[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 9 - Abbreviations and Letter Symbols]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


9.1. 	Abbreviations and letter symbols are used to save space and to 
        avoid distracting the reader by use of repetitious words or 
        phrases. 

9.2. 	The nature of the publication governs the extent to which
        abbreviations are used. In the text of technical and legal 
        publications, and in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, 
        sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and bibliographies, many words are
        frequently abbreviated. Heads, legends, tables of contents, and 
        indexes follow the style of the text. 

9.3. 	Internal and terminal punctuation in symbols represening units 
        of measure are to be omitted to conform with practice adopted 
        by scientific, technical, and industrial groups. Where the omission 
        of terminal punctuation causes confusion; e.g., the symbol in 
        (inch) mistaken for the preposition in, the symbol should be 
        spelled out. 

9.4. 	Standard and easily understood forms are preferable, and they 
        should be uniform throughout a job. Abbreviations not generally 
        known should be followed in the text by the spelled-out forms 
        in parentheses the first time they occur; in tables and 
        leaderwork such explanatory matter should be supplied in a 
        footnote. As the printer cannot rewrite the copy, the author 
        should supply these explanatory forms. 

9.5. 	In technical matter, symbols for units of measure should be 
        used only with figures; similarly, many other abbreviations and 
        symbols should not appear in isolation. For example, energy is 
        measured in foot-pounds, not energy is measured in ftlbs. 

Capitals, hyphens, periods (points), and spacing 
9.6. 	In general, an abbreviation follows the capitalization and 
        hyphenation of the word or words abbreviated. It is followed by 
        a period unless otherwise indicated.

          c.o.d. 	           St.          but ftlb 

9.7. 	Abbreviations and initials of a personal name with points are 
        set without spaces. Abbreviations composed of contractions and 
        initials or numbers, will retain space. 

          H.S.T.  	                      B.S., LL.D., Ph.D., B.Sc. 
          J.F.K. 	                      H.R. 116 (but S. 116, S. 
          L.B.J.                                Con. Res. 116) 
          U.S. 	                              C.A.D.C. (but App. D.C.) 
          U.N. 	                              A.B. Secrest, D.D.S.
          U.S.C. (but Rev. Stat.) 
          A.F. of L.-CIO (AFL-CIO
               preferred)                     but 
          A.D., B.C.                          AT&T 
          e.s.t.                              Texas A&M 
          i.e., e.g. (but op. cit.)           R&D 

9.8. 	Except as otherwise designated, points and spaces are omitted 
        after initials used as shortened names of governmental agencies 
        and of other organized bodies. ``Other organized bodies'' shall 
        be interpreted to mean organized bodies that have become 
        popularly identified with a symbol, such as MIT (Massachusetts
        Institute of Technology), GM (General Motors), GMAC (General 
        Motors Acceptance Corp.), etc. (See ``List of Abbreviations.'') 
        Symbols, when they appear in copy, may be used for acts of Congress.
        Example: ARA (Area Redevelopment Act). 

          VFW                      TVA                  ARC 
          NLRB                     AFL-CIO              ASTM 

Geographic terms 
9.9.	 United States must be spelled out when appearing in a sentence
         containing the name of another country. Th e abbreviation U.S. 
         will be used when preceding the word Government or the name of 
         a Government organization, except in formal writing (treaties,
         Executive orders, proclamations, etc.); congressional bills; 
         legal citations and courtwork; and covers and title pages. 
 
          U.S. Government 
          U.S. Congress 
          U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 
          U.S. district court 
          U.S. Supreme Court (but Supreme Court of the United States) 
          U.S. Army (but Army of the United States) 
          U.S. monitor Nantucket 
          U.S.-NATO assistance 
          U.S. Government efforts to control inflation must be 
               successful if the United States is to have a stable 
               economy. 
     but British, French, and United States Governments; United States-
               British talks 

9.10. 	With the exceptions in the preceding rule, the abbreviation 
        U.S. is used in the adjective position, but is spelled out when 
        used as a noun.

          U.S. foreign policy 	              United States Steel Corp.
          U.S. farm-support program                (legal title)
          U.S. attorney 	              Foreign policy of the
          U.S. citizen                             United States
          United States Code (official    not Temperatures vary in the 
            title)                                  U.S. 

