
  keeper
  leg (u.m.)
  pin
  post
  tender
  works
gay
 #blade
  cat
 -colored (u.m.)
 #dog
 -looking (u.m.)
gear
  box
  case
 -driven (u.m.)
  fitter
 -operated (u.m.)
  set
  shift
  wheel
gelatin
 -coated (u.m.)
 -making (u.m.)
gelatino (c.f.)
  bromide
  chloride
gem
  cutter
 -set (u.m.)
 #stone
genito (c.f.)
  all one word
gentle
  folk
 -looking (u.m.)
  man
 -mannered (u.m.)
  mouthed
 -spoken (u.m.)
  woman
geo (c.f.)
  all one word
germ-free (u.m.)
gerrymander
get
 -at-able
  away (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
 -together (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
ghost
 -haunted (u.m.)
  write (v.)
giddy
  brain
  head
 -paced (u.m.)
gilt-edge (u.m.)
gin-run (u.m.)
ginger
 #ale
  bread
 -colored (u.m.)
  snap
  spice

[[Page 99]]


give
 -and-take (n., u.m.)
  away (n., u.m.)
glacio (c.f.)
  all one word
glass
  blower
 #ceiling
  cutter
 -eater
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -hard (u.m.)
  house
  works
glauco (c.f.)
  all one word
glidepath
globetrotter
glosso (c.f.)
  all one word
glow
  lamp
  meter
gluc(o) (c.f.)
  all one word
glue
  pot
  stock
glycero (c.f.)
  all one word
glyco (c.f.)
  all one word
go
 -ahead (n., u.m.)
 -around (n., u.m.)
 -as-you-please (u.m.)
 -back (n., u.m.)
 -between (n.)
  by (n.)
  cart
 -devil (n.)
 -getter
 -getting (n., u.m.)
 -off (n., u.m.)
goal
  post
 #setter
goat
 -bearded (u.m.)
 -drunk (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  herd
goat's
 -hair
 -horn
God
 -conscious (u.m.)
 -fearing (u.m.)
 -forsaken (u.m.)
 -given (u.m.)
  head
 -man
 -ordained (u.m.)
 -sent (u.m.)
 -sped (u.m.)
  speed
 -taught (u.m.)
god
  child
  daughter
  father
  head
  hood
  less
  mother
  parent
  send
  ship
  son
  sonship
goggle-eyed (u.m.)
goings-on
gold
  beater
  brick (shirker)
 #brick (of real gold)
 -bright (u.m.)
 -brown (u.m.)
  digger
 #dust
 -filled (u.m.)
  foil
 -inlaid (u.m.)
  leaf
  plate (v.)
 -plated (u.m.)
 -plating (u.m.)
  smithing
 -wrought (u.m.)
golden
 -fingered (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
good
  bye
 -for-nothing (n., u.m.)
 -looker
 -looking (u.m.)
 -natured (u.m.)
 #will (kindness)
  will (salable asset)
goose
  bone
  bumps
 -cackle
 #egg
 -eyed (u.m.)
  flesh
 -footed (u.m.)
  herd
  mouth
  neck
  pimples
  rump
  step
  wing
gospel
  like
 -true (u.m.)
gourdhead
Government (U.S. or foreign)
 -in-exile
 -owned (u.m.)
  wide
governmentwide
    (State, city, etc.)
grab
 -all (n., u.m.)
 #bag
  hook
  rope
grade
  finder
  mark
grain
 -cut (u.m.)
  field
 -laden (u.m.)
  mark
  sick
gram
 -fast (u.m.)
 -meter
 -molecular
 -negative (u.m.)
 -positive (u.m.)
grand
  aunt
  child, etc.
  stand
grant-in-aid
grape
  fruit
  juice
 -leaved (u.m.)
  seed
  stalk
  vine
graph
  alloy
 #paper
grapho (c.f)
  all one word
grass
 -clad (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
  cutter
  flat
 -green (u.m.)
  hop
  nut
  plot
  roots (nonliteral)
 #roots (literal)
  widow
grave
  clothes
  digger
  side
  stead
gravel
 -blind (u.m.)
  stone
gray
  back (n., u.m.)
  beard (n.)
 -clad (u.m.)
  coat (n.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -haired (u.m.)
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
grease
 #gun
 #pit
  proof
great
 -aunt
  coat
 -eared (u.m.)
 -grandchild, etc.
 -headed (u.m.)
  heart
  mouthed
green
  back (n., u.m.)
  belt (community)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  gage (plum)
  gill
  grocer
  horn
  keeper
 -leaved (u.m.)
  sand (geology)
  sick
  stuff
  sward
  town (community)
 #wood (literal)
  wood (forest)
greyhound
grid
  iron
  lock
griddlecake
grillroom
grip
  sack
  wheel
gross
 -minded (u.m.)
 #weight
ground
  breaking
  hog
  mass
  nut
  path
  plot
 -sluicer
  speed
 #water
  wave
  work
group-connect
    (v.)
grownup (n., u.m.)
grubstake
guard
  house
  plate
  rail
guest
  chamber
  house
  room
guided-missile (u.m.)
guidepost
guider-in
gum
  boil
  chewer
  digger
  drop
 -gum
  lac
 -saline (n.)
  shoe
gun
 #barrel
  bearer
  blast
  builder
  cotton
  crew
  deck
  fight
  fire
  flint
  lock
  paper
  pit
  play
  point
  powder
  rack
 -rivet (v.)
  runner
  shop
  shot
 -shy (u.m.)
  sight
  stock
  wale
gut
  less
  string
gutter
  blood
 -bred (u.m.)
  snipe
  spout
gymno (c.f.)
  all one word
gyneco (c.f.)
  all one word
gyro
 #horizon
 #mechanism
 #pelorus
  plane, compass, etc.

                                  - H -

H
 -bar
 -beam
 -bomb
 -hour
hack
  barrow
  hammer
  log
  saw
hailstorm
hair
  band
  breadth
  brush
 -check (n.)
  cloth
  cut (n.)
  do
  dresser
 -fibered (u.m.)
  lock
  pin
 #ribbon

[[Page 100]]


  space (printing)
  splitting
  spring
  streak
  stroke (printing)
 #trigger
half
 -and-half (n., u.m.)
 -afraid
 -alive
 -angry
  back (football)
 -backed (u.m.)
 -baked (u.m.)
 -bound (u.m.)
  caste
 -clear
  cock (v.)
  cocked (nonliteral)
 -dark
 #day
  deck
 -decked (u.m.)
 -decker
 -feed (v.)
  hearted
 -hourly (u.m.)
 -life
 #load
 -loaded (u.m.)
 -mast
 -miler
 -monthly (u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  pace
  penny
 -ripe
 -shy
 -sole (v.)
  staff
  stitch
 -strength (u.m.)
  title
  tone (printing)
  track
 -true
 -truth
 -weekly (u.m.)
  wit
 -witted (u.m.)
 -yearly (u.m.)
hallmark
ham
  shackle
  string
hammer
  cloth
  dress (v.)
 -hard (u.m.)
 -harden (v.)
 -hardened (u.m.)
  head
  lock

 #thrower

  toe

 -weld (v.)

 -wrought (u.m.)

hand

  bag

  ball

  bank (v.)
  barrow
  bill
  book
 -bound (u.m.)
  bow
  brake
  breadth
  brush
 -built (u.m.)
  car
 -carry (v.)
  cart
 -carve (v.)
  clap
  clasp
 -clean (v.)
  crank
  cuff
 -cut (v.)
 -embroidered (u.m.)
 -fed (v.)
  fold
  grasp
  grenade
  grip
  guard
  gun
 -held (u.m.)
 -high (u.m.)
  hold
  hole
 -in-hand (u.m.)
  kerchief
 -knit (v.)
 -knitter
  laid
 -letter (v.)
  lift (truck)
  liner
  made
 -me-down (n., u.m.)
  mix (v.)
  mold (v.)
  mower
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  pick (v.)
  post
  press
  print
  rail
  reading
  saw
  scrape (v.)
  set
  shake
  spade
  spike
  splice
  split
  spring
  spun
 -stamp (v.)
  stand
  stitch
  stroke
  stuff
 -tailored (u.m.)
  tap
  tool
 -tooled (u.m.)
 -tooling (u.m.)
  truck
  weave
  wheel
  worked
  woven
  write (v.)
  written
  wrought
handie-talkie
handlebar
hang
  dog
  nail
  net
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n.)
hanger
 -back
 -on
 -up
happy-go-lucky
hara-kiri
harbor
  master
  side
hard
 -and-fast (u.m.)
  back (beetle)
 -baked (u.m.)
 -bitten (u.m)
 -boiled (u.m.)
  case
  copy (n.)
  core
 #disk
 #drive
  fist (n.)
  handed
  hat (n.)
  head
 -hit (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
  mouthed
  nose
  pan
 -pressed (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
 #shell (n.)
  ship
  spun
  stand
  tack
  top (auto)
  ware
 -won (u.m.)
 #work
 -working (u.m.)
  wrought
hare
  brain
  foot
  hound
  lip
 -mad (u.m.)
harness-making (u.m.)
harum-scarum
harvesttime
has-been (n.)
hashmark
hat
  band
  box
  brim
  brush
  cleaner
  pin
  rack
  rail
  stand
 #tree
hatchback
hatchet-faced (u.m.)
haul
  about (n., u.m.)
  away (n., u.m.)
  back (n.)
have-not (n., u.m.)
haversack
hawk
  bill
 -billed (u.m.)
  head
 -nosed (u.m.)
hawse
  hole
  pipe
hay
  band
  cap
  cart
  cock
 #fever
  field
  fork
  lift
  loft
  market
  mow
  rack
  rake
  rick
 -scented (u.m.)
  seed
  stack
  wire
hazardous #waste#site
hazel
 -eyed (u.m.)
  nut
he-man
head
  ache
  achy
  band
  bander
  block
  cap
  chair
  cheese
  chute
  cloth
  count
  dress
 -ender
  first
  frame
  gate
  gear
  hunter
  lamp
  ledge
  lighting
  liner
  lock
  long
  master
  mistress
  mold
  most
  note
 -on (u.m.)
  phone
  plate
  post
  quarters
  rail
  reach
  rest
  ring
  rope
  set
  shake
  sill
  space
  spin
  spring
  stall
  stand
  start
  stick
  stock
  stream
  strong
  waiter
  wall
  wind
header-up
heal-all (n., u.m.)
heart
  ache
  aching
  beat
  block
  blood
  break
  burn
  deep
  felt
  free (u.m.)
  grief
  heavy
  leaf
 -leaved (u.m.)
  nut
  quake
  seed
  sick
  sore
  string
  struck
  throb
 -throbbing (u.m.)
 -weary (u.m.)
hearth
  rug
  warming
heat
  drops
 #pump
 #rash
 -resistant (u.m.)
  stroke
  treat (v.)
 -treating (u.m.)
 #wave
heaven
  bound
 -inspired (u.m.)
 -sent (u.m.)
heaver
 -off
 -out
 -over
heavy
  back
 -duty (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -footed (u.m.)
  handed
 -looking (u.m.)

[[Page 101]]


 -set (u.m.)
 #water
  weight (n., u.m.)
hecto (c.f.)
  all one word
hedge
  born
  breaker
  hog
  hop
  pig
  row
 #trimmer
heel
  ball
  band
  block
  cap
  fast
  grip
  pad
  path
  plate
  post
  print
  ring
  stay
  strap
  tap
helio (c.f.)
  all one word
hell
  bender
  bent
  born
  bound
  bred
  cat
  diver
  dog
  fire
  hole
  hound
 -red (u.m.)
helpmeet
helter-skelter
hemstitch
hema (c.f.)
  all one word
hemato (c.f.)
  all one word
hemi (pref.)
  all one word
hemo (c.f.)
  all one word
hemp
  seed
  string
hen
  bill
  coop
 -feathered
    (u.m.)
  pecked
  roost
hence
  forth
  forward
hepato (c.f.)
  all one word
hepta (c.f.)
  all one word
here
  about
  after
  at
  by
  from
  in
  inabove
  inafter
  inbefore
  into
  of
  on
  to
  tofore
  under
  unto
  upon
  with
herringbone
hetero (c.f.)
 -ousia, etc.
  rest one word
hexa (c.f.)
  all one word
hi
 -fi
  jack
hide
 -and-seek (n., u.m.)
  away (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
high
  ball
  binder
  born
  bred
  brow (nonliteral)
 -caliber (u.m.)
 -class (u.m.)
 -density
  flier (n.)
  flying (u.m.)
 -foreheaded (u.m.)
 #frequency
  handed
 -hat (v.)
  jinks
  lander
 #light (literal)
  light (nonlit.)
 -minded (u.m.)
 -power (u.m.)
 -pressure
    (u.m., v.)
 -priced (u.m.)
 #proof
 -reaching (u.m.)
 -rigger (n.)
  rise (building)
  road
 #seas
 -speed (u.m.)
  stepper
 -tension (u.m.)
 #tide
 -up (u.m.)
 #water
higher-up (n.)
hill
  culture (farming)
  side
  top
hind
  brain
  cast
  gut (n.)
  head
  leg
  most
  quarter
  saddle
  sight
  wing
hip
  bone
  mold
  shot
hippo (c.f.)
  all one word
histo (c.f.)
  all one word
hit
 -and-miss (u.m.)
 -and-run (u.m.)
 -or-miss (u.m.)
hitchhiker
hoarfrost
hoary-haired (u.m.)
hob
  goblin
  nail
  nob
hobbyhorse
hockshop
hocus-pocus
hod#carrier
hodgepodge
hog
  back
 -backed (u.m.)
 -faced (u.m.)
  fat
  frame
  hide
  nose (machine)
 -nosed (u.m.)
  pen
  sty
 -tie (v.)
  wash
 -wild (u.m.)
hog's-back (geol.)
hogshead
hoistaway (n.)
hold
  all (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
 -clear (n., u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
  fast (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
holder
 -forth
 -on
 -up
hole
 #in#one
 -high (u.m.)
 -in-the-wall (n.)
  through
hollow
  back
    (book-
    binding)
 -backed (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  faced
 -ground (u.m.)
holo (c.f.)
  all one word
holy
 #day
  stone
home
 -baked (u.m.)
  body
  born
  bred
  brew
  builder
 #buyer
  comer
  coming
 -fed (u.m.)
  felt
  folk
  freeze (u.m., v.)
  front
  furnishings (n.)
  going
  grown
  lander
  life
  made
  maker
  owner
 #ownership
  page
  plate
 #rule
  seeker
  sick
  spun
  stead
  stretch
  town
  woven
homeo (c.f.)
  all one word
home#page
homo
 #legalis
 #sapiens
homo (c.f.)
 -ousia, etc.
  rest one word
honey
 -colored (u.m.)
  comb
 -cured (u.m.)
  dew
  drop
  eater
 -laden (u.m.)
  lipped
  moon
  mouthed
  pot
  sucker
  sweet
honor
  bound
 #guard
 #man
hood
  cap
  mold
  wink
hoof
  beat
  mark
  print
 -printed (u.m.)
hook
  ladder
  nose
 -nosed (u.m.)
  pin
  up (n., u.m.)
hooker
 -off
 -on
 -out
 -over
 -up
hoopstick
hop
  about (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  scotch
  toad
hope#chest
hopper
  burn
  dozer
horehound
hormono (c.f.)
  all one word
horn
  bill
  blende
  blower
 -eyed (u.m.)
  pipe
  stay
  tip
hornyhanded
horse
  back
  breaker
  car
  cloth
  dealer
  fair
  fight
  flesh
  hair
  head
  herd
  hide
  hoof
 -hour
  jockey
  laugh
  meat
  mint
  play
  pond
  power-hour
  power-year
  pox
  race
 #sense (n.)
  shoe
  thief
 #trade
  whip
hot
  bed
  blood
 -blooded (u.m.)
  brain
  cake
 -cold
  dog
  foot
  head (n.)
 -mix (u.m.)
  pack
  patch
  plate
 -press (v.)
  rod (nonliteral)
 -roll (v.)

[[Page 102]]


 -rolled (u.m.)
  spot
 -work (v).
hotelkeeper
houndshark
hourglass
house
  breaking
  broken
  builder
 #call
  cleaner
 -cleaning (u.m.)
  coat
  dress
  father
  furnishing(s)
    (n.)
  guest
  hold
  husband
  mother
  owner
  parent
  pest
 -raising (u.m.)
  ridden
  top
  trailer
  wares
  warming
  wife
how
 -do-you-do (n.)
  ever
  soever
hub
  cap
 -deep (u.m.)
humankind
humble
  bee
 -looking (u.m.)
  mouthed
 -spirited (u.m.)
humdrum
hump
  back
 -shouldered (u.m.)
humpty-dumpty
hunchback
hundred
  fold
 -legged (u.m.)
 -percenter
 -pounder
  weight
hung-up (u.m.)
hunger
 -mad (u.m.)
 -worn (u.m.)
hurly-burly
hush
 -hush
 #money
  up (n., u.m.)
hydro (c.f.)
  all one word
hydro#station
hygro (c.f.)
  all one word
hyper (pref.)
 -Dorian, etc.
  linked
  text
  rest one word
hypo (c.f.)
  all one word
hystero (c.f.)
 -oophorectomy
 -salpingo-oopho-rectomy
  rest one word

                                  - I -

I
 -bar
 -beam
 -iron
 -rail
ice
  berg
  blind
 #blindness
  blink
  block
  bone
  breaker
  cap
 -clad (u.m.)
 -cold (u.m.)
 -cooled (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
 #cream
  fall
 #fishing
  floe (island)
  flow
    (current)
 -free (u.m.)
  maker
  melt
  pack
  plant
  plow
  quake
 #storm
 #water
ideo (c.f.)
 -unit
  rest one word
idle
  headed
 -looking (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
ileo (c.f.)
  all one word
ilio (c.f.)
  all one word
ill
 -advised (u.m.)
 -being (n.)
 -born (u.m.)
 -bred (u.m.)
 #breeding (n.)
 -doing (n., u.m.)
 -fated (u.m.)
 -humored (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -treat (v.)
 -use (v.)
 #will
 -wisher
 -wishing (u.m.)
in
 -and-in (u.m.)
 -and-out (u.m.)
 -and-outer
 -being (u.m.)
 -flight (u.m.)
 -house
 -law (n.)
  asmuch, sofar
 #re, #rem, #situ, etc.
in (pref.)
  active (u.m.)
  depth (u.m.)
  hospital (u.m.)
  migration (u.m.)
  service (u.m.),
    etc.
inch
 -deep (u.m.)
 -long (u.m.)
  meal
 -pound
 -ton
index-digest
indigo
 -blue (u.m.)
 -carmine (u.m.)
Indo (c.f.)
  chinese
 -European, etc.
infra (pref.)
 -anal
 -auricular
 -axillary
 -esophageal
 -umbilical
  rest one word
ink
 -black (u.m.)
  mixer
  pot
  slinger
  spot
 -spotted (u.m)
  stain
  stand
  well
inner
 -city (u.m.)
 #man
  spring
ino (c.f.)
  all one word
insect-borne
    (u.m.)
inter (pref.)
 -American, etc.
  rest one word
intra (pref.)
 -atomic, etc.
  rest one word
intro (pref.)
  all one word
Irish
 -American (u.m.)
 -born (u.m.)
iron
 #age
  back
 -braced (u.m.)
  clad
  fisted
 -free (u.m.)
  handed
  hard
 -lined (u.m.)
  mold
 -red (u.m.)
  shod
  shot (mineral) (u.m.)
 #shot (golf)
  side
  works
ironer-up
island
 -born (u.m.)
 -dotted (u.m.)
iso (c.f.)
 -octane
 -oleic
 -osmosis
  rest one word
ivory
 -tinted (u.m.)
  type (photog.)
 -white (u.m.)
ivy
 -clad (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)

                                  - J -

J-bolt
jack
  ass
  hammer
  head
 -in-the-box
  knife
 -of-all-trades
 -o'-lantern
 -plane (v.)
  pot
  rabbit
  screw
jail
  bird
  house
jam
  nut
  packed
Java
 #applets
  Beans
  Script
jaw
  bone
  breaker
 -locked (u.m.)
  twister
jay
  hawk
  walk
jelly
  bean
  roll
jerry
 -build (v.)
  builder
 -built (u.m.)
jet
 #airliner
 #airplane
  -black (u.m.)
  lag
  liner
  port
 -powered (u.m.)
  prop
 -propelled (u.m.)
 #propulsion
  stream
  wash
jewel
 -bright (u.m.)
 -studded (u.m.)
jib
  head
 -o-jib
  stay
jig
 -a-jig
  back
 -drill (v.)
  saw
job
 #lot
  seeker
 #shop
  site
joggle#piece
joint#owner
joulemeter
joy
  hop
  ride
  stick
jump
  master
  off (n., u.m.)
  rock
jungle
 -clad (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
 #gym
  side
junkpile
jury
 #box
 -fixing (u.m.)
 -rigged (u.m.)
just#in#time
juxta (c.f.)
 -ampullar
 -articular
  rest one word

[[Page 103]]



                                  - K -

K
 #car
 -ration
 -term
keel
  block
  fat
  haul
 -laying (u.m.)
 #line
keepsake
kerato (c.f.)
  all one word
kettle
  drum
  stitch
key
  board
  bolt
  hole
  lock
  note
  punch
  ring
  seat
  stone
  stop
  word
  worker
kick
  about (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
killjoy
kiln
 -dry (u.m., v.)
  eye
  hole
  rib
  stick
  tree
kilo (pref.)
  gram-meter
  voltampere
  watthour
  rest one word
kindheart
king
  bolt
 #crab
  head
  hood
  hunter
  maker
  piece
  pin
kins
  folk
  people
kiss-off (n., u.m.)
kite
  flier
  flying
knapsack
knee
 -braced (u.m.)
  brush
  cap
 -deep (u.m.)
 -high (u.m.)
  hole
 -jerk (u.m.)
  pad
  pan
  strap
knick
  knack
  point
knight
 -errant
  head
  hood
knitback
knock
  about (n., u.m.)
  away (n., u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
 -knee (n.)
 -kneed (u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
knocker
 -off
 -up
knot
  hole
  horn
know
 -all (n., u.m.)
 -how (n., u.m.)
 -it-all (n., u.m.)
 -little (n., u.m.)
 -nothing (n., u.m.)
knuckle
  bone
  buster
 -deep (u.m.)
 -kneed (u.m.)

                                  - L -

L
 -bar
 -beam
 -block
 -shaped
 -square
labio (c.f.)
  all one word
laborsaving
lace
 -edged (u.m.)
 #edging
  wing (insect)
 -winged (u.m.)
  worked
lackluster
ladder-backed (u.m.)
lady
  beetle
  finger
  killer
  ship
lake
  bed
  front
  lander
  shore
  side
lameduck (nonliteral) (n., u.m.)
lamp
  black
 -blown (u.m.)
 -foot
  hole
 -hour
  house
  lighter
  lit
  post
  shade
  stand
  wick
land
 #base
 -based (u.m.)
 #bird
  borne
  fall
  fast
  fill
  flood
  form
  grabber
 -grant (u.m.)
  holding
  lady
  locked
  look
  lord
  lubber
  mark
  mass
  mine
 #office
  owner
 -poor (u.m.)
  right
  scape
  sick
  side
  slide
  slip
  spout
  storm
  wash
  wire
  wrack
lantern-jawed (u.m.)
lap
  belt
 -lap
  robe
  streak
  top
  weld (v.)
 -welded (u.m.)
 -welding (u.m.)
large
 -eyed
 -handed (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
  mouthed
 -scale (u.m.)
lark
 -colored (u.m.)
  spur
laryngo (c.f.)
  all one word
last
 -born (u.m.)
 -cited (u.m.)
 -ditcher
 -named (u.m.)
latch
  bolt
  key
  string
late
 -born (u.m.)
  comer
 -lamented (u.m.)
 -maturing (u.m.)
latero (c.f.)
  all one word
lath-backed
    (u.m.)
lathe-bore (v.)
latter
 -day (u.m.)
  most
lattice
 #stitch
  work
laughing
 #gas
  stock
launch
 #pad
  site
laundry#room
law
 -abiding (u.m.)
  book
  breaker
 -fettered (u.m.)
  giver
 #office
  suit
lawnmower
lay
  away (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
 -by (n.)
  down (n., u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
layer
 -on
 -out
 -over
 -up
lazy
  bones
  boots
 #guy
  legs
lead
 -alpha
 -burn (v.)
 -filled (u.m.)
 -gray (u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  line
 #line (medical, naut. only)
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 #pencil
  time
leaden
 -eyed (u.m.)
  pated
 -souled (u.m.)
leader#line
leaf
  bud
 -clad (u.m.)
 -eating (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
  stalk
lean
 -faced (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -to (n., u.m.)
leap
  frog
 #year
lease
  back (n., u.m.)
  hold
leased-line
leather
  back
 -backed (u.m.)
 -bound (u.m.)
 -brown (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
  head
  neck
  side
  ware
leavetaking
lee-bow (v.)
leech
  eater
 #rope
left
 -bank (v.)
 #field (sports)
 -hand (u.m.)
 -handed (u.m.)
 -hander
  most
 -sided (u.m.)
  wing (political)
leg
  band
  puller
  rope (v.)
  work
lend-lease (n., u.m.)
length
  ways
  wise
lepto (c.f.)
  all one word
let
  down (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)

[[Page 104]]


letter
  bomb
 #carrier
  drop
  gram
  head
 -perfect (u.m.)
  press
  space
  writer
leuc(o) (c.f.)
  all one word
liberal-minded (u.m.)
lieutenant
 #colonel
 -colonelcy
 #governor
 -governorship
life
  belt
  blood
  boat
 #buoy
  drop
  float
  giver
  giving
  guard
  hold
  jacket
  long
 #net
  raft
  ring
  saver
 -size (u.m.)
 -sized (u.m.)
  span
  spring
  stream
  style
  tide
  time
  vest
  weary (u.m.)
lift-off (n., u.m.)
light
 -armed (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -colored (u.m.)
 -drab (u.m.)
 -draft (u.m.)
  face (printing)
 -footed (u.m.)
  handed
  house#keeping (nautical)
 #housekeeping
    (domestic)
  mouthed
 -producing (u.m.)
  ship
 -struck (u.m.)
  weight (n., u.m.)
 -year
lighter-than-air (u.m.)
like
 -looking (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
lily
  handed
 -shaped (u.m.)
 -white (u.m.)
lime
  juice
  kiln
  lighter
  pit
  quat
  stone
  wash
  water
linch
  bolt
  pin
line
 -bred (u.m.)
 -breed (v.)
  casting
  crew
  cut (printing)
  finder
 -item (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
  walker
link
  up (n., u.m.)
 #up (v.)
lion
 -bold (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
  hearted
 -maned (u.m.)
lip
  read
  service
  stick
listener-in
litho (c.f.)
 -offset
  rest one word
little
 -known (u.m.)
  neck (clam)
 -used (u.m.)
live
 #load
  long
  stock
 #wire
  wire
    (nonliteral)
liver
 -brown (u.m.)
 -colored (u.m.)
  wurst
living#room
loadmeter
loanword
lob
  fig
  lolly
lobster-tailed (u.m.)
lock
  box
  fast
  hole
  jaw
  nut
  out (n., u.m.)
  pin
  ring
  step
  stitch
  up (n., u.m.)
  washer
locker#room
lode
  star
  stone
  stuff
log
  book
  in
  jam
  on
  off
  roll
  sheet
loggerhead
logo  (c.f.)
  all one word
long
 -awaited (u.m.)
  beard (n.)
 -bearded (u.m.)
 -billed (u.m.)
  bow
  cloth
 -distance (u.m.)
 -drawn (u.m.)
  felt
  hair (n.)
 -haired (u.m.)
  hand (nonliteral)
 -handed (u.m.)
 -handled (u.m.)
  head (n.)
  horn (cattle)
 -horned (u.m.)
 #jump
  leaf
 -leaved (u.m.)
 -legged (u.m.)
  legs (n.)
 -lived (u.m.)
  mouthed
 -necked (u.m.)
  nose (n.)
 -nosed (u.m.)
 -past (u.m.)
  play (records)
  playing (u.m.)
  run (u.m.)
  shoreman
  spun
  standing (u.m.)
  stitch
 #term (n.)
 -term (u.m.)
  wave (radio)
  ways
  wool (sheep)
look
  down (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
 #over (v.)
  through (n., u.m.)
looker-on
loop
  hole
 #knot
  stitch
loose
  leaf (u.m.)
  mouthed
 -tongued (u.m.)
lop
 -eared (u.m.)
  sided
loud
  mouthed
 #speaker (orator)
  speaker (radio)
 -voiced (u.m.)
love
  bird
  born
 -inspired (u.m.)
 #knot
  lorn
  seat
  sick
low
  born
  boy
  bred
  brow (nonliteral)
  browed
    (nonliteral)
 -built (u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
 -downer
 -lander
 -lived (u.m.)
 -lying (u.m.)
 -power (u.m.)
 -pressure (u.m.)
  rise
 #water
lower
  case (printing)
 #deck
  most
lug
  bolt
  mark
  sail
lukewarm
lumber
  jack
 #room
lumbo (c.f.)
 -ovarian
  rest one word
lumen-hour
lunch
  box
  room
  time
lying-in (n., u.m.)

                                  - M -

M-day
macebearer
machine
 -finished (u.m.)
  gun
 -hour
 -made (u.m.)
 #shop
 #work
macro (c.f.)
  all one word
mad
  brain
  cap
 #money
made
 -over (u.m.)
 -up (u.m.)
magnetite
 -basalt
 -olivinite
 -spinellite
magneto (c.f.)
 -optics
  rest one word
mahjong
maid
 #of#honor
  servant
maiden
  hair
  head
  hood
 #name
mail
  bag
  clad
  clerk
  guard
 -order (u.m.)
  pouch
  room
  slot
  truck
main
  frame
  mast
  pin
  sail
  sheet
  spring
  stay
  stream (nonliteral)
  top
  topmast
 #yard
major
 -domo
 #league
 -leaguer
 -minor
make
 -believe (n., u.m.)
  fast (n.)
  over
  ready (printing)
  shift
  up (n., u.m.)
  weight
maker
 -off
 -up
making#up
mal (c.f.)
  all one word
man
  back
 -child
 -created (u.m.)
 -day
  eater

[[Page 105]]


 -fashion (u.m.)
 -grown (u.m.)
  handle
  hater
 -high (u.m.)
  hole
 -hour
  killer
  kind
  made (u.m.)
 -minute
 -of-war (ship)
  power
  servant
 -size (u.m.)
  slaughter
  slayer
  stealer
  stopper
  trap
 -woman
 -year
manic-depressive
manifold
mantel
  piece
  shelf
  tree
many
 -colored (u.m.)
 -folded (u.m.)
  plies
 -sided (u.m.)
mapreader
marble
  head
 -looking (u.m.)
 -topped (u.m.)
 -white (u.m.)
mare's
 -nest
 -tail
mark
  down (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  shot
  up (n., u.m.)
marker
 -down
 -off
 -up
marketplace
marrowbone
marsh
  buck
  mallow (confection)
 #mallow (plant)
mass
 -minded (u.m.)
 -produce (v.)
mast
 -brown (u.m.)
  head
master
 #at#arms
  mind
 #of#ceremonies
  piece
  ship
 #stroke
 #workman
mat-covered (u.m.)
match
  book
  head
 -lined (u.m.)
  mark
  safe
  stick
maxi (n.)
maxi (pref.)
  all one word
May
 #Day
 -day (u.m.)
  pole
  tide
may
  be (adv.)
  beetle
  day (distress call)
  hap
mealymouth
mean
 -acting (u.m.)
 -spirited (u.m.)
  time (meanwhile)
 #time (astro-
   nomical)
  tone (u.m.)
  while
meat
  ball
  cutter
 -eater
 -fed (u.m.)
  hook
 -hungry (u.m.)
  packer
  works
  wrapper
mechanico (c.f.)
  all one word
medico (c.f.)
  all one word
medio (c.f.)
  all one word
medium
 -brown (u.m.)
 -size(d) (u.m.)
  weight (n., u.m.)
meek
 -eyed (u.m.)
  hearted
 -spirited (u.m.)
meetingplace
megalo (c.f.)
  all one word
melon
  grower
 -laden (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
melt
  down (n., u.m.)
  water
men
  folk
  kind
meningo (c.f.)
  all one word
menu-driven
merry
 -go-round
  meeting
 -minded (u.m.)
meshbag
meso (c.f.)
  all one word
mess
  hall
  kit
  room
  tin
 -up (n., u.m.)
meta (pref.)
  all one word
metal
  ammonium
 -clad (u.m.)
 -coated (u.m.)
 -lined (u.m.)
  works
meter
 -amperes
  gram
 -kilogram
 -kilogram-second
 -millimeter
metro (c.f.)
  all one word
mezzo
  graph
  relievo
  soprano
  tint
micro (c.f.)
 -organism
  rest one word
mid (c.f.)
 -American, etc.
 -April
  day
 -decade
 -dish
 -ice
 -level
 -1958
 -Pacific, etc.
 -Victorian, etc.
  rest one word
middle
 -aged (u.m.)
  breaker
  brow (nonliteral)
 -burst (v.)
  buster
 #ear
 #ground
  man (nonliteral)
  most
 -of-the-roader
 -sized (u.m.)
  splitter
  weight
midi (n.)
midi (pref.)
  all one word
mighty-handed (u.m.)
mil-foot
mild
 -cured (u.m.)
 -mannered (u.m.)
 -spoken (u.m.)
mile
 -long (u.m.)
 -ohm
  post
 -pound
 -ton
 -wide (u.m.)
milk
 -fed (u.m.)
  head
 #run
  shake
  shed
  sick
  sop
 -white (u.m.)
mill
  cake
  course
  dam
  feed
  hand
 -headed (u.m.)
  pond
  post
  race
  ring
  stock
  stream
  wright
milli (c.f.)
  gram-hour
  rest one word
mincemeat
mind
 #healer
 -healing (u.m.)
  reader
  set (n.)
  sight
mine
  field
  layer
  ship
  sweeper
  thrower
  works
mini (n.)
mini (pref.)
  all one word
minor
 #league
 -leaguer
minute#book
mirror
 -faced (u.m.)
  scope
mis (pref.)
  all one word
mischiefmaking
mist
  bow
 -clad (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
  fall
miter
 #box
 -lock (v.)
mix
  blood
  up (n.)
mixing#room
mizzenmast
mock
 -heroic (u.m.)
 #turtle
  up (n., u.m.)
mocker-up
mocking
  stock
 -up (u.m.)
mold
  made (u.m.)
 #shop
mole
  catcher
 -eyed (u.m.)
  head
  heap
  hill
money
  bag
  changer
  getter
  grubber
  lender
 -mad (u.m.)
  maker
  saver
monkey
 -faced (u.m.)
  nut
  pod
  pot
  shine
 #wrench
mono (c.f.)
 -ideistic
 -iodo
 -iodohydrin
 -ion
 -ousian
  rest one word
month
  end
  long (u.m.)
moon
  beam
  blind
 #blindness
  blink
  born
 -bright (u.m.)
  eye
  face
  gazing
  glow
  head
  lighter
  lit
 -mad (u.m.)
  path
  rise
  sail
  set
  shade
  shine
  shot
  sick
  struck
  tide
  walker
 -white (u.m.)
moosecall
mop
  head
  stick
  up (n., u.m.)
mopper-up
mopping-up (u.m.)
morning
 #sickness
 #star
  tide
mosquito
 -free (u.m.)
 #net
moss
  back
 -clad (u.m.)

[[Page 106]]


 -green (u.m.)
 -grown (u.m.)
  head
 -lined (u.m.)
most-favored-nation (u.m.)
moth
  ball
 -eaten (u.m.)
  hole
  proof
mother
  board
  hood
 -in-law
 -of-pearl
moto (c.f.)
  all one word
motor
  bike
  bus
  cab
  cade
  car
  coach
  cycle
 -driven (u.m.)
  jet
 -minded (u.m.)
  ship
  truck
  van
moundbuilder
mountain
 -high (u.m.)
  side
  top
 -walled (u.m.)
mouse
 -brown (u.m.)
 -eared (u.m.)
 -eaten (u.m.)
  hole
  trap
mouth
 -filling (u.m.)
 -made (u.m.)
  piece
  wash
muck
  rake (v.)
  raker
  sweat
muco (c.f.)
  all one word
mud
  bank
  bath
  cap
 -colored (u.m.)
  flat
  flow
  guard
  head
  hole
  lark
  sill
  slinger
 -splashed (u.m.)
  stain
  sucker
  track
 #turtle
muddlehead
mule
  back
 #deer
  skinner
multi (c.f.)
  all one word
multiple-purpose
    (u.m.)
muscle
  bound
  power
music
  lover
 -mad (u.m.)
  maker
  room
musico (c.f.)
  all one word
musk
 #deer
  melon
 #ox
  rat
mutton
 #chop (meat)
  chop (shape)
  fist
  head
myria (c.f.)
  all one word
mytho (c.f.)
  all one word
myxo (c.f.)
  all one word

                                  - N -

nail
  bin
  brush
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
 #hole
  print
  puller
  rod
 -shaped (u.m.)
 -studded (u.m.)
name
 -calling (u.m.)
 -dropping (u.m.)
  plate
  sake
naptime
narco (c.f.)
  all one word
narrow
 -mouthed (u.m.)
  minded
naso (c.f.)
 -occipital
 -orbital
  rest one word
nationwide
native-born
    (u.m.)
navy-blue (u.m.)
near
  by
 -miss
  sighted
neat's-foot (u.m.)
neck
  band
  bone
 -breaking
    (u.m.)
  cloth
 -deep (u.m.)
  fast
  guard
 -high (u.m.)
  hole
  lace
  line
  mold
  tie
necro (c.f.)
  all one word
needle
  bill
  case
 -made (u.m.)
  nose (pliers)
  point
 -shaped (u.m.)
 -sharp (u.m.)
  worked
ne'er-do-well
neo (c.f.)
 -Greek, etc.
  rest one word
nephro (c.f.)
  all one word
nerve
  ache
 -celled (u.m.)
 -racked (u.m.)
net
  ball
  braider
 -veined (u.m.)
  work
 #worth
nettle
  fire
  foot
  some
neuro (c.f.)
  all one word
never
 -ending (u.m.)
  more
  theless
new
  born
 -car (u.m.)
  comer
 -created (u.m.)
  fangled
 -fashioned (u.m.)
 -front (v.)
 -made (u.m.)
 -mown (u.m.)
 -rich (u.m.)
newlywed
news
  boy
  case
  cast
  clip
  dealer
 #editor
  letter
  paper
  paper#work
  photo
  print
  reader
  reel
  sheet
  stand
  story
  teller
nick
 -eared (u.m.)
  name
nickel
  plate (v.)
 -plated (u.m.)
 -plating (u.m.)
  type
night
 -black (u.m.)
 #blindness
  cap
 -clad (u.m.)
  clothes
  club
  dress
  fall
 -fly (aviation)
    (v.)
 -flying (u.m.)
  gown
 -grown (u.m.)
  hawk
  long (u.m.)
  mare
 #school
  shade
 #shift
  shirt
  side
  tide
  walker
nimble
 -fingered (u.m.)
  footed
nimbostratus
    (clouds)
nine
  fold
 #holes
 -lived (u.m.)
  pin
  score
nitpicker
nitro (c.f.)
 -hydro-carbon
  rest one word
no
 -account (n., u.m.)
 -fault
 -fee
 -good (n., u.m.)
 -hitter (n.)
  how
 #man's land
 #one
 -par (u.m.)
 -par-value (u.m.)
 -show (n., u.m.)
 -thoroughfare (n.)
  whit
 -year (funds)
noble
 -born (u.m.)
 -featured (u.m.)
  heartedness
 -looking (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
nol-pros (v.)
non
 -civil-service (u.m.)
 -European, etc.
 -interactive
 -pros (v.)
 #sequitur, etc.
 -tumor-bearing (u.m.)
  as prefix, one word
none
  such
  theless
noon
  day
  tide
  time
north
 -central
    (u.m.)
  east
  going
  most
 -northeast
 -sider
nose
  bag
  bleed
  bone
  dive
  down (n., u.m.)
  gay
  guard
 -high (u.m.)
  hole
 -led (u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
  pipe
  ring
 -thumbing (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
  wheel
note
  book
 #paper
  worthy
notwithstanding
novel
 -reading (u.m.)
 #writer
 -writing (u.m.)
nucleo (c.f.)
  all one word
nut
  breaker
 -brown (u.m.)
  cake
  cracker
  hatch
  hook
  pecker
  pick
 -shaped (u.m.)
  shell
  sweet

[[Page 107]]



                                  - O -

oak
 -beamed (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -green (u.m.)
 #leaf
 -leaved (u.m.)
oar
 -footed (u.m.)
  lock
oarsman
oat
  bin
  cake
 -fed (u.m.)
  meal
  seed
oathbreaker
object-oriented
oblong
 -elliptic (u.m.)
 -leaved (u.m.)
 -linear (u.m.)
 -ovate (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
 -triangular (u.m.)
occipito (c.f.)
 -otic
  rest one word
ocean
 -born (u.m.)
  borne
 -girdled (u.m.)
  going
  side
 -spanning (u.m.)
octo (c.f.)
  all one word
odd
 -jobber
 -job man
 -looking (u.m.)
  man (arbiter)
 -numbered (u.m.)
off
 -and-on (u.m.)
  beat
  cast
  center (u.m.)
  color (u.m.)
 -colored (u.m.)
  cut (printing)
  day
 -fall (v.)
 -flavor (n., u.m.)
 -flow
 -go (n.)
  going
  grade
  hand
 -hours
  line
  loading
  look
 -lying (u.m.)
  peak
  print
  put
 -reckoning (n.)
  saddle
  scape
  scour
  scum
 -season
  set
  shoot
  shore
  side
  site
 -sorts (n.)
  spring
  stage
  street
  take
 -the-record (u.m.)
  type
 -wheel (n.)
 -wheeler (n.)
 -white (u.m.)
 #year
office
 #boy
  holder
  seeker
 -seeking (u.m.)
oftentimes
ofttimes
ohm
 -ammeter
  meter
 -mile
oil
 #burner
  cake
  can
  cloth
  coat
  cup
 -driven (u.m.)
 -fed (u.m.)
  field
 -forming (u.m.)
 -harden (v.)
  hole
  meal
  paper
  proofing
  seed
 #shale
  skinned
 -soaked (u.m.)
  spill (n.)
  stove
 -temper (v.)
  tightness
 #well
old
 -fashioned (u.m.)
 -fogy (u.m.)
 -growing (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 #maid
 -maidish (u.m.)
 #man
 -new
  style (printing)
  timer
 #woman
 -young
oleo
 #butter
 #gear
 #oil
 #strut
  as combining form, one word
olive
 -brown (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -drab (u.m.)
 -growing (u.m.)
 #oil
 -skinned (u.m.)
  wood
 #wood (color)
omni (c.f.)
 -ignorant
  rest one word
on
 -and-off (n., u.m.)
  board (u.m.)
 -go (n.)
  going
  line#service
  site
  noun, adjective, one word
once
 -over (n.)
 -run (u.m.)
one
 -armed (u.m.)
 -decker
 -eyed (u.m.)
  fold
 -half
 -handed (u.m.)
  ness
 -piece (u.m.)
  self
 -sided (u.m.)
 -sidedness
  signed (u.m.)
 -step (dance)
 -striper
  time (formerly) (u.m.)
 -time (one action) (u.m.)
 -two-three
 -way (u.m.)
onion
  peel
  skin
op-ed (newspaper)
open
 -air (u.m.)
 -armed (u.m.)
 -back (u.m.)
 -backed (u.m.)
  band (yarn)
  cast
  cut (mining)
 -end (u.m.)
 -ended
 -faced (u.m.)
  handed
 #house
  minded
  mouthed
 #shop
  side (u.m.)
 -sided (u.m.)
  worked
opera
  goer
  going
 #house
operating#system
ophthalmo (c.f.)
  all one word
orange
  ade
  colored (u.m.)
  peel
 -red (u.m.)
  stick
orchard#house
orderly#room
organo (c.f.)
  all one word
ornitho (c.f.)
  all one word
orrisroot
ortho (c.f.)
  all one word
osteo (c.f.)
  all one word
other
  wise
 #world
  worldly
oto (c.f.)
  all one word
out
 -and-out (u.m.)
 -and-outer (n.)
 -loud (u.m.)
 -Machiavelli, etc.
  migration
 -of-date (u.m.)
 -of-door(s) (u.m.)
 -of-State (u.m.)
 -of-the-way (u.m.)
  placement
 -to-out (u.m.)
  as prefix, one word
outer
 -city (u.m.)
 #man
  most
  wear
outward
 -bound (u.m.)
 -bounder
ovate
 -acuminate (u.m.)
 -oblong (u.m.)
ovato (c.f.)
 -oblong
 -orbicular
  rest one word
oven
  baked
  dried
  peel
  ware
over
  age (surplus)
  age (older) (n., u.m.)
  all (n., u.m.)
 -the-counter (u.m.)
  as combining form, one word
owl-eyed (u.m.)
ox
  biter
  blood (color)
  bow
  brake
  cart
  cheek
  eye
 -eyed (u.m.)
  gall
  harrow
  hide
  horn
  shoe
  tail
 #team
oxy (c.f.)
  all one word
oyster
  bed
 #crab
  house
  root
  seed
  shell
 -white (u.m.)

                                  - P -

pace
  maker
 #setter
 -setting (u.m.)
pachy (c.f.)
  all one word
pack
  builder
  cloth
  horse
 -laden (u.m.)
  sack
  saddle
  staff
  thread
  up (n., u.m.)
packing#box
padlock
paddlefoot
page
 -for-page (u.m.)
 #proof (printing)
painkiller
painstaking
paint
  brush
  mixer
  pot
  spray
  stained (u.m.)

[[Page 108]]


pale
  belly
 -blue (u.m.)
  buck
 -cheeked (u.m.)
  face (n.)
 -faced (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -reddish (u.m.)
paleo (c.f.)
 -Christian, etc.
  rest one word
pallbearer
palm
 -green (u.m.)
 #leaf
 #oil
 -shaded (u.m.)
palmi (c.f.)
  all one word
pan
 -American, etc.
 -broil (v.)
 #ice
  rest one word
Pan
 #American Union
  hellenic
panel-lined
    (u.m.)
panic-stricken
    (u.m.)
panto (c.f.)
  all one word
panty hose
paper
  back (n.)
 #box
 #carrier
  cutter
  hanger
  shell (n., u.m.)
 -shelled (u.m.)
 -thin (u.m.)
  weight
 -white (u.m.)
papier#mache
para (c.f. or pref.)
 -analgesia
 -anesthesia
  legal
  medic
  rest one word
parcel
 #carrier
 -plate (v.)
 #post
parchment
 -covered (u.m.)
 #maker
 -making (u.m.)
parieto (c.f.)
 -occipital
  rest one word
parimutuel
park
 #forest
  land
  way
part
 -finished (u.m.)
 #owner
 -time (u.m.)
 -timer (n.)
 #way
parti (c.f.)
  all one word
party#line
parvi (c.f.)
  all one word
pass
  back (n.)
  book
  key
  out (n., u.m.)
  port
  through (n., u.m.)
  word
passenger-mile
passer(s)-by
passion
 -driven (u.m.)
 -feeding (u.m.)
 -filled (u.m.)
 #play
paste
  down (n., u.m.)
  pot
  up (n., u.m.)
pastureland
patent-in-fee
path
  breaker
  finder
  way
patho (c.f.)
  all one word
patri (c.f.)
  all one word
patrol
  man
 #wagon
pattycake
pawn
  broker
  shop
pay
  back (n., u.m.)
  check
 #cut
  day
  dirt
  load
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 #raise
  roll
  sheet
 -TV
pea
 #coal
  coat
  cod
 -green (u.m.)
  hen
  jacket
  nut
  pod
  shooter
 -sized (u.m.)
  stick
peace
 -blessed (u.m.)
  breaker
 -loving (u.m.)
  maker
 #pipe
  time
peach
  bloom
  blow (color)
 -colored (u.m.)
pear-shaped
    (u.m.)
pearl
 -eyed (u.m.)
  fishing
 -pure (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
 -studded (u.m.)
 -white (u.m.)
peat
 -roofed (u.m.)
  moss
  stack
pebble
 -paved (u.m.)
 -strewn (u.m.)
peeloff (n., u.m.)
peep
  eye
  hole
  show
  sight
peer-to-peer
pegleg
pellmell
pen
 -cancel (v.)
  head
  knife
  manship
 #name
  point
  pusher
  rack
  script
 -shaped (u.m.)
  stock
  trough
pencil
 #box
  holder
 -mark (v.)
penny
 -a-liner
  pincher
  weight
  winkle
  worth
pent-up (u.m.)
penta (c.f.)
 -acetate
  rest one word
pepper
  corn
 #jelly
  mint
  pot
 -red (u.m.)
peptalk
per
 #annum
  cent
 #centum
  compound (chemical)
  current (botanical)
 #diem
  salt (chemical)
 #se
  sulfide
peri (pref.)
 -insular
  rest one word
permafrost
pest
  hole
 -ridden (u.m.)
petcock
peternet
petit
  grain
 #jury
 #larceny
 #point
petro (c.f.)
 -occipital
  rest one word
pharmaco (c.f.)
 -oryctology
  rest one word
pharyngo (c.f.)
 -esophageal
 -oral
  rest one word
phase
 -in (n., u.m.)
  meter
  out (n., u.m.)
 -wound (u.m.)
pheno (c.f.)
  all one word
philo (c.f.)
 -French, etc.
  rest one word
phlebo (c.f.)
  all one word
phonebook
phono (c.f.)
  all one word
phospho (c.f.)
  all one word
photo (c.f.)
 -offset
 -oxidation
 -oxidative
  rest one word
phrasemark
    (music)
phreno (c.f.)
  all one word
phyllo (c.f.)
  all one word
phylo (c.f.)
  all one word
physico (c.f.)
  all one word
physio (c.f.)
  all one word
phyto (c.f.)
  all one word
piano
  forte
  graph
 #player
pick
  aback
  ax
  lock
 -me-up (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
 #over (v.)
  pocket
  pole
  shaft
  up (n., u.m.)
picker-up
picket#line
pickle-cured (u.m.)
picture
 #book
 #writing
pie
  bald
  crust
 -eater
 -eyed
  marker
  pan
  plant
 #plate
 -stuffed (u.m.)
 #tin
piece
 -dye (v.)
 #goods
  meal
  mold
piezo (c.f.)
 -oscillator
  rest one word
pig
 -back (v.)
 -backed (u.m.)
 -bellied (u.m.)
  belly
 -eyed (u.m.)
  face
 -faced (u.m.)
  foot
 -footed (u.m.)
  headed
  herd
 #iron
  out
  pen
  root
  stick
  sty
  tailed
  wash
pigeon
  gram
  hole
 -toed (u.m.)
  wing
piggyback
pike
 -eyed (u.m.)
  staff
pile
  driver
 -driving (u.m.)
  hammer
  up (n., u.m.)
 #weave
  woven
pill
  pusher
  rolling
  taker
pillow
  case
  made
  slip
pilot
 #boat
  house
 #light
pin
  ball
  block
  bone
  case
  cushion
 -eyed (u.m.)

[[Page 109]]


  fall
  feather
  fire
  fold
  head
  hold
  hole
  hook
  lock
  paper
  point
  prick
  rail
  setter
  spot
  stripe
 -tailed (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
  wheel
pinch
  back
  bar
  beck
  cock
  fist
 -hit (v.)
 -hitter
  penny
pine
  apple
 -bearing (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 #cone
 -fringed (u.m.)
 #needle
 #oil
 -shaded (u.m.)
 #tar
pink
 -blossomed (u.m.)
  eye (n.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
pipe
 -drawn (u.m.)
  dream
  fitter
  layer
  line
 -shaped (u.m.)
  stem
  walker
  welder
pisci (c.f.)
  all one word
pistol-whipped (v.)
piston
  head
 #pin
 #rod
 #valve
pit
 #bull
 -eyed (u.m.)
  fall
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
  hole
  mark
 -marked (u.m.)
 -rotted (u.m.)
  saw
  side
pitch
 -black (u.m.)
  blende
 #box
 -colored (u.m.)
 -dark (u.m.)
 #darkness
  fork
  hole
 -lined (u.m.)
  man
 -marked (u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 #pipe
  up (n., u.m.)
place
  card
  kick
plague-infested (u.m.)
plain
  back (fabric)
 -bodied (u.m.)
  clothes (u.m.)
  clothesman
 -headed (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -spoken (u.m.)
  woven (u.m.)
plane
 #curve
  load
 -mile
 -parallel (u.m.)
  table (surveying)
plani (c.f.)
  all one word
plano (c.f.)
  all one word
plant
 #food
  life
  site
plasterboard
plate
  cutter
 #glass
 -incased (u.m.)
  layer
  mark
 #proof (printing)
 -roll (v.)
 -rolled (u.m.)
platy (c.f.)
  all one word
play
 -act (v.)
  back (n., u.m.)
  bill
  book
  boy
  broker
  day
  down (n., u.m.)
  fellow
  goer
  going
  ground
  mate
  off (n., u.m.)
  pen
  reader
  room
  script
  suit
  thing
  time
  wright
 #yard
pleasure
 -bent (u.m.)
 #boat
 -seeking (u.m.)
 -tired (u.m.)
 -weary (u.m.)
pleo (c.f.)
  all one word
pleuro (c.f.)
  all one word
plow
  back (n., u.m.)
 -bred (u.m.)
  hand
  horse
  pan
  point
 -shaped (u.m.)
  share
  shoe
  sole
  staff
 #tail
  wright
plug
 -and-play
  hole
 -in (n., u.m.)
  tray
 -ugly (n., u.m.)
plumbline
plume-crowned (u.m.)
pluri (c.f.)
  all one word
pluto (c.f.)
  all one word
pneumato (c.f.)
 -hydato-genetic (u.m.)
  rest one word
pneumo (c.f.)
  all one word
pock
  mark
 -marked (u.m.)
 -pit (v.)
pocket
  book (purse)
 #book (book)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  knife
 -sized (u.m.)
 -veto (v.)
poet
 -artist
 #laureate
 -painter
pointblank
Point-to-Point
poison-dipped (u.m.)
pole
  arm
 -armed (u.m.)
  ax
  burn
  cat
 -dried (u.m.)
  horse
 -pile (v.)
  setter
 -shaped (u.m.)
  sitter
 -stack (v.)
  star
  timber
  trap
 -vault (v.)
 #vaulter
politico (c.f.)
 -orthodox
  rest one word
poll
  book
 #parrot
 #tax
poly (c.f.)
  all one word
poor
 -blooded (u.m.)
  farm
 -spirited (u.m.)
pop
  corn
  eye
  gun
  up (n., u.m.)
poppy
 -bordered (u.m.)
  cock
 -red (u.m.)
  seed
pork
  barrel (n., u.m.)
 #chop
 #pie
port
  cullis
  fire
  folio
  hole
  hook
  manteau
 -mouthed (u.m.)
  side
 #wine
post
 #bellum
 #boat
  card
 -Christian, etc.
 -cold-war (u.m.)
 #diem
 -free (u.m.)
  haste
 #hospital (military)
 #meridiem
 #mortem (literal)
  mortem (non-literal)
 #partum
 #school (military)
  audit, graduate, etc.
  as prefix, one word
postal#card
pot
  ash
  bellied
  boil
  eye
  hanger
  head
  herb
  hole
  hook
  hunter
  latch
  lid
  luck
  pie
  pourri
  rack
 #roast
  shot
  whiskey
potato#field
poultry
 #house
 #keeper
 -keeping (u.m.)
 #raiser
 -raising (u.m.)
 #yard
pound
  cake
 -foolish (u.m.)
 -foot
  worth
powder
 -blue (u.m.)
  box
 #house
 #keg
 #mill
 #room
 -scorched (u.m.)
power
  boat
 #mower
 -operated (u.m.)
  pack
  plant
praise
 -deserving (u.m.)
 -spoiled (u.m.)
  worthiness
pre (pref.)
 -Incan, etc.
  audit, existing, etc.
  rest one word
president
 -elect
 #pro#tempore
press
 #agent
 -agentry
  board
  feeder
 -forge (v.)
 -made (u.m.)
  mark
  pack (v.)
  plate
 #proof (printing)
preter (pref.)
  all one word
price
 #cutter
 -cutting (u.m.)
 #fixer
 -fixing (u.m.)
 #index
  list
 -support (u.m.)
  tag
prick
 -eared (u.m.)
  mark
  seam
priesthood

[[Page 110]]


prime
 #minister
 -ministerial (u.m.)
 -ministership
 -ministry
prince
  hood
 -priest
print
  cloth
  out
  script
printing
 -in (n., u.m.)
 #ink
 #office
 -out (n., u.m.)
prison
  bound
 -free (u.m.)
 -made (u.m.)
prisoner-of-war (u.m.)
prize
  fighter
 #ring
  taker
  winner
 -winning (u.m.)
pro
 -Ally, etc.
 -choice
 #football, etc.
 #forma
 -life
 #rata
 #tem
 #tempore
  as prefix, one word
problem-solver
procto (c.f.)
  all one word
profit
 -and-loss (u.m.)
 -sharing (u.m.)
prong
  buck
 -hoe (v.)
  horn
 -horned (u.m.)
proof
 #press
  read
  reader
  sheet
prop
  jet
  wash
proso (c.f.)
  all one word
proto (c.f.)
 -Egyptian, etc.
  rest one word
proud
  hearted
 -looking (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
psalmbook
pseudo (c.f.)
 -Messiah, etc.
 -occidental
 -official
 -orientalism
 -orthorhombic
 -osteomalacia
 -owner
  rest one word
psycho (c.f.)
 -organic
  rest one word
ptero (c.f.)
  all one word
public
  hearted
 -minded (u.m.)
 -spirited (u.m.)
 #works
pug
  nose
 -pile (v.)
pull
  back (n., u.m.)
 #box
  down (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 -push (u.m.)
  through
    (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
puller
 -in
 -out
pulp
  board
  wood
punch
  board
  bowl
  card
 -drunk (u.m.)
  mark
 -marked (u.m.)
  out (n.)
punctureproof
pup#tent
pure
  blood
  bred
 #line (biological)
purple
 -blue (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -colored (u.m.)
  heart (wood)
purse
  making
 -proud (u.m.)
 #strings
push
  button
  card
  cart
  off (n., u.m.)
 -pull (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
pussy
  cat
  foot
 #willow
put
  back (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 -put (n.)
 -up (n., u.m.)
putter
 -forth
 -in
 -off
 -on
 -out
 -through
 -up
pyo (c.f.)
  all one word
pyro (c.f.)
  all one word

                                  - Q -

Q
 -boat
 -fever
quadri (c.f.)
  -invariant
  rest one word
quarrystone
quarter
 -angled (u.m.)
  back
 -bloom (u.m.)
 #boards
 -bound (u.m.)
 -breed (u.m.)
 -cast (u.m.)
 -cut (u.m.)
  deck
 -miler
 #note
  pace
 -phase (u.m.)
  saw (v.)
  staff
  stretch
 -yearly (u.m.)
quartermaster
 #general
 -generalship
quasi
  all hyphened
queen#bee
quick
 -change (u.m., v.)
 -drawn (u.m., v.)
  freeze (u.m., v.)
  lime
  sand
  set
  silver
  step
 #time
 -witted (u.m.)
quin (c.f.)
  all one word
quit
  claim
  rent

                                  - R -

rabbit
 -backed (u.m.)
 -eared (u.m.)
 #fever
 #foot
  mouth
 -mouthed (u.m.)
  skin
race
  about (n., u.m.)
  course
  goer
  horse
  track
  way
radarscope
radio
  generally two words except the following forms
  frequency
  isotope
  telegraph
  telephone
rag
  bolt
 #doll
 -made (u.m.)
  sorter
  tag
  time
rail
  bird
  car
  guard
  head
 -ridden (u.m.)
  road
  setter
  splitter
 #train
  way#maker
  wayman
rain
  band
 -beaten (u.m.)
  bow
  check
  coat
  drop
  fall
 #forest
 -soft (u.m.)
  spout
  storm
  wash
  water
rakeoff (n., u.m.)
ram
  jet
  rod
  shackle
ranch
 #hand
  house
Random-access
range
  finder
 #light
  rider
rapid
 #fire
 #transit
rash
 -brained (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
 -hearted (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
rat
  bite
  catcher
  hole
 -infested (u.m.)
 #race
 -tailed (u.m.)
 -tight (u.m.)
  trap
rate
 #cutter
 -cutting (u.m.)
 -fixing (u.m.)
  payer
 -raising (u.m.)
  setting
rattle
  brain
  snake
  trap
raw
  boned
 -edged (u.m.)
  hide
 -looking (u.m.)
razor
  back
 -billed (u.m.)
 #blade
  edge
 -keen (u.m.)
 -sharp (u.m.)
  strop
razzle-dazzle
re (pref.)
 -cover (cover again)
 -create
    (create again), etc.
 -cross-examination
 -ice
 -ink
 -redirect
  evaluate, process, etc.
  rest one word
reading#room
read
  out (n.)
  through (n., u.m.)
README

[[Page 111]]


ready
 -built (u.m.)
 -handed (u.m.)
  made (u.m.)
 -mix (u.m.)
 #reference
  room
 -witted (u.m.)
rear
 #end
  guard
  most
  view (u.m.)
  ward
reception#room
recordbreaker
recti (c.f.)
  all one word
recto (c.f.)
  all one word
red
  bait (v.)
 -billed (u.m.)
 -blooded (u.m.)
  bone
  buck
  cap (porter)
  coat (n.)
  eye (n.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -faced (u.m.)
 -haired (u.m.)
  handed
  head (n.)
 -hot (u.m.)
 -legged (u.m.)
 #line (literal)
 #man
  out (n., u.m.)
 -skinned (u.m.)
  tape (nonliteral)
 #tape (literal)
 -throated (u.m.)
 -yellow (u.m.)
reformat
regionwide
religio (c.f.)
  all one word
remote-access
repair#shop
representative
 #at#large
 -elect
research#worker
resino (c.f.)
  all one word
retro (c.f.)
 -ocular
 -omental
 -operative
 -oral
  rest one word
rheo (c.f.)
  all one word
rhino (c.f.)
  all one word
rhizo (c.f.)
  all one word
rhod(o) (c.f.)
  all one word
rhomb(o) (c.f.)
  all one word
rice
  growing
 #water
rich
 -bound (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
rickrack
ridge
  band
  pole
  top
riffraff
rifleshot
rig
  out (n., u.m.)
 -up (n., u.m.)
right
  about
  about-face
 -angle (u.m., v.)
 -angled (u.m.)
 #away
 #field (sports)
 -handed (u.m.)
 -hander
 -headed (u.m.)
  most
 -of-way
  wing
    (political)
rim
 -deep (u.m.)
  fire
  lock
  rock
ring
 -adorned (u.m.)
 -banded (u.m.)
 -billed (u.m.)
  bolt
  giver
  head
 -in (n., u.m.)
  lead (v.)
  leader
 -necked (u.m.)
 -off (n., u.m.)
  pin
 -porous (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
  side
  sight
  stand
  stick
 -tailed (u.m.)
 -up (n., u.m.)
  worm
rip
  cord
 -off (n., u.m.)
  rap
  roaring
  sack
  saw
  snorter
  tide
 -up (n., u.m.)
river
  bank
  bed
 #bottom
  flow
 -formed (u.m.)
  front
  head
  scape
  side
  wash
 -worn (u.m.)
road
  bank
  bed
  block
  builder
  head
  hog
  kill
  map
 #runner (bird)
 #show
  side
 -test (v.)
  way
 -weary (u.m.)
rock
  abye
  bottom (nonliteral)
 #climber
 -climbing (u.m.)
  fall (n.)
 -fallen (u.m.)
  fill
  firm
  pile
 -ribbed (u.m.)
 #salt
  shaft
  slide
rod-shaped (u.m.)
roe
  buck
 #deer
roentgeno (c.f.)
  all one word
roll
  about (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
  call
 -fed (v.)
  film
  off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
  top
  up (n., u.m.)
roller
 #blade
 #coaster
 -made (u.m.)
 -milled (u.m.)
 #skate
Romano (c.f.)
 -canonical, etc.
 -Gallic, etc.
roof
  garden
  line
  top
  tree
room
 #clerk
  keeper
  mate
roominghouse
root
  bound
  cap
 -cutting (u.m.)
  fast
  hold
 #mean#square
 #rot
  stalk
  stock
rope
  dance
  layer
  stitch
  walk
rose
 -bright (u.m.)
  bud
  bush
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
 -scented (u.m.)
 -sweet (u.m.)
  tan
 #water
rotor
  craft
  ship
rotten
 -dry (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
rough
 -and-ready (u.m.)
 -and-tumble
    (n., u.m.)
  cast (u.m., v.)
 -coat (v.)
 -cut (u.m.)
  draw (v.)
  dress (v.)
  dry (u.m., v.)
 -face (v.)
 -faced (u.m.)
  hew
  house
 -legged (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
  neck
  rider
  setter
  shod
 -sketch (v.)
  stuff
  tailed
 #work (n.)
  work (v.)
  wrought
rougher
 -down
 -out
 -up
roughing-in (u.m.)
round
  about (n., u.m.)
  about-face
 -faced (u.m.)
  head
 -made (u.m.)
  mouthed
  nose (tool)
  out (n., u.m.)
  robin (petition)
  seam
  table (panel)
 -tailed (u.m.)
 -topped (u.m.)
 #trip
 -tripper
  up (n., u.m.)
rub
 -a-dub
  down (n., u.m.)
rubber
  band
 -down
 -lined (u.m.)
  neck
 -off
 -set (u.m.)
  stamp (nonliteral) (n., u.m., v.)
 #stamp (n.)
 -stamped (u.m.)
ruby
 -hued (u.m.)
 -red (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
 -throated (u.m.)
rudder
  head
  hole
  post
  stock
rule#of#thumb
rum
 -crazed (u.m.)
  runner
  seller
rumpus#room
run
  about (n., u.m.)
  around
    (n., u.m.)
  away (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
  by (n.)
  down (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
  through
    (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
runner-up
Russo (c.f.)
 -Chinese, etc.
  rest one word
rust
 -brown (u.m.)
 -eaten (u.m.)
  proofing
  
-resistant (u.m.)
 -stained (u.m.)
rye#field

                                      

[[Page 112]]

                                  - S -

S
 -bend
 -brake
 -iron
 -ray
 -shaped
 -trap
 -wrench
saber
 -legged (u.m.)
  tooth
 -toothed (u.m.)
sable-cloaked (u.m.)
Sabrejet
saccharo (c.f.)
  all one word
sack
  bearer
  cloth
 #coat
 -coated (u.m.)
 -making (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
sacro (c.f.)
  all one word
sad
 -eyed (u.m.)
  iron
 #sack
 -voiced (u.m.)
saddle
  back
 -backed (u.m.)
  bag
  bow
  cloth
 -graft (v.)
 #horse
 -making (u.m.)
  nose
 -nosed (u.m.)
  sore
 -stitched (u.m.)
  tree
 -wire (u.m.)
safe
  blower
  cracker
 -deposit (u.m.)
  guard
  hold
 #house
 #site
sage
  brush
  leaf
 -leaved (u.m.)
sail
  cloth
 -dotted (u.m.)
  flying
saintlike
sales
  book
  clerk
  manship
  people
  person
salmon
 -colored (u.m.)
 -red (u.m.)
salpingo (c.f.)
 -oophorectomy
 -oophoritis
 -ovariotomy
 -ovaritis
  rest one word
salt
  box
  cellar
 -cured (u.m.)
 #lick
  mouth
  pack
  pan
  peter
  pit
  pond
  shaker
  spoon
  sprinkler
  water
  works
salver
  form
 -shaped (u.m.)
sample
 #book
 #box
  maker
 -making (u.m.)
sand
  bag
  bank
  bar
  bath
  bin
  blast
  blown
  box
 -built (u.m.)
 -buried (u.m.)
 -cast (u.m., v.)
  culture
 #dune
  fill
  flea
  glass
  heat
  hill
 -hiller
  hog
  hole
  lapper
  lot
  paper
  pile
  pipe
  pit
 -pump (u.m., v.)
  shoe
  spit
  storm
  table
  weld (v.)
 -welded (u.m.)
 -welding (u.m.)
sandy-bottomed
    (u.m.)
sangfroid
sans
 #serif
 #souci
sapphire
 -blue (u.m.)
 -colored (u.m.)
sarco (c.f.)
  all one word
sashcord
satin
 #cloth
 -lined (u.m.)
 -smooth (u.m.)
sauce
  dish
  pan
sauer
  braten
  kraut
save-all (n., u.m.)
saw
  back
  belly
  bill (bird)
 -billed (u.m.)
  bones (n.)
  buck
  dust
 -edged (u.m.)
  horse
  setter
  timber
  tooth
 -toothed (u.m.)
sax
  cornet
  horn
  tuba
say
 -nothing
    (n., u.m.)
 -so (n.)
scale
  bark
  down (n., u.m.)
  pan
 -reading (u.m.)
scapegoat
scapulo (c.f.)
  all one word
scar
 -clad (u.m.)
  face
 -faced (u.m.)
 #tissue
scare
  crow
  head
scarfpin
scarlet
 -breasted (u.m.)
 #fever
 -red (u.m.)
scatter
  brain
  good
 #rug
scene
  shifter
  wright
schisto (c.f.)
  all one word
schizo (c.f.)
  all one word
school
  bag
 #board
  book
  bus
  children
  day
 -made (u.m.)
  mate
  ship
  teacher
 -trained (u.m.)
 #year
scientifico (c.f.)
  all one word
scissor
  bill
 -tailed (u.m.)
 -winged (u.m.)
scissors
  hold
 -shaped (u.m.)
 #smith
sclero (c.f.)
 -oophoritis
 -optic
  rest one word
score
  board
  book
  card
  sheet
scot-free
Scoto (c.f.)
 -Britannic, etc.
Scotsman
scout
 #badge
 #car
  hood
  master
scrap
  basket
  book
 #paper
  works
scratch
  brush
 -brusher
 -coated (u.m.)
 #pad
 #test
screen
  out (n., u.m.)
  play
screw
  ball
  bolt
  cap
  down (u.m.)
  drive (v.)
 -driven (u.m.)
  driver
  head
  hook
  jack
 -lifted (u.m.)
  nut
  ship
 #thread
 -threaded (u.m.)
 -turned (u.m.)
scroll
 -back
  head
  work
scuttlebutt
scythe-shaped (u.m.)
sea
 #base
 -based (u.m.)
 -bathed (u.m.)
  beach
 -beaten (u.m.)
  bed
 #bird
 -blue (u.m.)
  board
 #boat
 -born (u.m.)
  borne
  bound
 -bred (u.m.)
  coast
 -deep (u.m.)
  dog
 -driven (u.m.)
  drome
 -encircled (u.m.)
  fare (food)
  fighter
 #floor
  folk
  food
  front
  girt
  goer
  going
  hound
  lane
 #level
  lift
 #lion
  mark
  port
  quake
 #room
  scape
 #scout
  scouting
  shell
  shine
  shore
  sick
  side
  stroke
 #time (clock)
  wall
  weed
  wing
  worn
  worthiness
 -wrecked (u.m.)
seam
  blasting
  rend (v.)
  stitch
  weld (v.)
 -welded (u.m.)
search
 #engine
  light
  plane
seat
  belt
 #cover
 -mile
second
 -class (u.m.)
 -degree (u.m.)
 -foot
 -guess (v.)
  hand
    (adv., u.m.)
 #hand (n.)
 #in#command
 -rate (u.m.)
 #sight
 -sighted (u.m.)

[[Page 113]]


Secret Service
secretary
 #general
 -generalcy
 -generalship
section#man
seed
  bed
  cake
  case
  coat
  kin
  stalk
seer
  band
  hand
  sucker
seesaw
seismo (c.f.)
  all one word
self
  dom
 -extracting
  hood
  less
  ness
  same
  reflexive prefix, use hyphen
sell
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
semi (pref.)
 -armor-piercing (u.m.)
 -Christian, etc.
 -idleness,
    -indirect, etc.
  annual, arid, etc.
  rest one word
send
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
senso (c.f.)
  all one word
septi (c.f.)
  all one word
septo (c.f.)
  all one word
sergeant #at#arms
serio (c.f.)
  all one word
sero (c.f.)
  all one word
serrate
 -ciliate (u.m.)
 -dentate (u.m.)
server-based
service
 -connected (u.m.)
  man
 #man#and #woman
  person
  wide
servo
  accelerometer
  amplifier
  control
  mechanism
  motor
  system
sesqui (c.f.)
  all one word
set
 -aside (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
  bolt
  down (n., u.m.)
 -fair (n.)
  head
 -in (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
  pin
  screw
 -stitched (u.m.)
 -to (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
setter
 -forth
 -in
 -on
 -out
 -to
 -up
seven
 -branched (u.m.)
  fold
  penny (nail)
  score
 -shooter
 -up (n.)
severalfold
shade
 -giving (u.m.)
 -grown (u.m.)
shadow
  boxing
  gram
  graph
 #line
shag
  bark
 -haired (u.m.)
 #rug
shake
  down (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
shallow
 -draft (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
shame
 -crushed (u.m.)
  faced
shank
  bone
 #mill
shapeup (n., u.m.)
share
  bone
  broker
  cropper
  holder
  out (n., u.m.)
  ware
sharp
 -angled (u.m.)
 -cut (u.m.)
 -edged (u.m.)
 -freeze (u.m., v.)
 -freezer
 -looking (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
  shod
  shooter
 -tailed (u.m.)
 -witted (u.m.)
shavetail
naysayer
shear
  pin
  waters
shedhand
sheep
  biter
  crook
  dip
 #dog
  faced
 #farm
  fold
  gate
  herder
  hook
  kill
 -kneed (u.m.)
  nose (apple)
  pen
  shank
  shear (v.)
  shearer (n.)
  shed
  stealer
  walk
 -white (u.m.)
sheer
  off (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
sheet
  block
  flood
 #glass
  rock
  ways
shell
  back
  burst
  fire
  fishery
 #game
  hole
 -like
  shocked
shelterbelt
shield-shaped (u.m.)
shilly-shally
shin
  bone
  guard
  plaster
shiner-up
ship
  breaker
  broken
  broker
  builder
  lap
  mast
  owning
 -rigged (u.m.)
  shape
  side
  wreck
shipping
 #master
 #room
shirt
  band
 #sleeve
  tail
  waist
shock
 #therapy
 #troops
 #wave
shoe
  black
  brush
  horn
  lace
  pack
  scraper
  shine
  store
  string
  tree
shootoff
    (n., u.m.)
shop
  folk
  lifter
 -made (u.m.)
  mark
  owner
 -soiled (u.m.)
  talk
  walker
  window
shore
 #bird
 #boat
  fast
  going
 #leave
  side
short
 -armed (u.m.)
  bread
  cake
  change (v.)
  changer
 #circuit
 -circuited (u.m.)
  coming
  cut (n., u.m., v.)
  fall (n.)
 -fed (u.m.)
  hand (writing)
 -handed (u.m.)
  head (whale)
  horn (n., u.m.)
 -horned (u.m.)
 -lasting (u.m.)
  leaf (u.m.)
 -lived (u.m.)
  rib
  run (u.m.)
  sighted
  staff
  stop
 #term
 -term (u.m.)
  wave (radio)
shot
  gun
  hole
  put
  star
shoulder
 #belt
 #blade
 -high (u.m.)
 #strap
show
  boat
  card
  case
  down (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  piece
  place
  room
  through (printing)
    (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
shredout (n., u.m.)
shroud
 -laid (u.m.)
  plate
shut
  away (n., u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
  eye (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
 -mouthed (u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (u.m.)
shuttlecock
sick
  bay
  bed
 #call
 #leave
  list
  room
sickle-cell (u.m.)
side
  arms
  band
  board
  bone
  burns
  car
  check
 -cut (u.m.)
  dress (v.)
  flash
  head (printing)
  hill
  hook
  kick
  lap
 #light (literal)
  light (nonliteral)
 #line (literal)
  line (nonliteral)
  long
  note
  plate
  play
  saddle
  show
  slip
  splitting
  step
  stitch
 -stitched (u.m.)
  sway
  swipe
  track
  walk
  wall
 -wheeler
  winder
sight
  hole
  read
  saver
  seeing
  setter

[[Page 114]]


sign
  off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  post
  up (n., u.m.)
silico (c.f.)
  all one word
silk
 #screen
 -stockinged (u.m.)
  works
siltpan
silver
 -backed (u.m.)
  beater
 -bright (u.m.)
  fish
 -gray (u.m.)
 -haired (u.m.)
 -lead (u.m.)
 -leaved (u.m.)
  plate (v.)
 -plated (u.m.)
  point
    (drawing)
  print
  tip
 -tongued (u.m.)
  top
simon-pure (u.m.)
simple
 -headed (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
 -rooted (u.m.)
 -witted (u.m.)
simulcast
sin
 -born (u.m.)
 -bred (u.m.)
sine#die
single
  bar
 -breasted (u.m.)
 -decker
 -edged (u.m.)
  handed
  hood
 -loader
 -minded (u.m.)
 -phase (u.m.)
 -seater
  stick
 #stitch
  tree
singsong
sink
  head
  hole
Sino (c.f.)
 -Japanese, etc.
sister
 -german
  hood
 -in-law
sit
  down (n., u.m.)
 -downer
  fast (n., u.m.)
 -in
  up (n., u.m.)
sitter
 -by
 -in
 -out
sitting#room
sitz
 #bath
  mark
six
 -cylinder
    (u.m.)
  fold
  penny (nail)
 -ply (u.m.)
  score
 -shooter
 -wheeler
sizeup (n., u.m.)
ski
 #jump
 #lift
  plane
 #suit
skid
  lift (truck)
  road
 #row
skin
 -clad (u.m.)
  deep
  diver
  flint
 -graft (v.)
skipjack
skirtmarker
skullcap
skunk
  head
  top
sky
 -blue (u.m.)
  gazer
 -high (u.m.)
  jacker
  lift
  look (v.)
  rocket
  sail
  scape
  scraper
  shine
  writer
slab-sided (u.m.)
slack
 -bake (v.)
 -filled (u.m.)
 #water
slambang
slant-eyed (u.m.)
slap
  bang
  dab
  dash
  down (n., u.m.)
  happy
  jack
  stick
 -up (n., u.m.)
slate
 -blue (u.m.)
 -colored (u.m.)
  works
slaughter
  house
  pen
slave
 -born (u.m.)
 -deserted (u.m.)
  holding
 #market
  owner
  pen
Slavo (c.f.)
 -Hungarian, etc.
sledge
 #hammer
 -hammered (u.m.)
  meter
sleep
 -filled (u.m.)
  talker
  walker
sleepy
 -eyed (u.m.)
  head
 -looking (u.m.)
sleetstorm
sleeveband
sleuthhound
slide
  film
  knot
 #rule
sling
  ball
  shot
slip
  along (u.m.)
  band
  case
  cover
  knot
 #law
 -on (n., u.m.)
 #proof
    (printing)
  proof
  ring
  sheet
  shod
  sole
  step
  stitch
  stream
 -up (n., u.m.)
  washer
slit
 -eyed (u.m.)
  shell
 #skirt
slop
 -molded (u.m.)
  seller
slopeways
slow
  belly
  down (n., u.m.)
 -footed (u.m.)
  going
 -motion (u.m.)
  mouthed
  poke
 #time
  up (n., u.m.)
 -witted (u.m.)
sluice
  box
 #gate
slum
  dweller
  gullion
  gum
  lord
slumber-bound (u.m.)
small
 #arms
 #businessman
  pox
 -scale (u.m.)
  sword
  talk
  town (u.m.)
smart
 #aleck
 -alecky (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 #set
 -tongued (u.m.)
smashup (n., u.m.)
smearcase
smoke
 -blinded (u.m.)
  bomb
  chaser
 -dried (u.m.)
 -dry (v.)
 -dyed (u.m.)
 -filled (u.m.)
  house
  jack
  jumper
 -laden (u.m.)
  pot
  screen
  stack
smoking#room
smooth
  bore
 -browed (u.m.)
 -cast (u.m.)
  mouthed
 -tongued (u.m.)
 -working (u.m.)
snackbar
snail
 -paced (u.m.)
 -slow (u.m.)
snail's#pace
snake
  bite
 -bitten (u.m.)
 -eater
 -eyed (u.m.)
  head
  hole
  pit
snap
  dragon
  head
  hook
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n.)
  ring
  roll
  shooter
  shot
 -up (u.m.)
snapper
 -back
 -up
snipe
  bill
 #eel
 -nosed (u.m.)
sniperscope
snooperscope
snow
  ball
  bank
  berg
  blind
 #blindness
  blink
  block
 -blocked (u.m.)
  blower
  break
  capped
 -choked (u.m.)
  clad (u.m.)
 #cover
 -covered (u.m.)
  drift
  fall
  field
  flake
  line
  melt
 -melting (u.m.)
  mobile
  pack
  pit
  plow
  scape
  shade
  shed
  shine
  shoe
  sled
  slide
  slip
  storm
  suit
 -topped (u.m.)
 #water
 -white (u.m.)
snuffbox
so
 -and-so
  beit (n., conj.)
 -called (u.m.)
 -seeming (u.m.)
 -so
soap
  box
  bubble
  dish
  flakes
 #opera
  rock
  stock
  suds
sob
 #sister
 #story
sober
 -minded (u.m.)
  sides
social
 #work
 #worker
socio (c.f.)
 -official
  economic, etc.
sod
  buster
  culture
 #house
soda
  jerk
 #pop
 #water
sofa
 #bed
 #maker
 -making (u.m.)
 -ridden (u.m.)
soft
  ball
 -boiled (u.m.)

