[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 15 - Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]

Footnotes and reference marks 
15.1. 	Text footnotes follow the style of the text with the exception 
        of those things noted in Chapter 9 ``Abbreviations and Letter 
        Symbols.'' Footnotes appearing in tabular material follow the 
        guidelines set forth in Chapter 13 ``Tabular Work.''

15.2. 	In a publication divided into chapters, sections, or articles, 
        each beginning a new page, text footnotes begin with 1 in each 
        such division. In a publication without such divisional 
        grouping, footnotes are numbered consecutively from 1 to 99, 
        and then begin with 1 again. However, in supplemental sections, 
        such as appendixes and bibliographies, which are not parts of 
        the publication proper, footnotes begin with 1. 

15.3. 	Copy preparers must see that references and footnotes are 
        plainly marked. 

15.4. 	If a reference is repeated on another page, it should carry the 
        original footnote; but to avoid repetition of a long note, the 
        copy preparer may use the words ``See footnote 3 (6, 10, etc.) 
        on p.--.'' instead of repeating the entire footnote. 

15.5. 	Unless the copy is otherwise marked: (1) Footnotes to 12-point 
        text are set in 8 point; (2) footnotes to 11-point text are set 
        in 8 point, except in Supreme Court reports, in which they are  
        set in 9 point; (3) footnotes to 10- and 8-point text are set 
        in 7 point. 

15.6. 	Footnotes are set as paragraphs at the bottom of the page and 
        are separated from the text by a 50-point rule, set flush 
        left, with no less than 2 points of space above and below the 

15.7. 	Footnotes to indented matter (other than excerpt footnotes) are 
        set full measure. 

15.8. 	To achieve faithful reproduction of indented excerpt material 
        (particularly legal work) containing original footnotes, these 
        footnotes are also indented and placed at the bottom of the 
        excerpt, separated 
by 6 points of space. No side dash is used.
        Reference numbers are not changed to fit the numbering sequence 
        of text footnotes. 

15.9. 	Footnotes must always begin on the page where they are 
        referenced. If the entire footnote will not fit on the page 
        where it is cited, it will be continued at the bottom of the 
        next page.\1\

15.10. 	Footnotes to charts, graphs, and other illustrations should be 
        placed immediately beneath such illustrative material. 

15.11. 	A cutoff rule is not required between a chart or graph and its 

15.12. 	For reference marks use: (1) Roman superior figures, (2) italic 
        superior letters, and (3) symbols. Superior figures 
        (preferred), letters, and symbols are separated from the words 
        to which they apply by thin spaces, unless immediately preceded 
        by periods or commas. 

15.13. 	Where reference figures might lead to ambiguity (for example, 
        in matter containing exponents), asterisks, daggers, etc., or 
        italic superior letters may be used. 

15.14. 	When symbols or signs are used for footnote reference marks, 
        their sequence should be (*) asterisk, (�) dagger, (�) double 
        dagger, and () section mark. Should more symbols be needed, 
        these may be doubled or tripled, but for simplicity and greater 
        readability, it is preferable to extend the assortment by 
        adding other single-character symbols. 

15.15. 	Symbols with established meanings, such as the percent sign (%) 
        and the number mark (#), are likely to cause confusion and 
        should not be used for reference marks. 

15.16. 	To avoid possible confusion with numerals and letters 
        frequently occurring in charts and graphs, it is preferable in 
        such instances to use symbols as reference marks. 

 /1/ When a footnote breaks from an odd (right-hand) page to an even 
(left-hand) page, the word (Continued) is set inside parentheses in 
italic below the last line of the footnote where the break occurs. 

  A 50-point rule is used above each part of the footnote. 
 When a footnote break occurs on facing pages, i.e., from an even page 
to an odd page, the (Continued) line is not set, but the 50-point rule 
is duplicated. 

15.17.  When items carry several reference marks, the superior-figure 
        reference precedes an asterisk, dagger, or similar character 
        used for reference.  

15.18.  A superior reference mark follows all punctuation marks except 
        a dash, but it falls inside a closing parenthesis or bracket if 
        applying only to matter within the parentheses or brackets.  

