[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 11 - Italic]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


(See also Chapter 9 ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols'' and Chapter 
16 ``Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures'') 

11.1.   Italic is sometimes used to differentiate or to give greater 
        prominence to words, phrases, etc. However, an excessive 
        amount of italic defeats this purpose and should be restricted. 

Emphasis, foreign words, and titles of publications 
11.2.   Italic is not used for mere emphasis, foreign words, or the 
        titles of publications. 

11.3.   In nonlegal work, ante, post, infra, and supra are italicized 
        only when part of a legal citation. Otherwise these terms, as 
        well as the abbreviations id., ibid., op. cit., et seq., and 
        other foreign words, phrases, and their abbreviations, are 
        printed in roman. 

11.4.   When ``emphasis in original,'' ``emphasis supplied,'' 
        ``emphasis added,'' or ``emphasis ours'' appears in copy, it 
        should not be changed; but ``underscore supplied'' should be 
        changed to ``italic supplied.'' Therefore, when emphasis in 
        quoted or extracted text is referred to by the foregoing terms, 
        such emphasized text must be refl ected and set in italic. 

11.5.   When copy is submitted with instructions to set ``all roman (no 
        italic),'' these instructions will not apply to Ordered, 
        Resolved, Be it enacted, etc.; titles following signatures or
        addresses; or the parts of datelines that are always set in 
        italic. 

Names of aircraft, vessels, and spacecraft 
11.6.   The names of aircraft, vessels, and manned spacecraft are 
        italicized unless otherwise indicated. In lists set in columns 
        and in stubs and reading columns of tables consisting entirely 
        of such names, they will be set in roman. Missiles and rockets 
        will be set in caps and lowercase and will not be italicized. 

          SS America; the liner America    MV (motor vessel) Havtroll 
          the Bermuda Clipper              Apollo 13, Atlantis (U.S.
                                             spaceships) 
          USS Los Angeles (submarine)      West Virginia class or 
                                             type 
          USS Wisconsin                    the Missouri's (roman ``s'')
                                             turret 
          ex-USS Savannah                  the U-7's (roman ``s'') deck   
          USCGS (U.S. Coast and Geodetic   
            Survey) ship Pathfinder        but                 
          C.S.N. Virginia                  Air Force One (President's  
                                             plane) 
          CG cutter Thetus                 B-50 (type of plane)
          the U-7                          DD-882
          destroyer 31                     LST-1155   
          H.M.S. Hornet                    MiG; MiG-35  
          HS (hydrofoil ship) Denison      PT-109  
          MS (motorship) Richard           F-22 Raptor 
          GTS (gas turbine ship)           F-117 Nighthawk (Stealth 
            Alexander                        fighter) 
          NS (nuclear ship) Savannah       A-10 Th underbolt 

11.7.   Names of vessels are quoted in matter printed in other than 
        lowercase roman, even if there is italic type available in the 
        series. 

          Sinking of the ``Lusitania''   Sinking of the ``Lusitania''  
          Sinking of the ``Lusitania''   SINKING OF THE ``LUSITANIA''

Names of legal cases 
11.8.   The names of legal cases are italicized, except for the v., 
        which is always set in lowercase. When requested, the names of 
        such cases may be set in roman with an italic v. In matter set 
        in italic, legal cases are set in roman with the v. being set 
        roman. 

          ``The Hornet'' and ``The Hood,'' Smith v. Brown et al.                    
                124 F.2d 45                   (heading) 
          Smith v. Brown et al.            SMITH v. BROWN ET AL.   
                                              (heading) 
          Smith Bros. case (172 App.       Durham rule
                Div. 149)                  Brown decision 
          Smith Bros. case, supra          John Doe v. Richard Roe 
          Smith Bros. case             but John Doe against Richard 
                                               Roe, 
          As cited in Smith Bros.              the Cement case. 
 
Scientic names 
11.9.   The scientific names of genera, subgenera, species, and 
        subspecies (varieties) are italicized but are set in roman in 
        italic matter; the names of groups of higher rank than genera 
        (phyla, classes, orders, families, tribes, etc.) are printed in 
        roman. 

           A.s. perpallidus 
           Dorothia? sp. (roman ``?'') 
           Tsuga canadensis Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens 
           the genera Quercus and Liriodendron 
           the family Leguminosae; the family Nessiteras rhombopteryx
           Measurements of specimens of Cyanoderma erythroptera neocara 

11.10.   Quotation marks should be used in place of italic for 
         scientific names appearing in lines set in caps, caps and small 
         caps, or boldface, even if there is italic type available in 
         the series. 

Words and letters 
11.11.   The words Resolved, Resolved further, Provided, Provided, 
         however, Provided further, And provided further, and ordered, 
         in bills, acts, resolutions, and formal contracts and 
         agreements are italicized; also the words To be continued, 
         Continued on p. --, Continued from p. --, and See and see also 
         (in indexes and tables of contents only). 

           Resolved, That (resolution) 

           Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
           United States of
 America in Congress assembled, That
           [To be continued] (centered; no period)
           [Continued from p. 3] (centered; no period) 
           see also Mechanical data (index entry) 

11.12.   All letters (caps, small caps, lowercase, superiors, and 
         inferiors) used as symbols are italicized. In italic matter, 
         roman letters are used. Chemical symbols (even in italic 
         matter) and certain other standardized symbols are set in 
         roman. 

                           nth degree; x dollars 
                       D�0.025Vm 2.7=0.042/G-1Vm 2.7
                       5Cu2S.2(Cu,Fe,Zn)S.2Sb2S3O4 

11.13.   Letter designations in mathematical and scientific matter, 
         except chemical symbols, are italicized. 

11.14.   Letter symbols used in legends to illustrations, drawings, 
         etc., or in text as references to such material, are set in 
         italic without periods and are capitalized if so shown in copy. 

11.15.   Letters (a), (b), (c), etc., and a, b, c, etc., used to 
         indicate sections or paragraphs, are italicized in general work 
         but not in laws or other legal documents. 

11.16.   Internet Web sites and email addresses should be set in roman.