[[Page 115]]


 #coal
 #copy
 #drink
 #goods
  head
 -pedal (v.)
 -shelled (u.m.)
 -soap (nonliteral) (v.)
 -soaper (nonliteral) (n.)
 -spoken (u.m.)
  tack
  ware
  wood
sole
  cutter
  plate
somato (c.f.)
  all one word
some
  day
  how
  one (anyone)
 #one (distributive)
  place (adv.)
  time (adv., u.m.)
 #time (some time ago)
  what
son-in-law
song
  bird
  fest
  writer
sonobuoy
sooth
  fast
  sayer
sore
 -eyed (u.m.)
  foot (n.)
  footed (u.m.)
  head (n., u.m.)
sorry-looking (u.m.)
soul
 -deep (u.m.)
  mate
 -searching (u.m.)
  sick
sound
 -absorbing (u.m.)
 #field
  film
 -minded (u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  track
 #wave
soup
  bone
 #bowl
 #kitchen
 #plate
  spoon
sour
  belly
  bread
  dough (n.)
  faced
 -natured (u.m.)
 -sweet
source
  book
 #file
south
 -born (u.m.)
  bound
 -central (u.m.)
  east
  going
  lander
  paw
 #side
 -sider
 -southeast
  west
soybean
sow
  back
  belly
space
  bar
  craft
 -cramped
    (u.m.)
 #key
  mark
  ship
 #time
spade
 -dug (u.m.)
  foot
 -footed (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
Spanish
 -American
 -born (u.m.)
 -speaking (u.m.)
spare
 -bodied (u.m.)
  rib
 #room
spark
 #plug (literal)
  plug (nonliteral)
speakeasy (n.)
spear
  cast
  head
 -high (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
spectro (c.f.)
  all one word
speech
 -bereft (u.m.)
 -read (v.)
speed
  boating
  letter
  trap
  up (n., u.m.)
spell
  binding
  check
  down (n., u.m.)
 -free (u.m.)
spend
 -all (n.)
  thrift
spermato (c.f.)
  all one word
spermo (c.f.)
  all one word
spheno (c.f.)
 -occipital
  rest one word
sphygmo (c.f.)
  all one word
spice
 -burnt (u.m.)
  cake
 -laden (u.m.)
spider
 #crab
 -legged
 -spun (u.m.)
 #web (n.)
  web (u.m., v.)
spike
  horn
 -kill (v.)
 -pitch (v.)
spill
  over (n., u.m.)
  way
spin
  back
 #doctor (slang)
  off
spindle
 -formed (u.m.)
  head
 -legged (u.m.)
  legs
  shanks
spine
  bone
 -broken (u.m.)
 -pointed (u.m.)
spino (c.f.)
 -olivary
  rest one word
spirit
 -born (u.m.)
 -broken (u.m.)
 #writing
spit
  ball
  fire
  stick
splanchno (c.f.)
  all one word
splay
  footed
  mouthed
spleen
 -born (u.m.)
  sick
 -swollen (u.m.)
spleno (c.f.)
  all one word
split
  finger (crustacean)
  fruit
  mouth
  saw
 #second
 -tongued (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
spoilsport
spondylo (c.f.)
  all one word
sponge
 #bath
  cake
  diver
 -diving (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
spongio (c.f.)
  all one word
spoolwinder
spoon
 -beaked (u.m.)
 -billed (u.m.)
  bread
 -fed (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
  ways
sporeformer
sporo (c.f.)
  all one word
sports
 #editor
  person
  wear
  writer
spot
 #check
 -checked (u.m.)
 -face (v.)
  light
  weld (v.)
  welded (u.m.)
 -welding (u.m.)
spray-washed (u.m.)
spread
 -eagle (u.m., v.)
  head
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
 -set (v.)
spring
  back
  (bookbinding)
  bok
 -born (u.m.)
  buck
 -clean (v.)
 #fever
  finger
 -grown (u.m.)
  halt
  head
 -plow (v.)
 -plowed (u.m.)
  tide (season)
  time
  trap
spritsail
spur
 -clad (u.m.)
 -driven (u.m.)
  gall
 -galled (u.m.)
 -heeled (u.m.)
spy
  glass
  hole
  tower
square
 -bottomed (u.m.)
 -built (u.m.)
 -faced (u.m.)
  flipper
  head
 -headed
 #mile
 -rigged (u.m.)
 #root
 -set (u.m.)
  shooter
squeeze
 -in (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
squirrel-headed (u.m.)
stackup (n., u.m.)
staff
 -herd (v.)
 -hour
  time
stag
 -handled (u.m.)
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
  horn
 -horned (u.m.)
  hound
  hunter
stage
  coach
  hand
 #set
 -struck (u.m.)
stair
  case
  head
  step
 #well
stake
  head
  out (n.)
stale-worn (u.m.)
stall
 -fed (u.m.)
 -feed (v.)
stand
  by (n., u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
  fast (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  offish
  out (n., u.m.)
  pat
  pipe
  point
  post
  still (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
standard
 #bearer
  bred
 #gauge
 #time
staphylo (c.f.)
  all one word
star
  blind
  bright
  dust
  gazer
 -led (u.m.)
  light
  lit
  lite (gem)
  nose (mole)
  shake
  shine
  shoot
 -spangled (u.m.)
  stroke
 -studded (u.m.)
 #time
starchworks
stark
 -blind (u.m.)
 -mad (u.m.)
 -naked (u.m.)
 -raving (u.m.)
starter-off

[[Page 116]]


start-stop
startup (n., u.m.)
stat (pref.)
  all one word
State
 -aided (u.m.)
 #line
 -owned (u.m.)
state
  hood
 -of-the-art (u.m.)
  quake
  room
  side
station#house
stato (c.f.)
  all one word
statute
 -barred (u.m.)
 #book
stay
 -at-home
    (n., u.m.)
  bar
  bolt
  boom
  lace
  log
  pin
  plow
  sail
  wire
steam
  boating
  car
 -cooked (u.m.)
 -driven (u.m.)
  fitter
  pipe
  plant
 -pocket (v.)
  power (n.)
 #powerplant
 -propelled
    (u.m.)
  roll (v.)
  roller (u.m., v.)
  ship
  table
  tightness
steamer#line
steel
 -blue (u.m.)
 -bright (u.m.)
 -cased (u.m.)
  clad
 -framed (u.m.)
 -hard (u.m.)
  head
  plate
  works
steep
 -rising (u.m.)
 -to (u.m.)
 -up (u.m.)
 -walled (u.m.)
steeple
  chase
 -high (u.m.)
  jack
  top
stem
  head
  post
  sickness
  winder
stencil-cutting (u.m.)
steno (c.f.)
  all one word
step
  aunt
  child, etc.
  dance
  down (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  ladder
  off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
 -up (n., u.m.)
stepping
 -off (u.m.)
 -out (u.m.)
  stone
stereo (c.f.)
  all one word
stern
  castle
 -faced (u.m.)
 -heavy (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
  most
  post
 #wheel
 -wheeler
sterno (c.f.)
  all one word
stetho (c.f.)
  all one word
stew
  pan
  pot
stick
 -at-it (n., u.m.)
  fast (n.)
 -in-the-mud
    (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  pin
 -to-it-iveness
    (n.)
  up (n., u.m.)
sticker
 -in
 -on
 -up
stiff
 -backed (u.m.)
  neck
 -necked (u.m.)
still
 -admired (u.m.)
  birth
  born
 -burn (v.)
 -fish (v.)
 -hunt (v.)
 #life
 -recurring
    (u.m.)
  stand
stink
  ball
  bomb
  bug
  damp
  pot
stir
  about (n., u.m.)
  fry
 -up (n., u.m.)
stitch
  down (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
stock
  breeder
  broker
 #car
  feeder
  holding
  jobber
  judging
  list
  pile
  pot
  rack
  raiser
 -still (u.m.)
  taker
  truck
  wright
stoke
  hold
  hole
stomach
 #ache
 -filling (u.m.)
 #pump
 -shaped (u.m.)
 -sick (u.m.)
 -weary (u.m.)
stomato (c.f.)
  all one word
stone
  biter
  blind
  brash
  breaker
  broke
  brood
  cast
 -cold (u.m.)
 #crab
  crusher
  cutter
 -dead (u.m.)
 -deaf (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  head
  layer
  lifter
  mason
  shot
 #wall (n.)
  wall (u.m., v.)
 #writing
stony
 -eyed (u.m.)
 #land
stop
  back (n.)
  block
  clock
  cock
  gap
  hound
  list
  log
 -loss (u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  watch
storage#room
store
  front
  house
storm
 -beaten (u.m.)
  cock
  flow
 -laden (u.m.)
 -swept (u.m.)
 -tossed (u.m.)
 #trooper
  wind
 #window
storyteller
stout
 -armed (u.m.)
  heartedness
 -minded (u.m.)
stove
  brush
 -heated (u.m.)
  pipe
stow
  away (n., u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
straddle
  back
 -face (v.)
 -legged (u.m.)
straight
  away
 -backed (u.m.)
 -cut (u.m.)
  edge
 -edged (u.m.)
 #face
 -faced (u.m.)
  forward
  head
 -legged (u.m.)
 #line
 -lined (u.m.)
 -out (n., u.m.)
 -spoken (u.m.)
 #time
 -up (u.m.)
 -up-and-down (u.m.)
strainslip
strait
 -chested (u.m.)
  jacket
  laced
stranglehold
strap
 -bolt (v.)
  hanger
  head
 -shaped (u.m.)
  watch
strato (c.f.)
  all one word
straw
  berry#field
  boss
 -built (u.m.)
  hat
 -roofed (u.m.)
  splitting
  stack
 -stuffed (u.m.)
 #vote
  walker
 -yellow (u.m.)
stray
  away (n., u.m.)
 #line
  mark
stream
  bank
  bed
  flow
  head
  lined
  side
street
 -bred (u.m.)
  car
  cleaner
 -cleaning (u.m.)
  sweeper
  walker
strepto (c.f.)
  all one word
stretchout
    (n., u.m.)
strike
  breaker
 -in (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
 -over (n., u.m.)
striker
 -in
 -out
 -over
string
  course
  halt
 #proof (density)
  ways
strip
  cropping
 #mine
  tease
strong
 -arm (u.m., v.)
  back (nautical)
 -backed (u.m.)
  box
  hold
 #man (literal)
  man (nonliteral)
 -minded (u.m.)
  point (n.)
stub
  runner
 -toed (u.m.)
  wing
stubble
 #field
 -mulch (u.m.)
stubbornminded
stucco-fronted (u.m.)
stuck
  up (n., u.m.)
 -upper
 -uppish (u.m.)
stud
  bolt
  horse
  mare
stuntman
stupid
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
sturdy-limbed (u.m.)
stylebook
stylo (c.f.)
  all one word
sub (pref.)
 -Himalayan, etc.
  machinegun
 #rosa, #specie, etc.
 -subcommittee

[[Page 117]]


  polar, standard, etc.
  rest one word
subject
 -object
 -objectivity
subter (pref.)
  all one word
such-and-such
suck
 -egg (n., u.m.)
  hole
 -in (n., u.m.)
sugar
 #beet
 #bowl
  cake
  cane
 -coat (v.)
 -coated (u.m.)
 -cured (u.m.)
  loaf
  plum
  spoon
  sweet
 #water
  works
sulfa (c.f.)
  all one word
sulfo (c.f.)
  all one word
sulfon (c.f.)
  all one word
sullen
  hearted
 -natured (u.m.)
summer
 -clad (u.m.)
 -dried (u.m.)
 -fallow (v.)
 -made (u.m.)
  tide
  time (season)
 #time (daylight saving)
sun
 -baked (u.m.)
  bath
 -bathed (u.m.)
  beam
  blind
 #blindness
  bonnet
  bow
  break
  burn
  burst
 -cured (u.m.)
  dial
  dog
  down
  dress
 -dried (u.m.)
 -dry (v.)
  fall
  fast
  glade
  glare
  glass
  glow
 #hat
  lamp
  lit
  quake
  ray
  rise
  scald
  set
  shade
  shine
 -shot (u.m.)
  shower
  spot
  stricken
  stroke
  struck
  tan
 #time (measure)
  time (dawn)
  up
sunny
 -looking (u.m.)
 -natured (u.m.)
super (pref.)
 -Christian, etc.
 #high frequency
 -superlative
  highway, market, etc.
  rest one word
Super Bowl
supra (pref.)
 -abdominal
 -acromial
 -aerial
  anal
 -angular
 -arytenoid
 -auditory
 -auricular
 -axillary
 -Christian, etc.
  rest one word
sur (pref.)
  all one word
sure
 -fire (u.m.)
 -footed (u.m.)
 -slow
surf
 -battered (u.m.)
  board
 #fish
 -swept (u.m.)
swallow
  pipe
 -tailed (u.m.)
swampside
swan
 -bosomed (u.m.)
  dive
  herd
  mark
  neck
  song
swansdown
swash
  buckler
  plate
sway
  back (n., u.m.)
 -backed (u.m.)
  bar
 -brace (v.)
swearer-in
sweat
  band
 #gland
 #shirt
  shop
sweep
  back (aviation) (n., u.m.)
  forward (aviation)
    (n., u.m.)
  stake
  through
    (n., u.m.)
  washer
sweet
  bread
 -breathed (u.m.)
  brier
  faced
  heart
  meat
  mouthed
 -pickle (v.)
 -sour
 -sweet
swell
 -butted (u.m.)
  head
  toad
swelled-headed (u.m.)
swept
  back (n., u.m.)
  forward
    (n., u.m.)
  wing (n., u.m.)
swift
  foot
 -footed (u.m.)
 -handed (u.m.)
 -running (u.m.)
swill
  bowl
  tub
swimsuit
swine
 -backed (u.m.)
  bread
  head
  herd
  pox
  sty
swing
  back (n., u.m.)
  bar
  dingle
 #gate
 #shift
  stock
 -swang
  tree
swingle
  bar
  tree
switch
  back
  blade
  box
  gear
  plate
  plug
  rail
  tender
swivel
 #chair
  eye
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -hooked (u.m.)
sword
 -armed (u.m.)
  bearer
 #belt
  bill
  fishing
  play
 -shaped (u.m.)
  stick
syn (pref.)
  all one word
synchro
  cyclotron
  flash
  mesh
  tron
Syro (c.f.)
 -Arabian, etc.
  phenician

                                  - T -

T
 -ball
 -bandage
 -beam
 -boat
 -bone
 -cloth
 -iron
 -man
 -rail
 -scale (score)
 -shape
 -shaped
 -shirt
 -square
table
  cloth
 -cut (u.m.)
  cutter
 -cutting (u.m.)
 -formed (u.m.)
 #linen
 -shaped (u.m.)
  spoon
  talk
  top
  ware
tachy (c.f.)
  all one word
tag
 -affixing (u.m.)
  lock
  rag
  sore
tail
  band
 #coat
 -cropped (u.m.)
 #end
 -ender
  first
  foremost
  gate
  head
 -heavy (u.m.)
  hook
  lamp
  pin
  pipe
  race
  spin
  stock
 -tied (u.m.)
  twister
 -up (n., u.m.)
  wheel
  wind
tailor
 -cut (u.m.)
  made (u.m.)
 -suited (u.m.)
take
 -all (n.)
  down (n., u.m.)
 -home (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
taker
 -down
 -in
 -off
 -over
 -up
tale
  bearer
  carrier
  teller
talkfest
talking-to (n.)
tall
  boy (n.)
 -built (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
tallow
 -faced (u.m.)
 -pale (u.m.)
tally
 #board
 #clerk
  ho
 #room
 #sheet
tame
 -grown (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
tan
  bark
  works
tangent
 -cut (v.)
 -saw (v.)
tangle
  foot
 -haired (u.m.)
tank
 #car
  farm
  ship
  town
tap
  bolt
  dance
  hole
  net
  off (n., u.m.)
 -riveted (u.m.)
  room
  root
 -tap
  water
tape
 #deck
 #drive

[[Page 118]]


 #measure
  string
 -tied (u.m.)
taper
  bearer
 -fashion (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
tapestry
 -covered (u.m.)
 #maker
 -making (u.m.)
 #work
tapper-out
tar
 -brand (v.)
  brush
 -coal (u.m.)
 -dipped (u.m.)
 #paper
 -paved (u.m.)
  pot
 -roofed (u.m.)
  works
tariff-protected
    (u.m.)
tarpaulin
 -covered (u.m.)
 #maker
 -making (u.m.)
tarso (c.f.)
  all one word
task
 #force
  setter
tattletale
tauro (c.f.)
  all one word
tax
 -burdened (u.m.)
 #collector
  eater
 -exempt (u.m.)
 -free (u.m.)
  gatherer
 -laden (u.m.)
  paid
  payer
 #roll
 -supported (u.m.)
taxi
  auto
  bus
  cab
  meter
  stand
tea
  ball
  cake
  cart
 -colored (u.m.)
  cup
  dish
  kettle
 #party
  pot
  room
 -scented (u.m.)
  spoon
  taster
teamplay
tear
  bomb
 -dimmed (u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
  drop
 #gas
 -off (n., u.m.)
 -out (n., u.m.)
  pit
  sheet
  stain
 -stained (u.m.)
teen
  age (u.m.)
  ager
teeter-totter
tele (c.f.)
  all one word
teleo (c.f.)
  all one word
tell
  tale
  truth
telo (c.f.)
  all one word
tempest-rocked (u.m.)
temporo (c.f.)
 -occipital
  rest one word
ten
  fold
  penny (nail)
  pins
tender
 #boat
 -faced (u.m.)
  foot
 -footed (u.m.)
  footish
 -handed (u.m.)
  heart
  loin
 -looking (u.m.)
tenement#house
tent
 -dotted (u.m.)
  pole
 -sheltered (u.m.)
 #show
terra
 #cotta
 #firma
  mara
terrace-fashion (u.m.)
test-fly (v.)
tetra (c.f.)
  all one word
thanksgiving
thatch-roofed (u.m.)
text
 -based
 #file
 #mode
theater
  goer
  going
thenceforth
theo (c.f.)
  all one word
theologico (c.f.)
  all one word
there
  about(s)
  above
  across
  after
  against
  among
  around
  at
  away
  before
  between
  by
  for
  fore
  from
  in
  inafter
  inbefore
  into
  on
  over
  through
  tofore
  under
  until
  unto
  upon
  with
thermo (c.f.)
  all one word
thick
 -blooded (u.m.)
  head
 -looking (u.m.)
  pated
  set (n., u.m.)
  skinned
  skull (n.)
  skulled
 -tongued (u.m.)
  wit
 -witted (u.m.)
 -wooded (u.m.)
 -woven (u.m.)
thin
 -clad (u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
  set (u.m.)
 -voiced (u.m.)
thio (c.f.)
  all one word
third
 -class (u.m.)
 -degree (u.m.)
  hand
    (adv., u.m.)
 #house
 -rate (u.m.)
 -rater
thistledown
thoraco (c.f.)
  all one word
thorn
  back
  bill
 -covered (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
 -strewn (u.m.)
  tail
thorough
 -bind (v.)
  bred
 -dried (u.m.)
  fare
  going
 -made (u.m.)
  paced
  pin
thought
 -free (u.m.)
 -out (u.m.)
 -provoking
    (u.m.)
thousand
  fold
 -headed (u.m.)
 -legged (u.m.)
  legs (worm)
thrall
  born
  dom
 -less
thread
  bare
 -leaved (u.m.)
  worn
three
 -bagger
 -cornered (u.m.)
 -dimensional (u.m.)
  fold
 -in-hand
 -master
  penny (nail)
 -piece (u.m.)
 -ply (u.m.)
  score
  some
 -spot
 -square
 -striper
throat
  band
  cutter
  latch
  strap
thrombo (c.f.)
  all one word
through
  out
  put
 #road
  way
throw
  away (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
 #line
  off (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
 -weight
thrust-pound
thumb
 #hole
 -made (u.m.)
  mark
 -marked (u.m.)
  nail
  print
  screw
  stall
  string
  sucker
  tack
  worn
thunder
  bearer
  blast
  bolt
  clap
  cloud
  head
  peal
  shower
  storm
  struck
thymo (c.f.)
  all one word
thyro (c.f.)
  all one word
tibio (c.f.)
  all one word
tick
 #feed
  seed
  tacktoe
  tick
  tock
ticket
 #seller
 -selling (u.m.)
 #writer
tidal#wave
tiddlywink
tide
  flat
  head
  mark
 -marked (u.m.)
  race
  table
 -tossed (u.m.)
  waiter
 -worn (u.m.)
tie
  back (n.)
 #bar
 #beam
  down (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
 -out (n., u.m.)
  pin
 -plater
 #rod
 #tack
  up (n., u.m.)
tierlift (truck)
tiger
  eye
 #lily
 #shark
 -striped (u.m.)
tight
 -belted (u.m.)
  fisted
 -fitting (u.m.)
  lipped
  rope
 -set (u.m.)
 -tie (v.)
  wad
  wire
tile
 -clad (u.m.)
 #drain
 -red (u.m.)
  setter
  works
  wright
tilt
  hammer
  up (n.)
timber
 -built (u.m.)
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
  jack
  line
 -propped (u.m.)
 #wolf
  wright

[[Page 119]]


time
  bomb
  born
  card
  clerk
  clock
 -consuming (u.m.)
  frame
 -honored (u.m.)
  keeper
  killer
  lag
  lock
  outs (n., u.m.)
  piece
  pleaser
  saver
  server
  sheet
  slip
  slot
  span
 -stamp (v.)
  study
  table
  taker
  waster
  worn
tin
 -bearing (u.m.)
 #can
 -capped (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
  cup
 #fish
    (torpedo)
  foil
  horn
  kettle
 -lined (u.m.)
  man
  pan
  plate
 -plated (u.m.)
  pot
 -roofed (u.m.)
  type
 -white (u.m.)
tinsel
 -bright (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
 #town
tintblock (printing)
tip
  burn
  cart
 -curled (u.m.)
  head
 -in (n., u.m.)
  most
  off (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
  staff
  stock
  tank
 -tap
  toe
  top
 -up (u.m.)
tire
  changer
  dresser
  fitter
 #gauge
 #iron
 -mile
 #rack
  shaper
  some
tit
  bit
 #for#tat
  mouse
titano (c.f.)
  all one word
tithe
  book
 -free (u.m.)
  payer
  right
title
  holder
 -holding (u.m.)
 #page
  winner
 -winning (u.m.)
to
 -and-fro
 -do (n.)
 #wit
toad
  back
 -bellied (u.m.)
  blind
  fish
 -green (u.m.)
  stool
tobacco
 #grower
 -growing (u.m.)
 #shop
toe
  cap
 #dance
  hold
 -in (n., u.m.)
 -mark (v.)
  nail
  plate
  print
toil
 -beaten (u.m.)
  some
 -stained (u.m.)
 -weary (u.m.)
  worn
toilet#room
toll
  bar
 #bridge
 #call
  gate
  gatherer
  house
 #line
  payer
  taker
tom
  boy
  cat
  foolery
 -tom
tommy
  gun
  rot
ton
 -hour
 -kilometer
 -mile
 -mileage
 -mile-day
tone
 -deaf (u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
 -producing (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
tongue
 -baited (u.m.)
 -bound (u.m.)
 -free (u.m.)
 -lash (v.)
 #lashing
  play
 -shaped (u.m.)
  shot
  sore
  tack
  tied
  tip
 #twister
 -twisting (u.m.)
tool
  bag
 #belt
  box
  builder
 #chest
  crib
  dresser
  fitter
 #grinder
 -grinding (u.m.)
  head
  holding
  kit
  mark
  plate
  post
  rack
  setter
  shed
  slide
  stock
tooth
  ache
 #and#nail
 -billed (u.m.)
  brush
  drawer
  mark
 -marked (u.m.)
  paste
  pick
  plate
  powder
  puller
 -pulling (u.m.)
 -set (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
  some
  wash
top
 #brass
  cap (n.)
  coat
  cutter
 #dog
 -drain (v.)
 #drawer
  dress (v.)
  flight (u.m.)
  full
  gallant
    (n., u.m.)
 -graft (v.)
  hat
 -hatted (u.m.)
  heavy
  kick
  knot
  liner
  mark
  mast
  milk
  most
  notch (nonliteral)
  rail
  rope
  sail
 -secret (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
  side (naut.)
  soil
topo (c.f.)
  all one word
topsy-turvy
torch
  bearer
 #holder
  lighted
  lit
torpedo
 #boat
 #room
torquemeter
toss
  pot
  up (n., u.m.)
touch
 #and#go
  back (n., u.m.)
  down (n., u.m.)
  hole
 -me-not (n., u.m.)
  pan
  reader
  stone
  up (n., u.m.)
tough
 -headed (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -skinned (u.m.)
tow
  away
  boat
  head
  line
  mast
 #net
 -netter
  path
  rope
 #truck
tower
 -high (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
town
 -bred (u.m.)
 #clerk
 #crier
 -dotted (u.m.)
  folk
  gate
  going
  hall
  lot
  ship
  side
  site
  talk
 -weary (u.m.)
towns
  fellow
  people
toy
 #dog
 -sized (u.m.)
  town
tracheo (c.f.)
  all one word
trachy (c.f.)
  all one word
track
  barrow
  hound
  layer
  mark
 -mile
  side
  walker
tractor-trailer
trade
 #board
 -in (n., u.m.)
 -laden (u.m.)
 -made (u.m.)
  mark
 #name
  off
 #union
 #wind
tradespeople
traffic-mile
tragico (c.f.)
  all one word
trail
  blazer
  breaker
 -marked (u.m.)
  side
  sight
 -weary (u.m.)
train
  bearer
  bolt
  crew
  line
 -mile
  shed
  sick
  stop
tram
 -borne (u.m.)
  car
  rail
  road
  way
trans (pref.)
  alpine
  atlantic
 -Canadian, etc.
  pacific
  uranic
  rest one word
transit#time
trap
  door
  fall
  shoot
trashrack
travel
 -bent (u.m.)
  time
 -tired (u.m.)
 -worn (u.m.)
trawlnet

[[Page 120]]


tread
  mill
  wheel
treasure
 -filled (u.m.)
 #house
 -laden (u.m.)
treaty
  breaker
 -sealed (u.m.)
tree
 #belt
 -clad (u.m.)
 #line
 -lined (u.m.)
  nail
 -ripe (u.m.)
  scape
  top
 #trunk
trellis-covered (u.m.)
trench
  back
  coat
  foot
 #knife
  mouth
 #plow
 -plowed (u.m.)
tri (c.f.)
 -iodide
 -ply (u.m.)
  state, etc.
  rest one word
tribespeople
tribo (c.f.)
  all one word
tricho (c.f.)
  all one word
trim
 -cut (u.m.)
 -dressed (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
trinitro (c.f.)
  all one word
trip
 -free (u.m.)
  hammer
  wire
triple
 -acting (u.m.)
  back (sofa)
  branched (u.m.)
 -edged (u.m.)
  fold
 #play
 -tailed (u.m.)
  tree (n.)
trolley#line
troop
  ship
 #train
tropho (c.f.)
  all one word
tropo (c.f.)
  all one word
trouble
 -free (u.m.)
 -haunted (u.m.)
  maker
  shooter
  some
truce
  breaker
 -seeking (u.m.)
truck
  driver
 #farm
 -mile
  stop
true
 -aimed (u.m.)
 -blue (u.m.)
  born
  bred
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -false
  love (n., u.m.)
  penny (n.)
 #time
trunk
  back
  nose
trust
  breaking
  buster
 -controlled (u.m.)
 -ridden (u.m.)
  worthy
truth
 -filled (u.m.)
  lover
  seeker
 -seeking (u.m.)
  teller
try
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  square
  works
tube
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -fed (u.m.)
  form (u.m.)
  head
 -nosed (u.m.)
  works
tuberculo (c.f.)
  all one word
tubo (c.f.)
 -ovarian
  rest one word
tug
  boat
 #of#war
tumbledown
    (n., u.m.)
tune
  out (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
tunnel
 -boring (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
  vision
turbo (c.f.)
 -ramjet (u.m.)
  rest one word
turf
 -built (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
 #war
turkey
  back
 #buzzard
 #gobbler
 #trot
Turko (c.f.)
 -Greek, etc.
  rest one word
turn
  about (n., u.m.)
  about-face
  again (n., u.m.)
  around
    (n., u.m.)
  back (n., u.m.)
  buckle
  cap
  coat
  cock
  down (n., u.m.)
  gate
 -in (n., u.m.)
  key
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
  pike
  pin
  plate
  round (n., u.m.)
  screw
  sheet
  sole
  spit
  stile
  stitch
  table
  tail
 -to (n.)
  under
    (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
turned
 -back (u.m.)
 -down (u.m.)
 -in (u.m.)
 -on (u.m.)
 -out (u.m.)
 -over (u.m.)
turner-off
turtle
  back
  dove
 -footed (u.m.)
  neck (u.m.)
 #shell
twelve
  fold
  penny (nail)
  score
twenty
 -first
  fold
 -one
  penny (nail)
twice
 -born (u.m.)
 -reviewed (u.m.)
 -told (u.m.)
twin
 #boat
  born
 -engined (u.m.)
  fold
 -jet (u.m.)
 -motor (u.m.)
 -screw (u.m.)
two
 -a-day (u.m.)
 -along (n.)
  (book-binding)
 -decker
 -faced (u.m.)
  fold
 -handed (u.m.)
  penny (nail)
 -piece (u.m.)
 -ply (u.m.)
  score
 -seater
  some
 -spot
 -step (dance)
 -striper
 -suiter
 -thirder
 -up (n., u.m.)
 -way (u.m.)
 -wheeler
tympano (c.f.)
  all one word
type
  case
  cast
  cutter
  face
  foundry
  script
  set
  write (v.)
typho (c.f.)
  all one word
typo (c.f.)
  all one word
tyro (c.f.)
  all one word

                                  - U -

U
 -boat
 -cut
 -magnet
 -rail
 -shaped
 -tube
ultra (pref.)
 -ambitious,
    -atomic, etc.
 -English, etc.
  high#frequency
 -high-speed (u.m.)
 #valorem, etc.
  rest one word
un (pref.)
 -American, etc.
  called-for (u.m.)
  heard-of (u.m.)
 -ionized (u.m.)
  self-conscious
  sent-for (u.m.)
  thought-of (u.m.)
  rest one word
under
  age (deficit)
  age (younger) (n., u.m.)
 #cultivation (tillage)
  cultivation (insufficient)
 #secretary
 -secretaryship
  way
  as prefix, one word
uni (c.f.)
 -univalent
  rest one word
union
 -made (u.m.)
 #shop
unit-set (u.m.)
up
 -anchor (u.m., v.)
 -and-coming (u.m.)
 #and#up
  beat
  coast
  country
  dip
  end (v.)
  front (n., u.m.)
  grade
  gradient
  keep
  lift
  load
 -over (u.m.)
  rate
  river
  stairs
  state
  stream
  swing
  take
  tight (n., u.m.)
 #tight (v.)
 -to-date (u.m.)
 #to#date
  town
  trend
  turn
  wind
upper
  case (printing)
 #class
  classman
  crust (n., u.m.)
  cut
 #deck
  most
urano (c.f.)
  all one word
uretero (c.f.)
  all one word
urethro (c.f.)
  all one word
uro (c.f.)
  all one word
used-car (u.m.)
user
 #default
 -defined
 -friendly
 #group
 #interface
utero (c.f.)
  all one word

[[Page 121]]



                                  - V -

V
 -connection
 -curve
 -engine
 -neck
 -shaped
 -type
vacant
 -eyed (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
vagino (c.f.)
  all one word
vainglorious
valve
 -grinding (u.m.)
 -in-head (u.m.)
van
  driver
  guard
  most
  pool
vapor
 -filled (u.m.)
 -heating (u.m.)
  #lock
vase-shaped
    (u.m.)
vaso (c.f.)
  all one word
vegeto (c.f.)
  all one word
vein
 -mining (u.m.)
 -streaked (u.m.)
vellum
 -bound (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
velvet
 -crimson (u.m.)
 -draped (u.m.)
 -green (u.m.)
 -pile (u.m.)
venthole
ventri (c.f.)
  all one word
ventro (c.f.)
  all one word
vertebro (c.f.)
  all one word
vesico (c.f.)
  all one word
vibro (c.f.)
  all one word
vice
 #admiral
 -admiralty
 #consul
 -consulate
 #governor
 -governorship
 #minister
 -ministry
 -presidency
 #president
 -president-elect
 -presidential
 #rector
 -rectorship
  regal
 -regency
 #regent
  royal
 #versa
 #warden
videotape
Vietcong
view
  finder
  point
vile-natured
    (u.m.)
vine
 -clad (u.m.)
 -covered (u.m.)
  dresser
  growing
  stalk
vinegar
 -flavored (u.m.)
 -hearted (u.m.)
 -making (u.m.)
 -tart (u.m.)
violet
 -blue (u.m.)`
 -colored (u.m.)
 -eared (u.m.)
 #ray
 -rayed (u.m.)
 #water
violin-shaped (u.m.)
vis-a-vis
viscero (c.f.)
  all one word
vitreo (c.f.)
  all one word
vitro (c.f.)
 -clarain
 -di-trina
  rest one word
  
vivi (c.f.)
  all one word
voice
 -capable
  #mail
  over (n.)
volleyball
volt
  ammeter
 -ampere
 -coulomb
  meter
  ohmmeter
 -second
volta (c.f.)
  all one word
vote
 -casting (u.m.)
  getter
 -getting (u.m.)
vow
 -bound (u.m.)
  breaker
 -pledged (u.m.)
vulvo (c.f.)
  all one word

                                  - W -

W
 -engine
 -shaped
 -surface
 -type
wage
 #earner
 -earning (u.m.)
 #scale
  worker
waist
  band
  belt
  cloth
  coat
 -deep (u.m.)
 -high (u.m.)
  line
waiting
 #list
 #man
 #room
 #woman
walk
  around
    (n., u.m.)
  away (n., u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  over (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
  way
walkie-talkie
wall
  board
  eyed
  flower
 -like
 -painting (u.m.)
  paper
  plate
 -sided (u.m.)
walled
 -in (u.m.)
 -up (u.m.)
war
 #dance
 -disabled (u.m.)
 -famed (u.m.)
  fare
  head
  horse (nonliteral)
  like
 -made (u.m.)
  path
  plane
  ship
 -swept (u.m.)
 #time (clock)
  time (duration)
ward
  heeler
  robe
  ship
warm
  blooded
 -clad (u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
warmed-over (u.m.)
warpsetter
wash
  basin
  basket
  board
  bowl
  cloth
 -colored (u.m.)
  day
  down (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
  out (n., u.m.)
  pot
  rag
 #sale
  stand
  tray
  trough
  tub
  up (n., u.m.)
washed
 -out (u.m.)
 -up (u.m.)
waste
  basket
  land
  leaf
  (book-
  binding)
  paper
  site
  word
watch
  band
  case
 #chain
  cry
  dog
 -free (u.m.)
  glass
  tower
  word
water
  bag
  bank
  bearer
 -bearing (u.m.)
 -beaten (u.m.)
 -bind (v.)
 #blister
  bloom
  buck
  color
 -colored (u.m.)
 -cool (v.)
 -cooled (u.m.)
 #cooler
  course
  craft
  dog
 -drinking (u.m.)
  drop
  fall
 -filled (u.m.)
  finder
  flood
  flow
  fog
 -free (u.m.)
  front
  gate
  head
  hole
  horse
 -inch
 -laden (u.m.)
  lane
  leaf
 #line
 -lined (u.m.)
  locked
  log
 #main
  mark
  melon
  meter
  plant
  pot
  power
  proofing
  quake
 -rot (v.)
  scape
  shed
  shoot
  side
 -soak (v.)
 -soaked (u.m.)
 -soluble (u.m.)
  spout
  stain
 #table
  tight
  wall
  works
  worn
watt
 -hour
  meter
 -second
wave
 -cut (u.m.)
  form
  guide
 -lashed (u.m.)
  length
  mark
  meter
 -moist (u.m.)
 -on (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
 -swept (u.m.)
 -worn (u.m.)
wax
  bill
 -billed (u.m.)
  chandler
  cloth
 -coated (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
 #paper
 #stone
 -yellow (u.m.)
way
  back (n., u.m.)
  beam
  bill
  down (n., u.m.)
  farer
  fellow
  going
  laid
  lay
  mark
  post
  side

[[Page 122]]


 -sore (u.m.)
 -up (n., u.m.)
  worn
weak
 -backed (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  handed
 -kneed (u.m.)
  minded
  mouthed
weather
  beaten
  blown
 -borne (u.m.)
  break
  cock
  glass
  going
 -hardened (u.m.)
 #house
 -marked (u.m.)
  most
  proofing
 -stain (v.)
  strip
 -stripped (u.m.)
  worn
web
 -fingered (u.m.)
  foot
 -footed (u.m.)
  master
 #press
Web#site
wedge
 -billed (u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
weed
 -choked (u.m.)
 -hidden (u.m.)
  hook
  killer
week
  day
  end
 -ender
 -ending (u.m.)
  long (u.m.)
 -old (u.m.)
weigh
  bridge
 -in (n., u.m.)
  lock
  out (n., u.m.)
  shaft
well
 -being (n.)
 -beloved (u.m.)
 -born (u.m.)
 -bound (u.m.)
 -bred (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -deserving (u.m.)
 -doer
 -doing (n., u.m.)
 -drained (u.m.)
 -drilling (u.m.)
 #field
 -grown (u.m.)
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
  hole
 -informed (u.m.)
 -known (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -meaner
 -nigh (u.m.)
 -off (u.m.)
 -read (u.m.)
 -set-up (u.m.)
 -settled (u.m.)
  side
 -spoken (u.m.)
  spring
  stead
 -thought-of (u.m.)
 -thought-out (u.m.)
 -to-do (u.m.)
 -wisher
 -wishing (u.m.)
 -worn (u.m.)
welterweight
werewolf
west
  bound
 -central (u.m.)
 #end
 -faced (u.m.)
  going
  most
 -northwest
 #side
 -sider
wet
 #bar
 -cheeked (u.m.)
 -clean (v.)
  land
 -nurse (v.)
  pack
  wash
whale
  back
 -backed (u.m.)
  bone
 -built (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
 -mouthed (u.m.)
  ship
wharf
 #boat
  hand
  head
  side
what
  abouts (n.)
  ever
 -is-it (n.)
  not (n.)
  soever
 -you-may-call-it (n.)
wheat
  cake
 -colored (u.m.)
  ear
 -fed (u.m.)
  field
  grower
 -rich (u.m.)
  stalk
wheel
  band
  barrow
  base
  chair
 -cut (u.m.)
  going
  horse (nonliteral)
 #load
 -made (u.m.)
  plate
  race
  spin
  stitch
 -worn (u.m.)
  wright
when
  ever
 -issued (u.m.)
  soever
where
  abouts
  after
  as
  at
  by
  for
  fore
  from
  in
  insoever
  into
  of
  on
  over
  soever
  through
  to
  under
  upon
  with
  withal
wherever
which
  ever
  soever
whiffletree
whip
  cord
  crack
 -graft (v.)
 #hand
  lash
 -marked (u.m.)
  post
  saw
 -shaped (u.m.)
  socket
  staff
  stalk
  stall
  stick
  stitch
  stock
 -tailed (u.m.)
whipper
 -in
  snapper
whirl
  about (n., u.m.)
  blast
  pool
 -shaped (u.m.)
  wind
whirlybird
whisk
  broom
 #tail
whistle
  blower (nonliteral)
 #blower (literal)
  stop
white
  back
  beard (n.)
 #book (diplomatic)
  cap (n.)
  coat (n.)
 -collar (u.m.)
  comb (n.)
  corn
 -eared (u.m.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  face
 -faced (u.m.)
  foot (n.)
 -footed (u.m.)
  handed
 -hard (u.m.)
  head
 -headed (u.m.)
 -hot (u.m.)
 #line
  out (u.m., v.)
  pot
  tail
 -tailed (u.m.)
 -throated (u.m.)
  top (n.)
  vein
  wash
who
  ever
  soever
whole
 -headed (u.m.)
 #hog
 -hogger
  sale
  some
whomsoever
whooping#cough
wicker-woven (u.m.)
wicket
  keeper
  keeping
wide
 -angle (u.m.)
 -awake (u.m.)
 -handed (u.m.)
  mouthed
 -open (u.m.)
  spread
 -spreading (u.m.)
widow
 #bird
  hood
wife
  beater
  hood
  killer
 -ridden (u.m.)
wigwag
wild
  cat (n.)
 -eyed (u.m.)
  fire
 #land
  life
 #man
  wind
will
 -less
 -o'-the-wisp
  power
wilt-resistant
    (u.m.)
wind (v.)
  down (n., u.m.)
  up (n., u.m.)
  bag
  ball
  blown
  brace
  breaker
  burn
  catcher
 -chapped (u.m.)
  chill
  fall
  fast
 -fertilized (u.m.)
  firm
  flow
 #force
  gall
 -galled (u.m.)
 #gauge
  hole
 -hungry (u.m.)
  jammer
  lass
  mill
  pipe
 -pollinated (u.m.)
 -rode (u.m.)
  row
  screen
 -shaken (u.m.)
 -shear (u.m.)
  shield
  shock
  side
  sleeve
  sock
  speed
  stop
  storm
  stream
  swept
 #tunnel
  worn
window
  breaker
 -breaking (u.m.)
 #cleaner
 -cleaning (u.m.)
 #dresser
 -dressing (u.m.)
  pane
  peeper
 #shade
 -shop (v.)
 -shopping (u.m.)
  sill
 #work
wine
  bag
 -black (u.m.)
 -drinking (u.m.)
  glass
  growing
 -hardy (u.m.)
  pot
 #press
 -red (u.m.)
  seller
  taster
  tester
  vat
wing
  band
  bar

[[Page 123]]


  beat
  bolt
  bone
  borne
  bow
  cut
 #flap
 -footed (u.m.)
  handed
 -heavy (u.m.)
 -loading (u.m.)
 -loose (u.m.)
  nut
  over (n., u.m.)
 -shaped (u.m.)
 -shot (u.m.)
  span
 -swift (u.m.)
  tip
  top
  walker
  wall
 -weary (u.m.)
winter
 -beaten (u.m.)
 -clad (u.m.)
 -fallow (v.)
 -fed (u.m.)
  feed
 #green (color)
  green (plant, etc.)
 -hardy (u.m.)
  kill
 -made (u.m.)
 -sown (u.m.)
  tide
  time
 -worn (u.m.)
wire
  bar
 -caged (u.m.)
 -cut (u.m.)
  cutter
  dancer
  draw (v.)
 -edged (u.m.)
 #gauge
  hair (dog)
 -haired (u.m.)
  less
 #line
  photo
  puller
 #rope
  spun
  stitch
 -stitched (u.m.)
 -tailed (u.m.)
  tap
  walker
  works
 -wound (u.m.)
wise
  acre
  crack
  head (n.)
 -headed (u.m.)
 -spoken (u.m.)
wishbone
witch
  craft
 #hazel
 #hunt
 -hunting (u.m.)
with
  draw
  hold
  in
  out
  stand
within
 -bound (u.m.)
 -named (u.m.)
woe
  begone
  worn
wolf
 -eyed (u.m.)
 #fish
  hound
  pack
woman
  folk
  hood
  kind
womenfolk
wonder
  land
  strong
 -struck (u.m.)
wood
  bark (color)
  bin
  bined
  block
 -built (u.m.)
 -cased (u.m.)
  chipper
  chopper
  chuck
  craft
  cut
  grub
  hole
  horse
  hung (u.m.)
  land
 -lined (u.m.)
  lot
 -paneled (u.m.)
  pile
 -planing (u.m.)
  print
  pulp
  ranger
  rock
 #rot
  shed
  side
  stock
  turner
 -turning (u.m.)
 -walled (u.m.)
  wind (music)
wooden
  head (n.)
 -hulled (u.m.)
wool
  fell
  gatherer
  grader
  growing
  head
 -laden (u.m.)
 -lined (u.m.)
  pack
  press
  shearer
  shed
  sorter
  stock
  washer
  wheel
 -white (u.m.)
  winder
woolly
 -coated (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -white (u.m.)
word
 -blind (u.m.)
  book
  builder
  catcher
 -clad (u.m.)
 -deaf (u.m.)
  flow
  jobber
  list
 -perfect (u.m.)
  play
  seller
  smith
work
  aday (n., u.m.)
 -and-turn (u.m.)
  away (n., u.m.)
  bag
  basket
  bench
  book
  card
  day
 -driven (u.m.)
  fare
  flow
  folk
  force
  group
  hand
 -hardened (u.m.)
  horse
 -hour (u.m.)
  housed
  life
  load
  manship
  out (n., u.m.)
  pace
  pan
  paper
  people
  place
  room
  saving
  sheet
  shoe
  shop
 -shy (n., u.m.)
 -shyness
  site
  slip
  space
 -stained (u.m.)
  stand
  station
  stream
  study
  table
  time
  up (n., u.m.)
  ways
 -weary (u.m.)
  week
  worn
working
 #load
 #room
world
  beater
 -conscious (u.m.)
 #consciousness
 #line
 #power
 -weary (u.m.)
worm
 -eaten (u.m.)
 -eating (u.m.)
  hole
 -riddled (u.m.)
 -ripe (u.m.)
  seed
  shaft
worn
  down (u.m.)
  out (u.m.)
  outness
worrywart
worth
  while (n., u.m.)
  whileness (n.)
wrap
  around
    (n., u.m.)
 -up (n., u.m.)
wreath-crowned (u.m.)
wreck-free
    (u.m.)
wring
  bolt
  staff
wrist
  band
  bone
  drop
  fall
  lock
  pin
  plate
  watch
write
  back (n., u.m.)
 -in (n., u.m.)
  off (n., u.m.)
 -protect
  up (n., u.m.)
writing#room
wrong
  doer
 -ended (u.m.)
 -minded (u.m.)
 -thinking (u.m.)
wrought
 #iron
 -up (u.m.)
wry
  bill
 -billed (u.m.)
 -faced (u.m.)
 -looking (u.m.)
 -mouthed (u.m.)
  neck
 -set (u.m.)

                                      

[[Page 124]]

                                  - X -

X
 -body
 -chromosome
 -disease
 #rated
 -shaped
 -virus
  
x
 -axis
 #ray (n.)
 -ray (u.m.)
xantho (c.f.)
  all one word
xeno (c.f.)
  all one word
xero (c.f.)
  all one word
xylo (c.f.)
  all one word

                                  - Y -

Y
 -chromosome
 -joint
 -level
 -potential
 -shaped
 -track
 -tube
Yankee-Doodle
yard
  arm
 -deep (u.m.)
 -long (u.m.)
  stick
 -wide (u.m.)
yaw
  meter
 -sighted (u.m.)
year
  book
  day
  end
 -hour (u.m.)
  long (u.m.)
 -old (u.m.)
 -round (u.m.)
yellow
  back
 -backed (u.m.)
 -bellied (u.m.)
  belly
 -billed (u.m.)
 #fever
 -headed (u.m.)
 -tailed (u.m.)
  
-throated (u.m.)
  top
yes
 -man
 -no
yester
  day
  year
yoke
  fellow
  mating
 -toed (u.m.)
young
  eyed (u.m.)
 -headed (u.m.)
 -ladylike
 -looking (u.m.)
 -manlike
 -old
 -womanhood
youthtide
yuletide
  
  

                                  - Z -

Z
 -bar
zero
  axial
  
-dimensional (u.m.)
  gravity
 #hour
zigzag
zinc
 -coated (u.m.)
 -white (u.m.)
zoo (c.f.)
  all one word
zoologico (c.f.)
  all one word
zygo (c.f.)
  all one word
  
zygomatico (c.f.)
 -orbital
  rest one word
zymo (c.f.)
  all one word



[[Page 125]]


 
                             8. PUNCTUATION

  8.1. Punctuation is used to clarify the meaning of written or 
printed language. Well-planned word order requires a minimum of 
punctuation. The trend toward less punctuation calls for 
skillful phrasing to avoid ambiguity and to ensure exact 
interpretation. The Manual can only offer general rules of text 
treatment. A rigid design or pattern of punctuation cannot be 
laid down, except in broad terms. The adopted style, however, 
must be consistent and based on sentence structure.

  8.2. The general principles governing the use of punctuation 
are: If it does not clarify the text it should be omitted; and, 
in the choice and placing of punctuation marks, the sole aim 
should be to bring out more clearly the author's thought. 
Punctuation should aid reading and prevent misreading.

Apostrophes and possessives

  8.3. All singular nouns form their possessive case by the 
addition of an apostrophe and an s. Plural nouns ending in s 
form their plurals by adding only an apostrophe. Some irregular 
plurals require both an apostrophe and an s.

boss's, bosses'
child's, children's
citizen's, citizens'
Congress's, Congresses'
criterion's, criteria's
Co.'s, Cos.'
datum's, data's
erratum's, errata's
hostess's, hostesses'
lady's, ladies'
man's, men's
medium's, media's
people's, peoples'
prince's, princes'

Consider, also, the forms below:

following Robert's Rules of Order
the planet Mars's craters
a study of Socrates's writings
Charles Dickens's novels
Robert Burns's immortal poetry
President Adams's defense of law
Jefferson Davis's home
  
but
the runner's Achilles' heel
moved by Jesus' tears
the United States position

  8.4. In compound nouns, the 's is added to the element 
nearest the object possessed.

comptroller general's decision
attorneys general's appointments
Mr. Brown of New York's motion
attorney at law's fee
John White, Jr.'s (no comma) account

[[Page 126]]


  8.5. Joint possession is indicated by placing an apostrophe 
on the last element of a series, while individual or 
alternative possession requires the use of an apostrophe on 
each element of a series.

soldiers and sailors' home
Brown & Nelson's store
men's, women's, and children's clothing
St. Michael's Men's Club
editor's or proofreader's opinion
Carter's or Reagan's administration
Mrs. Smith's and Mrs. Allen's children
the Army's and the Navy's work
master's and doctor's degrees

  8.6. In the use of an apostrophe in firm names, the names of 
organizations and institutions, the titles of books, and 
geographic names, the authentic form is to be followed. (Note 
use of ``St.'')

Masters, Mates & Pilots' Association
Dentists' Supply Co. of New York
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
Court of St. James's
St. Peter's Church
  
St. Elizabeths Hospital
Johns Hopkins University
Hinds' Precedents
Harpers Ferry
Hells Canyon
Reader's Digest
  
but Martha's Vineyard

  8.7. Generally, the apostrophe should not be used after names 
of countries and other organized bodies ending in s, or after 
words more descriptive than possessive (not indicating personal 
possession), except when plural does not end in s.

United States control
United Nations meeting
Southern States industries
Massachusetts laws
Bureau of Ships report
Actors Equity Association
House of Representatives
  session
Teamsters Union
editors handbook
syrup producers manual
technicians guide
teachers college
merchants exchange
children's hospital
Young Men's Christian Association
  
but
Veterans' Administration
  (now Department of Veterans Affairs)
Congress's attitude

  8.8. Possessive pronouns do not take an apostrophe.

its
ours
theirs
yours
hers
whose

  8.9. Possessive indefinite or impersonal pronouns require an 

apostrophe.
each other's books
some others' plans
one's home is his castle
another's idea
someone's guesstimate
  
but  someone else's proposal

  8.10. The singular possessive case is used in such general 
terms as the following:

arm's length
attorney's fees
author's alterations
confectioner's sugar
cow's milk
distiller's grain
fuller's earth
miner's inch
printer's ink
traveler's checks
writer's cramp

[[Page 127]]


  8.11. While an apostrophe is used to indicate possession and 
contractions, it is not generally necessary to use an 
apostrophe simply to show the plural form of most acronyms, 
initialisms, or abbreviations, except where clarity and sense 
demand such inclusion.

49ers
TVers
OKs
MCing
RIFing
RIFs
RIFed
YWCAs
ABCs
1920s
IOUs
10s (thread)
4\1/2\s (bonds)
3s (golf)
2 by 4s
IQs
don't (do not)
I've (I have)
it's (it is/it has)
ne'er (never)
e'er (ever)
class of '92 (1992)
spirit of '76 (1776)
  
not in her '70s (age)
  better: in her seventies
  
not during the '20s
  better: during the 1920s or
    during the twenties
  
but
he never crosses his t's
she fails to dot her i's
a's, &'s, 7's
watch your p's and q's
are they l's or 1's
the Oakland A's
a number of s's
his resume had too many I's

  8.12. The apostrophe is omitted in abbreviations, and also in 
shortened forms of certain other words.

Danl., not  Dan'l
phone, not  'phone
coon, not  'coon
possum, not  'possum
Halloween, not  Hallowe'en
copter, not  'copter
  
but ma'am

  8.13. The plural of spelled-out numbers, of words referred to 
as words, and of words containing an apostrophe is formed by 
adding s or es; but 's is added to indicate the plural of words 
used as words if omission of the apostrophe would cause 
difficulty in reading.

twos, threes, sevens
ands, ifs, and buts
ins and outs
the haves and have-nots
ups and downs
whereases and wherefores
pros and cons
yeses and noes
yeas and nays
  
but
do's and don'ts
which's and that's

  8.14. The possessive case is often used in lieu of an 
objective phrase even though ownership is not involved.

1 day's labor (labor for 1 day)
12 days' labor
2 hours' traveltime
a stone's throw
2 weeks' pay
for charity's sake
for pity's sake
several billion dollars' worth
  
but $10 billion worth

  8.15. The possessive case is not used in such expressions as 
the following, in which one noun modifies another.

day labor (labor by the day)
quartermaster stores
State prison
State rights


[[Page 128]]


  8.16. For euphony, nouns ending in s or ce and followed by a 
word beginning with s form the possessive by adding an 
apostrophe only.

for goodness' sake
Mr. Hughes' service
for old times' sake
for acquaintance' sake
for conscience' sake

  8.17. A possessive noun used in an adjective sense requires 
the addition of 's.
      He is a friend of John's.
      Stern's is running a sale.

  8.18. A noun preceding a gerund should be in the possessive 
case.
      in the event of Mary's leaving
      the ship's hovering nearby

Brackets

Brackets, in pairs, are used_

  8.19. In transcripts, congressional hearings, the 
Congressional Record, testimony in courtwork, etc., to enclose 
interpolations that are not specifically a part of the original 
quotation, corrections, explanations, omissions, editorial 
comments, or a caution that an error is reproduced literally.

      We found this to be true at the Government Printing 
        Office [GPO].
      He came on the 3d [2d] of July.
      Our conference [lasted] 2 hours.
      The general [Washington] ordered him to leave.
      The paper was as follows [reads]:
      I do not know. [Continues reading:]
      [Chorus of ``Mr. Chairman.'']
      They fooled only themselves. [Laughter.]
      Our party will always serve the people [applause] in 
        spite of the opposition [loud applause]. (If more than 
        one bracketed interpolation, both are included within 
        the sentence.)
      The Witness. He did it that way [indicating].
      Q. Do you know these men [handing witness a list]?
      The bill had not been paid. [Italic added.] or [Emphasis 
        added.]
      The statue [sic] was on the statute books.
      The Witness. This matter is classified. [Deleted.]
      [Deleted.]
      Mr. Jones. Hold up your hands. [Show of hands.]
      Answer [after examining list]. Yes; I do.
      Q. [Continuing.]
      A. [Reads:]
      A. [Interrupting.]
      [Discussion off the record.]
      [Pause.]
      The Witness [interrupting]. It is known----
      Mr. Jones [continuing]. Now let us take the next item.
      Mr. Smith [presiding]. Do you mean that literally?
      Mr. Jones [interposing]. Absolutely.
      [The matter referred to is as follows:]
      The Chairman [to Mr. Smith].
      The Chairman [reading]:


[[Page 129]]

      Mr. Kelley [to the chairman]. From 15 to 25 percent.
      [Objected to.]
      [Mr. Smith nods.]
      [Mr. Smith aside.]
      [Mr. Smith makes further statement off the record.]
      Mr. Jones [for Mr. Smith].
      A Voice From Audience. Speak up.
      Several Voices. Quiet!
  8.20. In bills, contracts, laws, etc., to indicate matter 
that is to be omitted.

  8.21. In mathematics, to denote that enclosed matter is to be 
treated as a unit.

  8.22. When matter in brackets makes more than one paragraph, 
start each paragraph with a bracket and place the closing 
bracket at end of last paragraph.

Colon

The colon is used_

  8.23. Before a final clause that extends or amplifies 
preceding matter.

      Give up conveniences; do not demand special privileges; 
        do not stop work: these are necessary while we are at 
        war.
      Railroading is not a variety of outdoor sport: it is 
        service.

  8.24. To introduce formally any matter that forms a complete 
sentence, question, or quotation.

      The following question came up for discussion: What 
        policy should be adopted?
      She said: ``I believe the time is now or never.'' [When a 
        direct quotation follows that has more than a few 
        words.]
      There are three factors, as follows: First, military 
        preparation; second, industrial mobilization; and 
        third, manpower.

  8.25. After a salutation.

      My Dear Sir:
      Ladies and Gentlemen:
      To Whom It May Concern:

  8.26. In expressing clock time.

      2:40 p.m.

  8.27. After introductory lines in lists, tables, and 
leaderwork, if subentries follow.

      Seward Peninsula:
          Council district:
              Northern Light Mining Co.
              Wild Goose Trading Co.
          Fairhaven district: Alaska Dredging Association 
        (single subitem
            runs in).
      Seward Peninsula: Council district (single subitem runs 
        in):
          Northern Light Mining Co.
          Wild Goose Trading Co.


[[Page 130]]

  8.28. In Biblical and other citations.
      Luke 4:3.
      I Corinthians xiii:13.
      Journal of Education 3:342-358.

  8.29. In bibliographic references, between place of 
publication and name of publisher.

      Congressional Directory. Washington: U.S. Government 
        Printing Office.

  8.30. To separate book titles and subtitles.

      Financial Aid for College Students: Graduate
      Germany Revisited: Education in the Federal Republic

  8.31. In imprints before the year (en space each side of 
colon).

                    U.S. Government Printing Office

                           Washington : 1999

  8.32. In proportions.

      Concrete mixed 5:3:1
  but 5-2-1 or 5-2-1 (when so in copy)

  8.33. In double colon as ratio sign.
      1:2::3:6

Comma

The comma is used_

  8.34. To separate two words or figures that might otherwise 
be misunderstood.

      Instead of hundreds, thousands came.
      Instead of 20, 50 came.
      May 5, 1929.
      In 1930, 400 men were dismissed.
      To John, Smith was very kind.
      What the difficulty is, is not known.
  but He suggested that that committee be appointed.

  8.35. Before a direct quotation of only a few words following 
an introductory phrase.

      He said, ``Now or never.''

  8.36. To indicate the omission of a word or words.

      Then we had much; now, nothing.

  8.37. After each of a series of coordinate qualifying words.

      short, swift streams; but short tributary streams

  8.38. Between an introductory modifying phrase and the 
subject modified.

      Beset by the enemy, they retreated.


[[Page 131]]

  8.39. Before and after Jr., Sr., Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., Inc., 
etc., within a sentence except where possession is indicated.

Henry Smith, Jr., chairman
Peter Johns, F.R.S., London
Washington, DC, schools
Motorola, Inc., factory
Brown, A.H., Jr. (not Brown, Jr., A.H.)

but
John Smith 2d (or II);
  Smith, John, II
Mr. Smith, Junior, also spoke
  (where only last name is used)
Alexandria, VA's waterfront

  8.40. To set off parenthetic words, phrases, or clauses.
      Mr. Jefferson, who was then Secretary of State, favored 
        the location of the National Capital at Washington.
      It must be remembered, however, that the Government had 
        no guarantee.
      It is obvious, therefore, that this office cannot 
        function.
      The atom bomb, which was developed at the Manhattan 
        project, was first used in World War II.
      Their high morale might, he suggested, have caused them 
        to put success of the team above the reputation of the 
        college.
      The restriction is laid down in title IX, chapter 8, 
        section 15, of the code.
  but The man who fell [restrictive clause] broke his back.
      The dam that gave way [restrictive clause] was poorly 
        constructed.
      He therefore gave up the search.

  8.41. To set off words or phrases in apposition or in 
contrast.

      Mr. Green, the lawyer, spoke for the defense.
      Mr. Jones, attorney for the plaintiff, signed the 
        petition.
      Mr. Smith, not Mr. Black, was elected.
      James Roosevelt, Democrat, of California.
      Jonathan's brother, Moses Taylor, was appointed. 
        (Jonathan had more than one brother.)
  but Jean's sister Joyce was the eldest. (Jean had one 
        sister.)

  8.42. After each member within a series of three or more 
words, phrases, letters, or figures used with and, or, or nor.

      red, white, and blue
      horses, mules, and cattle; but horses and mules and 
        cattle
      by the bolt, by the yard, or in remnants
      a, b, and c
      neither snow, rain, nor heat
      2 days, 3 hours, and 4 minutes (series); but 70 years 11 
        months 6 days (age)

  8.43. Before the conjunction in a compound sentence 
containing two or more independent clauses, each of which could 
have been written as a simple sentence.

      Fish, mollusks, and crustaceans were plentiful in the 
        lakes, and turtles frequented the shores.
      The boy went home alone, and his sister remained with the 
        crowd.

  8.44. After a noun or phrase in direct address.

      Senator, will the measure be defeated?
      Mr. Chairman, I will reply to the gentleman later.
  but Yes, sir; he did see it.
      No, ma'am; I do not recall.


[[Page 132]]

  8.45. After an interrogative clause, followed by a direct 
question.

      You are sure, are you not?
      You will go, will you not?

  8.46. Between the title of a person and the name of an 
organization in the absence of the words of or of the.

      Chief, Division of Finance
      chairman, Committee on Appropriations
      colonel, 12th Cavalry Regiment
      president, University of Virginia

  8.47. Inside closing quotation mark.

      He said ``four,'' not ``five.''
      ``Freedom is an inherent right,'' he insisted.
      Items marked ``A,'' ``B,'' and ``C,'' inclusive, were 
        listed.

  8.48. To separate thousands, millions, etc., in numbers of 
four or more digits.

      4,230
      50,491
      1,250,000
  but 1,000,000,000 is more clearly illustrated as 1 billion

  8.49. After the year in complete dates (month, day, year) 
within a sentence.

      The dates of September 11, 1943, to June 12, 1944, were 
        erroneous.
      This was reflected in the June 13, 1959, report.
  but Production for June 1950 was normal.
      The 10 February 1980 deadline passed.

The comma is omitted_

  8.50. Between superior figures or letters in footnote 
references.

      Numerous instances may be cited.1}2
      Data are based on October production.a b


  8.51. Before ZIP (Zone Improvement Plan) Code postal-
delivery number.

      Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20401-0003
      East Rochester, OH 44625-9701

  8.52. Between month, holiday, or season and year in dates.

June 1938
22d of May 1938
February and March 1938
January, February, and March 1938
January 24 A.D. 1938; 15th of June A.D. 1938
150 B.C.
Labor Day 1966
Easter Sunday 1966
5 January 1944 (military usage)
spring 1929
autumn 1997

  8.53. Between the name and number of an organization.

      Columbia Typographical Union No. 101-12
      American Legion Post No. 33


[[Page 133]]

  8.54. In fractions, in decimals, and in serial numbers, 
except patent numbers.

      \1/2500\
      1.0947
      page 2632
      202-275-2303 (telephone number)
      1721-1727 St. Clair Avenue
      Executive Order 11242
      motor No. 189463
      1450 kilocycles; 1100 meters

  8.55. Between two nouns one of which identifies the other.

      The Children's Bureau's booklet ``Infant Care'' continues 
        to be a bestseller.

  8.56. Before an ampersand (&).

      Brown, Wilson & Co.
      Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers

  8.57. Before abbreviations of compass directions.

      6430 Princeton Dr. SW.

  8.58. In bibliographies, between name of publication and 
volume or similar number.

      American Library Association Bulletin 34:238, April 1940.

  8.59. Wherever possible without danger of ambiguity.

      $2 gold
      $2.50 U.S. currency
      $3.50 Mexican
      Executive Order No. 21
      General Order No. 12; but  General Orders, No. 12
      Public Law 85-1
      He graduates in the year 2000 (not  the year 2,000)
      My age is 30 years 6 months 12 days.
      John Lewis 2d (or II)
      Murphy of Illinois; Murphy of New York (where only last 
        name is used)
      Carroll of Carrollton; Henry of Navarre (person closely 
        identified with place); but Clyde Leo Downs, of 
        Maryland; President Hadley, of Yale University
      James Bros. et al.; but James Bros., Nelson Co., et al. 
        (last element of series)

Dash

A 1-em dash is used_

  8.60. To mark a sudden break or abrupt change in thought.

      He said--and no one contradicted him--``The battle is 
        lost.''
      If the bill should pass--which God forbid!--the service 
        will be wrecked.
      The auditor--shall we call him a knave or a fool?--
        approved an inaccurate statement.

  8.61. To indicate an interruption or an unfinished word or 
sentence. A 2-em dash is used when the interruption is by a 
person other than the speaker, and a 1-em dash will show self-
interrup


[[Page 134]]

tion. Note that extracts must begin with a true paragraph. 
Following extracts, colloquy must start as a paragraph.

      ``Such an idea can scarcely be----''
      ``The word `donation'----''
      ``The word `dona'----''
      ``He said: ``Give me lib----''
      ``The bill reads ``repeal,'' not ``am----''
      Q. Did you see----A. No, sir.
      Mr. Brown [reading]: ``The report goes on to say that''--
        Observe this closely--``during the fiscal year * * *.''

  8.62. Instead of commas or parentheses, if the meaning may 
thus be clarified.

      These are shore deposits--gravel, sand, and clay--but 
        marine sediments underlie them.

  8.63. Before a final clause that summarizes a series of 
ideas.

      Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, 
        freedom from fear--these are the fundamentals of moral 
        world order.

  8.64. After an introductory phrase reading into the following 
lines and indicating repetition of such phrase.

      I recommend--
          That we submit them for review and corrections;
          That we then accept them as corrected; and
          That we also publish them.

  8.65. With a preceding question mark, in lieu of a colon.

      How can you explain this?--``Fee paid, $5.''

  8.66. To precede a credit line or a run-in credit or 
signature.

                          Lay the proud usurpers low!
                          Tyrants fall in every foe!
                          Liberty's in every blow!
                            Let us do or die!
                                                --Robert Burns.

      Every man's work shall be made manifest.--I Corinthians 
        3:13.
      This statement is open to question.--Gerald H. Forsythe.

  8.67. After a run-in sidehead.

  8.68. To separate run-in questions and answers in testimony.

      Q. Did he go?--A. No.

A 1-em dash is not used_

  8.69. At the beginning of any line of type, except as shown 
in rule 8.66.

  8.70. Immediately after a comma, colon, or semicolon.

A 3-em dash is used_

  8.71. In bibliographies to indicate repetition.

      Powell, James W., Jr., Hunting in Virginia's lowlands. 
        1972. 200 pp.
      ------ Fishing off Delmarva. 1972. 28 pp.


[[Page 135]]

An en dash is used_

  8.72. In a combination of (1) figures, (2) capital letters, 
or (3) figures and capital letters. An en dash, not a hyphen, 
is used, even when such terms are adjectival modifiers.

  figures:
      5-20 (bonds)
      85-1--85-20 (Public laws. Note em dash between two 
        elements with en dashes)
      1-703-765-6593 (telephone number)
      230-20-8030 (Social Security number)
      $15-$25 (range)
  capital letters:
      WTOP-AM-FM-TV (radio and television stations)
      CBS-TV
      AFL-CIO (union merger)
      C-SPAN (satellite television)
  figures and capitals:
      6-A (exhibit identification)
      DC-14 (airplane)
      I-95 (interstate roadway)
      4-H (Club)
      LK-66-A(2)-74 (serial number)
  but section 12(a)-(b) (en dash used for the word ``to'')
      ACF-Brill Motors Co. (hyphen with capital letters and a 
        word)
      loran-C (hyphen with lowercase word and capital letter)
      MiG-25 (hyphen with mixed letters with figure)
      ALL-AMERICAN ESSAY CONTEST (hyphen in capitalized 
        heading)

  8.73. In the absence of the word to when denoting a period of 
time.

1935-37
January-June
Monday-Friday

An en dash is not used_

  8.74. For to when the word from precedes the first of two 
related figures or expressions.

      From June 1 to July 30, 1951; not from June 1-July 30, 
        1951

  8.75. For and when the word between precedes the first of two 
related figures or expressions.

      Between 1923 and 1929; not between 1923-29

Ellipses

  8.76. Three asterisks (preferred form) or three periods, 
separated by en spaces, are used to denote an ellipsis within a 
sentence, at the beginning or end of a sentence, or in two or 
more consecutive sentences. To achieve faithful reproduction of 
excerpt material, editors using period ellipses should indicate 
placement of the terminal period in relation to an ellipsis at 
the end of a sentence. Note, in the following examples, the 
additional spacing necessary to clearly define commas and the 
terminal period when period ellipses are employed.

        The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson, President of 
      the United States, upon articles of impeachment exhibited 
      against him by the


[[Page 136]]

      House of Representatives, and two-thirds of the Senators 
      present not having found him guilty of the charges 
      contained in the second, third, and eleventh articles of 
      impeachment, it is therefore
        Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, 
      President of the United States be, and he is, acquitted 
      of the charges in said articles made and set forth.

        The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson * * * upon 
      articles of impeachment * * * and two-thirds of the 
      Senators present not having found him guilty of the 
      charges * * *, it is therefore
        Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, 
      President of the United States be * * * acquitted of the 
      charges * * *.

        The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson . . . upon 
      articles of impeachment . . . and two-thirds of the 
      Senators present not having found him guilty of the 
      charges . . . , it is therefore
        Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, 
      President of the United States be . . . acquitted of the 
      charges . . . .

  8.77. Ellipses are not overrun alone at the end of a 
paragraph.

  8.78. When periods are not specifically requested for 
ellipses in copy that has both periods and asterisks, asterisks 
will be used.

  8.79. A line of asterisks indicates an omission of one or 
more entire paragraphs. In 26\1/2\-pica or wider measure, a 
line of ``stars'' means seven asterisks indented 2 ems at each 
end of the line, with the remaining space divided evenly 
between the asterisks. In measures less than 26\1/2\ picas, 
five asterisks are used. Quotation marks are not used on a line 
of asterisks in quoted matter. Where an ellipsis line ends a 
complete quotation, no closing quote is used.

    * * * * * * *

  8.80. Indented matter in 26\1/2\-pica or wider measure also 
requires a seven-asterisk line to indicate the omission of one 
or more entire paragraphs.

  8.81. If an omission occurs in the last part of a paragraph 
immediately before a line of asterisks, three asterisks are 
used, in addition to the line of asterisks, to indicate such an 
omission.

  8.82. Equalize spacing above and below an ellipsis line.

Exclamation point

  8.83. The exclamation point is used to mark surprise, 
incredulity, admiration, appeal, or other strong emotion which 
may be expressed even in a declarative or interrogative 
sentence.

      Who shouted, ``All aboard!'' [Note omission of question 
        mark.]
      ``Great!'' he shouted. [Note omission of comma.]
      He acknowledged the fatal error!
      How breathtakingly beautiful!
      Timber!
      Mayday! Mayday!

  8.84. In direct address, either to a person or a personified 
object, O is used without an exclamation point, or other 
punctuation; but


[[Page 137]]

if strong feeling is expressed, an exclamation point is placed 
at the end of the statement.

      O my friend, let us consider this subject impartially.
      O Lord, save Thy people!

  8.85. In exclamations without direct address or appeal, oh is 
used instead of O, and the exclamation point is omitted.
      Oh, but the gentleman is mistaken.
      Oh dear; the time is so short.

Hyphen

The hyphen (a punctuation mark, not an element in the spelling of 
        words) is used_

  8.86. To connect the elements of certain compound words. (See 
``Compounding Rules.'')

  8.87. To indicate continuation of a word divided at the end 
of a line. (See Word Division, supplement to the Style Manual.)

  8.88. Between the letters of a spelled word.
      The Style Board changed New Jerseyite to New J-e-r-s-e-y-
        a-n.
      A native of Halifax is a H-a-l-i-g-o-n-i-a-n.
      The Chinese repressive action took place in T-i-a-n-a-n-
        m-e-n Square.

  8.89. To separate elements of chemical formulas.

The hyphen, as an element, may be used_

  8.90. To represent letters deleted or illegible words in 
copy.

      Oakland's - - bonic plague
      Richard Emory H - - - -

Parentheses

Parentheses are used_

  8.91. To set off matter not intended to be part of the main 
statement or not a grammatical element of the sentence, yet 
important enough to be included. In colloquy, brackets must be 
substituted.

      This case (124 U.S. 329) is not relevant.
      The result (see fig. 2) is most surprising.
      The United States is the principal purchaser (by value) 
        of these exports (23 percent in 1995 and 19 percent in 
        1996).

  8.92. To enclose a parenthetic clause where the interruption 
is too great to be indicated by commas.

      You can find it neither in French dictionaries (at any 
        rate, not in Littre) nor in English dictionaries.

  8.93. To enclose an explanatory word not part of a written or 
printed statement.

      the Winchester (VA) Star; but the Star of Winchester, VA
      Portland (OR) Chamber of Commerce; but Athens, GA, 
        schools


[[Page 138]]

  8.94. To enclose letters or numbers designating items in a 
series, either at the beginning of paragraphs or within a 
paragraph.

      The order of delivery will be: (a) Food, (b) clothing, 
        and (c) tents and other housing equipment.
      You will observe that the sword is (1) old fashioned, (2) 
        still sharp, and (3) unusually light for its size.
      Paragraph 7(B)(1)(a) will be found on page 6. (Note 
        parentheses closed up.)

  8.95. To enclose a figure inserted to confirm a written or 
printed statement given in words if double form is specifically 
requested.

      This contract shall be completed in sixty (60) days.

  8.96. A reference in parentheses at the end of a sentence is 
placed before the period, unless it is a complete sentence in 
itself.

      The specimen exhibits both phases (pl. 14, A, B).
      The individual cavities show great variation. (See pl. 
        4.)

  8.97. If a sentence contains more than one parenthetic 
reference, the one at the end is placed before the period.

      This sandstone (see pl. 6) is in every county of the 
        State (see pl. 1).

  8.98. When a figure is followed by a letter in parentheses, 
no space is used between the figure and the opening 
parenthesis; but if the letter is not in parentheses and the 
figure is repeated with each letter, the letter is closed up 
with the figure.

      15(a). Classes, grades, and sizes.
      15a. Classes, grades, and sizes.

  8.99. If both a figure and a letter in parentheses are used 
before each paragraph, a period and an en space are used after 
the closing parenthesis. If the figure is not repeated before 
each letter in parentheses but is used only before the first 
letter, the period is placed after the figure. However, if the 
figure is not repeated before each letter in parentheses and no 
period is used, space is inserted after the number if at least 
one other lettered subsection appears.

      15(a). When the figure is used before the letter in each 
        paragraph--

      15(b). The period is placed after the closing 
        parenthesis.

      15. (a) When the figure is used before the letter in the 
        first paragraph but not repeated with subsequent 
        letters--
      (b) The period is used after the figure only.

      Sec. 12 (a) When no period is used and a letter in 
        parentheses appears after a numbered item--
      (b) Space must be used after the number if at least one 
        other lettered subsection is shown.

  8.100. Note position of the period relative to closing 
parenthesis:

      The vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, 
        beverages, cakes, etc.).
      The vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, 
        beverages, cakes, etc. (sometimes ice cream)).
      The vending stand sells a variety of items. (These 
        include sandwiches, beverages, cakes, etc. (6).)


[[Page 139]]

  8.101. To enclose bylines in congressional work.

           (By Harvey Hagman, archeological correspondent)

  8.102. When matter in parentheses makes more than one 
paragraph, start each paragraph with a parenthesis and place 
the closing parenthesis at the end of the last paragraph.

Period

The period is used_

  8.103. After a declarative sentence that is not exclamatory 
or after an imperative sentence.

      Stars are suns.
      He was employed by Sampson & Co.
      Do not be late.
      On with the dance.

  8.104. After an indirect question or after a question 
intended as a suggestion and not requiring an answer.

      Tell me how he did it.
      May we hear from you.
      May we ask prompt payment.

  8.105. In place of a closing parenthesis after a letter or 
number denoting a series.

a. Bread well baked
b. Meat cooked rare
c. Cubed apples stewed
1. Punctuate freely
2. Compound sparingly
3. Index thoroughly
  8.106. Sometimes to indicate ellipsis.

  8.107. After a run-in sidehead.

        Conditional subjunctive.--The conditional subjunctive 
      is required for all unreal and doubtful conditions.

        2. Peacetime preparation.--a. The Chairman of the 
      National Security Resources Board, etc.

        2. Peacetime preparation--Industrial mobilization 
      plans.--The Chairman of the National Security Resources 
      Board, etc.

        2. Peacetime preparation.--Industrial mobilization.--
      The Chairman of the National Security Resources Board, 
      etc.

        62. Determination of types.--a. Statement of 
      characteristics.--Before types of equipment, etc.

        Steps in planning for procurement.--(1) Determination 
      of needs.--To plan for the procurement of such arms, etc.

        62. Determination of types.--(a) Statement of 
      characteristics.--Before, etc.

        DETERMINATION OF TYPES.--Statement of 
      characteristics.--Before types of, etc.

        Note.--The source material was furnished.

  but Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the 
        Census.

  8.108. Paragraphs and subparagraphs may be arranged according 
to the following scheme. The sequence is not fixed, and varia-


[[Page 140]]

tions, in addition to the use of center and side heads or 
indented paragraphs, may be adopted, depending on the number of 
parts.

 I. Outlines can begin with a capital Roman numeral.
A. The number of levels and the width of the column determine   
alignment and indention.
1. A set space (en space) following the identifier aids alignment.
a. Usually, typefaces and sizes are chosen to agree with the 
hierarchy of the head breakdowns.
(1) Aligning runover lines with the first word which follows the 
    number or letter aids readability.
(a) It is important to vary (rotate) the use of letters and 
        numbers in any outline.
(i) The lowercase Roman numerals (i), (ii), etc. may be used as 
parts of the outline or to identify subparts of any previous 
parts.
(aa) When absolutely necessary, double (or triple) lowercase 
letters may be used.
II. Where not needed, the capital Roman numerals may be discarded 
    and the outline can begin with the letter A. As in any 
    composition, consistency in indentions and order is essential.

  8.109. To separate integers from decimals in a single 
expression.

13.75 percent
$3.50
1.25 meters
0.08 mile

  8.110. In continental European languages, to indicate 
thousands.

1.317
72.190.175

  8.111. After abbreviations, unless otherwise specified. (See 
``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols.'')

Apr.
fig.
Ph.D.
NE. (Northeast)
SSE. (South-Southeast)
RR.
  
but
m (meter)
kc (kilocycle)
NY (New York)

  8.112. After legends and explanatory matter beneath 
illustrations. Legends without descriptive language do not 
receive periods.


                     Figure 1.--Schematic drawing.

                         Figure 1.--Continued.

                but Figure 1 (without legend, no period)

  8.113. After Article 1, Section 1, etc., at the beginning of 
paragraphs.

A center period is sometimes used_

  8.114. To indicate multiplication. (Use of a multiplication 
sign is preferable.)
ab
(a x b)


[[Page 141]]


The period is omitted_

  8.115. After--

            Lines in title pages
            Center, side, and running heads; but is not omitted
                after run-in sideheads
            Continued lines
            Boxheads of tables
            Scientific, chemical, or other symbols
This rule does not apply to abbreviation periods.

  8.116. After a quotation mark that is preceded by a period.

      She said: ``I believe the time is now or never.''

  8.117. After letters used as names without specific 
designation.

      Officer B, Subject A, Brand X, etc.
      A said to B that all is well.
      Mr. A told Mr. B that the case was closed.
      Mr. X (for unknown or censored name).
  but Mr. A. [for Mr. Andrews]. I do not want to go.
      Mr. K. [for Mr. King]. The meeting is adjourned.

  8.118. After a middle initial which is merely a letter and 
not an abbreviation of a name.

      Daniel D Tompkins
      Ross T McIntire
  but Harry S. Truman (president Truman's preference)

  8.119. After a short name which is not an abbreviation of the 
longer form.

Alex
Ed
Mac
Sam

  8.120. After Roman numerals used as ordinals.

King George V
Apollo XII insigne
Super Bowl XXXI

  8.121. After words and incomplete statements listed in 
columns. Full-measure matter is not to be regarded as a column.

  8.122. After explanatory matter set in 6 point under leaders 
or rules.

        ................  ................  ................
            (Name)            (Address)         (Position)

  8.123. Immediately before leaders, even if an abbreviation 
precedes the leaders.


[[Page 142]]

Question mark

The question mark is used_

  8.124. To indicate a direct query, even if not in the form of 
a question.

      Did he do it?
      He did what?
      Can the money be raised? is the question.
      Who asked, ``Why?'' (Note single question mark.)
      ``Did you hurt yourself, my son?'' she asked.

  8.125. To express more than one query in the same sentence.

      Can he do it? or you? or anyone?

  8.126. To express doubt.

      He said the boy was 8(?) feet tall. (No space before 
        question mark.)
      The statue(?) was on the statute books.
      The scientific identification Dorothia? was noted. (Roman 
        ``?''.)

Quotation marks

Quotation marks are used_

  8.127. To enclose direct quotations. (Each part of an 
interrupted quotation begins and ends with quotation marks.)

      The answer is ``No.''
      He said, ``John said, `No.' '' (Note thin space between 
        single and double closing quotes.)
      ``John,'' asked Henry, ``why do you go?''

  8.128. To enclose any matter following such terms as 
entitled, the word, the term, marked, designated, classified, 
named, endorsed, cited as, referred to as, or signed; but are 
not used to enclose expressions following the terms known as, 
called, so-called, etc., unless such expressions are misnomers 
or slang.

      Congress passed the act entitled ``An act * * *.''
      After the word ``treaty'', insert a comma.
      Of what does the item ``Miscellaneous debts'' consist?
      The column ``Imports from foreign countries'' was not * * *.
      The document will be marked ``Exhibit No. 21''; but The 
        document may be made exhibit No. 2.
      The check was endorsed ``John Adamson.''
      It was signed ``John.''
  but Beryllium is known as glucinium in some European 
        countries.
      It was called profit and loss.
      The so-called investigating body.

  8.129. To enclose titles of addresses, articles, awards, 
books, captions, editorials, essays, headings, subheadings, 
headlines, hearings, motion pictures and plays (including 
television and radio programs), operas, papers, short poems, 
reports, songs, studies, subjects, and themes. All principal 
words are to be capitalized.

      An address on ``Uranium-235 in the Atomic Age''
      The article ``Germany Revisited'' appeared in the last 
        issue.
      He received the ``Man of the Year'' award.


[[Page 143]]

      ``The Conquest of Mexico,'' a published work (book)
      Under the caption ``Long-Term Treasurys Rise''
      The subject was discussed in ``Punctuation.'' (chapter 
        heading)
      It will be found in ``Part XI: Early Thought.''
      The editorial ``Haphazard Budgeting''
      ``Compensation,'' by Emerson (essay)
      ``United States To Appoint Representative to U.N.'' 
        (heading for headline)
      In ``Search for Paradise'' (motion picture); ``South 
        Pacific'' (play)
      A paper on ``Constant-Pressure Combustion'' was read.
      ``O Captain! My Captain!'' (short poem)
      The report ``Atomic Energy: What It Means to the 
        Nation''; but annual report of the Public Printer
      This was followed by the singing of ``The Star-Spangled 
        Banner.''
      Under the subhead ``Sixty Days of Turmoil'' will be found 
        * * *.
      The subject (or theme) of the conference is ``Peaceful 
        Uses of Atomic Energy.''
  also Account 5, ``Management fees.''
      Under the heading ``Management and Operation.''
      Under the appropriation ``Building of ships, Navy.''