9.11. 	The names of foreign countries are not abbreviated, with the 
        exception of the former U.S.S.R., which is abbreviated due to 
        its length. 

9.12. 	In other than formal usage as defined in rule 9.9, all States 
        of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are
        abbreviated immediately following any capitalized geographic 
        term, including armory, arsenal, airbase, airport, barracks, 
        depot, fort, Indian agency, military camp, national cemetery 
        (also forest, historic site, memorial, seashore, monument, 
        park), naval shipyard, proving ground, reservation (forest, 
        Indian, or military), and reserve or station (military or 
        naval). 

          Prince George's County, MD          Arlington National 
          Mount Rainier National Forest,        Cemetery, VA 
            WA                                Aberdeen Proving Ground, 
          Stone Mountain, GA                    MD
          National Naval Medical Center,      Baltimore-Washington 
            Bethesda, MD                        International Airport, 
          Mark Twain National Wildlife          MD   
            Refuge, IL-IA-MO (note use        Redstone Arsenal, AL                             
              of hyphens here)                but 
          Richmond, VA	                      Leavenworth freight 
                                                yards, Kansas 
                                              Altoona sidetrack, 
                                                Wisconsin 

9.13. 	The Postal Service style of two-letter State, Province, and 
        freely associated State abbreviations is to be used. 

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9.14. 	The names of other insular possessions, trust territories, and 
        Long Island, Staten Island, etc., are not abbreviated. 

9.15. 	The names of Canadian Provinces and other foreign political
        subdivisions are not abbreviated except as noted in rule 9.13. 

Addresses 
9.16. 	Words such as Street, Avenue, Place, Road, Square, Boulevard, 
        Terrace, Drive, Court, and Building, following a name or number, 
        are abbreviated in footnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, 
        and lists. 

9.17. 	In addresses, a single period is used with the abbreviations 
        NW., SW., NE., SE. (indicating sectional divisions of cities)
        following name or number. North, South, East, and West are 
        spelled out at all times. 

9.18. 	The word Street or Avenue as part of a name is not abbreviated 
        even in parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, lists, or
        leaderwork. 

          14th Street Bridge	                Ninth Avenue Bldg. 

9.19. 	The words County, Fort, Mount, Point, and Port are not 
        abbreviated. Saint (St.) and Sainte (Ste.) should be 
        abbreviated. 

Descriptions of tracts of land 
9.20. 	If fractions are spelled out in land descriptions, half and 
        quarter are used (not one-half or one-quarter). 

          south half of T. 47 N., R. 64 E. 

9.21. 	In the description of tracts of public land the following 
        abbreviations are used (periods are omitted after abbreviated 
        compass directions that immediately precede and close up on 
        figures):

          SE\1/4\ NW\1/4\ sec. 4, T. 12 S., R. 15 E., of the Boise 
            Meridian 
          lot 6, NE\1/4\ sec. 4, T. 6 N., R. 1 W.
          N\1/2\ sec. 20, T. 7 N., R. 2 W., sixth principal meridian 
          Tps. 9, 10, 11, and 12 S., Rs. 12 and 13 W. 
          T. 2 S., Rs. 8, 9, and 10 E., sec. 26 
          T. 3 S., R. 1 E., sec. 34, W\1/2\ E\1/2\, W\1/2\, and 
            W\1/2\ SE\1/4\ SE 1/4\
          sec. 32 (with or without a township number) 

9.22. 	In case of an unavoidable break in a land-description symbol 
        group at end of a line, use no hyphen and break after 
        fraction. 

Names and titles 
9.23. 	The following forms are not always abbreviations, and copy 
        should be followed as to periods:

          Al                Ben            Fred           Walt 
          Alex              Ed             Sam            Will 

9.24. 	In signatures, an effort should be made to retain the exact 
        form used by the signer. 

          George Wythe 	                          Geo. Taylor 

9.25. 	In company and other formal names, if it is not necessary to 
        preserve the full legal title, such forms as Bro., Bros., Co., 
        Corp., Inc., Ltd., and & are used. Association and 
        Manufacturing are not abbreviated. 