15.19.  Two or more superior footnote references occurring together are 
        separated by thin spaces.  

Indexes and tables of contents 
15.20. 	Indexes and tables of contents are set in the same style as the 
        text, except that See and see also are set in italic. 

15.21. 	Where a word occurs in an index page column, either alone or 
        with a figure, it is set flush on the right. If the word 
        extends back into the leaders, it is preceded by an en space. 


15.22. 	For better appearance, Roman numerals should be set in small 
        caps in the figure columns of tables of contents and indexes. 

15.23. 	In indexes set with leaders, if the page numbers will not fit 
        in the leader line, the first number only is set in that line 
        and the other numbers are overrun. If the entry makes three or 
        more lines and the last line of figures is not full, do not use 
        a period at the end. 


15.24. 	Overrun page numbers are indented 3 1/2 ems in measures not 
        over 20 picas and 7 ems in wider measures, more than one line 
        being used if necessary. These indentions are increased as 
        necessary to not less than 2 ems more than the line immediately 
        above or below. 

15.25. 	When copy specifies that all overs are to be a certain number 
        of ems, the runovers of the figure column shall be held in 2 
        ems more than the specifi ed indention. 

15.26. 	Examples of block-type indexes: 
                Example 1 	                              Example 2 
        Medical officer, radiological                    
        defense, 3                                   Brazil-Continued
        Medicolegal dosage, 44          Exchange restrictions-Continued 
        Military Liaison Committee, 4     Williams mission (see also 
        Monitoring, 58                      Williams, John  H., special
          Air, 62	                    mission), exchange control
          Personnel, 59                     situation, 586-588 
            Civilian, 60                Trade agreement with United    
            Military, 59                    States, proposed:
          Sea, 61                          Draft text, 558-567
          Ship, 61                         Proposals for:
       Monitors, radiological defense, 3     Inclusion of all clauses, 

15.27. 	In index entries the following forms are used: 

        Brown, A.H., Jr. (not Brown, Jr., A.H.) 

        Brown, A.H., & Sons (not Brown & Sons, A.H.) 

        Brown, A.H., Co. (not Brown Co., A.H.) 

        Brown, A.H., & Sons Co. (not Brown & Sons Co., A.H.) 

15.28. 	In a table of contents, where chapter, plate, or figure is 
        followed by a number and period, an en space is used after the 
        period. The periods are aligned on the right. 


15.29. 	Subheads in indexes and tables of contents are centered in the 
        full measure. 

15.30. 	In contents using two sizes of lightface type, or a combination 
        of boldface and lightface type, all leaders and page numbers 
        will be set in lightface roman type. Contents set entirely in 
        boldface will use boldface page numbers. All page numbers will 
        be set in the predominant size. 



15.31. 	Outlines vary in appearance because there is no one set style 
        to follow in designing them. The width of the measure, the 
        number of levels required for the indentions, and the labeling 
        concept selected to identify each new level all contribute to 
        its individuality. 

        The following sample outline demonstrates a very basic and 
        structured arrangement. It uses the enumerators listed in rule 
        8.108 to identify each new indented level. 

        The enumerators for the first four levels are followed by a 
        period and a fixed amount of space. The enumerators for the 
        second four levels are set in parentheses and followed by the 
        same amount of fixed space. 

        Each new level indents 2 ems more than the preceding level, and 
        data that runs over to the next line aligns with the first word 
        following the enumerator. 

        Outline example: 
         I. Balancing a checkbook 
              A. Open your check register
                 1. Verify all check numbers
                    a. Verify no check numbers were duplicated
                    b. Verify no check numbers were skipped 
              B. Open your bank statement
                 1. Put canceled checks in sequence 
                 2. Compare amounts on checks to those in register
                    a. Correct any mistakes in register
                    b. Indicate those check numbers cashed
                        (1) Mark off check number on the statement
                           (a) Verify amount of check
                              (i) Highlight discrepancies on statement    
                                  (aa) Enter figures on back
                              (ii) Enter missing check numbers on back 
                                   with amounts               
                                   (aa) Identify missing check numbers 
                                        in register
                                   (bb) Verify those check numbers were 
                                        not cashed previously