  8.130. At the beginning of each paragraph of a quotation, but 
at the end of the last paragraph only.

  8.131. To enclose a letter or communication, which bears both 
date and signature, within a letter.

  8.132. To enclose misnomers, slang expressions, sobriquets, 
coined words, or ordinary words used in an arbitrary way.

      His report was ``bunk.''
      It was a ``gentlemen's agreement.''
      The ``invisible government'' is responsible.
      George Herman ``Babe'' Ruth.
  but He voted for the lameduck amendment.

  8.133. Quotation marks close up to adjacent characters except 
when they precede a fraction or an apostrophe or precede or 
follow a superior figure or letter, in which case a thin space 
is used. A thin space is used to separate double and single 
quotation marks.

Quotation marks are not used_

  8.134. In poetry. The lines of a poem should align on the 
left, those that rhyme taking the same indention.

                          Why seek to scale Mount Everest,
                            Queen of the air?
                          Why strive to crown that cruel crest
                            And deathward dare?
                          Said Mallory of dauntless quest:
                            ``Because it's there.''
  8.135. To enclose titles of works of art: paintings, 
statuary, etc.

  8.136. To enclose names of newspapers or magazines.

  8.137. To enclose complete letters having date and signature.

  8.138. To enclose extracts that are indented or set in 
smaller type, or solid extracts in leaded matter; but indented 
matter in text that is already quoted carries quotation marks.


[[Page 144]]

  8.139. In indirect quotations.

      Tell her yes.
      He could not say no.

  8.140. Before a display initial which begins a quoted 
paragraph.

  8.141. The comma and the final period will be placed inside 
the quotation marks. Other punctuation marks should be placed 
inside the quotation marks only if they are a part of the 
matter quoted.

      Ruth said, ``I think so.''
      ``The President,'' he said, ``will veto the bill.''
      The trainman shouted, ``All aboard!''
      Who asked, ``Why?''
      The President suggests that ``an early occasion be sought 
        * * *.''
      Why call it a ``gentlemen's agreement''?

  8.142. In congressional and certain other classes of work 
showing amendments, and in courtwork with quoted language, 
punctuation marks are printed after the quotation marks when 
not a part of the quoted matter.

      Insert the words ``growth'', ``production'', and 
        ``manufacture''.
      To be inserted after the words ``cadets, U.S. Coast 
        Guard;''.
      Change ``February 1, 1983'', to ``June 30, 2001''.
      ``Insert in lieu thereof `July 1, 1983,'.''

  8.143. When occurring together, quotation marks should 
precede footnote reference numbers.

      The commissioner claimed that the award was 
        ``unjustified.'' 1
      Kelly's exact words were: ``The facts in the case prove 
        otherwise.'' \2\

  8.144. Quotation marks should be limited, if possible, to 
three sets (double, single, double).

      ``The question in the report is, `Can a person who 
        obtains his certificate of naturalization by fraud be 
        considered a ``bona fide'' citizen of the United 
        States?' ''

Semicolon

The semicolon is used_

  8.145. To separate clauses containing commas.

      Donald A. Peters, Jr., president of the First National 
        Bank, was also a director of New York Central; Harvey 
        D. Jones was a director of Oregon Steel Co. and New 
        York Central; Thomas W. Harrison, chairman of the board 
        of McBride & Co., was also on the board of Oregon Steel 
        Co.
      Reptiles, amphibians, and predatory mammals swallow their 
        prey whole or in large pieces, bones included; 
        waterfowl habitually take shellfish entire; and 
        gallinaceous birds are provided with gizzards that 
        grind up the hardest seeds.
      Yes, sir; he did see it.
      No, sir; I do not recall.


[[Page 145]]

  8.146. To separate statements that are too closely related in 
meaning to be written as separate sentences, and also 
statements of contrast.
      Yes; that is right.
      No; we received one-third.
      It is true in peace; it is true in war.
      War is destructive; peace, constructive.
  8.147. To set off explanatory abbreviations or words which 
summarize or explain preceding matter.

      The industry is related to groups that produce finished 
        goods; i.e., electrical machinery and transportation 
        equipment.
      There were three metal producers involved; namely, Jones 
        & Laughlin, Armco, and Kennecott.

The semicolon is not used_

  8.148. Where a comma will suffice.
      Offices are located in New York, NY, Chicago, IL, and 
        Dallas, TX.

Single punctuation

  8.149. Single punctuation should be used wherever possible 
without ambiguity.

      124 U.S. 321 (no comma)
      Sir: (no dash)
      Joseph replied, ``It is a worthwhile effort.'' (no 
        outside period)

Type

  8.150. All punctuation marks, including parentheses, 
brackets, and superior reference figures, are set to match the 
type of the words which they adjoin. A lightface dash is used 
after a run-in boldface sidehead followed by lightface matter. 
Lightface brackets, parentheses, or quotation marks shall be 
used when both boldface and lightface matter are enclosed.

      Charts: C&GS 5101 (N.O. 18320), page 282 (see above); 
        N.O. 93491 (Plan); page 271.




[[Page 147]]

 
                  9. ABBREVIATIONS AND LETTER SYMBOLS

  9.1. Abbreviations and letter symbols are used to save space 
and to avoid distracting the reader by use of repetitious words 
or phrases.
  9.2. The nature of the publication governs the extent to 
which abbreviations are used. In text of technical and legal 
publications, and in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, 
sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and bibliographies, many words 
are frequently abbreviated. Heads, legends, tables of contents, 
and indexes follow the style of the text.
  9.3. Internal and terminal punctuation in symbols 
representing units of measure are to be omitted to conform with 
practice adopted by scientific, technical, and industrial 
groups. Where omission of terminal punctuation causes 
confusion; e.g., the symbol in (inch) mistaken for the 
preposition in, the symbol should be spelled out.
  9.4. Standard and easily understood forms are preferable, and 
they should be uniform throughout a job. Abbreviations not 
generally known should be followed in the text by the spelled-
out forms in parentheses the first time they occur; in tables 
and leaderwork such explanatory matter should be supplied in a 
footnote. As the printer cannot rewrite the copy, the author 
should supply these explanatory forms.
  9.5. In technical matter, symbols for units of measure should 
be used only with figures; similarly, many other abbreviations 
and symbols should not appear in isolation. For example, energy 
is measured in foot-pounds, not energy is measured in 
ftlbs.

Capitals, hyphens, periods (points), and spacing

  9.6. In general, an abbreviation follows the capitalization 
and hyphenation of the word or words abbreviated. It is 
followed by a period unless otherwise indicated.
c.o.d.
St.
but ftlb
  9.7. Abbreviations and initials of a personal name with 
points are set without spaces. Abbreviations composed of 
contractions and initials or numbers, will retain space.
H.S.T.
J.F.K.
L.B.J.
U.S.
U.N.
U.S.C. (but Rev. Stat.)
B.S., LL.D., Ph.D., B.Sc.
H.R. 116 (but S. 116, S. Con.
  Res. 116)
C.A.D.C. (but App. D.C.)
A.B. Secrest, D.D.S.

[[Page 148]]


A.F. of L.-CIO (AFL-CIO preferred)
A.D., B.C.
e.s.t.
i.e., e.g. (but op. cit.)
but
AT&T
Texas A&M
R&D
  
  9.8. Except as otherwise designated, points and spaces are 
omitted after initials used as shortened names of governmental 
agencies and of other organized bodies. ``Other organized 
bodies'' shall be interpreted to mean organized bodies that 
have become popularly identified with a symbol, such as MIT 
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology), GM (General Motors), 
GMAC (General Motors Acceptance Corp.), etc. (See ``List of 
Abbreviations.'') Symbols, when they appear in copy, may be 
used for acts of Congress. Example: ARA (Area Redevelopment 
Act).
VFW
NLRB
TVA
AFL-CIO
ARC
ASTM

Geographic terms

  9.9. United States must be spelled out when appearing in a 
sentence containing the name of another country. The 
abbreviation U.S. will be used when preceding the word 
Government or the name of a Government organization, except in 
formal writing (treaties, Executive orders, proclamations, 
etc.); congressional bills; legal citations and courtwork; and 
covers and title pages.
      U.S. Government
      U.S. Congress
      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      U.S. district court
      U.S. Supreme Court (but Supreme Court of the United 
        States)
      U.S. Army (but Army of the United States)
      U.S. monitor Nantucket
      U.S.-NATO assistance
      U.S. Government efforts to control inflation must be 
        successful if the   United States is to have a stable 
        economy.
  but British, French, and United States Governments; United 
        States-British  talks
  9.10. With the exceptions in the preceding rule, the 
abbreviation U.S. is used in the adjective position, but is 
spelled out when used as a noun.
U.S. foreign policy
U.S. farm-support program
U.S. attorney
U.S. citizen
United States Code (official title)
United States Steel Corp. (legal title)
Foreign policy of the United States
  
not Temperatures vary in the U.S.
  9.11. The names of foreign countries are not abbreviated, 
with the exception of the former U.S.S.R., which is abbreviated 
due to its length.
  9.12. In other than formal usage as defined in rule 9.9, all 
States of the United States, the Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, and 
the Virgin Islands are abbreviated immediately following any 
capitalized geographic term, including armory, arsenal, 
airbase, airport, barracks,

[[Page 149]]

depot, fort, Indian agency, military camp, national cemetery 
(also forest, historic site, memorial, seashore, monument, 
park), naval shipyard, proving ground, reservation (forest, 
Indian, or military), and reserve or station (military or 
naval).
Prince George's County, MD
Mount Rainier National Forest, WA
Stone Mountain, GA
National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD
Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, IL-IA-MO (note use of hyphens 
  here)
Richmond, VA
Arlington National Cemetery, VA
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD
Baltimore-Washington International Airport, MD
Redstone Arsenal, AL
  
but
Leavenworth freight yards,
  Kansas
Altoona sidetrack, Wisconsin
  9.13. The Postal Service style of two-letter State, Province, 
and Freely Associated State abbreviations is to be used.

                               UNITED STATES (INCLUDING FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES)
AL             Alabama                  IN             Indiana                  ND             North Dakota
AK             Alaska                   IA             Iowa                     OH             Ohio
AZ             Arizona                  KS             Kansas                   OK             Oklahoma
AR             Arkansas                 KY             Kentucky                 OR             Oregon
AS             American Samoa           LA             Louisiana                PA             Pennsylvania
CA             California               ME             Maine                    PR             Puerto Rico
CO             Colorado                 MD             Maryland                 RI             Rhode Island
CT             Connecticut              MA             Massachusetts            SC             South Carolina
CZ             Canal Zone               MI             Michigan                 SD             South Dakota
DE             Delaware                 MN             Minnesota                TN             Tennessee
DC             District of              MS             Mississippi              TX             Texas
                 Columbia               MO             Missouri                 UT             Utah
FL             Florida                  MT             Montana                  VT             Vermont
FM             Federated States         NE             Nebraska                 VA             Virginia
                 of Micronesia          NV             Nevada                   VI             Virgin Islands
GA             Georgia                  NH             New Hampshire            WA             Washington
GU             Guam                     NJ             New Jersey               WV             West Virginia
HI             Hawaii                   NM             New Mexico               WI             Wisconsin
ID             Idaho                    NY             New York                 WY             Wyoming
IL             Illinois                 NC             North Carolina


                                                     CANADA
AB             Alberta                  NF             Newfoundland             PE             Prince Edward
BC             British Columbia         NT             Northwest                                 Island
LB             Labrador                                  Territories            PQ             Quebec
MB             Manitoba                 NS             Nova Scotia              SK             Saskatchewan
NB             New Brunswick            ON             Ontario                  YT             Yukon Territory

  9.14. The names of other insular possessions, trust 
territories, and Long Island, Staten Island, etc., are not 
abbreviated.
  9.15. The names of Canadian Provinces and other foreign 
political subdivisions are not abbreviated except as noted in 
rule 9.13.

Addresses

  9.16. Words such as Street, Avenue, Place, Road, Square, 
Boulevard, Terrace, Drive, Court, and Building, following a 
name or number, are abbreviated in footnotes, sidenotes, 
tables, leaderwork, and lists.
  9.17. In addresses, a single period is used with the 
abbreviations NW., SW., NE., SE. (indicating sectional 
divisions of cities) follow

[[Page 150]]

ing name or number. North, South, East, and West are spelled 
out at all times.
  9.18. The word Street or Avenue as part of a name is not 
abbreviated even in parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, 
lists, and leaderwork.
14th Street Bridge
Ninth Avenue Bldg.
  9.19. The words County, Fort, Mount, Point, and Port are not 
abbreviated. Saint (St.) and Sainte (Ste.) should be 
abbreviated.

Descriptions of tracts of land

  9.20. If fractions are spelled out in land descriptions, half 
and quarter are used (not one-half nor one-quarter).
      south half of T. 47 N., R. 64 E.
  9.21. In the description of tracts of public land the 
following abbreviations are used (periods are omitted after 
abbreviated compass directions that immediately precede and 
close up on figures):
      SE\1/4\NW\1/4\ sec. 4, T. 12 S., R. 15 E., of the Boise 
        Meridian
      lot 6, NE\1/4\ sec. 4, T. 6 N., R. 1 W.
      N\1/2\ sec. 20, T. 7 N., R. 2 W., sixth principal 
        meridian
      Tps. 9, 10, 11, and 12 S., Rs. 12 and 13 W.
      T. 2 S., Rs. 8, 9, and 10 E., sec. 26
      T. 3 S., R. 1 E., sec. 34, W\1/2\E\1/2\, W\1/2\, and W\1/
        2\SE\1/4\SE\1/4\
      sec. 32 (with or without a township number)
  9.22. In case of an unavoidable break in a land-description 
symbol group at end of a line, use no hyphen and break after 
fraction.

Names and titles

  9.23. The following forms are not always abbreviations, and 
copy should be followed as to periods:

Al
Alex
Ben
Ed
Fred
Sam
Walt
Will

  9.24. In signatures, an effort should be made to retain the 
exact form used by the signer.
George Wythe
Geo. Taylor
  9.25. In company and other formal names, if it is not 
necessary to preserve the full legal title, such forms as Bro., 
Bros., Co., Corp., Inc., Ltd., and & are used. Association and 
Manufacturing are not abbreviated.
Radio Corp. of America
Aluminum Co. of America
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey
Ronald G. Brown & Bro.
Jones Bros. & Co.
American Telephone & Telegraph Co.
Norton Enterprises, Inc.
Maryland Steamship Co., Ltd.
Chesapeake & Delaware Canal
Fairmount Building & Loan Association
Electronics Manufacturing Co.
Texas College of Arts & Industries
National Barrel & Drum Association
Robert Wilson & Associates, Inc.
U.S. News & World Report
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad
Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers
  
but
Little Theater Company
Senate Banking, Housing and
  Urban Affairs Committee

[[Page 151]]


  9.26. Company and Corporation are not abbreviated in names of 
Federal Government units.
      Commodity Credit Corporation
      Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation
      Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
  9.27. In parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and 
leaderwork, abbreviate the words railroad and railway (RR. and 
Ry.), except in such names as ``Washington Railway & Electric 
Co.'' and ``Florida Railroad & Navigation Corp.'' SS for 
steamship, MS for motorship, etc., preceding name are used at 
all times.
  9.28. In the names of informal companionships the word and is 
spelled out.
Gilbert and Sullivan
Currier and Ives
  9.29. In other than formal usage, a civil, military, or naval 
title preceding a name is abbreviated if followed by first or 
given name or initial; but Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., M., MM., 
Messrs., Mlle., Mme., and Dr. are abbreviated with or without 
first or given name or initial.

               army, air force, and marine corps officers
GEN..........  General                  CPT            Captain
LTG..........  Lieutenant General       1LT            First Lieutenant
MG...........  Major General            2LT            Second Lieutenant
BG...........  Brigadier General        MWO            Master Warrant
                                                        Officer
COL..........  Colonel                                   (Army)
LTC..........  Lieutenant Colonel       CWO            Chief Warrant
                                                        Officer
MAJ..........  Major                    WO             Warrant Officer


                              navy officers
ADM..........  Admiral                  LCDR           Lieutenant
                                                        Commander
VADM.........  Vice Admiral             LT             Lieutenant
RADM.........  Rear Admiral             LTJG           Lieutenant Junior
                                                        Grade
COMO.........  Commodore                ENS            Ensign
CAPT.........  Captain                  WO             Warrant Officer
CDR..........  Commander


                         army enlisted personnel
SMA..........  Sergeant Major of the    1SG            First Sergeant
                Army
CSM..........  Command Sergeant Major   MSG            Master Sergeant
SGM..........  Sergeant Major           PSG            Platoon Sergeant
SFC..........  Sergeant First Class     PFC            Private First
                                                        Class
SSG..........  Staff Sergeant           PVT            Private
SGT..........  Sergeant                 SP4            Specialist Fourth
                                                        Class
CPL..........  Corporal


                     marine corps enlisted personnel
MGySgt.......   Master Gunnery          Sgt            Sergeant
                Sergeant
1stSgt.......  First Sergeant           Cpl            Corporal
MSgt.........  Master Sergeant          LCpl           Lance Corporal
GySgt........  Gunnery Sergeant         PFC            Private First
                                                        Class
SSgt.........  Staff Sergeant           PVT            Private


[[Page 152]]


                      air force enlisted personnel
CMSgt........  Chief Master Sergeant    Sgt            Sergeant
SMSgt........  Senior Master Sergeant   SrA            Senior Airman
MSgt.........  Master Sergeant          A1C            Airman First
                                                        Class
TSgt.........  Technical Sergeant       Amn            Airman
SSgt.........  Staff Sergeant

  9.30. Spell out Senator, Representative, and commandant.
  9.31. Unless preceded by the, abbreviate Honorable, Reverend, 
and Monsignor when followed by the first name, initials, or 
title.
      Hon. Elihu Root; the Honorable Elihu Root; the Honorable 
        Mr. Root
      the Honorables William H. Rehnquist, John Paul Stevens, 
        and Sandra Day O'Connor
      Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Reverend Dr. King; Rev. 
        Dr. King; Reverend King (not Rev. King, nor the 
        Reverend King)
      Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman; the Right Reverend James E. 
        Freeman; Very Rev. Henry Boyd; the Very Reverend Henry 
        Boyd
      Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Bird; the Right Reverend Monsignor 
        John Bird
  9.32. The following and similar forms are used after a name:
      Esq., Jr., Sr.
      2d, 3d (or II, III) (not preceded by comma)
      Degrees: LL.D., M.A., Ph.D., etc.
      Fellowships, orders, etc.: FSA Scot, F.R.S., K.C.B., 
        C.P.A., etc.
  9.33. The abbreviation Esq. and other titles such as Mr., 
Mrs., and Dr., should not appear with any other title or with 
abbreviations indicating scholastic degrees.
      John L. Smith, Esq., not Mr. John L. Smith, Esq., nor 
        John L. Smith, Esq., A.M.; but James A. Jones, Jr., 
        Esq.
      Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D., not Mr. Ford Maddox, A.B., 
        Ph.D.
      George Gray, M.D., not Mr. George Gray, M.D., nor Dr. 
        George Gray, M.D.
      Dwight A. Bellinger, D.V.M.
  9.34. Sr. and Jr. should not be used without first or given 
name or initials, but may be used in combination with any 
title.
      A.K. Jones, Jr., or Mr. Jones, Junior, not Jones, Jr., 
        nor Jones, Junior
      President J.B. Nelson, Jr.
  9.35. When name is followed by abbreviations designating 
religious and fraternal orders and scholastic and honorary 
degrees, their sequence is as follows: Orders, religious first; 
theological degrees; academic degrees earned in course; and 
honorary degrees in order of bestowal.
      Henry L. Brown, D.D., A.M., D.Lit.
      T.E. Holt, C.S.C., S.T.Lr., LL.D., Ph.D.
      Samuel J. Deckelbaum, P.M.
  9.36. Academic degrees standing alone may be abbreviated.
      John was graduated with a B.A. degree; but bachelor of 
        arts degree (lowercase when spelled out).
      She earned her Ph.D. by hard work.
  9.37. In addresses, signatures, lists of names, and 
leaderwork but not in tables nor in centerheads, Mr., Mrs., and 
other titles

[[Page 153]]

preceding a name, and Esq., Jr., Sr., 2d, and 3d following a 
name, are set in roman caps and lowercase if the name is in 
caps and small caps. If the name is in caps, they are set in 
caps and small caps, if small caps are available--otherwise in 
caps and lowercase.

Parts of publications

  9.38. The following abbreviations are used for parts of 
publications mentioned in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, 
sidenotes, list of references, tables, and leaderwork, when 
followed by figures, letters, or Roman numerals.
app., apps. (appendix, appendixes)
art., arts. (article, articles)
bull., bulls. (bulletin, bulletins)
ch., chs. (chapter, chapters)
col., cols. (column, columns)
ed., eds. (edition, editions)
fig., figs. (figure, figures)
No., Nos. (number, numbers)
p., pp. (page, pages)
par., pars. (paragraph, paragraphs)
pl., pls. (plate, plates)
pt., pts. (part, parts)
sec., secs. (section, sections)
subch., subchs. (subchapter, subchapters)
subpar., subpars. (subparagraph, subparagraphs)
subpt., subpts. (subpart, subparts)
subsec., subsecs. (subsection, subsections)
supp., supps. (supplement, supplements)
vol., vols. (volume, volumes)
  9.39. The word article and the word section are abbreviated 
when appearing at the beginning of a paragraph and set in caps 
and small caps followed by a period and an en space, except 
that the first of a series is spelled out.
      Art. 2; Sec. 2; etc.; but Article 1; Section 1
      Art. II; Sec. II; etc.; but Article I; Section I
  9.40. At the beginning of a legend, the word figure preceding 
the legend number is not abbreviated.

                         Figure 4.--Landscape.

Terms relating to Congress

  9.41. The words Congress and session, when accompanied by a 
numerical reference, are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, 
and text footnotes. In sidenotes, lists of references, tables, 
leaderwork, and footnotes to tables and leaderwork, the 
following abbreviations are used:
106th Cong., 1st sess.
1st sess., 106th Cong.
Public Law 84, 102d Cong.
Private Law 68, 102d Cong.
  9.42. In references to bills, resolutions, documents and 
reports in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, 
and leaderwork, the following abbreviations are used:
H.R. 416 (House bill)
S. 116 (Senate bill)
The examples above may be abbreviated or spelled out in text.
H. Res. 5 (House resolution)
H. Con. Res. 10 (House concurrent resolution)
H.J. Res. 21 (House joint resolution)
S. Res. 50 (Senate resolution)
S. Con. Res. 17 (Senate concurrent resolution)
S.J. Res. 45 (Senate joint resolution)

[[Page 154]]


H. Conf. Rept. 10 (House conference report)
H. Doc. 35 (House document)
S. Doc. 62 (Senate document)
H. Rept. 214 (House report)
S. Rept. 410 (Senate report)
Ex. Doc. B (Executive document)
Ex. F (92d Cong., 2d sess.)
Ex. Rept. 9 (92d Cong., 1st sess.)
Misc. Doc. 16 (miscellaneous document)
Public Res. 47
  9.43. References to statutes in parentheses, footnotes, 
sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and congressional work are 
abbreviated.
      Rev. Stat. (Revised Statutes); 43 Rev. Stat. 801; 18 
        U.S.C. 38
      Supp. Rev. Stat. (Supplement to the Revised Statutes)
      Stat. L. (Statutes at Large)
  but Public Law 85-1; Private Law 68

Calendar divisions

  9.44. Names of months followed by the day, or day and year, 
are abbreviated in footnotes, tables, leaderwork, sidenotes, 
and in bibliographies. (See examples, rule 9.45.) May, June, 
and July are always spelled out. In narrow columns in tables, 
however, the names of months may be abbreviated even if 
standing alone. Preferred forms follow:
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
  9.45. In text only, dates as part of a citation or reference 
within parentheses or brackets are also abbreviated.
      (Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 4, 1985)
      (Congressional Record, Sept. 25, 1981)
      [From the New York Times, Mar. 4, 1978]
      [From the Mar. 4 issue]
      On Jan. 25 (we had commenced on Dec. 26, 1977) the work 
        was finished. (In footnotes, tables, leaderwork, and 
        sidenotes)
      On January 25, a decision was reached (Op. Atty. Gen., 
        Dec. 4, 1975). (Text, but with citation in parentheses)
  but On January 25 (we had commenced on December 26, 1967) the 
        work was finished. (Not a citation or reference in 
        text)
  9.46. Weekdays are not abbreviated, but the following forms 
are used, if necessary, in lists or in narrow columns in 
tables:
Sun.
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Thurs.
  
Fri.
Sat.
  

Time zones

  9.47. The following forms are to be used when abbreviating 
names of time zones:
A.s.t., Atlantic standard time
A.t., Atlantic time
c.s.t., central standard time
c.t., central time
d.s.t., daylight saving (no ``s'') time
e.d.s.t., eastern daylight saving time
e.d.t., eastern daylight time
e.s.t., eastern standard time
e.t., eastern time
G.c.t., Greenwich civil time
G.m.a.t., Greenwich mean astronomical time
G.m.t., Greenwich mean time
l.s.t., local standard time
m.s.t., mountain standard time
m.t., mountain time
P.s.t., Pacific standard time
P.t., Pacific time
UTC, universal time coordinated

[[Page 155]]



Acronyms, coined words, and symbols

  9.48. To obtain uniform treatment in the formation of 
acronyms, coined words, and symbols, apply the formulas that 
follow:
      Use all capital letters when only the first letter of 
        each word or selected words is used to make up the 
        symbol:
          APPR (Army package power reactor)
          EPCOT (Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow)
          MAG (Military Advisory Group)
          MIRV (multiple independently targetable reentry 
            vehicle)
          SALT (strategic arms limitation talks); (avoid SALT 
            talks)
          STEP (supplemental training and employment program)

      Use all capital letters where first letters of prefixes 
        and/or suffixes are utilized as part of established 
        expressions:
          CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)
          ESP (extrasensory perception)
          FLIR (forward-looking infrared)

      Copy must be followed where an acronym or abbreviated 
        form is copyrighted or established by law:
          ACTION (agency of Government; not an acronym)
          MarAd (Maritime Administration)
          NACo (National Association of Counties)
          MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval 
            System)

      Use caps and lowercase when proper names are used in 
        shortened form, any word of which uses more than the 
        first letter of each word:
          Conrail (Consolidated Rail Corporation)
          Pepco (Potomac Electric Power Co.)
          Inco (International Nickel Co.)
          Aramco (Arabian-American Oil Co.)
          Unprofor (United Nations Protection Force)

      Use lowercase in common-noun combinations made up of more 
        than the first letter of lowercased words:
          loran (long-range navigation)
          sonar (sound navigation ranging)
          secant (separation control of aircraft by 
            nonsynchronous techniques)
  9.49. The words infra and supra are not abbreviated.

Terms of measure

  9.50. Compass directions are abbreviated as follows:
N.
NE.
E.
SW.
S.
NNW.
W.
  
ESE.
10 deg. N. 25 deg. W.
NW. by N. \1/4\ W.
  9.51. The words latitude and longitude, followed by figures, 
are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, 
tables, and leaderwork, and the figures are always closed up.
lat. 52 deg.33'05" N.
long. 13 deg.21'10" E.
  9.52. Avoid breaking latitude and longitude figures at end of 
line; space out line instead. In case of an unavoidable break 
at end of line, use hyphen.
  9.53. Temperature and gravity are expressed in figures. When 
the degree mark is used, it must appear closed up to the 
capital

[[Page 156]]

letter, not against the figures. Note the following related 
abbreviations and letter symbols and their usages:

abs, absolute
Be, Baume
 deg.C,\1\ degree Celsius\2\
 deg.F, degree Fahrenheit
 deg.R, degree Rankine
K, kelvin
273.15 K
 deg.API
API, American Petroleum Institute
Twad, Twaddell
100  deg.C
212  deg.F\1\
671.67  deg.R
18  deg.API

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \1\ Without figures preceding it,  deg.C or  deg.F should be used 
only in boxheads and over figure columns in tables.
  \2\ Preferred form (superseding Centigrade) approved by Ninth General 
Conference on Weights and Measures, October 1948.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  9.54. References to meridian in statements of time are 
abbreviated as follows:

10 a.m. (not 10:00 a.m.)
2:30 p.m.
12 a.m. (formerly 12 m.) (noon)
12 p.m. (midnight)

  9.55. The word o'clock is not used with abbreviations of 
time.

      not 10 o'clock p.m.

  9.56. Metric unit letter symbols are set lowercase roman 
unless the unit name has been derived from a proper name, in 
which case the first letter of the symbol is capitalized (for 
example Pa for pascal and W for watt). The exception is the 
letter L for liter. The same form is used for singular and 
plural. The preferred symbol for cubic centimeter is cm\3\; use 
cc only when requested.

  A space is used between a figure and a unit symbol except in 
the case of the symbols for degree, minute, and second of plane 
angle.

       3 m      45 mm      25  deg.C      but  33 deg.15'21"



  Prefixes for multiples and submultiples
                                                    Metric units



E                   exa (1018)                 d                   deci (10-1)                       m                  meter (for length)

P                   peta (1015)                c                   centi (10-2)                      g                  gram (for weight or

T                   tera (1012)                m                   milli (10-3)                                           mass)

G                   giga (109)                            micro (10-6)                      L                  liter (for capacity)

M                   mega (106)                 n                   nano (10-9)

k                   kilo (103)                 p                   pico (10-12)

h                   hecto (102)                f                   femto (10-15)
 
da                  deka (10)                  a                   atto (10-18)


 
                                     Length                                                                     Area                                                                            Volume
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
km               kilometer                                              km\2\           square kilometer                                                km\3\           cubic kilometer
hm               hectometer                                             hm\2\           square hectometer                                               hm\3\           cubic hectometer
dam              dekameter                                              dam\2\          square dekameter                                                dam\3\          cubic dekameter
m                meter                                                  m\2\            square meter                                                    m\3\            cubic meter
dm               decimeter                                              dm\2\           square decimeter                                                dm\3\           cubic decimeter
cm               centimeter                                             cm\2\           square centimeter                                               cm\3\           cubic centimeter
mm               millimeter                                             mm\2\           square millimeter                                               mm\3\           cubic millimeter


[[Page 157]]


 
                                                                                                              Land area                                               Capacity of containers
                                   Weight
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
kg         kilogram                                                          ha         hectare                                                         kL         kiloliter
hg         hectogram                                                         a          acre                                                            hL         hectoliter
dag        dekagram                                                                                                                                     daL        dekaliter
g          gram                                                                                                                                         L          liter
dg         decigram                                                          .........  ..............................................................  dL         deciliter
cg         centigram                                                         .........  ..............................................................  cL         centiliter
mg         milligram                                                         .........  ..............................................................  mL         milliliter
  microgram                                                         .........  ..............................................................
g

  9.57. A similar form of abbreviation applies to any unit of 
the metric system.

A              ampere
VA             voltampere
F              fared
H              Henry
Hz             Hertz
J              joule
V              volt
W              watt
kc             kilocycle
kV             kilovolt
kVA            kilovoltampere
kW             kilowatt
mF             millifarad
mH             millihenry
F     microfarad (one-millionth of a farad)

  9.58. The following forms are used when units of English 
weight and measure and units of time are abbreviated, the same 
form of abbreviation being used for both singular and plural:

 
                                          Length                                    Area and volume
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              in            inch                                      in\2\        square inch
              ft            foot                                      in\3\        cubic inch
              yd            yard                                      mi\2\        square mile
              mi            mile (statute)                            ft\3\        cubic foot


 
                                    Time                                                                              Weight                                                                                                   Capacity
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
yr                 year                                         gr                 grain                                                                                      gill               (not abbreviated)
mo                 month                                        dr                 dram                                                                                       pt                 pint
d                  day                                          oz                 ounce                                                                                      qt                 quart
h                  hour                                         lb                 pound                                                                                      gal                gallon
min                minute                                       cwt                hundredweight                                                                              pk                 peck
s                  second                                       dwt                pennyweight                                                                                bu                 bushel
                                                                ton(s)             (not abbreviated)                                                                          bbl                barrel
                                                                but t               metric ton (tonne)

  9.59. In astrophysical and similar scientific matter, 
magnitudes and units of time may be expressed as follows, if so 
written in copy.

5h3m9s       4.5h

Money

  9.60. The following are some of the abbreviations and symbols 
used for indicating money:
$, dol (dollar)
c, ct,  cents (cent, cents)
LT175 (Turkish)
US$15,000
Mex$2,650
P (peso)
 (pound)
d (pence)

  Use ``US$'' if omission would result in confusion.

  (For the abbreviations of other terms indicating currency, 
see the table ``Foreign Money'' in ``Useful Tables.'')

[[Page 158]]

                         LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Standard word abbreviations

  9.61. If abbreviations are required, use these forms:

AA, Alcoholics Anonymous
AARP, American Association of Retired Persons also AppleTalk Address 
  Resolution Protocol
abbr., abbreviation
ABM, Asynchronous Balanced Mode
abs., abstract
acct., account
ACDA, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone
A.D. (anno Domini), in the year of our Lord (A.D. 937)
ADDH, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
ADHD, attention deficit hyper-
  activity disorder
ADN, advanced digital network
ADP, automated data processing
ADSL, asymmetric digital subscriber line
AEF, American Expeditionary Forces
AF, audiofrequency
AFB, and similar military symbols (with name), Air Force Base
AFL-CIO, American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial 
  Organizations
AID, Agency for International Development
AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
a.k.a., also known as
A.L.R., American Law Reports
AM (no periods), amplitude modulation
A.M. (anno mundi), in the year of the world
A.M. or M.A., master of arts
a.m. (ante meridiem), before noon
Am. Repts., American Reports
Amtrak, National Railroad Passenger Corporation
AMVETS, American Veterans of World War II; Amvet(s) (individual)
ANSI, American National Standards Institute
antilog (no period), antilogarithm
A1 (rating)
AOA, Administration on Aging
API, American Petroleum Institute
APO (no periods), Army post office
App. D.C., District of Columbia Appeal Cases
App. Div., Appellate Division
APPR, Army package power reactor
approx., approximately
ARC, American Red Cross
ARP, Address Resolution Protocol
ARS, Agricultural Research Service
ASCII, American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASCS, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service
ASME, American Society of Mechanical Engineers
A.S.N., Army service number
ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials
ATM, automatic teller machine
Atl., Atlantic Reporter; A.2d, Atlantic Reporter, second series
AUS, Army of the United States
Ave., avenue
AWACS, airborne warning and control system
AWOL, absent without leave
B.A. or A.B., bachelor of arts
BBB, Better Business Bureau
BBS, bulletin board service
B.C., before Christ (1200 B.C.)
BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guerin), antituberculosis vaccine
bf., boldface
BGN, Board on (not of) Geographic Names
BIA, Bureau of Indian Affairs
BIOS, Basic Input/Output System
BIS, Bank for International Settlements
BIT, BInary digiT
Blatch. Pr. Cas., Blatchford's Prize Cases
Bldg., building
B.Lit(t). or Lit(t).B., bachelor of literature
BLM, Bureau of Land Management
BLS, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Blvd., boulevard
b.o., buyer's option
BPS, bits per second
B.S. or B.Sc., bachelor of science
ca. (circa), about
ca, centiare
CACM, Central American Common Market
CAD, computer-aided design
c. and s.c., caps and small caps
CAP, Civil Air Patrol
CARE, Cooperative for American Remittances to Everywhere, Inc.
CAT scan, computerized axial tomography

[[Page 159]]


C.C.A., Circuit Court of Appeals
CCC, Commodity Credit Corporation
CCITT, Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and 
  Telephony
C.Cls., Court of Claims
C.Cls.R., Court of Claims Reports
C.C.P.A., Court of Customs and Patents Appeals
CCR, Commission on Civil Rights
CDC, Centers for Disease Control
CD-I, Compact Disk Interactive
CD-ROM, Compact Disk--Read Only Memory
CD-R, Compact Disk--Recordable
CEA, Council of Economic Advisers
cf. (confer), compare, or see
CFR, Code of Federal Regulations
CFR Supp., Code of Federal Regulations Supplement
CGI, Common Gateway Interface
CHAMPUS, Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services
CIA, Central Intelligence Agency
CIC, Counterintelligence Corps
C.J. (corpus juris), body of law; Chief Justice
CNN, Cable News Network
CO, commanding officer
Co., company (commercial)
c.o.d., cash on delivery
COLA, cost-of-living adjustment
Comp. Dec., Comptroller's Decisions (Treasury)
Comp. Gen., Comptroller General Decisions
con., continued
conelrad, control of electromagnetic radiation (civil defense)
Conrail, Consolidated Rail Corporation
Conus, continental United States
Corp., corporation (commercial)
cos (no period), cosine
cosh (no period), hyperbolic cosine
cot (no period), cotangent
coth (no period), hyperbolic cotangent
c.p., chemically pure
C.P.A., certified public accountant
CPI, Consumer Price Index
CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPU, central processing unit (computer)
cr., credit; creditor
C-SPAN, Cable Satellite Public Affairs Network
csc (no period), cosecant
csch (no period), hyperbolic cosecant
CTI, computer-telephony integration
Ct., court
Dall., Dallas (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
DAR, Daughters of the American Revolution
d.b.a., doing business as
d.b.h., diameter at breast height
DBMS, database management system
D.D., doctor of divinity
D.D.S., doctor of dental surgery
DDT, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DEW, distant early warning (DEW line)
Dist. Ct., District Court
D.Lit(t). or Lit(t).D., doctor of literature
DMI, Desktop Management Interface
DNC, Domestic Names Committee (BGN)
DNS, Domain Name Service
do. (ditto), the same
DOC, Department of Commerce
DOD, Department of Defense
DOE, Department of Energy
DOJ, Department of Justice
DOL, Department of Labor
DOS, Department of State; disk operating system
DOT, Department of Transportation
DP (no periods), displaced person
D.P.H., doctor of public health
dpi, dots per inch
D.P.Hy., doctor of public hygiene
DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus innoculation
dr., debit; debtor
Dr., doctor; drive
DSSL, Document Style and Semantics Language
d.s.t., daylight saving (no ``s'') time
DTP, desktop publishing
DVD, digital video disk
D.V.M., doctor of veterinary medicine
E., east
EBCDIC, Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
e-mail, electronic mail
EEOC, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
EFTA, European Free Trade Association
EFTS, electronic funds transfer system
e.g. (exempli gratia), for example
EHF, extremely high frequency
8+, octavo
emcee, master of ceremony
e.o.m., end of month
EOP, Executive Office of the President
EPA, Environmental Protection Agency

[[Page 160]]


EPS, Encapsulated PostScript file
ERP, European Recovery Program
et al. (et alii), and others
et seq. (et sequentia), and the following
etc. (et cetera), and so forth
EU, European Union
Euratom, European Atomic Energy Community
Euro, currency (common)
Eurodollars, U.S. dollars used to finance foreign trade
Ex. Doc. (with letter), executive document
Ex-Im Bank, Export-Import Bank of the United States
f., ff., and following page (pages)
FAA, Federal Aviation Administration
FACS, Faculty of the American College of Surgeons
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization
f.a.s., free alongside ship
FAS, Foreign Agricultural Service
FBB, Federal Bulletin Board
FBI, Federal Bureau of Investigation
FCA, Farm Credit Administration
FCC, Federal Communications Commission
FCIC, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation
FCSC, Foreign Claims Settlement Commission
FDA, Food and Drug Administration
FDDI, Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDIC, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FDLP, Federal Depository Library Program
Fed., Federal Reporter; F.3d, Federal Reporter, third series
FEOF, Foreign Exchange Operations Fund
FHA, Federal Housing Administration
FmHA, Farmers Home Administration
FHLBB, Federal Home Loan Bank Board
FHWA, Federal Highway Administration
FICA, Federal Insurance Contributions Act
FIPS, Federal Information Processing Standards
FLSA, Fair Labor Standards Act
FM, frequency modulation
FMC, Federal Maritime Commission
FMCS, Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service
FNMA, Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae)
FNS, Food and Nutrition Service
FOSI, Format Output Specification Instance
f+, folio
f.o.b., free on board
4+, quarto
FPC, Federal Power Commission
FPO (no periods), fleet post office
FR, Federal Register (publication)
FRG, Federal Republic of Germany
FRS, Federal Reserve System
FS, Forest Service
FSLIC, Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation
FSS, Federal Supply Service
F.Supp., Federal Supplement
FTC, Federal Trade Commission
FTP, File Transfer Protocol
FWS, Fish and Wildlife Service
GAO, General Accounting Office
GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GB, gigabyte
GDI, Graphical Device Interface
GDR, German Democratic Republic
GGP, Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol
GI, general issue; Government issue
GIF, Graphical Interchange Format
GILS, Government Information Locator Service
GIS, Geographic Information System
G.M.&S., general, medical, and surgical
GNMA, Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)
GNP, gross national product
Gov., Governor
GPO, Government Printing Office
gr. wt., gross weight
GSA, General Services Administration
GSE, Government-Sponsored Enterprise
GUI, Graphical User Interface
H.C., House of Commons
H. Con. Res. (with number), House concurrent resolution
H. Doc. (with number), House document
hazmat, hazardous material
HE (no periods), high explosive
HF (no periods), high frequency
HHS, Health and Human Services (Department of)
HIV, human immunodeficiency virus

[[Page 161]]


H.J. Res. (with number), House joint resolution
HMO, health-maintenance organization
HOV, high-occupancy vehicle
How., Howard (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
H.R. (with number), House bill
H. Rept. (with number), House report
H. Res. (with number), House resolution
HTML, HyperText Markup Language
HTTP, HyperText Transfer Protocol
HTTPD, HyperText Transfer Protocol Daemon
HUD, Housing and Urban Development
HYTELNET, HyperText-browser for Telnet Accessible Sites
IADB, Inter-American Defense Board
IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency
ibid. (ibidem), in the same place
ICBM, intercontinental ballistic missile
ICC, Interstate Commerce Commission
ICMP, Internet Control Message Protocol
id. (idem), the same
IDA, International Development Association
IDE, integrated drive electronics
i.e. (id est), that is
IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IF (no periods), intermediate frequency
IFC, International Finance Corporation
IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization
IMF, International Monetary Fund
INS, Immigration and Naturalization Service
Insp. Gen. (also IG), inspector general
Interpol, International Criminal Police Organization
IOU, I owe you
IP, Internet Protocol
IQ, intelligence quotient
IRA, individual retirement account
IRBM, intermediate range ballistic missile
IRE, Institute of Radio Engineers
IRO, International Refugee Organization
IRS, Internal Revenue Service
ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO, International Standards Organization
ISP, Internet service provider
ITO, International Trade Organization
ITU, International Telecommunications Union
JAG, Judge Advocate General
jato, jet-assisted takeoff
J.D. (jurum or juris doctor), doctor of laws
JOBS, Job Opportunities in the Business Sector
JIT, just in time
JPEG, Joint Photographic Experts Group
Jpn., Japan or Japanese where necessary to abbreviate
Jr., junior
Judge Adv. Gen., Judge Advocate General
LAFTA, Latin American Free Trade Association
LAN, local area network
LAPM, Link Access Procedure for Modems
lat., latitude
LC, Library of Congress
LCD, liquid crystal display
lc., lowercase
L.Ed., Lawyer's edition (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
liq., liquid
lf., lightface
LF, low frequency
LL.B., bachelor of laws
LL.D., doctor of laws
loc. cit. (loco citato), in the place cited
log (no period), logarithm
long., longitude
loran (no periods), long-range navigation
lox (no periods), liquid oxygen
LPG, liquefied petroleum gas
Ltd., limited
Lt. Gov., lieutenant governor
M, money supply: M1, M2, etc.
M., monsieur; MM., messieurs
m. (meridies), noon
M, more
MA (see MarAd)
MAC, Military Airlift Command
MAG, Military Advisory Group
MarAd, Maritime Administration
MB, megabyte
MC, Member of Congress (emcee, master of ceremonies)
M.D., doctor of medicine
MDAP, Mutual Defense Assistance Program
MediCal, Medicaid California
memo, memorandum
MF, medium frequency; microfiche
MFN, most favored nation
MIA, missing in action (plural, MIA's)

[[Page 162]]


MIME, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
MIPS, millions of instructions per second
MIRV, multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle
Misc. Doc. (with number), miscellaneous document
Mlle., mademoiselle
Mme., madam
Mmes., mesdames
mo., month
MOS, military occupational specialty
MPEG, Motion Pictures Experts Group
M.P., Member of Parliament
MP, military police
Mr., mister (plural, Messrs.)
MRI, magnetic resonance imaging
Mrs., mistress
Ms., coined feminine title (plural, Mses.)
M.S., master of science
MS., MSS., manuscript, manuscripts
MSC, Military Sealift Command
Msgr., monsignor
m.s.l., mean sea level
MSNBC, Microsoft, National Broadcasting Co.
MTN, multilateral trade negotiations
N., north
NA, not available; not applicable
NACo., National Association of Counties
NAFTA, North American Free Trade Agreement
NAS, National Academy of Science
NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NAT, network address translation module
NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NCUA, National Credit Union Administration
NE., northeast
n.e.c., not elsewhere classified
n.e.s., not elsewhere specified
net wt., net weight
N.F., National Formulary
NFAH, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities
NIH, National Institutes of Health
N-ISDN, Narrowband ISDN
NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology
n.l., natural log or logarithm
NLRB, National Labor Relations Board
NNTP, Network News Transfer Protocol
No., Nos., number, numbers
NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
n.o.i.b.n., not otherwise indexed by name
n.o.p., not otherwise provided (for)
n.o.s., not otherwise specified
NOVS, National Office of Vital Statistics
NPS, National Park Service
NRC, Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NS, nuclear ship
NSA, National Shipping Authority
NSC, National Security Council
NSF, National Science Foundation
n.s.k., not specified by kind
n.s.p.f., not specifically provided for
NW., northwest
OAPEC, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
OAS, Organization of American States
OASDHI, Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance Program
OASI, Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
OCD, Office of Civil Defense
OCR, optical character recognition
OD, officer of the day
OD, overdose; ODd, overdosed
O.D., doctor of optometry
OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OK, OKed, OKing, OKs
OMB, Office of Management and Budget
Op. Atty. Gen., Opinions of the Attorney General
op. cit. (opere citato), in the work cited
OPEC, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OSD, Office of the Secretary of Defense
OTC, Organization for Trade Cooperation
PA, public address system
Pac., Pacific Reporter; P.2d, Pacific Reporter, second series
PAC, political action committee (plural, PAC's)
Passed Asst. Surg., passed assistant surgeon
PBS, Public Building Service
PC, personal computer
PCV, Peace Corps Volunteer
PDF, Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format
PDL, Page Description Language
Pet., Peters (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
Ph, phenyl
Phar.D., doctor of pharmacy
Ph.B. or B.Ph., bachelor of philosophy
Ph.D., or D.Ph., doctor of philosophy

[[Page 163]]


Ph.G., graduate in pharmacy
PHS, Public Health Service
PIN, personal identification number
PING, Packet Internet Groper
Pl., place
p.m. (post meridiem), after noon
P.O. Box (with number); but post office box (in general sense)
POP, Point of Presence; Post Office Protocol
POW, prisoner of war (plural, POWs)
PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol
PPTP, Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PTSD, post-traumatic-stress syndrome
PERL, practical extraction and report language
Private Res. (with number), private resolution
Prof., professor
pro tem (pro tempore), temporarily
P.S. (post scriptum), postscript; public school (with number)
PTA, parent-teachers' association
Public Res. (with number), public resolution
PX, post exchange
QT, on the quiet
racon, radar beacon
radar, radio detection and ranging
RAID, redundant array of inexpensive disks
RAM, Random-Access Memory
R&D, research and development
rato, rocket-assisted takeoff
Rd., road
RDT&E, research, development, testing, and evaluation
REA, Rural Electrification Administration
Rev., reverend
Rev. Stat., Revised Statutes
RF, radiofrequency
R.F.D., rural free delivery
Rh, Rhesus (blood factor)
RIF, reduction(s) in force; RIFed, RIFing, RIFs
R.N., registered nurse
ROTC, Reserve Officers' Training Corps
RPC, remote procedure call
RR., railroad
RRB, Railroad Retirement Board
Rt. Rev., right reverend
RTF, Rich Text Format
Ry., railway
S., south; Senate bill (with number)
SAC, Strategic Air Command
SAE, Society of Automotive Engineers
S&L(s), savings and loan(s)
SALT, strategic arms limitation talks
SAR, Sons of the American Revolution
SBA, Small Business Administration
sc. (scilicet), namely (see also ss)
s.c., small caps
S. Con. Res. (with number), Senate concurrent resolution
s.d. (sine die), without date
SDI, Strategic Defense Initiative
S. Doc. (with number), Senate document
SE., southeast
SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
SEC, Securities and Exchange Commission
sec, secant
sech, hyperbolic secant
2d, 3d, second, third
SGML, Standard Generalized Markup Language
SHF, superhigh frequency
shoran, short range (radio)
SI, Systeme International
  d'Unites
sic, thus
sin, sine
sinh, hyperbolic sine
S.J. Res. (with number), Senate joint resolution
SLIP, Serial Line Internet Protocol
SMTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol
sonar (no period), sound, navigation, and ranging
SOP, standard operating procedure
SOS, wireless distress signal
SP, shore patrol
SPAR, Coast Guard Women's Reserve (semper paratus--always ready)
sp. gr., specific gravity
Sq., square (street)
Sr., senior
S. Rept. (with number), Senate report
S. Res. (with number), Senate resolution
SS, steamship
ss (scilicet), namely (in law) (see also sc.)
SSA, Social Security Administration
SSL, Secure Sockets Layer
SSS, Selective Service System
St., Ste., SS., Saint, Sainte, Saints
St., street
Stat., Statutes at Large
STP, standard temperature and pressure
Sup. Ct., Supreme Court Reporter

[[Page 164]]


Supp. Rev. Stat., Supplement to the Revised Statutes
Supt., superintendent
Surg., surgeon
Surg. Gen., Surgeon General
SW., southwest
S.W.2d, Southwestern Reporter, second series
SWAIS, Simple Wide Area Information System
SWAT, special weapons and tactics (team)
T., Tps., township, townships
tan, tangent
tann, hyperbolic tangent
TB, tuberculosis
TCP/IP, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
T.D., Treasury Decisions
TDMA, Time Division Multiplexing Access
TDY, temporary duty
Ter., terrace
TIFF, Tagged Image File Format
t.m., true mean
TNT, trinitrotoluol
TV, television
TVA, Tennessee Valley Authority
2,4-D (insecticide)
uc., uppercase
UDP, User Datagram Protocol
UHF, ultrahigh frequency
UMTA, Urban Mass Transportation Administration
U.N., United Nations
Unesco, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 
  Organization (copyrighted form)
UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund
URL, Uniform Resource Locator
URN, Uniform Resource Name/Number
U.S., U.S. Supreme Court Reports
U.S.A., United States of America
USA, U.S. Army
USAF, U.S. Air Force
USB, universal serial bus
U.S.C., United States Code
U.S.C.A., United States Code Annotated
U.S.C. Supp., United States Code Supplement
USCG, U.S. Coast Guard
USDA, U.S. Department of Agriculture
USES, U.S. Employment Service
U.S. 40, U.S. No. 40, U.S. Highway No. 40
USGS, U.S. Geological Survey
USIA, U.S. Information Agency
USMC, U.S. Marine Corps
USN, U.S. Navy
USNR, U.S. Naval Reserve
U.S.P., United States Pharmacopeia
USPS, U.S. Postal Service
U.S.S., U.S. Senate; U.S. ship
U.S.S.R., Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
v. or vs. (versus), against
VA, Department of Veterans Affairs
VAT, value added tax
VCR, video cassette recorder
VHF, very high frequency
VIP, very important person
viz (videlicet), namely
VLAN, virtual LAN
VLF, very low frequency
VRML, Virtual Reality Modeling Language
VTR, video tape recording
W., west
WAC, Women's Army Corps; a Wac
w.a.e., when actually employed
WAF, Women in the Air Force; a Waf
WAIS, Wide Area Information Server
Wall., Wallace (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
WAN, wide area network
WAVES, women accepted for volunteer emergency service; a Wave
wf, wrong font
Wheat., Wheaton (U.S. Supreme Court Reports)
WHO, World Health Organization
WIPO, World Intellectual Property Organization
WMAL, WRC, etc., radio stations
w.o.p., without pay
WORM, write once, read many
WWW, World Wide Web
WYSIWYG, What you see is what you get.
Yale L.J., Yale Law Journal
ZIP Code, Zone Improvement Plan Code (Postal Service)
ZIP+4, 9-digit ZIP Code

Italic

GPO Access
CBDNet

[[Page 165]]



Standard letter symbols for units of measure

  9.62. The same form is used for singular and plural senses.

A, ampere
a, angstrom
a, are
a, atto (prefix, one-quintillionth)
aA, attoampere
abs, absolute (temperature and gravity)
ac, alternating current
AF, audiofrequency
Ah, ampere-hour
A/m, ampere per meter
AM, amplitude modulation
asb, apostilb
At, ampere-turn
at, atmosphere, technical
atm, atmosphere
at wt, atomic weight
au, astronomical units
avdp, avoirdupois
b, barn
B, bel
b, bit
bbl, barrel
bbl/d, barrel per day
Bd, baud
bd. ft., board foot (obsolete); use fbm
Be, Baume
Bev (obsolete); see GeV
Bhn, Brinell hardness number
bhp, brake horsepower
bm, board measure
bp, boiling point
Btu, British thermal unit
bu, bushel
c,  cents, ct; cent(s)
c, centi (prefix, one-hundredth)
C, coulomb
 deg.C, degree Celsius
cal, calorie (also: calIT, International Table; 
  calth, thermochemical)
cd/in2, candela per square inch
cd/m2, candela per square meter
cg, centigram
cdh, candela-hour
Ci, curie
cL, centiliter
cm, centimeter
c/m, cycles per minute
cm2, square centimeter
cm3, cubic centimeter
cmil, circular mil
cp, candlepower
cP, centipoise
cSt, centistokes
cwt, hundredweight
D, darcy
d, day
d, deci (prefix, one-tenth)
d, pence
da, deka (prefix, 10)
dag, dekagram
daL, dekaliter
dam, dekameter
dam2, square dekameter
dam3, cubic dekameter
dB, decibel
dBu, decibel unit
dc, direct current
dg, decigram
dL, deciliter
dm, decimeter
dm\2\, square decimeter
dm\3\, cubic decimeter
dol, dollar
doz, dozen
dr, dram
dwt, deadweight tons
dwt, pennyweight
dyn, dyne
EHF, extremely high frequency
emf, electromotive force
emu, electromagnetic unit
erg, erg
esu, electrostatic unit
eV, electronvolt
 deg.F, degree Fahrenheit
F, farad
f, femto (prefix, one-quadrillionth)
fbm, board foot; board foot measure
fc, footcandle
fL, footlambert
fm, fentometer
FM, frequency modulation
ft, foot
ft\2\, square foot
ft\3\, cubic foot
ftH2O, conventional foot of water
ftlb, foot-pound
ftlbf, foot-pound force
ft/min, foot per minute
ft2/min, square foot per minute
ft3/min, cubic foot per minute
ft-pdl, foot poundal
ft/s, foot per second
ft2/s, square foot per second
ft3/s, cubic foot per second
ft/s2, foot per second squared
ft/s3, foot per second cubed
G, gauss
G, giga (prefix, 1 billion)
g, gram; acceleration of gravity
Gal, gal cm/s2
gal, gallon
gal/min, gallons per minute
gal/s, gallons per second
GB, gigabyte
Gb, gilbert
g/cm3, gram per cubic centimeter
GeV, gigaelectronvolt
GHz, gigahertz (gigacycle per second)
gr, grain; gross
h, hecto (prefix, 100)

[[Page 166]]


H, henry
h, hour
ha, hectare
HF, high frequency
hg, hectogram
hL, hectoliter
hm, hectometer
hm2, square hectometer
hm3, cubic hectometer
hp, horsepower
hph, horsepower-hour
Hz, hertz (cycles per second)
id, inside diameter
ihp, indicated horsepower
in, inch
in2, square inch
in3, cubic inch
in/h, inch per hour
inH2O, conventional inch of water
inHg, conventional inch of mercury
in-lb, inch-pound
in/s, inch per second
J, joule
J/K, joule per kelvin
K, kayser
K, kelvin (use without degree symbol)
k, kilo (prefix, 1,000)
k, thousand (7k=7,000)
kc, kilocycle; see also kHz (kilohertz), kilocycles per second
kcal, kilocalory
keV, kiloelectronvolt
kG, kilogauss
kg, kilogram
kgf, kilogram-force
kHz, kilohertz (kilocycles per second)
kL, kiloliter
klbf, kilopound-force
km, kilometer
km2, square kilometer
km3, cubic kilometer
km/h, kilometer per hour
kn, knot (speed)
k, kilohm
kt, kiloton; carat
kV, kilovolt
kVA, kilovoltampere
kvar, kilovar
kW, kilowatt
kWh, kilowatthour
L, lambert
L, liter
lb, pound
lb ap, apothecary pound
lb, avdp, avoirdupois pound
lbf, pound-force
lbf/ft, pound-force foot
lbf/ft2, pound-force per square foot
lbf/ft3, pound-force per cubic foot
lbf/in2, pound-force per square inch (see psi)
lb/ft, pound per foot
lb/ft2, pound per square foot
lb/ft3, pound per cubic foot
lct, long calcined ton
ldt, long dry ton
LF, low frequency
lin ft, linear foot
l/m, lines per minute
lm, lumen
lm/ft2, lumen per square foot
lm/m2, lumen per square meter
lms, lumen second
lm/W, lumen per watt
l/s, lines per second
L/s, liter per second
lx, lux
M, mega (prefix, 1 million)
M, million (3 M=3 million)
m, meter
m, milli (prefix, one-thousandth)
M1, monetary aggregate
m\3\, cubic meter
m\2\, square meter
, micro (prefix, one-millionth)
m, micrometer
mA, milliampere
A, microampere
MB, megabyte
mbar, millibar
bar, microbar
Mc, megacycle; see also MHz (megahertz), megacycles per second
mc, millicycle; see also mHz (millihertz), millicycles per second
mD, millidarcy
meq, milliquivalent
MeV, megaelectronvolts
mF, millifarad
F, microfarad
mG, milligauss
mg, milligram
g, microgram
Mgal/d, million gallons per day
mH, millihenry
H, microhenry
MHz, megahertz
mHz, millihertz
mi, mile (statute)
mi\2\, square mile
mi/gal, mile(s) per gallon
mi/h, mile(s) per hour
mil, mil
min, minute (time)
in, microinch
mL, milliliter
mm, millimeter
mm\2\, square millimeter
mm\3\, cubic millimeter
m2, square micrometer
m3, cubic micrometer
, micromicron (use of compound prefixes obsolete; use 
  pm, picometer)
f, micromicrofarad (use of compound prefixes 
  obsolete; use pF)
mmHg, conventional millimeter of mercury

[[Page 167]]


M, megohm
mo, month
mol, mole (unit of substance)
mol wt, molecular weight
mp, melting point
ms, millisecond
s, microsecond
Mt, megaton
mV, millivolt
V, microvolt
MW, megawatt
mW, milliwatt
W, microwatt
MWd/t, megawatt-days per ton
Mx, maxwell
n, nano (prefix, one-billionth)
N, newton
nA, nanoampere
nF, nanofarad
Nm, newton meter
N/m2, newton per square meter
nmi, nautical mile
Np, neper
ns, nanosecond
Ns/m2, newton second per square meter
nt, nit
od, outside diameter
Oe, oersted (use of A/m, amperes per meter, preferred)
oz, ounce (avoirdupois)
p, pico (prefix, one-trillionth)
P, poise
Pa, pascal
pA, picoampere
pct, percent
pdl, poundal
pF, picofarad (micromicrofarad, obsolete)
pF, water-holding energy
pH, hydrogen-ion concentration
ph, phot; phase
pk, peck,
p/m, parts per million
ps, picosecond
psi, pounds per square inch
pt, pint
pW, picowatt
qt, quart
quad, quadrillion (1015)
 deg.R, rankine
 deg.R, roentgen
R, degree rankine
R, degree reaumur
rad, radian
rd, rad
rem, roentgen equivalent man
r/min, revolutions per minute
rms, root mean square
r/s, revolutions per second
s, second (time)
s, shilling
S, siemens
sb, stilb
scp, spherical candlepower
sft, second-foot
shp, shaft horsepower
slug, slug
sr, steradian
sSf, standard saybolt fural
sSu, standard saybolt universal
stdft\3\, standard cubic foot (feet)
Sus, saybolt universal second(s)
T, tera (prefix, 1 trillion)
Tft\3\, trillion cubic feet
T, tesla
t, tonne (metric ton)
tbsp, tablespoonful
thm, therm
ton, ton
tsp, teaspoonful
Twad, twaddell
u, (unified) atomic mass unit
UHF, ultrahigh frequency
V, volt
VA, voltampere
var, var
VHF, very high frequency
V/m, volt per meter
W, watt
Wb, weber
Wh, watthour
W/(mK), watt per meter kelvin
W/sr, watt per steradian
W/(srm\2\), watt per steradian square meter
x, unknown quantity (italic)
yd, yard
yd2, square yard
yd3, cubic yard
yr, year

[[Page 168]]



 Standard Latin abbreviations

  9.63. When Latin abbreviations are used, follow this list.

a., annus, year; ante, before
A.A.C., anno ante Christum, in the year before Christ
A.A.S., Academiae Americanae Socius, Fellow of the American Academy 
  [Academy of Arts and Sciences]
A.B., artium baccalaureus, bachelor of arts
ab init., ab initio, from the beginning
abs. re., absente reo, the defendant being absent
A.C., ante Christum, before Christ
A.D., anno Domini, in the year of our Lord
a.d., ante diem, before the day
ad fin., ad finem, at the end, to one end
ad h.l., ad hunc locum, to this place, on this passage
ad inf., ad infinitum, to infinity
ad init., ad initium, at the beginning
ad int., ad interim, in the meantime
ad lib., ad libitum, at pleasure
ad loc., ad locum, at the place
ad val., ad valorem, according to value
A.I., anno inventionis, in the year of the discovery
al., alia, alii, other things, other persons
A.M., anno mundi, in the year of the world; Annus mirabilis, the 
  wonderful year [1666]; a.m., ante meridiem, before noon
an., anno, in the year; ante, before
ann., annales, annals; anni, years
A.R.S.S., Antiquariorum Regiae Societatis Socius, Fellow of the Royal 
  Society of Antiquaries
A.U.C., anno urbis conditae, ab urbe conolita, in [the year from] the 
  building of the City [Rome], 753 B.C.
B.A., baccalaureus artium, bachelor of arts
B. Sc., baccalaureus scientiae, bachelor of science
C., centum, a hundred; condemno, I condemn, find guilty
c., circa, about
cent., centum, a hundred
cf., confer, compare
C.M., chirurgiae magister, master of surgery
coch., cochlear, a spoon, spoonful
coch. amp., cochlear amplum, a tablespoonful
coch. mag., cochlear magnum, a large spoonful
coch. med., cochlear medium, a dessert spoonful
coch. parv., cochlear parvum, a teaspoonful
con., contra, against; conjunx, wife
C.P.S., custos privati sigilli, keeper of the privy seal
C.S., custos sigilli, keeper of the seal
cwt., c. for centum, wt. for weight, hundredweight
D., Deus, God; Dominus, Lord; d., decretum, a decree; denarius, a 
  penny; da, give
D.D., divinitatis doctor, doctor of divinity
D.G., Dei gratia, by the grace of God; Deo gratias, thanks to God
D.N., Dominus noster, our Lord
D. Sc., doctor scientiae, doctor of science
d.s.p., decessit sine prole, died without issue
D.V., Deo volente, God willing
dwt., d. for denarius, wt. for weight pennyweight
e.g., exempli gratia, for example
et al., et alibi, and elsewhere; et alii, or aliae, and others
etc., et cetera, and others, and so forth
et seq., et sequentes, and those that follow
et ux., et uxor, and wife
F., filius, son
f., fiat, let it be made; forte, strong
fac., factum similis, facsimile, an exact copy
fasc., fasciculus, a bundle
fl., flores, flowers; floruit, flourished; fluidus, fluid
f.r., folio recto, right-hand page
F.R.S., Fraternitatis Regiae Socius, Fellow of the Royal Society
f.v., folio verso, on the back of the leaf
guttat., guttatim, by drops
H., hora, hour
h.a., hoc anno, in this year; hujus anni, this year's
hab. corp., habeas corpus, have the body--a writ
h.e., hic est, this is; hoc est, that is
h.m., hoc mense, in this month; huius mensis, this month's
h.q., hoc quaere, look for this
H.R.I.P., hic requiescat in pace, here rests in peace
H.S., hic sepultus, here is buried; hic situs, here lies; h.s., hoc 
  sensu, in this sense

[[Page 169]]


H.S.S., Historiae Societatis Socius, Fellow of the Historical Society
h.t., hoc tempore, at this time; hoc titulo, in or under this title
I, Idus, the Ides; i., id, that; immortalis, immortal
ib. or ibid., ibidem, in the same place
id., idem, the same
i.e., id est, that is
imp., imprimatur, sanction, let it be printed
I.N.D., in nomine Dei, in the name of God
in f., in fine, at the end
inf., infra, below
init., initio, in the beginning
in lim., in limine, on the threshold, at the outset
in loc., in loco, in its place
in loc. cit., in loco citato, in the place cited
in pr., in principio, in the beginning
in trans., in transitu, on the way
i.q., idem quod, the same as
i.q.e.d., id quod erat demonstrandum, what was to be proved
J., judex, judge
J.C.D., juris civilis doctor, doctor of civil law
J.D., jurum or juris doctor, doctor of laws
J.U.D., juris utriusque doctor, doctor of both civil and canon law
L., liber, a book; locus, a place
, libra, pound; placed before figures, thus 10; 
  if l., to be placed after, as 401.
L.A.M., liberalium artium magister, master of the liberal arts
L.B., baccalaureus literarum, bachelor of letters
lb., libra, pound (singular and plural)
L.H.D., literarum humaniorum doctor, doctor of the more humane letters
Litt. D., literarum doctor, doctor of letters
LL.B., legum baccalaureus, bachelor of laws
LL.D., legum doctor, doctor of laws
LL.M., legum magister, master of laws
loc. cit., loco citato, in the place cited
loq., loquitur, he, or she, speaks
L.S., locus sigilli, the place of the seal
l.s.c., loco supra citato, in the place above cited
 s. d., librae, solidi, denarii, pounds, shillings, pence
M., magister, master; manipulus, handful; medicinae, of medicine; m., 
  meridies, noon
M.A., magister artium, master of arts
M.B., medicinae baccalaureus, bachelor of medicine
M. Ch., magister chirurgiae, master of surgery
M.D., medicinae doctor, doctor of medicine
m.m., mutatis mutandis, with the necessary changes
m.n., mutato nomine, the name being changed
MS., manuscriptum, manuscript; MSS., manuscripta, manuscripts
Mus. B., musicae baccalaureus, bachelor of music
Mus. D., musicae doctor, doctor of music
Mus. M., musicae magister, master of music
N., Nepos, grandson; nomen, name; nomina, names; noster, our; n., 
  natus, born; nocte, at night
N.B., nota bene, mark well
ni. pri., nisi prius, unless before
nob., nobis, for (or on) our part
nol. pros., nolle prosequi, will not prosecute
non cul., non culpabilis, not guilty
n.l., non licet, it is not permitted; non liquet, it is not clear; non 
  longe, not far
non obs., non obstante, notwithstanding
non pros., non prosequitur, he does not prosecute
non seq., non sequitur, it does not follow logically
O., octarius, a pint
ob., obiit, he, or she, died; obiter, incidentally
ob. s.p., obiit sine prole, died without issue
o.c., opere citato, in the work cited
op., opus, work; opera, works
op. cit., opere citato, in the work cited
P., papa, pope; pater, father; pontifex, bishop; populus, people; p., 
  partim, in part; per, by, for; pius, holy; pondere, by weight; post, 
  after; primus, first; pro, for
p.a., or per ann., per annum, yearly; pro anno, for the year
p. ae., partes aequales, equal parts
pass., passim, everywhere
percent., per centum, by the hundred
pil., pilula, pill
Ph. B., philosophiae baccalaureus, bachelor of philosophy
P.M., post mortem, after death

[[Page 170]]


p.m., post meridiem, afternoon
pro tem., pro tempore, for the time being
prox., proximo, in or of the next [month]
P.S., postscriptum, postscript; P.SS., postscripta, postscripts
q.d., quasi dicat, as if one should say; quasi dictum, as if said; 
  quasi dixisset, as if he had said
q.e., quod est, which is
Q.E.D., quod erat demonstrandum, which was to be demonstrated
Q.E.F., quod erat faciendum, which was to be done
Q.E.I., quod erat inveniendum, which was to be found out
q.l., quantum libet, as much as you please
q. pl., quantum placet, as much as seems good
q.s., quantum sufficit sufficient quantity
q.v., quantum vis, as much as you will; quem, quam, quod vide, which 
  see; qq. v., quos, quas, or quae vide, which see (plural)
R., regina, queen; recto, right-hand page; respublica, commonwealth
, recipe, take
R.I.P., requiescat, or requiescant, in pace, may he, she, or they, rest 
  in peace
R.P.D., rerum politicarum doctor, doctor of political science
rr., rarissime, very rarely
R.S.S., Regiae Societatis Sodalis, Fellow of the Royal Society
S., sepultus, buried; situs, lies; societas, society; socius or 
  sodalis, fellow; s., semi, half; solidus, shilling
s.a., sine anno, without date; secundum artem, according to art
S.A.S., Societatis Antiquariorum Socius, Fellow of the Society of 
  Antiquaries
sc., scilicet, namely; sculpsit, he, or she, carved or engraved it
Sc. B., scientiae baccalaureus, bachelor of science
Sc. D., scientiae doctor, doctor of science
S.D., salutem dicit, sends greetings
s.d., sine die, indefinitely
sec., secundum, according to
sec. leg., secundum legem, according to law
sec. nat., secundum naturam, according to nature, or naturally
sec. reg., secundum regulam, according to rule
seq., sequens, sequentes, sequentia, the following
S.H.S., Societatis Historiae Socius, Fellow of the Historical Society
s.h.v., sub hac voce or sub hoc verbo, under this word
s.l.a.n., sine loco, anno, vel nomine, without place, date, or name
s.l.p., sine legitima prole, without lawful issue
s.m.p., sine mascula prole, without male issue
s.n., sine nomine, without name
s.p., sine prole, without issue
S.P.A.S., Societatis Philosophiae Americanae Socius, Fellow of the 
  American Philosophical Society
s.p.s., sine prole superstite, without surviving issue
S.R.S., Societatis Regiae Socius or Sodalis, Fellow of the Royal 
  Society
ss, scilicet, namely (in law)
S.S.C., Societas Sanctae Crucis, Society of the Holy Cross
stat., statim, immediately
S.T.B., sacrae theologiae baccalaureus, bachelor of sacred theology
S.T.D., sacrae theologiae doctor, doctor of sacred theology
S.T.P., sacrae theologiae professor, professor of sacred theology
sub., subaudi, understand, supply
sup., supra, above
t. or temp., tempore, in the time of
tal. qual., talis qualis, just as they come; average quality
U.J.D., utriusque juris doctor, doctor of both civil and canon law
ult., ultimo, last month (may be abbreviated in writing but should be 
  spelled out in printing)
ung., unguentum, ointment
u.s., ubi supra, in the place above mentioned
ut dict., ut dictum, as directed
ut sup., ut supra, as above
ux., uxor, wife
v., versus, against; vide, see; voce, voice, word
v. ---- a., vixit ---- annos, lived [so many] years
verb. sap., verbum [satis] sapienti, a word to the wise suffices
v.g., verbi gratia, for example
viz, videlicet, namely
v.s., vide supra, see above



[[Page 171]]

 
                         10. SIGNS AND SYMBOLS

  10.1. The increased use of signs and symbols and their 
importance in technical and scientific work have emphasized the 
necessity of standardization on a national basis and of the 
consistent use of the standard forms.

  10.2. Certain symbols are standardized--number symbols (the 
digits, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9); letter symbols (the 
letters of the alphabet, a, b, c, d, etc.); and graphic symbols 
(the mathematical signs +, -, ,  x , ).

  10.3. The signs +, -, ,  x , and , etc., 
are closed against accompanying figures and symbols. When the 
x  is used to indicate ``crossed with'' (in plant or animal 
breeding) or magnification, it will be separated from the 
accompanying words by a space.

i-vii+1-288 pages
The equation A+B
The result is 4 x 4
20,0005,000
Early June  x  Bright (crossed with)
 x  4 (magnification)
  
  

Symbols with figures

  10.4. In technical publications the degree mark is used in 
lieu of the word degree following a figure denoting 
measurement.
  10.5. Following a figure, the spelled form is preferred. The 
percent symbol is used in areas where space will not allow the 
word percent to be used.

      In that period the price rose 12, 15, and 19 percent.
  not In that period the price rose 12 percent, 15 percent, and 
        19 percent.

  10.6. Any symbol set close up to figures, such as the degree 
mark, dollar mark, or cent mark, is used before or after each 
figure in a group or series.

$5 to $8 price range
5'-7' long, not 5-7' long
3 cents to 5 cents (no spaces)
2 to 7; 2 deg.1 deg.

but
Sec. 12 (thin space)
from 15 to 25 percent
45 to 65  deg.F not 45 deg. to 65 deg. F

Letter symbols

  10.7. Letter symbols are set in italic (see rule 10.8) or in 
roman (see rule 9.56) without periods and are capitalized only 
if so shown in copy, since the capitalized form may have an 
entirely different meaning.

[[Page 172]]

Equations

  10.8. In mathematical equations, use italic for all letter 
symbols--capitals, lowercase, small capitals, and superiors and 
inferiors (exponents and subscripts); use roman for figures, 
including superiors and inferiors.

  10.9. If an equation or a mathematical expression needs to be 
divided, break before +, -, =, etc. However, the equal sign is 
to clear on the left of other beginning mathematical signs.

  10.10.  A short equation in text should not be broken at the 
end of a line. Space out the line so that the equation will 
begin on the next line; or better, center the equation on a 
line by itself.

  10.11. An equation too long for one line is set flush left, 
the second half of the equation is set flush right, and the two 
parts are balanced as nearly as possible.

  10.12. Two or more equations in a series are aligned on the 
equal signs and centered on the longest equation in the group.

  10.13. Connecting words of explanation, such as hence, 
therefore, and similarly, are set flush left either on the same 
line with the equation or on a separate line.

  10.14. Parentheses, braces, brackets, integral signs, and 
summation signs should be of the same height as the 
mathematical expressions they include.

  10.15. Inferiors precede superiors if they appear together; 
but if either inferior or superior is too long, the two are 
aligned on the left.

[[Page 173]]

Chemical symbols

  10.16. The names and symbols listed below are approved by the 
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. They are set 
in roman without periods.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            Atomic                                           Atomic
            Element                Symbol             Atomic         Element        Symbol              Atomic
                                            number  weight\1\                                number   weight\1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Actinium.......................  Ac             89  227.0278   Mercury...........  Hg            80    200.59
Aluminum.......................  Al             13  26.98154   Molybdenum........  Mo            42     95.94
Americium......................  Am             95     (243)   Neodymium.........  Nd            60    144.24
Antimony.......................  Sb             51    121.75   Neon..............  Ne            10     20.179
Argon..........................  Ar             18    39.948   Neptunium.........  Np            93    237.0482
Arsenic........................  As             33   74.9216   Nickel............  Ni            28     58.69
Astatine.......................  At             85     (210)   Niobium...........  Nb            41     92.9064
Barium.........................  Ba             56    137.33   Nitrogen..........  N              7     14.0067
Berkelium......................  Bk             97     (247)   Nobelium..........  No           102  (259)
Beryllium......................  Be              4   9.01218   Osmium............  Os            76    190.2
Bismuth........................  Bi             83  208.9804   Oxygen............  O              8     15.9994
Bohrium........................  Bh            107   (262.0)   Palladium.........  Pd            46    106.42
Boron..........................  B               5     10.81   Phosphorus........  P             15     30.97376
Bromine........................  Br             35    79.904   Platinum..........  Pt            78    195.08
Cadmium........................  Cd             48    112.41   Plutonium.........  Pu            94  (244)
Calcium........................  Ca             20     40.08   Polonium..........  Po            84  (209)
Californium....................  Cf             98     (251)   Potassium.........  K             19     39.0983
Carbon.........................  C               6    12.011   Praseodymium......  Pr            59    140.9077
Cerium.........................  Ce             58    140.12   Promethium........  Pm            61  (145)
Cesium.........................  Cs             55  132.9054   Protactinium......  Pa            91    231.0359
Chlorine.......................  Cl             17    35.453   Radium............  Ra            88    226.0254
Chromium.......................  Cr             24    51.996   Radon.............  Rn            86  (222)
Cobalt.........................  Co             27   58.9332   Rhenium...........  Re            75    186.207
Copper.........................  Cu             29    63.546   Rhodium...........  Rh            45    102.9055
Curium.........................  Cm             96     (247)   Rubidium..........  Rb            37     85.4678
Dubnium........................  Db            105   (262.0)   Ruthenium.........  Ru            44    101.07
Dysprosium.....................  Dy             66    162.50   Rutherfordium.....  Rf           104   (261.0)
Einsteinium....................  Es             99     (252)   Samarium..........  Sm            62    150.36
Erbium.........................  Er             68    167.26   Scandium..........  Sc            21     44.9559
Europium.......................  Eu             63    151.96   Seaborgium........  Sg           106   (263.0)
Fermium........................  Fm            100     (257)   Selenium..........  Se            34     78.96
Fluorine.......................  F               9  18.998403  Silicon...........  Si            14     28.0855
Francium.......................  Fr             87     (223)   Silver............  Ag            47    107.8682
Gadolinium.....................  Gd             64    157.25   Sodium............  Na            11     22.98977
Gallium........................  Ga             31     69.72   Strontium.........  Sr            38     87.62
Germanium......................  Ge             32     72.59   Sulfur............  S             16     32.06
Gold...........................  Au             79  196.9665   Tantalum..........  Ta            73    180.9479
Hafnium........................  Hf             72    178.49   Technetium........  Tc            43   (98)
Hassium........................  Hs            108   (265.0)   Tellurium.........  Te            52    127.60
Helium.........................  He              2   4.00260   Terbium...........  Tb            65    158.9254
Holmium........................  Ho             67  164.9304   Thallium..........  Tl            81    204.383
Hydrogen.......................  H               1   1.00794   Thorium...........  Th            90    232.0381
Indium.........................  In             49    114.82   Thulium...........  Tm            69    168.9342
Iodine.........................  I              53  126.9045   Tin...............  Sn            50    118.69
Iridium........................  Ir             77    192.22   Titanium..........  Ti            22     47.88
Iron...........................  Fe             26    55.847   Tungsten..........  W             74    183.85
Krypton........................  Kr             36     83.80   Ununnilium........  Uun          110   (269.0)
Lanthanum......................  La             57  138.9055   Unununium.........  Uuu          111   (272.0)
Lawrencium.....................  Lr            103     (260)   Ununbium..........  Uub          112   (277.0)
Lead...........................  Pb             82     207.2   Uranium...........  U             92    238.0289
Lithium........................  Li              3     6.941   Vanadium..........  V             23     50.9415
Lutetium.......................  Lu             71   174.967   Xenon.............  Xe            54    131.29
Magnesium......................  Mg             12    24.305   Ytterbium.........  Yb            70    173.04
Manganese......................  Mn             25   54.9380   Yttrium...........  Y             39     88.9059
Meitnerium.....................  Mt            109   (266.0)   Zinc..............  Zn            30     65.38
Mendelevium....................  Md            101     (258)   Zirconium.........  Zr            40     91.22
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\The atomic weights of many elements are not invariant but depend on the origin and treatment of the material.
  The values of atomic weight given here apply to elements as they exist naturally on Earth and to certain
  artificial elements. Values in parentheses are used for radioactive elements whose atomic weights cannot be
  quoted precisely without knowledge of the origin of the elements. The value given is the atomic mass number of
  the isotope of that element of longest known half life.


[[Page 174]]

Standardized symbols

  10.17. Symbols duly standardized by any national scientific, 
professional, or technical group are accepted as preferred 
forms within the field of the group. The issuing office 
desiring or requiring the use of such standardized symbols 
should see that copy is prepared accordingly.

Signs and symbols

  10.18. The following list contains some signs and symbols 
frequently used in printing. The forms and style of many 
symbols vary with the method of reproduction employed. It is 
important that editors and writers clearly identify signs and 
symbols when they appear within a manuscript.

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]


[[Page 175]]

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]



[[Page 176]]

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]





[[Page 177]]


 
                               11. ITALIC

    (See also ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols'' and ``Datelines, 
                      Addresses, and Signatures'')

  11.1. Italic is sometimes used to differentiate or to give 
greater prominence to words, phrases, etc. However, an 
excessive amount of italic defeats this purpose and should be 
restricted.

Emphasis, foreign words, and titles of publications

  11.2. Italic is not used for mere emphasis, foreign words, or 
the titles of publications.

  11.3. In nonlegal work, ante, post, infra, and supra are 
italicized only when part of a legal citation. Otherwise these 
terms, as well as the abbreviations id., ibid., op. cit., et 
seq., and other foreign words, phrases, and their 
abbreviations, are printed in roman.

  11.4. When ``emphasis supplied,'' ``emphasis added,'' or 
``emphasis ours'' appears in copy, it should not be changed; 
but ``underscore supplied'' should be changed to ``italic 
supplied.''

  11.5. When copy is submitted with instructions to set ``all 
roman (no italic),'' these instructions will not apply to 
Ordered, Resolved, Be it enacted, etc.; titles following 
signatures or addresses; or the parts of datelines which are 
always set in italic.

Names of aircraft, vessels, and spacecraft

  11.6. The names of aircraft, vessels, and spacecraft are 
italicized unless otherwise indicated. In lists set in columns 
and in stubs and reading columns of tables consisting entirely 
of such names they will be set in roman. Missiles and rockets 
will be set in caps and lowercase and will not be italicized.