          Radio Corp. of America          Electronics Manufacturing Co.
          Aluminum Co. of America         Texas College of Arts & 
          Standard Oil Co. of New           Industries 
            Jersey                        Robert Wilson & Associates, 
          H.J. Baker & Bro.                 Inc. 
          Jones Bros. & Co.               U.S. News & World Report 
          American Telephone &            Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
            Telegraph Co.                 Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers 
          Norton Enterprises, Inc. 
          Maryland Steamship Co., Ltd.    but 
          Chesapeake & Delaware Canal     Little Theater Company 
          Fairmount Building & Loan       Senate Banking, Housing and
            Association 	            Urban Affairs Committee 

9.26. 	Company and Corporation are not abbreviated in names of Federal 
        Government units. 

          Commodity Credit Corporation    
          Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation
          Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation 

9.27. 	In parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and leaderwork, 
        abbreviate the words railroad and railway (RR. and Ry.), except 
        in such names as ``Washington Railway & Electric Co.'' and 
        ``Florida Railroad & Navigation Corp.'' SS for steamship, MS 
        for motorship, etc., preceding name are used at all times. 

9.28. 	In the names of informal companionships the word and is spelled 
        out. 

          Gilbert and Sullivan            Currier and Ives 

9.29. 	In other than formal usage, a civil, military, or naval title
        preceding a name is abbreviated if followed by first or given 
        name or initial; but Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., M., MM., Messrs., 
        Mlle., Mme., and Dr. are abbreviated with or without first or 
        given name or initial. 

United States military titles and abbreviations 

Officer rank 
Officer ranks in the United States military consist of commissioned 
officers and warrant officers. The commissioned ranks are the highest 
in the military. Th ese officers hold presidential commissions and are 
confirmed at their ranks by the Senate. Army, Air Force, and Marine 
Corps offi cers are called company grade officers in the pay grades of 
O-1 to O-3, field grade officers in pay grades O-4 to O-6, and general
officers in pay grades O-7 and higher. The equivalent officer groupings 
in the Navy are called junior grade, mid-grade, and flag. 

Warrant officers hold warrants from their service secretary and are
specialists and experts in certain military technologies or 
capabilities. The lowest ranking warrant officers serve under a 
warrant, but they receive commissions from the President upon promotion 
to chief warrant officer 2. These commissioned warrant officers are 
direct representatives of the President of the United States. They 
derive their authority from the same source as commissioned officers 
but remain specialists, in contrast to commissioned officers, who are
generalists. There are no warrant officers in the Air Force.

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Enlisted rank 
Service members in pay grades E-1 through E-3 are usually either in 
some kind of training status or on their initial assignment. The 
training includes the  basic training phase where recruits are immersed 
in military culture and values and are taught the core skills required 
by their service component. 

Basic training is followed by a specialized or advanced training phase 
that provides recruits with a specific area of expertise or 
concentration. In the Army and Marines, this area is called a military 
occupational specialty; in the Navy it is known as a rate; and in the 
Air Force it is simply called an Air Force specialty. 

Leadership responsibility significantly increases in the mid-level 
enlisted ranks. This responsibility is given formal recognition by use 
of the terms noncommissioned officer and petty officer. An Army 
sergeant, an Air Force staff sergeant, and a Marine corporal are 
considered NCO ranks. Th e Navy NCO equivalent, petty officer, is 
achieved at the rank of petty offi  cer third class. 

At the E-8 level, the Army, Marines, and Air Force have two positions 
at the same pay grade. Whether one is, for example, a senior master 
sergeant or a first sergeant in the Air Force depends on the person's 
job. The same is true for the positions at the E-9 level. Marine Corps 
master gunnery sergeants and sergeants major receive the same pay but 
have diff erent responsibilities. E-8s and E-9s have 15 to 30 
years on the job, and are commanders� senior advisers for enlisted 
matters. 

A third E-9 element is the senior enlisted person of each service. The
sergeant major of the Army, the sergeant major of the Marine Corps, the 
master chief petty officer of the Navy, and the chief master sergeant 
of the Air Force are the spokespersons of the enlisted force at the 
highest levels of their services.

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9.30. 	Spell out Senator, Representative, and commandant. 

9.31. 	Unless preceded by the, abbreviate Honorable, Reverend, and 
Monsignor when followed by the first name, initials, or title. 

