[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 7 - Compounding Examples]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


7.1. 	The following examples are based on the rules for compounding 
        found in chapter 6. Obviously, this list or any other list of 
        compound words could not possibly be a complete reference due 
        to sheer volume. However, an analogy of the words listed with 
        like prefixes and suffixes together with an application of the 
        rules will result in easier handling of those compound words 
        not listed. 

7.2. 	In order to keep the list from becoming cumbersome, certain
        restrictions had to be adopted. 

7.3. 	The listing of hyphenated compounds ending in ed was kept to a 
        minimum. The rationale was to provide one or two examples under 
        a keyword rather than needless repetition. 

7.4. 	Similarly, many two-word forms which create no difficulty were
        omitted. 

7.5. 	Care was exercised to achieve fuller coverage of solid 
        compounds, particularly when the adopted form is different than 
        that of Webster's Third New International Dictionary. This 
        dictionary is GPO's guide for spelling with the exception of 
        those words listed in rule 5.2. It is not GPO's guide to 
        compounding. 

7.6. 	A distinction exists between words used in a literal sense and 
        a non-literal sense. With few exceptions, one-word forms usually
        express a nonliteral interpretation, while two-word forms 
        invariably convey a literal meaning. For example, a person may 
        have an interesting sideline or hobby, but be forced to sit on 
        the side line during periods of inactivity. 

7.7. 	Distinction should also be made in the compounding of two words 
        to form an adjective modifier and the use of the same words as 
        a predicate adjective; e.g., ``crystal-clear water,'' but ``the 
        water is crystal clear''; ``fire-tested material,'' but ``the
        material is fire tested.'' 

7.8. 	Caution should be exercised when distinguishing whether a 
        succession of words is being used as a compound or whether they 
        simply appear together. Consider, for example, ``We know 
        someone should do it and who that some one ought to be.'' 

7.9. 	For better appearance, it may sometimes be necessary to treat 
        alike words that would have different forms when they appear
        separately; e.g., bumblebee and queen bee, farmhand and ranch 
        hand. In juxtaposition, these and similar words should be made 
        uniform by being printed as two words. This is only a temporary
        expedient and does not supersede the list. 

7.10. 	Combining forms and prefixes are usually printed solid. For 
        greater readability, the hyphen is sometimes used to avoid 
        doubling a vowel (anti-infl ation, naso-orbital); to facilitate 
        a normally capitalized word (mid-April, non-European); to 
        assure distinct pronunciation of each element of a compound or 
        ready comprehension of intended meaning (contra-ion, un-
        ionized); or to join a combining form or prefi x to a 
        hyphenated compound (equi-gram-molar, pro-mother-in-law). 

7.11. 	As nouns and adjectives, holdup, calldown, layout, makeup, and 
        similar words should be printed solid. Their er derivatives,
        (holderup, caller-down, layer-out, and maker-up) require 
        hyphens. Such compounds as run-in, run-on, and tie-in resist 
        quick comprehension when solid. They are therefore hyphenated. 

7.12. 	Words spelled alike but pronounced differently, such as tear-
        dimmed and tearsheet, wind tunnel and windup, are listed under 
        the same keyword. 

7.13. 	Words printed flush in the following list combine with the 
        words which follow to indicate solid or hyphenated compounds. A 
        space-mark (#) appearing before an indented entry indicates a 
        two-word form, but two-word forms appearing in the adjective 
        position usually take a hyphen. 

7.14. 	To indicate word function, several abbreviations have been 
        appended. They are: adv., adverb; n., noun; v., verb; u.m., 
        unit modifier; pref., prefi x; c.f., combining form; and conj.,
        conjunction. 


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