SS America; the liner America
the Bermuda Clipper
USS Nautilus (submarine)
USS Wisconsin
ex-USS Savannah
USCGS (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey) ship Pathfinder
C.S.N. Virginia
CG cutter Thetus
the U-7
destroyer 31
H.M.S. Hornet
HS (hydrofoil ship) Denison
MS (motorship) Richard
GTS (gas turbine ship) Alexander
NS (nuclear ship) Savannah
space station Freedom
MV (motor vessel) Havtroll
Freedom 7; Friendship 7 (U.S. spaceships)
West Virginia class or type
the Missouri's (roman ``s'') turret
the U-7's (roman ``s'') deck
  
but
Air Force One (President's plane)
B-50 (type of plane)
DD-882
LST-1155
MiG; MiG-21
PT-109
F-18 Hornet
F-15 Eagle

[[Page 178]]


  11.7. Names of vessels are quoted in matter printed in other 
than lowercase roman.

Sinking of the ``Lusitania''
Sinking of the ``Lusitania''
SINKING OF THE ``LUSITANIA''
SINKING OF THE ``LUSITANIA''

Names of legal cases

  11.8. The names of legal cases are italicized, except for the 
v. When requested, the names of such cases may be set in roman 
with an italic v. In matter set in italic, legal cases are set 
in roman with the v. being set roman.

``The Hornet'' and ``The Hood,'' 124 F.2d 45
Smith v. Brown et al.
Smith Bros. case (172 App. Div. 149)
Smith Bros. case, supra
Smith Bros. case
As cited in Smith Bros.

Smith v. Brown et al. (heading)
SMITH v. BROWN ET AL.
  (heading)
Durham rule
Brown decision
John Doe v. Richard Roe
but John Doe against Richard Roe
  the Cement case

Scientific names

  11.9. The scientific names of genera, subgenera, species, and 
subspecies (varieties) are italicized, but are set in roman in 
italic matter; the names of groups of higher rank than genera 
(phyla, classes, orders, families, tribes, etc.) are printed in 
roman.

      A.s. perpallidus
      Dorothia? sp. (roman ``?'')
      Tsuga canadensis
      Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens
      the genera Quercus and Liriodendron
      the family Leguminosae; the family Nessiteras 
        rhombopteryx
      Measurements of specimens of Cyanoderma erythroptera 
        neocara

  11.10. Quotation marks should be used in place of italic for 
scientific names appearing in lines set in caps, caps and small 
caps, or boldface, even if there is italic type available in 
the series.

Words and letters

  11.11. The words Resolved, Resolved further, Provided, 
Provided, however, Provided further, And provided further, and 
ordered, in bills, acts, resolutions, and formal contracts and 
agreements are italicized; also the words To be continued, 
Continued on p. --, Continued from p. --, and See and see also 
(in indexes and tables of contents only).

      Resolved, That (resolution)
      Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
        the United States of America in Congress assembled, 
        That
      [To be continued] (centered; no period)
      [Continued from p. 3] (centered; no period)
      see also Mechanical data (index entry)

[[Page 179]]

  11.12. All letters (caps, small caps, lowercase, superiors, 
and inferiors) used as symbols are italicized. In italic matter 
roman letters are used. Chemical symbols (even in italic 
matter) and certain other standardized symbols are set in 
roman.

                         nth degree; x dollars

           D0.025Vm2~~.7=0.042/
                       G-1Vm2~~.7

5Cu2S.2(Cu,Fe,Zn)S.2Sb2S3O4


  11.13. Letter designations in mathematical and scientific 
matter, except chemical symbols, are italicized.

  11.14. Letter symbols used in legends to illustrations, 
drawings, etc., or in text as references to such material, are 
set in italic without periods and are capitalized if so shown 
in copy.

  11.15. Letters (a), (b), (c), etc., and a, b, c, etc., used 
to indicate sections or paragraphs, are italicized in general 
work but not in laws and other legal documents.

[[Page 180]]

                              NOTES




[[Page 181]]



 
                              12. NUMERALS

             (See also ``Tabular Work'' and ``Leaderwork'')

  12.1. Most rules for the use of numerals are based on the 
general principle that the reader comprehends numerals more 
readily than numerical word expressions, particularly in 
technical, scientific, or statistical matter. However, for 
special reasons, numbers are spelled out in certain instances, 
except in FIC & punc. and Fol. Lit. matter.

  12.2. The following rules cover the most common conditions 
that require a choice between the use of numerals and words. 
Some of them, however, are based on typographic appearance 
rather than on the general principle stated above.

  12.3. Arabic numerals are preferable to Roman numerals.

                      NUMBERS EXPRESSED IN FIGURES

  12.4. A figure is used for a single number of 10 or more with 
the exception of the first word of the sentence. (See also 
rules 12.9 and 12.23.)

50 ballots
10 guns
24 horses
nearly 13 buckets
about 40 men
10 times as large

Numbers and numbers in series

  12.5. When 2 or more numbers appear in a sentence and 1 of 
them is 10 or larger, figures are used for each number. (See 
supporting rule 12.6.)

      Each of 15 major commodities (9 metal and 6 nonmetal) was 
        in supply.

  but Each of nine major commodities (five metal and four 
        nonmetal) was in supply.

      Petroleum came from 16 fields, of which 8 were discovered 
        in 1956.

  but Petroleum came from nine fields, of which eight were 
        discovered in 1956.

      That man has 3 suits, 2 pairs of shoes, and 12 pairs of 
        socks.

  but That man has three suits, two pairs of shoes, and four 
        hats.

      Of the 13 engine producers, 6 were farm equipment 
        manufacturers, 6 were principally engaged in the 
        production of other types of machinery, and 1 was not 
        classified in the machinery industry.

  but Only nine of these were among the large manufacturing 
        companies, and only three were among the largest 
        concerns.

      There were three 6-room houses, five 4-room houses, and 
        three 2-room cottages, and they were built by 20 
        carpenters. (See rule 12.21.)
      There were three six-room houses, five four-room houses, 
        and three two-room cottages, and they were built by 
        nine carpenters.

[[Page 182]]

  but If two columns of sums of money add or subtract one into 
        the other and one carries points and ciphers, the other 
        should also carry points and ciphers.

      At the hearing, only one Senator and one Congressman 
        testified.
      There are four or five things which can be done.
  12.6. A unit of measurement, time, or money (as defined in 
rule 12.9), which is always expressed in figures, does not 
affect the use of figures for other numerical expressions 
within a sentence.

      Each of the five girls earned 75 cents an hour.
      Each of the 15 girls earned 75 cents an hour.
      A team of four men ran the 1-mile relay in 3 minutes 20 
        seconds.
      This usually requires from two to five washes and a total 
        time of 2 to 4 hours.
      This usually requires 9 to 12 washes and a total time of 
        2 to 4 hours.
      The contractor, one engineer, and one surveyor inspected 
        the 1-mile road.

  but There were two six-room houses, three four-room houses, 
        and four two-room cottages, and they were built by nine 
        workers in thirty 5-day weeks. (See rule 12.21.)

  12.7. Figures are used for serial numbers.

Bulletin 725
Document 71
pages 352-357
lines 5 and 6
paragraph 1
chapter 2
290 U.S. 325
Genesis 39:20
202-512-0724 (telephone number)
the year 2001
1721-1727 St. Clair Avenue/
  
but Letters Patent No. 2,189,463

  12.8. A colon preceding figures does not affect their use.
      The result was as follows: 12 voted yea, 4 dissented.
      The result was as follows: nine voted yea, seven 
        dissented.

Measurement and time

  12.9. Units of measurement and time, actual or implied, are 
expressed in figures.

  a. Age:
      6 years old
      52 years 10 months 6 days
      a 3-year-old
      at the age of 3 (years implied)

  b. Clock time (see also Time):
      4:30 p.m.; half past 4
      10 o'clock or 10 p.m. (not 10 o'clock p.m.; 2 p.m. in the 
        afternoon; 10:00 p.m.)
      12 a.m. (noon); 12:15 p.m. (15 minutes past noon)
      12 p.m. (midnight); 12:25 a.m. (25 minutes past midnight)
      4h30m or 4.5h, in 
        scientific work, if so written in copy
      0025, 2359 (astronomical and military time)
      08:31:04 (stopwatch reading)

[[Page 183]]

  c. Dates:
      June 1985 (not June, 1985); June 29, 1985 (not June 29th, 
        1985)
      March 6 to April 15, 1990 (not March 6, 1990, to April 
        15, 1990)
      May, June, and July 1965 (but June and July 1965)
      15 April 1951; 15-17 April 1951 (military)
      4th of July (but Fourth of July, meaning the holiday)
      the 1st [day] of the month (but the last of April or the 
        first [part] of May, not referring to specific days)
      in the year 2000 (not 2,000)

  In referring to a fiscal year, consecutive years, or a 
continuous period of 2 years or more, when contracted, the 
forms 1900-11, 1906-38, 1931-32, 1801-2, 1875-79 are used (but 
upon change of century, 1895-1914 and to avoid multiple ciphers 
together, 2000-2001). For two or more separate years not 
representing a continuous period, a comma is used instead of a 
dash (1875, 1879); if the word from precedes the year or the 
word inclusive follows it, the second year is not shortened and 
the word to is used in lieu of the dash (from 1933 to 1936; 
1935 to 1936, inclusive).

  In dates, A.D. precedes the year (A.D. 937); B.C. follows the 
year (254 B.C.).

  d. Decimals: In text a cipher should be supplied before a 
decimal point if there is no whole unit, and ciphers should be 
omitted after a decimal point unless they indicate exact 
measurement.
0.25 inch; 1.25 inches
silver 0.900 fine
specific gravity 0.9547
gauge height 10.0 feet

but .30 caliber (meaning 0.30 inch,
  bore of small arms); 30 calibers (length)

  e. Use spaces to separate groups of three digits in a decimal 
fraction. (See rule 12.27.)

      0.123 456 789; but 0.1234

  f. Degrees, etc. (spaces omitted):

longitude 77 deg.04'06" E.
35 deg.30'; 35 deg.30' N.
a polariscopic test of 85 deg.
an angle of 57 deg.
strike N. 16 deg. E.
dip 47 deg. W. or 47 deg. N. 31 deg. W.
25.5' (preferred) also 25'.5

but
two degrees of justice; 12
  degrees of freedom
32d degree Mason
150 million degrees Fahrenheit
30 Fahrenheit degrees
  
  g. Game scores:

1 up (golf)
3 to 2 (baseball)
7 to 6 (football), etc.
2 all (tie)

  h. Market quotations:

4\1/2\ percent bonds
Treasury bonds sell at 95
Metropolitan Railroad, 109
Dow Jones average of 10500.76
gold is 109
wheat at 2.30
sugar, .03; not 0.03

  i. Mathematical expressions:

multiplied by 3
divided by 6
a factor of 2
square root of 4

[[Page 184]]


  j. Measurements:
7 meters
about 10 yards
8 by 12 inches
8- by 12-inch page
2 feet by 1 foot 8 inches by
  1 foot 3 inches
2 by 4 (lumber) (not 2 x 4 or 2 x 4)
1\1/2\ miles
6 acres
9 bushels
1 gallon
3 ems
20/20 (vision)
30/30 (rifle)
12-gauge shotgun
2,500 horsepower
15 cubic yards
6-pounder
80 foot-pounds
10s (for yarns and threads)
f/2.5 (lens aperture)

but
tenpenny nail
fourfold
three-ply
five votes
six bales
two dozen
one gross
zero miles
seven-story building

  k. Money:

$3.65; $0.75; 75 cents; 0.5 cent
$3 (not $3.00) per 200 pounds
75 cents apiece
Rs32,25,644 (Indian rupees)
2.5 francs or fr2.5
65 yen
P265
but 
two pennies
three quarters
one half
six bits, etc.
  
  
  l. Percentage:

      12 percent; 25.5 percent; 0.5 percent (or one-half of 1 
        percent)
      thirty-four one hundredths of 1 percent
      3.65 bonds; 3.65s; 5-20 bonds; 5-20s; 4\1/2\s; 3s
      50-50 (colloquial expression)
      5 percentage points
      a 1,100-percent increase, or an 1100-percent increase

  m. Proportion:

1 to 4
1-3-5
1:62,500

  n. Time (see also Clock time):

6 hours 8 minutes 20 seconds
10 years 3 months 29 days
7 minutes
8 days
4 weeks
1 month
3 fiscal years; third fiscal year
1 calendar year
millennium
but
four centuries
three decades
three quarters (9 months)
statistics of any one year
in a year or two
four afternoons
one-half hour
the eleventh hour

  o. Unit modifiers:

5-day week
8-year-old wine
8-hour day
10-foot pole
 \1/2\-inch pipe
5-foot-wide entrance
10-million-peso loan
a 5-percent increase
20th-century progress
  
but 
two-story house
five-member board
$20 million airfield

  p. Vitamins:

      B12, B, A1, etc.

[[Page 185]]

Ordinal numbers

  12.10. Except as indicated in rules 12.11 and 12.19, and also 
for day preceding month, figures are used in text and footnotes 
to text for serial ordinal numbers beginning with 10th. In 
tables, leaderwork, footnotes to tables and leaderwork, and in 
sidenotes, figures are used at all times. Military units are 
expressed in figures at all times when not the beginning of a 
sentence, except Corps. (For ordinals in addresses, see rule 
12.13.)

29th of May, but May 29
First Congress; 102d Congress
ninth century; 20th century
Second Congressional District;
  20th Congressional District
seventh region; 17th region
eighth parallel; 38th parallel
fifth ward; 12th ward
ninth birthday; 66th birthday
first grade; 11th grade
1st Army
1st Cavalry Division
323d Fighter Wing
12th Regiment
9th Naval District
7th Fleet
7th Air Force
7th Task Force
  
but
XII Corps (Army usage)
Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit
Seventeenth Decennial Census
  (title)

  12.11. When ordinals appear in juxtaposition and one of them 
is 10th or more, figures are used for such ordinal numbers.

      This legislation was passed in the 1st session of the 
        102d Congress.
      He served in the 9th and 10th Congresses.
      From the 1st to the 92d Congress.
      He represented the 1st, 4th, and 13th wards.
      We read the 8th and 12th chapters.
  but The district comprised the first and second precincts.
      He represented the first, third, and fourth regions.
      The report was the sixth in a series of 14.

  12.12. Ordinals and numerals appearing in a sentence are 
treated according to the separate rules dealing with ordinals 
and numerals standing alone or in a group. (See rules 12.4, 
12.5, and 12.24.)

      The fourth group contained three items.
      The fourth group contained 12 items.
      The 8th and 10th groups contained three and four items, 
        respectively.
      The eighth and ninth groups contained 9 and 12 items, 
        respectively.

  12.13. Beginning with 10th, figures are used in text matter 
for numbered streets, avenues, etc. However, figures are used 
at all times and street, avenue, etc. are abbreviated in 
sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and footnotes to tables and 
leaderwork.

      First Street NW.; also in parentheses: (Fifth Street) 
        (13th Street); 810 West 12th Street; North First 
        Street; 1021 121st Street; 2031 18th Street North; 711 
        Fifth Avenue; 518 10th Avenue; 51-35 61st Avenue

Punctuation

  12.14. The comma is used in a number containing four or more 
digits, except in serial numbers, common and decimal fractions, 
astronomical and military time, and kilocycles and meters of 
not more than four figures pertaining to radio.

[[Page 186]]

Chemical formulas

  12.15. In chemical formulas full-sized figures are used 
before the symbol or group of symbols to which they relate, and 
inferior figures are used after the symbol.

6PbS(Ag,Cu)2S2As2S3
   O4


                        NUMBERS SPELLED OUT

  12.16. Spell out numerals at the beginning of a sentence or 
head. Rephrase a sentence or head to avoid beginning with 
figures. (See rule 12.25 for related numbers.)

      Five years ago * * *; not 5 years ago * * *
      Five hundred and fifty men hired * * *; not 550 men hired 
        * * *
      ``Five-Year Plan Announced''; not ``5-Year Plan 
        Announced'' (head)
      The year 1965 seems far off * * *; not 1965 seems far off 
        * * *
      Workers numbering 207,843 * * *; not 207,843 Workers * * 
        *
      Benefits of $69,603,566 * * *; not $69,603,566 worth of 
        benefits * * *

                 1958 report change to the 1958 report

          $3,000 budgeted change to the sum of $3,000 budgeted

          4 million jobless change to jobless number 4 million

  12.17. In testimony, hearings, transcripts, and question and 
answer matter, figures are used immediately following Q. and A. 
or name of interrogator or witness for years (e.g., 1999), sums 
of money, decimals, street numbers, and for numerical 
expressions beginning with 101.

        Mr. Birch, Junior. 1977 was a good year.
        Mr. Bell. $1 per share was the return. Two dollars in 
        1956 was the

      alltime high. Nineteen hundred and seventy-eight may be 
        another 

      story.
        Colonel Davis. 92 cents.
        Mr. Smith. 12.8 people.
        Mr. Jones. 1240 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 
        20004.
        Mr. Smith. Ninety-eight persons.
        Q. 101 years? But Q. One hundred years?
        A. 200 years.
        Mr. Smith. Ten-year average would be how much?

  12.18. A spelled-out number should not be repeated in 
figures, except in legal documents. In such instances use these 
forms:

      five (5) dollars, not five dollars (5)
      ten dollars ($10), not ten ($10) dollars

  12.19. Numbers appearing as part of proper names, used in a 
hypothetical or inexact sense, or mentioned in connection with 
serious and dignified subjects such as Executive orders, legal 
proclamations, and in formal writing are spelled out.

      Three Rivers, PA, Fifteenmile Creek, etc.
      the Thirteen Original States
      in the year nineteen hundred and eighty-four
      the One Hundred and Sixth Congress
      millions for defense but not one cent for tribute

[[Page 187]]

threescore years and ten
Ten Commandments
Air Force One (Presidential plane)
back to square one
behind the eight ball
our policy since day one

  12.20. If spelled out, numbers larger than 1,000 should be 
set in the following form:

      two thousand and twenty
      one thousand eight hundred and fifty
      one hundred and fifty-two thousand three hundred and five
      eighteen hundred and fifty (serial number)

  12.21. Numbers of less than 100 preceding a compound modifier 
containing a figure are spelled out.

two \3/4\-inch boards
twelve 6-inch guns
two 5-percent discounts

but
120 8-inch boards
three four-room houses

  12.22. Indefinite expressions are spelled out.
the seventies; the early seventies;

  but the early 1870s or 1970s
in his eighties, not his '80's nor 80's
between two and three hundred horses (better between 200 and 300 
  horses)
twelvefold; thirteenfold; fortyfold; hundredfold; twentyfold to 
  thirtyfold
midthirties (age, years, money)
a thousand and one reasons

but
1 to 3 million
mid-1971; mid-1970s
40-odd people; nine-odd people
40-plus people
100-odd people
3\1/2\-fold; 250-fold; 2.5-fold; 41-fold

  Words such as nearly, about, around, approximately, etc., do 
not reflect indefinite expressions.

      The bass weighed about 6 pounds.
      She was nearly 8 years old.

  12.23. Except as indicated in rules 12.5 and 12.9, a number 
less than 10 is spelled out within a sentence.

six horses
five wells
eight times as large
but
3\1/2\ cans
2\1/2\ times or 2.5 times

  12.24. For typographic appearance and easy grasp of large 
numbers beginning with million, the word million or billion is 
used.

  The following are guides to treatment of figures as submitted 
in copy. If copy reads--

      $12,000,000, change to $12 million
      2,750,000,000 dollars, change to $2,750 million
      2.7 million dollars, change to $2.7 million
      2\3/8\ million dollars, change to $2\3/8\ million
      two and one-half million dollars, change to $2\1/2\ 
        million
      a hundred cows, change to 100 cows
      a thousand dollars, change to $1,000
      a million and a half, change to 1\1/2\ million
      two thousand million dollars, change to $2,000 million
      less than a million dollars, change to less than $1 
        million
  but $2,700,000, do not convert to $2.7 million
  also $10 to $20 million; 10 or 20 million; between 10 and 20 
        million
      4 millions of assets
      amounting to 4 millions

[[Page 188]]

      $1,270,000
      $1,270,200,000
      $2\3/4\ billion; $2.75 billion; $2,750 million
      $500,000 to $1 million
      300,000; not 300 thousand
      $\1/2\ billion to $1\1/4\ billion (note full figure with 
        second fraction); $1\1/4\ to $1\1/2\ billion
      three-quarters of a billion dollars
      5 or 10 billion dollars' worth

  12.25. Related numbers appearing at the beginning of a 
sentence, separated by no more than three words, are treated 
alike.

      Fifty or sixty more miles away is snowclad Mount Everest.
      Sixty and, quite often, seventy listeners responded.
  but Fifty or, in some instances, almost 60 applications were 
        filed.

Fractions

  12.26. Mixed fractions are always expressed in figures. 
Fractions standing alone, however, or if followed by of a or of 
an, are generally spelled out. (See also rule 12.28.)

three-fourths of an inch; not \3/4\ inch nor \3/4\ of an inch
one-half inch
one-half of a farm; not \1/2\ of a farm
one-fourth inch
seven-tenths of 1 percent
three-quarters of an inch
half an inch
a quarter of an inch
one-tenth portion
one-hundredth
two one-hundredths
one-thousandth
five one-thousandths
thirty-five one-thousandths
  
but
 \1/2\ to 1\3/4\ pages
 \1/2\-inch pipe
 \1/2\-inch-diameter pipe
 3\1/2\ cans
 2\1/2\ times

  12.27. Fractions (\1/4\, \1/2\, \3/4\, \3/8\, \5/8\, \7/8\, 
\1/2954\) or full-sized figures with the shilling mark (1/4, 1/
2954) may be used only when either is specifically requested. A 
comma should not be used in any part of a built-up fraction of 
four or more digits or in decimals. (See rule 12.9e.)

  12.28. Fractions are used in a unit modifier.

      \1/2\-inch pipe; not one-half-inch pipe      \1/4\-mile 
        run      \7/8\-point rise

[[Page 189]]

Roman numerals

  12.29. A repeated letter repeats its value; a letter placed 
after one of greater value adds to it; a letter placed before 
one of greater value subtracts from it; a dashline over a 
letter denotes multiplied by 1,000.

                                                                        NUMERALS
 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I.................................        1      XXIX................       29      LXXV................       75      DC..................         600
II................................        2      XXX.................       30      LXXIX...............       79      DCC.................         700
III...............................        3      XXXV................       35      LXXX................       80      DCCC................         800
IV................................        4      XXXIX...............       39      LXXXV...............       85      CM..................         900
V.................................        5      XL..................       40      LXXXIX..............       89      M...................       1,000
VI................................        6      XLV.................       45      XC..................       90      MD..................       1,500
VII...............................        7      XLIX................       49      XCV.................       95      MM..................       2,000
VIII..............................        8      L...................       50      IC..................       99      MMM.................       3,000
IX................................        9      LV..................       55      C...................      100      MMMM or MV..........       4,000
X.................................       10      LIX.................       59      CL..................      150      V...................       5,000
XV................................       15      LX..................       60      CC..................      200      M...................   1,000,000
XIX...............................       19      LXV.................       65      CCC.................      300
XX................................       20      LXIX................       69      CD..................      400
XXV...............................       25      LXX.................       70      D...................      500
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                      DATES
 
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MDC.............................      1600     MCMXX..............      1920     MCMLXX............      1970
MDCC............................      1700     MCMXXX.............      1930     MCMLXXX...........      1980
MDCCC...........................      1800     MCMXL..............      1940     MCMXC.............      1990
MCM or MDCCCC...................      1900     MCML...............      1950     MM................      2000
MCMX............................      1910     MCMLX..............      1960     MMX...............      2010
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 190]]


                               NOTES





[[Page 191]]



 
                            13. TABULAR WORK

  (See also ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols''; and ``Leaderwork'')

  13.1. The object of a table is to present in a concise and 
orderly manner information that cannot be presented as clearly 
in any other way.

  13.2. Tabular material should be kept as simple as possible, 
so that the meaning of the data can be easily grasped by the 
user.

  13.3. Tables shall be set without down (vertical) rules when 
there is at least an em space between columns, except where: 
(1) In the judgment of the Government Printing Office down 
rules are required for clarity; or (2) the agency has indicated 
on the copy they are to be used. The mere presence of down 
rules in copy or enclosed sample is not considered a request 
that down rules be used. The publication dictates the type size 
used in setting tables. Tabular work in the Congressional 
Record is set 6 on 7. The balance of congressional tabular work 
sets 7 on 8.

Abbreviations

  13.4. To avoid burdening tabular text, commonly known 
abbreviations are used in tables. Metric and unit-of-
measurement abbreviations are used with figures.

  13.5. The names of months (except May, June, and July) when 
followed by the day are abbreviated.

  13.6. The words street, avenue, place, road, square, 
boulevard, terrace, drive, court, and building, following name 
or number, are abbreviated. For numbered streets, avenues, 
etc., figures are used.

  13.7. Abbreviate the words United States if preceding the 
word Government, the name of any Government organization, or as 
an adjective generally.

  13.8. Use the abbreviations RR. and Ry. following a name, and 
SS, MS, etc., preceding a name.

  13.9. Use lat. and long. with figures.

  13.10. Abbreviate, when followed by figures, the various 
parts of publications, as article, part, section, etc.

  13.11. Use, generally, such abbreviations and contractions as 
98th Cong., 1st sess., H. Res. 5, H.J. Res. 21, S. Doc. 62, S. 
Rept. 410, Rev. Stat., etc.

[[Page 192]]

  13.12. In columns containing names of persons, copy is 
followed as to abbreviations of given names.

  13.13. Periods are not used after abbreviations followed by
leaders.

Bearoff (normally an en space)

  13.14. An en space is used for all bearoffs.

  13.15. In a crowded table, when down rules are necessary, the 
bearoff may be reduced in figure columns.

  13.16. Fractions are set flush right to the bearoff of the 
allotted column width, and not aligned.

  13.17. Mathematical signs, parentheses, fractions, and 
brackets are set with a normal bearoff.

Boxheads

  13.18. Periods are omitted after all boxheads, but a dash is 
used after any boxhead which reads into the matter following.

  13.19. Boxheads run crosswise.

  13.20. Boxheads are set solid, even in leaded tables.

  13.21. Boxheads are centered horizontally and vertically.

Down-Rule Style (See Rule 13.3)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Employed boys and girls whose work records were obtained
                                                                   -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                             Total            Time of year at beginning work [depth of this box does not
                                                                   -------------------------             influence the depth of box on left]
                            Sex and age                                                     ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                  June to August          September to May
                                                                      Number   Distribution --------------------------------------------------    Not
                                                                                 (percent)              Distribution             Distribution   reported
                                                                                               Number     (percent)     Number     (percent)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Boys (12 to 14)...................................................      3,869         45.5       1,415          9.6       2,405         15.8          49
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


No-Down-Rule Style (Preferred)

                    Table 9.--Mine production of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in 1953
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Gold     Silver
               Class of material                  Short     (fine     (fine     Copper       Lead        Zinc
                                                  tons     ounces)   ounces)   (pounds)    (pounds)    (pounds)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  ............................................       Concentrate shipped to smelters and recoverable metals
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
Copper........................................   220,346       763    70,357  14,242,346       9,950       6,260
Lead..........................................     3,931       392    48,326      72,500   5,044,750     290,980
Zinc..........................................    25,159       269    41,078     263,400     581,590  26,441,270
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
      Total:
          1953................................   249,436     1,424   159,756  14,578,246   5,636,290  26,738,510
          1952................................   367,430     1,789   432,122  10,622,155  13,544,875  11,923,060
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 193]]

 
                                                               Crude material shipped to smelters
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
Dry gold, dry gold-silver ore.................       134        52     2,839       2,200  ..........  ..........
Copper:
    Crude ore.................................   107,270       844    39,861   2,442,882     124,100       2,200
    Slag......................................       421        10       165     285,421  ..........  ..........
Lead..........................................       528        12     1,693       5,950     110,870         300
Mill cleanings (lead-zinc)....................        31  ........       254       1,450       8,100       4,300
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
      Total:
          1953................................   125,749       919    45,444  30,375,754     249,710       6,890
          1952................................   166,184     1,042    47,176  41,601,845     497,125      26,940
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  13.22. In referring to quantity of things, the word Number in 
boxheads is spelled if possible.

  13.23. Column numbers or letters in parentheses may be set 
under boxheads, and are separated by a quadline below the 
deepest head. (If alignment of parentheses is required within 
the table, use brackets in boxhead.) These column references 
align across the table. Units of quantity are set in 
parentheses within boxheads.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Department of Agriculture                             Department of Commerce
                                                --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                        Disaster loans,                              Bureau of Public
                                                   Commodity                             etc. (payments                               Roads: Highway
                                                    Credit       Special     Value of      to assist        Civil Aeronautics          construction
                     States                      Corporation,    school    commodities     States in     Administration--Federal -----------------------
                                                   value of       milk     distributed   furnishing hay     airport program--
                                                  commodities  program\1\     within           in             regular grants        Regular    Emergency
                                                    donated                   States    droughtstricken                            grants\2\   grants\3\
                                                                                             areas)
                                                         (1)          (2)          (3)            (4)                  (5)               (6)         (7)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alabama........................................   $4,730,154   $1,520,362   $7,970,875  ...............            $79,284        $1,176,401    $247,515
Alaska.........................................      393,484      269,274      591,487  ...............            297,266        12,366,106     472,749
Arizona........................................    4,545,983      823,136    6,512,639  ...............            127,749         9,317,853  ..........
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  13.24. Leaders may be supplied in a column consisting 
entirely of symbols or years or dates or any combination of 
these.

Centerheads, flush entries, and subentries

  13.25. Heads follow the style of the tables as to the use of 
figures and abbreviations.

  13.26. Punctuation is omitted after centerheads. Flush 
entries and subentries over subordinate items are followed by a 
colon (single subentry to run in, preserving the colon), but a 
dash is used instead of a colon when the entry reads into the 
matter below.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Miscellaneous: Powerplant equipment                    $245,040.37
    Roads, railroads, and bridges                           275,900.34
                                                       -----------------
          Total                                             520,940.71
                                                       =================

[[Page 194]]

 
                    transmission plant
    Structures and improvements                              26,253.53
    Station equipment                                       966,164.41
                                                       -----------------
          Total                                             992,417.94
                                                       =================
                       general plant
    General plant:
        Norris                                              753,248.97
        Other                                                15,335.81
                                                       -----------------
          Total                                             768,584.78
                                                       =================
          Grand total                                     2,281,943.43
------------------------------------------------------------------------

  13.27. In reading columns if the centerhead clears the 
reading matter below by at least an em the space is omitted; if 
it clears by less than an em, a space is used. If an overrun, 
rule, etc., in another column, or in the same column, creates a 
blank space above the head, the extra space is not added.

  13.28. Units of quantity and years used as heads in reading 
and figure columns are set in italic with space above and no 
space below.

No-Down-Rule Style (Preferred). The rules are used here to aid 
                    readability.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              1941
Oct. 1..........................      35.6           15     Jan. 16............      45.2           15     May 8..............      46.5           15
Oct. 31.........................      45.0           15     Feb. 4.............      50.2           15     May 22.............      45.1           18
Nov. 14.........................      40.9           18     Feb. 17............      43.4           15     June 9.............      47.1           14
Dec. 24.........................      41.7           15     Mar. 4.............      45.6           15     June 24............      48.2           16
                                                            Mar. 19............      42.7           15     July 9.............      46.6           17
              1942                                          Apr. 2.............      40.9           15     July 24............      45.9           16
Jan. 3..........................      43.9           15     Apr. 28............      47.7           13     Aug. 6.............      46.5           16
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Down-Rule Style (See Rule 13.3)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               1941
Oct. 1............................      35.6           15     Jan. 16..............      45.2           15     May 8................      46.5        15
Oct. 31...........................      45.0           15     Feb. 4...............      50.2           15     May 22...............      45.1        18
Nov. 14...........................      40.9           18     Feb. 17..............      43.4           15     June 9...............      47.1        14
Dec. 24...........................      41.7           15     Mar. 4...............      45.6           15     June 24..............      48.2        19
                                                              Mar. 19..............      42.7           15     July 9...............      46.6        17
               1942                                           Apr. 2...............      40.9           15     July 24..............      45.9        16
Jan. 3............................      43.9           15     Apr. 28..............      47.7           13     Aug. 6...............      46.5        16
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ciphers

  13.29. Where the first number in a column or under a cross 
rule is wholly a decimal, a cipher is added at the left of its 
decimal point. A cipher used alone in a money or other decimal 
column is placed in the unit row and is not followed by a 
period. In mixed units the cipher repeats before decimals 
unless the group totals.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
January............................      +26.4          0            0            0            0            0       \1\+$0.7        27.1+         +40.4
February...........................      +66.7          0            0            0            0            0            -.9        65.8+         +98.1
March..............................     +143.1         +2.6         -7.5          0            0            0          +12.4       150.6         +224.1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 195]]

  13.30. In columns containing both dollars and cents, ciphers 
will be supplied on right of decimal point in the absence of 
figures.

  13.31. Where column consists of single decimal, supply a 
cipher on the right, unless the decimal is a cipher.

                                      0.6
                                      0
                                      3.0
                                      4.2
                                      5.0

  13.32. Where column has mixed decimals of two or more places, 
do not supply ciphers but follow copy.

                                        0.22453
                                        1.263
                                        4
                                        2.60
                                        3.4567
                                       78
                                       12.6
                                      ----------
                                      102.14423

  13.33. Copy is followed in the use of the word None or a 
cipher to indicate None in figure columns. If neither one 
appears in the copy, leaders are inserted, unless a clear is 
specifically requested.

  13.34. In columns of figures under the heading  s 
d, if a whole number of pounds is given, one cipher is supplied 
under s and one under d; if only shillings are given, one 
cipher is supplied under d.

  13.35. In columns of figures under Ft In, if only feet are 
given, supply cipher under In; if only inches are given, clear 
under Ft; if ciphers are used for None, place one cipher under 
both Ft and In.

  13.36. In any column containing sums of money, the period and 
ciphers are omitted if the column consists entirely of whole 
dollars.

Continued heads

  13.37. In continued lines an em dash is used between the head 
and the word Continued. No period is carried after a continued 
line.

  13.38. Continued heads over tables will be worded exactly 
like the table heading. Notes above tables are repeated; 
footnote references are repeated in boxheads and in continued 
lines.

Dashes or rules

  13.39. Rules are not carried in reading columns or columns 
consisting of serial or tracing numbers, but are carried 
through all figure columns.

  13.40. Parallel rules are used to cut off figures from other 
figures below that are added or subtracted; also, generally, 
above a grand total.

[[Page 196]]

Ditto (do.)

  13.41. The abbreviation do. is used to indicate that the 
previous line is being repeated instead of repeating the line, 
verbatim, over and over. It is used in reading columns only, 
lowercased and preceded by leaders (6 periods) when there is 
matter in preceding column. If ditto marks are requested, 
closing quotes will be used.

  13.42. Capitalize Do. in the first and last columns. These 
are indented 1 or 2 ems, depending on the length of the word 
being repeated, or the width of the column; the situation will 
determine as it is encountered.

  13.43. In mixed columns made up of figure and reading-matter 
items, do. is used only under the latter items.

  13.44. Do. is not used--
      (1) In a figure or symbol column (tracing columns are 
    figure columns);

      (2) In the first line under a centerhead in the column in 
    which the centerhead occurs;

      (3) Under a line of leaders or a rule;

      (4) Under an item italicized or set in boldface type for 
    a specific reason (italic or boldface do. is never used; 
    item is repeated);

      (5) Under an abbreviated unit of quantity or other 
    abbreviations; or

      (6) Under words of three letters or less.

  13.45. Do. is used, however, under a clear space and under 
the word None in a reading column.

  13.46. Do. does not apply to a reference mark on the 
preceding item. The reference mark, if needed, is added to do.

  13.47. Leaders are not used before Do. in the first column or 
before or after Do. in the last column.

  13.48. In a first and/or last column 6 ems or less in width, 
a 1-em space is used before Do. In all other columns 6 ems or 
less in width, six periods are used. Bearoff is not included.
 
 13.49. In a first and/or last column more that 6 ems in 
width, 2 ems of space are used before Do. In all other columns 
more than 6 ems in width, six periods are used. Bearoff space 
is not included. If the preceding line is indented, the 
indention of Do. is increased accordingly.

  13.50. Do. under an indented item in an inside reading 
column, with or without matter in preceding column, is preceded 
by six periods which are indented to align with item above.

[[Page 197]]

Dollar mark

  13.51. The dollar mark or any other money symbol is placed 
close to the figure; it is used only at the head of the table 
and under cross rules when the same unit of value applies to 
the entire
column.

  13.52. In columns containing mixed amounts (as money, tons, 
gallons, etc.), the dollar mark, pound mark, peso mark, or 
other symbol, as required, is repeated before each sum of 
money.

  13.53. If several sums of money are grouped together, they 
are separated from the nonmoney group by a parallel rule, and 
the symbol is placed on the first figure of the separated group 
only.


------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     1958        1967
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Water supply available (gallons)................   4,000,000   3,000,000
Wheat production (bushels)......................   9,000,000   8,000,000
                                                 =======================
Operations:
    Water-dispatching operations................    $442,496    $396,800
    Malaria control.............................     571,040     426,600
    Plant protection............................     134,971      58,320
                                                 -----------------------
      Total.....................................   1,148,507     881,720
                                                 =======================
Number of plants................................         642         525
Percent of budget...............................        96.8        78.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note.--Preliminary figures.
 
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

  13.54. In a double money column, dollar marks are used in the 
first group of figures only; en dashes are aligned.

                        $7-$9
                        10-12
                       314-316
                     1,014-1,016
 

  13.55. The dollar mark is omitted from a first item 
consisting of a cipher.

                0                   but $0.12
             $300                       13.43
              500                       15.07
              700                       23.18
 

  13.56. The dollar mark should be repeated in stub or reading 
columns.

                 0 to $0.99........................
                 $1 to $24.........................
                 $25 to $49........................
                 $50 to $74........................
 

Figure columns

  13.57. Figures align on the right, with an en space bearoff. 
There is no bearoff on leaders.

  13.58. In a crowded table the bearoff may be reduced in 
figure columns only. It is preferable to retain the bearoff.

[[Page 198]]

  13.59. Figures in parentheses align if so required.

  13.60. In double rows of figures in a single column, 
connected by a dash, a plus, or minus sign, and in dates 
appearing in the form 2-12-43, the dashes or signs can be 
aligned.

  13.61. Plus or minus signs at the left of figures are placed 
against the figures regardless of alignment; plus and minus 
signs at the right of figures are cleared.

  13.62. Words and Roman numerals in figure columns are aligned 
on the right with the figures, without periods.


------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Median value of livestock........        $224          $62   ...........
Median value of machinery........         $54        Small   ...........
Median value of furniture........        $211         $100   ...........
Possessing automobiles (percent).          25           17   ...........
    Median age (years)...........  ...........  ...........         5.5
    Median value.................  ...........  ...........        $144
Fraternal membership:
    Men..........................  ...........          IV          486
    Women........................  ...........  ...........        None
------------------------------------------------------------------------

  13.63. Figures (including decimal and common fractions) 
expressing mixed units of quantity (feet, dollars, etc.) and 
figures in parentheses are aligned on the right.

  13.64. Decimal points are aligned except in columns 
containing numbers that refer to mixed units (such as pounds, 
dollars, and percentage) and have irregular decimals.

  13.65. It is preferred that all columns in a table consisting 
entirely of figure columns be centered.

Footnotes and references

  13.66. Footnotes to tables are numbered independently from 
footnotes to text unless requested by committee or department.

  13.67. Superior figures are used for footnote references, 
beginning with 1 in each table.

  13.68. If figures might lead to ambiguity (for example, in 
connection with a chemical formula), asterisks, daggers, or 
italic superior letters, etc., may be used.

  13.69. When items carry several reference marks, the 
superior-figure reference precedes an asterisk, dagger, or 
similar character used for reference. These, in the same 
sequence, precede mathematical signs. A thin space is used to 
bear off an asterisk, dagger, or similar character.

  13.70. Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in 
continued lines over tables.

  13.71. References to footnotes are numbered consecutively 
across the page from left to right.

[[Page 199]]

  13.72. Footnote references are placed at the right in reading 
columns and symbol columns, and at the left in figure columns 
(also at the left of such words as None in figure columns), and 
are separated by a thin space.

  13.73. Two or more footnote references occurring together are 
separated by spaces, not commas.

  13.74. In a figure column, a footnote reference standing 
alone is set in parentheses and flushed right. In a reading 
column, it is set at the left in parentheses and is followed by 
leaders, but in the last column it is followed by a period, as 
if it were a word. In a symbol column it is set at the left and 
cleared.

  13.75. Numbered footnotes are placed immediately beneath the 
table. If a sign or letter reference in the heading of a table 
is to be followed, it is not changed to become the first 
numbered reference mark. The footnote to it precedes all other 
footnotes.

  13.76. For better makeup or appearance, footnotes may be 
placed at the end of a lengthy table. A line reading 
``Footnotes at end of table.'' is supplied.

  13.77. If the footnotes to both table and text fall together 
at the bottom of a page, the footnotes to the table are placed 
above the footnotes to the text, and the two groups are 
separated by a 50-point rule flush left; but if there are 
footnotes to the text and none to the table, the 50-point rule 
is retained.

  13.78. Footnotes to cut-in and indented tables and tables in 
rules are set full measure, except when footnotes are short, 
they can be set in 1 em under indented table.

  13.79. Footnotes are set as paragraphs, but two or more short 
footnotes should be combined into one line, separated by not 
less than 2 ems.

  13.80. The footnotes and notes to tables are set solid.

  13.81. Footnotes and notes to tables and boxheads are set the 
same size, but not smaller than 6 point, unless specified 
otherwise.

  13.82. Footnotes to tables follow tabular style in the use of 
abbreviations, figures, etc.

  13.83. In footnotes, numbers are expressed in figures, even 
at the beginning of a note or sentence.

  13.84. If a footnote consists entirely or partly of a table 
or leaderwork, it should always be preceded by introductory 
matter carrying the reference number; if necessary, the copy 
preparer should add an introductory line, such as ``\1\See the 
following table:''.

  13.85. An explanatory paragraph without specific reference 
but belonging to the table rather than to the text follows the 
footnotes, if any, and is separated from them or from the table 
by space.

[[Page 200]]

Fractions

  13.86. All fractions are set flush right to the bearoff.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total length.................................   40\3/4\           41          0.42           43          44         0.455          46           47           48     \1/2\ in.
Sleeve length................................   10\5/8\           10            10           10          11            11          11           11           11     1 in.
Armhole length...............................    8\5/8\       8\1/2\             9       9\1/2\      9\1/2\            10     10\1/2\      10\1/2\           11     1 in.
Sleeve cuff length (if cuff is used).........    5\1/2\       5\1/2\        5\1/2\      5\7/12\      5\1/2\       5\7/12\      5\1/2\       5\1/2\       5\1/2\     Maximum.
Neck opening.................................   26\1/2\           26     27\17/32\    28\15/32\          28     29\17/32\          30           30           31     2 in.
Waist:
    7, 8, 9, 10 cut..........................   23\1/2\           24       25\1/2\    27\15/32\          28       29\1/2\          31           32      33\1/2\     6 pct.
    11, 12, 14 cut...........................   22\1/2\      23\1/2\            25      26\1/2\     27\1/2\            29     30\1/2\      31\1/2\           33     6 pct.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  13.87. Fractions standing alone are expressed in figures, 
even at the beginning of a line, but not at the beginning of a 
footnote.

Headnotes

  13.88. Headnotes should be set lowercase, but not smaller 
than 6 point, bracketed, and period omitted at end, even if the 
statement is a complete sentence; but periods should not be 
omitted internally if required by sentence structure.

  13.89. Headnotes are repeated under continued heads but the 
word Continued is not added to the headnote.

Indentions and overruns

Subentries

  13.90. The indention of subentries is determined by the width 
of the stub or reading column. Subentries in columns more than 
15 ems wide are indented in 2-em units; in columns 15 ems or 
less, with short entry lines and few overruns, 2-em indentions 
are also used. All overruns are indented 1 em more.
  13.91. Subentries in columns of 15 ems or less are indented 
in 1-em units. Overruns are indented 1 em more.

Total, mean, and average lines

  13.92. All total (also mean and average) lines are indented 3 
ems. In very narrow stub columns, total lines may be reduced to 
1- or 2-em indentions, depending on length of line.
  13.93. Where overrun of item above conflicts, the total line 
is indented 1 em more. Runovers of total lines are also 
indented 1 em more.
  13.94. It is not necessary to maintain uniform indention of 
the word Total throughout the same table. The word Total is 
supplied when not in copy.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                           Non-
              Wide stub column--subentries 2 ems                Total, all   National    national     Building
                                                                   banks       banks       banks    associations
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            assets
Loans and discounts:
    Loans to banks............................................     $74,518  $1,267,493    $947,289     $135,619

[[Page 201]]

 
    Commercial and industrial loans...........................   2,753,456     450,916     211,597       18,949
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
      Total (total lines generally indent 3 ems)..............   2,827,974     718,409   1,158,886      154,568
                                                               =================================================
Real estate loans:
    Secured by farmland.......................................      12,532      29,854     186,228       19,044
    Secured by residential property other than rural and farm.   1,011,856     167,765   1,554,084    3,172,837
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
        Total (indent 1 em more to avoid conflict with line      1,024,388     194,619   1,740,312    3,191,881
         above)...............................................
                                                               =================================================
Securities:
    U.S. Government obligations:
        Direct obligations:
            U.S. savings bonds................................   1,149,764   3,285,721   2,361,796       23,506
            Nonmarketable bonds (including investment series A-    242,500     490,677     732,689      167,735
             1965)............................................
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
                Total (indent 1 em more than runover above)...   1,392,264   3,776,398   3,094,485      191,241
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Italic

  13.95. Names of vessels and aircraft (except in columns 
consisting entirely of such names), titles of legal cases 
(except v. for versus), and certain scientific terms are set in 
italic. The word ``Total'' and headings in the column do not 
affect the application of this rule. In gothic typefaces 
without italic, quotes are allowed.

  13.96. Set ``See'' and ``See also'' in roman.

Leaders

  13.97. Leaders run across the entire table except that they 
are omitted from a last reading column.

  13.98. The style of leadering is guided by two rules: (1) 
Tables with a single reading column leader from the bottom 
line, and (2) tables with any combination of more than one 
reading or symbol column leader from the top line.

  13.99. If leadering from the top line, overruns end with a 
period.

  13.100. A column of dates is regarded as a reading column 
only if leaders are added; in all other cases it is treated as 
a figure
column.

  13.101. In tables with tracing figures on left and right of 
page, leader from top line.

Numerals in tables

  13.102. Figures, ordinals, and fractions are used in all 
parts of a table, except fractions which will be spelled out at 
the beginning of a footnote.

[[Page 202]]

Parallel and divide tables are discouraged

  13.103. Parallel tables are set in pairs of pages, beginning 
on a left-hand page and running across to facing right-hand 
page; leader from the top line.

  13.104. Heads and headnotes center across the pair of pages, 
with 2-em hanging indention for three or more lines when 
combined measure exceeds 30 picas in width. Two-line heads are 
set across the pair of pages. A single-line head or headnote is 
divided evenly, each part set flush right and left, 
respectively. Words are not divided between pages.

  13.105. Boxheads and horizontal rules align across both 
pages.

  13.106. Boxheads are not divided but are repeated, with 
Continued added.

  13.107. Tracing figures are carried through from the outside 
columns of both pages and are set to ``leader from the top 
line.''

  13.108. In divide tables that are made up parallel, with stub 
column repeated, the head and headnote repeat on each 
succeeding page, with Continued added to the head only.

  13.109. Tables with tracing figures or stub, or both, 
repeating on the left of odd pages, are divide tables and not 
parallel tables. Over such tables the heads are repeated, with 
Continued added.

Reading columns

  13.110. Figures or combinations of figures and letters used 
to form a reading column align on left and are followed by 
leaders. Do. is not used under such items.

  13.111. The en dash is not to be used for to in a reading 
column; if both occur, change to to throughout.

  13.112. Cut-in items following a colon are indented 2 ems.

  13.113. Run in single entry under colon line; retain the 
colon.

  13.114. Numerical terms, including numbered streets, avenues, 
etc., are expressed in figures, even at the beginning of an 
item.

Symbol columns

  13.115. A column consisting entirely of letters, letters and 
figures, symbols, or signs, or any combination of these, is 
called a symbol column. It should be set flush left and 
cleared, except when it takes the place of the stub, it should 
then be leadered. No closing period is used when such column is 
the last column. Blank lines in a last column are cleared. Do. 
is not used in a symbol column.


[[Page 203]]



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Typical commercial    Army product    Filing order                           Specification
      Symbol            designation          symbol          symbol      General description        symbol
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GM(2)............  Gasoline and diesel   OR10            A              Fuel, grease,         G.&D.
                    engine oil, SAE10                                    chassis, or soap
                    and SAE10W grades.                                   base.
CG...............  Ball and roller       4l-X-59         N              Extreme pressure....  BR
                    bearing grease.
CW\1\............  Wheel-bearing grease  OE20\2\         X              ......do............  WBG\3\
                   Grease not typified.  ..............  .............  Further tests being
                                                                         conducted.
G090.............  Universal gear        S.&T.           B              Water-pump grease...  80D
                    lubricant.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  13.116. Columns composed of both symbols and figures are 
treated as figure columns and are set flush right. In case of 
blank lines in a last column, leaders will be used as in figure 
columns.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       Symbol
 Symbol                                       Symbol     or                                          Symbol or
   or      Typical commercial designation       or     filing          General description         specification
catalog                                      product   order                                           number
 number                                       number   symbol
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    WBD  Chassis grease, cup grease, under       961        A  Especially adapted to very cold           1359
          pressure.                                             climates.
  14L88  Water-pump bearing grease.........      SWA      352  Under moderate pressure...........  .............
   5190  Exposed gear chain lubricant......      12L        N  High-speed use....................        AE10
         E.P. hypoid lubricant.............      863        X  For experimental use only.........         NXL
    376  Special grade for marine use......  .......      468  Free flowing in any weather.......         749
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tables without rules

  13.117. It is preferable to set all tables alike; that is, 
without either down rules or cross rules and with roman 
boxheads. When so indicated on copy, by ordering agency, 
tabular matter may be set without rules, with italic boxheads.

  13.118. Column heads over figure columns in 6- or 8-point 
leaderwork are set in 6-point italic.

  13.119. Horizontal rules (spanner) used between a spread or 
upper level column heading carried over two or more lower level 
column headings are set continuous and without break, from left 
to right, between the two levels of such headings.

                            Table 9.--Changes in fixed assets and related allowances
 
                                                                      Fixed assets
                                       -------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Investment                     Operations
                                          Balance   ------------------------------------------------------------
                                          June 30,                                                     Balance
                                        1966 (table   Current   Adjustments  Transfers  Retirements    June 30,
                                            9-a)     additions                                           1966
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Supporting and general facilities:
    Transportation and utilities:
        Panama Railroad...............  $12,123,197       $306  ...........     ($539)   ($284,358)  $11,838,606
        Motor Transportation Division.    2,242,999    122,597  ...........      2,143    (147,561)    2,220,178

[[Page 204]]

 
        Steamship line................   13,653,989     10,247  ...........  .........  ...........   13,664,236
        Power system..................   19,364,373    366,311  ...........      (342)    (290,174)   19,440,168
        Communication system..........    2,739,012    151,819   ($113,261)  .........     (26,100)    2,751,470
        Water system and hydroelectric   10,590,820    104,039  ...........      1,661     (48,920)   10,647,600
         facilities...................
                                       -------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Total, transportation and    60,714,390    755,319    (113,261)      2,923    (797,113)   60,562,258
             utilities................
                                       =========================================================================
    Employee service and facilities:
        Commissary Division...........    7,012,701    105,952    (130,891)     21,777     (36,418)    6,973,121
        Service centers...............    3,684,670     29,086  ...........        530    (230,276)    3,484,010
        Housing Division..............   35,729,465   (10,336)  ...........  (485,548)    (937,916)   34,295,665
                                       -------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total employee service and     46,426,836    124,702    (130,891)  (463,241)  (1,204,610)   44,752,796
           facilities.................
                                       =========================================================================
          Grand total.................  107,141,236    880,021    (244,152)  (466,164)  (2,001,723)  105,315,054


  13.120. More than one figure column, also illustrating use of 
dollar mark, rule, bearoff, etc.


For property purchased from--
    Central Pipeline Distributing Co.:
        Capital stock issued recorded amount..      $75,000
        Undetermined consideration recorded...          341
    Pan American Bonded Pipeline Co.: Recorded        3,476
     money outlay.............................
    M.J. Mitchell: Recorded money outlay......          730
    R. Lacy, Inc., and Lynch Refining Co.:
        Recorded money outlay....    $157,000
        Note issued..............     100,000
                                  --------------
          Subtotal...............     257,000
    Less value of oil in lines         26,555       230,445    $309,992
     and salvaged construction
     material....................
                                  --------------
 
For construction, improvements, and replacements, recorded          522
 money outlay..............................................
For construction work in progress, recorded money outlay...     933,605
                                  --------------
      Total................................................   1,244,119
 


[[Page 205]]


 
                                                   Quantity
                                                   (million    Value at
                                                     cubic     point of
                                                     feet)   consumption
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Use:
    Residential..................................    34,842  $21,218,778
    Commercial...................................    14,404    5,257,468
    Industrial:
        Field (drilling, pumping, etc.)..........   144,052   10,419,000
        All other industrial:
            Fuel for petroleum refineries........    96,702  ...........
            Other, including electric utility       346,704   61,440,000
             plants..............................
                                                  ----------------------
              Total..............................   636,704   98,335,246

              ---------------------------------------------------------

 
                                                   Estimated
                                     -----------------------------------
                                         1953        1957       Change
------------------------------------------------------------------------
General account:
    Receipts........................    $64,800     $69,800     +$5,000
    Expenditures....................    (70,300)    (67,100)    (-3,200)
                                     -----------------------------------
Net improvement, 1957 over 1953.............................      1,800
Deduct 1953 deficit.........................................      1,500
                                     -------------
      Net surplus, estimated for 1957.......................        300

              ---------------------------------------------------------

                       [In U.S.-dollar equivalent]
Balance with the Treasury Department July 1, 1954.....   $165,367,704.85
Receipts:
    Collections.....................   $564,944,502.99
    Return from agency accounts of        4,450,577.07
     currencies advanced for
     liquidation of obligations
     incurred prior to July 1, 1953.
                                     -------------------
        Total receipts................................    569,395,080.06
                                     -------------------
        Total available...............................    734,762,784.91
 

Units of quantity

  13.121. Units of quantity in stub columns are set in 
lowercase in plural form and placed in parentheses.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coke (short tons).........................................    4,468,437  \1\ 25,526,6    5,080,403  \2\ 29,519,8
                                                                                   46                         71
Diatomite.................................................  (\1\ \2\ \3         (\1\)        (\1\)  (\1\ \2\ \3\
                                                                     \)                                        )
Emery (pounds)............................................          765         6,828        1,046         9,349
Feldspar (crude) (long tons)..............................        (\1\)         (\1\)        (\1\)         (\1\)
Ferroalloys (short tons)..................................      183,465  \2\ 18,388,7      259,303  \2\ 30,719,7
                                                                                   66                         56
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  13.122. Units of quantity and other words as headings over 
figure columns are used at the beginning of a table or at the 
head of a continued page or continued column in a double-up 
table.

  13.123. Over figure columns, units of quantity and other 
words used as headings, and the abbreviations a.m. and p.m., if 
not included in the boxheads, are set in italic and are placed 
immediately above the figures, without periods other than 
abbreviating periods. In congressional work (gothic), or at any 
time when italic is not available, these units should be placed 
in the boxheads in parentheses. Any well-known abbreviation 
will be used to save an over

[[Page 206]]

run, but if one unit of quantity is abbreviated, all in the 
same table will be abbreviated. If units change in a column, 
the new units are set in italic with space above and no space 
below. The space is placed both above and below only when there 
is no italic available.

Quoted tabular work

  13.124. When a table is part of quoted matter, quotation 
marks will open on each centerhead and each footnote paragraph, 
and if table is end of quoted matter, quotation marks close at 
end of footnotes. If there are no footnotes and the table is 
the end of the quotation, quotation marks close at end of last 
item.



[[Page 207]]


                             14. LEADERWORK

  (See also ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols'' and ``Tabular Work'')

  14.1. Leaderwork is a simple form of tabular work without 
boxheads or rules and is separated from text by 4 points of 
space above and below in solid matter and 6 points of space in 
leaded matter. It consists of a reading (stub) column and a 
figure column, leadered from the bottom line. It may also 
consist of two reading columns, aligning on the top line. In 
general, leaderwork (except indexes and tables of contents, 
which are set the same style as text) is governed by the same 
rules of style as tabular work. Unless otherwise indicated, 
leaderwork is set in 8 point. The period is omitted immediately 
before leaders.

Bearoff

  14.2. No bearoff is required at the right in a single reading
column.

Columns

  14.3. A figure column is at least an en quad wider than the 
largest group of figures, but not less than 3 ems in single 
columns and 2 ems in double-up columns. Total rules are to be 
the full width of all figure columns.
                                                                  Pounds
Year: 1998....................................................   655,939
Fiscal year:
    1999......................................................   368,233
    2000......................................................   100,000
                    --------------------------------------------------------------
                    ____________________________________________________

      Total................................................... 1,124,172

  14.4. Where both columns are reading columns, they are 
separated by an em space.

 
          Particulars                             Artist
 
To the French Government:
  The entire collection of       Degas.
   French paintings on loan,
   with the exception of Mlle.
   DuBourg (Mme. Fantin-Latour).
  Avant la Course..............      Do.
To Col. Axel H. Oxholm,
 Washington, DC:
  Martha Washington, George      Attributed to Jonathan E. Earl, Los
   Washington, and Thomas         Angeles, CA.
   Jefferson.
  Roses........................  Renoir.
      Do.......................  Forain.
  Roses in a Chinese Vase and    Vuillard.
   Sculpture by Maillol.
  Maternity....................  Gauguin.
 


[[Page 208]]

Continued heads

  14.5. The use of continued heads in leaderwork is not 
necessary.

Ditto (do.)

  14.6. The abbreviation do. is indented and capitalized in the 
stub. It is capitalized and cleared in last reading column.

Dollar mark and ciphers

  14.7. In a column containing mixed amounts (as money, tons, 
gallons, etc.) the figures are aligned on the right, and the 
dollar mark or other symbol is repeated before each sum of 
money. If several sums of money are grouped and added or 
subtracted to make a total, they are separated from the 
nonmoney group by a parallel rule, and the symbol is placed on 
the first figure of the separated group only.

  14.8. If two columns of sums of money add or subtract one 
into the other and one carries points and ciphers, the other 
should also carry points and ciphers.

Flush items and subheads

  14.9. Flush items clear the figure column.

  14.10. Subheads are centered in full measure.

Footnotes

  14.11. Footnotes to leaderwork follow the style of footnotes 
to
tables.

  14.12. Footnote references begin with 1 in each leadered 
grouping, and footnotes are placed at the end, separated from 
it by 4 points of space. Separate notes from matter following 
by not less than 6 points of space.

  14.13. If the leaderwork runs over from one page to another, 
the footnotes will be placed at the bottom of the leadered 
material.\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \1\ If footnotes to leaderwork and text fall at bottom of page, 
leaderwork footnotes are placed above text footnotes. The two groups 
are separated by a 50-point rule.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Units of quantity

  14.14. Units of quantity or other words over a stub or figure 
column are set italic.

  14.15. The following example shows the style to be observed 
where there is a short colon line at left. In case of only one 
subentry, run in with colon line and preserve the colon.
                                                                    Tons
Baltimore & Ohio RR.:
    Freight carried:
        May.......................................................50,000
        June......................................................52,000
    Coal carried..................................................90,000
Dixie RR.: Freight carried Jan. 1, 1999, including freight carried 
    by all its subsidiaries....................................\1\ 2,000

\1\ Livestock not included.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 209]]

  14.16. If there is no colon line, the style is as follows:
                                                                    Tons
Freight carried by the Dixie RR. and the Baltimore & Ohio
  RR. in May......................................................71,500

  14.17. Explanatory matter is set in 6 point under leaders 
(note omission of period):

                     .............................  .............................  .............................
                                 (Name)                       (Address)                      (Position)
 

  14.18. In blank forms, leaders used in place of complete 
words to be supplied are preceded and followed by a space.

        On this .................................... day of 
        ........................................ 19 ......

  14.19. In half measure doubled up, units of quantity are 
aligned across the page.

 
                                    Inches                        Inches
 
Seedlings:
  Black locust....................      27      Osage-orange....      20
  Honey locust....................      16      Catalpa.........      16
  Green ash.......................       7      Black walnut....      10
 

  14.20. Mixed units of quantity and amounts and words in a 
figure column are set as follows:

Capital invested..................................................$8,000
Value of implements and stock.....................................$3,000
Land under cultivation (acres).................................... 128.6
Orchard (acres)...................................................  21.4
Forest land (square miles)........................................    50
Livestock:
    Horses:
        Number....................................................     8
        Value.....................................................$1,500
    Cows:
        Number....................................................    18
        Estimated weekly production of butter per milk cow 
          (pounds)................................................7\1/2\
    Hogs:
        Number....................................................    46
        Loss from cholera.........................................  None

[[Page 210]]

                                 NOTES




[[Page 211]]


 
             15. FOOTNOTES, INDEXES, CONTENTS, AND OUTLINES

                     FOOTNOTES AND REFERENCE MARKS

  15.1. Text footnotes follow the style of the text with the 
exception of those things noted in ``Abbreviations and Letter 
Symbols.'' Footnotes appearing in tabular material follow the 
guidelines set forth in ``Tabular Work.''

  15.2. In a publication divided into chapters, sections, or 
articles, each beginning a new page, text footnotes begin with 
1 in each such division. In a publication without such 
divisional grouping, footnotes are numbered consecutively from 
1 to 99, and then begin with 1 again. However, in supplemental 
sections, such as appendixes and bibliographies, which are not 
parts of the publication proper, footnotes begin with 1.

  15.3. Copy preparers must see that references and footnotes 
are plainly marked.

  15.4. If a reference is repeated on another page, it should 
carry the original footnote; but to avoid repetition of a long 
note, the copy preparer may use the words ``See footnote 3 (6, 
10, etc.) on p. --.'' instead of repeating the entire footnote.

  15.5. Unless the copy is otherwise marked: (1) Footnotes to 
12-point text are set in 8 point; (2) footnotes to 11-point 
text are set in 8 point, except in Supreme Court reports, in 
which they are set in 9 point; (3) footnotes to 10- and 8-point 
text are set in 7 point.

  15.6. Footnotes are set as paragraphs at the bottom of the 
page and are separated from the text by a 50-point rule, set 
flush left, with no less than 2 points of space above and below 
the rule.

  15.7. Footnotes to indented matter (other than excerpt 
footnotes) are set full measure.

  15.8. To achieve faithful reproduction of indented excerpt 
material (particularly legal work) containing original 
footnotes, these footnotes are also indented and placed at the 
bottom of the excerpt, separated by 6 points of space. No side 
dash is used. Reference numbers are not changed to fit the 
numbering sequence of text footnotes.

[[Page 212]]

  15.9. Footnotes must always begin on the page where they are 
referenced. If the entire footnote will not fit on the page 
where it is cited, it will be continued at the bottom of the 
next page.\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \1\ When a footnote breaks from an odd (right-hand) page to an even 
(left-hand) page, the word (Continued) is set inside parentheses in 
italic below the last line of the footnote where the break occurs.
  A 50-point rule is used above each part of the footnote.
  When a footnote break occurs on facing pages, i.e., from an even page 
to an odd page, the (Continued) line is not set, but the 50-point rule 
is.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  15.10. Footnotes to charts, graphs, and other illustrations 
should be placed immediately beneath such illustrative 
material.

  15.11. A cutoff rule is not required between a chart or graph 
and its footnotes.

  15.12. For reference marks use: (1) Roman superior figures, 
(2) italic superior letters, and (3) symbols. Superior figures 
(preferred), letters, and symbols are separated from the words 
to which they apply by thin spaces, unless immediately preceded 
by periods or commas.

  15.13. Where reference figures might lead to ambiguity (for 
example, in matter containing exponents), asterisks, daggers, 
etc., or italic superior letters may be used.

  15.14. When symbols or signs are used for footnote reference 
marks, their sequence should be (*) asterisk, () 
dagger, (=) double dagger, and (Sec. ) section mark. Should 
more symbols be needed, these may be doubled or tripled, but 
for simplicity and greater readability, it is preferable to 
extend the assortment by adding other single-character symbols.

  15.15. Symbols with established meanings, such as the percent 
sign (%) and the number mark (#), are likely to cause confusion 
and should not be used for reference marks.

  15.16. To avoid possible confusion with numerals and letters 
frequently occurring in charts and graphs, it is preferable in 
such instances to use symbols as reference marks.

  15.17. When items carry several reference marks, the 
superior-figure reference precedes an asterisk, dagger, or 
similar character used for reference.

  15.18. A superior reference mark follows all punctuation 
marks except a dash, but falls inside a closing parenthesis or 
bracket if applying only to matter within the parentheses or 
brackets.

  15.19. Two or more superior footnote references occurring 
together are separated by thin spaces.

                     INDEXES AND TABLES OF CONTENTS

  15.20. Indexes and tables of contents are set in the same 
style as the text, except that See and see also are set in 
italic.

[[Page 213]]

  15.21. Where a word occurs in an index page column, either 
alone or with a figure, it is set flush on the right. If the 
word extends back into the leaders, it is preceded by an en 
space.
                                                                    Page
Explanatory diagram........................................ Frontispiece
General instructions..............................................  viii
Capitalization (see also Abbreviations)...........................    16
Correct imposition (diagram).................................. Facing 34
Legends. (See Miscellaneous rules.)
Appendixes A, B, C, and D, maps, illustrations,
  and excerpts................................... In supplemental volume

  15.22. For better appearance, Roman numerals should be set in 
small caps in the figure columns of tables of contents and 
indexes.

  15.23. In indexes set with leaders, if the page numbers will 
not fit in the leader line, the first number only is set in 
that line and the other numbers are overrun. If the entry makes 
three or more lines and the last line of figures is not full, 
do not use a period at the end.

If page folios overrun due to an excessive amount of figures use 
  this form......................................................  220,
                                                     224, 227, 230, 240
And this way when overrun folios make two or more lines..........  220,
                                224-225, 230-240, 245, 246, 250-255, 
                                258, 300, 320, 330, 350, 360, 370, 380, 
                                390, 400, 410-500, 510, 520, 530, 540, 
                                550, 560, 570, 580, 590, 600-620, 630, 
                                640, 650, 660, 670, 680, 690, 700
  (For examples of item indentions in a reading column of 
indexes set with leaders, see index in this Manual.)

  15.24. Overrun page numbers are indented 3\1/2\ ems in 
measures not over 20 picas and 7 ems in wider measures, more 
than one line being used if necessary. These indentions are 
increased as necessary to not less than 2 ems more than the 
line immediately above or below.

  15.25. When copy specifies that all overs are to be a certain 
number of ems, the runovers of the figure column shall be held 
in 2 ems more than the specified indention.

  15.26. Examples of block-type indexes:

 
                 Example 1                            Example 2
 
Medical officer, radiological defense, 3    Brazil--Continued
Medicolegal dosage, 44                        Exchange restrictions--
                                            Continued
Military Liaison Committee, 4                   Williams mission (see
Monitoring, 58                                 also  Williams,
  Air, 62                                         John  H.,  special
  Personnel, 59                              mission),  efforts
                                                  in connection  with
                                             exchange  con-
                                                  trol situation, 586-
                                             588
    Civilian, 60                              Trade  agreement  with
    Military, 59                               United  States,
                                                  proposed:
  Sea, 61                                       Draft text, 558-567
  Ship, 61                                      Proposals for:
Monitors, radiological defense, 3                 Inclusion of all
                                               clauses, 531
 


[[Page 214]]

  15.27. In index entries the following forms are used:

          Brown, A.H., Jr. (not Brown, Jr., A.H.)
          Brown, A.H., & Sons (not Brown & Sons, A.H.)
          Brown, A.H., Co. (not Brown Co., A.H.)
          Brown, A.H., & Sons Co. (not Brown & Sons Co., A.H.)

  15.28. In a table of contents, where chapter, plate, or 
figure is followed by a number and period, an en space is used 
after the period. The periods are aligned on the right.

                                                                    Page
Chapter
      Introduction.....................................................i
      Summary..........................................................1
      Conclusions......................................................7

  15.29. Subheads in indexes and tables of contents are 
centered in the full measure.

  15.30. In contents using two sizes of lightface type, or a 
combination of boldface and lightface type, all leaders and 
page numbers will be set in lightface roman type. Contents set 
entirely in boldface will use boldface page numbers. All page 
numbers will be set in the predominant size.

                                                                    Page
Part I. Maintenance of Peace and Security.........................     5
    Disarmament...................................................     6
    Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy................................     7

Part I. Maintenance of Peace and Security.........................     5
    Disarmament...................................................     6
    Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy................................     7

Part I. Maintenance of Peace and Security.........................     5
    Disarmament...................................................     6
    Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy................................     7

                                OUTLINES

  15.31. Outlines vary in appearance because there is no one 
set style to follow in designing them. The width of the 
measure, the number of levels required for the indentions, and 
the labeling concept selected to identify each new level all 
contribute to its individuality.

  The following sample outline demonstrates a very basic and 
structured arrangement. It uses the enumerators listed in rule 
8.108 to identify each new indented level.

  The enumerators for the first four levels are followed by a 
period and a fixed amount of space. The enumerators for the 
second four levels are set in parentheses and followed by the 
same amount of fixed space.

  Each new level indents 2 ems more than the preceding level 
and data that runs over to the next line aligns with the first 
word following the enumerator.

[[Page 215]]

   Outline example:
   I.  Balancing a checkbook
        A.  Open your check register
             1.            Verify all check numbers
                  a.  Verify no check numbers were duplicated
                  b.  Verify no check numbers were skipped
        B.  Open your bank statement
             1.            Put canceled checks in sequence
             2.            Compare amounts on checks to those in 
                 register
                  a.  Correct any mistakes in register
                  b.  Indicate those check numbers cashed
                      (1)  Mark off check number on the statement
                           (a)  Verify amount of check
                                (i)  Highlight discrepancies on statement
                                    (aa)  Enter figures on back
                               (ii)  Enter missing check numbers on back with 
                                     amounts
                                    (aa)  Identify missing check numbers in 
                                          register
                                    (bb)  Verify those check numbers were not 
                                          cashed previously
    
    
    

[[Page 216]]

                            NOTES    




[[Page 217]]



 
                16. DATELINES, ADDRESSES, AND SIGNATURES

  16.1. The general principle involved in the typography of 
datelines, addresses, and signatures is that they should be set 
to stand out clearly from the body of the letter or paper which 
they accompany. This is accomplished by using caps and small 
caps and italic, as set forth below. Other typographic details 
are designed to ensure uniformity and good appearance. Street 
addresses and ZIP Code numbers are not to be used. In certain 
lists which carry ZIP Code numbers, regular spacing will be 
used preceding the ZIP Code. Certain general instructions apply 
alike to datelines, addresses, and signatures.

General instructions

  16.2. Principal words in datelines, addresses, and titles 
accompanying signatures are capitalized.

  16.3. Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., and all other titles preceding a 
name, and Esq., Jr., Sr., and 2d following a name in address 
and signature lines, are set in roman caps and lowercase if the 
name is in caps and small caps or caps and lowercase; if the 
name is in caps, they are set in caps and small caps, if small 
caps are available--otherwise in caps and lowercase.

Spacing

  16.4. At least 2 points of space should appear between 
dateline and text or address, address and text, text and 
signature, and signature and address.

                               DATELINES

  16.5. Datelines at the beginning of a letter or paper are set 
at the right side of the page, the originating office in caps 
and small caps, the address and date in italic; if the 
originating office is not given, the address is set in caps and 
small caps and the date in italic; if only the date is given, 
it is set in caps and small caps. Such datelines are indented 
from the right 1 em for a single line; 3 ems and 1 em, 
successively, for two lines; and 5 ems, 3 ems, and 1 em, 
successively, for three lines. In measures 30 picas or wider, 
these indentions are increased by 1 em.
                                  The White House,{time} {time} {time} 
                                Washington, DC, January 1, 1999.{time} 

                                 The White House, July 30, 1999.{time} 

[[Page 218]]

                Treasury Department,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                          Office of the Treasurer,{time} {time} {time} 
                                Washington, DC, January 1, 1999.{time} 

                             Treasury Department, July 30, 1999.{time} 

                           Department of Commerce,{time} {time} {time} 
                                                  July 30, 1999.{time} 

                                             Fairfax County, VA.{time} 

                       Office of John Smith & Co.,{time} {time} {time} 
                                     New York, NY, June 6, 1999.{time} 

                               Washington, May 20, 1999--10 a.m.{time} 

                                   Thursday, May 8, 1999--2 p.m.{time} 

                                               January 24, 1999.{time} 

                    Washington, November 29, 1999 {time} {time} {time} 
                                    [Received December 6, 1999].{time} 

                  On Board U.S.S. ``Connecticut,''{time} {time} {time} 
                                               January 21, 1999.{time} 

  Office of the Commissioners of the{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                             District of Columbia,{time} {time} {time} 
                                    Washington, January 6, 1999.{time} 

  16.6. Congressional hearings:

                      MONDAY, OCTOBER 25, 1999 \1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ Normally, dates in House hearings on appropriation bills are 
set on the right in 10-point caps and small caps.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                              House of 
      Representatives,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
         Committee on the Judiciary,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                      Subcommittee on Immigration,{time} {time} {time} 
                                                 Washington, DC.{time} 

                        U.S. Senate,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                      Committee on Armed Services,{time} {time} {time} 
                                                 Washington, DC.{time} 

      Congress of the United States,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                      Joint Committee on Printing,{time} {time} {time} 
                                                 Washington, DC.{time} 

  16.7. Datelines at the end of a letter or paper, either above 
or below signatures, are set on left in caps and small caps for 
the address and italic for the date. When the word dated is 
used, dateline is set in roman caps and lowercase.

{time} May 7, 1999.

{time} Steubenville, OH.

{time} Steubenville, OH, July 1, 1999.

{time} Dated July 1, 1999.

{time} Dated Albany, March 12, 1999.

  16.8. Datelines in newspaper extracts are set at the 
beginning of the paragraph, the address in caps and small caps 
and the date in roman caps and lowercase, followed by a period 
and a 1-em dash.

{time} Aboard SS ``Hope,'' April 3, 1999.--

{time} New York, NY, August 21, 1999.--A dispatch received here from * 
* *.

[[Page 219]]

                               ADDRESSES

  16.9. Addresses are set flush left at the beginning of a 
letter or paper in congressional work (or at end in formal 
usage).

  16.10. At beginning or at end:

To Smith & Jones and
{time} Brown & Green, Esqs.,
Attorneys for Claimant.

(Attention of Mr. Green.)

Hon. Trent Lott,
U.S. Senate.

Hon. Dennis Hastert,
U.S. House of Representatives. (Collective address.)

The President,
The White House.

  16.11. A long title following an address is set in italic 
caps and lowercase, the first line flush left and right, 
overruns indented 2 ems to clear a following 1-em paragraph 
indention.

Hon. John Warner,
Chairman, Subcommittee on Reorganization of the Committee on Government 
Opera-
{time} {time} tions, U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.

  16.12. The name or title forming the first line of the 
address is set in caps and small caps, but Mr., Mrs., or other 
title preceding a name, and Esq., Jr., Sr., or 2d following a 
name, are set in roman caps and lowercase; the matter following 
is set in italic. The words U.S. Army or U.S. Navy immediately 
following a name are set in roman caps and lowercase in the 
same line as the name.

Maj. Gen. Edward M. Markham, Jr., U.S. Army,
Chief of Engineers.

Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army. (Full title, all caps and small caps.)

Maj. Gen. Edward M. Markham,
Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army,
Washington, DC.

Hon. Jeff Trandahl,
Clerk of the House of Representatives.

Hon. Robert C. Byrd,
U.S. Senator, Washington, DC.

Hon. John Edwards,
Senate Office Building, Washington, DC.

The Committee on Appropriations,
House of Representatives.

  16.13. General (or collective) addresses are set in italic 
caps and lowercase, flush left, with overruns indented 2 ems 
and ending with a colon, except when followed by a salutation, 
in which case a period is used.

[[Page 220]]

  16.14. Examples of general addresses when not followed by 
salutation (note the use of colon at end of italic line):

To the Officers and Members of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution,
{time} {time} Washington, DC:

To the American Diplomatic and Consular Officers:

To Whom It May Concern:

Collectors of Customs:

To the Congress of the United States:

  16.15. Example of general address when followed by salutation 
(note the use of period at end of italic line):

Senate and House of Representatives.
{time} Gentlemen: You are hereby * * *.

  16.16. Examples illustrating other types of addresses:

To the Editor:

To John L. Nelson, Greeting:

To John L. Nelson, Birmingham, AL, Greeting:

To the Clerk of the House of Representatives:

Chief of Engineers
(Through the Division Engineer).

{time} My Dear Sir: I have the honor * * *.
{time} Mr. Reed: I have the honor * * *.
{time} Dear Mr. Reed: I have the honor * * *.

Lt. (jg.) John Smith,
Navy Department:
{time} The care shown by you * * *.

State of New York,
County of New York, ss:
{time} Before me this day appeared * * *.

District of Columbia, ss:
{time} Before me this day appeared * * *.

                           Envelope addresses

                     U.S. House of Representatives
                Committee on Education and the Workforce
                         House Office Building
                          Washington, DC 20515

                               SIGNATURES

  16.17. Signatures, preceded by an em dash, are sometimes run 
in with last line of text.

  16.18. Signatures are set at the right side of the page. They 
are indented 1 em for a single line; 3 ems and 1 em, 
successively, for two lines; and 5 ems, 3 ems, and 1 em, 
successively, for three lines. In measures 30 picas or wider, 
these indentions are increased by 1 em.

  16.19. The name or names are set in caps and small caps; Mr., 
Mrs., and all other titles preceding a name, and Esq., Jr., 
Sr., and 2d following a name, are set in roman caps and 
lowercase; the title

[[Page 221]]

following name is set in italic. Signatures as they appear in 
copy must be followed in regard to abbreviations.

  16.20. If name and title make more than half a line, they are 
set as two lines.

  16.21. Two to eight independent signatures, with or without 
titles, are aligned on the left, at approximately the center of 
the measure.

                                   Anita L. Morton.
                                   Anne Golden.
                                   Robin Mancaruso.
                                   Marylou Musser.
                                   Carolyn Piccirilli.
                                   Thomas C. Kinkaid,
                                 Commander, U.S. Navy (Retired).{time} 
                                   Vincent Gonino, Chairman.

  16.22. More than eight signatures, with or without titles, 
are set full measure, roman caps and lowercase, run in, 
indented 5 and 7 ems in measures of 26\1/2\ picas or wider; in 
measures less than 26\1/2\ picas, indent 2 and 3 ems.
{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} Brown, Shipley & Co.; Denniston, 
Cross & Co.; Fruhling & Groschen,
{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} Attorneys; C.J. Hambro 
& Sons; Hardy, Nathan & Co.; Heilbut,
{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} Symons & Co.; Harrison 
Bros. & Co., by George Harrison; Hoare,
{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} Miller & Co.; Thomas 
Eaton Co.

  16.23. The punctuation of closing phrases is governed by the 
sense. A detached complimentary close is made a new paragraph.

  16.24. Examples of various kinds of signatures:
                                   United States Improvement Co.,
                                   (By) John Smith, Secretary.

                                   Texarkana Textile Merchants & 
                                       Manufacturers' Association,
                                   John L. Jones, Secretary.

                                   Texarkana Textile Merchants & 
                                       Manufacturers' Association,
                                   Joanne Wilder,
                                     Board Member and Secretary.{time} 

                                     John W. Smith{time} {time} {time} 
                                                (And 25 others).{time} 

                         John Smith,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                               Lieutenant Governor{time} {time} {time} 
                                    (For the Governor of Maine).{time} 

                                   North American Ice Co.,
                                   Sylvia Rooney, Secretary.

                                     John [his thumbmark] Smith.{time} 

                                   Tom DeLay,
                                   Frank Wolf,
                              Managers on the Part of the House.{time} 

                                   Trent Lott,
                                   Richard Lugar,
                             Managers on the Part of the Senate.{time} 

[[Page 222]]

{time} I am, very respectfully, yours,

              (Signed){time} Fred C. Kleinschmidt,{time} {time} {time} 
                               Assistant Clerk, Court of Claims.{time} 

{time} On behalf of the Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce:
                                   Geo. W. Philips.
                                   Saml. Campbell.

{time} I have the honor to be,
{time} {time} {time} Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                   (Signed){time} John R. King
                                   (Typed){time} John R. King,
                                                      Secretary.{time} 
                                                   or              
                                   (S){time} John R. King
                                   John R. King,
                                                      Secretary.{time} 

{time} Attest:
                                     Richard Roe, Notary Public.{time} 

{time} By the Governor:
                              Nathaniel Cox, Secretary of State.{time} 

{time} Approved.
                                           John Smith, Governor.{time} 

{time} By the President:
                      Madeleine K. Albright, Secretary of State.{time} 

{time} Respectfully submitted.
                                Mary Farrell, U.S. Indian Agent.{time} 

{time} {time} {time} Yours truly,
                          Capt. James Staley, Jr.,{time} {time} {time} 
                                                 Superintendent.{time} 
{time} {time} {time} Respectfully yours,
                                Mrs. Frank E. (Betty) Sheffield.{time} 
{time} {time} {time} Very respectfully,
                                  Ron Golden, U.S. Indian Agent.{time} 
  16.25. In quoted matter:
{time} {time} {time} ``Very respectfully,
                                   ``William Krakat.
                                   ``William Cervenka.
                                   ``Christopher A. Morton.
                                   ``Jennifer A. Morton.
                                   ``Matthew A. Morton.''

  16.26. Examples of various kinds of datelines, addresses, and 
signatures:

Re weather reports submitted by the International Advisory Committee of 
the
{time} {time} Weather Council.

Mr. William E. Jones, Jr.,
Chairman, Commerce Committee,
Washington, DC.

{time} Dear Mr. Jones: We have been in contact with your office, etc.

                    Charles Farrell,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                               Executive Director,{time} {time} {time} 
                                       National Weather Service.{time} 

[[Page 223]]

                            Lincoln Park, MI, February 15, 1999.{time} 

Re Romeo O. Umanos, Susanna M. Umanos, case No. S-254, Immigration and
{time} {time} Naturalization Service, application pending.