          Hon. Elihu Root; the Honorable Elihu Root; 
          the Honorable Mr. Root the Honorables John Roberts, 
            John Paul Stevens, and Ruth Bader Ginsberg 
          Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Reverend Dr. King; 
            Rev. Dr. King; Reverend King (not Rev. King, nor the 
            Reverend King) 
          Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman; the Right Reverend James E. 
            Freeman; Very Rev. Henry Boyd; the Very Reverend Henry Boyd 
          Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Bird; the Right Reverend Monsignor John 
            Bird 

9.32.	 The following and similar forms are used after a name: 

          Esq., Jr., Sr. 
          2d, 3d (or II, III) (not preceded by comma) 
          Degrees: LL.D., M.A., Ph.D., etc. 
          Fellowships, orders, etc.: FSA Scot, F.R.S., K.C.B., C.P.A., 
            etc. 

9.33. 	The abbreviation Esq. and other titles such as Mr., Mrs., and 
        Dr., should not appear with any other title or with 
        abbreviations indicating scholastic degrees. 

          John L. Smith, Esq., not Mr. John L. Smith, Esq., nor John L. 
            Smith, Esq., A.M.; but James A. Jones, Jr., Esq. 
          Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D., not Mr. Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D. 
          George Gray, M.D., not Mr. George Gray, M.D., nor Dr. George 
            Gray, M.D. 
          Dwight A. Bellinger, D.V.M. 

9.34. 	Sr. and Jr. should not be used without first or given name or
        initials, but may be used in combination with any title. 

          A.K. Jones, Jr., or Mr. Jones, Junior, not Jones, Jr., nor 
            Jones, Junior 
          President J. B. Nelson, Jr. 

9.35. 	When name is followed by abbreviations designating religious 
        and fraternal orders and scholastic and honorary degrees, their
        sequence is as follows: Orders, religious first; theological 
        degrees; academic degrees earned in course; and honorary 
        degrees in order of bestowal. 

          Henry L. Brown, D.D., A.M., D.Lit. 
          T.E. Holt, C.S.C., S.T.Lr., LL.D., Ph.D. 
          Samuel J. Deckelbaum, P.M. 

9.36. 	Academic degrees standing alone may be abbreviated. 

          John was graduated with a B.A. degree; but bachelor of arts 
            degree (lowercase  when spelled out). 
          She earned her Ph.D. by hard work. 

9.37. 	In addresses, signatures, lists of names, and leaderwork but 
        not in tables nor in centerheads, Mr., Mrs., and other titles
        preceding a name, and Esq., Jr., Sr., 2d, and 3d following a 
        name, are set in roman caps and lowercase if the name is in 
        caps and small caps. If the name is in caps, they are set in 
        caps and small caps, if small caps are available--otherwise in 
        caps and lowercase. 

Parts of publications 
9.38. 	The following abbreviations are used for parts of publications
        mentioned in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, list 
        of references, tables, and leaderwork, when followed by
        figures, letters, or Roman numerals. 

          app., apps. (appendix,pl.,            pls. (plate, plates) 
            appendixes)                         pt., pts. (part, parts) 
          art., arts. (article, articles)       sec., secs. (section,
          bull., bulls. (bulletin,                sections) 
            bulletins)                          subch., subchs.
          ch., chs. (chapter,                   (subchapter,
          ch., chs. (chapter, chapters)         subchapters) 
          col., cols. (column, columns)         subpar., subpars.                       
          ed., eds. (edition,                     (subparagraph,
            editions)                           subparagraphs)
          fig., figs. (figure, figures)         subpt., subpts. 
          No., Nos. (number,                      (subpart, subparts) 
            numbers)                            subsec., subsecs.
          p., pp. (page, pages)                   (subsection,
          par., pars. (paragraph,                   subsections) 
            paragraphs)                             supp., supps. 
          vol., vols. (volume,                        (supplement,
            volumes)                                  supplements) 

9.39.  The word article and the word section are abbreviated when 
       appearing at the beginning of a paragraph and set in caps and 
       small caps followed by a period and an en space, except that the 
       first of a series is spelled out.  

          Art. 2; Sec. 2; etc.; but Article 1; Section 1 
          Art. II; Sec. II; etc.; but Article I; Section I  

9.40.  At the beginning of a legend, the word fi gure preceding the 
       legend number is not abbreviated.  

                              Figure 4.--Landscape.  


Terms relating to Congress 
9.41. 	The words Congress and session, when accompanied by a numerical
        reference, are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, and text
        footnotes. In sidenotes, lists of references, tables, 
        leaderwork, and footnotes to tables and leaderwork, the 
        following abbreviations are used: 

          106th Cong., 1st sess.              Public Law 84, 102d Cong. 
          1st sess., 106th Cong.              Private Law 68, 102d Cong. 

9.42. 	In references to bills, resolutions, documents and reports in
        parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and 
        leaderwork, the following abbreviations are used: 

          H.R. 416 (House bill)            H. Conf. Rept. 10 (House
          S. 116 (Senate bill) 	             conference report) 
          The examples above may be	   H. Doc. 35 (House document)
            abbreviated or spelled         S. Doc. 62 (Senate document)  
            out in text.                   H. Rept. 214 (House report) 
          H. Res. 5 (House resolution)     S. Rept. 410 (Senate report) 
          H. Con. Res. 10 (House           Ex. Doc. B (Executive
            concurrent resolution)           document)   
          H.J. Res. 21 (House joint        Ex. F (92d Cong., 2d sess.) 
            resolution)                    Ex. Rept. 9 (92d Cong., 1st 
          S. Res. (Senate resolution)        50 sess.) 
          S. Con. Res. 17 (Senate          Misc. Doc. 16 (miscellaneous
            concurrent resolution)	     document)    
          S.J. Res. 45 (Senate joint       Public Res. 47
            resolution)                                             

9.43. 	References to statutes in parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, 
        tables, leaderwork, and congressional work are abbreviated. 

          Rev. Stat. (Revised Statutes); 43 Rev. Stat. 801; 18 U.S.C. 38 
          Supp. Rev. Stat. (Supplement to the Revised Statutes) 
          Stat. L. (Statutes at Large) 
      but Public Law 85-1; Private Law 68 

Calendar divisions 
9.44. 	Names of months  followed by the day, or day and year, are 
        abbreviated in footnotes, tables, leaderwork, sidenotes, and in
        bibliographies. (See examples, rule 9.45.) May, June, and July 
        are always spelled out. In narrow columns in tables, however, 
        the names of months may be abbreviated even if standing alone.
        Preferred forms follow: 

          Jan.                     Apr.                 Oct.  
          Feb.                     Aug.                 Nov.  
          Mar.                     Sept.                Dec.  

9.45. 	In text only, dates as part of a citation or reference within
        parentheses or brackets are also abbreviated. 

          (Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 4, 2005) 
          (Congressional Record, Sept. 25, 2007) 
          [From the New York Times, Mar. 4, 2008] 
          [From the Mar. 4 issue]
          On Jan. 25 (we had commenced on Dec. 26, 2005) the work was 
            finished. (In footnotes, tables, leaderwork, and sidenotes) 
          On January 25, a decision was reached (Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 
            4, 2006). (Text, but with citation in parentheses) 

      but On January 25 (we had commenced on December 26, 2008) the 
          work was finished. (Not a citation or reference in text) 

9.46. 	Weekdays are not abbreviated, but the following forms are used, 
        if necessary, in lists or in narrow columns in tables: 

          Sun.                     Wed.                 Fri. 
          Mon.                     Thurs.               Sat. 
          Tues. 

Time zones 
9.47. 	The following forms are to be used when abbreviating names of 
        time zones: 

        AKDT-Alaska daylight time            GMAT-Greenwich mean
        AKST-Alaska standard time              astronomical time 
        AKT-Alaska time (implies             GMT-Greenwich mean time 
         standard or daylight time)          HDT-Hawaii-Aleutian 
        AST-Atlantic standard time             daylight time
        AT-Atlantic time                       (not observed in HI) 
        CDT-central daylight time            HST-Hawaii-Aleutian 
        CST-central standard time              standard time 
        CT-central time                      LST-local standard time 
        DST-daylight saving (no ``s'')       MDT-mountain daylight time
          time                               MST-mountain standard time  
        EDT-eastern daylight time            MT-mountain time 
        EST-eastern standard time            PDT-Pacific daylight time 
        ET-eastern time                      PST-Pacific standard time
        GCT-Greenwich civil time             PT-Pacific time 
                                             UTC-coordinated universal 
                                               time 
                                                                     