Hon. Lamar S. Smith,
Chairman, Subcommittee on Immigration,
Committee on the Judiciary, Washington, DC.

{time} Dear Mr. Smith: You have for some time * * *.
{time} {time} {time} Sincerely yours,
                                  Edward Pultorak,{time} {time} {time} 
                                         Architectural Designer.{time} 
                                 ______
                                 
Hon. Lamar S. Smith,
Chairman, Subcommittee on Immigration of the Committee on the 
Judiciary, House
{time} {time} of Representatives, Washington, DC.

{time} Dear Mr. Smith: You have for some time * * *.
                                 ______
                                 

                                               U.S. Department of 
                      Commerce,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                              Weather Bureau,{time} {time} {time} 
                                 Washington, March 3, 1999.{time} 

     Hon. Charles E. Chamberlain,
     House of Representatives,
     Washington, DC.
     {time} Dear Mr. Chamberlain: We will be glad to
     give you any further information desired.
     {time} {time} {time} Sincerely yours,

                          F.W. Reichelderfer,{time} {time} {time} 
                                           Chief of Bureau.{time} 

                                 ______
                                 
                                New York, NY, February 10, 1999.{time} 

To: All supervisory employees of production plants, northern and 
eastern divisions,
{time} {time} New York State.
From: Production manager.
Subject: Regulations concerning vacations, health and welfare plans, 
and wage con-
{time} {time} tract negotiations.

{time} It has come to our attention that the time * * *.
                                 ______
                                 
                                   Washington, DC, May 16, 1999.{time} 

The Honorable the Secretary of the Navy.

{time} Dear Mr. Secretary: This is in response to your letter * * *.
{time} {time} {time} Very sincerely yours,
                                [seal]{time} William J. Clinton.{time} 
                                 ______
                                 
                                East Lansing, MI, June 10, 1999.{time} 
To Whom It May Concern:
{time} I have known Kyu Yawp Lee for 7 years and am glad to testify as 
to his fine char-
acter. He has been employed * * *.
{time} Wishing you success in your difficult and highly important job, 
we are,
{time} {time} {time} Sincerely yours,
                                   Agostino J. Gonino.
                                   Louise M. Gonino.

[[Page 224]]

                                               Department of Veterans' 
              Affairs,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
      Office of the Administrator of{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                                Veterans' Affairs,{time} {time} {time} 
                                                 Washington, DC.{time} 
Hon. Orrin G. Hatch,
Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.
{time} Dear Senator Hatch: Further reference is made to your reply * * 
*.
{time} {time} {time} Sincerely yours,
    John S. Patterson,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                Deputy Administrator{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                        (For and in the absence of{time} {time} {time} 
                                    H.V. Higley, Administrator).{time} 
                                 ______
                                 
                             Washington, DC, September 16, 1999.{time} 
Mr. William E. Jones, Jr.,
Special Assistant to the Attorney General, Attorney for Howard 
Sutherland, Direc-
{time} {time} tor, Office of Alien Property.

{time} Dear Mr. Jones: In reply to your letter * * *.
{time} {time} {time} Yours truly,
                  (Signed){time} Thomas E. Rhodes,{time} {time} {time} 
                      Special Assistant to the Attorney General.{time} 
{time} P.S.--A special word of thanks to you from J.R. Brown for your 
fine help.

                                                          T.E.R.{time} 
                                 ______
                                 
                                Tokyo, Japan, November 13, 1999.{time} 
U.S. Department of Justice,
Immigration and Naturalization Service,
Detroit, MI.
{time} Gentlemen: This letter will testify to the personal character * 
* *.
{time} {time} {time} Very truly yours,
                 Mrs. Grace C. Lohr,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
              Inspector General Section, HQ, AFFE,{time} {time} {time} 
                                     APO 343, San Francisco, CA.{time} 

  16.27. The word seal appearing with the signature of a notary 
or of an organized body, such as a company, is spaced 1 em from 
the signature. The word seal is to be set in small caps and 
bracketed.
                         [seal]{time} Richard Roe,{time} {time} {time} 
                                                  Notary Public.{time} 

                                       [seal]{time} J.M. Wilber.{time} 

                             [seal]{time} Bartlett, Robins & Co.{time} 

  16.28. Presidential proclamations after May 23, 1967, do not 
utilize the seal except when they pertain to treaties, 
conventions, protocols, or other international agreements. Copy 
will be followed literally with respect to the inclusion of and 
between elements of numerical expressions.

    Now, Therefore, I, Richard Nixon, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby designate Saturday, September 23, 1972, as National 
Hunting and Fishing Day.

          * * * * * * *

    In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this second day of 
May, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred seventy-two, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the one hundred ninety-
sixth.
                                                  Richard Nixon.{time} 



[[Page 225]]



 
                           17. USEFUL TABLES
 
                            GEOLOGIC TERMS

            [With suggestions by the U.S. Geological Survey]
  For capitalization, compounding, and use of quotations in geologic 
terms, copy is to be followed. The list below exemplifies common usage 
of both rock and time terms. The term red beds has been used to 
designate certain rocks of mixed lithologic character that are 
predominantly red; as a unit modifier the use should beP red-bed.

  The terms lower, middle, and upper (referring to rocks) are 
capitalized only as indicated in the list (Upper Devonian, lower 
Tertiary, lower Paleozoic); similarly, the terms early, middle, and late 
(referring to time) are capitalized only as indicated.

  A formal geologic term is capitalized: Devonian System, Pliocene 
Series, San Rafael Group, Morrison Formation, Fayetteville Shale, 
Wedington Sandstone Member, Wisconsin Glaciation, Tazewell Stade. 
(Geologic terms quoted verbatim from published material should be left 
as the original author used them; however, it should be made clear that 
the usage is that of the original author.)

  A structural term such as arch, anticline, syncline, dome, uplift, or 
basin is not capitalized even if preceded by a name: Cincinnati arch, 
Cedar Creek anticline, Ozark uplift, Michigan basin. (A physiographic 
term that is preceded by a name is capitalized: Bighorn Basin, Half 
Dome.)

Alexandrian
Animikie
Atoka
Belt
Cambrian:
  Upper, Late
  Middle, Middle
  Lower, Early
Carboniferous
    Systems
Cayuga
Cenozoic
Cincinnatian
Chester
Coahuila
Comanche
Cretaceous:
  Upper, Late
  Lower, Early
Des Moines
Devonian:
  Upper, Late
  Middle, Middle
  Lower, Early
Eocene:
  upper, late
  middle, middle
  lower, early
glacial:
  interglacial
  postglacial
  preglacial
Glenarm
Grand Canyon
Grenville
Guadalupe
Gulf
Gunnison River
Holocene
Jurassic:
  Upper, Late
  Middle, Middle
  Lower, Early
Keweenawan
Kinderhook
Leonard
Little Willow
Llano
Meramec
Mesozoic:
  pre-Mesozoic
  post-Mesozoic
Miocene:
  upper, late
  middle, middle
  lower, early
Mississippian:
  Upper, Late
  Lower, Early
Missouri
Mohawkian
Morrow
Niagara
Ochoa
Ocoee
Oligocene:
  upper, late
  middle, middle
  lower, early
Osage
Ordovician:
  Upper, Late
  Middle, Middle
  Lower, Early
Pahrump
Paleocene:
  upper, late
  middle, middle
  lower, early
Paleozoic
Pennsylvanian:
  Upper, Late
  Middle, Middle
  Lower, Early
Permian:
  Upper, Late
  Lower, Early
Pleistocene
Pliocene:
  upper, late
  middle, middle
  lower, early
Precambrian:
  upper
  middle
  lower
Quaternary
red beds
Shasta
Silurian:
  Upper, Late
  Middle, Middle
  Lower, Early
St. Croixan
Tertiary
Triassic:
  Upper, Late
  Middle, Middle
  Lower, Early
Virgil
Wolfcamp
Yavapai

                           PHYSIOGRAPHIC TERMS

            [With suggestions by the U.S. Geological Survey]

  The following table lists physical divisions of the United States 
approved by the Association of American Geographers and should be used 
as a guide to capitalization. The general terms province and section, 
used in the common-noun sense, are not capitalized; the other terms are 
proper names and are therefore capitalized.

[[Page 226]]



                                     PHYSICAL DIVISIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
               Major division                                 Province                           Section
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Laurentian Upland..........................  Superior Upland...........................
Atlantic Plain.............................  Continental Shelf.........................
                                             Coastal Plain.............................  Embayed Section.
                                                                                         Sea Island Section.
                                                                                         Floridian Section.
                                                                                         East Gulf Coastal
                                                                                          Plain.
                                                                                         Mississippi Alluvial
                                                                                          Plain.
                                                                                         West Gulf Coastal
                                                                                          Plain.
Appalachian Highlands......................  Piedmont Province.........................  Piedmont Upland.
                                                                                         Piedmont Lowland.
                                             Blue Ridge Province.......................  Northern; Southern
                                                                                          Section.
                                             Valley and Ridge Province.................  Tennessee Section.
                                                                                         Middle Section.
                                                                                         Hudson Valley.
                                             St. Lawrence Valley.......................  Champlain Section.
                                                                                         Northern Section.
                                             Appalachian Plateaus......................  Mohawk Section.
                                                                                         Catskill Section.
                                                                                         Southern New York
                                                                                          Section.
                                                                                         Allegheny Mountain
                                                                                          Section.
                                                                                         Kanawha Section.
                                                                                         Cumberland Plateau.
                                                                                         Cumberland Mountain
                                                                                          Section.
                                             New England Province......................  Seaboard Lowland.
                                                                                         New England Upland.
                                                                                         White Mountain Section.
                                                                                         Green Mountain Section.
                                                                                         Taconic Section.
                                             Adirondack Province.......................
Interior Plains............................  Interior Low Plateaus.....................  Highland Rim.
                                                                                         Lexington Plain.
                                                                                         Nashville Basin.
                                             Central Lowland...........................  Eastern lake Section.
                                                                                         Western lake Section.
                                                                                         Wisconsin Driftless
                                                                                          Section.
                                                                                         Till Plains.
                                                                                         Dissected Till Plains.
                                                                                         Osage Plains.
                                             Great Plains..............................  Missouri Plateau,
                                                                                          glaciated.
                                                                                         Missouri Plateau,
                                                                                          unglaciated.
                                                                                         Black Hills.
                                                                                         High Plains.
                                                                                         Plains Border.
                                                                                         Colorado Piedmont.
                                                                                         Raton Section.
                                                                                         Pecos Valley.
                                                                                         Edwards Plateau.
                                                                                         Central Texas Section.
Interior Highlands.........................  Ozark Plateaus............................  Springfield-Salem
                                                                                          Plateaus.
                                                                                         Boston ``Mountains.''
                                             Ouachita Province.........................  Arkansas Valley.
                                                                                         Ouachita Mountains.
Rocky Mountain System......................  Southern Rocky Mountain...................
                                             Wyoming Basin.............................
                                             Middle Rocky Mountains....................
                                             Northern Rocky Mountains..................
Intermontane Plateaus......................  Columbia Plateaus.........................  Walla Walla Plateau.
                                                                                         Blue Mountain Section.
                                                                                         Payette Section.
                                                                                         Snake River Plain.
                                                                                         Harney Section.
                                             Colorado Plateaus.........................  High Plateaus of Utah.
                                                                                         Uinta Basin.
                                                                                         Canyon Lands.
                                                                                         Navajo Section.
                                                                                         Grand Canyon Section.
                                                                                         Datil Section.
                                             Basin and Range Province..................  Great Basin.
                                                                                         Sonoran Desert.
                                                                                         Salton Trough.
                                                                                         Mexican Highland.
                                                                                         Sacramento Section.
Pacific Mountain System....................  Sierra-Cascade Mountains..................  Northern Cascade
                                                                                          Mountains.
                                                                                         Middle Cascade
                                                                                          Mountains.
                                                                                         Southern Cascade
                                                                                          Mountains.
                                                                                         Sierra Nevada.
                                             Pacific Border Province...................  Puget Trough.
                                                                                         Olympic Mountains.
                                                                                         Oregon Coast Range.
                                                                                         Klamath Mountains.
                                                                                         California Trough.
                                                                                         California Coast
                                                                                          Ranges.
                                                                                         Los Angeles Ranges.
                                             Lower Californian Province................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 227]]



  THE PRINCIPAL AND GUIDE MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES OF THE UNITED STATES

First, second, etc., standard parallel.
First, second, etc., guide meridian.
First, second, etc., principal meridian.
Auxiliary (first, second, etc.) meridian.
Ashley Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Beaverhead Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Belt Mountain Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Big Hole Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Bitterroot Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Black Hills base line. (South Dakota)
Black Hills Guide Meridian. (South Dakota)
Boise Meridian. (Idaho)
Boulder Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Browning Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Buffalo Creek Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Carson River Guide Meridian. (Nevada)
Castle Valley Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Chickasaw Meridian. (Mississippi)
Choctaw base line. (Mississippi)
Choctaw Meridian. (Mississippi)
Cimarron Meridian. (Oklahoma)
Colorado Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Columbia Guide Meridian. (Washington)
Colville Guide Meridian. (Washington)
Copper River Meridian. (Alaska)
Coulson Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Deer Lodge Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Deschutes Meridian. (Oregon)
Emery Valley Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Fairbanks Meridian. (Alaska)
Flathead Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Fort Belknap Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Fremont Valley Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Gila and Salt River Meridian. (Arizona)
Grand River Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Grande Ronde Guide Meridian. (Oregon)
Green River Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Haystack Butte Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Helena Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Henry Mountain Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Horse Plains Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Humboldt Meridian. (California)
Humboldt River Guide Meridian. (Nevada)
Huntsville Meridian. (Alabama-Mississippi)
Indian Meridian. (Oklahoma)
Jefferson Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Judith Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Kanab Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Kolob Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Little Porcupine Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Louisiana Meridian. (Louisiana)
Maginnis Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Michigan Meridian. (Michigan-Ohio)
Mount Diablo base line. (California-
  Nevada)
Mount Diablo Meridian. (California-Nevada)
Musselshell Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Navajo base line. (Arizona-New Mexico)
Navajo Meridian. (Arizona-New Mexico)
New Mexico Guide Meridian. (New Mexico-
  Colorado)
New Mexico Principal Meridian. (New 
  Mexico-Colorado)
Panguitch Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Passamari Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Pine Valley Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Principal Meridian. (Montana)
Red Rock Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Reese River Guide Meridian. (Nevada)
Ruby Valley Guide Meridian. (Nevada)
St. Helena Meridian. (Louisiana)
St. Stephens base line. (Alabama-
  Mississippi)
St. Stephens Meridian. (Alabama-
  Mississippi)
Salt Lake Meridian. (Utah)
San Bernardino base line. (California)
San Bernardino Meridian. (California)
Sevier Lake Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Seward Meridian. (Alaska)
Shields River Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Smith River Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Snake Valley Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Square Butte Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Sweet Grass Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Tallahassee Meridian. (Florida)
Teton Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Uinta Special Meridian. (Utah)
Ute Principal Meridian. (Colorado)
Valley Creek Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Wah Wah Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Washington Meridian. (Mississippi)
Willamette Meridian. (Oregon-Washington)
Willow Springs Guide Meridian. (Utah)
Wind River Meridian. (Wyoming)
Yantic Guide Meridian. (Montana)
Yellowstone Guide Meridian. (Montana)
    

[[Page 228]]



                    PRINCIPAL FOREIGN COUNTRIES, TITLES OF CHIEFS OF STATE, NAMES OF LEGISLATIVE BODIES, ETC., AS OF DECEMBER 2, 1998
                                  [With suggestions by the Department of State and the U.S. Board on Geographic Names]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Country                        Chief of state           Legislative body          Form of government                    Capital
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Afghanistan......................  King...........................  Revolutionary       Democratic Republic............  Kabul (Kabul).
                                                                     Council; Council
                                                                     of Ministers.
Albania..........................  President of the Presidium.....  People's Assembly   People's Republic..............  Tirana (Tirane).
                                                                     (unicameral).
Algeria..........................  President......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Algiers.
                                                                     (suspended).
Andorra..........................  Bishop of Urgel (Spain).         General Council of  Coprincipality.................  Andorra la Vella.
                                    President of the French          the Valleys
                                    Republic.                        (unicameral).
Angola...........................  President......................  National Assembly   People's Republic..............  Luanda.
                                                                     (planned).
Antigua and Barbuda..............  Queen (represented by Governor   Parliament........  Parliamentary State............  Saint John's.
                                    General).
Argentina........................  President......................  National Congress:  Republic.......................  Buenos Aires.
                                                                     Senate, Chamber
                                                                     of Deputies
                                                                     (dissolved).
Armenia..........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Yerevan.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Australia........................  Queen (represented by Governor   Federal             Commonwealth...................  Canberra.
                                    General).                        Parliament:
                                                                     Senate, House of
                                                                     Representatives.
Austria..........................  President......................  Parliament:         Federal Republic...............  Vienna (Wien).
                                                                     Federal Council
                                                                     (Bundesrat),
                                                                     National Council
                                                                     (Nationalrat).
Azerbaijan.......................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Yerevan.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Bahamas, The.....................  Queen (represented by Governor   Parliament:         Commonwealth...................  Nassau.
                                    General).                        Senate, House of
                                                                     Assembly.
Bahrain..........................  King...........................  None..............  Traditional Monarchy...........  Manama.
Bangladesh.......................  President......................  Constituent         Republic.......................  Dhaka.
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Barbados.........................  Queen (represented by Governor   Parliament:         Parliamentary State............  Bridgetown.
                                    General).                        Senate, House of
                                                                     Assembly.
Belarus..........................  President......................  Supreme Soviet-     Republic.......................  Minsk.
                                                                     parliament
                                                                     (unicameral).
Belgium..........................  King...........................  Parliament:         Constitutional Monarchy........  Brussels (Bruxelles, Brussel).
                                                                     Senate, Chamber
                                                                     of
                                                                     Representatives.
Belize...........................  Queen (represented by Governor   National Assembly:  Parliamentary State............  Belmopan.
                                    General).                        Senate, House of
                                                                     Representatives.
Benin............................  President......................  National            Military (Revolutionary          Porto-Novo.
                                                                     Revolutionary       Assembly).
                                                                     Assembly.
Bhutan...........................  King...........................  National Assembly   Monarchy.......................  Thimphu.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Bolivia..........................  President......................  Congress: Senate,   Republic.......................  La Paz (administrative).
                                                                     Chamber of                                          Sucre (legislative/judiciary).
                                                                     Deputies.
Bosnia and Herzegovina...........  Chairman of the Presidency.....  Parliamentary       Emerging Democracy.............  Sarajevo.
                                                                     Assembly.
Botswana.........................  President......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Gaborone.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Brazil...........................  ......do.......................  Congress: Senate,   Federative Republic............  Brasilia.
                                                                     Chamber of
                                                                     Deputies.
Brunei...........................  Sultan.........................  None..............  Sultanate......................  Bandar Seri Begawan.
Bulgaria.........................  President of the Presidium.....  National Assembly   People's Republic..............  Sofia (Sofiya).
                                                                     (unicameral).
Burkina Faso (Upper Volta).......  President......................  ......do..........  Republic.......................  Ouagadougou.
Burma............................  ......do.......................  People's Assembly   Socialist Republic.............  Rangoon (Yangon).
                                                                     (unicameral).
Burundi..........................  ......do.......................  None..............  Republic.......................  Bujumbura.
Cambodia.........................  King...........................  ..................  Monarchy.......................  Phnom Penh.
Cameroon.........................  President......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Yaounde.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Canada...........................  Queen (represented by Governor   Parliament:         Parliamentary State............  Ottawa.
                                    General).                        Senate, House of
                                                                     Commons.
Cape Verde.......................  President......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Praia.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Central African Republic.........  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Bangui.
                                                                     (unicameral)
                                                                     (dissolved).
Ceylon (see Sri Lanka).
Chad.............................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  N'Djamena.
                                                                     (dissolved).

[[Page 229]]

 
Chile............................  President......................  National Congress   Republic.......................  Santiago.
                                                                     (dissolved).
China............................  Chairman, National People's      National People's   People's Republic..............  Beijing.
                                    Congress.                        Congress.
Colombia.........................  President......................  Congress: Senate,   Republic.......................  Bogota.
                                                                     House of
                                                                     Representatives.
Comoros..........................  ......do.......................  None..............  ......do.......................  Moroni.
Congo (Brazzaville)..............  ......do.......................  Council of State..  ......do.......................  Brazzaville.
Congo (Kinshasa).................  ......do.......................  Legislative         Democratic Republic............  Kinshasa.
                                                                     Council
                                                                     (unicameral).
Costa Rica.......................  ......do.......................  Legislative         People's Republic..............  San Jose.
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Cote d'Ivoire....................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Yamoussoukro.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Croatia..........................  ......do.......................  Assembly..........  Democracy......................  Zagreb.
Cuba.............................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   Socialist Republic.............  Havana (La Habana).
                                                                     of People's Power.
Cyprus...........................  ......do.......................  House of            Republic.......................  Nicosia.
                                                                     Representatives
                                                                     (unicameral).
Czech Republic...................  ......do.......................  Federal Assembly:   Socialist Republic.............  Prague.
                                                                     Chamber of the
                                                                     People, Chamber
                                                                     of the Nations.
Denmark..........................  King...........................  Parliament........  Constitutional Monarchy........  Copenhagen.
Djibouti.........................  President......................  Parliament:         Republic.......................  Djibouti.
                                                                     Chamber of
                                                                     Deputies
                                                                     (unicameral).
Dominica.........................  ......do.......................  House of Assembly   Commonwealth...................  Roseau.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Dominican Republic...............  ......do.......................  Congress: Senate,   Republic.......................  Santo Domingo.
                                                                     Chamber of
                                                                     Deputies.
Ecuador..........................  ......do.......................  National Congress   ......do.......................  Quito.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Egypt............................  ......do.......................  People's Assembly   ......do.......................  Cairo.
                                                                     (unicameral).
El Salvador......................  ......do.......................  Constituent         ......do.......................  San Salvador.
                                                                     Assembly.
Equatorial Guinea................  ......do.......................  Legislature         ......do.......................  Malabo.
                                                                     (suspended).
Eritrea..........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly.  Transition.....................  Asmara.
Estonia..........................  ...............................  ..................  Republic.......................  Tallinn.
Ethiopia.........................  Head of State..................  Parliament          Military.......................  Addis Ababa.
                                                                     (dissolved).
Fiji.............................  Queen (represented by Governor-  Parliament:         Parliamentary State............  Suva.
                                    General).                        Senate, House of
                                                                     Representatives.
Finland..........................  President......................  Parliament          Republic.......................  Helsinki.
                                                                     (Eduskunta)
                                                                     (unicameral).
France...........................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         ......do.......................  Paris.
                                                                     Senate, National
                                                                     Assembly.
Gabon............................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Libreville.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Gambia, The......................  ......do.......................  House of            ......do.......................  Banjul.
                                                                     Representatives
                                                                     (unicameral).
Georgia..........................  ......do.......................  Parliament          Republic.......................  T'bilisi.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Germany..........................  Chairman, Council of State.....  Parliament:         Federal Republic...............  Berlin.
                                                                     Federal Council
                                                                     (Bundesrat),
                                                                     Federal Assembly
                                                                     (Bundestag).
Ghana............................  President (suspended)..........  Parliament          Republic.......................  Accra.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Greece...........................  President......................  Parliament (Vouli)  Parliamentary Republic.........  Athens.
                                                                     (unicameral)
                                                                     (suspended).
Grenada..........................  Queen (represented by Governor   Parliament          Commonwealth...................  Saint George's.
                                    General).                        (suspended).
Guatemala........................  President......................  Congress            Republic.......................  Guatemala.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Guinea...........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Conakry.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Guinea-Bissau....................  ......do.......................  National People's   ......do.......................  Bissau.
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (dissolved).
Guyana...........................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         ......do.......................  Georgetown.
                                                                     National Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Haiti............................  ......do.......................  Legislative         ......do.......................  Port-au-Prince.
                                                                     Chamber
                                                                     (unicameral).
Holy See.........................  Pope...........................  None..............  Papacy.........................  Vatican City.
Honduras.........................  President......................  Congress            Republic.......................  Tegucigalpa.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Hungary..........................  President of the Presidential    National Assembly   People's Republic..............  Budapest.
                                    Council.                         (unicameral).
Iceland..........................  President......................  Parliament          Republic.......................  Reykjavik.
                                                                     (Althing): Upper
                                                                     Chamber (Efi
                                                                     Deild), Lower
                                                                     Chamber (Neore
                                                                     Deild).
India............................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         ......do.......................  New Delhi.
                                                                     Council of States
                                                                     (Rajya Sabha),
                                                                     House of the
                                                                     People (Lok
                                                                     Sabha).
Indonesia........................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         ......do.......................  Jakarta.
                                                                     People's
                                                                     Consultative
                                                                     Assembly.
Iran.............................  ......do.......................  Parliament          Islamic Republic...............  Tehran.
                                                                     (Majlis)
                                                                     (unicameral).

[[Page 230]]

 
Iraq.............................  President......................  Revolutionary       Republic.......................  Baghdad.
                                                                     Command Council.
Ireland..........................  ......do.......................  National            ......do.......................  Dublin.
                                                                     Parliament
                                                                     (Oireachtas):
                                                                     Senate (Seaned
                                                                     Eireann), House
                                                                     of
                                                                     Representatives
                                                                     (Dail Eireann).
Israel...........................  ......do.......................  Parliament          ......do.......................  (\1\).
                                                                     (Knesset)
                                                                     (unicameral).
Italy............................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         ......do.......................  Rome.
                                                                     Senate, Chamber
                                                                     of Deputies.
Jamaica..........................  Queen (represented by Governor   Parliament:         Parliamentary State............  Kingston.
                                    General).                        Senate, House of
                                                                     Representatives.
Japan............................  Emperor........................  Diet: House of      Constitutional Monarchy........  Tokyo.
                                                                     Councillors,
                                                                     House of
                                                                     Representatives.
Jordan...........................  King...........................   National           ...............................  Amman.
                                                                     Assembly: Senate,
                                                                     Chamber of
                                                                     Deputies.
Kazakhstan.......................  President......................  Parliament........  Republic.......................  Astana.
Kenya............................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Nairobi.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Kiribati.........................  ......do.......................  Parliament          ......do.......................  Tarawa.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Korea, North.....................  ......do.......................  Supreme People's    People's Republic..............  P'yongyang.
                                                                     Assembly.
Korea, South.....................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Seoul.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Kuwait...........................  Amir...........................  ......do..........  Constitutional Monarchy........  Kuwait.
Kyrgyzstan.......................  President......................  Supreme Council...  Republic.......................  Bishkek.
Laos.............................  ......do.......................  Supreme People's    People's Republic..............  Vientiane.
                                                                     Assembly.
Latvia...........................  ...............................  ..................  Republic.......................  Riga (Riga).
Lebanon..........................  President......................  Chamber of          ......do.......................  Beirut.
                                                                     Deputies
                                                                     (unicameral).
Lesotho..........................  King...........................  Parliament:         Constitutional Monarchy........  Maseru.
                                                                     Senate, National
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (dissolved).
Liberia..........................  President......................  Congress: Senate,   Republic.......................  Monrovia.
                                                                     House of
                                                                     Representatives
                                                                     (dissolved).
Libya............................  Chief of State.................  General Peoples'    ......do.......................  Tripoli.
                                                                     Congress.
Liechtenstein....................  Prince.........................  Diet (unicameral).  Constitutional Monarchy........  Vaduz.
Lithuania........................  ...............................  ..................  Republic.......................  Vilnius.
Luxembourg.......................  Grand Duke.....................  Parliament:         Constitutional Monarchy........  Luxembourg.
                                                                     Chamber of
                                                                     Deputies, Council
                                                                     of State.
Macedonia, the Former Yugoslav     President......................  Assembly            Emerging Democracy.............  Skopje.
 Republic of.                                                        (unicameral).
Madagascar.......................  ......do.......................  National Popular    Republic.......................  Antananarivo.
                                                                     Assembly.
Malawi...........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Lilongwe.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Malaysia.........................  Paramount Ruler................  Parliament:         Constitutional Monarchy........  Kuala Lumpur.
                                                                     Senate, House of
                                                                     Representatives.
Maldives.........................  President......................  National            Republic.......................  Male.
                                                                     Legislature
                                                                     (Majlis)
                                                                     (unicameral).
Mali.............................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Bamako.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Malta............................  ......do.......................  House of            ......do.......................  Valletta.
                                                                     Representatives
                                                                     (unicameral).
Marshall Islands.................  ......do.......................  Parliament          Parliamentary Democracy........  Majuro.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Mauritania.......................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   Islamic Republic...............  Nouakchott.
                                                                     (unicameral)
                                                                     (dissolved).
Mauritius........................  Queen..........................  Legislative         Parliamentary State............  Port Louis.
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Mexico...........................  President......................  Congress: Chamber   Federal Republic...............  Mexico (Ciudad de Mexico).
                                                                     of Deputies.
Micronesia, Federated States of..  ......do.......................  Congress            Constitutional Government......  Palikir.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Moldova..........................  ......do.......................  Parliament          Republic.......................  Chisinau.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Monaco...........................  Prince.........................  National Council    Constitutional Monarchy........  Monaco.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Mongolia.........................  Chairman, Presidum, People's     People's Great      People's Republic..............  Ulaanbaatar.
                                    Great Hural.                     Hural (National
                                                                     Assembly)
                                                                     (unicameral).
Morocco..........................  King...........................  Legislature         Constitutional Monarchy........  Rabat.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Mozambique.......................  President......................  People's Assembly   People's Republic..............  Maputo.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Namibia..........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Windhoek.
                                                                     and National
                                                                     Council
                                                                     (bicameral).
Nauru............................  ......do.......................  Parliament          ......do.......................  Yaren.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Nepal............................  King...........................  National Assembly   Constitutional Monarchy........  Kathmandu.
                                                                     (Panchayat)
                                                                     (unicameral).

[[Page 231]]

 
Netherlands......................  Queen..........................  States-General:     Constitutional Monarchy........  Capital, Amsterdam. Seat of
                                                                     First-Chamber,                                       government, The Hague.
                                                                     Second-Chamber.
New Zealand......................  Queen (represented by Governor   Parliament: House   Parliamentary State............  Wellington.
                                    General).                        of
                                                                     Representatives
                                                                     (unicameral).
Nicaragua........................  Coordinator, Junta of the        Congress: Senate,   Republic.......................  Managua.
                                    Government of National           Chamber of
                                    Reconstruction.                  Deputies
                                                                     (suspended).
Niger............................  President......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Niamey.
                                                                     (unicameral)
                                                                     (suspended).
Nigeria..........................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         Federal Republic...............  Lagos.
                                                                     Senate, House of
                                                                     Representatives.
Norway...........................  King...........................  Parliament          Constitutional Monarchy........  Oslo.
                                                                     (Storting):
                                                                     Lagting,
                                                                     Odelsting \2\.
Oman.............................  Sultan.........................  Absolute Monarchy.  Sultanate......................  Muscat.
Pakistan.........................  President (suspended)..........  Parliament:         Islamic Republic...............  Islamabad.
                                                                     Senate, National
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (suspended).
Palau............................  President......................  Bicameral           Constitutional Government......  Koror.
                                                                     legislature and
                                                                     consultative
                                                                     Council of Chiefs.
Panama...........................  ......do.......................  Legislature         Republic.......................  Panama.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Papua New Guinea.................  Queen (represented by Governor   Parliament          Parliamentary State............  Port Moresby.
                                    General).                        (unicameral).
Paraguay.........................  President......................  Congress: Senate,   Republic.......................  Asuncion.
                                                                     Chamber of
                                                                     Deputies.
Peru.............................  ......do.......................  ......do..........  ......do.......................  Lima.
Philippines......................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Manila.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Poland...........................  President of Council of State..  Parliament (Sejm)   People's Republic..............  Warsaw.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Portugal.........................  President......................  Assembly of the     Republic.......................  Lisbon.
                                                                     Republic
                                                                     (unicameral).
Qatar............................  Amir...........................  Advisory Council..  Traditional Emirate............  Doha.
Romania..........................  President of Council of State..  Grand National      Socialist Republic.............  Bucharest.
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Russia...........................  President......................  Federal Assembly    Federation.....................  Moscow.
                                                                     (bicameral).
Rwanda...........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Kigali.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Saint Kitts and Nevis............  Queen (represented by Governor   Appointed Senate    Constitutional Monarchy........  Basseterre.
                                    General).                        and elected House
                                                                     of
                                                                     Representatives.
Saint Lucia......................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         Parliamentary State............  Castries.
                                                                     Senate, House of
                                                                     Assembly.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.  ......do.......................  House of Assembly   ......do.......................  Kingstown.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Samoa (Western Samoa)............  Head of State..................  Legislative         Parliamentary Democracy........  Apia.
                                                                     Assembly.
San Marino.......................  Captains-Regent................  Grand and General   Republic.......................  San Marino.
                                                                     Council
                                                                     (unicameral).
Sao Tome and Principe............  President......................  National Popular    ......do.......................  Sao Tome.
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Saudi Arabia.....................  King...........................  Absolute Monarchy.  Monarchy.......................  Riyadh.
Senegal..........................  President......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Dakar.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Seychelles.......................  ......do.......................  People's Assembly   ......do.......................  Victoria.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Sierra Leone.....................  ......do.......................  House of            ......do.......................  Freetown.
                                                                     Representatives
                                                                     (unicameral).
Singapore........................  ......do.......................  Parliament          ......do.......................  Singapore.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Slovakia.........................  ......do.......................  National Council    Parliamentary Democracy........  Bratislava.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Slovenia.........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Ljubljana.
                                                                     and National
                                                                     Council
                                                                     (bicameral).
Solomon Islands..................  Queen (represented by Governor   Legislative         Parliamentary State............  Honiara.
                                    General).                        Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Somalia..........................  President......................  National Assembly.  Republic.......................  Mogadishu.
South Africa.....................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         ......do.......................  Pretoria (administrative) Cape
                                                                     Senate, House of                                     Town (legislative)
                                                                     Assembly.                                            Bloemfontein (judiciary).
Spain \3\........................  King...........................  Cortes: Senate,     Monarchy.......................  Madrid.
                                                                     Congress of
                                                                     Deputies.
Sri Lanka........................  President......................  Parliament          Republic.......................  Colombo.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Sudan............................  ......do.......................  People's Assembly   ......do.......................  Khartoum.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Suriname.........................  ......do.......................  Parliament          ......do.......................  Paramaribo.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Swaziland........................  King...........................  House of Assembly,  Constitutional Monarchy........  Mbabane (administrative)
                                                                     Senate.                                              Lobamba (legislative).
Sweden...........................  ......do.......................  Parliament          ......do.......................  Stockholm.
                                                                     (Riksdag)
                                                                     (unicameral).

[[Page 232]]

 
Switzerland......................  President......................  Federal Assembly    Confederation..................  Bern.
                                                                     (Bundesversammlun
                                                                     g): Council of
                                                                     States
                                                                     (Standerat),
                                                                     National Council
                                                                     (Nationalrat).
Syria............................  ......do.......................  People's Council..  Republic.......................  Damascus.
Tajikistan.......................  ......do.......................  Supreme Assembly    ......do.......................  Dushanbe.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Tanzania.........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   Democracy......................  Dar es Salaam.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Thailand.........................  King...........................  ......do..........  Constitutional Monarchy........  Bangkok.
Togo.............................  President......................  ......do..........  Republic.......................  Lome.
Tonga............................  King...........................  Legislative         Constitutional Monarchy........  Nuku'alofa.
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Trinidad and Tobago..............  President......................  Parliament:         Parliamentary State............  Port-of-Spain.
                                                                     Senate, House of
                                                                     Representatives.
Tunisia..........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   Republic.......................  Tunis.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Turkey...........................  ......do.......................  Grand National      ......do.......................  Ankara.
                                                                     Assembly: Senate
                                                                     of the Republic,
                                                                     National Assembly.
Turkmenistan.....................  ......do.......................  Two parliamentary   ......do.......................  Ashgabat.
                                                                     bodies: People's
                                                                     Council
                                                                     (unicameral),
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Tuvalu...........................  Queen (represented by Governor   House of Assembly   Parliamentary State............  Funafuti.
                                    General).                        (unicameral).
Uganda...........................  President......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Kampala.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Ukraine..........................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         Presidential-parliamentary.....  Kiev.
                                                                     Supreme Rada.
United Arab Emirates.............  ......do.......................  Supreme Council of  Federation of Emirates.........  Abu Dhabi.
                                                                     Rulers; National
                                                                     Assembly.
United Kingdom...................  Queen..........................  Parliament: House   Constitutional Monarchy........  London.
                                                                     of Lords, House
                                                                     of Commons.
Uruguay..........................  President......................  General Assembly:   Republic.......................  Montevideo.
                                                                     Senate, Chamber o
                                                                     f Deputies (suspe
                                                                     nded).
Uzbekistan.......................  ......do.......................  Supreme Assembly    ......do.......................  Tashkent.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Vanuatu..........................  Prime Minister.................  Representative      ...............................  Port-Vila.
                                                                     Assembly
                                                                     (unicameral).
Venezuela........................  President......................  Congress: Senate,   Republic.......................  Caracas.
                                                                     Chamber of
                                                                     Deputies.
Vietnam..........................  ......do.......................  None..............  Socialist Republic.............  Hanoi.
Yemen............................  ......do.......................  Assembly,           Republic.......................  Sanaa.
                                                                     Republican
                                                                     Council
                                                                     (suspended).
Zambia...........................  ......do.......................  National Assembly   ......do.......................  Lusaka.
                                                                     (unicameral).
Zimbabwe.........................  ......do.......................  Parliament:         Parliamentary State............  Harare.
                                                                     Senate, House of
                                                                     Assembly.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \1\ In 1950, the Israel Parliament proclaimed Jerusalem as the capital. The United States does not recognize Jerusalem as the capital and the U.S.
  Embassy continues to be located in Tel Aviv.      \2\ No accurate English equivalents.      \3\ The Law of Succession, July 27, 1947, declared that
  Spain was constituted a Kingdom.


[[Page 233]]


                                    NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES DENOTING NATIONALITY
                     [Data from the Department of State and the Central Intelligence Agency]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                             Noun (plural ending in
            Country or region                     parentheses)                         Adjective
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Afghanistan.............................  Afghan(s)..................  Afghan.
Albania.................................  Albanian(s)................  Albanian.
Algeria.................................  Algerian(s)................  Algerian.
American Samoa..........................  American Samoan(s).........  American Samoan.
Andorra.................................  Andorran(s)................  Andorran.
Angola..................................  Angolan(s).................  Angolan.
Anguilla................................  Anguillan(s)...............  Anguillan.
Antigua and Barbuda.....................  Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)...  Antiguan, Barbudan.
Argentina...............................  Argentine(s)...............  Argentine.
Armenia.................................  Armenian(s)................  Armenian.
Aruba...................................  Aruban(s)..................  Aruban.
Australia...............................  Australian(s)..............  Australian.
Austria.................................  Austrian(s)................  Austrian.
Azerbaijan..............................  Azerbaijani(s).............  Azerbaijani.
Bahamas, The............................  Bahamian(s)................  Bahamian.
Bahrain.................................  Bahraini(s)................  Bahraini.
Bangladesh..............................  Bangladeshi(s).............  Bangladesh.
Barbados................................  Barbadian(s)...............  Barbadian.
Belarus.................................  Belarusian(s)..............  Belarusian.
Belgium.................................  Belgian(s).................  Belgian.
Belize..................................  Belizean(s)................  Belizean.
Benin...................................  Beninese (singular, plural)  Beninese.
Bermuda.................................  Bermudian(s)...............  Bermudian.
Bhutan..................................  Bhutanese (singular,         Bhutanese.
                                           plural).
Bolivia.................................  Bolivian(s)................  Bolivian.
Bosnia and Herzegovina..................  Bosnian(s),                  Bosnian, Herzegovinian.
                                           Herzegovinian(s)..
Botswana................................  Motswana (singular),         Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural).
                                           Batswana (plural).
Brazil..................................  Brazilian(s)...............  Brazilian.
British Virgin Islands..................  British Virgin Islander(s).  British Virgin Islander.
Brunei..................................  Bruneian(s)................  Bruneian.
Bulgaria................................  Bulgarian(s)...............  Bulgarian.
Burkina.................................  Burkinabe (singular,         Burkinabe.
                                           plural).
Burma...................................  Burmese (singular, plural).  Burmese.
Burundi.................................  Burundian(s)...............  Burundi.
Cambodia................................  Cambodian(s)...............  Cambodian.
Cameroon................................  Cameroonian(s).............  Cameroonian.
Canada..................................  Canadian(s)................  Canadian.
Cape Verde..............................  Cape Verdean(s)............  Cape Verdean.
Cayman Islands..........................  Caymanian(s)...............  Caymanian.
Central African Republic................  Central African(s).........  Central African.
Chad....................................  Chadian(s).................  Chadian.
Chile...................................  Chilean(s).................  Chilean.
China...................................  Chinese (singular, plural).  Chinese.
Christmas Island........................  Christmas Islander(s)......  Christmas Island.
Cocos (Keeling) Islands.................  Cocos Islander(s)..........  Cocos Islander.
Colombia................................  Colombian(s)...............  Colombian.
Comoros.................................  Comoran(s).................  Comoran.
Congo...................................  Congolese (singular,         Congolese or Congo.
                                           plural).
Cook Islands............................  Cook Islander(s)...........  Cook Islander.
Costa Rica..............................  Costa Rican(s).............  Costa Rican.
Cote d'Ivoire...........................  Ivorian(s).................  Ivorian.
Croatia.................................  Croat(s)...................  Croatian.
Cuba....................................  Cuban(s)...................  Cuban.
Cyprus..................................  Cypriot(s).................  Cypriot.
Czech Republic..........................  Czech(s)...................  Czech.
Denmark.................................  Dane(s)....................  Danish.
Djibouti................................  Djiboutian(s)..............  Djiboutian.
Dominica................................  Dominican(s)...............  Dominican.
Dominican Republic......................  ......do...................      Do.
Ecuador.................................  Ecuadorian(s)..............  Ecuadorian.
Egypt...................................  Egyptian(s)................  Egyptian.
El Salvador.............................  Salvadoran(s)..............  Salvadoran.
Equatorial Guinea.......................  Equatorial Guinean(s) or     Equatorial Guinean or Equa-toguinean.
                                           Equa-toguinean(s).
Eritrea.................................  Eritrean(s)................  Eritrean.
Estonia.................................  Estonian(s)................  Estonian.
Ethiopia................................  Ethiopian(s)...............  Ethiopian.
Falkland Islands........................  Falkland Islander(s).......  Falkland Island.
Faroe Islands...........................  Faroese (singular, plural).  Faroese.
Fiji....................................  Fijian(s)..................  Fijian.
Finland.................................  Finn(s)....................  Finnish.
France..................................  Frenchman(men)/Frenchwoman   French.
                                           (women).
French Guiana...........................  French Guianese (singular,   French Guianese.
                                           plural).
French Polynesia........................  French Polynesian(s).......  French Polynesian.
Gabon...................................  Gabonese (singular, plural)  Gabonese.
Gambia, The.............................  Gambian(s).................  Gambian.
Gaza Strip..............................  None.......................  None.
Georgia.................................  Georgian(s)................  Georgian.
Germany.................................  German(s)..................  German.
Ghana...................................  Ghanaian(s)................  Ghanaian.
Gibraltar...............................  Gibraltarian(s)............  Gibraltar.
Greece..................................  Greek(s)...................  Greek.
Greenland...............................  Greenlander(s).............  Greenlandic.

[[Page 234]]

 
Grenada.................................  Grenadian(s)...............  Grenadian.
Guadeloupe..............................  Guadeloupian(s)............  Guadeloupe.
Guam....................................  Guamanian(s)...............  Guamanian.
Guatemala...............................  Guatemalan(s)..............  Guatemalan.
Guernsey................................  Channel Islander(s)........  Channel Islander.
Guinea..................................  Guinean(s).................  Guinea.
Guinea-Bissau...........................  Guinean(s)-Bissauan(s).....  Guinean-Bissauan.
Guyana..................................  Guyanese (singular, plural)  Guyanese.
Haiti...................................  Haitian(s).................  Haitian.
Honduras................................  Honduran(s)................  Honduran.
Hong Kong...............................  Chinese....................  Chinese.
Hungary.................................  Hungarian(s)...............  Hungarian.
Iceland.................................  Icelander(s)...............  Icelandic.
India...................................  Indian(s)..................  Indian.
Indonesia...............................  Indonesian(s)..............  Indonesian.
Iran....................................  Iranian(s).................  Iranian.
Iraq....................................  Iraqi(s)...................  Iraqi.
Ireland.................................  Irishman(men),               Irish.
                                           Irishwoman(women), Irish
                                           (collective, plural).
Israel..................................  Israeli(s).................  Israeli.
Italy...................................  Italian(s).................  Italian.
Ivory Coast (see Cote d'Ivoire).........
Jamaica.................................  Jamaican(s)................  Jamaican.
Japan...................................  Japanese (singular, plural)  Japanese.
Jersey..................................  Channel Islander(s)........  Channel Islander.
Jordan..................................  Jordanian(s)...............  Jordanian.
Kampuchea (see Cambodia)................
Kazakhstan..............................  Kazakhstani(s).............  Kazakhstani.
Kenya...................................  Kenyan(s)..................  Kenyan.
Khmer Republic (see Cambodia)...........
Kiribati................................  I-Kiribat (singular,         I-Kiribati.
                                           plural).
Korea, North............................  Korean(s)..................  Korean.
Korea, South............................  Korean(s)..................  Korean.
Kuwait..................................  Kuwaiti(s).................  Kuwaiti.
Kyrgyzstan..............................  Kyrgyz(s)..................  Kyrgyz.
Laos....................................  Lao(s) or Laotian(s).......  Lao or Laotian.
Latvia..................................  Latvian(s).................  Latvian.
Lebanon.................................  Lebanese (singular, plural)  Lebanese.
Lesotho.................................  Mosotho (singular), Basotho  Basotho.
                                           (plural).
Liberia.................................  Liberian(s)................  Liberian.
Libya...................................  Libyan(s)..................  Libyan.
Liechtenstein...........................  Liechtensteiner(s).........  Liechtenstein.
Lithuania...............................  Lithuanian(s)..............  Lithuanian.
Luxembourg..............................  Luxembourger(s)............  Luxembourg.
Macau...................................  Macanese (singular, plural)  Macau.
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic   Macedonian(s)..............  Macedonian.
 of.
Madagascar..............................  Malagasy (singular, plural)  Malagasy.
Malawi..................................  Malawian(s)................  Malawian.
Malaysia................................  Malaysian(s)...............  Malaysian.
Maldives................................  Maldivian(s)...............  Maldivian.
Mali....................................  Malian(s)..................  Malian.
Malta...................................  Maltese (singular, plural).  Maltese.
Man, Isle of............................  Manxman, Manxwoman.........  Manx.
Marshall Islands........................  Marshallese (singular,       Marshallese.
                                           plural).
Martinique..............................  Martiniquais (singular,      Martiniquais.
                                           plural).
Mauritania..............................  Mauritanian(s).............  Mauritanian.
Mauritius...............................  Mauritian(s)...............  Mauritian.
Mayotte.................................  Mahorais (singular, plural)  Mahoran.
Mexico..................................  Mexican(s).................  Mexican.
Micronesia, Federated States of.........  Micronesian(s).............  Micronesian.
Moldova.................................  Moldovan(s)................  Moldovan.
Monaco..................................  Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s)  Monacan or Monegasque.
Mongolia................................  Mongolian(s)...............  Mongolian.
Montserrat..............................  Montserratian(s)...........  Montserratian.
Morocco.................................  Moroccan(s)................  Moroccan.
Mozambique..............................  Mozambican(s)..............  Mozambican.
Namibia.................................  Namibian(s)................  Namibian.
Nauru...................................  Nauruan(s).................  Nauruan.
Nepal...................................  Nepalese (singular, plural)  Nepalese.
Netherlands.............................  Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman    Dutch.
                                           (women).
Netherlands Antilles....................  Netherlands Antillean(s)...  Netherlands Antillean.
New Caledonia...........................  New Caledonian(s)..........  New Caledonian.
New Zealand.............................  New Zealander(s)...........  New Zealand.
Nicaragua...............................  Nicaraguan(s)..............  Nicaraguan.
Niger...................................  Nigerien(s)................  Nigerien.
Nigeria.................................  Nigerian(s)................  Nigerian.
Nive....................................  Nivean(s)..................  Nivean.
Norfolk Island..........................  Norfolk Islander(s)........  Norfolk Islander.
Northern Mariana Islands................  None.......................  None.
Norway..................................  Norwegian(s)...............  Norwegian.
Oman....................................  Omani(s)...................  Omani.
Pakistan................................  Pakistani(s)...............  Pakistani.
Palau...................................  Palauan(s).................  Palauan.

[[Page 235]]

 
Panama..................................  Panamanian(s)..............  Panamanian.
Papua New Guinea........................  Papua New Guinean(s).......  Papua New Guinean.
Paraguay................................  Paraguayan(s)..............  Paraguayan.
Peru....................................  Peruvian(s)................  Peruvian.
Philippines.............................  Filipino(s)................  Philippine.
Pitcairn Islands........................  Pitcairn Islander(s).......  Pitcairn Islander.
Poland..................................  Pole(s)....................  Polish.
Portugal................................  Portuguese (singular,        Portuguese.
                                           plural).
Puerto Rico.............................  Puerto Rican(s)............  Puerto Rican.
Qatar...................................  Qatari(s)..................  Qatari.
Reunion.................................  Reunionese (singular,        Reunionese.
                                           plural).
Romania.................................  Romanian(s)................  Romanian.
Russia..................................  Russian(s).................  Russian.
Rwanda..................................  Rwandan(s).................  Rwandan.
Saint Helena............................  Saint Helenian(s)..........  Saint Helenian.
Saint Lucia.............................  Saint Lucian(s)............  Saint Lucian.
Saint Kitts and Nevis...................  Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s)...  Kittsian, Nevisian.
Saint Lucia.............................  Saint Lucian(s)............  Saint Lucian.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon...............  Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman  French.
                                           (women).
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines........  Saint Vincentian(s) or       Saint Vincentian or Vincentian.
                                           Vincentian(s).
San Marino..............................  Sammarinese (singular,       Sammarinese.
                                           plural).
Sao Tome and Principe...................  Sao Tomean(s)..............  Sao Tomean.
Saudi Arabia............................  Saudi(s)...................  Saudi or Saudi Arabian.
Senegal.................................  Senegalese (singular,        Senegalese.
                                           plural).
Serbia and Montenegro...................  Serb(s), Montenegrin(s)....  Serbian and Montenegrin.
Seychelles..............................  Seychellois (singular,       Seychelles.
                                           plural).
Sierra Leone............................  Sierra Leonean(s)..........  Sierra Leonean.
Singapore...............................  Singaporean(s).............  Singapore.
Slovakia................................  Slovak(s)..................  Slovak.
Slovenia................................  Slovene(s).................  Slovenian.
Solomon Islands.........................  Solomon Islander(s)........  Solomon Islander.
Somalia.................................  Somali (singular, plural)..  Somali.
South Africa............................  South African(s)...........  South African.
Spain...................................  Spaniard(s)................  Spanish.
Sri Lanka...............................  Sri Lankan(s)..............  Sri Lankan.
Sudan...................................  Sudanese (singular, plural)  Sudanese.
Suriname................................  Surinamer(s)...............  Surinamese.
Svalbard................................  None.......................  None.
Swaziland...............................  Swazi(s)...................  Swazi.
Sweden..................................  Swede(s)...................  Swedish.
Switzerland.............................  Swiss (singular, plural)...  Swiss.
Syria...................................  Syrian(s)..................  Syrian.
Taiwan..................................  Taiwanese (singular,         Taiwanese.
                                           plural).
Tajikistan..............................  Tajik(s)...................  Tajik.
Tanzania................................  Tanzanian(s)...............  Tanzanian.
Thailand................................  Thai (singular, plural)....  Thai.
Togo....................................  Togolese (singular, plural)  Togolese.
Tokelau.................................  Tokelauan(s)...............  Tokelauan.
Tonga...................................  Tongan(s)..................  Tongan.
Trinidad and Tobago.....................  Trinidadian(s),              Trinidadian, Tobagonian.
                                           Tobagonian(s).
Tunisia.................................  Tunisian(s)................  Tunisian.
Turkey..................................  Turk(s)....................  Turkish.
Turkmenistan............................  Turkmen(s).................  Turkmen.
Turks and Caicos Islands................  None.......................  None.
Tuvalu..................................  Tuvaluan(s)................  Tuvaluan.
Uganda..................................  Ugandan(s).................  Ugandan.
Ukraine.................................  Ukrainian(s)...............  Ukrainian.
United Arab Emirates....................  Emirian(s).................  Emirian.
United Kingdom..........................  Briton(s), British           British.
                                           (collective plural).
United States...........................  American(s)................  American.
Uruguay.................................  Uruguayan(s)...............  Uruguayan.
Uzbekistan..............................  Uzbek(s)...................  Uzbek.
Vanuatu.................................  Ni-Vanuatu (singular,        Ni-Vanuatu.
                                           plural).
Venezuela...............................  Venezuelan(s)..............  Venezuelan.
Vietnam.................................  Vietnamese (singular,        Vietnamese.
                                           plural).
Virgin Islands..........................  Virgin Islander(s).........  Virgin Islander.
Wake Island.............................  None.......................  None.
Wallis and Futuna Islands...............  Wallisian(s), Futunan(s) or  Wallisian, Futunan or Wallis and Futuna
                                           Wallis and Futuna            Islander.
                                           Islander(s).
West Bank...............................  None.......................  None.
Western Sahara..........................  Sahrawi(s), Sahraoi(s).....  Sahrawian, Sahrauoian.
Western Samoa...........................  Western Samoan(s)..........  Western Samoan.
Yemen...................................  Yemini(s)..................  Yemeni.
Zaire...................................  Zairian(s).................  Zairian.
Zambia..................................  Zambian(s).................  Zambian.
Zimbabwe................................  Zimbabwean(s)..............  Zimbabwean.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 236]]


                                                  FOREIGN MONEY
           [Based on information provided by the International Monetary Fund updated to July 26, 2000]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Country or area                    Currency unit             Abbreviation         Subsidiary unit
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Afghanistan, Islamic State of.......  Afghani.....................  Af                   pul
Albania.............................  lek.........................  lek                  quindar
Algeria.............................  dinar.......................  DA                   centime
Andorra.............................  French franc \1\............  Fr. F                French centime
                                      Spanish peseta \1\..........  Sp. Pta              Spanish centimo
Angola..............................  readjusted kwanza...........  KZR                  centimo
Anguilla............................  dollar......................  EC$                  cent
Antigua and Barbuda.................  dollar......................  EC$                  cent
Argentina...........................  peso........................  Arg$                 centavo
Armenia.............................  dram........................  dram                 luma
Aruba...............................  florin......................  Af.                  cent
Australia...........................  dollar......................  $A                   cent
Austria.............................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  schilling
Azerbaijan..........................  manat.......................  manat                kepik
Azores..............................  escudo......................  Esc                  centavo
Bahamas, The........................  dollar......................  B$                   cent
Bahrain.............................  dinar.......................  BD                   fils
Bangladesh..........................  taka........................  Tk                   poisha
Barbados............................  dollar......................  BDS$                 cent
Belarus.............................  rubel.......................  Rbl                  --
Belgium.............................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  franc
Belize..............................  dollar......................  BZ$                  cent
Benin...............................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Bermuda.............................  dollar......................  Ber$                 cent
Bhutan..............................  ngultrum....................  Nu                   chhetrum
Bolivia.............................  boliviano...................  Bs                   centavo
Bosnia and Herzegovina..............  convertible marka...........  KM                   pfening
Botswana............................  pula........................  P                    thebe
Brazil..............................  real........................  R$                   centavo
British Virgin Islands..............  dollar......................  $ or US$ \4\         cent
Brunei Darussalam...................  dollar......................  B$                   cent
Bulgaria............................  lev.........................  lev                  stotinka
Burkina Faso........................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Burundi.............................  franc.......................  FBu                  centime
Cambodia............................  riel........................  CR                   sen
Cameroon............................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Canada..............................  dollar......................  Can$                 cent
Canary Islands......................  peseta......................  Pta                  centimo
Cape Verde..........................  escudo......................  CVEsc                centavo
Cayman Islands......................  dollar......................  C$                   cent
Central African Republic............  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Chad................................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Chile...............................  peso........................  Ch$                  centavo
China...............................  yuan \5\....................  Y                    fen \6\
Colombia............................  peso........................  Col$                 centavo
Comoros.............................  franc.......................  CF                   centime
Congo, Democratic Republic of.......  franc.......................  CGF                  centime
Congo, Republic of..................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Costa Rica..........................  colon.......................  C                    centimo
Cote d'Ivoire.......................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Croatia.............................  kuna........................  HRK                  lipa
Cuba................................  peso........................  $                    centavo
Cyprus..............................  pound.......................  C        cent
Czech Republic......................  koruna......................  CZK                  haler
Denmark.............................  krone.......................  DKr                  re
Djibouti............................  franc.......................  DF                   centime
Dominica............................  dollar......................  EC$                  cent
Dominican Republic..................  peso........................  RD$                  centavo
Ecuador.............................  sucre.......................  S/.                  centavo
Egypt...............................  pound.......................  LE                   piastre \7\
El Salvador.........................  colon.......................  C                    centavo
                                                                    /
Equatorial Guinea...................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Eritrea.............................  nakfa.......................  ERN                  cent
Estonia.............................  kroon.......................  EEK                  sent
Ethiopia............................  birr........................  Br                   cent
Faeroe Islands......................  krone.......................  DKr                  re
Falkland Islands....................  pound.......................           new penny
Fiji................................  dollar......................  F$                   cent
Finland.............................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  markka
France..............................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  franc
French Guiana.......................  franc.......................  F                    centime
French Polynesia....................  franc.......................  CFPF                 centime
Gabon...............................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Gambia, The.........................  dalasi......................  D                    butut
Georgia.............................  lari........................  lari                 tetri
Germany.............................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  deutsche mark
Ghana...............................  cedi........................  C                    pesewa
                                                                    /
Gibraltar...........................  pound.......................           new penny
Greece..............................  drachma.....................  Dr                   lepton
Greenland...........................  krone.......................  DKr                  re
Grenada.............................  dollar......................  EC$                  cent
Guadeloupe..........................  franc.......................  F                    centime
Guatemala...........................  quetzal.....................  Q                    centavo
Guinea..............................  franc.......................  GF                   --
Guinea-Bissau.......................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\

[[Page 237]]

 
Guyana..............................  dollar......................  G$                   cent
Haiti...............................  gourde......................  G                    centime
Honduras............................  lempira.....................  L                    centavo
Hong Kong SAR.......................  dollar......................  HK$                  cent
Hungary.............................  forint......................  Ft                   filler
Iceland.............................  krona.......................  ISK                  eyrir
India...............................  rupee.......................  Re                   paisa
Indonesia...........................  rupiah......................  Rp                   sen
Iran, Islamic Republic of...........  rial........................  Rl                   --
Iraq................................  dinar.......................  ID                   fils
Ireland.............................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  pound
Israel..............................  new sheqel..................  NIS                  agora
Italy...............................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  lira
Jamaica.............................  dollar......................  J$                   cent
Japan...............................  yen.........................                  sen
Jordan..............................  dinar.......................  JD                   fils
Kazakhstan..........................  tenge.......................  T                    tiyn
Kenya...............................  shilling....................  K Sh                 cent
Kiribati............................  dollar......................  $A                   cent
Korea, Democratic People's Republic   won.........................  --                   chun
 of.
Korea, Republic of..................  won.........................  W                    chun
Kuwait..............................  dinar.......................  KD                   fils
Kyrgyz Republic.....................  som.........................  som                  tyiyn
Lao People's Democratic Republic....  kip.........................  KN                   --
Latvia..............................  lats........................  LVL                  santims
Lebanon.............................  pound.......................  LL                   --
Lesotho.............................  loti \8\....................  M                    sente
Liberia.............................  dollar......................  $                    cent
Libya...............................  dinar.......................  LD                   dirham
Liechtenstein.......................  franc.......................  Sw F                 centime
Lithuania...........................  litas.......................  LTL                  centas
Luxembourg..........................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  franc
Macao SAR...........................  pataca......................  P                    avo
Macedonia...........................  denar.......................  MDen                 deni
Madagascar..........................  franc.......................  FMG                  centime
Madeira.............................  escudo......................  Esc                  centavo
Malawi..............................  kwacha......................  MK                   tambala
Malaysia............................  ringgit.....................  RM                   sen
Maldives............................  rufiyaa.....................  Rf                   laari
Mali................................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Malta...............................  lira........................  Lm                   cent \9\
Marshall Islands....................  dollar......................  $ or US$ \4\         cent
Martinique..........................  franc.......................  F                    centime
Mauritania..........................  ouguiya \10\................  UM                   khoum
Mauritius...........................  rupee.......................  MUR                  cent
Mexico..............................  new peso....................  MEX$                 centavo
Micronesia, Federated States of.....  dollar......................  $ or US$ \4\         cent
Moldova.............................  leu.........................  MDL                  ban
Monaco..............................  franc.......................  F                    centime
Mongolia............................  togrog......................  Tug                  mongo
Montserrat..........................  dollar......................  EC$                  cent
Morocco.............................  dirham......................  DH                   centime
Mozambique..........................  metical.....................  Mt                   centavo
Myanmar.............................  kyat........................  K                    pya
Namibia.............................  dollar......................  N$                   cent
                                      rand........................  R                    cent
Nauru...............................  dollar......................  $A                   cent
Nepal...............................  rupee.......................  Nrs                  paisa
Netherlands, The....................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  guilder
Netherlands Antilles................  guilder.....................  NA f.                cent
New Caledonia.......................  franc.......................  CFPF                 centime
New Zealand.........................  dollar......................  $NZ                  cent
Nicaragua...........................  cordoba.....................  C$                   centavo
Niger...............................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Nigeria.............................  naira.......................  N                    kobo
                                                                    =
Norway..............................  krone.......................  NKr                  re
Oman................................  rial Omani..................  RO                   baisa
Pakistan............................  rupee.......................  PRs                  paisa
Palau...............................  dollar......................  $ or US$ \4\         cent
Panama..............................  balboa......................  B                    centesimo
Papua New Guinea....................  kina........................  K                    toea
Paraguay............................  guarani.....................  G                    centimo
                                                                    /
Peru................................  nuevo sol...................  S/.                  centimo
Philippines.........................  peso........................  P                    centavo
                                                                    =
Poland..............................  zloty.......................  Zl                   grosz
Portugal............................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  escudo
Qatar...............................  riyal.......................  QR                   dirham
Reunion.............................  franc.......................  F                    centime
Romania.............................  leu.........................  leu \11\             --
Russia..............................  ruble.......................  Rub                  kopek
Rwanda..............................  franc.......................  RF                   centime
St. Helena..........................  pound \12\..................   or      new penny
                                                                     
                                                                     stg.\12\
St. Kitts and Nevis.................  dollar......................  EC$                  cent
St. Lucia...........................  dollar......................  EC$                  cent
St. Pierre and Miquelon.............  franc.......................  F                    centime

[[Page 238]]

 
St. Vincent and the Grenadines......  dollar......................  EC$                  cent
Samoa...............................  tala........................  SAT                  sene
San Marino..........................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  lira
Sao Tome and Principe...............  dobra.......................  Db                   centavo
Saudi Arabia........................  riyal.......................  SRl                  halala
Senegal.............................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Seychelles..........................  rupee.......................  SR                   cent
Sierra Leone........................  leone.......................  Le                   cent
Singapore...........................  dollar......................  S$                   cent
Slovak Republic.....................  koruna......................  Sk                   halier
Slovenia............................  tolar.......................  SIT                  stotin
Solomon Islands.....................  dollar......................  SI$                  cent
Somalia.............................  shilling....................  So. Sh.              cent
South Africa........................  rand........................  R                    cent
Spain...............................  euro \2\....................  EUR                  peseta
Sri Lanka...........................  rupee.......................  SL Re                cent
Sudan \13\..........................  pound.......................  LSd                  piastre \7\
Suriname............................  guilder.....................  Sf                   cent
Swaziland...........................  lilangeni...................  E                    cent
Sweden..............................  krona.......................  SKr                  ore
Switzerland.........................  franc.......................  Sw F                 centime
Syrian Arab Republic................  pound.......................  LS                   piastre \7\
Taiwan Province of China............  dollar......................  NT$                  fen \14\
Tajikistan..........................  ruble.......................  TR                   --
Tanzania............................  shilling....................  T Sh                 cent
Thailand............................  baht........................  B                    satang
Togo................................  franc.......................  CFAF                 centime \3\
Tonga...............................  pa'anga.....................  T$                   seniti
Trinidad and Tobago.................  dollar......................  TT$                  cent
Tunisia.............................  dinar.......................  D                    millime
Turkey..............................  lira........................  TL                   kurus
Turkmenistan........................  manat.......................  manat                tenge
Turks and Caicos Islands............  dollar......................  $ or US$ \4\         cent
Tuvalu..............................  dollar......................  $A                   cent
Uganda..............................  shilling....................  U Sh                 cent
Ukraine.............................  hryvnia.....................  HRV                  kopiyka
United Arab Emirates................  dirham......................  Dh                   fil
United Kingdom......................  pound.......................   or      penny
                                                                      stg.
United States.......................  dollar......................  $ or US$ \4\         cent
Uruguay.............................  peso........................  Ur$                  centesimo
Uzbekistan..........................  sum.........................  SUM                  tiyin
Vanuatu.............................  vatu........................  VT                   --
Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela..  bolivar.....................  Bs                   centavo
Vietnam.............................  dong........................  D                    --
Wallis and Futuna Islands...........  franc.......................  CFPF                 centime
Yemen, Republic of..................  dinar \15\..................  YD                   fils
                                      rial \15\...................  YRl                  fils
Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of       dinar.......................  YUD                  para
 (Serbia/Montenegro).
Zambia..............................  kwacha......................  K                    ngwee
Zimbabwe............................  dollar......................  Z$                   cent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Both the French franc and the Spanish peseta are legal tender in Andorra.
\2\ Use the term ``euro area,'' not ``euro zone.'' It is incorrect to refer to the euro by nationality, for
  example, as an Austrian euro or a Belgian euro. However, one may refer to a country's holdings of euros, for
  example, euro (France) or euro (Germany). The subsidiary units, which used to be the national currencies of
  the euro area countries, will be used only during the transition period, that is, through June 30, 2002.
\3\ There is no subsidiary unit issued for the CFA franc. However, it is useful to retain the concept of the
  centime.
\4\ Use US$ instead of $ when it is not clear that the reference is to the U.S. dollar.
\5\ The currency is the renminbi, while the currency unit is the yuan.
\6\ Second subsidiary currency unit: jiao; 10 fen = 1 jiao; 10 jiao = 1 yuan.
\7\ Second subsidiary currency: millieme; 10 milliemes = 1 piastre.
\8\ The loti is interchangeable with the South African rand, which remains legal tender.
\9\ Second subsidiary currency: mil, 10 mils = 1 cent.
\10\ For accounting purposes, the ouguiya is also divided into the dixieme (= UM 0.10) and the centieme (= UM
  0.01).
\11\ Use the plural form lei before a figure (e.g., lei 100).
\12\ ``Sterling'' is at times used in place of ``pounds.'' When used as an adjective to describe the currency,
  ``sterling'' follows ``pounds'' (i.e., ``pounds sterling'').
\13\ Sudan has introduced the Sudanese dinar to circulate alongside the Sudanese pound. The Sudanese dinar is
  worth 10 pounds.
\14\ Second subsidiary currency: chiao; 10 fen = 1 chiao.
\15\ Both the Yemeni dinar and the Yemeni rial are legal tender in the Republic of Yemen.


[[Page 239]]

                              METRIC TABLES

                                                     LENGTH
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Myriameter (obs.)............  10,000 meters...  6.2137 miles.     Meter.........  1 meter.......  39.37 inches.
Kilometer....................  1,000 meters....  0.62137 mile.     Decimeter.....  0.1 meter.....  3.937 inches.
Hectometer...................  100 meters......  328 feet 1 inch.  Centimeter....  0.01 meter....  0.3937 inch.
Dekameter....................  10 meters.......  393.7 inches.     Millimeter....  0.001 meter...  0.0394 inch.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                                      AREA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hectare.................................  10,000 square meters...............  2.471 acres.
Are.....................................  100 square meters..................  119.6 square yards.
Centare.................................  1 square meter.....................  1,550 square inches.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                                     WEIGHT
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Number of    Volume of water corresponding to    Avoirdupois weight of
                Name                       grams                   weight                         water
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Metric ton, millier or tonneau......  1,000,000       1 cubic meter...................  2,204.6 pounds.
Kilogram or kilo....................      1,000       1 liter.........................  2.2046 pounds.
Hectogram...........................        100       1 deciliter.....................  3.5274 ounces.
Dekagram............................         10       10 cubic centimeters............  0.3527 ounce.
Gram................................          1       1 cubic centimeter..............  15.432 grains.
Decigram............................           .1     0.1 cubic centimeter............  1.5432 grains.
Centigram...........................           .01    10 cubic millimeters............  0.1543 grain.
Milligram...........................           .001   1 cubic millimeter..............  0.0154 grain.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                                                        CAPACITY
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Number of
                 Name                      liters          Metric cubic measure              United States measure               British measure
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kiloliter or stere....................   1,000       1 cubic meter...................  1.308 cubic yards...............  1.308 cubic yards.
Hectoliter............................     100       0.1 cubic meter.................  2.838 bushels; 26,417 gallons...  2.75 bushels; 22.00 gallons.
Dekaliter.............................      10       10 cubic decimeters.............  1.135 pecks; 2.6417 gallons.....  8.80 quarts; 2.200 gallons.
Liter.................................       1       1 cubic decimeter...............  0.908 dry quart; 1.0567 liquid    0.880 quart.
                                                                                        quarts.
Deciliter.............................        .1     0.1 cubic decimeter.............  6.1023 cubic inches; 0.845 gill.  0.704 gill.
Centiliter............................        .01    10 cubic centimeters............  0.6102 cubic inch; 0.338 fluid    0.352 fluid ounce.
                                                                                        ounce.
Milliliter............................        .001   1 cubic centimeter..............  0.061 cubic inch; 0.271 fluid     0.284 fluid dram.
                                                                                        dram.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                  COMMON MEASURES AND THEIR METRIC EQUIVALENTS
                                            [*United States measure]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Common measure                  Equivalent                Common measure               Equivalent
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Inch..........................  2.54 centimeters.           Dry quart*...............  1.101 liters.
Foot..........................  0.3048 meter.               Quart, imperial..........  1.136 liters.
Yard..........................  0.9144 meter.               Gallon*..................  3.785 liters.
Rod...........................  5.029 meters.               Gallon, imperial.........  4.546 liters.
Mile..........................  1.6093 kilometers.          Peck*....................  8.810 liters.
Square inch...................  6.452 square centimeters.   Peck, imperial...........  9.092 liters.
Square foot...................  0.0929 square meter.        Bushel*..................  35.24 liters.
Square yard...................  0.836 square meter.         Bushel, imperial.........  36.37 liters.
Square rod....................  25.29 square meters.        Ounce, avoirdupois.......  28.35 grams.
Acre..........................  0.4047 hectare.             Pound, avoirdupois.......  0.4536 kilogram.
Square mile...................  259 hectares.               Ton, long................  1.0160 metric tons.
Cubic inch....................  16.39 cubic centimeters.    Ton, short...............  0.9072 metric ton.
Cubic foot....................  0.0283 cubic meter.         Grain....................  0.0648 gram.
Cubic yard....................  0.7646 cubic meter.         Ounce, troy..............  31.103 grams.
Cord..........................  3.625 steres.               Pound, troy..............  0.3732 kilogram.
Liquid quart*.................  0.9463 liter.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 240]]

 U.S. EQUIVALENTS OF THE PRINCIPAL WEIGHTS AND MEASURES USED IN FOREIGN 
                         AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS

           [With suggestions by the Department of Agriculture]

------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Weight or measure                         Country
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 ardeb = 1.98 hectoliters =        Egypt.
 5.6189 Winchester or United
 States bushels.
1 arroba = 25 pounds, avoirdupois.  Cuba.
1 batman = 6.5 pounds, avoirdupois  Iran.
1 bouw = 7,096.5 square meters =    Indonesia.
 1.754 acres.
1 cantar = 44.928 kilograms =       Egypt.
 99.049 pounds, avoirdupois.
1 catty (kati) = 1\1/3\ pounds,     China.
 avoirdupois.
1 central = 100 pounds,             United States, Canada, Republic of
 avoirdupois.                        South Africa.\1\
1 centner = 110.23 pounds,          Denmark.
 avoirdupois.
1 chetvert = 5.9568 Winchester      Russia.
 bushels.
1 cho = 2.4506 acres..............  Japan.
1 dekar = 0.2471 acre.............  Norway.
1 dessiatine = 2.6997 acres.......  Russia.
1 donum = 0.227 acre..............  Turkey.
1 doppelzentner = 220.46 pounds,    Germany.
 avoirdupois.
1 feddan = 1.038 acres............  Egypt.
1 hectare = 2.471 acres...........  (\2\).
1 hectoliter = 2.8378 Winchester    (\2\).
 bushels.
1 hectoliter = 26.418 United        (\2\).
 States gallons.
1 hundredweight (long) = 112        United Kingdom, Australia.\1\
 pounds, avoirdupois.
1 hundredweight (or cental) = 100   United States, Canada, Republic of
 pounds, avoirdupois.                South Africa.\1\
1 imperial bushel = 1.03205         United Kingdom, Canada, Australia,
 Winchester bushels.                 Republic of South Africa.\1\
1 imperial gallon = 1.2009 United       Do.\1\
 States gallons.
1 joch (cadastral hold or           Hungary.
 cadastral arpent) = 1.422 acres.
1 kilogram = 2.2046 pounds,         (\2\).
 avoirdupois.
1 kin = 1.3228 pounds, avoirdupois  Japan.
1 ko = 2.3966 acres...............  Taiwan.
1 koku = 4.9602 imperial bushels =  Japan.
 5.1192 Winchester bushels.
1 koku = 47.655 United States           Do.
 standard gallons.
1 kwan = 8.2673 pounds,                 Do.
 avoirdupois.
1 liter = 0.028378 Winchester       (\2\).
 bushel = 0.26418 United States
 gallon.
1 manzana = 1.7266 acres..........  Guatemala.
1 maund = 82.2857 pounds,           British India.
 avoirdupois.
1 mesana = 0.6397 acre............  Cuba.
1 morgen = 2.1165 acres...........  Republic of South Africa.
1 mow = 0.1518 acre (varying).....  China.
1 oke = 1.248 kilograms = 2.751     Egypt.
 pounds, avoirdupois.
1 oke = 2.822 pounds, avoirdupois.  Greece.
1 picul = 133\1/3\ pounds,          China.
 avoirdupois.
1 picul = 61.761 kilograms =        Indonesia.
 136.16 pounds, avoirdupois.
1 picul = 132.28 pounds,            Japan.
 avoirdupois.
1 pood = 36.1128 pounds,            Russia.
 avoirdupois.
1 pound, Great Venetian = 1.0582    Greece.
 pounds, avoirdupois.
1 quintal (double centner or        (\2\).
 metric centner) = 220.46 pounds,
 avoirdupois.
1 quarter = 8 imperial bushels =    United Kingdom.
 8.2564 Winchester bushels.
1 rai = 0.3954 acre...............  Thailand.
1 Russian pound = \1/40\ pood =     Russia.
 0.90282 pound, avoirdupois.
1 stremma (royal) = 0.2471 acre...  Greece.
1 tan (or picul) = 133\1/3\         China.
 pounds, avoirdupois.
1 ton (long) = 2,240 pounds,        United States (foreign trade) and
 avoirdupois.                        United Kingdom.
1 ton (metric) = 2,204.6 pounds,    (\2\).
 avoirdupois.
1 ton (short) = 2,000 pounds,       United States (internal trade) and
 avoirdupois.                        Canada (foreign trade).
1 zentner = 110.23 pounds,          Germany.
 avoirdupois.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ List of countries given may not be complete or reflect current name
  changes due to political restructuring.
\2\ Metric system.
 
Note.--The values given are believed to be carried to a sufficient
  number of decimal places to meet the purpose for which the units may
  be used.


[[Page 241]]


                                           PICAS TRANSLATED TO INCHES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Picas     Inches    Picas    Inches    Picas    Inches    Picas    Inches    Picas    Inches    Picas   Inches
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    1      0.166       18     2.988       35     5.811       52     8.634       69    11.457       86    14.279
    2       .332       19     3.154       36     5.977       53     8.800       70    11.623       87    14.445
    3       .498       20     3.320       37     6.143       54     8.966       71    11.789       88    14.611
    4       .664       21     3.487       38     6.309       55     9.132       72    11.955       89    14.778
    5       .830       22     3.653       39     6.475       56     9.298       73    12.121       90    14.944
    6       .996       23     3.819       40     6.641       57     9.464       74    12.287       91    15.110
    7      1.162       24     3.985       41     6.807       58     9.630       75    12.453       92    15.276
    8      1.328       25     4.151       42     6.973       59     9.796       76    12.619       93    15.442
    9      1.494       26     4.317       43     7.139       60     9.962       77    12.785       94    15.608
   10      1.660       27     4.483       44     7.306       61    10.128       78    12.951       95    15.774
   11      1.826       28     4.649       45     7.472       62    10.294       79    13.117       96    15.940
   12      1.992       29     4.815       46     7.638       63    10.460       80    13.283       97    16.106
   13      2.158       30     4.981       47     7.804       64    10.626       81    13.449       98    16.272
   14      2.324       31     5.147       48     7.970       65    10.792       82    13.615       99    16.438
   15      2.490       32     5.313       49     8.136       66    10.959       83    13.781      100    16.604
   16      2.656       33     5.479       50     8.302       67    11.125       84    13.947      125    20.750
   17      2.822       34     5.645       51     8.468       68    11.291       85    14.113      150    24.900
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                       INCREASE OF TEXT BY SPACING

  If lines are spaced 2 points--
      6-point type is increased one-third.
      8-point type is increased one-fourth.
      10-point type is increased one-fifth.
      11-point type is increased two-elevenths.
      12-point type is increased one-sixth.

               NUMBER OF WORDS AND EMS TO THE SQUARE INCH

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Number of words                                    Number of words
        Size of type         ----------------------  Number of    Size of type  ---------------------- Number of
                                Solid    Leaded\1\      ems                        Solid    Leaded\1\     ems
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
14 point....................         11          8    26\1/2\   8 point........         32         23       81
12 point....................         14         11       36     6 point........         47         34      144
11 point....................         17         14       43     5 point........         69         50      207
10 point....................         21         16       52
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ ``Leaded'' refers to 2 points of space between lines.