Acronyms and coined words 
9.48. 	To obtain uniform treatment in the formation of acronyms and 
        coined words, apply the formulas that follow: 

        Use all capital letters when only the first letter of each word 
        or selected words is used to make up the symbol: 
            APPR (Army package power reactor) 
            EPCOT (Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow) 
            MAG (Military Advisory Group) 
            MIRV (multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle) 
            SALT (strategic arms limitation talks); (avoid SALT talks) 
            STEP (supplemental training and employment program) 
        Use all capital letters where first letters of prefixes and/or 
        suffixes are utilized as part of established expressions: 
            CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) 
            ESP (extrasensory perception) 
            FLIR (forward-looking infrared) 
        Copy must be followed where an acronym or abbreviated form is 
        copyrighted or established by law: 
            ACTION (agency of Government; not an acronym) 
            MarAd (Maritime Administration) 
            NACo (National Association of Counties) 
            MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) 
        Use caps and lowercase when proper names are used in shortened 
        form, any word of which uses more than the first letter of each 
        word: 
            Conrail (Consolidated Rail Corporation) 
            Pepco (Potomac Electric Power Co.) 
            Inco (International Nickel Co.) 
            Aramco (Arabian-American Oil Co.) 
            Unprofor (United Nations Protection Force) 
        Use lowercase in common-noun combinations made up of more than 
        the first letter of lowercased words: 
            loran (long-range navigation) 
            sonar (sound navigation ranging) 
            secant (separation control of aircraft by nonsynchronous 
              techniques) 

9.49.	 The words infra and supra are not abbreviated. 

Terms of measure 
9.50. 	Compass directions are abbreviated as follows: 

          N.                       S.                 ESE.
          NE.                      NNW.               10�N. 25�W. 
          E.                       W.                 NW. by N. \1/4\W.
          SW. 

9.51. 	The words latitude and longitude, followed by figures, are 
        abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, 
        tables, and leaderwork, and the figures are always closed up. 

          lat. 52�33'05" N. 	long. 13�21'10" E. 

9.52. 	Avoid breaking latitude and longitude figures at end of line; 
        space out line instead. In case of an unavoidable break at end 
        of line, use hyphen. 

9.53. 	Temperature and gravity are expressed in figures. When the 
        degree mark is used, it must appear closed up to the capital 
        letter, not against the figures. Note the following related
        abbreviations and letter symbols and their usages: 

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9.54. 	References to meridian in statements of time are abbreviated as 
        follows: 

          10 a.m. (not 10:00 a.m.)              12 p.m. (12 noon) 
          2:30 p.m. 	                        12 a.m. (12 midnight) 

9.55. 	The word o'clock is not used with abbreviations of time. 
 
          not 10 o'clock p.m. 

9.56. 	Metric unit letter symbols are set lowercase roman unless the 
        unit name has been derived from a proper name, in which case 
        the first letter of the symbol is capitalized (for example Pa 
        for pascal and W for watt). The exception is the letter L for 
        liter. The same form is used for singular and plural. The 
        preferred symbol for cubic centimeter is cm3; use cc only when
        requested. 

        A space is used between a figure and a unit symbol except in 
        the case of the symbols for degree, minute, and second of plane 
        angle. 

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9.57. A similar form of abbreviation applies to any unit of the metric 
system.  

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9.58. The following forms are used when units of English weight and 
      measure and units of time are abbreviated, the same form of 
      abbreviation being used for both singular and plural: 

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9.59. In astrophysical and similar scientific matter, magnitudes and 
      units of time may be expressed as follows: 

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Money 
9.60. 	The following are some of the abbreviations and symbols used 
        for indicating money: 

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Standard word abbreviations 
9.61. 	If abbreviations are required, use these forms: 

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Standard letter symbols for units of measure 
9.62. The same form is used for singular and plural senses. 

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Standard Latin abbreviations 
9.63. When Latin abbreviations are used, follow this list. 

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Information technology acronyms and initialisms 
9.64. If abbreviations are required, use these forms: 

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