[[Page 242]]

                             NOTES




[[Page 243]]



 
                 18. COUNTIES AND GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS

      [Parishes, boroughs, Census divisions, districts, islands, 
municipalities, and municipios of the 50 States, U.S. possessions, and 
 Freely Associated States (formerly the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
                               Islands)]

  Geographers and cartographers omit the possessive apostrophe 
in placenames; however, apostrophes appearing in legally 
constituted names of counties should not be changed.
  The names of the following counties are often misspelled and/
or confused:
Allegany in Maryland and New York
Alleghany in North Carolina and Virginia
Allegheny in Pennsylvania
Andrew in Missouri
Andrews in Texas
Aransas in Texas
Arkansas in Arkansas
Barber in Kansas
Barbour in Alabama and West Virginia
Brevard in Florida
Broward in Florida
Brooke in West Virginia
Brooks in Georgia and Texas
Bulloch in Georgia
Bullock in Alabama
Burnet in Texas
Burnett in Wisconsin
Cheboygan in Michigan
Sheboygan in Wisconsin
Clarke in Alabama, Georgia,
  Iowa, Mississippi, and Virginia
Clark in all other States
Coffee in Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee
Coffey in Kansas
Coal in Oklahoma
Cole in Missouri
Coles in Illinois
Cook in Illinois and Minnesota
Cooke in Texas
Davidson in North Carolina and Tennessee
Davie in North Carolina
Daviess in Indiana, Kentucky, and Missouri
Davis in Iowa and Utah
Davison in South Dakota
De Kalb in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, and Indiana
DeKalb in Tennessee
Dickenson in Virginia
Dickinson in Iowa, Kansas, and Michigan
Dickson in Tennessee
Forrest in Mississippi
Forest in all other States
Glascock in Georgia
Glasscock in Texas
Green in Kentucky and Wisconsin
Greene in all other States
Harford in Maryland
Hartford in Connecticut
Huntingdon in Pennsylvania
Huntington in Indiana
Johnston in North Carolina and Oklahoma
Johnson in all other States
Kanabec in Minnesota
Kennebec in Maine
Kearney in Nebraska
Kearny in Kansas
Linn in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Oregon
Lynn in Texas
Loudon in Tennessee
Loudoun in Virginia
Manatee in Florida
Manistee in Michigan
Merced in California
Mercer in all other States
Morton in Kansas
Norton in Kansas
Muscogee in Georgia
Muskogee in Oklahoma
Park in Colorado and Montana
Parke in Indiana
Pottawatomie in Kansas and Oklahoma
Pottawattamie in Iowa
Prince George in Virginia
Prince George's in Maryland
Sanders in Montana
Saunders in Nebraska
Smyth in Virginia
Smith in all other States
Stafford in Virginia

[[Page 244]]


Strafford in New Hampshire
Stanley in South Dakota
Stanly in North Carolina
Stark in Illinois, North Dakota, and Ohio
Starke in Indiana
Stephens in Georgia, Oklahoma, and Texas
Stevens in Kansas, Minnesota, and Washington
Storey in Nevada
Story in Iowa
Terrell in Georgia and Texas
Tyrrell in North Carolina
Tooele in Utah
Toole in Montana
Vermillion in Indiana
Vermilion in all other States
Woods in Oklahoma
Wood in all other States
Wyandot in Ohio
Wyandotte in Kansas
Yellowstone in Montana
Yellowstone National Park in Montana

ALABAMA (AL) (67 counties)
Autauga
Baldwin
Barbour
Bibb
Blount
Bullock
Butler
Calhoun
Chambers
Cherokee
Chilton
Choctaw
Clarke
Clay
Cleburne
Coffee
Colbert
Conecuh
Coosa
Covington
Crenshaw
Cullman
Dale
Dallas
De Kalb
Elmore
Escambia
Etowah
Fayette
Franklin
Geneva
Greene
Hale
Henry
Houston
Jackson
Jefferson
Lamar
Lauderdale
Lawrence
Lee
Limestone
Lowndes
Macon
Madison
Marengo
Marion
Marshall
Mobile
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan
Perry
Pickens
Pike
Randolph
Russell
St. Clair
Shelby
Sumter
Talladega
Tallapoosa
Tuscaloosa
Walker
Washington
Wilcox
Winston

ALASKA (AK) (* signifies boroughs; all others are Census divisions)
Anchorage*
Bethel
Bristol Bay*
Dillingham
Fairbanks North Star*
Haines*
Juneau*
Kenai Peninsula*
Ketchikan Gateway*
Kodiak Island*
Matanuska-Susitna*
Nome
North Slope*
Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan
Sitka*
Southeast Fairbanks
Valdez-Cordova
Wade Hampton
Wrangell-Petersburg
Yukon-Koyukuk

AMERICAN SAMOA (AS) (5 entities: 3 districts* and 2 islands)
Eastern*
Manu'a*
Rose
Swains
Western*

ARIZONA (AZ) (15 counties)
Apache
Cochise
Coconino
Gila
Graham
Greenlee
La Paz
Maricopa
Mohave
Navajo
Pima
Pinal
Santa Cruz
Yavapai
Yuma

ARKANSAS (AR) (75 counties)
Arkansas
Ashley
Baxter
Benton
Boone
Bradley
Calhoun
Carroll
Chicot
Clark
Clay
Cleburne
Cleveland
Columbia
Conway
Craighead
Crawford
Crittenden
Cross
Dallas
Desha
Drew
Faulkner
Franklin
Fulton
Garland
Grant
Greene
Hempstead
Hot Spring
Howard
Independence
Izard
Jackson
Jefferson
Johnson
Lafayette
Lawrence
Lee
Lincoln
Little River
Logan
Lonoke
Madison
Marion
Miller
Mississippi
Monroe
Montgomery
Nevada
Newton
Ouachita
Perry
Phillips
Pike
Poinsett
Polk
Pope
Prairie
Pulaski
Randolph
St. Francis
Saline
Scott
Searcy
Sebastian
Sevier
Sharp
Stone
Union
Van Buren
Washington
White
Woodruff
Yell

[[Page 245]]


CALIFORNIA (CA) (58 counties)
Alameda
Alpine
Amador
Butte
Calaveras
Colusa
Contra Costa
Del Norte
El Dorado
Fresno
Glenn
Humboldt
Imperial
Inyo
Kern
Kings
Lake
Lassen
Los Angeles
Madera
Marin
Mariposa
Mendocino
Merced
Modoc
Mono
Monterey
Napa
Nevada
Orange
Placer
Plumas
Riverside
Sacramento
San Benito
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Francisco
San Joaquin
San Luis Obispo
San Mateo
Santa Barbara
Santa Clara
Santa Cruz
Shasta
Sierra
Siskiyou
Solano
Sonoma
Stanislaus
Sutter
Tehama
Trinity
Tulare
Tuolumne
Ventura
Yolo
Yuba

COLORADO (CO) (63 counties)
Adams
Alamosa
Arapahoe
Archuleta
Baca
Bent
Boulder
Chaffee
Cheyenne
Clear Creek
Conejos
Costilla
Crowley
Custer
Delta
Denver
Dolores
Douglas
Eagle
Elbert
El Paso
Fremont
Garfield
Gilpin
Grand
Gunnison
Hinsdale
Huerfano
Jackson
Jefferson
Kiowa
Kit Carson
Lake
La Plata
Larimer
Las Animas
Lincoln
Logan
Mesa
Mineral
Moffat
Montezuma
Montrose
Morgan
Otero
Ouray
Park
Phillips
Pitkin
Prowers
Pueblo
Rio Blanco
Rio Grande
Routt
Saguache
San Juan
San Miguel
Sedgwick
Summit
Teller
Washington
Weld
Yuma

CONNECTICUT (CT) (8 counties)
Fairfield
Hartford
Litchfield
Middlesex
New Haven
New London
Tolland
Windham

DELAWARE (DE) (3 counties)
Kent
New Castle
Sussex
  
  
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA (DC) (single entity)

FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA (FM) (4 States)
Chuuk (formerly Truk)
Kosrae
Pohnpei (formerly Ponape)
Yap
  
FLORIDA (FL) (67 counties)
Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
De Soto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington

GEORGIA (GA) (159 counties)
Appling
Atkinson
Bacon
Baker
Baldwin
Banks
Barrow
Bartow
Ben Hill
Berrien
Bibb
Bleckley
Brantley
Brooks
Bryan
Bulloch
Burke
Butts
Calhoun
Camden

[[Page 246]]


Candler
Carroll
Catoosa
Charlton
Chatham
Chatta-
  hoochee
Chattooga
Cherokee
Clarke
Clay
Clayton
Clinch
Cobb
Coffee
Colquitt
Columbia
Cook
Coweta
Crawford
Crisp
Dade
Dawson
Decatur
De Kalb
Dodge
Dooly
Dougherty
Douglas
Early
Echols
Effingham
Elbert
Emanuel
Evans
Fannin
Fayette
Floyd
Forsyth
Franklin
Fulton
Gilmer
Glascock
Glynn
Gordon
Grady
Greene
Gwinnett
Habersham
Hall
Hancock
Haralson
Harris
Hart
Heard
Henry
Houston
Irwin
Jackson
Jasper
Jeff Davis
Jefferson
Jenkins
Johnson
Jones
Lamar
Lanier
Laurens
Lee
Liberty
Lincoln
Long
Lowndes
Lumpkin
McDuffie
McIntosh
Macon
Madison
Marion
Meriwether
Miller
Mitchell
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan
Murray
Muscogee
Newton
Oconee
Oglethorpe
Paulding
Peach
Pickens
Pierce
Pike
Polk
Pulaski
Putnam
Quitman
Rabun
Randolph
Richmond
Rockdale
Schley
Screven
Seminole
Spalding
Stephens
Stewart
Sumter
Talbot
Taliaferro
Tattnall
Taylor
Telfair
Terrell
Thomas
Tift
Toombs
Towns
Treutlen
Troup
Turner
Twiggs
Union
Upson
Walker
Walton
Ware
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Webster
Wheeler
White
Whitfield
Wilcox
Wilkes
Wilkinson
Worth

GUAM (GU) (single entity)

HAWAII (HI) (5 counties)
Hawaii
Honolulu
Kalawao
Kauai
Maui

IDAHO (ID) (44 counties)
Ada
Adams
Bannock
Bear Lake
Benewah
Bingham
Blaine
Boise
Bonner
Bonneville
Boundary
Butte
Camas
Canyon
Caribou
Cassia
Clark
Clearwater
Custer
Elmore
Franklin
Fremont
Gem
Gooding
Idaho
Jefferson
Jerome
Kootenai
Latah
Lemhi
Lewis
Lincoln
Madison
Minidoka
Nez Perce
Oneida
Owyhee
Payette
Power
Shoshone
Teton
Twin Falls
Valley
Washington

ILLINOIS (IL) (102 counties)
Adams
Alexander
Bond
Boone
Brown
Bureau
Calhoun
Carroll
Cass
Champaign
Christian
Clark
Clay
Clinton
Coles
Cook
Crawford
Cumberland
De Kalb
De Witt
Douglas
Du Page
Edgar
Edwards
Effingham
Fayette
Ford
Franklin
Fulton
Gallatin
Greene
Grundy
Hamilton
Hancock
Hardin
Henderson
Henry
Iroquois
Jackson
Jasper
Jefferson
Jersey
Jo Daviess
Johnson
Kane
Kankakee
Kendall
Knox
Lake
La Salle
Lawrence
Lee
Livingston
Logan
McDonough
McHenry
McLean
Macon
Macoupin
Madison
Marion
Marshall
Mason
Massac
Menard
Mercer
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan
Moultrie
Ogle
Peoria
Perry
Piatt
Pike
Pope
Pulaski
Putnam
Randolph
Richland
Rock Island
St. Clair
Saline
Sangamon
Schuyler
Scott
Shelby
Stark
Stephenson
Tazewell
Union
Vermilion
Wabash
Warren
Washington
Wayne
White
Whiteside
Will
Williamson
Winnebago
Woodford

[[Page 247]]


INDIANA (IN) (92 counties)
Adams
Allen
Bartholomew
Benton
Blackford
Boone
Brown
Carroll
Cass
Clark
Clay
Clinton
Crawford
Daviess
Dearborn
Decatur
De Kalb
Delaware
Dubois
Elkhart
Fayette
Floyd
Fountain
Franklin
Fulton
Gibson
Grant
Greene
Hamilton
Hancock
Harrison
Hendricks
Henry
Howard
Huntington
Jackson
Jasper
Jay
Jefferson
Jennings
Johnson
Knox
Kosciusko
LaGrange
Lake
La Porte
Lawrence
Madison
Marion
Marshall
Martin
Miami
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan
Newton
Noble
Ohio
Orange
Owen
Parke
Perry
Pike
Porter
Posey
Pulaski
Putnam
Randolph
Ripley
Rush
St. Joseph
Scott
Shelby
Spencer
Starke
Steuben
Sullivan
Switzerland
Tippecanoe
Tipton
Union
Vanderburgh
Vermillion
Vigo
Wabash
Warren
Warrick
Washington
Wayne
Wells
White
Whitley

IOWA (IA) (99 counties)
Adair
Adams
Allamakee
Appanoose
Audubon
Benton
Black Hawk
Boone
Bremer
Buchanan
Buena Vista
Butler
Calhoun
Carroll
Cass
Cedar
Cerro Gordo
Cherokee
Chickasaw
Clarke
Clay
Clayton
Clinton
Crawford
Dallas
Davis
Decatur
Delaware
Des Moines
Dickinson
Dubuque
Emmet
Fayette
Floyd
Franklin
Fremont
Greene
Grundy
Guthrie
Hamilton
Hancock
Hardin
Harrison
Henry
Howard
Humboldt
Ida
Iowa
Jackson
Jasper
Jefferson
Johnson
Jones
Keokuk
Kossuth
Lee
Linn
Louisa
Lucas
Lyon
Madison
Mahaska
Marion
Marshall
Mills
Mitchell
Monona
Monroe
Montgomery
Muscatine
O'Brien
Osceola
Page
Palo Alto
Plymouth
Pocahontas
Polk
Pottawat-
  tamie
Poweshiek
Ringgold
Sac
Scott
Shelby
Sioux
Story
Tama
Taylor
Union
Van Buren
Wapello
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Webster
Winnebago
Winneshiek
Woodbury
Worth
Wright

KANSAS (KS) (105 counties)
Allen
Anderson
Atchison
Barber
Barton
Bourbon
Brown
Butler
Chase
Chautauqua
Cherokee
Cheyenne
Clark
Clay
Cloud
Coffey
Comanche
Cowley
Crawford
Decatur
Dickinson
Doniphan
Douglas
Edwards
Elk
Ellis
Ellsworth
Finney
Ford
Franklin
Geary
Gove
Graham
Grant
Gray
Greeley
Greenwood
Hamilton
Harper
Harvey
Haskell
Hodgeman
Jackson
Jefferson
Jewell
Johnson
Kearny
Kingman
Kiowa
Labette
Lane
Leavenworth
Lincoln
Linn
Logan
Lyon
McPherson
Marion
Marshall
Meade
Miami
Mitchell
Montgomery
Morris
Morton
Nemaha
Neosho
Ness
Norton
Osage
Osborne
Ottawa
Pawnee
Phillips
Pottawa-
  tomie
Pratt
Rawlins
Reno
Republic
Rice
Riley
Rooks
Rush
Russell
Saline
Scott
Sedgwick
Seward
Shawnee
Sheridan
Sherman
Smith
Stafford
Stanton
Stevens
Sumner
Thomas
Trego
Wabaunsee
Wallace
Washington
Wichita
Wilson
Woodson
Wyandotte

[[Page 248]]


KENTUCKY (KY) (120 counties)
Adair
Allen
Anderson
Ballard
Barren
Bath
Bell
Boone
Bourbon
Boyd
Boyle
Bracken
Breathitt
Breckinridge
Bullitt
Butler
Caldwell
Calloway
Campbell
Carlisle
Carroll
Carter
Casey
Christian
Clark
Clay
Clinton
Crittenden
Cumberland
Daviess
Edmonson
Elliott
Estill
Fayette
Fleming
Floyd
Franklin
Fulton
Gallatin
Garrard
Grant
Graves
Grayson
Green
Greenup
Hancock
Hardin
Harlan
Harrison
Hart
Henderson
Henry
Hickman
Hopkins
Jackson
Jefferson
Jessamine
Johnson
Kenton
Knott
Knox
Larue
Laurel
Lawrence
Lee
Leslie
Letcher
Lewis
Lincoln
Livingston
Logan
Lyon
McCracken
McCreary
McLean
Madison
Magoffin
Marion
Marshall
Martin
Mason
Meade
Menifee
Mercer
Metcalfe
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan
Muhlenberg
Nelson
Nicholas
Ohio
Oldham
Owen
Owsley
Pendleton
Perry
Pike
Powell
Pulaski
Robertson
Rockcastle
Rowan
Russell
Scott
Shelby
Simpson
Spencer
Taylor
Todd
Trigg
Trimble
Union
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Webster
Whitley
Wolfe
Woodford

LOUISIANA (LA) (64 parishes)
Acadia
Allen
Ascension
Assumption
Avoyelles
Beauregard
Bienville
Bossier
Caddo
Calcasieu
Caldwell
Cameron
Catahoula
Claiborne
Concordia
De Soto
East Baton Rouge
East Carroll
East Feliciana
Evangeline
Franklin
Grant
Iberia
Iberville
Jackson
Jefferson
Jefferson Davis
Lafayette
Lafourche
La Salle
Lincoln
Livingston
Madison
Morehouse
Natchitoches
Orleans
Ouachita
Plaquemines
Pointe Coupee
Rapides
Red River
Richland
Sabine
St. Bernard
St. Charles
St. Helena
St. James
St. John the Baptist
St. Landry
St. Martin
St. Mary
St. Tammany
Tangipahoa
Tensas
Terrebonne
Union
Vermilion
Vernon
Washington
Webster
West Baton Rouge
West Carroll
West Feliciana
Winn

MAINE (ME) (16 counties)
Andro-
  scoggin
Aroostook
Cumberland
Franklin
Hancock
Kennebec
Knox
Lincoln
Oxford
Penobscot
Piscataquis
Sagadahoc
Somerset
Waldo
Washington
York

MARSHALL ISLANDS (MH) (33 municipalities)
Ailinginae
Ailinglaplap
Ailuk
Arno
Aur
Bikar
Bikini
Bokak
Ebon
Enewetak
Erikub
Jabat
Jaluit
Jemo
Kili
Kwajalein
Lae
Lib
Likiep
Majuro
Maloelap
Mejit
Mili
Namorik
Namu
Rongelap
Rongrik
Toke
Ujae
Ujelang
Utrik
Wotho
Wotje

MARYLAND (MD) (23 counties)
Allegany
Anne Arundel
Baltimore
Calvert
Caroline
Carroll
Cecil
Charles
Dorchester
Frederick
Garrett
Harford
Howard
Kent
Montgomery
Prince George's
Queen Anne's
St. Mary's
Somerset
Talbot
Washington
Wicomico
Worcester

[[Page 249]]


MASSACHUSETTS (MA) (14 counties)
Barnstable
Berkshire
Bristol
Dukes
Essex
Franklin
Hampden
Hampshire
Middlesex
Nantucket
Norfolk
Plymouth
Suffolk
Worcester

MICHIGAN (MI) (83 counties)
Alcona
Alger
Allegan
Alpena
Antrim
Arenac
Baraga
Barry
Bay
Benzie
Berrien
Branch
Calhoun
Cass
Charlevoix
Cheboygan
Chippewa
Clare
Clinton
Crawford
Delta
Dickinson
Eaton
Emmet
Genesee
Gladwin
Gogebic
Grand Traverse
Gratiot
Hillsdale
Houghton
Huron
Ingham
Ionia
Iosco
Iron
Isabella
Jackson
Kalamazoo
Kalkaska
Kent
Keweenaw
Lake
Lapeer
Leelanau
Lenawee
Livingston
Luce
Mackinac
Macomb
Manistee
Marquette
Mason
Mecosta
Menominee
Midland
Missaukee
Monroe
Montcalm
Montmorency
Muskegon
Newaygo
Oakland
Oceana
Ogemaw
Ontonagon
Osceola
Oscoda
Otsego
Ottawa
Presque Isle
Roscommon
Saginaw
St. Clair
St. Joseph
Sanilac
Schoolcraft
Shiawassee
Tuscola
Van Buren
Washtenaw
Wayne
Wexford

MINNESOTA (MN) (87 counties)
Aitkin
 Anoka
Becker
Beltrami
Benton
Big Stone
Blue Earth
Brown
Carlton
Carver
Cass
Chippewa
Chisago
Clay
Clearwater
Cook
Cottonwood
Crow Wing
Dakota
Dodge
Douglas
Faribault
Fillmore
Freeborn
Goodhue
Grant
Hennepin
Houston
Hubbard
Isanti
Itasca
Jackson
Kanabec
Kandiyohi
Kittson
Koochiching
Lac qui Parle
Lake
Lake of the Woods
Le Sueur
Lincoln
Lyon
McLeod
Mahnomen
Marshall
Martin
Meeker
Mille Lacs
Morrison
Mower
Murray
Nicollet
Nobles
Norman
Olmsted
Otter Tail
Pennington
Pine
Pipestone
Polk
Pope
Ramsey
Red Lake
Redwood
Renville
Rice
Rock
Roseau
St. Louis
Scott
Sherburne
Sibley
Stearns
Steele
Stevens
Swift
Todd
Traverse
Wabasha
Wadena
Waseca
Washington
Watonwan
Wilkin
Winona
Wright
Yellow Medicine

MISSISSIPPI (MS) (82 counties)
Adams
Alcorn
Amite
Attala
Benton
Bolivar
Calhoun
Carroll
Chickasaw
Choctaw
Claiborne
Clarke
Clay
Coahoma
Copiah
Covington
De Soto
Forrest
Franklin
George
Greene
Grenada
Hancock
Harrison
Hinds
Holmes
Humphreys
Issaquena
Itawamba
Jackson
Jasper
Jefferson
Jefferson Davis
Jones
Kemper
Lafayette
Lamar
Lauderdale
Lawrence
Leake
Lee
Leflore
Lincoln
Lowndes
Madison
Marion
Marshall
Monroe
Montgomery
Neshoba
Newton
Noxubee
Oktibbeha
Panola
Pearl River
Perry
Pike
Pontotoc
Prentiss
Quitman
Rankin
Scott
Sharkey
Simpson
Smith
Stone
Sunflower
Tallahatchie
Tate
Tippah
Tishomingo
Tunica
Union
Walthall
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Webster
Wilkinson
Winston
Yalobusha
Yazoo

[[Page 250]]


MISSOURI (MO) (114 counties)
Adair
Andrew
Atchison
Audrain
Barry
Barton
Bates
Benton
Bollinger
Boone
Buchanan
Butler
Caldwell
Callaway
Camden
Cape Girardeau
Carroll
Carter
Cass
Cedar
Chariton
Christian
Clark
Clay
Clinton
Cole
Cooper
Crawford
Dade
Dallas
Daviess
De Kalb
Dent
Douglas
Dunklin
Franklin
Gasconade
Gentry
Greene
Grundy
Harrison
Henry
Hickory
Holt
Howard
Howell
Iron
Jackson
Jasper
Jefferson
Johnson
Knox
Laclede
Lafayette
Lawrence
Lewis
Lincoln
Linn
Livingston
McDonald
Macon
Madison
Maries
Marion
Mercer
Miller
Mississippi
Moniteau
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan
New Madrid
Newton
Nodaway
Oregon
Osage
Ozark
Pemiscot
Perry
Pettis
Phelps
Pike
Platte
Polk
Pulaski
Putnam
Ralls
Randolph
Ray
Reynolds
Ripley
St. Charles
St. Clair
St. Francois
Ste. Genevieve
St. Louis
Saline
Schuyler
Scotland
Scott
Shannon
Shelby
Stoddard
Stone
Sullivan
Taney
Texas
Vernon
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Webster
Worth
Wright

MONTANA (MT) (57 counties)
Beaverhead
Big Horn
Blaine
Broadwater
Carbon
Carter
Cascade
Chouteau
Custer
Daniels
Dawson
Deer Lodge
Fallon
Fergus
Flathead
Gallatin
Garfield
Glacier
Golden Valley
Granite
Hill
Jefferson
Judith Basin
Lake
Lewis and Clark
Liberty
Lincoln
McCone
Madison
Meagher
Mineral
Missoula
Musselshell
Park
Petroleum
Phillips
Pondera
Powder River
Powell
Prairie
Ravalli
Richland
Roosevelt
Rosebud
Sanders
Sheridan
Silver Bow
Stillwater
Sweet Grass
Teton
Toole
Treasure
Valley
Wheatland
Wibaux
Yellowstone
Yellowstone National Park

NEBRASKA (NE) (93 counties)
Adams
Antelope
Arthur
Banner
Blaine
Boone
Box Butte
Boyd
Brown
Buffalo
Burt
Butler
Cass
Cedar
Chase
Cherry
Cheyenne
Clay
Colfax
Cuming
Custer
Dakota
Dawes
Dawson
Deuel
Dixon
Dodge
Douglas
Dundy
Fillmore
Franklin
Frontier
Furnas
Gage
Garden
Garfield
Gosper
Grant
Greeley
Hall
Hamilton
Harlan
Hayes
Hitchcock
Holt
Hooker
Howard
Jefferson
Johnson
Kearney
Keith
Keya Paha
Kimball
Knox
Lancaster
Lincoln
Logan
Loup
McPherson
Madison
Merrick
Morrill
Nance
Nemaha
Nuckolls
Otoe
Pawnee
Perkins
Phelps
Pierce
Platte
Polk
Red Willow
Richardson
Rock
Saline
Sarpy
Saunders
Scotts Bluff
Seward
Sheridan
Sherman
Sioux
Stanton
Thayer
Thomas
Thurston
Valley
Washington
Wayne
Webster
Wheeler
York

NEVADA (NV) (16 counties)
Churchill
Clark
Douglas
Elko
Esmeralda
Eureka
Humboldt
Lander
Lincoln
Lyon
Mineral
Nye
Pershing
Storey
Washoe
White Pine

[[Page 251]]


NEW HAMPSHIRE (NH) (10 counties)
Belknap
Carroll
Cheshire
Coos
Grafton
Hillsborough
Merrimack
Rockingham
Strafford
Sullivan

NEW JERSEY (NJ) (21 counties)
Atlantic
Bergen
Burlington
Camden
Cape May
Cumberland
Essex
Gloucester
Hudson
Hunterdon
Mercer
Middlesex
Monmouth
Morris
Ocean
Passaic
Salem
Somerset
Sussex
Union
Warren

NEW MEXICO (NM) (33 counties)
Bernalillo
Catron
Chaves
Cibola
Colfax
Curry
De Baca
Dona Ana
Eddy
Grant
Guadalupe
Harding
Hidalgo
Lea
Lincoln
Los Alamos
Luna
McKinley
Mora
Otero
Quay
Rio Arriba
Roosevelt
Sandoval
San Juan
San Miguel
Santa Fe
Sierra
Socorro
Taos
Torrance
Union
Valencia

NEW YORK (NY) (62 counties)
Albany
Allegany
Bronx
Broome
Cattaraugus
Cayuga
Chautauqua
Chemung
Chenango
Clinton
Columbia
Cortland
Delaware
Dutchess
Erie
Essex
Franklin
Fulton
Genesee
Greene
Hamilton
Herkimer
Jefferson
Kings
Lewis
Livingston
Madison
Monroe
Montgomery
Nassau
New York
Niagara
Oneida
Onondaga
Ontario
Orange
Orleans
Oswego
Otsego
Putnam
Queens
Rensselaer
Richmond
Rockland
St. Lawrence
Saratoga
Schenectady
Schoharie
Schuyler
Seneca
Steuben
Suffolk
Sullivan
Tioga
Tompkins
Ulster
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Westchester
Wyoming
Yates

NORTH CAROLINA (NC) (100 counties)
Alamance
Alexander
Alleghany
Anson
Ashe
Avery
Beaufort
Bertie
Bladen
Brunswick
Buncombe
Burke
Cabarrus
Caldwell
Camden
Carteret
Caswell
Catawba
Chatham
Cherokee
Chowan
Clay
Cleveland
Columbus
Craven
Cumberland
Currituck
Dare
Davidson
Davie
Duplin
Durham
Edgecombe
Forsyth
Franklin
Gaston
Gates
Graham
Granville
Greene
Guilford
Halifax
Harnett
Haywood
Henderson
Hertford
Hoke
Hyde
Iredell
Jackson
Johnston
Jones
Lee
Lenoir
Lincoln
McDowell
Macon
Madison
Martin
Mecklenburg
Mitchell
Montgomery
Moore
Nash
New Hanover
Northampton
Onslow
Orange
Pamlico
Pasquotank
Pender
Perquimans
Person
Pitt
Polk
Randolph
Richmond
Robeson
Rockingham
Rowan
Rutherford
Sampson
Scotland
Stanly
Stokes
Surry
Swain
Transylvania
Tyrrell
Union
Vance
Wake
Warren
Washington
Watauga
Wayne
Wilkes
Wilson
Yadkin
Yancey

NORTH DAKOTA (ND) (53 counties)
Adams
Barnes
Benson
Billings
Bottineau
Bowman
Burke
Burleigh
Cass
Cavalier
Dickey
Divide
Dunn
Eddy
Emmons
Foster
Golden Valley
Grand Forks
Grant
Griggs
Hettinger
Kidder
La Moure
Logan
McHenry
McIntosh
McKenzie
McLean
Mercer
Morton
Mountrail
Nelson
Oliver
Pembina
Pierce

[[Page 252]]


Ramsey
Ransom
Renville
Richland
Rolette
Sargent
Sheridan
Sioux
Slope
Stark
Steele
Stutsman
Towner
Traill
Walsh
Ward
Wells
Williams

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS (MP) (4 municipalities)
Northern Islands
Rota
Saipan
Tinian
  
OHIO (OH) (88 counties)
Adams
Allen
Ashland
Ashtabula
Athens
Auglaize
Belmont
Brown
Butler
Carroll
Champaign
Clark
Clermont
Clinton
Columbiana
Coshocton
Crawford
Cuyahoga
Darke
Defiance
Delaware
Erie
Fairfield
Fayette
Franklin
Fulton
Gallia
Geauga
Greene
Guernsey
Hamilton
Hancock
Hardin
Harrison
Henry
Highland
Hocking
Holmes
Huron
Jackson
Jefferson
Knox
Lake
Lawrence
Licking
Logan
Lorain
Lucas
Madison
Mahoning
Marion
Medina
Meigs
Mercer
Miami
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan
Morrow
Muskingum
Noble
Ottawa
Paulding
Perry
Pickaway
Pike
Portage
Preble
Putnam
Richland
Ross
Sandusky
Scioto
Seneca
Shelby
Stark
Summit
Trumbull
Tuscarawas
Union
Van Wert
Vinton
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Williams
Wood
Wyandot

OKLAHOMA (OK) (77 counties)
Adair
Alfalfa
Atoka
Beaver
Beckham
Blaine
Bryan
Caddo
Canadian
Carter
Cherokee
Choctaw
Cimarron
Cleveland
Coal
Comanche
Cotton
Craig
Creek
Custer
Delaware
Dewey
Ellis
Garfield
Garvin
Grady
Grant
Greer
Harmon
Harper
Haskell
Hughes
Jackson
Jefferson
Johnston
Kay
Kingfisher
Kiowa
Latimer
Le Flore
Lincoln
Logan
Love
McClain
McCurtain
McIntosh
Major
Marshall
Mayes
Murray
Muskogee
Noble
Nowata
Okfuskee
Oklahoma
Okmulgee
Osage
Ottawa
Pawnee
Payne
Pittsburg
Pontotoc
Pottawatomie
Pushmataha
Roger Mills
Rogers
Seminole
Sequoyah
Stephens
Texas
Tillman
Tulsa
Wagoner
Washington
Washita
Woods
Woodward

OREGON (OR) (36 counties)
Baker
Benton
Clackamas
Clatsop
Columbia
Coos
Crook
Curry
Deschutes
Douglas
Gilliam
Grant
Harney
Hood River
Jackson
Jefferson
Josephine
Klamath
Lake
Lane
Lincoln
Linn
Malheur
Marion
Morrow
Multnomah
Polk
Sherman
Tillamook
Umatilla
Union
Wallowa
Wasco
Washington
Wheeler
Yamhill

PALAU (PW) (16 States)
Aimeliik
Airai
Angaur
Hatobohei
Kayangel
Koror
Melekeok
Ngaraard
Ngarchelong
Ngardmau
Ngatpang
Ngchesar
Ngeremlengui
Ngiwal
Peleliu
Sonsorol

[[Page 253]]


PENNSYLVANIA (PA) (67 counties)
Adams
Allegheny
Armstrong
Beaver
Bedford
Berks
Blair
Bradford
Bucks
Butler
Cambria
Cameron
Carbon
Centre
Chester
Clarion
Clearfield
Clinton
Columbia
Crawford
Cumberland
Dauphin
Delaware
Elk
Erie
Fayette
Forest
Franklin
Fulton
Greene
Huntingdon
Indiana
Jefferson
Juniata
Lackawanna
Lancaster
Lawrence
Lebanon
Lehigh
Luzerne
Lycoming
McKean
Mercer
Mifflin
Monroe
Montgomery
Montour
Northampton
Northumber-
  land
Perry
Philadelphia
Pike
Potter
Schuylkill
Snyder
Somerset
Sullivan
Susquehanna
Tioga
Union
Venango
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Westmoreland
Wyoming
York

PUERTO RICO (PR) (78 municipios)
Adjuntas
Aguada
Aguadilla
Aguas Buenas
Aibonito
Anasco
Arecibo
Arroyo
Barceloneta
Barranquitas
Bayamon
Cabo Rojo
Caguas
Camuy
Canovanas
Carolina
Catano
Cayey
Ceiba
Ciales
Cidra
Coamo
Comerio
Corozal
Culebra
Dorado
Fajardo
Florida
Guanica
Guayama
Guayanilla
Guaynabo
Gurabo
Hatillo
Hormigueros
Humacao
Isabela
Jayuya
Juana Diaz
Juncos
Lajas
Lares
Las Marias
Las Piedras
Loiza
Luquillo
Manati
Maricao
Maunabo
Mayaguez
Moca
Morovis
Naguabo
Naranjito
Orocovis
Patillas
Penuelas
Ponce
Quebradillas
Rincon
Rio Grande
Sabana Grande
Salinas
San German
San Juan
San Lorenzo
San Sebastian
Santa Isabel
Toa Alta
Toa Baja
Trujillo Alto
Utuado
Vega Alta
Vega Baja
Vieques
Villalba
Yabucoa
Yauco

RHODE ISLAND (RI) (5 counties)
Bristol
Kent
Newport
Providence
Washington

SOUTH CAROLINA (SC) (46 counties)
Abbeville
Aiken
Allendale
Anderson
Bamberg
Barnwell
Beaufort
Berkeley
Calhoun
Charleston
Cherokee
Chester
Chesterfield
Clarendon
Colleton
Darlington
Dillon
Dorchester
Edgefield
Fairfield
Florence
Georgetown
Greenville
Greenwood
Hampton
Horry
Jasper
Kershaw
Lancaster
Laurens
Lee
Lexington
McCormick
Marion
Marlboro
Newberry
Oconee
Orangeburg
Pickens
Richland
Saluda
Spartanburg
Sumter
Union
Williamsburg
York

SOUTH DAKOTA (SD) (67 counties)
Aurora
Beadle
Bennett
Bon Homme
Brookings
Brown
Brule
Buffalo
Butte
Campbell
Charles Mix
Clark
Clay
Codington
Corson
Custer
Davison
Day
Deuel
Dewey
Douglas
Edmunds
Fall River
Faulk
Grant
Gregory
Haakon
Hamlin
Hand
Hanson
Harding
Hughes
Hutchinson
Hyde
Jackson
Jerauld
Jones
Kingsbury
Lake
Lawrence
Lincoln
Lyman
McCook
McPherson
Marshall
Meade
Mellette
Miner
Minnehaha
Moody
Pennington
Perkins
Potter
Roberts
Sanborn
Shannon
Spink
Stanley
Sully
Todd
Tripp
Turner
Union
Walworth
Washabaugh
Yankton
Ziebach

[[Page 254]]


TENNESSEE (TN) (95 counties)
Anderson
Bedford
Benton
Bledsoe
Blount
Bradley
Campbell
Cannon
Carroll
Carter
Cheatham
Chester
Claiborne
Clay
Cocke
Coffee
Crockett
Cumberland
Davidson
Decatur
DeKalb
Dickson
Dyer
Fayette
Fentress
Franklin
Gibson
Giles
Grainger
Greene
Grundy
Hamblen
Hamilton
Hancock
Hardeman
Hardin
Hawkins
Haywood
Henderson
Henry
Hickman
Houston
Humphreys
Jackson
Jefferson
Johnson
Knox
Lake
Lauderdale
Lawrence
Lewis
Lincoln
Loudon
McMinn
McNairy
Macon
Madison
Marion
Marshall
Maury
Meigs
Monroe
Montgomery
Moore
Morgan
Obion
Overton
Perry
Pickett
Polk
Putnam
Rhea
Roane
Robertson
Rutherford
Scott
Sequatchie
Sevier
Shelby
Smith
Stewart
Sullivan
Sumner
Tipton
Trousdale
Unicoi
Union
Van Buren
Warren
Washington
Wayne
Weakley
White
Williamson
Wilson

TEXAS (TX) (254 counties)
Anderson
Andrews
Angelina
Aransas
Archer
Armstrong
Atascosa
Austin
Bailey
Bandera
Bastrop
Baylor
Bee
Bell
Bexar
Blanco
Borden
Bosque
Bowie
Brazoria
Brazos
Brewster
Briscoe
Brooks
Brown
Burleson
Burnet
Caldwell
Calhoun
Callahan
Cameron
Camp
Carson
Cass
Castro
Chambers
Cherokee
Childress
Clay
Cochran
Coke
Coleman
Collin
Collingsworth
Colorado
Comal
Comanche
Concho
Cooke
Coryell
Cottle
Crane
Crockett
Crosby
Culberson
Dallam
Dallas
Dawson
Deaf Smith
Delta
Denton
De Witt
Dickens
Dimmit
Donley
Duval
Eastland
Ector
Edwards
Ellis
El Paso
Erath
Falls
Fannin
Fayette
Fisher
Floyd
Foard
Fort Bend
Franklin
Freestone
Frio
Gaines
Galveston
Garza
Gillespie
Glasscock
Goliad
Gonzales
Gray
Grayson
Gregg
Grimes
Guadalupe
Hale
Hall
Hamilton
Hansford
Hardeman
Hardin
Harris
Harrison
Hartley
Haskell
Hays
Hemphill
Henderson
Hidalgo
Hill
Hockley
Hood
Hopkins
Houston
Howard
Hudspeth
Hunt
Hutchinson
Irion
Jack
Jackson
Jasper
Jeff Davis
Jefferson
Jim Hogg
Jim Wells
Johnson
Jones
Karnes
Kaufman
Kendall
Kenedy
Kent
Kerr
Kimble
King
Kinney
Kleberg
Knox
Lamar
Lamb
Lampasas
La Salle
Lavaca
Lee
Leon
Liberty
Limestone
Lipscomb
Live Oak
Llano
Loving
Lubbock
Lynn
McCulloch
McLennan
McMullen
Madison
Marion
Martin
Mason
Matagorda
Maverick
Medina
Menard
Midland
Milam
Mills
Mitchell
Montague
Montgomery
Moore
Morris
Motley
Nacogdoches
Navarro
Newton
Nolan
Nueces
Ochiltree
Oldham
Orange
Palo Pinto
Panola
Parker
Parmer
Pecos
Polk
Potter
Presidio
Rains
Randall
Reagan
Real
Red River
Reeves
Refugio
Roberts
Robertson
Rockwall
Runnels
Rusk
Sabine
San Augustine
San Jacinto
San Patricio
San Saba
Schleicher
Scurry
Shackelford
Shelby
Sherman
Smith
Somervell
Starr
Stephens
Sterling
Stonewall
Sutton
Swisher
Tarrant
Taylor
Terrell
Terry
Throckmorton
Titus

[[Page 255]]


Tom Green
Travis
Trinity
Tyler
Upshur
Upton
Uvalde
Val Verde
Van Zandt
Victoria
Walker
Waller
Ward
Washington
Webb
Wharton
Wheeler
Wichita
Wilbarger
Willacy
Williamson
Wilson
Winkler
Wise
Wood
Yoakum
Young
Zapata
Zavala

TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS (abandoned term)

UTAH (UT) (29 counties)
Beaver
Box Elder
Cache
Carbon
Daggett
Davis
Duchesne
Emery
Garfield
Grand
Iron
Juab
Kane
Millard
Morgan
Piute
Rich
Salt Lake
San Juan
Sanpete
Sevier
Summit
Tooele
Uintah
Utah
Wasatch
Washington
Wayne
Weber

VERMONT (VT) (14 counties)
Addison
Bennington
Caledonia
Chittenden
Essex
Franklin
Grand Isle
Lamoille
Orange
Orleans
Rutland
Washington
Windham
Windsor

VIRGINIA (VA) (95 counties)
Accomack
Albemarle
Alleghany
Amelia
Amherst
Appomattox
Arlington
Augusta
Bath
Bedford
Bland
Botetourt
Brunswick
Buchanan
Buckingham
Campbell
Caroline
Carroll
Charles City
Charlotte
Chesterfield
Clarke
Craig
Culpeper
Cumberland
Dickenson
Dinwiddie
Essex
Fairfax
Fauquier
Floyd
Fluvanna
Franklin
Frederick
Giles
Gloucester
Goochland
Grayson
Greene
Greensville
Halifax
Hanover
Henrico
Henry
Highland
Isle of Wight
James City
King and Queen
King George
King William
Lancaster
Lee
Loudoun
Louisa
Lunenburg
Madison
Mathews
Mecklenburg
Middlesex
Montgomery
Nelson
New Kent
Northampton
Northumber-
  land
Nottoway
Orange
Page
Patrick
Pittsylvania
Powhatan
Prince Edward
Prince George
Prince William
Pulaski
Rappahannock
Richmond
Roanoke
Rockbridge
Rockingham
Russell
Scott
Shenandoah
Smyth
Southampton
Spotsylvania
Stafford
Surry
Sussex
Tazewell
Warren
Washington
Westmoreland
Wise
Wythe
York

VIRGIN ISLANDS (VI) (3 islands)
St. Croix
St. Thomas
St. John
  
  
WASHINGTON (WA) (39 counties)
Adams
Asotin
Benton
Chelan
Clallam
Clark
Columbia
Cowlitz
Douglas
Ferry
Franklin
Garfield
Grant
Grays Harbor
Island
Jefferson
King
Kitsap
Kittitas
Klickitat
Lewis
Lincoln
Mason
Okanogan
Pacific
Pend Oreille
Pierce
San Juan
Skagit
Skamania
Snohomish
Spokane
Stevens
Thurston
Wahkiakum
Walla Walla
Whatcom
Whitman
Yakima

WEST VIRGINIA (WV) (55 counties)
Barbour
Berkeley
Boone
Braxton
Brooke
Cabell
Calhoun
Clay
Doddridge
Fayette
Gilmer
Grant
Greenbrier
Hampshire
Hancock
Hardy
Harrison
Jackson
Jefferson
Kanawha
Lewis
Lincoln
Logan
McDowell
Marion
Marshall
Mason
Mercer
Mineral
Mingo
Monongalia
Monroe
Morgan
Nicholas
Ohio

[[Page 256]]


Pendleton
Pleasants
Pocahontas
Preston
Putnam
Raleigh
Randolph
Ritchie
Roane
Summers
Taylor
Tucker
Tyler
Upshur
Wayne
Webster
Wetzel
Wirt
Wood
Wyoming

WISCONSIN (WI) (72 counties)
Adams
Ashland
Barron
Bayfield
Brown
Buffalo
Burnett
Calumet
Chippewa
Clark
Columbia
Crawford
Dane
Dodge
Door
Douglas
Dunn
Eau Claire
Florence
Fond du Lac
Forest
Grant
Green
Green Lake
Iowa
Iron
Jackson
Jefferson
Juneau
Kenosha
Kewaunee
La Crosse
Lafayette
Langlade
Lincoln
Manitowoc
Marathon
Marinette
Marquette
Menominee
Milwaukee
Monroe
Oconto
Oneida
Outagamie
Ozaukee
Pepin
Pierce
Polk
Portage
Price
Racine
Richland
Rock
Rusk
St. Croix
Sauk
Sawyer
Shawano
Sheboygan
Taylor
Trempealeau
Vernon
Vilas
Walworth
Washburn
Washington
Waukesha
Waupaca
Waushara
Winnebago
Wood

WYOMING (WY) (23 counties)
Albany
Big Horn
Campbell
Carbon
Converse
Crook
Fremont
Goshen
Hot Springs
Johnson
Laramie
Lincoln
Natrona
Niobrara
Park
Platte
Sheridan
Sublette
Sweetwater
Teton
Uinta
Washakie
Weston




[[Page 257]]


 
                        19. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

       LAWS AND RULES FOR PUBLICATION OF THE CONGRESSIONAL RECORD
                   CODE OF LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES

  Title 44, Section 901. Congressional Record: Arrangement, 
style, contents, and indexes.--The Joint Committee on Printing 
shall control the arrangement and style of the Congressional 
Record, and while providing that it shall be substantially a 
verbatim report of proceedings, shall take all needed action 
for the reduction of unnecessary bulk. It shall provide for the 
publication of an index of the Congressional Record semimonthly 
during and at the close of sessions of Congress.
  Title 44, Section 904. Congressional Record: Maps, diagrams, 
illustrations.--Maps, diagrams, or illustrations may not be 
inserted in the Record without the approval of the Joint 
Committee on Printing.

                             GENERAL RULES

  The rules governing document work (FIC & punc.) apply to the 
Congressional Record, except as may be noted herein. The same 
general style should be followed in the permanent (bound) 
Record as is used in the daily Record. All should familiarize 
themselves with the exceptions and the forms peculiar to the 
Record.
  Much of the data printed in the Congressional Record is 
forwarded to the GPO via fiber optic transmission using the 
captured keystrokes of the floor reporters. Element identifier 
codes are programmatically inserted, and galley output is 
accomplished without manual intervention. It is not cost 
effective to prepare the accompanying manuscript as per the GPO 
Style Manual and it is too time-consuming to update and change 
the data once it is already in type form. Therefore, the Record 
is to be FIC & punc. It is not necessary to stamp the copy FIC 
& punc. because of its volume. However, Record style, as stated 
in the following rules, will be
followed.
  Daily and permanent Record texts are set in 8-point type on a 
9-point body. Extracts are set in 7-point type on an 8-point 
body.
  An F-dash will be used preceding 8-point cap lines in the 
proceedings of the Senate and House.
  All 7-point extracts and poetry will carry 2 points of space 
above and below unless heads appear, which generate their own 
space.
  All extracts are set 7 point unless otherwise ordered by the 
Joint Committee on Printing.

[[Page 258]]

  Except as noted below, all communications from the President 
must be set in 8 point, but if such communications contain 
extracts, etc., the extracts are set in 7 point.
  An address of the President delivered outside of Congress or 
referred to as an extract is set in 7 point.
  A letter from the President to the Senate is set in 7 point 
when any form of treaty is enclosed that is to be printed in 
the Record in connection therewith. The letter is set in 7 
point whether the treaty follows or precedes it or is separated 
from it by intervening matter.
  In all quoted amendments and excerpts of bills and in 
reprinting bills, the style and copy as printed in the bill 
will be followed.
  Except where otherwise directed, profanity, obscene wording, 
or extreme vulgarisms are to be deleted and a 3-em dash 
substituted therefor.
  All manuscript submitted in a foreign language will not be 
printed. It will be returned for translation and resubmitted 
for printing in the next Record.
  Extreme caution must be used in making corrections in copy, 
and no important change will be made without proper 
authorization.
  Observe the lists of names of Senators, Representatives, and 
Delegates, committees of both Houses, and duplicate names. 
Changes caused by death, resignation, or otherwise must be 
noted. There is no excuse for error in the spelling of names of 
Senators, Representatives, or department officials. In case of 
doubt, the Congressional Directory will be the authority.
  Datelines should be followed on Extensions of Remarks. If any 
question arises as to the proper date to be used, a supervisor 
must be consulted.
  Indented matter in leaderwork will be 1 em only.
  Queries must not be made on proofs. In case of doubt, readers 
will consult the Referee.

                             CAPITALIZATION

                     (See also ``Capitalization'')

  If the name of the Congressional Record is mentioned, it must 
be set in caps and small caps and never abbreviated, even when 
appearing in citations.
  The name of a Senator or a Representative preceding his or 
her direct remarks is set in caps and is followed by a period 
with equal spacing to be used.
  The name of a Senator or a Representative used in connection 
with a bill or other paper--that is, in an adjectival sense--is 
lowercased, as the Hawkins bill, the Fish amendment, etc.; but 
Fish's amendment, etc.
  The names of Members and Members-elect of both Houses of the 
Congress, including those of the Vice President and Speaker, 
will be printed in caps and small caps if mention is made of 
them, except in extract matter.

[[Page 259]]

  Deceased Members' names will be set in caps and small caps in 
eulogies only on the first day the House or Senate is in 
session following the death of a Member, in a speech carrying 
date when the Member was eulogized, or on memorial day in the 
Senate and House. Eulogy day in one House will be treated the 
same in the other.
  Certificates of Senators-elect of a succeeding Congress are 
usually presented to the current Congress, and in such cases 
the names of the Senators-elect must be in caps and small caps.
  Names of Members of Congress must be set in caps and 
lowercase in votes, in lists set in columns, in the list of 
standing and select committees, in contested-election cases, in 
lists of pairs, and in all parts of tabular matter (head, body, 
and footnotes).
  Observe that the names of all persons not certified Members 
of Congress are to be set in caps and lowercase; that is, names 
of secretaries, clerks, messengers, and others.
  Names of proposed Federal boards, commissions, services, 
etc., are capitalized.
  Capitalize principal words and quote after each of the 
following terms: Address, article, book, caption, chapter 
heading, editorial, essay, heading, headline, motion picture or 
play (including TV or radio program), paper, poem, report, 
song, subheading, subject, theme, etc. Also, following the word 
entitled, except with reference to bill titles which are 
treated as follows: ``A bill (or an act) transferring certain 
functions of the Price Administrator to the Petroleum 
Administrator for War,'' etc.

                                FIGURES

  Follow the copy as to the use of numerals. Dollar amounts in 
Record copy are to be followed.
  Figures appearing in copy as ``20 billion 428 million 125 
thousand dollars'' should be followed.

                     TABULAR MATTER AND LEADERWORK

  Record tables may be set either one or three columns in 
width, as follows:
      One-column table: 14 picas (168 points).
      Three-column table: 43\1/2\ picas (522 points). 
    Footnote(s) will be set 43\1/2\ picas.
      All short footnotes should be run in with 2 ems between 
    each.

[[Page 260]]

                                 ITALIC

  Italic, boldface, caps, or small caps shall not be used for 
emphasis; nor shall unusual indentions be used. This does not 
apply to literally reproduced quotations from historical, 
legal, or official documents. If italic other than restricted 
herein is desired, the words should be underscored and ``Fol. 
ital.'' written on each folio. Do not construe this to apply to 
``Provided,'' ``Provided further,'' ``Ordered,'' ``Resolved,'' 
``Be it enacted,'' etc.
  Names of vessels must be set in italic, except in headings, 
where they will be quoted.
  The prayer delivered in either House must be set in 8-point 
roman. If prefaced or followed by a quotation from the Bible, 
such quotation must be set in 8-point italic. Extracts from the 
Bible or other literature contained in the body of the prayer 
will be set in 8-point roman and quoted.
  When general or passing mention is made of a case in 8 point, 
the title is set in roman, as Smith Bros. case. When a specific 
citation is indicated and reference follows, use italic for 
title, as Smith Bros. case (172 App. Div. 149).
  In 8 point copy, titles of cases are always set in italic if 
followed by references. In 7 point, copy is followed.
  In 8-point matter, when only the title of a case is given, 
set in roman, as United States versus 12 Diamond Rings.
  When versus is used in other than legal phrases and for the 
purposes of showing contrast, it is not abbreviated or set in 
italic, as ``airplanes versus battleships.''

                             MISCELLANEOUS

  Do not quote any communication carrying date and signature. 
However, a letter (or other communication) bearing both date 
and signature that appears within a letter shall be quoted.
  Do not put quotation marks on centerheads in 7-point extracts 
unless centerheads belong to original matter.
  In newspaper extracts, put place and date at beginning of 
paragraph. Use caps and small caps for name of place and roman 
lowercase for spelled-out date. Connect date and extract by a 
period and an em dash. If date and place are credited in a 
bracket line above extract, they need not be used again at the 
beginning of the paragraph.
  Each Whereas in a preamble must begin a new paragraph. The 
Therefore be it must be preceded by a colon and be run in with 
the last Whereas. Be it will run in with the word Therefore, 
but must not be supplied when not in copy. Note the following:
       Whereas it has been deemed advisable to, etc.: Therefore be 
it
       Resolved, That the committee, etc.

[[Page 261]]

  In the titles of legal cases copy is followed as to spelling, 
abbreviations, and use of figures.
  Use single punctuation in citations of cases and statutes:
      United States v. 12 Diamond Rings (124 U.S. 329; R.S. p. 
    310, sec. 1748).
  Indent asterisk lines 2 ems on each side. Use five asterisks.
  If a title is used as part of the name of an organization, 
vessel, etc., spell; thus, General Ulysses S. Grant Post No. 
76, Grand Army of the Republic.
  The order of subdivision of the Constitution of the United 
States is as follows: article I, section 2, clause 3.
  If an exhibit appears at the end of a speech, the head 
Exhibit is set in 7-point caps and small caps.
  In extracts containing votes the names must be run in, as Mr. 
Smith of Texas, AuCoin, and Clay, etc.
  In a Senator's or a Representative's remarks, when 
amendments, sections, etc., are referred to by number, follow 
the copy.
  In text references to Senate and House reports and in 
executive and miscellaneous documents, follow the copy.
  In headings and text references to resolutions and memorials, 
follow the copy.

                          IN GROSS OR EN GROS

  When a bill comes to final action, in the presentment of 
amendments collectively for a vote, either the term ``in 
gross'' or the French equivalent ``en gros'' may be used.

       [All the following examples are for sample purposes only]

                       USE OF CAPS AND SMALL CAPS

  [Note the use of parentheses and brackets in the following 
examples. Each will be used as submitted, as long as they are 
consistent throughout.]
  Mr. LOTT. (Name all caps when visitor addresses Senate or House.)
  On motion by (or of) Mr. Lucas of Oklahoma, it was, etc.
  The VICE PRESIDENT resumed the chair.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Burns in the chair). Shall the bill pass?
  The SPEAKER called the House to order.
  Mr. Largent's amendment was adopted.
  Mr. BROWN of Ohio took the floor and yielded to Mr. Hoyer.
  During the rollcall,
  Mr. HOYER said: If not paired, I would vote ``no'' on this bill.
  A Member. And debate it afterward.
  Several Senators. I object.
  But: Several Senators addressed the Chair.
  Mr. KENNEDY, Mr. GLENN (and others). Let it be read.
  Mr. JACKSON (and others). Yes.
  Mrs. HAWKINS (and other Members). No.
  Mr. SMITH of Oregon objected.
  The Acting Secretary. In line 11, after the word ``Provided'', it is 
proposed, etc.
  Mr. SPENCE was recognized, and yielded his time to Mr. Coble.
  Mrs. BOXER, a Senator from the State of California, appeared in her 
seat today.
  [When two Members from the same State have the same surname, 
full name is used.]
  Mr. WILLIAM COYNE and Mr. JAMES COYNE rose to a point of order.
  The SPEAKER proceeded to put the question on the motion of Mr. Yates.

[[Page 262]]

  The CHAIRMAN appointed Mr. Walker and Mr. Taylor as tellers.
  Mr. HOYER. I desire to withdraw my vote of ``no'' and vote 
``present.''
  The Clerk (House) called the name of Mr. Murtha, and he answered 
``present.''
  The clerk (Senate) read Mr. Glenn's amendment.
  The legislative clerk will read it.
  The Legislative Clerk. This bill will * * *.
  [Extracts that consist of colloquies will use caps and small 
caps for names of persons speaking, as shown below:]
       Mr. Stigler. I think this bill is so well understood that 
no time will be required for its discussion.
       Mrs. Norton. Does this bill come from the Committee on 
Armed Services?
       The Speaker. It does.
        

                         SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED

  By unanimous consent, permission to address the House, following the 
legislative program and any special orders heretofore entered, was 
granted to:
  Mr. Hoyer, for 1 hour, on Wednesday, February 2.
  Mr. Gonzalez (at the request of Mr. Hoyer), for 1 hour, on February 
2.
  (The following Members (at the request of Mr. Bass) and to revise and 
extend their remarks and include therein extraneous matter:)
  Mr. Blute, for 5 minutes, today.
  Mr. Miller of Ohio, for 5 minutes, today.
  Mr. Young, for 30 minutes, today.
  [Note the following double action:]
  (Mr. HOYER asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at 
this point in the Record and to include extraneous matter.)
  [Mr. HOYER's remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of 
Remarks.]

                              PUNCTUATION

  Mr. REID. Mr. President, I call up my amendment which is identified 
as ``unprinted amendment No. 1296,'' and ask that it be stated.
  The bill was reported to the Senate as amended, and the amendment was 
concurred in.
  The bill was reported to the Senate without amendment, ordered to be 
engrossed for a third reading, read the third time, and passed.
  The bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading, read the 
third time, and passed.

  [Use this form when title of bill is given:]

  The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time, was read 
the third time, and passed.
  The title was amended so as to read: ``A bill for the relief of Maude 
S. Burman.''
  A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. [House.]

  [Use this form when title of bill is not given:]

  The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time, was read 
the third time, and passed, and a motion to reconsider was laid on the 
table. [House.]

                         ----------------------

  The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time, was read 
the third time, and passed.
  The amendments were ordered to be engrossed and the bill to be read a 
third time.
  The amendment was agreed to, and the bill as amended was ordered to 
be engrossed and read a third time; and being engrossed, it was 
accordingly read the third time and passed.
  There was no objection, and, by unanimous consent, the Senate 
proceeded, etc.
  The question was taken, and the motion was agreed to.
  The question being taken, the motion was agreed to.
  Ordered to lie on the table and to be printed.
  Mr. COYNE. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike the requisite number of 
words.
  (Mr. COYNE asked and was given permission to revise and extend his 
remarks.)

[[Page 263]]

  [Note use of interrogation mark in the following:]

  Mr. KERRY. Mr. President, what does this mean?--

       We have never received a dollar of this amount.

                         ----------------------

       A resolution of the Senate of the State of California; to 
the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs:

                        ``Senate Resolution 126

       ``Whereas the great storms of December 1964 caused 
widespread flooding along the Sacramento River and its 
tributaries; and
       ``Whereas this flooding caused extensive damage along the 
Sacramento River and its tributaries in Tehama and Shasta 
Counties; and
       ``Whereas these projects could be integrated with the 
Federal Central Valley project: Now, therefore, be it
       ``Resolved by the Senate of the State of California, That 
the Congress of the United States, the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers, and the Bureau of Reclamation are respectfully * * *''.

                         ----------------------

  [Note use of italic in title of cases:]

  * * * This is the occasion America did not have to consider what 
other options might guarantee maternal safety while protecting the 
unborn. This is our national opportunity to reconsider Roe v. Wade, 410 
U.S. 113 (1973).
  Roe against Wade and its companion case, Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179 
(1973), granted abortion the elevated status of a fundamental 
constitutional right and invalidated almost all effective restrictions 
on abortion throughout the 9 months of pregnancy.* * *

                        PARENTHESES AND BRACKETS

  [The use of parentheses and brackets will be followed as submitted.]

  This legislation would exempt certain defined Central Intelligence 
Agency [CIA] operational files from the search and review process of 
the Freedom of Information Act [FOIA], thus permitting the Agency to 
respond much more quickly to those FOIA requests which are at all 
likely to result in the release of information.

  [Acronyms, symbols, or abbreviations should be bracketed as 
shown above.]

  Mr. CALVERT. Mr. Speaker, I now yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from 
Oklahoma [Mr. Coburn].
  (Mr. GILLMOR of Ohio asked and was given permission to revise and 
extend his remarks in the Record.)
  Mr. TAYLOR. There is no ``may not'' about it. Here is the form in 
which they are printed.
  Mr. GOSS. I am in hopes we shall be able to secure a vote on the bill 
tonight.
  [``Vote! Vote!'']
  Mr. YOUNG. The Chair rather gets me on that question. [Laughter.] I 
did not rise. [Cries of ``Vote! Vote!'']
  Mr. LUGAR [one of the tellers]. I do not desire to press the point 
that no quorum has voted.
  The CHAIRMAN [after a pause]. If no gentleman claims the floor, the 
Clerk will proceed with the reading of the bill.
  Mr. DUNCAN. Then he is endeavoring to restrict the liberty of the 
individual in the disbursement of his own money. [Applause on the 
Republican side.]
  Mr. KENNEDY. Mr. Speaker, I desire to ask unanimous consent that the 
time of the gentleman----[Cries of ``Regular order!'']
  [Laughter.]
  The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the consideration of this bill at 
this time? [After a pause.] There is no objection.
  The CHAIRMAN [rapping with his gavel]. Debate is exhausted.
  Mr. JONES of North Carolina [reading]:

       When in the course of human events, etc.

  [Mr. MILLER of Florida addressed the House. His remarks will appear 
hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.]
  [Mr. HOYER addressed the Committee [or House]. His remarks will 
appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks.]

  [Names of Senators or Representatives appearing in remarks of 
other Members of Congress should be enclosed in brackets, except 
in listing of tellers or when some title other than ``Mr.'' is 
used, as in the following examples:]

  Mr. SMITH of Washington. The gentleman from Florida [Mr. Boyd]


[[Page 264]]

stated that he would support the measure.
  Mr. CLAY. The gentleman from Michigan, Mr. Barcia, stated that he 
would support the measure.
  [In Senate copy a Senator is referred to as ``the Senator from 
---- [Mr. ----].'' Do not supply name and brackets if name does 
not appear in copy.]
  [Note that brackets are used only when Mr., etc., appears in 
copy.]
  [See also use of Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms. in explanation of votes 
under ``Pairs.'']

           VOTING IN THE HOUSE AND IN COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE

  [Note that a dash is used only when a comma is necessary to 
separate the ayes and noes. If only the ayes or the noes are 
given, no punctuation is to be used. If the word and is used to 
connect the ayes and noes, as ayes 52 and noes 65, or 52 ayes and 
65 noes, the dash is omitted after the word were or being.]

  On the question of ordering the yeas and nays there were 18 ayes and 
88 noes.
  The House divided; and there were--ayes 52, noes 65.
  So (no further count being called for) the amendment of Mr. Smith of 
Virginia was not agreed to.
  So (two-thirds having voted in favor thereof) the rules were 
suspended, and the bill was passed.
  So (two-thirds not having voted in favor thereof) the motion was 
rejected.
  The CHAIRMAN. The gentleman raises the point of no quorum. The Chair 
will count. [After counting.] Two hundred and seventeen present, a 
quorum. The noes have it, and the amendment is rejected.
  The question being taken on the motion of Mr. Hoyer to suspend the 
rules and pass the bill, it was agreed to (two-thirds voting in favor 
thereof).
  So (the affirmative not being one-fifth of the whole vote) the yeas 
and nays were not ordered.
  The question was taken by a viva voce vote, and the Speaker announced 
that two-thirds appeared to have voted in the affirmative and [after a 
pause] that the bill was passed.
  The yeas and nays were ordered, there being 43 in the affirmative, 
more than one-fifth of the last vote.
  The question being taken on Mr. Kennedy's motion, there were--ayes 
18, noes 35.
  The question being taken on concurring in the amendments of the 
Senate, there were--ayes 101, noes 5.
  The question was taken; and on a division [demanded by Mr. Hoyer] 
there were--ayes 17, noes 29.
  Mr. HOYER. Mr. Chairman, I demand a recorded vote, and pending that, 
I make the point of order that a quorum is not present.
  The CHAIRMAN. Evidently a quorum is not present.
  The Chair announces that pursuant to clause 2, rule XXIII, he will 
vacate proceedings under the call when a quorum of the Committee 
appears.
  Members will record their presence by electronic device.
  The call was taken by electronic device.

                              {time}  1700

  [The above box followed by a four-digit number indicates floor 
time in the House.]

                          quorum call vacated

  The CHAIRMAN. One hundred Members have appeared. A quorum of the 
Committee of the Whole is present. Pursuant to rule XXIII, clause 2, 
further proceedings under the call shall be considered as vacated.
  The Committee will resume its business.
  The pending business is the demand of the gentleman from Minnesota 
[Mr. Oberstar] for a recorded vote.
  A recorded vote was refused.
  So the amendment to the amendment offered as a substitute for the 
amendment was rejected.
  The CHAIRMAN. The question is on the amendment offered by the 
gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. English] as a substitute for the 
amendment offered by the gentleman from South Dakota [Mr. Johnson].
  The question was taken; and the Chairman announced that the noes 
appeared to have it.

                             recorded vote

  Mr. ENGLISH. Mr. Chairman, I demand a recorded vote.
  A recorded vote was ordered.
  The vote was taken by electronic device, and there were--ayes 223, 
noes 162, answered ``present'' 1, not voting 47, as follows:

[[Page 265]]

                             [Roll No. 275]

                               AYES--223

     Addabbo
     Akaka
     Albosta
     Anderson
     Andrews
     Dowdy
     Duncan
     Dwyer
     Dyson
     Eckart
     Howard
     Hoyer
     Hubbard
     Huckaby
     Hunter
     Jenkins
     Kasich
     Lantos

                               NOES--162

     Alexander
     Annunzio
     Archer
     Atkinson
     Beard
     Fish
     Foley
     Forsythe
     Fountain
     Frank
     Miller (CA)
     Mineta
     Moakley
     Molinari
     Mollohan
     Neal
     Obey
     Packard

                        ANSWERED ``PRESENT''--1

       
     Brown (OH)
       

                             NOT VOTING--47

     Ashbrook
     Bafalis
     Barnard
     Clay
     Collins (TX)
     Corcoran
     Garcia
     Gilman
     Jackson

  [The Speaker's vote is recorded only in the ``Ayes'' or 
``Noes.'' It is never recorded as ``not voting.'']

  [If the Speaker votes, his name is not used, but at the end of 
the ``yeas'' or ``nays,'' according to his vote, insert: ``The 
Speaker.'']

  So the amendment offered as a substitute for the amendment was agreed 
to.
  The result of the vote was announced as above recorded.


                        VOTING BY YEAS AND NAYS

Senate

                              quorum call

  The clerk will call the roll.
  The assistant legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll, and the 
following Senators entered the Chamber and answered to their names:

                            [Quorum No. 42]

     Abraham
     Akaka
     Baucus
     Bennett
     Biden
     Bingaman
     Boxer
     Bradley
     Breaux
     Bryan
     Frist
     Glenn
     Gorton
     Graham
     Grams
     Grassley
     Gregg
     Harkin
     Hatch
     Hatfield
     Mikulski
     Moseley-Braun
     Moynihan
     Murkowski
     Nunn
     Pell
     Pressler
     Reid
     Robb
     Rockefeller

  The PRESIDING OFFICER. A quorum is not present.
  Mr. LOTT. Mr. President, I move that the Sergeant at Arms be 
instructed to require the attendance of absent Senators, and I ask for 
the yeas and nays on the motion.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there a sufficient second? There is a 
sufficient second.
  The yeas and nays were ordered.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is on agreeing to the motion of 
the Senator from Mississippi. On this question the yeas and nays have 
been ordered, and the clerk will call the roll.
  The assistant legislative clerk called the roll.
  Mr. STEVENS. I announce that the Senator from New York [Mr. Schumer] 
is necessarily absent.
  Mr. DASCHLE. I announce that the Senator from Florida [Mr. Graham], 
the Senator from Massachusetts [Mr. Kennedy], the Senator from Michigan 
[Mr. Levin], and the Senator from West Virginia [Mr. Rockefeller] are 
necessarily absent.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Kennedy). Are there any other Senators in 
the Chamber who desire to vote?
  The result was announced--yeas 90, nays 5, as follows:

                      [Rollcall Vote No. 264 Leg.]

                                YEAS--90

     Abraham
     Akaka
     Ashcroft
     Baucus
     Bennett
     Feinstein
     Ford
     Frahm
     Frist
     Glenn
     Lott
     Lugar
     Mack
     McCain
     McConnell

                                NAYS--5

     Biden
     Boxer
     Hollings
     Kohl
     Wellstone
       

                             NOT VOTING--5

     Graham
     Kennedy
     Levin
     Rockefeller
     Schumer
       
  So the motion was agreed to.

[[Page 266]]

                                 PAIRS

  [The word with must always be used in pairs in the House, not 
and; and copy must be altered to conform thereto, as Mr. Smith 
with Mr. Jones--not Mr. Smith and Mr. Jones. Note use of lowercase 
for names in list of pairs in House.]

  The Clerk announced the following pairs:
  On this vote:

       Mr. Hefner for, with Mr. Richmond against.

  Until further notice:

       Mr. Biaggi with Mr. Jeffords.
       Mr. Florio with Mr. Horton.
       Mr. Bartlett of Maryland with Mr. Coyne.
       Mr. Rangel with Mr. Simon.
       Mr. Fascell with Mr. Minish.
       Mr. Volkmer with Mr. Borski.
       Mr. Andrews with Mr. Gibbons.

  Messrs. EMERSON, EVANS of Georgia, and MARLENEE changed their votes 
from ``nay'' to ``yea.''
  So the bill was passed.
  The result of the vote was announced as above recorded.
  A motion to reconsider was laid on the table.
  Mr. COBLE. Mr. Speaker, I voted, but, being paired with the gentleman 
from Pennsylvania, Mr. Cox, I withdraw my vote.
  Mr. GORDON. Mr. Speaker, I have a pair with the gentleman from 
Mississippi, Mr. Taylor, who, if present, would have voted ``yea.'' I 
voted ``nay.'' I withdraw my vote and vote ``present.''
  [In House pairs do not use brackets when Members are referred to 
by name. In Senate pairs observe following use of brackets:]
  Mr. THOMAS (when his name was called). I am paired on this question 
with the senior Senator from Massachusetts [Mr. Kennedy]. If he were 
here, I should vote ``yea.''

                           CALL OF THE HOUSE

  Mr. MURTHA. Mr. Speaker, I move a call of the House.
  A call of the House was ordered.
  The call was taken by electronic device and the following Members 
responded to their names:

                             [Roll No. 281]

     Addabbo
     Akaka
     Albosta
     Alexander
     Anderson
     Annunzio
     Applegate
     Ashbrook
     Conte
     Courter
     Coyne, James
     Coyne, William
     Craig
     Crane, Daniel
     Crane, Philip
     Crockett
     Flippo
     Foglietta
     Foley
     Ford (MI)
     Ford (TN)
     Forsythe
     Fountain
     Fowler

  [No reference will be made of the names of those not voting.]

                              {time}  1840

  The CHAIRMAN. Three hundred ninety-three Members have answered to 
their names, a quorum is present, and the Committee will resume its 
business.

                            FORMS OF TITLES

  [Always in roman lowercase, flush and hang 1 em, if more than 
two lines.]

                              H.J. Res. 2

 Joint resolution authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to issue 2 
                 per centum bonds or certificates, etc.

       Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the * * *

                               H.R. 4487

A bill to authorize the Rock Island and Southwestern Railway Company to 
                        construct a bridge, etc.

       Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That it shall 
be lawful for the Rock Island and Southwestern Railway Company, a 
corporation organized under the general incorporations, etc.

                                     

[[Page 267]]

                        ADDRESSES AND SIGNATURES

  [No line spacing, street addresses, or ZIP Code numbers are to 
be used in communications in the Record.]

The  Honorable  the  Secretary  of  the
{time} {time} Navy.
{time} Dear Mr. Secretary: This is in response to your letter, 
etc.
{time} {time} {time} Very sincerely yours,

                                             Ronald Reagan.{time} 

                               ----------

                                Columbia, MO,{time} {time} {time} 
                                          January 17, 1999.{time} 

Hon. Morgan M. Moulder,
Cannon House Office Building,
Washington, DC:
{time} The President's farm message of today
* * * * *
farmers and prevent the spread of this depression to every part of 
our country.
     Missouri Farmers Association,
     F.V. Heinkel, President.
                               ----------

                                          January 20, 1966.{time} 

Hon. John B. Connally, Jr.,
The  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  Depart-
{time} {time} ment  of  the  Treasury,  Washington,
{time} {time} DC.
{time} Dear Mr. Secretary: Mindful of the tremendous workload, 
etc.
       I would appreciate your comment on the foregoing proposal.
       Your proposal seems to be in the best interest of all 
concerned.
{time} {time} {time} Sincerely yours,

                             Herbert Zelenko,{time} {time} {time} 
                                        Member of Congress.{time} 

                               ----------

                              Alexandria, MN,{time} {time} {time} 
                                         November 17, 1971.{time} 

Hon. Walter Mondale,
Senate Office Building,
Washington, DC:
{time} We oppose the nomination of Earl Butz for Secretary of 
Agriculture because he resists family farms.

                                            Raymond Wagner.{time} 

{time} Brandon, MN.
                               ----------

                                          January 17, 1972.{time} 

Re resignation from committee.
Hon. Carl Albert,
The  Speaker,  U.S.  House  of  Representa-
{time} {time} tives,  U.S.  Capitol,  Washington,  DC.
{time} Dear Mr. Speaker: Having changed my politics from 
Republican to Democratic, etc.
{time} With my best wishes.
{time} {time} {time} Sincerely,

                                         Vincent J. Dellay.{time} 
                   U.S. Senate,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                       President pro tempore,{time} {time} {time} 
                            Washington, DC, March 17, 1999.{time} 

To the Senate:
{time} Being temporarily absent from the Senate, I appoint Hon. 
Conrad Burns, a Senator from the State of Montana, to perform the 
duties of the Chair during my absence.

                              Strom Thurmond,{time} {time} {time} 
                                     President pro tempore.{time} 

                               ----------

                              Washington, DC,{time} {time} {time} 
                                            March 28, 1999.{time} 

{time} I hereby designate the Honorable Jack Metcalf to act as 
Speaker pro tempore today.

                              Dennis Hastert,{time} {time} {time} 
                   Speaker of the House of Representatives.{time} 

                               ----------
{time} {time} The  International  Union  of{time} {time} {time} 
{time} {time} {time} United  Brewery,  Flour,  Ce-
  {time} {time} {time} 
{time} {time} {time} real,  Soft  Drinks  &  Distill-
  {time} {time} {time} 
{time} {time} {time} ery Workers of America,

                            Cincinnati, OH, March 25, 1966.{time} 

To the Senate of the United States.
To the U.S. House of Representatives.
{time} Honorable Sirs: April 7, 1966, being the 25th anniversary 
of the modification, etc.
  [Two to eight independent signatures, with or without titles, 
are aligned on the left.]
To  the  Honorable  Senate  and  House  of
{time} {time} Representatives  of  the  United  States
{time} {time} of  America  Now  Assembled  at  Wash-
{time} {time} ington, DC:
{time} The undersigned, officers of the Navy of the United States, 
respectfully show unto your honorable bodies, etc.
        James G. Green.
        W.H. Southerland.
        Thomas Harrison
        F.F. Fletcher.
        Robert Whelan
        C.C. Wilson.
                               ----------
{time} Respectfully submitted,
        Karl F. Feller,
                                          International President.
        Thomas Rusch,
                                         Director of Organization.
        Arthur Gildea,

                                       Secretary-Treasurer.{time} 

        Joseph E. Brady,
                                          Director of Legislation.

[[Page 268]]

  [More than eight signatures, with or without titles, are set 
full measure, caps and lowercase, run in, indented 2 and 3 ems, as 
follows:]

{time} {time} Gene  H.  Rosenblum,  Cochairman;
{time} {time} {time} Paul  H.  Ray,  Cochairman;  Cynthia
{time} {time} {time} Asplund, James Pedersen, George
{time} {time} {time} Doty; Thomas St. Martin; Joan 

{time} {time} {time} O'Neill; Lloyd Moosebrugger; Sam 

{time} {time} {time} Kaplan; Ronald Nemer; Dean Pot-

{time} {time} {time} ter; Philip Archer; Thomas 

{time} {time} {time} McDonough; Mrs. Lloyd 

{time} {time} {time} Moosebrugger, Minnesota Young 

{time} {time} {time} Democratic Civil Rights Commit-

{time} {time} {time} tee.

                    John Smith,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                          Lieutenant Governor{time} {time} {time} 
                               (For the Governor of Maine).{time} 

                               ----------
     Texarkana Textile Merchants & Manufacturers' Association,
     John L. Jones, Secretary.

                                CREDITS

             [From the Sacramento (CA) Bee, July 22, 1983]

                       The Kissinger Smoke Screen

                          (By C.K. McClatchy)

       The Reagan administration has embarked on a dangerously 
aggressive, confrontational policy in Latin America that should be 
sending shock waves of anger and fear through the American public. 
Thus far, however, the opposition has been muted by a combination 
of the administration's anti-Communist rhetoric and public 
relations molasses.

              [From the Wall Street Journal, Aug. 1, 1983]

                         The Sky Hasn't Fallen

       Backers of the proposal to increase the U.S. contribution 
to the International Monetary Fund by $8.4 billion staved off 
several attacks in the House Friday, but the bill still faces an 
uncertain future. It has been languishing in the House for nearly 
three months, and the 40 or so amendments still awaiting it 
testify to the difficulty of putting together a winning coalition.

                                 POETRY

  If poetry is quoted, each stanza should start with quotation 
marks, but only the last stanza should end with them. The lines of 
the poem should align on the left, those that rhyme taking the 
same indention. Poems are flush left; overs 3 ems; 2 points of 
space between stanzas, and 2 points of space above and below.

                            Casey at the Bat

The outlook wasn't brilliant for the Mudville nine that day:
The score stood four to two, with but one inning more to play,
And then when Cooney died at first, and Barrows did the same,
A pall-like silence fell upon the patrons of the game.

A straggling few got up to go in deep despair.
The rest cling to that hope which springs eternal in the human 
    breast;
The thought, ``If only Casey could but get a whack at that--
We'd put up even money now, with Casey at the bat.''

But Flynn preceded Casey, as did also Jimmy Blake,
And the former was a hoodoo, while the latter was a cake;
So upon that stricken multitude grim melancholy sat,
For there seemed but little chance of Casey getting to the bat.

But Flynn let drive a single, to the wonderment of all,
And Blake, the much despised, tore the cover off the ball;
And when the dust had lifted, and men saw what had occurred,
There was Jimmy safe at second and Flynn--hugging third.

Then from five thousand throats and more there rose a lusty yell;
It rumbled through the valley, it rattled in the dell;
It pounded on the mountain and recoiled upon the flat,
For Casey, mighty Casey, was advancing to the bat.

There was ease in Casey's manner as he stepped into his place;
There was pride in Casey's bearing and a smile lit Casey's face.
And when, responding to the cheers, he lightly doffed his hat,
No stranger in the crowd could doubt 'twas Casey at the bat.

Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt;
Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt;
Then while the writhing pitcher ground the ball into his hip,
Defiance flashed in Casey's eye, a sneer curled Casey's lip.

And now the leather-covered sphere came hurtling through the air,
And Casey stood a-watching it in haughty grandeur there.

[[Page 269]]

Close by the sturdy batsman the ball unheeded sped--
``That ain't my style,'' said Casey. ``Strike one!'' the umpire 
    said.

From the benches, black with people, there went up a muffled roar,
Like the beating of the storm-waves on a stern and distant shore;
``Kill him! Kill the umpire!'' shouted some one in the stand;
And it's likely they'd had killed him had not Casey raised his 
    hand.

With a smile of Christian charity great Casey's visage shone;
He stilled the rising tumult; he bade the game go on;
He signaled to the pitcher, and once more the dun sphere flew;
But Casey still ignored it, and the umpire said ``Strike two!''

``Fraud!'' cried the maddened thousands, and echo answered 
    ``Fraud!''
But one scornful look from Casey and the audience was awed.
They saw his face grow stern and cold, they saw his muscles 
    strain,
And they knew that Casey wouldn't let that ball go by again.

The sneer has fled from Casey's lip, his teeth are clenched in 
    hate;
He pounds with cruel violence his bat upon the plate.
And now the pitcher holds the ball, and now he lets it go,
And now the air is shattered by the force of Casey's blow.

Oh, somewhere in this favored land the Sun is shining bright;
The band is playing somewhere, and somewhere hearts are light,
And somewhere men are laughing, and little children shout;
But there is no joy in Mudville--great Casey has struck out.

                                               --Ernest L. Thayer.

  

                                EXTRACTS

  [Extracts must be set in 7 point unless ordered otherwise by 
the Joint Committee on Printing.]

  [This does not refer to a casual quotation of a few words or 
a quotation that would not make more than 3 lines of 7 point. 
The beginning of the 7-point extract must start with a true 
paragraph; 8 point following is always a paragraph.]

  Mr. BENNETT. Let us see what that is:

       The stipulations of this treaty are to be a full settlement 
of all claims of said Creek Nation for damages and losses of every 
kind growing out of the late rebellion--

  I do not think he means that--

and all expenditures by the United States of annuities in clothing 
and feeding refugee and destitute Indians since the diversion of 
annuities for that purpose consequent upon the late war with the 
so-called Confederate States; and the Creeks hereby ratify and 
confirm--

  What?--

all such diversions of annuities heretofore made from the funds of 
the Creek Nation by the United States; and the United States agree 
that no annuities--

  And so forth. I believe that shows clearly the purpose of the treaty.

  [Note, as above, that following an excerpt, the 8 point must 
begin with a paragraph.]

  [An address of the President delivered outside of Congress or 
referred to as an extract will be set in 7 point.]

                        SCHEME OF TEXT HEADINGS

  In 8-point, heads are 8-point caps. After the cap head, all 
subheads are 7 point small caps, regardless of any perceived 
hierarchy.

  In 7-point, the progression is as follows (in descending 
order):

      7-point caps and small caps.
      7-point small caps.
      7-point italic lowercase.
      7-point roman caps and lowercase.
      7-point roman lowercase.

[[Page 270]]

                          USE OF DOUBLE HEADS

  This is something which has been entirely overlooked by the * * *.

         analysis of specific provisions of the committee bill

   amendments changing the interstate commerce provisions of the act

  As the law stands today, it applies only to an employee who * * *.


                               

                           EXECUTIVE PROGRAM

                         ----------------------

                   ESTATE TAX CONVENTION WITH CANADA

                                

          ADDITIONAL COSPONSORS OF BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTIONS

                                 s. 659

                                 

                          AMENDMENTS SUBMITTED

                         ----------------------

                      RECIPROCAL TRADE AGREEMENTS

                         ----------------------

                       SPECTER AMENDMENT NO. 1194

                  HEADS USED IN EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS

                                  


             DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT, 2000

                         ----------------------

                               speech of

                         HON. JOHN CONYERS, JR.

                              of michigan

                    in the house of representatives

                      Wednesday, February 3, 1999

       The House in Committee of the Whole House on the State of 
the Union had under consideration the bill (H.R. 1401) to 
authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2000 for the Armed Forces 
* * *.
  [The words ``Speech of'' are to be used only when on copy and is 
an indication that that particular Extension of Remarks is to be 
inserted in the proceedings of the bound Record of the date used 
in the heading.]
                                


                            MISSING CHILDREN

                         ----------------------

                          HON. ORRIN G. HATCH

                                of utah

                   in the senate of the united states

                      Wednesday, February 3, 1999

  Mr. HATCH. Mr. President, I rise before this distinguished assembly 
to focus additional attention on the tragedy of missing children. The 
Department of Health and Human Services has estimated that 
approximately 1.3 million children disappear each year. A significant 
number do not leave of their own accord.* * *

[[Page 271]]

                       CONGRESSIONAL PROCEEDINGS

                                 SENATE

                         Tuesday, July 13, 1999

             (Legislative day of Monday, July 12, 1999)\1\

  The Senate met at 10 a.m., on the expiration of the recess, and * * 
*.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ To be used only when the Senate had been in recess.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  [Above line to be used only when Senate had been in recess.]

  The Senate met at 12 noon, and was called to order by the President 
pro tempore [Mr. Thurmond].
  [Note.--Entire prayer set in 8 point.]
                         ----------------------

                                 prayer

  The Chaplain, Dr. Lloyd John Ogilvie, offered the following prayer:
  Let us pray:
  Lord, Thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations. Before 
the mountains were brought forth, or ever Thou hadst formed the earth 
and the world, from everlasting to everlasting Thou art God.--Psalm 
90:1-2 RSV.
  Almighty God, eternal Father, make Thy presence felt in this place 
today. Grant that all who do business here may experience a fresh touch 
from Thee. As the Senators enter into this very full week, help them to 
have a perspective which sees the parts in light of the whole. Free 
them from the tyranny of urgency which makes it impossible to see the 
forest for the trees. Help them not to allow the transitory to 
obliterate the transcendent. Give them vision which sees the temporary 
in light of the permanent, the temporal in light of the eternal.
  Guide them to decisions which will honor Thee and bless the people. 
In Jesus' name. Amen.
                              

              APPOINTMENT OF ACTING PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE

  The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will please read a communication to 
the Senate from the President pro tempore [Mr. Thurmond].
  The assistant legislative clerk read the following letter:
                                                      U.S. Senate,


                                      President pro tempore,  

Washington, DC, April 15, 1999.
To the Senate:
       Under the provisions of rule I, section 3, of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, I hereby appoint the Honorable Jesse Helms, a 
Senator from the State of North Carolina, to perform the duties of 
the Chair.
                                                 Strom Thurmond,  
                                            President pro tempore.

  Mr. HELMS thereupon assumed the chair as Acting President pro 
tempore.
                              

                   RECOGNITION OF THE MAJORITY LEADER

  The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore. The majority leader is recognized.

                              

                              THE JOURNAL

  Mr. LOTT. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Journal of 
the proceedings of the Senate be approved to date.
  The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore. Without objection, it is so 
ordered.
                              

JOINT SESSION OF THE TWO HOUSES--MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 
                       STATES (H. DOC. NO. 98-1)

  The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Under the previous order, the Senate will 
now proceed to the Hall of the House of Representatives.
  Thereupon, at 8:38 p.m., the Senate, preceded by the Sergeant at 
Arms, Howard O. Greene; the Secretary of the Senate, Gary Sisco; and 
the President pro tempore (Mr. Thurmond), proceeded to the Hall of the 
House of Representatives to hear the address by the President of the 
United States, William Clinton.
  (The address by the President of the United States, this day 
delivered by him to the joint session of the two Houses of Congress, 
appears in

[[Page 272]]

the proceedings of the House of Representatives in today's Record.)

                              

                       RESERVATION OF LEADER TIME

  The PRESIDING OFFICER. Under the previous order, leadership time is 
reserved.

                              

                   ORDER FOR ROUTINE MORNING BUSINESS

  Mr. STEVENS. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that following 
the time for the two leaders under the standing order and the special 
order for Senator Specter, there be a period for the transaction of 
routine morning business, not to exceed 30 minutes, in which Senators 
may make speeches for not to exceed 3 minutes each.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Chafee). Without objection, it is so 
ordered.

                              

                      MESSAGES FROM THE PRESIDENT

  Messages from the President of the United States were communicated to 
the Senate by Mr. Saunders, one of his secretaries.

                              

                      EXECUTIVE MESSAGES REFERRED

  As in executive session, the Acting President pro tempore laid before 
the Senate messages from the President of the United States submitting 
a sundry nomination which was referred to the Committee on Armed 
Services.
  (The nomination received today is printed at the end of the Senate 
proceedings.)

                              

 BUDGET OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA--MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT--PM 126

  The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before the Senate the following message 
from the President of the United States, together with an accompanying 
document; which was referred to the Committee on Governmental Affairs:

To the Congress of the United States:
  In accordance with the District of Columbia Self-Government and 
Governmental Reorganization Act, I am transmitting the 1983 Budget of 
the District of Columbia.
  I am informed that the proposals for Federal payments to the District 
of Columbia reflected in this document are consistent with those shown 
in the 1983 Budget of the United States submitted to the Congress on 
February 8, 1982.
                                                  Ronald Reagan.{time} 
{time} The White House, April 15, 1982.

                              

                   EXECUTIVE AND OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

  The following communications were laid before the Senate, together 
with accompanying papers, reports, and documents, which were referred 
as indicated:

       EC-3155. A communication from the Secretary of Health and 
Human Services transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to 
incorporate the supplemental food programs into the maternal and 
child health block grant; to the Committee on Agriculture, 
Nutrition, and Forestry.

                              

                         PRESIDENTIAL APPROVALS

  A message from the President of the United States reported that he 
had approved and signed the following acts and joint resolution:

       On July 19, 1982:
       S. 2651. An act to extend the expiration date of section 
252 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act.

                              

               ENROLLED BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTION SIGNED

  The message further announced that the Speaker pro tempore of the 
House had affixed his signature to the following enrolled bills and 
joint resolution, and they were signed by the Acting President pro 
tempore:

       S. 171. An act for the relief of Arthur A. Schipke;
       S. 518. An act for the relief of Robert T. Groom, Daisy 
Groom, and Margaret Groom Turpin; and

                              

  HOUSE BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTIONS REFERRED OR PLACED ON THE CALENDAR

  The following bills and joint resolutions were severally read twice 
by


[[Page 273]]

 their titles and referred, or ordered to be placed on the calendar, as 
indicated:

       H.R. 1408. An act to amend section 301 (a)(1) of the 
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended, and the first 
sentence of paragraph (1) of section 2 of the Agricultural 
Adjustment Act of 1933, as amended, and as reenacted and amended 
by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, approved June 
3, 1937, as amended, so as to include the cost of all farm labor 
in determining the parity price of agricultural commodities; to 
the calendar; and
       H.R. 777. An act to amend an act entitled ``An act to 
regulate the hours of employment and safeguard the health of 
females employed in the District of Columbia,'' approved February 
24, 1914.

                              

                        MESSAGES FROM THE HOUSE

  At 2:11 p.m., a message from the House of Representatives was 
delivered by Mr. Berry, one of its reading clerks, announcing that the 
Speaker had signed the following enrolled bills and joint resolution:

       S. 272. An act to improve small business access to Federal 
procurement information.
       H.J. Res. 338. Joint resolution to correct Public Law 98-63 
due to an error in the enrollment of H.R. 3069.

  The bills and joint resolution were subsequently signed by the 
President pro tempore (Mr. Thurmond).

                               ----------

  At 3:18 p.m., a message from the House of Representatives was 
delivered by Ms. Goetz, one of its reading clerks, announcing that the 
House agrees to the amendments of the Senate to the bill (H.R. 2355).

                              

                        PETITIONS AND MEMORIALS

  The following petitions and memorials were laid before the Senate and 
were referred or ordered to lie on the table as indicated:

       POM-724. A resolution adopted by the Legislature of the 
State of Arizona; to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs.

                     House Concurrent Memorial 2002

       Whereas, article I, section 8, Constitution of the United 
States, provides that only the Congress of the United States shall 
have the power `to borrow money on the credit of the United 
States'; and
       Whereas, article I, section 8, Constitution of the United 
States, directs that only the Congress of the United States is 
permitted ``to coin money and regulate the value thereof''; and
       Whereas, the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 transferred the 
power to borrow money on the credit of the United States to a 
consortium of private bankers in violation of the prohibitions of 
article I, section 8, Constitution of the United States; and
       Whereas, the Congress of the United States is without 
authority to delegate any powers which it has received under the 
Constitution of the United States established by the people of the 
United States; and
       Whereas, article I, section 1, Constitution of the United 
States, provides that ``all legislative Powers herein granted 
shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall 
consist of a Senate and House of Representatives''; and
       Whereas, the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 was imposed upon 
the People of the State of Arizona in violation of the provisions 
of article I, section 1, Constitution of the United States.

                              

                         REPORTS OF COMMITTEES

  The following reports of committees were submitted:

       By Mr. McCAIN, from the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation, with an amendment in the nature of a substitute 
and an amendment to the title:
       S. 2172. A bill to amend the Communications Act of 1934 
(Rept. No. 97-518).

                              

                    EXECUTIVE REPORTS OF COMMITTEES

  The following executive reports of committees were submitted:

       By Mr. D'AMATO, from the Committee on Banking, Housing, and 
Urban Affairs:
       Ralph D. DeNunzio, of Connecticut, to be a Director of the 
Securities Investor Protection Corporation for a term expiring 
December 31, 1982;
       David F. Goldberg, of Illinois, to be a Director of the 
Securities Investor Protection Corporation for a term expiring 
December 31, 1984; and
       Roger A. Yurchuck, of Ohio, to be a Director of the 
Securities Investor Protection Corporation for a term expiring 
December 31, 1984.

                              

              INTRODUCTION OF BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTIONS

  The following bills and joint resolutions were introduced, read the

[[Page 274]]

first and second time by unanimous consent, and referred as indicated:

       By Mr. JEFFORDS (for himself, Mr. Smith, Mr. Lieberman, Mr. 
          Kerry, Mr. Gregg, Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Dodd, and Mr. Leahy):
       S. 2835. A bill to grant the consent and approval of the 
Congress to an interstate agreement or compact relating to the 
restoration of Atlantic salmon in the Connecticut River Basin, and 
to allow the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of the 
Interior to participate as members in a Connecticut River Atlantic 
Salmon Commission; to the Committee on the Judiciary.

                              

            SUBMISSION OF CONCURRENT AND SENATE RESOLUTIONS

  The following concurrent resolutions and Senate resolutions were 
read, and referred (or acted upon), as indicated:

       By Mr. MURKOWSKI (for himself, Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Shelby, and 
          Mr. Chafee):
       S. Con. Res. 62. A concurrent resolution to direct the 
Commissioner of Social Security and the Secretary of Health and 
Human Services to develop a plan outlining the steps which might 
be taken to correct the social security benefit disparity known as 
the notch problem; to the Committee on Finance.
       By Mr. D'AMATO:
       S. Res. 446. Resolution to honor Michael R. Masone; to the 
Committee on the Judiciary.

                              

          STATEMENTS ON INTRODUCED BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTIONS

       By Ms. SNOWE:
  S. 1778. A bill to provide for a block grant to States for health 
planning activities, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Labor 
and Human Resources.

                health planning block grant act of 1983

 Ms. SNOWE. Mr. President, I introduce S. 1778, a bill to 
establish a block grant to the States to support health planning.
  The latest authorization for the Federal health planning program 
expired at the conclusion of the last fiscal year. The program has been 
funded under a continuing resolution despite the fact that it has not 
been reauthorized. Health planning has been useful in many States in 
containing health care costs and assuring equitable access to health 
services. It is important that the Federal Government continue to 
encourage health planning on the State and local levels but the current 
health planning law should be replaced.
  [Note the use of bullets signifying that which was not spoken on 
the floor.]

                              

                          AMENDMENTS SUBMITTED

                         ----------------------

      DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES APPROPRIATIONS, 1995

                         ----------------------

                      FAIRCLOTH AMENDMENT NO. 5239

  (Ordered to lie on the table.)
  Mr. FAIRCLOTH submitted an amendment intended to be proposed by him 
to the bill, H.R. 3756, supra; as follows:

       At the appropriate place, insert the following:
       Sec. . (a) Sense of the Senate Regarding Transfers From 
Medicare Trust Funds.--It is the sense of the Senate that * * *.

                         ----------------------

                       WARNER AMENDMENT NO. 5240

  Mr. WARNER proposed an amendment to the bill, H.R. 3756, supra; as 
follows:

       On page 53, beginning on line 23, strike ``and in 
compliance with the reprogramming guidelines of the appropriate 
Committee of the House and Senate.''

                         ----------------------

                    DeWINE AMENDMENTS NOS. 5241-5242

  Mr. SMITH (for Mr. DeWine) proposed two amendments to the bill, H.R. 
3363, supra; as follow:

                           Amendment No. 5241

       At the appropriate place in the bill insert the following:
       ``That notwithstanding any other provision of law, the 
Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter in this Act referred to as 
* * *.
                               ----------

                           Amendment No. 5242

      (Purpose: To authorize the Secretary of the Interior * * *)

       At the appropriate place, etc.

[[Page 275]]


                         ADDITIONAL STATEMENTS

                         ----------------------

              NATIONAL PARALYZED VETERANS RECOGNITION DAY

 Mr. KYL. Mr. President, I am pleased today to call attention 
here to the fact that this is National Paralyzed Veterans Recognition 
Day. Legislation to establish this observance was signed by the 
President on August 1 (Public Law 98-62). In the Senate, the 
legislation was designated Senate Joint Resolution 106 and authored by 
the distinguished chairman of the Veterans' Affairs Committee, Senator 
Simpson. I am proud to have been a cosponsor.

                              

                     CONCLUSION OF MORNING BUSINESS

  The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there further morning business?
  If not, morning business is closed.

                              

 BLANCHE H. KARSCH, ADMINISTRATRIX OF THE ESTATE OF KATE E. HAMILTON--
                     VETO MESSAGE (S. DOC. NO. 108)

  The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the Senate the following veto message 
from the President of the United States, which was read, and with the 
accompanying bill, referred to the Committee on the Judiciary and 
ordered to be printed:

To the Senate:
  I return herewith, without my approval, S. 514, entitled ``An act for 
the relief of Blanche H. Karsch, administratrix of the estate of Kate 
E. Hamilton.''
  I know of no circumstances which would justify the exception made by 
S. 514 to the long-continued policy of Congress, and do not believe 
that the field of special legislation should be opened * * *
                                                Harry S. Truman.{time} 
                                       The White House, March 17, 1952.
  [The above to be 8 point.]
  [When communications from the President contain extracts, etc., 
such extracts must be in 7 point.]

                              

           REPORT ON CLASSIFIED INFORMATION (S. DOC. NO. 107)

  Mr. WARNER. Mr. President, the Committee on Armed Services of the 
Senate has recently requested the Office of Public Relations of the 
Department of the Navy to submit to it a report on classified 
information. The Department of the Navy has complied with the request, 
and I now present the report and ask that it be published as a Senate 
document.
  The VICE PRESIDENT. Without objection, the report will be printed as 
a document as requested by the Senator from Virginia.

                              

         PAWNEE INDIANS v. THE UNITED STATES (S. DOC. NO. 311)

  The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the Senate a communication from the 
Assistant Clerk of the Court of Claims, transmitting a certified copy 
of the findings of fact and conclusion filed by the court in the case 
of the Pawnee Tribe of Indians against the United States, which was 
referred to the Committee on Finance and ordered to be printed.
  [Note the insertion of S. Doc. No. -- in cases where papers are 
ordered to be printed as a document. To be inserted only when 
ordered to be printed or its equivalent is in copy.]

                              

Third reading and passage of a bill

               MISSOURI RIVER BRIDGE NEAR ST. CHARLES, MO

  The bill (S. 4174) to extend the times for commencing and completing 
the construction of a bridge across the Missouri River at or near St. 
Charles, MO, was considered, ordered to be engrossed for a third 
reading, read the third time, and passed, as follows:

                                S. 4174

       Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the times 
for commencing and completing the construction of the bridge 
across the Missouri River, etc.

                              

Amendment, third reading, and passage of a bill

                 GOVERNMENT OF THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII

  The Senate proceeded to consider the bill (S. 1881) to amend an act 
entitled ``An act to provide a govern

[[Page 276]]

ment for the Territory of Hawaii,'' approved April 30, 1900, as 
amended, to establish a Hawaiian Homes Commission, and for other 
purposes, which had been reported from the Committee on Interior and 
Insular Affairs with amendments.
  The first amendment was, on page 4, line 22, to strike out 
``Keaaupaha'' and insert ``Keaaukaha''.
  The amendment was agreed to.
  The next amendment was, on page 6, line 19, after the figure ``(1)'', 
to insert ``by further authorization of Congress and'', so as to make 
the paragraph read:

       (1) by further authorization of Congress and for a period 
of five years after the first meeting of the Hawaiian Homes 
Commission only those lands situated on the island of Molokai, 
etc.

  The amendment was agreed to.
  The bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading, read the 
third time, and passed.

Forms of amendments
  The joint resolution (S.J. Res. 4) requesting the President to 
negotiate a treaty or treaties for the protection of salmon in certain 
parts of the Pacific Ocean was announced as next in order.
  Mr. McCAIN. Mr. President, I have just had an opportunity to examine 
this joint resolution. I offer this amendment.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Secretary will state the amendment offered 
by the Senator from Arizona.
  The Reading Clerk. On page 1, line 11, it is proposed to strike out 
the words ``both within and'', so as to make the joint resolution read:

       Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President 
of the United States be, and he is hereby, requested to negotiate 
on behalf of the United States, as promptly as is practicable, 
etc.

  Mr. FRIST. Mr. President, I observe in the report of the bill by the 
chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee that it is reported as a 
Senate joint resolution. I ask for a modification of it so that it will 
be a Senate resolution instead of a Senate joint resolution.
  The Legislative Clerk. It is proposed to strike out ``S.J. Res. 4'' 
and insert ``S. Res. 85''.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there objection to the modification? The 
Chair hears none, and it will be so modified.
  Mr. McCAIN. Would it not be necessary to change the resolving clause 
also? The resolving clause reads:

       Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

  The amendment was agreed to.

  [Note use of words, figures, and punctuation in the following 
example. Follow copy.]

  The next amendment was, on page 34, in line 9, under the heading 
``Employees' Compensation Commission'', before the word ``assistants'', 
to strike out ``five'' and insert ``three''; in line 10, after the word 
``clerks'' and before the words ``of class 3'', to strike out ``seven'' 
and insert ``five''; in line 11, before the words ``of class 2'', to 
strike out ``twelve'' and insert ``nine''; in the same line, before the 
words ``of class 1'', to strike out ``twenty-seven'' and insert 
``twenty''; in line 12, before the words ``at $1,000 each'', to strike 
out ``three'' and insert ``two''; and in line 18, to strike out 
``$124,940'' and insert ``$102,590'', so as to read:

                   employees' compensation commission

       Salaries: Three Commissioners at $4,000 each; secretary, 
$2,750; attorney, $4,000; chief statistician, $3,000; chief of 
accounts, $2,500; accountant, $2,250; claim examiners--chief 
$2,250, assistant $2,000, assistant $1,800, three assistants at 
$1,600 each; special agents--two at $1,800 each, two at $1,600 
each; clerks--five of class 3; nine of class 2, twenty of class 1, 
two at $1,000 each; in all $102,590.

  Mr. THOMPSON submitted an amendment intended to be proposed by him to 
the sundry civil appropriation bill, which was ordered to lie on the 
table and to be printed, as follows:

       Add a new section, as follows: ``That the President of the 
Senate appoint three Members of the Senate; and the Speaker of the 
House three Members of the House.''

  The Senate resumed the consideration of the bill (H.R. 4075) to limit 
the immigration of aliens into the United States.
  Mr. BYRD. Mr. President, I offer an amendment, which I send to the 
desk.

[[Page 277]]

  The VICE PRESIDENT. The amendment will be stated.
  The Assistant Secretary. On page 9, line 3, it is proposed to amend 
by striking out ``3'' and inserting ``1'', so that it will read:

       Sec. 2. (a) That the number of aliens of any nationality 
who may be admitted under the immigration laws to the United 
States in any fiscal year shall be limited to 1 per centum of the 
number of foreign-born persons of such nationality resident in the 
United States.

  The VICE PRESIDENT. The question is on agreeing to the amendment 
offered by the Senator from West Virginia to the amendment of the 
committee.
  The amendment to the amendment was rejected.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is, Shall the bill pass?
  Mr. BREAUX. I ask for the yeas and nays on the passage of the bill.
  Mr. INHOFE. Let us have the yeas and nays.
  The yeas and nays were ordered, and the reading clerk proceeded to 
call the roll.
  Ms. MIKULSKI (when her name was called). I am paired with the senior 
Senator from New Hampshire [Mr. Smith]. I am informed that if he were 
present he would vote as I intend to vote on the passage of the bill. I 
therefore feel at liberty to vote, and vote ``yea.''
  Mr. CRAIG. I announce that the Senator from Iowa [Mr. Grassley], the 
Senator from New Hampshire [Mr. Smith], and the Senator from Delaware 
[Mr. Roth] are necessarily absent.
  I further announce that, if present and voting, the Senator from New 
Hampshire [Mr. Smith] would vote ``yea.''
  The result was announced--yeas 78, nays 1, as follows:

                                YEAS--96

     Abraham
     Akaka
     Faircloth
     Feingold
     Moynihan
     Murkowski

                                 NAY--1

       
     Helms
       

                             NOT VOTING--3

     Grassley
     Roth
     Smith

                              

                           EXECUTIVE SESSION

  The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senate will now proceed to executive 
session. There will now be 5 minutes debate on Calendar Order No. 156, 
which the clerk will state.

                              

                           EXECUTIVE SESSION

  Mr. LOTT. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate now 
go into executive session for the purpose of considering those 
nominations on page 2, with the exception of Calendar Order No. 43; 
those nominations on page 3, with the exception of Calendar Order No. 
46; all of the nominations on page 4, and all of the nominations on 
page 5.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered.

                              

                          LEGISLATIVE SESSION

  Mr. LOTT. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate now 
return to legislative session.
  The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered.

                              

  [An executive session usually being open, the following precedes 
the recess or adjournment heading:]

        TREATY OF ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION WITH SWITZERLAND

  The Chief Clerk proceeded to read Executive B, a treaty of 
arbitration and conciliation with Switzerland, signed at Washington on 
March 17, 1952, which was considered as in Committee of the Whole, and 
is as follows:

To the Senate of the United States:

       To the end that I may receive the advice and consent of the 
Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith a treaty of 
arbitration and conciliation between the United States and 
Switzerland, signed at Washington on March 17, 1952.

                                           Harry S. Truman.{time} 

       The White House, March 17, 1952.

  [A letter from the President to the Senate is set in 7-point 
type when any form of treaty is enclosed that is to be printed in 
the Record in connection therewith. The letter is set in 7-point 
type whether the treaty follows or precedes it or is separated 
from it by intervening matter.]

                              

                  RECESS UNTIL TOMORROW AT 10:30 A.M.

  Mr. LOTT. Mr. President, I know of no further business to come be

[[Page 278]]

fore the Senate. I move, in accordance with the order previously 
entered, that the Senate stand in recess until the hour of 10:30 a.m. 
tomorrow.
  The motion was agreed to and, at 7:20 p.m., the Senate recessed until 
Wednesday, November 18, 1996, at 10:30 a.m.

                              

              ADJOURNMENT UNTIL MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 1996

  Mr. LOTT. Mr. President, no other matter is cleared for action by 
either side. The time for the transaction of routine morning business 
has long since expired, as has the patience of most Senators.
  In view of that, Mr. President, I move, in accordance with the 
provisions of House Concurrent Resolution 153 the Senate now do adjourn 
until September 12 at 12 noon.
  The motion was agreed to; and the Senate, at 7:03 p.m., adjourned 
until Monday, September 12, 1996, at 12 noon.

  [After the recess or adjournment the following may appear:]

                              

                              NOMINATIONS

  Executive nominations received by the Senate March 17 (legislative 
day of March 9), 1996:
  [Under heading Postmaster, omit the State subheading if only one 
nomination or confirmation is given. Under the heads Nominations, 
Confirmations, Withdrawal, and Rejection, the following scheme for 
subheads is to be followed:
  [Heads indicating service, or branch or department of Government 
and subheads indicating subdivision or type of service--7-point 
small caps.
  [Subheads indicating new rank of appointee--7-point italic 
initial cap.
  [Text is set in 5 point caps.
  [Note: Nominations will be set first name, middle name (or first 
middle initial), and last name throughout followed by period. 
Asterisks, if any, precede names as in executive nominations.]

                 Diplomatic and Foreign Service

      MERLIN E. SMITH, OF OHIO, TO BE A 
FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICER, UNCLASSIFIED, A 
 VICE CONSUL OF CAREER, AND A SECRETARY 
IN THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE OF THE UNITED 
                      STATES OF AMERICA.

                        The Judiciary

  TOM C. CLARK OF TEXAS, TO BE ASSISTANT 
 ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES, 
     VICE HON. THURMAN ARNOLD, RESIGNED.
        HUGH B. COX, OF THE DISTRICT OF 
     COLUMBIA, TO BE ASSISTANT ATTORNEY 
      GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES; NEW 
                               POSITION.

Temporary Appointment in the Army of the 
              United States

  LT. GEN. JOSEPH STEVENS MCCULLOCH III 
(MAJOR GENERAL, U.S. ARMY), ARMY OF THE 
                          UNITED STATES.

   Appointments, by Transfer, in the 
    Regular Army of the United States
           ordnance department

         LT. COL. GEORGE DEVERE BARNES, 
QUARTERMASTER CORPS (TEMPORARY COLONEL), 
        WITH RANK FROM JANUARY 11, 1952.

            In the Air Force
         To be brigadier general

    MAJ. GEN. MICHAEL GLEN CHEEK, 209A, 
 (COLONEL U.S. AIR FORCE), AIR FORCE OF 
             THE UNITED STATES, MEDICAL.
   BRIG. GEN. JOHN FERRAL MCBLAIN, 203A 
(COLONEL, U.S. AIR FORCE), AIR FORCE OF 
                      THE UNITED STATES.

           To be major general

     BRIG. GEN. HERBERT R. TEMPLE, JR. 
                            
            In the Air Force

    THE FOLLOWING AIR NATIONAL GUARD OF 
THE UNITED STATES OFFICERS FOR PROMOTION 
  IN THE RESERVE OF THE AIR FORCE UNDER 
 THE PROVISIONS OF SECTION 593(A) TITLE 
       10 OF THE UNITED STATES CODE, AS 
                                AMENDED.

          line of the air force
        To be lieutenant colonel

  MAJ. CLAYTON B. ANDERSON
 MAJ. GEORGE C. ARVANETAKI
     MAJ. GEORGE D. BROOKS
MAJ. RAYMOND A. CLINE, JR.

              supply corps
              To be captain

                     PAUL R. ALWINE, JR.
                         CHARLES V. BARR
                   ANTHONY JOHN BARTUSKA
                       GORDON J. BENTSON

              medical corps

        MAJ. POMP T. CARNEY
        MAJ. GERALD D. LOOS
   MAJ. HUGH E. MC GEE, JR.

               In the Army

       THE FOLLOWING-NAMED OFFICERS FOR 
 APPOINTMENT IN THE REGULAR ARMY OF THE 
    UNITED STATES, IN THEIR ACTIVE DUTY 
  GRADES, UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF TITLE 
  10, UNITED STATES CODE, SECTIONS 531, 
                           532, AND 533:

              To be colonel

           ROBERT O. PORTER

        To be lieutenant colonel

            EDWARD F. SMITH

               To be major

              RUDY P. DAVIS
           HERBERT L. HEROD
       LAFAYETTE JONES, JR.

              To be captain

            GEORGE M. DUQUE

                              

              CONFIRMATIONS

  Executive nominations confirmed by the 
                Senate February 9, 1996:
  National Commission on Libraries and 
           Information Science

  HAROLD C. CROTTY, OF MICHIGAN, TO BE A 
      MEMBER OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION.

[[Page 279]]

                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                       Tuesday, September 7, 1999

  The House met at 12 o'clock noon and was called to order by the 
Speaker pro tempore [Mr. Hoyer].

                              

                   DESIGNATION OF SPEAKER PRO TEMPORE

  The SPEAKER pro tempore laid before the House the following 
communication from the Speaker.


                                             Washington, DC,  
                                                March 25, 1999.

       I hereby designate the Honorable Jack Metcalf to act as 
Speaker pro tempore on Friday, March 26, 1999.
                                                 Dennis Hastert,  
                         Speaker of the House of Representatives.

                              

                               PRAYER \1\

  The Chaplain, Rev. James David Ford, D.D., offered the following 
prayer:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Head is not used when the Speaker is in the chair. See 
following example.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  O sing to the Lord a new song, for He has done marvelous things!--
Psalm 98:1.
  O Lord, You have been with us all our days and blessed us with gifts 
both great and small. We give thanks that when our spirits were low, 
You gave new strength, and when we were discouraged, You gave new hope. 
As You have promised to Your people a new song of joy and peace, so 
enable us to commit ourselves to the way of truth that we may be 
ministers of righteousness and heralds of peace in our own day and 
time. Amen.
        
  The House met at 2 p.m.
  The Chaplain, Rev. James David Ford, D.D., offered the following 
prayer:
  We and all the generations before us have found assurance and 
strength in the Book of Psalms and so we are bold to pray: We give 
thanks to the Lord, for He is good, for His steadfast love endures 
forever. We give thanks to the God of gods, for His steadfast love 
endures forever. O let us give thanks to the Lord of lords, for His 
steadfast love endures forever.
  We pray, gracious God, that You would lift our eyes and hearts and 
minds so that we would see Your steadfast love in all we do. And help 
us to translate that abiding grace so that we relate to other people 
with deeds of justice and with hearts of mercy. This is our earnest 
Prayer. Amen.

                              

                              THE JOURNAL

  The SPEAKER. The Chair has examined the Journal of the last day's 
proceedings and announces to the House his approval thereof.
  Pursuant to clause 1, rule I, the Journal stands approved.

                              

                         SWEARING IN OF MEMBERS

  The SPEAKER. The Chair understands there are some Members present who 
desire to take the oath at this time. Will those Members who have not 
taken the oath of office kindly step to the well.
  The Speaker administered the oath of office to the following Members-
elect:

                              

                        OATH OF OFFICE OF MEMBER

  The oath of office required by the sixth article of the Constitution 
of the United States, and as provided by section 3 of the act of May 
13, 1884 (23 Stat. 22), to be administered to Members of the House of 
Representatives, the text of which is carried in section 1757 of title 
XIX of the Revised Statutes of the United States and being as follows:
      ``I, A B, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and 
    defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies 
    foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to 
    the same; that I take this obligation freely without any mental 
    reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and 
    faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about 
    to enter. So help me God.''

[[Page 280]]

has been subscribed to in person and filed in duplicate with the Clerk 
of the House of Representatives by the following Member of the 92d 
Congress, pursuant to Public Law 412 of the 80th Congress entitled ``An 
act to amend section 30 of the Revised Statutes of the United States'' 
(2 U.S.C. 25), approved February 18, 1948:
  Richard W. Mallary, at Large District of Vermont.

                              

                        MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE

  A message from the Senate by Mr. Lundregan, one of its clerks, 
announced that the Senate had passed without amendment a concurrent 
resolution of the House of the following title:

       H. Con. Res. 290. Concurrent resolution reaffirming that 
deposits, up to the statutorily prescribed amount, in federally 
insured depository institutions are backed by the full faith and 
credit of the United States.

  The message also announced that the Senate had passed a bill of the 
following title, in which the concurrence of the House is requested:

       S. 2158. An act to amend title 23, United States Code, to 
authorize and direct the payment of an incentive grant for highway 
safety programs to any State in the first fiscal year during which 
the State adopts provisions relating to driving while intoxicated; 
to establish a national driver register, and for other purposes.

  The message also announced that the Secretary be directed to request 
the House of Representatives to return to the Senate the bill (S. 907) 
entitled ``An act to amend sections 351 and 1751 of title 18 of the 
United States Code to provide penalties for crimes against Cabinet 
officers, Supreme Court Justices, and Presidential staff members, and 
for other purposes.''
  [Observe that bills from the Senate to the House read An act. If 
the copy should read A bill, change to An act in conformity with 
this rule, and place number first. Note also the following forms:]
  The message also announced that the Senate had passed a joint 
resolution (S.J. Res. 20) making available the sum of $150,000 for the 
construction, etc.
  The message also announced that the Senate had adopted the following 
resolution:

                              S. Res. 209

       Resolved, That the Senate has heard with profound sorrow 
the announcement of the death of Hon. Henry B. Steagall, late a 
Representative from the State of Alabama, etc.

                              

                       MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT

  A message in writing from the President of the United States was 
communicated to the House by Mr. Leomar, one of his secretaries, who 
also informed the House that on the following dates the President 
approved and signed bills and a joint resolution of the House of the 
following titles:

       On June 2, 1971:
       H.R. 4209. An act to amend the Revised Organic Act of the 
Virgin Islands.
       On June 4, 1971:
       H.R. 5765. An act to extend for 6 months the time for 
filing the comprehensive report of the Commission on the 
Organization of the Government of the District of Columbia; and
       H.J. Res. 583. Joint resolution designating the last full 
week in July of 1971 as ``National Star Route Mail Carriers 
Week.''
  [Observe that bills coming from the President take the form of 
An act. This rule must be followed invariably, even if the copy 
reads A bill.]

                              

               AT LAST--SOME GOOD NEWS IN SOCIAL SECURITY

  (Mr. HOYER asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 
minute and to revise and extend his remarks.)
  Mr. HOYER. Mr. Speaker, last Friday, for the first time since the 
early 1970's * * *.

                              

                          MRS. VIRGINIA THRIFT

  Mr. GOSS. Mr. Speaker, by direction of the Committee on House 
Administration, I offer a privileged resolution (H. Res. 321) and ask 
for its immediate consideration.
  The Clerk read as follows:

                              H. Res. 321

       Resolved, That there shall be paid out of the contingent 
fund of the House to Mrs. Virginia Thrift, widow of Chester R. 
Thrift, late an employee of the House, an

[[Page 281]]

amount equal to six months' salary compensation at the rate he was 
receiving at the time of his death, and an additional amount not 
to exceed $250 to defray funeral expenses of the said Chester R. 
Thrift.
  The resolution was agreed to.
  A motion to reconsider was laid on the table.

                              

                    BILLS PRESENTED TO THE PRESIDENT

  Mr. SOLOMON, from the Committee on Rules, reported that that 
committee did on this day present to the President, for his approval, 
bills of the House of the following titles:

       H.R. 3331. An act for the relief of Harry L. Smith; and
       H.R. 3366. An act to amend section 409 of the Interstate 
Commerce Act, relating to joint rates of freight forwarders and 
common carriers by motor vehicle.

                              

                         ENROLLED BILLS SIGNED

  Mr. HAYES, from the Committee on House Administration, reported that 
that committee had examined and found truly enrolled bills of the House 
of the following titles, which were thereupon signed by the Speaker:

       H.R. 4209. An act to amend the Revised Organic Act of the 
Virgin Islands; and
       H.R. 8190. An act making supplemental appropriations for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, and for other purposes.

                              

                          THE PRIVATE CALENDAR

  The SPEAKER. The Clerk will call the first bill on the Private 
Calendar.

                              

                               JOHN SIMS

  The Clerk called the first bill on the Private Calendar, H.R. 399, 
for the relief of John Sims.
  There being no objection, the Clerk read the bill, as follows:

                                H.R. 399

       Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the 
Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to pay to 
John Sims, Mobile, Alabama, the sum of $5,000.

  The SPEAKER. The gentleman from Florida offers an amendment, which 
the Clerk will report.
  The Clerk read as follows:

       Amendment by Mr. Goss: In line 4, after the word ``pay'', 
add a comma and the following words: ``out of any money in the 
Treasury not otherwise appropriated''.

  The SPEAKER. The question is on agreeing to the amendment.
  The amendment was agreed to.
  On motion of Mr. Goss, a motion to reconsider the vote by which the 
bill was passed was laid on [not upon] the table.

                              

                         SENATE BILLS REFERRED

  Bills of the Senate of the following titles were taken from the 
Speaker's table and, under the rule, referred as follows:

       S. 962. An act for the relief of Mr. and Mrs. Frank 
Holehan; to the Committee on the Judiciary; and
       S. 1077. An act for the relief of William A. Haag; to the 
Committee on the Judiciary.

  [In the reference of Senate acts to House committees the name of 
the committee will be repeated after each act, though there may be 
several acts referred to the same committee.]

                               ----------

         COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE HOUSE ON THE STATE OF THE UNION

            RAIL SAFETY AND SERVICE IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1982

  The SPEAKER. Pursuant to House Resolution 336 and rule XXIII, the 
Chair declares the House in the Committee of the Whole House on the 
State of the Union for the consideration of the bill (H.R. 6308), to 
ensure rail safety, provide for the preservation of rail service, 
transfer responsibility for the Northeast corridor improvement project 
to Amtrak * * *.
  The SPEAKER pro tempore. The Chair designates the gentleman from 
Massachusetts [Mr. Frank] as Chairman of the Committee of the Whole and 
requests the gentleman

[[Page 282]]

from New York [Mr. McHugh] to assume the chair temporarily.

                     in the committee of the whole

  Accordingly the House resolved itself into the Committee of the Whole 
House on the State of the Union for the consideration of the bill, H.R. 
6308, with Mr. McHugh, Chairman pro tempore, in the chair.
  The Clerk read the title of the bill.
  The CHAIRMAN pro tempore. Pursuant to the rule, the first reading of 
the bill is dispensed with.
  Under the rule, the gentleman from New Jersey [Mr. Andrews] will be 
recognized for 30 minutes and the gentleman from New York [Mr. Gilman] 
will be recognized for 30 minutes.
  The CHAIRMAN. Pursuant to the rule, the text of H.R. 6911 shall be 
considered by titles as an original bill for the purpose of amendment 
under the 5-minute rule in lieu of the amendments recommended by the 
Committees on Energy and Commerce and Interior and Insular Affairs. 
Each title shall be considered as having been read.
  The Clerk will designate section 1.
  The Clerk read as follows:

That this Act may be referred to as the ``Rail Safety and Service 
Improvement Act of 1982''.

  The CHAIRMAN. Are there any amendments to section 1? If not, the 
Clerk will designate title I.
  The text of title I is as follows:

                     amendment offered by mr. hoyer

  Mr. HOYER. Mr. Chairman, I offer an amendment.
  The Clerk read as follows:

       Amendment offered by Mr. Hoyer: Page 2, line 4, strike out 
``a new subsection as follows'' and insert in lieu thereof ``the 
following new subsections''.
       Page 2, line 16, strike out the quotation mark and the 
period which follows it.
       Page 2, after line 16, insert the following:
       ``(j) The Secretary shall within 30 days report to Congress 
on whether it should issue rules, regulations, orders, and 
standards to require that the leading car of any railroad train in 
operation after July 1, 1983, be equipped with an acceptable form 
of mounted oscillating light.''.

                    CONFERENCE REPORT AND STATEMENT

  Conference reports and statements to be set in 7 point.
  Use 3-point space before and after conference report and 
statement.
  In the House the names of Members are to be first.
  Follow copy literally in the report. Observe the form 
Amendments numbered 1, 2, 3, etc., and when the amendment is to 
make an independent paragraph, the phrase And the Senate [or 
House] agree to the same will be a paragraph by itself; 
otherwise it will be run in after the amendment with a 
semicolon. Examples of each are given in the report following.
  In the statement change numbered, when in copy, to No., as 
amendment No. 1, but do not supply No. or amendment if omitted 
in copy; otherwise regular style will prevail.

                Conference Report (H. Rept. No. 97-747)

       The committee of conference on the disagreeing votes of the 
two Houses on the amendments of the Senate to the bill (H.R. 6863) 
making supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year ending 
September 30, 1982, and for other purposes, having met, after full 
and free conference, have agreed to recommend and do recommend to 
their respective Houses as follows:
       That the Senate recede from its amendments numbered 7, 9, 
14, 31, 38, 39, 40, 52, 53, 56, 75, 76, 80, 81, 94, 102, 109, 116, 
118, 129, 133, 141, 142, 148, 152, 154, 155, 162, 163, 164, 171, 
173, 179, and 181.
       That the House recede from its disagreement to the 
amendments of the Senate numbered 20, 23, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 
34, 35, 36, 46, 48, 54, 61, 68, 70, 77, 78, 79, 87, 99, 101, 104, 
105, 106, 110, 111, 125, 127, 134, 136, 139, 156, 157, 165, 167, 
168, 170, 174, 175, and 176, and agree to the same.
       Amendment numbered 16:
       That the House recede from its disagreement to the 
amendment of the Sen

[[Page 283]]

ate numbered 16, and agree to the same with an amendment, as 
follows:
       In lieu of the sum proposed by said amendment insert 
$4,400,000; and the Senate agree to the same.
       Amendment numbered 27:
       That the House recede from its disagreement to the 
amendment of the Senate numbered 27, and agree to the same with an 
amendment, as follows:
       In lieu of the sum proposed by said amendment insert 
$53,700,000; and the Senate agree to the same.
     John T. Myers
       (except amendments
         54 and 177),
     Clarence E. Miller,
     Lawrence Coughlin,
     Steny H. Hoyer,
     George M. O'Brien,
       Managers on the Part of the House.
     Dale Bumpers,
     Daniel K. Inouye,
     Ernest F. Hollings,
     Tom Harkin,
     Richard H. Bryan,
     J. Bennett Johnston,
     Ron Wyden,
     Patrick J. Leahy,
     Dianne Feinstein,
       Managers on the Part of the Senate.

       Joint Explanatory Statement of the Committee of Conference

       The managers on the part of the House and the Senate at the 
conference on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the 
amendments of the Senate to the bill (H.R. 6863), making 
supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year 1982, rescinding 
certain budget authority, and for other purposes, submit the 
following joint statement to the House and the Senate in 
explanation of the effect of the action agreed upon by the 
managers and recommended in the accompanying conference report:

                                TITLE I

                  CHAPTER I--DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

                       Soil Conservation Service
                        conservation operations

       Amendment No. 1: Reported in technical disagreement. The 
managers on the part of the House will offer a motion to recede 
and concur in the amendment of the Senate which allows the Soil 
Conservation Service to exchange a parcel of land in Bellingham, 
Washington, for other land.
       In lieu of the matter inserted by said amendment, insert 
the following:

                       Food and Nutrition Service
                        child nutrition programs

       If the funds available for Nutrition Education and Training 
grants authorized under section 19 of the Child Nutrition Act of 
1966, as amended, require a ratable reduction in those grants, the 
minimum grant for each State shall be $50,000.
       The managers on the part of the Senate will move to concur 
in the amendment of the House to the amendment of the Senate.
       Committee on Agriculture: Solely for consideration of title 
I of the House bill and title I of the Senate amendment:
     E de la Garza,
     Thomas S. Foley,
     David R. Bowen,
     Fred Richmond,
     Bill Wampler,
     Paul Findley
       (on all matters
         except as listed
         below),
     Tom Hagedorn
       (on all matters
         except as listed
         below),

                              

Amendments

  [As figures are used in bills to express sums of money, dates, 
paragraph numbers, etc., amendments involving such expressions 
must be set in figures thus: Strike out ``$840'' and insert 
``$1,000'', etc. For other enumerations, etc., follow the copy as 
the data is picked up from the bill and used for the Record and 
then picked up from the Record and used for the report.]

                              

                         EMANUEL F. LENKERSDORF

  The Clerk called the bill (H.R. 2520) for the relief of Emanuel F. 
Lenkersdorf.
  There being no objection, the Clerk read the bill as follows:

                               H.R. 2520

       Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That for the 
purposes of the Immigration and Nationality Act, Emanuel F. 
Lenkersdorf shall be held and considered to have been lawfully 
admitted to the United States for permanent residence as of the 
date of the enactment of this Act, upon payment of the required 
visa fee. Upon the granting of permanent residence to such alien 
as provided for in this Act, the Secretary of State shall instruct 
the proper officer to deduct one number from the total number of 
immigrant visas and conditional entries which are made available 
to natives of the country of the alien's birth under paragraphs 
(1) through (8) of section 203(a) of the Immigration and 
Nationality Act.

  With the following committee amendment:

       On page 2, strike lines 4 through 6 and insert in lieu 
thereof: ``which are made

[[Page 284]]

available to natives of the country of the alien's birth under 
section 203(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act or, if 
applicable, from the total number of such visas which are made 
available to such natives under section 202(e) of such Act.''.

  The committee amendment was agreed to.
  The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time, was read 
the third time, and passed, and a motion to reconsider was laid on the 
table.

                              

 CONTESTED ELECTION, CAR- TER AGAINST LeCOMPTE--MESSAGE FROM THE CLERK 
           OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (H. DOC. NO. 235)

  The SPEAKER laid before the House the following message from the 
Clerk of the House of Representatives, which was read and, with the 
accompanying papers, referred to the Committee on House Administration:
August 23, 1997.
The Honorable the Speaker,
House of Representatives.
       Sir: I have the honor to lay before the House of 
Representatives the contest for a seat in the House of 
Representatives from the Fourth Congressional District of the 
State of Iowa, Steven V. Carter against Karl M. LeCompte, notice 
of which has been filed in the office of the Clerk of the House; 
and also transmit herewith original testimony, papers, and 
documents relating thereto.

                              

                            LEAVE OF ABSENCE

  By unanimous consent, leave of absence was granted to:
  Mr. Yates (at the request of Mr. Foley), on account of illness in the 
family.
  Mr. Broyhill (at the request of Mr. Michel), for today, on account of 
a death in the family.
  Mr. D'Amours (at the request of Mr. Wright), for today, on account of 
a death in the family.

                              

                         SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED

  By unanimous consent, permission to address the House, following the 
legislative program and any special orders heretofore entered, was 
granted to:
  (The following Members (at the request of Mr. Hastert) to revise and 
extend their remarks and include extraneous material:)
  Mr. Bethune, for 60 minutes, today.
  Mr. Martin of North Carolina, for 30 minutes, today.

                              

                          EXTENSION OF REMARKS

  By unanimous consent, permission to revise and extend remarks was 
granted to:
  Mr. Eckart, to revise and extend his remarks on H.R. 6324 at the 
conclusion of general debate.
  (The following Members (at the request of Mr. Hastert) and to include 
extraneous matter:)
  Mr. Michel.
  Mr. Madigan in two instances.

                              

                              ADJOURNMENT

  Mr. ANDREWS. Mr. Speaker, I move that the House do now adjourn.
  The motion was agreed to; accordingly (at 6 o'clock and 9 minutes 
p.m.), the House adjourned until tomorrow, Wednesday, August 18, 1982, 
at 10 a.m.

                              

                                 RECESS

  The SPEAKER pro tempore. Pursuant to the order of the House of 
December 17, 1982, the Chair declares a recess subject to the call of 
the Chair. Bells will be rung 15 minutes prior to the reconvening of 
the House.
  Accordingly (at 5 o'clock and 56 minutes p.m.), the House stood in 
recess subject to the call of the Chair.

                              

                              {time}  2130

                              AFTER RECESS

  The recess having expired, the House was called to order by the 
Speaker pro tempore [Mr. Hoyer] at 9 o'clock and 35 minutes p.m.

  [Follow copy as to expressing time of adjournment as 6 o'clock 
and 25 minutes p.m., or 6:25 p.m.]


[[Page 285]]

                     MOTION TO DISCHARGE COMMITTEE

                                                      March 17, 1952.  
To the Clerk of the House of Representatives:
  Pursuant to clause 4 of rule XXVII, I, Percy J. Priest, move to 
discharge the Committee on Banking and Currency from the consideration 
of the bill (H.R. 2887) entitled ``A bill transferring certain 
functions of the Price Administrator, with respect to petroleum and 
petroleum products, to the Petroleum Administrator for War,'' which was 
referred to said committee March 7, 1952, in support of which motion 
the undersigned Members of the House of Representatives affix their 
signatures, to wit:
  1. Percy J. Priest.
  2. Oren Harris.
  217. William E. Hess.
  218. James G. Polk.
  This motion was entered upon the Journal, entered in the 
Congressional Record with signatures thereto, and referred to the 
Calendar of Motions To Discharge Committees, February 21, 1952.
House briefs
  [The briefs follow at end of day's proceedings. Heads and dashes 
to be used as shown here. This data is supplied from the House and 
is printed as submitted.]

                              

                     EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATIONS, ETC.

  Under clause 2 of rule XXIV, executive communications were taken from 
the Speaker's table and referred as follows:

       4593. A communication from the President of the United 
States, transmitting proposed requests for transfer authority and 
appropriation language for fiscal year 1982, amended appropriation 
requests, and amended appropriation language for fiscal year 1983 
(H. Doc. No. 97-228); to the Committee on Appropriations and 
ordered to be printed.
 
      4594. A letter from the Assistant Secretary of Defense 
(Comptroller), transmitting notice of the proposed obligation of 
$4.8 million in the Navy stock fund for war reserve stocks, 
pursuant to section 734, Public Law 97-114; to the Committee on 
Appropriations.

       4595. A letter from the Director for Facility Requirements 
and Resources, Department of Defense, transmitting notice of the 
location, nature, and estimated cost of various construction 
projects proposed to be undertaken by the Naval and Marine Corps 
Reserve, pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 2233a(1); to the Committee on Armed 
Services.

  [Use the following form if only one communication is submitted--
8 point:]

  194. Under clause 2 of rule XXIV, a letter from the Secretary of the 
Treasury, transmitting a statement of the estimated cost of revised 
central heating, lighting, and powerplant project, Washington, DC (H. 
Doc. No. 97-102), was taken from the Speaker's table, referred to the 
Committee on Public Works, and ordered to be printed.

                              

         REPORTS OF COMMITTEES ON PUBLIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS

  Under clause 2 of rule XIII, reports of committees were delivered to 
the Clerk for printing and reference to the proper calendar, as 
follows:

       Mr. DINGELL: Committee on Energy and Commerce. H.R. 5008. A 
bill to amend the Communications Act of 1934 to make certain 
technical revisions regarding the administration of such act, and 
for other purposes; with an amendment (Rept. No. 97-751). Referred 
to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union.

                              

         REPORTS OF COMMITTEES ON PRIVATE BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS

  Under clause 2 of rule XIII, reports of committees were delivered to 
the Clerk for printing and reference to the proper calendar, as 
follows:

       Mr. GLICKMAN: Committee on the Judiciary. H.R. 3171. A bill 
for the relief of Dr. David Pass (Rept. No. 97-440). Referred to 
Committee of the Whole House.
       Mr. KINDNESS: Committee on the Judiciary. H.R. 3835. A bill 
for the relief of Rutherford K. Clarke and his wife, Ida T. Clarke 
(Rept. No. 97-441). Referred to Committee of the Whole House.
       Mr. MOORHEAD: Committee on the Judiciary. H.R. 4350. A bill 
for the relief of Arthur J. Grauf (Rept. No. 97-442). Referred to 
the Committee of the Whole House.
  [Use above form also when only one report is submitted.]


[[Page 286]]

                      PUBLIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS

  Under clause 5 of rule X and clause 4 of rule XXII, public bills and 
resolutions were introduced and severally referred as follows:

       By Mr. CUNNINGHAM:
       H.R. 3876. A bill to amend the Juvenile Justice and 
Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 to authorize appropriations for 
fiscal years 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000; and for other purposes; to 
the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities.
       By Mr. DICKEY (for himself, Mr. Hutchinson, Mrs. Lincoln, 
          and Mr. Thornton):
       H.R. 3877. A bill to designate the U.S. post office 
building in Camden, AR, as the ``Honorable David H. Pryor Post 
Office Building''; to the Committee on Government Reform and 
Oversight.

  [Use the following form when only one bill or resolution is 
submitted:]

  Under clause 5 of rule X and clause 4 of rule XXII:

       Mr. DORNAN introduced a bill (H.R. 4344) to amend title 10, 
United States Code, to provide that a member of the Armed Forces 
who is diagnosed as being HIV-positive within 1 year of entering 
military service shall be considered to have entered the Armed 
Forces under a fraudulent enlistment or appointment; which was 
referred to the Committee on National Security.

                              

                               MEMORIALS

  Under clause 4 of rule XXII, memorials were presented and referred as 
follows:

  [Use the following form when submitted by the Speaker if By the 
Speaker is not in copy:]

       200. By the SPEAKER: Memorial of the Senate of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, relative to the persecution of 
Soviet Jews; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.
       201. Also, memorial of the Legislature of the State of 
Oklahoma, relative to the development of Oklahoma's water 
resources; to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.
       202. Also, memorial of the Legislature of the State of 
Alabama, relative to the posthumous restoration of Robert E. Lee's 
citizenship; to the Committee on the Judiciary.

  [Use the following form when only one memorial is submitted:]

  Under clause 4 of rule XXII,

       203. The SPEAKER presented a memorial of the Legislature of 
the State of Rhode Island, ratifying the proposed amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States extending the right to vote to 
citizens 18 years of age and older; to the Committee on the 
Judiciary.

                              

                     PRIVATE BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS

  Under clause 1 of rule XXII, private bills and resolutions were 
introduced and severally referred as follows:

       By Mr. ATKINSON:
       H.R. 6583. A bill for the relief of Mohamed Tejpar and 
Nargis Tejpar; to the Committee on the Judiciary.
       By Mr. AuCOIN:
       H.R. 6584. A bill for the relief of Celia Maarit Halle; to 
the Committee on the Judiciary.
  [Use the following form when only one bill or resolution is 
submitted:]
  Under clause 1 of rule XXII,

       Mr. LANTOS introduced a bill (H.R. 6766) for the relief of 
Shanna Teresa Millich; which was referred to the Committee on the 
Judiciary.

                              

                          ADDITIONAL SPONSORS

  Under clause 4 of rule XXII, sponsors were added to public bills and 
resolutions as follows:

       H.R. 756: Mr. Kemp.
       H.R. 757: Mr. Kemp.
       H.R. 767: Mr. Fazio.
       H.R. 768: Mr. Goodling.
       H.R. 1368: Mr. Simon.
       H.R. 1918: Mr. Luken.
       H.R. 2034: Mr. Rousselot, Mr. Emery, and Mrs. Collins of 
Illinois.

                              

  [Note.--Set sponsors caps and Members caps and lower case.]

                          DISCHARGE PETITIONS

  Under clause 3 of rule XXVII, the following discharge petitions were 
filed:

       Petition 6, October 7, 1993, by Mr. SENSENBRENNER on H.R. 
1025 has been signed by the following Members: F. James 
Sensenbrenner, Jr., John Edward Porter, Marjorie Margolies-
Mezvinsky, Henry J. Hyde, and Porter J. Goss.

                              

              DISCHARGE PETITIONS--ADDITIONS OR DELETIONS

  The following Members added their names to the following discharge 
petitions:


[[Page 287]]


       Petition 1 by Mr. SOLOMON on H.R. 493: Bill Emerson, Craig 
Thomas, F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr., Dave Camp, Dick Swett, and 
Bob Franks.

                              

                            PETITIONS, ETC.

  Under clause 1 of rule XXII, petitions and papers were laid on the 
Clerk's desk and referred as follows:

       468. By the SPEAKER: Petition of Board of County 
Commissioners, Citrus County, Inverness, FL, relative to defense 
contracts; to the Committee on Armed Services.
       469. Also, petition of the Transport Workers Union of 
America, Railroad Division, relative to railroad retirement funds; 
to the Committee on Energy and Commerce.
       470. Also, petition of the Monroe County Legislature, 
Rochester, NY, relative to nuclear weapons; to the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs.

                              

                               AMENDMENTS
  Under clause 6 of rule XXIII, proposed amendments were submitted as 
                                follows:

                               H.R. 1817

                        Offered By: Mr. Browder

       Amendment No. 1: Page 2, line 12, strike ``$625,608,000'' 
and insert ``$611,608,000''.

[[Page 288]]

                       CONGRESSIONAL RECORD INDEX

                          GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

  Set in 7 point on 8 point, Record measure (168 points, 14 
picas).
  Cap lines and italic lines are set flush left.
  Entries are indented 1 em, with overs 2 ems.
  Bill introductions are to be identified as to sponsor or 
cosponsor.
  Bullet following page number in index identifies unspoken 
material.
  Pages are identified as S (Senate), H (House), and E 
(Extensions).
  Pages in bound Record index are entered numerically, without 
S, H, or E prefixes.

                       ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

                 (for use on notation of content line)

ABBREVIATIONS:
          Streets: St.; Ave.; Ct.; Dr.; Blvd.; Rd.; Sq.; Ter.
                       Names: Jr.; Sr.; II (etc.)
Businesses: Co.; Corp. (this includes all Federal corporations); Inc.; 
                                  Ltd.; Bros.

Dept. of Agriculture.........................  Sec. of Agriculture.
Dept. of Commerce............................  Sec. of Commerce.
Dept. of Defense.............................  Sec. of Defense.
Dept. of Education...........................  Sec. of Education.
Dept. of Energy..............................  Sec. of Energy.
Dept. of Health and Human Services...........  Sec. of Health and . . .
Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.......  Sec. of Housing and . . .
Dept. of the Interior........................  Sec. of the Interior.
Dept. of Justice.............................  Attorney General.
Dept. of Labor...............................  Sec. of Labor.
Dept. of State...............................  Sec. of State.
Dept. of Transportation......................  Sec. of Transportation.
Dept. of the Treasury........................  Sec. of the Treasury.
Dept. of Veterans Affairs....................  Sec. of Veterans Affairs.
 
 

           States: See page 149, GPO Style Manual, rule 9.13.
ACRONYMS:

Agency for International Development.........  AID
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome...........  AIDS
Aid to families with dependent children......  AFDC
American Association of Retired Persons......  AARP
American Bar Association.....................  ABA
American Civil Liberties Union...............  ACLU
American Federation of Labor and Congress of   AFL-CIO
 Industrial Organizations.
American Medical Association.................  AMA
British Broadcasting Corp....................  BBC
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms......  ATF
Bureau of Indian Affairs.....................  BIA
Bureau of Land Management....................  BLM
Bureau of Labor Statistics...................  BLS
Cable News Network...........................  CNN
Cable Satellite Public Affairs Network.......  C-SPAN
Central Intelligence Agency..................  CIA
Civil Service Retirement System..............  CSRS

[[Page 289]]

 
Civilian Health and Medical Program of the     CHAMPUS
 Uniformed Services.
Commodity Credit Corp........................  CCC
Commodity Futures Trading Commission.........  CFTC
Comprehensive Environmental Response,          CERCLA
 Compensation and Liability Act.
Congressional Budget Office..................  CBO
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation     COBRA
 Act.
Consumer Product Safety Commission...........  CPSC
Daughters of the American Revolution.........  DAR
Defense Intelligence Agency..................  DIA
Deoxyribonucleic acid........................  DNA
Disabled American Veterans...................  DAV
Drug Enforcement Administration..............  DEA
Employee Retirement Income Security Act......  ERISA
Environmental Protection Agency..............  EPA
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission......  EEOC
Export-Import Bank...........................  Eximbank
Federal Aviation Administration..............  FAA
Federal Bureau of Investigation..............  FBI
Federal Communications Commission............  FCC
Federal Crop Insurance Corp..................  FCIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp...............  FDIC
Federal Election Commission..................  FEC
Federal Emergency Management Agency..........  FEMA
Federal Employee Retirement System...........  FERS
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.........  FERC
Federal Housing Administration...............  FHA
Federal Insurance Contribution Act...........  FICA
Federal National Mortgage Association........  Fannie Mae
Federal Reserve System.......................  FRS
Federal Trade Commission.....................  FTC
Food and Drug Administration.................  FDA
General Accounting Office....................  GAO
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.......  GATT
General Services Administration..............  GSA
Government Printing Office...................  GPO
Grand Old Party (Republican Party)...........  GOP
Health maintenance organization(s)...........  HMO(s)
Human immunodeficiency virus.................  HIV
Gross national product.......................  GNP
Immigration and Naturalization Service.......  INS
Internal Revenue Service.....................  IRS
International Business Machines Corp.........  IBM
International Monetary Fund..................  IMF
International Trade Commission...............  ITC
Legal Services Corp..........................  LSC
Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program....  LIHEAP
Missing in action............................  MIA(s)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration  NASA
National Association for the Advancement of    NAACP
 Colored People.
National Broadcasting Co.....................  NBC
National Collegiate Athletic Association.....  NCAA
National Institute of Standards and            NIST
 Technology.
National Institutes of Health................  NIH
National Labor Relations Board...............  NLRB
National Oceanic and Atmospheric               NOAA
 Administration.
National Railroad Passenger Corp.............  Amtrak
National Rifle Association...................  NRA
National Security Council....................  NSC
National Science Foundation..................  NSF
National Transportation Safety Board.........  NTSB
North American Free Trade Agreement..........  NAFTA
North Atlantic Treaty Organization...........  NATO
Nuclear Regulatory Commission................  NRC
Occupational Safety and Health Administration  OSHA
Office of Management and Budget..............  OMB
Office of Personnel Management...............  OPM
Office of Thrift Supervision.................  OTS
Organization of American States..............  OAS

[[Page 290]]

 
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries  OPEC
Overseas Private Investment Corp.............  OPIC
Palestine Liberation Organization............  PLO
Parent-Teachers Association..................  PTA
Prisoners of war.............................  POW
Public Broadcasting Service..................  PBS
Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization Act  RICO
Reserve Officers' Training Corps.............  ROTC
Securities Exchange Commission...............  SEC
Small Business Administration................  SBA
Social Security Administration...............  SSA
Strategic arms limitation talks..............  SALT
Strategic arms reduction talks...............  START
Strategic defense initiative.................  SDI
Supplemental security income.................  SSI
Tennessee Valley Authority...................  TVA
United Auto Workers..........................  UAW
United Nations...............................  U.N.
United Nations Children's Fund...............  UNICEF
United Nations Educational Scientific and      UNESCO
 Cultural Organization.
Veterans of Foreign Wars.....................  VFW
Voice of America.............................  VOA
Women, Infants, and Children Program.........  WIC
World Health Organization....................  WHO
Young Men's Christian Association............  YMCA
Young Women's Christian Association..........  YWCA
 

                                SPACING

  Biweekly Record index folioed in upper right and left corner; 
no extra spacing.
  Bound Record index folioed in upper right and left corner; no 
extra spacing.
  History of Bills folioed in upper right and left corner using 
H.B. numbers; no extra spacing.
  Bound History of Bills folioed in lower right and left 
corner, first folio numerically higher than the last folio of 
index; no extra spacing.

                             CAPITALIZATION

                        Guide for Capitalization

  Capitalize principal words after these formats:
                               Addresses
                                Analyses
                              Appendices
                   Article or editorials
                             Biographies
                            Book reviews
                                Booklets
                               Brochures
                      Conference reports
                            Descriptions
                               Documents
                                  Essays
              Essays: Voice of Democracy
                                Eulogies
                            Explanations
                              Factsheets
                               Forewords
                               Histories
                                Homilies
                                   Hymns
                             Memorandums
                                Messages
                         Oaths of office
                               Pamphlets
                                  Papers
                               Platforms
                                   Poems
                                 Prayers
                     Prayers by visitors
                                Prefaces
                          Press releases
                           Proclamations
                                 Reports
                            Report filed
                 Reports to constituents
             Resolutions of ratification
                                 Resumes
                                 Sermons

[[Page 291]]


                                   Songs
                              Statements
                                 Studies
                               Summaries
                                 Surveys
                                Synopses
                             Testimonies
                             Transcripts
                                Treaties

    Lowercase after these formats:
                          Advertisements
                              Affidavits
                                  Agenda
                              Agreements
                              Amendments
                           Announcements
                            Appointments
                                  Awards
                   Bills and resolutions
       Bills and resolutions cosponsored
        Bills and resolutions introduced
       Bills and resolutions relative to
                                  Briefs
                               Briefings
                              Broadcasts
                               Bulletins
                                  Cables
                 Certificate of election
                            Chronologies
                               Citations
                                Civilian
                         Cloture motions
                              Colloquies
                            Commentaries
                                Comments
                     Communications from
                             Communiques
                             Comparisons
                          Cost estimates
                         Court decisions
                         Court documents
                            Declarations
                             Dedications
                             Definitions
                             Description
    Designation acting president pro tem
      Designation acting speaker pro tem
                                 Digests
                              Dispatches
                                Examples
                                Excerpts
                        Executive orders
                    Financial statements
                                 Granted
                    Granted in the House
                   Granted in the Senate
                              Guidelines
                                Hearings
                            Inscriptions
                              Interviews
                           Introductions
                             Invocations
                                Journals
                                 Letters
                                   Lists
                                Meetings
                                Military
                                 Motions
                             Newsletters
                                 Notices
                              Obituaries
                           Opinion polls
                                  Orders
                                Outlines
                               Petitions
                 Petitions and memorials
                       Press conferences
                  Privilege of the floor
                                Programs
                                Projects
                               Proposals
                          Questionnaires
                               Questions
                   Questions and answers
                              Quotations
                                Recorded
                             Regulations
                                 Remarks
                        Remarks in House
            Remarks in House relative to
                       Remarks in Senate
           Remarks in Senate relative to
                            Resignations
            Resolutions by organizations
                                 Results
                                 Reviews
                               Rollcalls
                                 Rosters
                                   Rules
                    Rulings of the chair
                               Schedules
                        Subpoena notices
                               Subpoenas
                                  Tables
                               Telegrams
                                   Tests
                                Texts of
                            Transmittals
                                Tributes
                           Voting record

                              PUNCTUATION

  Comma precedes folio figures.
  If numbers of several bills are given, use this form: S. 24, 
2586; H.R. 217, 2887, etc.; that is, do not repeat S. or H.R. 
with each number. Separate the Senate and House bills with a 
semicolon: S. 24; H.R. 217.

[[Page 292]]

  In consecutive numbers (more than two) use an en dash to 
connect first with last: S46-S48, 518-520.
  Quotes are used for book titles.
  A 3-em dash is used as a ditto for word or words leading up 
to colon: example:

      Taxation: farm property
      ------tuition
      ------withholding

                            ROMAN AND ITALIC

  Use italic for Members of Congress descriptive data:

      THURMOND, STROM (a Senator from South Carolina);
      GILMAN, BENJAMIN A. (a Representative from New York).

  Names of vessels in italic:

      Brooklyn (USS);
      Savannah (nuclear ship);
      Columbia (space shuttle).

                            FLUSH CAP LINES

  All cap lines are separate entries. They are set flush with 
overs indented 2 ems. Examples:

      THURMOND, STROM (a Senator from South Carolina) 
      GILMAN, BENJAMIN A.  (a Representative from New York)
      PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (William J. Clinton)
      VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (Al Gore)
      COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS AND TRANSPORTATION (House)
      COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS (Senate)
      FARMS see Agriculture
      SENATE see also Committees of the Senate; House of
          Representatives; Legislative Branch of the 
        Government;
          Members of Congress; Votes in Senate
      DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR see also Secretary of the
          Interior
      PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTMENTS
      VOTES IN HOUSE
      VOTES IN SENATE

[[Page 293]]

                        Style of Biweekly Index

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]

ABDYIRIM, ABLIKIM
Remarks in Senate
  China, People's Republic of: release of Rebiya Kadeer, Ablikim 
    Abdyirim, and Kahriman Abdukirim (S. Con. Res. 81), S3269, 
    S3270 [2MY]
Texts of
  S. Con. Res. 81, People's Republic of China release of Rebiya 
    Kadeer, Ablikim Abdyirim, and Kahriman Abdukirim, S3270 [2MY]
ABERCROMBIE, NEIL (a Representative from Hawaii)
Bills and resolutions cosponsored
  BATF: expand powers to regulate firearms, ammunition, firearm 
    products, and non-powder firearms (see H.R. 920), H2411 [2MY]
  Capital punishment: reduce the risk that innocent persons may be 
    executed (see H.R. 4167), H2607 [4MY]
  Children and youth: provide State grants to improve child care 
    (see H.R. 2175), H2512 [3MY]
  Fish and fishing: establish a fisheries habitat protection, 
    restoration, and enhancement program (see H.R. 4278), H2412 
    [2MY]
  Foreign aid: prohibit application of certain restrictive 
    eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental and 
    multilateral organizations (see H.R. 4211), H2412 [2MY]
  Higher Education Act: repeal provisions prohibiting persons 
    convicted of drug offenses from receiving student financial 
    assistance (see H.R. 1053), H2411 [2MY]
  King, Martin Luther, Jr.: mint coins in commemoration (see H.R. 
    3633), H2411 [2MY]
  Medicare: coverage of marriage and family therapist services 
    (see H.R. 2945), H2607 [4MY]
  ------demonstration project to provide coverage for cancer 
    patients enrolled in certain clinical trials (see H.R. 1388), 
    H2606 [4MY]
  ------revise inflation update factor used in making payments to 
    prospective payment system hospitals (see H.R. 3580), H2411 
    [2MY]
  Petroleum: prohibit use of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), 
    provide flexibility within the EPA's oxygenate requirements, 
    and promote the use of renewable ethanol (see H.R. 4011), 
    H2411 [2MY]
  Pope John Paul II: award Congressional Gold Medal (see H.R. 
    3544), H2411 [2MY]
  Postal Service: amend pay policies and schedules and fringe 
    benefit programs for postmasters (see H.R. 3842), H2512 [3MY]
  Taxation: allow credit to businesses who employ military 
    reservists and a comparable credit to self-employed military 
    reservists, and restore deductions for services performed by 
    military reservists (see H.R. 3915), H2411 [2MY]
Bills and resolutions introduced
  Equal Pay Day: observance (see H. Con. Res. 318), H2606 [4MY]
ABORTION
Amendments
  Women: prohibit partial-birth abortions (S. 1692), S2833 [25AP]
Remarks in Senate
  Civil liberties: pro choice versus right to life, S2832-S2835 
    [25AP]
  Women: prohibit partial-birth abortions, S2832-S2835 [25AP]
ABRAHAM, SPENCER (a Senator from Michigan)
Amendments
  Elementary and Secondary Education Act: extend programs and 
    activities (S. 2), S3547 [4MY]
Bills and resolutions cosponsored
  FEMA: make grants to fire departments to improve public safety 
    against fire and fire-related hazards (see S. 1941), S3544 
    [4MY]
  Financial institutions: allow payment of Financing Corporation 
    interest obligations from excess deposit insurance fund 
    reserves (see S. 2293), S3031 [27AP]
  Food: improve safety of imported foods (see S. 2480), S3023 
    [27AP]
  Latvia: independence anniversary (see S. Con. Res. 110), S3514 
    [4MY]
  Medicaid: coverage of breast and cervical cancer treatment 
    services for certain women screened

[[Page 294]]

    under federally funded programs (see S. 662), S2870 [25AP]
  National Child's Day: designate (see S. Res. 296), S2865 [25AP]
  National Correctional Officers and Employees Week: designate 
    (see S. Res. 248), S3545 [4MY]
  Navajo Code Talkers: award Congressional Gold Medal (see S. 
    2408), S3264 [2MY]
  Reagan, Ronald and Nancy: award Congressional Gold Medal (see S. 
    2459), S2865 [25AP]
Bills and resolutions introduced
  Children's Internet Safety Month: designate (see S. Res. 294), 
    S2865 [25AP]
Remarks
  Armenia: anniversary of genocide, S2851 [25AP]
  Children's Internet Safety Month: designate (S. Res. 294), S2873 
    [25AP]
  Detroit, MI: Comerica Park Construction Management Team 
    recipient of Great Lakes Construction Alliance Gender and Race 
    Diversification Excellence Award, S2860 [25AP]
  ------Dept. of Human Rights recipient of Great Lakes 
    Construction Alliance Gender and Race Diversification 
    Excellence Award, S2861 [25AP]
  ------Greater Detroit Building and Construction Trades Council 
    recipient of Great Lakes Construction Alliance Gender and Race 
    Diversification Excellence Award, S2860 [25AP]
  Elementary and Secondary Education Act: allow State and local 
    agencies to use professional development funding for teacher 
    testing, merit-based pay, and tenure reform programs, S3454, 
    S3455, S3493, S3494 [4MY]
  ------extend programs and activities (S. 2), S3453, S3454, 
    S3455, S3469, S3493, S3494 [4MY]
  Grand Rapids, MI: anniversary, S2935 [26AP]
  Lansing, MI: tribute to Waverly High School boys' basketball 
    team, S2861 [25AP]
  Latin Americans for Social and Economic Development, Inc.: 
    tribute, S2861 [25AP]
  National Charter Schools Week: observance, S3016 [27AP]
  Trumbull, Robin: Battle Creek (MI) Enquirer George Award 
    recipient, S2860 [25AP]
Tributes
  Halik, Richard J., S3507 [4MY]
ACKERMAN, GARY L. (a Representative from New York)
Bills and resolutions cosponsored
  Children and youth: construction and renovation of child care 
    facilities (see H.R. 3889), H2607 [4MY]
  Equal Pay Day: observance (see H. Con. Res. 318), H2606 [4MY]
  King, Martin Luther, Jr.: mint coins in commemoration (see H.R. 
    3633), H2607 [4MY]
Remarks
  Hassan, Ayhan: Residents for a More Beautiful Port Washington 
    (organization) Annual Spring Gala honoree, E618 [3MY]
ADAIR, E. ROSS (a former Representative from Indiana) 
Remarks in Senate relative to
  E. Ross Adair Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse, Fort Wayne, 
    IN: designate (H.R. 2412), S3557 [4MY]
ADELPHI UNIVERSITY
Remarks in House
  School of Social Work: anniversary, E622 [3MY]
ADERHOLT, ROBERT B. (a Representative from Alabama)
Bills and resolutions cosponsored
  Elementary and Secondary Education Act: allow States and local 
    school districts flexibility in allocating Federal funds (see 
    H.R. 4141), H2607 [4MY]
  Water pollution: exempt discharges from certain silviculture 
    activities from permit requirements of the national pollutant 
    discharge elimination system (see H.R. 3625), H2512 [3MY]
Remarks
  Winfield, AL: tribute to Carraway Methodist Health Systems, 
    E656 [4MY]
ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE, U.S. COURTS see Courts
ADOPTION see Families and Domestic Relations
ADVERTISING
Bills and resolutions
  Entertainment industry: develop, use, and enforce a system for 
    labeling violent content in audio and visual media products 
    and services (see S. 2497), S3258 [2MY]
Remarks in House
  Computers: regulate the transmission of unsolicited commercial 
    electronic mail (H.R. 3113), H2514 [4MY]
Remarks in Senate
  Political campaigns: ethics reform and contribution limits, 
    S3011 [27AP]
AERONAUTICS see Aviation
AFRICA
Appointments
  Conferees: H.R. 434, Trade and Development Act, H2469 [3MY]
Articles and editorials
  Still Wanted, S2868 [25AP]
Bills and resolutions
  Dept. of Agriculture: support exchange programs whereby African-
    American farmers and other agricultural specialists share 
    technical knowledge with African farmers to improve farming in 
    Africa (see H.R. 4378), H2605 [4MY]
  Dept. of State: provide rewards for information relative to 
    serious violations of international law in Rwanda (see S. 
    2460), S2865 [25AP]
  Disasters: efforts to avert drought and famine (see H. Con. Res. 
    316), H2511 [3MY]
  Foreign policy: authorize trade and investment policy relative 
    to sub-Saharan Africa (H.R. 434), consideration of conference 
    report (see H. Res. 489), H2605 [4MY]
  House Rules: same-day consideration of certain resolutions (see 
    H. Res. 488), H2511 [3MY]
Conference reports
  Trade and Development Act (H.R. 434), H2514-H2552 [4MY]
Letters
  Human rights violations by rebel forces in Sierra Leone: 
    Representative Wolf, H2430, H2431 [3MY]
  Trade and investment policy relative to sub-Saharan Africa and 
    certain beneficiary countries in the Caribbean: John D. 
    Podesta, Executive Office of the President, H2581 [4MY]

[[Page 295]]

           History of bills and resolutions in biweekly index

  In history of bills, sequence is: Senate bills, Senate joint 
resolutions, Senate concurrent resolutions, and Senate 
resolutions; then House bills, House joint resolutions, House 
concurrent resolutions, and House resolutions: S. 14, S.J. Res. 
7, S. Con. Res. 26, S. Res. 5, H. 980, H.J. Res. 9, H. Con. 
Res. 16, and H. Res. 50.

SENATE BILLS

S. 2--A bill to extend programs and activities under the Elementary and 
Secondary Education Act of 1965; to the Committee on Health, Education, 
Labor, and Pensions.
  Reported with amendment (S. Rept. 106-261), S2615 [12AP]
  Debated, S3051 [1MY], S3230 [2MY], S3284 [3MY], S3453 [4MY], S3575 
[8MY], S3629, S3665 [9MY]
  Amendments, S3051, S3197 [1MY], S3265, S3266 [2MY], S3284, S3333, 
S3334, S3447, S3448, S3449 [3MY], S3460, S3547, S3548, S3549, S3550, 
S3552 [4MY], S3616 [8MY], S3638, S3739, S3772, S3773, S3774, S3775, 
S3778, S3781 [9MY], S3851 [10MY], S4026 [16MY]
  Removal of cosponsors, S3331 [3MY]
S. 11--A bill for the relief of Wei Jingsheng; to the Committee on the 
Judiciary.
  Reported (no written report), S5240 [15JN]
S. 12--A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to eliminate 
the marriage penalty by providing that income tax rate bracket amounts, 
and the amount of the standard deduction, for joint returns shall be 
twice the amounts applicable to unmarried individuals; to the Committee 
on Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S334 [3FE]
S. 13--A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide 
additional tax incentives for education; to the Committee on Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S1127 [2MR]
S. 20--A bill to assist the States and local governments in assessing 
and remediating brownfield sites and encouraging environmental cleanup 
programs, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Environment and 
Public Works.
  Cosponsors added, S2870 [25AP]
S. 26--A bill entitled the ``Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 1999''; 
to the Committee on Rules and Administration.
  Cosponsors added, S1029 [1MR]
S. 28--A bill to authorize an interpretive center and related visitor 
facilities within the Four Corners Monument Tribal Park, and for other 
purposes; to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.
  Message from the House, S15 [24JA]
  Examined and signed in the Senate (November 30, 1999), S15 [24JA]
  Presented to the President (November 30, 1999), S16 [24JA]
  Approved [Public Law 106-143] (signed December 7, 1999)
S. 38--A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to phase out 
the estate and gift taxes over a 10-year period; to the Committee on 
Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S689 [22FE]
S. 39--A bill to provide a national medal for public safety officers 
who act with extraordinary valor above the call of duty, and for other 
purposes; to the Committee on the Judiciary.
  Cosponsors added, S689 [22FE]
S. 56--A bill to repeal the Federal estate and gift taxes and the tax 
on generation-skipping transfers; to the Committee on Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S334 [3FE]
S. 59--A bill to provide Government wide accounting of regulatory costs 
and benefits, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Governmental 
Affairs.
  Cosponsors added, S1749 [27MR]
S. 60--A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide 
equitable treatment for contributions by employees to pension plans; to 
the Committee on Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S870 [28FE]
S. 63--A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a 
credit against tax for employers who provide child care assistance for 
dependents of their employees, and for other purposes; to the Committee 
on Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S4024 [16MY]
S. 67--A bill to designate the headquarters building of the Department 
of Housing and Urban Development in Washington, District of Columbia, 
as the ``Robert C. Weaver Federal Building''; to the Committee on 
Environment and Public Works.
  Message from the House, S15 [24JA]
  Examined and signed in the Senate (November 30, 1999), S15 [24JA]
  Presented to the President (November 30, 1999), S16 [24JA]
  Approved [Public Law 106-162] (signed December 9, 1999)
S. 71--A bill to amend title 38, United States Code, to establish a 
presumption of service-connection for certain veterans with Hepatitis 
C, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs.
  Cosponsors added, S689 [22FE], S1127 [2MR], S1610 [22MR]
S. 74--A bill to amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to provide 
more effective remedies to victims of discrimination in the payment of 
wages on the basis of sex, and for other purposes; to the Committee on 
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.
  Cosponsors added, S119 [27JA], S3615 [8MY], S3922 [11MY], S4207 
[18MY]
S. 85--A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to reduce the 
tax on vaccines to 25 cents per dose; to the Committee on Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S4024 [16MY]

[[Page 296]]

S. 92--A bill to provide for a biennial budget process and a biennial 
appropriations process and to enhance oversight and the performance of 
the Federal Government; to the Committee on the Budget and the 
Committee on Governmental Affairs, jointly, pursuant to the order of 
August 4, 1977, with instructions that if one Committee reports, the 
other Committee have thirty days to report or be discharged.
  Cosponsors added, S119 [27JA], S634 [10FE], S1185 [6MR], S2117 [4AP]
S. 96--A bill to regulate commerce between and among the several States 
by providing for the orderly resolution of disputes arising out of 
computer-based problems related to processing data that includes a 2- 
digit expression of that year's date; to the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation.
  Indefinitely postponed, S646 [10FE]
S. 109--A bill to improve protection and management of the 
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area in the State of Georgia; 
to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.
  Indefinitely postponed, S646 [10FE]
S. 113--A bill to increase the criminal penalties for assaulting or 
threatening Federal judges, their family members, and other public 
servants, and for other purposes; to the Committee on the Judiciary.
  Cosponsors added, S4692 [7JN]
S. 116--A bill to establish a training voucher system, and for other 
purposes; to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.
  Cosponsors added, S334 [3FE]
S. 119--A bill to establish a Northern Border States-Canada Trade 
Council, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S492 [8FE], S689 [22FE]
S. 132--A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide 
comprehensive pension protection for women; to the Committee on 
Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S870 [28FE]
S. 135--A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to increase 
the deduction for the health insurance costs of self-employed 
individuals, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Finance.
  Cosponsors added, S1610 [22MR]

SENATE JOINT RESOLUTIONS

S.J. Res. 3--A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States to protect the rights of crime 
victims; to the Committee on the Judiciary.
  Cosponsors added, S551 [9FE], S747 [23FE], S1467 [20MR], S1914 
[29MR], S2546 [11AP]
  Reported (S. Rept. 106-254), S2106 [4AP]
  Debated, S2696 [13AP]
  Consideration of motion to proceed to consideration, S2818, S2820, 
S2835 [25AP], S2897 [26AP], S2966 [27AP]
  Removal of cosponsors, S2872 [25AP]
S.J. Res. 14--A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States authorizing Congress to prohibit the 
physical desecration of the flag of the United States; to the Committee 
on the Judiciary.
  Reported (S. Rept. 106-246), S1461 [20MR]
  Debated, S1706 [27MR], S1765 [28MR], S1833, S1857 [29MR]
  Amendments, S1706, S1722, S1750, S1751 [27MR]
  Failed of passage, S1874 [29MR]
S.J. Res. 26--A joint resolution expressing the sense of Congress with 
respect to the courtmartial conviction of the late Rear Admiral Charles 
Butler McVay, III, and calling upon the President to award a 
Presidential Unit Citation to the final crew of the U.S.S. 
Indianapolis.
  Cosponsors added, S691 [22FE]
S.J. Res. 30--A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States relative to equal rights for women 
and men; to the Committee on the Judiciary.
  Cosponsors added, S160 [31JA], S217 [1FE]
S.J. Res. 38--A joint resolution to provide for a Balanced Budget 
Constitutional Amendment that prohibits the use of Social Security 
surpluses to achieve compliance; to the Committee on the Judiciary.
  By Mr. VOINOVICH (for himself and Mr. Gramm), S285 [2FE]
  Text, S291 [2FE]
  Cosponsors added, S1030 [1MR]
S.J. Res. 39--A joint resolution recognizing the 50th anniversary of 
the Korean War and the service by members of the Armed Forces during 
such war, and for other purposes; to the Committee on the Judiciary.
  By Mr. CAMPBELL, S328 [3FE]
  Text, S334 [3FE], S1437 [9MR]
  Cosponsors added, S493 [8FE], S551 [9FE], S635 [10FE], S692 [22FE], 
S1030 [1MR], S1186 [6MR], S1328 [8MR], S1422 [9MR]
  Reported (no written report), S1391 [9MR]
  Passed Senate, S1437 [9MR]
  Message from the Senate, H923 [13MR]
S.J. Res. 40--A joint resolution providing for the appointment of Alan 
G. Spoon as a citizen regent of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution; to the Committee on Rules and Administration.
  By Mr. COCHRAN (for himself, Mr. Moynihan, and Mr. Frist), S930 
[29FE]
  Text, S951 [29FE], S2645 [12AP]
  Committee discharged. Passed Senate, S2645 [12AP]
  Message from the Senate, H2242 [13AP]
  Referred to the Committee on House Administration, H2334 [13AP]
  Rules suspended. Passed House, H2364 [2MY]
  Text, H2364 [2MY]
  Message from the House, S3326 [3MY]
  Examined and signed in the House, H2511 [3MY]
  Presented to the President (May 4, 2000), S3510 [4MY]
  Approved [Public Law 106-198] (signed May 5, 2000)




[[Page 297]]


 
                        20. REPORTS AND HEARINGS

  The data for these publications arrives at the GPO from many 
different sources. The congressional committee staff people are 
responsible for the gathering of the information printed in 
these publications.
  The report language is compiled from the meetings of the 
attorneys and congressional members and submitted along with 
the bill language to the clerks of the respective Houses. The 
clerks assign the report numbers, etc., and forward to the GPO 
for typesetting and printing. In many instances the reports are 
camera ready copy, needing only insertion of the assigned 
report number.
  Likewise, hearings are also compiled by committee staff 
members. The data or captured keystrokes as submitted by the 
various reporting services are forwarded to the GPO where the 
element identifier codes are programmatically inserted and 
galley or page output is accomplished without manual 
intervention. It is not cost effective to prepare the 
manuscript as per the GPO Style Manual as it is too time-
consuming to update and change the data once it is already in 
type form. Therefore, these publications are to be FIC & punc., 
unless specifically requested otherwise by the committee. It is 
not necessary to stamp the copy. However, style, as stated in 
the following rules, will be followed.

               STYLE AND FORMAT OF CONGRESSIONAL REPORTS

  [In either Senate or House reports, follow bill style in extracts 
from bills. Report numbers run consecutively from first to second 
session.]
  There are set forth below certain rules which the Government 
Printing Office has been authorized to follow in the makeup of 
congressional numbered reports:
  1. All excerpts to be set in 10-point type, cut in 2 ems on 
each side, except as noted in paragraph 3 below. For ellipses 
in cut-in matter, lines of five stars are used.
  2. Contempt proceedings to be considered as excerpts.
  3. The following are to be set in 10-point type, but not cut 
in:
      (a) Letters which are readily identified as such by 
    salutation and signature.
      (b) Appendixes and/or exhibits which have a heading 
    readily identifying them as such; and
      (c) Matter printed in compliance with the Ramseyer 
    rule.\1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \1\ Ramseyer rule.--House: If report has ``Changes in Existing Law'' 
use caps and small caps for heads, except for breakdown within a cap 
and small cap head.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 298]]

  4. All leaderwork and lists of more than six items to be set 
in 8-point type.
  5. All tabular work to be set in 7-point gothic type.
  6. An amendment in the nature of a substitute to be set in 8-
point type, but quotations from such amendment later in the 
report to be treated as excerpts, but set full measure (see 10 
below).
  7. Any committee print having a report head indicated on 
original copy to be set in report type and style.
  8. Committee prints not having a report head indicated on 
original copy to be set in committee print style; that is, 
excerpts to be set in 8 point, full measure.
  9. If a committee print set as indicated in paragraph 8 is 
later submitted as a report or included in a report, and the 
type is available for pickup, such type shall be picked up and 
used as is in the report.
  10. On matter that is cut in on the left only for purposes of 
breakdown, no space is used above and below, but on all matter 
that is cut in on both sides, 4 points are used above and 
below. If a bill is submitted as an excerpt, it will not be 
squeezed because of the indentions and the limited number of 
element identifiers.
  11. On reports of immigration cases, set memorandums full 
measure unless preceded or followed directly by committee 
language. Memorandums are indented on both sides if followed by 
such language. Preparers should indicate the proper indention 
on copy.
  12. Order of printing (Senate reports only): (1) Report, (2) 
minority or additional views, (3) Cordon rule \2\ (last unless 
an appendix is used), (4) appendix (if any).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \2\ Cordon rule.--Senate: If report has ``Changes in Existing Law'' 
use small cap heads, except for breakdown within a cap and small cap 
head.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  13. Minority or additional views will begin a new page with 
10-point cap heading. In Senate reports, ``Changes in Existing 
Law'' begins a new page if following ``views.'' In conference 
reports, ``Joint Explanatory Statement'' begins a new odd page.
  14. Minority or additional views are only printed if they 
have been signed by the authoring congressperson.

                              

                          [Sample of excerpt]

    In Palmer v. Mass., decided in 1939, which involved the 
reorganization of the New Haven Railroad, the Supreme Court 
said:

          The judicial processes in bankruptcy proceedings 
        under section 77 are, as it were, brigaded with the 
        administrative processes of the Commission.

[[Page 299]]

              [Sample of an excerpt with an added excerpt]

    The Interstate Commerce Commission in its report dated 
February 29, 1956, which is attached hereto and made a part 
hereof, states that it has no objection to the enactment of S. 
3025, and states, in part, as follows:

          The proposed amendment, however, should be considered 
        together with the provisions of section 959(b), title 
        28, United States Code, which reads as follows:
          ``A trustee, receiver, or manager appointed in any 
        cause pending in any court of the United States,'' etc.

                              

                         [Sample of amendment]

    On page 6, line 3, strike the words ``and the service'', 
strike all of lines 4, 5, and 6, and insert in lieu thereof the 
following:

        and, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the 
        service credit authorized by this clause 3 of rule XIII 
        of the Rule of the House of Representatives, change 
        shall not--
          (A) be included in establishing eligibility for 
        voluntary or involuntary retirement or separation from 
        the service, under any provision of law;

                              

                         [Sample of amendment]

    The amendments are indicated in the bill as reported and 
are as follows:
    On page 2, line 15, change the period to a colon and add 
the following:

        Provided, That such approaches shall include only those 
        necessary portions of streets, avenues, and boulevards, 
        etc.

    On page 3, line 12, after ``operated'', insert ``free of 
tolls''.

                              

          [Sample of amendment in the nature of a substitute]

    The amendment is as follows:
    Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

That the second paragraph under the heading ``National Park Service'' 
in the Act of July 31, 1953 (67 Stat. 261, 271), is amended to read as 
follows: ``The Secretary of the Interior shall hereafter report in 
detail all proposed awards of concessions leases and contracts 
involving a gross annual business of $100,000 or more, or of more than 
five years in duration, including renewals thereof, sixty days before 
such awards are made, to the President of the Senate and Speaker of the 
House of Representatives for transmission to the appropriate 
committees.''

                              

                 [Sample of letter inserted in report]

    The Department of Defense recommends enactment of the 
proposed legislation and the Office of Management and Budget 
interposes no objection as indicated by the following attached 
letter, which is hereby made a part of this report:

[[Page 300]]

                                                    March 21, 1999.
Hon. Dennis Hastert,
Speaker of the House of Representatives,
Washington, DC.
    My Dear Mr. Speaker: There is forwarded herewith a draft of 
legislation to amend section 303 of the Career Compensation 
Act.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

            Sincerely yours,
                               Deborah P. Christie,
                            Assistant Secretary of the Navy
                                            (Financial Management).

                              

[Sample of cut-in for purposes of breakdown; no spacing above or below]

    Under uniform regulations prescribed by the Secretaries 
concerned, a member of the uniformed services who--
          (1) is retired for physical disability or placed upon 
        the temporary disability retired list; or
          (2) is retired with pay for any other reason, or is 
        discharged with severance pay, immediately following at 
        least eight years of continuous active duty (no single 
        break therein of more than ninety days);
may select his home for the purposes of the travel and 
transportation allowances payable under this subsection, etc.

                              

                         [Sample of leaderwork]

    Among the 73 vessels mentioned above, 42 are classified as 
major combatant ships (aircraft carriers through escort 
vessels), in the following types:

Forrestal-class aircraft carriers.................................     4
Destroyers........................................................    10
     * * * * * * *
Guided-missile submarine..........................................     1
                                                                  ______
      Total.......................................................    42

                              

                     [Sample of sectional analysis]

                           sectional analysis

Section 1. Increase of 1 year in constructive service for promotion 
        purposes
    The principal purpose of the various subsections of section 
1 is to provide a 1-year increase for medical and dental 
officers in * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[[Page 301]]


Subsection 101(a) is in effect a restatement of the existing law
    This subsection authorizes the President to make regular 
appointments in the grade of first lieutenant through * * *.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                              

               [Sample of amendment under Ramseyer rule]

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with clause 3 of rule XII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by the 
bill, as introduced, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

Export Control Act of 1949

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                            termination date

    Sec. 12. The authority granted herein shall terminate on 
June 30, [1956] 1959, or upon any prior date which the Congress 
by concurrent resolution or the President may designate.

[[Page 302]]

         [The following examples are for sample purposes only]

                    [Sample of ``Report'' Skeleton]

106th Congress                                              Rept. 106-8
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                     Part 1

======================================================================



 
     SMALL BUSINESS PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1999 \1\

                                _______
                                

              February 5, 1999.--Ordered to be printed \2\

                                _______
                                

    Mr. Burton of Indiana, from the Committee on Government Reform, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                             together with

                             MINORITY VIEWS

                        [To accompany H.R. 391]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Government Reform, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 391) to amend chapter 35 of title 44, United 
States Code, for the purpose of facilitating compliance by 
small businesses with certain Federal paperwork requirements, 
to establish a task force to examine the feasibility of 
streamlining paperwork requirements applicable to small 
businesses, and for other purposes, having considered the same, 
report favorably thereon without amendment and recommend that 
the bill do pass.\3\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ If title makes more than three lines in 10-point caps, set in 
8-point caps.
    \2\ Must be set as indicated in copy. If illustrations accompany 
copy and are not ordered to be printed, do not add with illustrations. 
Return copy to Production Manager.
    \3\ If the wording in this paragraph is prepared in the singular 
form, follow.
    \4\ For Senate Committee on Finance and House Committee on Ways and 
Means, heads are set in bold caps.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         general statement \4\

    The issue of whether or not * * *.

[[Page 303]]

                    [Sample of ``Report'' Skeleton]

                                         Calendar No. 13 \1\
106th Congress                                                   Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session                                                      106-1

======================================================================



 
 THE SOLDIERS', SAILORS', AIRMEN'S AND MARINES' BILL OF RIGHTS ACT OF 
                                  1999

                                _______
                                

                February 2, 1999.--Ordered to be printed

    Filed under authority of the order of the Senate of February 2 
                (legislative day, February 1), 1999 \2\

                                _______
                                

    Mr. Warner, from the Committee on Armed Services, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                             together with

                            ADDITIONAL VIEWS

                          [To accompany S. 4]

    The Committee on Armed Services, to which was referred the 
bill (S. 4), having considered the same, reports favorably 
thereon with an amendment and recommends that the bill do pass.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ Use this type and form only on Senate reports. There is only 
one calendar in the Senate.
    \2\ Style for filed line, if present.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                          Purpose of the Bill

    S. 4 would authorize a 4.8 percent military pay raise, 
effective January 1, 2000, reform the military pay tables, 
revise * * *

[[Page 304]]

                    [Sample of ``Report'' Skeleton]

                                                        Calendar No. 28
106th Congress                                                   Report
                                 SENATE
 1st Session                                                      106-8

======================================================================


 MAKING \1\ EMERGENCY SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS AND RESCISSIONS FOR 
RECOVERY FROM NATURAL DISASTERS AND FOREIGN ASSISTANCE, FOR THE FISCAL 
       YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1999, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES \2\

                                _______
                                

                 March 4, 1999.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

   Mr. Stevens, from the Committee on Appropriations, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 544]

    The Committee on Appropriations reports the bill (S. 544) 
making emergency supplemental appropriations and rescissions 
for recovery from natural disasters and foreign assistance, for 
the fiscal year ending September 30, 1999, and for other 
purposes, reports favorably thereon and recommends that the 
bill do pass.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ If copy reads ``To make'' change to ``Making'', ``To provide'' 
change to ``Providing'', ``To amend'' change to ``Amending''.
    \2\ Sample of 8-point head.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         [Sample of amendments]

    The amendments are as follows:
    Strike all after the enacting clause and insert in lieu 
thereof the following language:

That the first sentence of section 80 of the Hawaiian Organic 
Act as amended (48 U.S.C. 546), is amended further by inserting 
immediately following * * *

    Amend the title so as to read:

    A bill to amend section 80 of the Hawaiian Organic Act, and 
for other purposes.

    The amendments are as follows:
    The amendment to the text strikes all after the enacting 
clause and inserts a complete new text which is printed in 
italic type in the reported bill.
    The amendment to the title is as follows:
    Amend the title so as to read:

          An Act to amend the Federal Water Pollution Control 
        Act to establish a Federal Water Pollution Control * * 
        *

[[Page 305]]

                    [Sample of ``Report'' Skeleton]

106th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session                                                     106-91

======================================================================




        CONCURRENT RESOLUTION ON THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

                                _______
                                

   April 14 (legislative day, April 13), 1999.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Kasich, from the committee of conference, submitted the following

                         CONFERENCE REPORT \1\

                     [To accompany H. Con. Res. 68]

      The committee of conference on the disagreeing votes of 
the two Houses on the amendment of the Senate to the concurrent 
resolution (H. Con. Res. 68), establishing the congressional 
budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2000 
and * * *
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
      \1\ Paragraph indent for conference reports is 2 ems.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
      That the House recede from its disagreement to the 
amendment of the Senate to the text of the resolution and agree 
to the same with an amendment as follows:
      In lieu of the matter proposed to be inserted by the 
Senate amendment, insert the following:

SECTION 1. CONCURRENT RESOLUTION ON THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000.

      (a) Declaration.--Congress determines and declares that 
this resolution is the concurrent resolution on the budget * * 
*

[[Page 306]]

     JOINT EXPLANATORY STATEMENT OF THE COMMITTEE OF CONFERENCE \1\

      The managers on the part of the Senate and the House at 
the conference on disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the 
amendments of the Senate to the concurrent resolution (House 
Concurrent Resolution 68), setting forth the congressional 
budget for the United States for the fiscal years * * *
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ Statement of managers begins new page; in a Conference Report 
it begins a new odd page.

                                   John R. Kasich,
                                   Saxby Chambliss,
                                   Christopher Shays,
                                 Managers on the Part of the House.

                                   Pete V. Domenici,
                                   Chuck Grassley,
                                   Don Nickles,
                                   Phil Gramm,
                                   Slade Gorton,
                                Managers on the Part of the Senate.

[[Page 307]]

              [House Appropriation Hearing, Cover sample]

                 DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, HEALTH AND HUMAN

               SERVICES, EDUCATION, AND RELATED AGENCIES

                        APPROPRIATIONS FOR 2000

_______________________________________________________________________

                                HEARINGS

                                BEFORE A

                           SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE

                       COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS

                         HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                       ONE HUNDRED SIXTH CONGRESS
                              FIRST SESSION
                                ________
  SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, 
                    EDUCATION, AND RELATED AGENCIES
                 JOHN EDWARD PORTER, Illinois, Chairman
 C. W. BILL YOUNG, Florida           DAVID R. OBEY, Wisconsin
 HENRY BONILLA, Texas                STENY H. HOYER, Maryland
 ERNEST J. ISTOOK, Jr., Oklahoma     NANCY PELOSI, California
 DAN MILLER, Florida                 NITA M. LOWEY, New York
 JAY DICKEY, Arkansas                ROSA L. DeLAURO, Connecticut
 ROGER F. WICKER, Mississippi        JESSE L. JACKSON, Jr., Illinois
 ANNE M. NORTHUP, Kentucky
 RANDY ``DUKE'' CUNNINGHAM, California                          

 NOTE: Under Committee Rules, Mr. Young, as Chairman of the Full 
Committee, and Mr. Obey, as Ranking Minority Member of the Full 
Committee, are authorized to sit as Members of all Subcommittees.
  S. Anthony McCann, Robert L. Knisely, Carol Murphy, Susan Ross Firth,
                and Francine Salvador, Subcommittee Staff
                                ________

                                 PART 7A

                             (Pages 1-1658)

               TESTIMONY OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND OTHER
                INTERESTED INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANIZATIONS

                              

                                ________

         Printed for the use of the Committee on Appropriations

[[Page 308]]

            [House Appropriation Hearing, Title Page sample]

                 DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, HEALTH AND HUMAN

               SERVICES, EDUCATION, AND RELATED AGENCIES

                        APPROPRIATIONS FOR 2000

_______________________________________________________________________

                                HEARINGS

                                BEFORE A

                           SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE

                       COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS

                         HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                       ONE HUNDRED SIXTH CONGRESS
                              FIRST SESSION
                                ________
  SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, 
                    EDUCATION, AND RELATED AGENCIES
                 JOHN EDWARD PORTER, Illinois, Chairman

 C. W. BILL YOUNG, Florida            DAVID R. OBEY, Wisconsin
 HENRY BONILLA, Texas                 STENY H. HOYER, Maryland
 ERNEST J. ISTOOK, Jr., Oklahoma      NANCY PELOSI, California
 DAN MILLER, Florida                  NITA M. LOWEY, New York
 JAY DICKEY, Arkansas                 ROSA L. DeLAURO, Connecticut
 ROGER F. WICKER, Mississippi         JESSE L. JACKSON, Jr., Illinois
 ANNE M. NORTHUP, Kentucky
 RANDY ``DUKE'' CUNNINGHAM, California                          

 NOTE: Under Committee Rules, Mr. Young, as Chairman of the Full 
Committee, and Mr. Obey, as Ranking Minority Member of the Full 
Committee, are authorized to sit as Members of all Subcommittees.
  S. Anthony McCann, Robert L. Knisely, Carol Murphy, Susan Ross Firth,
                and Francine Salvador, Subcommittee Staff
                                ________

                                 PART 7A

                             (Pages 1-1658)

               TESTIMONY OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND OTHER
                INTERESTED INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANIZATIONS

                              

                                ________

         Printed for the use of the Committee on Appropriations
                                ________

                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
 57-710                     WASHINGTON : 1999

[[Page 309]]

                        [Back Title Page sample]

                       COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS

                   C. W. BILL YOUNG, Florida, Chairman

 RALPH REGULA, Ohio                     DAVID R. OBEY, Wisconsin
 JERRY LEWIS, California                JOHN P. MURTHA, Pennsylvania
 JOHN EDWARD PORTER, Illinois           NORMAN D. DICKS, Washington
 HAROLD ROGERS, Kentucky                MARTIN OLAV SABO, Minnesota
 JOE SKEEN, New Mexico                  JULIAN C. DIXON, California
 FRANK R. WOLF, Virginia                STENY H. HOYER, Maryland
 TOM DeLAY, Texas                       ALAN B. MOLLOHAN, West Virginia
 JIM KOLBE, Arizona                     MARCY KAPTUR, Ohio
 RON PACKARD, California                NANCY PELOSI, California
 SONNY CALLAHAN, Alabama                PETER J. VISCLOSKY, Indiana
 JAMES T. WALSH, New York               NITA M. LOWEY, New York
 CHARLES H. TAYLOR, North Carolina      JOSE E. SERRANO, New York
 DAVID L. HOBSON, Ohio                  ROSA L. DeLAURO, Connecticut
 ERNEST J. ISTOOK, Jr., Oklahoma        JAMES P. MORAN, Virginia
 HENRY BONILLA, Texas                   JOHN W. OLVER, Massachusetts
 JOE KNOLLENBERG, Michigan              ED PASTOR, Arizona
 DAN MILLER, Florida                    CARRIE P. MEEK, Florida
 JAY DICKEY, Arkansas                   DAVID E. PRICE, North Carolina
 JACK KINGSTON, Georgia                 CHET EDWARDS, Texas
 RODNEY P. FRELINGHUYSEN, New Jersey    ROBERT E. ``BUD'' CRAMER, Jr., 
 ROGER F. WICKER, Mississippi             Alabama
 MICHAEL P. FORBES, New York            JAMES E. CLYBURN, South Carolina
 GEORGE R. NETHERCUTT, Jr.,             MAURICE D. HINCHEY, New York
Washington                              LUCILLE ROYBAL-ALLARD, California
 RANDY ``DUKE'' CUNNINGHAM,             SAM FARR, California
California                              JESSE L. JACKSON, Jr., Illinois
 TODD TIAHRT, Kansas                    CAROLYN C. KILPATRICK, Michigan
 ZACH WAMP, Tennessee                   ALLEN BOYD, Florida
 TOM LATHAM, Iowa
 ANNE M. NORTHUP, Kentucky
 ROBERT B. ADERHOLT, Alabama
 JO ANN EMERSON, Missouri
 JOHN E. SUNUNU, New Hampshire
 KAY GRANGER, Texas
 JOHN E. PETERSON, Pennsylvania     
                                   
                 James W. Dyer, Clerk and Staff Director

                                  (ii)

[[Page 310]]

                  [House Appropriation Hearing sample]



DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, EDUCATION, AND RELATED 
                    AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS FOR 2000

                              ----------                              


 TESTIMONY OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND OTHER INTERESTED INDIVIDUALS AND 
                             ORGANIZATIONS

                              ----------                              

                                           Tuesday, April 13, 1999.

                         EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME

                                WITNESS

MEG HARMON, CITIZEN
    Mr. Porter [presiding]. The subcommittee will come to 
order.
    We begin today 10 sessions of public witnesses. We have 
largely completed the hearings with the three departments and 
the 14 agencies under the * * *

                [Note styles for questions and answers]

                        Questions From Mr. * * *

               Impact of Fiscal Year 2000 Pay Raise Costs

    Question. What are the costs associated with the October 1, 
1999 4.8 percent general pay raise and the raising of the 
executive pay cap on January 1, 2000 for fiscal year 2000?
    Answer. The pay raise for the general scale employees 
increased the budgeted amount by $4,826 for fiscal year 2000.

    [Note the following style for questions and answers when a person 
is either asking or answering:]

    Question. How are you financing these costs?
    Mr. Name. The general scale increase costing $4,826 was 
absorbed by a turnover in one secretarial position, a position 
which was budgeted at the GS-6 level but filled by a GS-4 level 
employee who was hired to replace the former * * *
    Mr. Name. In what program areas are you absorbing these 
costs?
    Answer. Because of the BIB's ability to absorb these fiscal 
year 2000 costs in a manner described in the foregoing answer, 
it has not been necessary to absorb them in program areas.
                              ----------                              

                                        Tuesday, April 13, 1999.{time} 

 MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY AND NATIONAL HEALTH SCIENCES CONSORTIUM

                                WITNESS

DAVID R. MOSENA, PRESIDENT, MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY, CHICAGO, 
    ILLINOIS

    Mr. Porter. Next, we would like to welcome to the witness 
table, Dr. David R. Mosena, this one is mine--the president of 
the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. One of not only 
our city's great treasures, but one of the great treasures of 
the United States.

[[Page 311]]

                 [Senate Appropriation Hearing sample]



AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND RELATED AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS FOR 
                            FISCAL YEAR 2000

                              ----------                              


                       WEDNESDAY, MARCH 18, 1999

                        U.S. Senate,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
  Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations,{time} {time} {time} 
                                                 Washington, DC.{time} 
    The subcommittee met at 9:40 a.m., in room 1224, Everett 
McKinley Dirksen Senate Office Building, Hon. Ted Stevens 
(chairman) presiding.
    Present: Senators Cochran and Inouye.

                       DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

                    Office of the Inspector General

STATEMENT OF ROGER C. VIADERO, INSPECTOR GENERAL
ACCOMPANIED BY:
        SALLY THOMPSON, CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER
        IRWIN T. DAVID, DEPUTY CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER

                       GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE

STATEMENT OF GENE L. DODARO, ASSISTANT COMPTROLLER 
            GENERAL, ACCOUNTING AND INFORMATION 
            MANAGEMENT DIVISION
ACCOMPANIED BY:
        NAME, TITLE
        NAME, TITLE

                       introduction of witnesses

    Senator Stevens. The hearing will come to order.
    This morning we are happy to have representatives of the 
Office of Inspector General and the General Accounting Office 
with us, and I would like to ask that all of you who are here 
to testify come forward. Let's all of you act as one panel, and 
the questions that we have will be directed to both.

                    success of american agriculture

    With a great deal of hard work, ingenuity and technology, 
the United States has become the most productive agricultural 
nation in the world. Modern agriculture, as practiced in the 
United States, has become a technological marvel, soundly based 
on advanced science and finely tuned to economic conditions.

[[Page 312]]

                       [Standard Hearing sample]



         IMPACT OF BUDGET CUTS ON FEDERAL STATISTICAL PROGRAMS 

                              ----------                              


                             MARCH 16, 1999

                                                              House of 
      Representatives,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
                                            Subcommittee on Census and 
                         Population,{time} {time} {time} {time} {time} 
       Committee on Post Office and Civil Service,{time} {time} {time} 
                                                 Washington, DC.{time} 

{time} {time} House of Representatives, Committee on Science 
and{time} {time} {time} 

{time} {time} {time} Technology, Subcommittee on Science, 
Research{time} {time} {time} 

{time} {time} {time} and Technology and the Subcommittee on 
Investi-{time} {time} {time} 

{time} {time} {time} gations and Oversight, \1\
                                                 Washington, DC.{time} 

    The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 9:35 a.m., in 
room 304, Cannon House Office Building, Hon. Name (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ Note style for a long committee name.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Mr. Name. Today the House Census and Population 
Subcommittee continues its series of hearings on the impact of 
the President's budget cuts on the information this Nation will 
have today, tomorrow, and in the future.
    With that we will call up our first panel: Dr. James T. 
Bonnen, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State 
University, and the director of the President's Reorganization 
Project for the Federal Statistical System; and Dr. Stephen E. 
Fienberg, Department of Statistics, the Carnegie-Mellon 
University, and the Chairman of the Committee on National 
Statistics in the National Academy of Sciences.

   STATEMENTS OF JAMES T. BONNEN, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL 
 ECONOMICS, MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY AND STEPHEN E. FIENBERG, 
      DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS, CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY

    Mr. Bonnen. Thank you, Mr. Garcia. It is a pleasure and a 
privilege to be here.
    I have been asked to comment primarily on the central 
coordination of statistical planning and policy which was the 
focus of the study that I directed, as you mentioned.
    Ours is an increasingly complex economy and society. If we 
do not have objective, accurate and relevant information in 
making decisions, our comprehension of the world will forever 
run behind events.




[[Page 313]]

 
                                     INDEX

                             ----------------------

     [Numbers in parentheses refer to rules; italic indicates exact 
              terminology; bold indicates chapter heading]


                                 A

Abbreviations and letter symbols (9.1-9.63)......................147-170
  Addresses:
    Correspondence (16.3, 16.9-16.16).......................217, 219-220
    Ordinals (12.10).................................................185
    signatures, lists of names (9.37, 16.3).....................152, 217
    street (9.16-9.19, 13.6)................................149-150, 191
  article, section (9.39)............................................153
  Calendar divisions (9.44-9.46, 13.5)..........................154, 191
  Closed up, with periods (9.7)......................................147
  College degrees (9.32, 9.35-9.36).............................152, 153
  Comma before and after (8.39)......................................131
  Company, etc. (9.25)...............................................150
    Not abbreviated (9.26)...........................................151
  Congressional terms (9.30, 9.41-9.43, 13.11)..............152-154, 191
  Dates (9.44-9.47, 13.5).......................................154, 191
  et al., etc. (3.53, 8.59)......................................33, 133
  Figure, not abbreviated (9.40).....................................153
  Foreign countries (9.11)...........................................148
  Geographic terms (9.9-9.15)....................................148-149
  Land descriptions (9.20-9.22, 13.9)...........................150, 191
  Latin (9.63, 11.3)............................................168, 177
  Lists (9.61-9.63)..............................................158-170
  Measures, weights, etc. (9.5, 9.50-9.59)..................147, 155-157
  Metric (9.56-9.57).............................................156-157
  Money (9.60, 12.9k)...........................................157, 184
    Foreign..........................................................236
  Numerals used with (9.5, 9.51, 13.4).....................147, 155, 191
  Organized bodies (9.8).............................................148
  Parts of publications (9.38-9.40, 13.10)......................153, 191
  Period used (8.103-8.114)......................................139-140
    Not used (8.115-8.123)...........................................141

  Preparing copy (2.21-2.24)..........................................11

  Provinces, etc. (9.15).............................................149

  Senator, Representative (9.30).....................................152

  States (9.12-9.13).............................................148-149

  Tabular work (13.4-13.13)......................................191-192

  Territories and possessions (9.14).................................149

  Time zones (9.47)..................................................154

  Titles, civil and military (9.29)..................................151
  U.S.:
    Before Government or Government organization (9.9, 3.7).....148, 191
      As adjective (9.10, 13.7).................................148, 191
  Vessels (9.27, 11.6)..........................................151, 177
able, words ending in (5.11)..........................................70
Accents:
  Anglicized and foreign words (5.3-5.4)...........................67-68
  Geographic names (5.20-5.21)........................................72
  List (10.18-10.19).............................................174-176
Acronyms, coined words and symbols (9.48)............................155
  Plurals (8.11, 8.13)...............................................127
Adjectives:
  Capitalization (3.5-3.6)............................................33
  Nationalities......................................................233
Adverbs:
  Ending in ly (6.20).................................................78
Advice to authors and editors (1.1-1.23).............................1-6
Agricultural weights and measures....................................240
Allmark (2.103-2.104, 2.112, 2.117)...............................19, 20
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)........................2, 3
Ampersand (&):
  Comma omitted before (8.56)........................................133
  Firm names (9.25)..................................................150
  Index entries (15.27)..............................................214
Anglicized foreign words (5.3-5.4)....................................67
anyone, any one (6.12)................................................76
Apostrophes and possessives (8.3-8.18)...........................125-128
  Abbreviations (8.11-8.12)..........................................127
  Authentic form in names to be followed (8.6).......................126
  Coined plurals (8.11)..............................................127
  Contractions (8.11)................................................127
  Possessive (8.3-8.8, 8.10).....................................125-126
  Pronouns (8.8-8.9).................................................126
  Spelled-out words (8.13)...........................................127
Appellations (3.31)...................................................29
appendix:
  Abbreviation (9.38)................................................153
  Footnote numbering (15.2)..........................................211
  Part of book (2.3m).................................................10

[[Page 314]]

  Plural form (5.10)..................................................69
Area:
  Abbreviations (9.56, 9.58)....................................156, 157
  Metric equivalents.................................................239
article:
  Abbreviation (9.38)................................................153
  Capitalization (3.11-3.12, 3.49)................................25, 33
  Caps and small caps (9.39).........................................153
  Not abbreviated (9.40).............................................153
Assembly:
  Legislative.........................................................50
  United Nations (3.17)...........................................26, 60
association (9.25)...............................................37, 150
Asterisk(s):
  Ellipses (8.77)....................................................136
  Footnote reference (13.68-13.69, 15.13-15.14, 15.17)..........198, 212
Astronomical:
  Bodies, capitalization (3.30).......................................29
  Time (12.9b).......................................................182
Astrophysical abbreviations (9.59)...................................157
Atomic numbers, etc. (10.16).........................................173


                                 B

Backstrips, run down (2.20)...........................................11
Base lines and meridians.............................................227
basin.................................................................48
B.C. (9.61, 12.9c)..............................................158, 183
Bible, etc. (3.33)................................................29, 38
Bibliography:
  Footnote numbering (15.2)..........................................211
  Government publications (1.22).......................................2
  Part of book (2.31).................................................10
  References (2.130, 8.29, 8.58)............................22, 130, 133
Bill style (2.41).....................................................14
Blank pages, avoid more than two (1.16)................................2
Board on Geographic Names (5.20, 5.21)................................72
Boldface:
  Page numbers, contents (15.30).....................................214
  Punctuation (8.150)................................................145
Braces:
Equations (10.14)....................................................172
Brackets (8.19-8.22).............................................128-129
  Dates abbreviated in (9.45)........................................154
  Emphasis added, etc. (8.19)........................................128
  Equations (8.21, 10.14).......................................129, 172
  Headnotes (13.88-13.89)............................................200
  More than one paragraph (8.22).....................................129
  Type (8.150).......................................................145
Bylines in parentheses (8.101).......................................139


                                 C

Calendar divisions:
  Abbreviations (9.44-9.46, 13.5)...............................154, 191
  Capitalization (3.23)...............................................28
called, so-called (8.128)............................................142
Capacity:
  Abbreviations (9.56, 9.58)....................................156, 157
  Metric equivalents.................................................239
Capitalization rules (3.1-3.57)....................................23-34
  Addresses, salutations, and signatures (3.55, 16.2)............34, 217
  Articles, definite (3.11-3.12)......................................25
  Calendar divisions (3.23)...........................................28
  Common nouns and adjectives (3.5-3.9)............................23-24
  Continued (13.37)..................................................195
  Countries, domains (3.19-3.20)......................................27
  Fanciful appellations (3.31)........................................29
  Firm names..........................................................46
  First words (3.42-3.45)..........................................31-32
  Heads, center and side (3.46-3.54)...............................32-33
  Historic and documentary work (3.57)................................34
  Historic events (3.24)..............................................28
  Holidays, etc. (3.24)...............................................28
  Interjections (3.56)................................................34
  Organized bodies (3.17-3.18).....................................26-27
  Particles (3.13-3.16)............................................25-26
  Proper names (3.2)..................................................23
    Derivatives (3.3, 3.4)............................................23
  Religious terms (3.33)...........................................29-30
  Scientific names (3.26-3.30)........................................29
  Soil names (3.29)...................................................29
  Titles:
    Persons (3.34-3.37)............................................30-31
    Publications, etc. (3.38-3.41)
                                                                      31
  Trade names and trademarks (3.25)...................................28
Capitalization examples............................................35-62
Capitals, foreign....................................................228
Caps and small caps:
  Abbreviation (9.61)................................................158
  article, section (9.39)............................................153
  Capitalization, in heads (3.46, 3.49, 3.51-3.54)................32, 33
  Congressional work.................................................297
  Datelines, addresses, and signatures (9.37, 16.3).............152, 217
  Figure (2.71, 8.112)...........................................16, 140
  Heads spaced with regular justification spaces (2.50)...............14
  Note (8.107, 13.53)...........................................139, 197
  Quotation marks in (11.10).........................................178
  Use of in hearings (8.19)..........................................128
  Vessel names (11.6)................................................177
Celsius (9.53, 9.62)............................................155, 164
Centerheads. (See Heads, center and side.)
Chair (3.32)......................................................29, 40
Chairman (3.35)...................................................30, 40
chapter:
  Abbreviation (9.38)................................................153
  Alignment, in contents (15.28).....................................214
  Capitalization (3.9)............................................24, 40
Chemical:
  Elements:
    Abbreviations (10.16)............................................173
    Atomic numbers, etc. (10.16)
                                                                     173
    Compounding (6.43)................................................82
    List (10.16).....................................................173
    Numerals (6.43, 10.16).......................................82, 173
    Symbols (10.16)..................................................173
  Formulas (6.44, 12.15).........................................82, 186

[[Page 315]]

  Symbols:
    Preparing copy (2.33-2.34)........................................13
    Set in roman (10.16).............................................173
church (3.33).....................................................29, 40
  and state (3.19)................................................27, 40
Ciphers:
  Leaderwork (14.7-14.8).............................................208
  Numerals (12.9d)...................................................183
  Tabular work (13.29-13.36).....................................194-195
Citations:
  Abbreviations (9.42, 9.43, 9.45)...............................153-154
  Biblical, etc. (8.28)..............................................130
  Italic (11.3, 11.8)...........................................177, 178
  Punctuation (8.96, 8.97)...........................................138
Civil and military titles:
  Abbreviations (9.29-9.37)......................................151-153
  Capitalization (3.34-3.37).......................................30-31
  Plurals (5.8).......................................................68
coast (3.22)......................................................28, 40
Code (3.38).......................................................31, 40
Colon (8.23-8.33)................................................129-130
  Affecting use of numerals (12.8)...................................182
  After salutations (8.25, 16.15)...............................129, 220
  Biblical and bibliographic citations (8.28, 8.29, 12.7).......130, 182
  Capitalization following (3.42, 3.44, 8.24, 8.25)..........31, 32, 129
  Ratio (8.31, 8.32).................................................130
  Subentries (8.27, 14.15)......................................129, 208
Colony (3.19).....................................................27, 41
Combining forms (6.29-6.35)........................................80-81
Comma (8.34-8.49)................................................130-132
  Chemical formulas (6.44)............................................82
  Compound sentences (8.43)..........................................131
  Omitted (8.50-8.59)............................................132-133
  Semicolon, used with (8.145).......................................144
commandant (9.30)....................................................152
Commander in Chief (3.35).............................................30
  Compounding (6.40)..................................................82
  Plural (5.8)........................................................68
Commission (3.17).................................................26, 41
Committee.............................................................41
Company:
  Abbreviation (9.25-9.26).......................................150-151
  Ampersand with (9.25)..............................................150
  List................................................................46
Compass directions:
  Abbreviations (9.50)...............................................155
  Capitalization (3.22)...............................................28
  Compound words (6.14)...............................................77
  Land description (9.21)............................................150
Compounding examples (7.1-7.14)...................................85-124
Compounding rules (6.1-6.52).......................................75-84
  Chemical terms (6.42-6.44)..........................................82
  Civil and military titles (6.40-6.41)...............................82
  Fractions (6.38, 12.26-12.28)..................................81, 188
  General rules (6.4-6.7)..........................................75-76
  Improvised compounds (6.46-6.52)....................................83
  Numerical compounds (6.36-6.39, 12.9o)......................81-82, 184
  Prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms (6.29-6.35)..............80-81
    Short prefixes (6.7)..............................................76
  Scientific and technical terms (6.42-6.45)..........................82
  Solid compounds (6.8-6.14).......................................76-77
  Unit modifiers (6.15-6.28).......................................77-80
  Units of measurement (6.45).........................................82
Congressional:
  Abbreviations (9.41-9.43, 13.11)..........................153-154, 191
  Capitalization (3.17)...............................................26
  Ordinals (12.10-12.13).............................................185
Congressional Record.............................................257-296
  Addresses and signatures...........................................267
  Call of the House..................................................266
  Capitalization.....................................................258
  Caps and small caps................................................261
  Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union........264, 281
  Credits............................................................268
  Extensions of Remarks.........................................270, 284
  Extracts...........................................................269
  Figures............................................................259
  Forms of titles....................................................266
  General rules......................................................257
  Index..............................................................288
  Miscellaneous......................................................260
  Parentheses and brackets...........................................263
  Poetry.............................................................268
  Proceedings:
    House............................................................279
    Senate...........................................................271
  Punctuation........................................................262
  Speech heads.......................................................270
  Tabular matter.....................................................259
  Voting:
    House and Committee of the Whole.................................264
    Pairs............................................................266
    Yeas and nays....................................................265
Congressional work:
  Back title.........................................................309
  Cover and title pages.........................................307, 308
  Reports and hearings...............................................297
Consonants:
  a, an, before (5.16-5.19)...........................................72
  Doubled (5.14, 5.15)............................................71, 72
  Hyphen, to avoid tripling (6.7).....................................76
Contents (15.20-15.30)...........................................212-214
  Part of book (2.3i, 2.12).......................................10, 11
  Type (15.28-15.30).................................................214
Contractions: Apostrophe to indicate (8.11, 8.12)....................127
Copy
(see also Preparing copy):
  Blank pages, avoid more than two (1.16)..............................2
  Corrections marked (1.20-1.21).......................................2
  Covers to be indicated (1.14)........................................2
  Fold-ins, avoid use of (1.15)........................................2
  Folioing looseleaf or perforated work (1.13).........................1
  Follow Style Manual (1.1)............................................1
  Footnote references (1.8)............................................1
  Illustrations:
    Instructions (1.9).................................................1

[[Page 316]]

    Position (1.9).....................................................1
    Separate sheets (1.9)..............................................1
  Legible (1.3)........................................................1
  Numbering (1.4)......................................................1
  Paper stock (1.17)...................................................2
  Paragraph, begin with (1.5)..........................................1
  Proofreader's marks (1.23)...........................................4
  Proper names, signatures, etc., plainly marked (1.6).................1
  Reprint, in duplicate (1.4)..........................................1
  Style sheets furnished (1.12)........................................1
  Trim size (1.12, 1.18)............................................1, 2
  Typewritten, one side only (1.4).....................................1
Corrections:
  Author's (1.20-1.21).................................................2
  Proofreading (2.79-2.80)............................................17
Counties and geographic divisions................................243-256
Cover: Kind, to be indicated (1.14, 2.5)...........................2, 10
Crown (3.35)......................................................30, 43


                                 D

Dagger (13.69, 15.14)...........................................198, 212
Dash (8.60-8.75).................................................133-135
  Em dash (8.60-8.70)............................................133-134
  En dash (8.72-8.75)................................................135
    Figures, letters, or figures and letters (8.72-8.73, 
      9.8, 12.7)...........................................135, 148, 182
    Not to be used for and (8.75)................................... 135
    Not to be used for to (8.74, 13.111)........................135, 202
  Proportion (8.32)..................................................130
Date columns. (See Tabular work.)
Datelines, addresses, and signatures (16.1-16.28)................217-224
Dates:
  Abbreviations (9.44-9.45, 13.5)...............................154, 191
  A.D., B.C. (8.52, 12.9c)......................................132, 183
  Commas with (8.49, 8.52, 12.9c)...............................132, 183
  En dash (8.73-8.75, 12.9c)....................................135, 183
  Ordinals in (12.10, 12.19)....................................185, 186
  Roman numerals (12.29).............................................189
  Tabular work (13.5)................................................191
Days:
  Abbreviations (9.46)...............................................154
  Holidays, etc. (3.24)...............................................28
Decimals:
  Alignment (2.27, 13.31)........................................12, 195
  Ciphers with (13.29-13.33).........................................194
  Comma omitted (8.54)...............................................133
  Used with numerals (12.9d).........................................183
Decorations, medals, etc..............................................43
Decree:
  Executive.......................................................43, 45
  Royal (3.38)................................................31, 43, 56
Degree mark:
  Repeated (10.6)....................................................171
  Spacing (12.9f)....................................................183
  With figures (9.50-9.51, 9.53, 10.6, 12.9f)..............155, 171, 183
Degrees
(scholastic, etc.):
  Abbreviations (9.32, 9.33, 9.35-9.36)..............................152
    Closed up (9.7)..................................................147
  Capitalization (9.36)..............................................152
  Sequence of (9.35).................................................152
Deity, words denoting (3.33)......................................29, 43
Derivatives:
  Compounds (6.6).....................................................75
  Proper names (3.3-3.4)..............................................23
  Scientific names (3.26-3.29)........................................29
Devil, etc. (3.33)....................................................29
diseases and related terms............................................44
do. (ditto):
  Leaderwork (14.4, 14.6).......................................207, 208
  Tabular work (13.41-13.50).........................................196
dollar:
  Abbreviation (9.60)................................................157
  Leaderwork (14.7-14.8).............................................208
  Mark (9.60, 12.9k)............................................157, 184
    Repeated (10.6)..................................................171
  Tabular work (13.51-13.56).........................................197
Dr.(9.29, 9.33).................................................151, 152
  Not used with other titles (9.33)..................................152


                                 E

Earth (3.30)......................................................29, 45
Editorial marks (illustration).........................................4
Editors and authors, suggestions (1.1-1.23)..........................1-5
Ellipses (8.77-8.82).................................................136
Emphasis, italic not used (11.2)
                                                                     177
Emphasis added, etc. (11.4)..........................................177
Equations (10.8-10.15)...............................................172
Esq.: Abbreviation (9.32, 9.33, 9.37)...........................152, 153
etc., et cetera (2.28)................................................12
et seq. (11.3).......................................................177
Even space after sentences (2.49)
                                                                      14
everyone, every one (6.12).........................................76-77
Exclamation point (8.83-8.85)....................................136-137
Extracts:
  Footnotes (15.8)...................................................211
  Quotation marks omitted (2.24)
                                                                      11


                                 F

Fahrenheit (9.53)....................................................155
False title (2.3b).....................................................9
FIC & punc. (2.38)..........................................13, 257, 297
figure (2.71, 3.9)................................................16, 24
  Not abbreviated (9.40).............................................153
  Period not used at end (8.112)
                                                                     140
Figures. (See Numerals.)
Firm names. (See Company.)
First words capitalized (3.42-3.45)................................31-32
Flush heads. (See Heads, center and side.)
``Fol.,'' ``Fol. lit.,'' etc. (2.38)..................................13
Fold-ins, oversize, avoided (1.15).....................................2
Footnotes, indexes, contents, and outlines (15.1-15.31)..........211-216
  Leaderwork (14.11-14.13)...........................................208

[[Page 317]]

  References:
    Comma not used (8.50, 15.19)................................132, 212
    Follow punctuation (15.18).......................................212
    Footnote added (2.97).............................................18
      Eliminated (2.110g).............................................18
    Run across (1.8, 13.71).......................................1, 198
    Sequence (15.14).................................................212
    Superior figures (13.67, 15.12).............................198, 212
  Tabular work (13.66-13.85).....................................198-199
  Text (15.1-15.19)..............................................211-212
Foreign:
  Countries:
    Abbreviations (9.11).............................................148
    Capitals of..................................................228-232
    Heads of state...................................................228
    Money............................................................236
      Abbreviations (9.60)......................................157, 236
    Nationalities....................................................233
  Weights and measures...............................................239
    Metric (9.56-9.57)..........................................156-157,
      
                                                                 239-240
  Words:
    Accents (5.3, 5.4)............................................67, 68
    Compounding (6.24)................................................79
    Italic (11.2)....................................................177
Foreword (2.3f)........................................................9
Fort..................................................................47
  Not abbreviated (9.19).............................................150
  State name with (9.12).............................................148
Fractions (12.26-12.28)..............................................188
  Comma omitted (8.54, 12.9e, 12.27).......................133, 183, 188
  Hyphen in (6.38-6.39)...........................................81, 82
  Land descriptions (9.20-9.22)......................................150
  Piece and em (12.27)...............................................188
  Spelled out (6.38, 12.26)......................................81, 188
  Tabular work (13.86-13.87).........................................200
    Alignment (13.63)................................................198
Franking privilege (2.129)............................................21
Frontispiece (2.3a)....................................................9
ful, words ending in (5.9)............................................69


                                 G

General instructions (2.1-2.130)....................................7-22
Germany, West, etc. (3.21, 3.22)..............................27, 28, 61
Gospel, etc. (3.33)...............................................29, 48
Government(s) (3.8, 3.20).....................................24, 27, 48
  Departments, capitalization (3.17)..................................26
  Foreign............................................................228
Governor (3.35)...................................................30, 48
Grades, market........................................................51
Gravity terms (9.53).............................................155-156
Guide meridians......................................................227


                                 H

Halftitle:
  Imprint (2.118).....................................................20
  Part of book (2.3j).................................................10
H-bomb, H-hour (6.51).............................................48, 83
Heads, center and side:
  Capitalization (3.46-3.54).......................................32-33
  Tabular work (13.25-13.27).....................................193-194
Heads of state, foreign..............................................228
Holidays, etc. (3.24).............................................28, 49
Holy Scriptures, etc. (3.33)......................................29, 49
Honorable, etc. (9.31)...............................................152
House.................................................................49
Hyphen
(see also Compounding
    rules):
  Chemical formulas (6.43, 6.44)
                                                                      82
  Civil and military titles (5.8, 6.40-6.41)......................68, 82
  Compass directions (6.14)...........................................77
  Division at end of line (8.87).....................................137
  Fractions (12.26, 12.28)...........................................188
  Numerical compounds (6.36-6.39, 12.9o)......................81-82, 184
  Prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms (6.7, 6.29-6.35).....76, 80-81
  Scientific terms (6.42-6.44)........................................82
  Unit modifiers (6.15-6.28).......................................77-80
    Not used when meaning is clear (6.16).............................77
    Numerical (6.36-6.39, 12.9o)...........................81-82, 184...


                                 I

ibid, id. (11.3).....................................................177
ible, words ending in (5.11)..........................................70
Illustrations:
  Makeup (2.3i, 2.12, 2.18).......................................10, 11
  Separate sheets (1.9)................................................1
Imprints (2.115-2.120).............................................20-21
  Signature marks (1.16, 2.101, 2.112)..........................2, 19-20
Improvised compounds (6.46-6.52)..................................... 83
Inches, picas converted to...........................................241
Indentions (see also
  Overruns) (2.60-2.66)............................................15-16
  Datelines, addresses and signatures (16.5-16.28)...............217-224
  Do. (13.41-13.50)..................................................196
  Extracts (2.24).....................................................11
  Footnote tables (13.84)............................................199
  Paragraphs (2.60-2.66)...........................................15-16
Index (15.20-15.30)..............................................212-214
  Entries (15.27)....................................................214
  Part of book (2.3n).................................................10
  Plural form (5.10)..................................................69
  Roman numerals (15.22).............................................213
  See, see also (11.11, 15.20)..................................178, 212
Inferior figures and letters:
  Chemical elements (6.43)............................................82
  Chemical formulas (10.16, 11.12, 12.15)..................173, 179, 186
  Equations (10.8)...................................................172
  Italic (10.8, 11.12)..........................................172, 179
  Precede superiors (10.15)..........................................172
  Preparing (2.33)....................................................13
infra:
  Italic (11.3)......................................................177
  Not abbreviated (9.49).............................................155
Integral sign (10.14)................................................172
Interjections:
  Capitalization (3.56)...............................................34
  Exclamation point (8.83-8.85)......................................136
Introduction (2.3f)....................................................9
ise, ize, yze (5.12)..................................................71

[[Page 318]]

Italic (11.1-11.15)..............................................177-179
  Aircraft (11.6)....................................................177
  ante, post, etc. (11.3)............................................177
  Continued from (11.11).............................................178
  Credit line (8.66).................................................134
  Datelines, addresses, and signatures (16.5-16.26)..............217-222
  Emphasis (11.2)....................................................177
  Equations (10.7-10.8, 11.12-
    11.13)..................................................171-172, 179
  ``Fol.,'' ``Fol. lit.,'' etc. (2.38)................................13
  Foreign words, etc. (11.2-11.3)....................................177
  Inferior letters (10.8, 11.12)................................172, 179
  infra, supra (11.3)................................................177
  Italic supplied, etc. (11.4).......................................177
  Legal cases (11.8).................................................178
  Legends (2.73, 11.14)..........................................16, 179
  nth degree (11.12).................................................179
  Paragraphs and sections, indicating (11.15)........................179
  Provided, Resolved, etc. (3.45, 11.11).........................32, 178
    To be followed (11.5)............................................177
  Publications, titles of (11.2).....................................177
  Salutations (8.25, 16.14).....................................129, 220
  Scientific names (11.9-11.10)......................................178
  See, see also (11.11, 15.20)..................................178, 212
  Symbols (2.73, 11.12-11.14)....................................16, 179
  Tabular work (13.95-13.96).........................................201
  Units of quantity (13.123, 14.14).............................205, 208
  v. (11.8)..........................................................178
  Vessels (11.6-11.7, 13.95)...............................177, 178, 201
  x dollars (11.12)..................................................179
ize, ise, yze (5.12)..................................................71


                                 J

Journals (2.2).......................................................7-9
Jr., Sr.:
  Abbreviation (9.32, 9.34)..........................................152
  Index entries (15.27)..............................................214
  Punctuation (8.39, 9.34)......................................131, 152
  Type (9.37, 16.3).............................................152, 217


                                 K

King (3.34).......................................................30, 50
known as (8.128).....................................................142


                                 L

Land area abbreviations (9.56).......................................156
Land descriptions (9.20-9.22, 12.9f)............................150, 183
latitude, longitude:
  Abbreviated (9.51, 13.9)......................................155, 191
  Division at end of line (9.52).....................................155
  Spaces omitted (9.51, 12.9f)..................................155, 183
law (3.40)........................................................31, 50
Leaders:
  Abbreviation before (8.123, 13.13)............................141, 192
  Leaderwork (14.1)..................................................207
  Tabular work (13.97-13.101)........................................201
Leaderwork
(see also Tabular work) (14.1-14.20).............................
207-209.................................................................
  Bearoff (14.2).....................................................207
  Clears (14.9)......................................................208
  Columns (14.3).....................................................207
  Continued heads (14.5).............................................208
  Definition (14.1)..................................................207
  Do. (14.6).........................................................208
  Dollar mark and ciphers (14.7-14.8)................................208
  Double up (14.19)..................................................209
  Examples (14.15-14.20).........................................208-209
  Flush items and subheads (14.9-14.10)..............................208
  Footnotes (14.11-14.13)............................................208
  Units of quantity (14.14)..........................................208
Leading and spacing (2.48-2.49)....................................14-15
  Leading:
    Datelines, addresses, and signatures (16.4)......................217
    Extracts (2.54-2.57)..............................................15
    Footnotes (2.58)..................................................15
    Legends (2.59)....................................................15
    Line of stars (8.79).............................................136
    page, section, etc., over figure columns (15.21).................213
    Tabular work:
      Boxheads (13.18)...............................................192
      Centerheads (13.25)............................................193
      Footnotes (13.66)..............................................198
  Spacing:
    Abbreviations with points (9.6)................................. 147
    ac, space after in small-cap heads (3.47).........................32
    ampersand (9.7)..................................................147
    article, section (9.39)..........................................153
    Citations (8.28).................................................130
    Clock time (8.26, 12.9b)....................................129, 182
    Colon (8.22-8.33)............................................129-130
    Datelines, addresses, and signatures (16.4)......................217
    Degrees:
      College (9.7, 9.32-9.33, 9.35-9.36).......................147, 152
    Ellipses (8.76)..................................................135
      Line of stars (8.79)...........................................136
    Footnote references (15.12)......................................212
      Between references (8.50, 15.19)..........................132, 212
      Symbols (13.69, 15.13)....................................198, 212
    Footnotes, two or more (2.19)
                                                                      11
    Heads, center, side (2.50)........................................14
    Initials, personal name (9.7)................................... 147
    Letters or figures in parentheses (2.40, 8.94)...............13, 138
    Mathematical signs (10.3)........................................171
    Particles (3.48)..................................................32
    Question mark (8.124)............................................142
    Quotation marks (8.127)..........................................142
    Section mark (10.6)..............................................171
    Symbols with figures (10.6)......................................171
Legal cases:
  Capitalization (3.11)...............................................25
  Italic (11.8)......................................................178
Legends
(2.67-2.73)...........................................................
16......................................................................
  Italic symbols (2.73, 11.14)...................................16, 179
  Leading (2.59)......................................................15
  Makeup (2.68, 2.72, 2.96f)......................................16, 18

[[Page 319]]

  Punctuation (2.70, 8.112)......................................16, 140
  Type (2.69).........................................................16
Legislative bodies, foreign..........................................228
Letter of transmittal (2.3e)...........................................9
Looseleaf work, ``blue'' folios marked (1.13)..........................1
ly, words ending in (6.20)............................................78


                                 M

M., Mlle., etc. (9.29)...............................................151
Magnification symbol (10.3)..........................................171
Magnitudes (9.59)....................................................157
Makeup (2.3-2.19)...................................................9-11
  Backstrips, run down (2.20).........................................11
  Facing pages (2.7)..................................................10
  Fold-ins to be avoided (1.15)........................................2
  Footnotes:
    Leaderwork (14.11-14.13).........................................208
    Tabular work (2.98)...............................................18
      References repeated (2.13, 13.70)..........................11, 198
      Sample.........................................................208
    Text (15.9-15.11)................................................212
  Illustrations (2.67-2.73)...........................................16
  Parts of book (2.3)..................................................9
  Roman numerals (2.4)................................................10
  Running heads and folios (2.10-2.11)................................10
  Signature marks, imprints, etc. (2.103, 2.115-2.128).............19-21
  Signatures, jobs over 4 pages (1.16).................................2
    Avoid over 2 blank pages (1.16)....................................2
  Sink (2.8)..........................................................10
  Title pages (2.5)...................................................10
  Widow lines (2.6)...................................................10
Market grades (3.25)..............................................28, 59
Mathematical equations (10.8-10.15)..................................172
  Signs (10.2, 10.18)...........................................171, 174
Measurement:
  Abbreviations (9.56-9.58)......................................156-157
  Metric equivalents.................................................240
  Numerals (12.9j)...................................................184
Medals, decorations, etc..............................................43
Meridians and base lines.............................................227
Messrs. (9.29).......................................................151
Meteorology signs/symbols (10.18)....................................174
Metric:
  Abbreviations (9.56-9.57)......................................156-157
  Equivalents........................................................239
Military:
  Dates (8.52, 12.9c)...........................................132, 183
  Installations, State name with (9.12)..........................148-149
  Time (12.9b, 12.14)...........................................182, 185
  Titles:
    Abbreviations (9.29).............................................151
    Capitalization (3.35).............................................30
  Units, ordinals used (12.10).......................................185
million, etc.:
  Roman numerals (12.29).............................................189
  Use of figures with (12.24)........................................187
minute:
  Abbreviation (9.58)................................................157
  Latitude, longitude (9.51-9.52, 12.9f)........................155, 183
  Time (12.9b, 12.9n)...........................................182, 184
    Astronomical (9.59, 12.9b)..................................157, 182
Money:
  Abbreviations and symbols (9.60, 12.9k).......................157, 184
  Decimals (12.9k)...................................................184
  Foreign............................................................236
    Abbreviations and symbols........................................236
  Fractions (12.26-12.28)............................................188
Months:
  Abbreviations (9.44-9.45, 13.5)...........................................................154, 191
    mo (9.58)........................................................157
  Punctuation (8.52, 8.74, 8.75, 12.9c)....................132, 135, 183
Moon (3.30).......................................................29, 52
  Signs (10.18)......................................................174
Mount.................................................................48
  Not abbreviated (9.19).............................................150
Mr., Mrs.:
  Abbreviation, when used (9.29).....................................151
  Type (9.37, 16.3).........................................152-153, 217
  With other abbreviations (9.33)....................................152
Mr. Chairman, etc. (3.37).............................................31


                                 N

Nation, etc. (3.19, 3.20).........................................27, 51
Natives:
  Foreign countries..............................................233-235
  States (U.S.) (5.23-5.24)...........................................73
Nature (3.32).........................................................29
Navy, Naval, etc. (3.17)..........................................26, 52
Near East (3.21)..................................................27, 52
Newspapers:
  Capitalization (3.38)...............................................31
  Datelines (16.8)...................................................218
  Italic not used (11.2).............................................177
No., Nos. (9.38).....................................................153
  Not abbreviated (13.22)............................................193
Note (8.107, 13.53).............................................139, 197
Nouns:
  Capitalization (3.5-3.10, 3.49)..............................23-25, 33
  Compounding (6.8-6.11)..............................................76
  Nationalities, foreign.........................................233-235
  Plural forms (5.5-5.10)..........................................68-69
  States, natives of (5.23)...........................................73
nth degree (11.12)...................................................179
Number:
  Abbreviation. (See No.)
  Chemical elements (10.16)..........................................173
  Mark (10.18, 15.15)...........................................174, 212
Numerals (12.1-12.29)............................................181-190
  Age (12.9a)........................................................182
  Beginning a sentence (12.16).......................................186
    Related numerals (12.25).........................................188
  Chemical elements (6.43, 10.16)................................82, 173
  Chemical formulas (6.44, 12.15)................................82, 186
  Clock time (9.54, 12.9b)......................................156, 182
  Colon affecting use (12.8).........................................182
  Compound (6.36-6.39).............................................81-82
  Dates. (See Dates.)

[[Page 320]]

  Decimals (12.9d)...................................................183
  Degrees (12.9f)....................................................183
  Equations (10.8-10.15).............................................172
  Expressed in figures (12.4-12.15)..............................181-186
  Formal writing (12.19).............................................186
  Fractions. (See Fractions.)
  Hearings, etc. (12.17).............................................186
  Indefinite expressions (12.22).....................................187
  Land descriptions (9.21)...........................................150
  Large numbers (12.20, 12.24).......................................187
  Market quotations (12.9h)..........................................183
  Measurement and time (12.9a-12.9o).............................182-184
    In relation to other figures (12.6)..............................182
  Money (9.60, 12.9k)...........................................157, 184
  Ordinals.
(See Ordinals.)
  Percentage (12.9l).................................................184
  Proportion or ratio (12.9m)........................................184
  Punctuation (8.48, 12.14).....................................132, 185
  Roman. (See Roman numerals.)
  Serial (12.7)......................................................182
  Single:
    10 or more (12.4)................................................181
    Under 10 (12.23).................................................187
    Unit of measurement, etc. (12.6).................................182
  Spelled out (12.16-12.25)......................................186-188
  Tabular work (13.102)..............................................201
  Time (12.9n).......................................................184
  Unit modifiers (6.23, 6.36-6.37, 6.39, 12.9o)..........79, 81, 82, 184
  With abbreviations (9.5, 13.4)................................147, 191


                                 O

O, Oh:
  Capitalization (3.56)...............................................34
  Exclamation point (8.84, 8.85).................................136-137
o, words ending in (5.5)..............................................68
Occident, etc. (3.21, 3.22).......................................27, 53
o'clock (9.55, 12.9b)...........................................156, 182
Office (3.17).....................................................26, 53
Ohio, abbreviation (9.13)............................................149
op. cit. (11.3)......................................................177
Order (3.38)..................................................31, 45, 53
Ordered (3.45, 11.11)............................................32, 178
Ordinals (12.10-12.13, 13.102)..................................185, 201
  Beginning with 10th (12.10)........................................185
  In relation to other ordinals or numerals (12.11)..................185
  Leaderwork (12.13).................................................185
  Military units (12.10).............................................185
  Street address (12.13, 13.6)..................................185, 191
  Tabular work (12.13, 13.102)..................................185, 201
Orient, etc. (3.21, 3.22).....................................27, 28, 53
Outlines:
  Indentions (15.31).................................................214
  Numbering sequence (15.31).........................................214
Overruns
(see also Indentions):
  Addresses, datelines, and signatures (16.5, 16.27)............217, 224
  Center, side heads (2.65-2.66)..................................... 16
  Hanging indentions (2.62-2.63)......................................15
  Indexes (15.23-15.25)..............................................213
  Leaderwork (14.4)..................................................207
  Paragraphs (2.60-2.61)..............................................15
  Tabular work (13.90-13.94).........................................200
    Total, mean, and average lines (13.92-13.94).....................200


                                 P

Pact (3.38).......................................................31, 54
page (3.9)............................................................24
  Abbreviation (9.38)................................................153
  Numbers (2.4, 15.22, 15.30)...............................10, 213, 214
Paper stock, kind specified (1.17).....................................2
paragraph (3.9).......................................................24
  Abbreviation (9.38)................................................153
Paragraphs:
  Brackets, more than one paragraph (8.22)...........................129
  Indention (2.60-2.61)...............................................15
    Overruns (2.62-2.63)..............................................15
  Italic letters indicating (11.15)..................................179
  Numbering sequence (8.108).........................................139
Parentheses (8.91-8.102).........................................137-139
  Abbreviations in (9.2).............................................147
    Citations or references (9.45)...................................154
    Congressional (9.41-9.43)....................................153-154
    Latitude, longitude (9.51).......................................155
    Parts of publications (9.38).....................................153
    Steamships, railroads (9.27).....................................151
  Alignment in tables (13.59, 13.63).................................198
  Byline (8.101).....................................................139
  Chemical formulas (6.44)............................................82
  Clauses (8.92).....................................................137
  Column numbers or letters (13.23)..................................193
  Enclose letters or figures (8.94)..................................138
    Closed up (8.94, 8.98)...........................................138
  Equations (10.14)..................................................172
  Explanatory word (8.93)............................................137
  More than one paragraph (8.102)................................... 139
  Not part of main statement (8.91)................................. 137
  Paragraph sequence (8.108).........................................139
  Type (8.150).......................................................145
  Verifying numbers (8.95, 12.18)...............................138, 186
  With punctuation (8.96-8.102)..................................138-139
part (3.9)........................................................24, 54
  Abbreviation (9.38)................................................153
Particles (3.13-3.16)..............................................25-26
Parts of books:
  Abbreviations (9.38-9.40)..........................................153
  Capitalization (3.9, 3.38, 3.39)................................24, 31
  Makeup (2.3).........................................................9
  Quotation marks (8.129)............................................142
percent (5.2).........................................................66
  Mark (10.18, 15.15)...........................................174, 212
  Use of figures (12.9l).............................................184
Period (8.103-8.123).............................................139-141
  Abbreviations (8.111, 9.6-9.7)................................140, 147

[[Page 321]]

    Omitted (8.115-8.123, 9.3, 13.13, 15.23)..........141, 147, 192, 213
  After article, section, etc. (8.113)...............................140
  Boxheads (8.115)...................................................141
  Decimals (8.109, 12.9d, 13.29-13.32).................140, 183, 194-195
  Declarative sentence (8.103).......................................139
  Ellipses (8.76, 8.78)..........................................135-136
  Explanatory matter within parentheses (8.122)......................141
  Indirect question (8.104)..........................................139
  In lieu of parentheses (8.105).....................................139
  Inside-outside quotation marks (8.141-8.142).......................144
  Legends (2.70, 8.112)..........................................16, 140
  Letters used as names (8.117)......................................141
  Metric abbreviations (9.56-9.57)...............................156-157
  Middle initial not abbreviation (8.118)............................141
  Multiplication (8.114).............................................140
  Overruns, in indexes (15.23).......................................213
  Roman numerals (8.120).............................................141
  Run-in sideheads (8.107)...........................................139
  Short name not abbreviation (8.119, 9.23).....................141, 150
  Symbols (8.115)....................................................141
  To indicate thousands (8.110)......................................140
  Words and incomplete statements (8.121)............................141
Periodicals, titles of:
  Capitalization (3.38)...............................................31
  Italic not used (11.2).............................................177
  Makeup (2.2, 2.3)..................................................7-9
Personal names:
  Abbreviations followed (8.119, 9.23)..........................141, 150
  Initials set with space (9.7)......................................147
  Particles (3.13-3.16)............................................25-26
  Variations (8.119, 9.23)......................................141, 150
Personification (3.32)................................................29
Physical divisions of United States................................. 226
Physics, signs and symbols (10.16)...................................173
Physiographic terms..................................................225
Pica conversion table................................................241
Pickup matter (2.31)..................................................12
  Correcting (2.45)...................................................14
place.................................................................54
  Abbreviation (9.16, 13.6).....................................149, 191
  Ordinals (12.13, 13.6)........................................185, 191
plate (3.9).......................................................24, 54
  Abbreviation (9.38)................................................153
  Numbers aligned (15.28)............................................214
Plurals:
  Apostrophe to indicate (8.3, 8.7, 8.11)........................125-127
  Coined (8.11)......................................................127
  Common noun as part of proper name (3.8)............................24
  Compound words (5.6-5.8)............................................68
  Irregular (5.10)....................................................69
  Latin names (3.28)..................................................29
  Letters and figures (8.11).........................................127
  Nouns ending in ful (5.9)...........................................69
  Nouns ending in o (5.5).............................................68
  Words used as words (8.13).........................................127
Poetry:
  Alignment and indention (8.134)....................................143
  Capitalization of titles (3.39).....................................31
  Credit line (8.66).................................................134
  Quotation marks (3.39, 8.134)..................................31, 143
point.............................................................48, 54
  Not abbreviated (9.19).............................................150
Political parties (3.17)..........................................26, 54
  Adherents (3.18).............................................26-27, 54
port..................................................................54
  Not abbreviated (9.19).............................................150
Possessions (U.S.):
  Abbreviations (9.12, 9.13).....................................148-149
    Not abbreviated (9.14)...........................................149
  Political divisions. (See Counties.)
Possessives and apostrophes. (See Apostrophes and 
  possessives.)
post (11.3)..........................................................177
Post Office...........................................................54
  Box, as part of address.............................................54
  Directory of Post Offices (5.20)....................................72
  ZIP Code numbers (8.51, 16.1).................................132, 217
Preface (2.3g, 2.12)...............................................10-11
Prefixes (6.7, 6.29-6.35)......................................76, 80-81
  Metric (9.56)......................................................156
Preliminary pages (2.3-2.4).........................................9-10
  Roman numerals for (2.4)............................................10
Preparing copy:
  Abbreviations:
    Spelled out (2.43)................................................14
  Bill style (2.41)...................................................14
  Capitalization (2.25, 2.35).....................................12, 13
  Copy kept clean (2.46)..............................................14
  Cut-in notes (2.32).................................................12
  Datelines, addresses, and signatures (2.26).........................12
    Addresses (16.9-16.16).......................................219-220
    Datelines (16.5-16.8)........................................217-218
    Signatures (16.17-16.26).....................................220-222
  Decimals (2.27).....................................................12
  et cetera, etc. (2.28)..............................................12
  Extracts (2.24).....................................................11
  Figures (2.38, 2.40)................................................13
  ``Fol.,'' ``Fol. lit.,'' etc. (2.38-2.40).......................... 13
  Folioing and stamping (2.29)........................................12
  Footnotes and reference marks:
    Tabular work (13.66-13.85)...................................198-199
    Text (15.1-15.19)............................................211-212
  Heads (2.30, 3.46-3.54)......................................12, 32-33
  Instructions to be followed (2.42)..................................14
  Italic (2.26, 2.38).............................................12, 13
  Pickup (2.31).......................................................12
  Plurals (2.36, 8.13)...........................................13, 127
  Punctuation followed (2.38-2.41).................................13-14
  Sidenotes (2.32)....................................................12
  Signs, symbols, etc. (2.33-2.34)....................................13
  Type to indicate shape (2.35-2.37)..................................13
  Type. (See Type.)
Prepositions (3.49)...................................................33
  In compound nouns (6.47)............................................83

[[Page 322]]

Pronouns:
  Compounding (6.12, 6.13)........................................76, 77
  Possessive (8.8-8.9)...............................................126
Proofreader's marks (1.23).............................................4
Proofreading (2.74-2.87)...........................................16-17
Proofs:
  Clean (2.46)........................................................14
  Department (1.19-1.21)...............................................2
Proportion (8.32, 12.9m)........................................130, 184
Provided, etc.:
  Capitalization following (3.45).....................................32
  Italic (3.45, 11.11)...........................................32, 178
Province (3.19)...................................................27, 54
  Not abbreviated (9.15).............................................149
Public Law, etc. (3.38)...........................................31, 54
  Not abbreviated (9.41, 9.43)..................................153, 154
Publications. (See Periodicals.)
Punctuation (8.1-8.150)..........................................125-145
  Abbreviations:
    Omitted (8.126, 9.3, 13.13)............................142, 147, 192
    When used (8.39, 9.6).......................................131, 147
  Apostrophe (8.3-8.18)..........................................125-128
  Brackets (8.19-8.22)...........................................128-129
  Colon (8.23-8.33)..............................................129-130
  Comma (8.34-8.59)..............................................130-133
    Before and after abbreviations (8.39)............................131
    Omitted (8.50-8.59)..........................................132-133
    Used (8.34-8.49).............................................130-132
  Dash (em) (8.60-8.70)..........................................133-134
    Not used (8.69-8.70).............................................134
    Used (8.60-8.68).............................................133-134
    (See also Tabular work.)
  Dash (en) (8.72-8.75)..............................................135
    Not used (8.74-8.75).............................................135
    Used (8.72-8.73).................................................135
  Ellipses (8.76-8.82)...........................................135-136
  Exclamation point (8.83-8.84)......................................136
  Function (8.1, 8.2)................................................125
  Hyphen (8.86-8.90).................................................137
    Compounding (6.1-6.52).........................................75-83
  Legends (2.70, 8.112)..........................................16, 140
  Numerals (12.14)...................................................185
  Parentheses (8.91-8.102).......................................137-139
  Period (8.103-8.123)...........................................139-141
    Omitted (8.115-8.123)............................................141
    Used (8.103-8.114)...........................................139-140
  Question mark (8.124-8.126)........................................142
  Quotation marks (8.127-8.144)..................................142-144
    Not used (8.134-8.144).......................................143-144
    Used (8.127-8.133)...........................................142-143
  Semicolon (8.145-8.148)........................................144-145
  Single (8.124, 8.149).........................................142, 145


                                 Q

Quantity. (See Units of quantity.)
quart (9.58).........................................................157
  Metric equivalent..................................................239
quasi, ex, self (6.34)................................................81
Queen (3.35)..........................................................30
Queries:
  Department must answer (1.21)....................................... 2
  Not to be set (2.47)................................................14
  Proofreading (2.75-2.77)............................................16
Question mark (8.124-8.126)..........................................142
  Closed up (8.126)..................................................142
  Direct query (8.45, 8.124)....................................132, 142
  Doubt (8.125, 8.126)...............................................142
  With quotation marks (8.141, 8.144)................................144
Quotation marks (8.127-8.144)....................................142-144
  Addresses, books, etc. (8.129).....................................142
  Called, so-called, etc. (8.128)....................................142
  Direct quotations (8.127)..........................................142
  Display initial with (8.140).......................................144
  Double, single, double (8.144).....................................144
  Entitled, marked, etc. (8.128).....................................142
  Extracts, omitted (2.24, 8.138)................................11, 143
  Indirect quotations (8.139)........................................144
  Letters within a letter (8.131)....................................143
    Complete letter (8.137)..........................................143
  Misnomers, slang, etc. (8.132).....................................143
  More than one paragraph (8.130)................................... 143
  Poetry, alignment (8.134)..........................................143
  Precede footnote references (8.143)................................144
  Punctuation with (8.47, 8.141, 8.142).........................132, 144
  Scientific names (11.10)...........................................178
  Spacing (8.133, 8.144)........................................143, 144
  Vessels (11.7, 11.8)...............................................178
Quotations:
  Capitalization (3.42, 3.43).....................................31, 32
  Comma before (8.35)................................................130
  Ellipses (8.76-8.82)...........................................135-136


                                 R

Railroads, abbreviated (9.27, 13.8).............................151, 191
Reference marks. (See Footnotes and references.)
region (3.9)......................................................24, 55
  Ordinals (12.10)...................................................185
Regular, etc. (3.17)..............................................26, 55
Related numbers:
  Group (12.5, 12.25)...........................................181, 188
  Ordinals (12.10-12.12).............................................185
Religious terms (3.34)............................................30, 55
Report (3.38, 3.39)...............................................31, 55
  With quotation marks (3.39, 8.129).............................31, 142
Reports and hearings.............................................297-312
Representative (3.18).............................................26, 55
  Not abbreviated (9.30).............................................152
Reprint:
  Dates (2.113-2.114).................................................20
  Pickup (2.31).......................................................12
  Set ``all roman (no italic),'' when to set italic (11.5)...........177
  Signature marks (2.126).............................................21
Republic (3.19)...................................................27, 55
reservation (3.5).................................................23, 55
  State name with (9.12).............................................148
Resolution (3.38).................................................31, 55
  Abbreviation (9.42, 13.11)....................................153, 191
Resolved, etc. (3.45).................................................32
  Italic (3.45, 11.11)...........................................32, 178
Reverend, etc. (9.31)................................................152
Revising (2.88-2.100)..............................................17-19

[[Page 323]]

  Galley (2.88-2.91)...............................................17-18
  Page (2.92-2.98).................................................18-19
  Press (2.99-2.100)..................................................19
road..................................................................55
  Abbreviation (9.16, 13.6).....................................149, 191
  Ordinals (12.13, 13.6)........................................185, 191
Roman numerals...................................................55, 189
  Army corps (12.10).................................................185
  Figure columns:
    Indexes and contents (15.22).................................... 213
    Tabular work (13.62).............................................198
  List (12.29).......................................................189
  Not preferred (12.3)...............................................181
  Period:
    Aligned in contents (15.28)......................................214
    Not used after (8.115-8.123).................................... 141
  Preliminary pages (2.4).............................................10
Royal titles (3.34, 3.35, 3.37)................................30-31, 50
Rules in tables (2.23, 13.3).....................................11, 191
Running heads:
  Copy for, supplied (1.19)............................................2
  Makeup (2.10-2.11)..................................................10
  Period omitted (8.115).............................................141


                                 S

Sales notices (2.121-2.122)...........................................21
Salutation:
  Capitalization (3.55, 16.15)...................................34, 220
  Colon after (8.25, 16.15).....................................129, 220
  Italic (8.25, 16.14)..........................................129, 220
Scientific terms:
  Abbreviations, punctuation omitted (9.3)...........................147
  Capitalization (3.26-3.29)..........................................29
  Compounding (6.42-6.45).............................................82
  Italic (11.9-11.10, 13.95)....................................178, 201
  Quotation marks with (11.10).......................................178
  Set in roman (11.9)................................................178
Scriptures, etc. (3.33)...........................................29, 56
seaboard (3.22)...................................................28, 56
seal (16.27, 16.28)..................................................224
Seasons (3.23)........................................................28
2d, 3d, etc.:
  Comma omitted before (8.39, 8.59, 9.32)..................131, 133, 152
  Ordinals (12.10-12.11).............................................185
  Type (9.32, 16.3).............................................152, 217
Secretary, etc. (3.35)............................................30, 56
  General.............................................................56
    No hyphen (6.40)..................................................82
    Plural form (5.8).................................................68
section (3.9).....................................................24, 56
  Abbreviation (9.38, 13.10)....................................153, 191
    Not abbreviated (9.39)...........................................153
  Caps and small caps (9.39).........................................153
  Italic to indicate (11.15).........................................179
  Roman, over figure column (15.21)..................................213
Section mark:
  Footnote reference (15.14).........................................212
  Space after (10.6).................................................171
See, see also:
  Italic (11.11, 15.20).........................................178, 212
  Roman (13.96)......................................................201
See footnote, etc. (15.4)............................................211
Self, ex, quasi (6.34)................................................81
Semicolon
(8.145-8.148)....................................................
144-145.................................................................
  Avoid, where comma will suffice (8.148)............................145
  Before summarizing matter (8.147)..................................145
  Clauses containing commas (8.145)..................................144
Senator...............................................................56
  Not abbreviated (9.30).............................................152
Serial:
  Letter, italic (11.15).............................................179
    Parentheses (8.94)...............................................138
  Numbers:
    Comma omitted (8.54, 12.14).................................133, 185
    Figures used (12.7)..............................................182
    Parentheses (8.94)...............................................138
session:
  Abbreviation (9.41, 13.11)....................................153, 191
  Ordinals (9.41, 13.11)........................................153, 191
Shape, letters used (2.35-2.37).......................................13
  Plurals (8.11).....................................................127
Shilling mark, in fractions (12.27)................................. 188
  Sign (10.18).......................................................174
Signature marks (2.101-2.112)......................................19-20
Signatures:
  Abbreviations (9.24, 16.19)...................................150, 220
  Capitalization (3.55, 16.2)....................................34, 217
  Examples (16.17-16.26).........................................220-224
  Preceded by dash (8.66, 16.17)................................134, 220
  Preparation (2.26)..................................................12
  Punctuation (16.23)................................................221
  Quoted matter (16.25)..............................................222
signed (8.128) ......................................................142
  In signatures (16.24)..........................................221-222
Signs and symbols (10.1-10.18)...................................171-176
  Chemical:
    Elements (6.43, 10.16).......................................82, 173
    Formulas (6.44, 10.15, 12.15)...........................82, 172, 186
  Coined words and symbols (8.11, 9.48).........................127, 155
  Degree mark (9.50-9.51, 9.53, 10.4, 12.9f)...........155-156, 171, 183
  Equations (10.8-10.15).............................................172
  Footnote references (15.12-15.17)................................. 212
    Sequence (15.14).................................................212
  Foreign money (9.60)...............................................157
  Italic letters (2.73, 10.7-10.8, 11.12-11.14).........16, 171-172, 179
  Legends (2.73)......................................................16
  List (10.18).......................................................174
  Mathematical signs (10.2-10.3).....................................171
  Preparing copy (2.33-2.34)..........................................13
  Standardized (10.17)...............................................174
  Symbol columns (13.115-13.116).................................202-203
  , crossed with, magnification (10.3)......................171
Single punctuation (8.124, 8.149)...............................142, 145
Sink (2.8)............................................................10
Small caps:
  etc., et al. (3.53).................................................33

[[Page 324]]

  Heads spaced with regular justification spaces (2.50)...............14
  Italic inferior letters (10.8).....................................172
  Proper names (3.47-3.48)............................................32
  Roman numerals (2.4, 15.22)....................................10, 213
  seal (16.27-16.28).................................................224
  v., in names of legal cases (11.8).................................178
Soil names (3.29).................................................29, 57
someone, some one (6.12)..............................................76
spelling
(5.1-5.26).........................................................
63-73...................................................................
  Anglicized and foreign words (5.3-5.4)...........................67-68
  Apostrophes and possessives (8.3-8.18).........................125-128
  cede, ceed, sede (5.13).............................................71
  Doubled consonants (5.14-5.15)...................................71-72
  Geographic names (5.20-5.21)........................................72
  Idiomatic phrases (6.52)............................................83
  Indefinite articles, use of (5.16-5.19).............................72
  List (5.2)..........................................................63
  Nationalities (5.22-5.24)...........................................73
  Native American words (5.25)........................................73
  Plural forms (5.5-5.10)..........................................68-69
  Transliteration (5.26)..............................................73
square................................................................57
  Abbreviation (9.16, 13.6).....................................149, 191
  Ordinals (12.13, 13.6)........................................185, 191
Stars. (See Ellipses.)
State, etc. (3.19)................................................27, 57
Staten Island (9.14).................................................149
States (3.6, 3.19, 3.21)......................................24, 27, 57
  Abbreviations (9.12-9.13)......................................148-149
  Counties...........................................................243
  Natives of (5.23)...................................................73
station (3.6, 3.9)................................................24, 57
  State abbreviation with (9.12).....................................148
Statutes, etc. (3.38).............................................31, 58
  Abbreviations (9.43, 13.11)...................................154, 191
street................................................................57
  Abbreviation (9.16, 13.6).....................................149, 191
  Ordinals (12.13, 13.6)........................................185, 191
Subentries (8.27, 13.90-13.91, 13.113, 14.15).........129, 200, 202, 208
Subheads:
  Indexes and contents (15.29).......................................214
  Leaderwork (14.10).................................................208
Suffixes (6.29-6.35)...............................................80-81
Summation sign (10.14)...............................................172
Sun (3.30)........................................................29, 58
  Sign (10.18).......................................................174
Superior figures and letters:
  Astrophysical matter (9.59)........................................157
  Chemical elements (6.43)............................................82
  Comma omitted (8.50)...............................................132
  Equations (10.8)...................................................172
    Follow inferiors (10.15).........................................172
  Footnote references (13.67, 15.12, 15.17).....................198, 212
  Italic letters (8.50, 10.8, 11.12).......................132, 172, 179
  Preparing (2.33)....................................................13
  Type (8.150).......................................................145
  With punctuation (8.133)...........................................143
supra:
  Italic (11.3)......................................................177
  Not abbreviated (9.49).............................................155
Survey (3.17).....................................................26, 58
Symbols. (See Signs and symbols.)


                                 T

table (3.9).......................................................24, 58
Table of contents. (See Contents.)
Tabular work
(see also Leaderwork) (13.1-13.124)..............................
191-206.................................................................
  Abbreviations (13.4-13.13).........................................191
  Bearoff (13.14-13.17)..............................................192
    Leaderwork (14.2-14.4)...........................................207
    Tables without rules (13.117, 13.120).......................203, 204
  Boxheads (13.18-13.23).........................................192-193
    Horizontal (13.19-13.21).........................................192
  Centerheads, flush entries, and subentries (13.25-13.28).......193-194
  Ciphers (13.29-13.36)..........................................194-195
  Column numbers or letters (13.23)..................................193
  Continued heads (13.37-13.38)..................................... 195
  Dash instead of colon (13.26)......................................193
  Dashes or rules (13.39-13.40)......................................195
    To separate nonmoney groups (13.53)..............................197
  Date column (13.28)................................................194