[United States Statutes at Large, Volume 124, 111th Congress, 2nd Session]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]


Public Law 111-314
111th Congress

An Act


 
To enact certain laws relating to national and commercial space programs
as title 51, United States Code, ``National and Commercial Space
Programs''. <>

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS.

The table of contents for this Act is as follows:

Sec. 1.  Table of contents.
Sec. 2.  Purpose; conformity with original intent.
Sec. 3.  Enactment of title 51, United States Code.
Sec. 4.  Conforming amendments to other laws.
Sec. 5.  Transitional and savings provisions.
Sec. 6.  Repeals.

SEC. 2. PURPOSE; <> CONFORMITY WITH
ORIGINAL INTENT.

(a) Purpose.--The purpose of this Act is to codify certain existing
laws related to national and commercial space programs as a positive law
title of the United States Code.
(b) Conformity With Original Intent.--In the codification of laws by
this Act, the intent is to conform to the understood policy, intent, and
purpose of Congress in the original enactments, with such amendments and
corrections as will remove ambiguities, contradictions, and other
imperfections, in accordance with section 205(c)(1) of House Resolution
No. 988, 93d Congress, as enacted into law by Public Law 93-554 (2
U.S.C. 285b(1)).

SEC. 3. <> ENACTMENT OF TITLE 51, UNITED
STATES CODE.

Title 51, United States Code, ``National and Commercial Space
Programs'', is enacted as follows:

TITLE 51--NATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL SPACE PROGRAMS

Subtitle I--General

Chap.                                                               Sec.
Definitions                                            10101

Subtitle II--General Program and Policy Provisions

National Aeronautics and Space Program                 20101
Responsibilities and Vision                            20301

[[Page 3329]]

Subtitle III--Administrative Provisions

Appropriations, Budgets, and Accounting                30101
Contracting and Procurement                            30301
Management and Review                                  30501
International Cooperation and Competition              30701
Awards                                                 30901
Safety                                                 31101
Healthcare                                             31301
Miscellaneous                                          31501

Subtitle IV--Aeronautics and Space Research and Education

Aeronautics                                            40101
National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program    40301
Biomedical Research in Space                           40501
Environmentally Friendly Aircraft                      40701
Miscellaneous                                          40901

Subtitle V--Programs Targeting Commercial Opportunities

Space Commerce                                         50101
Commercial Reusable In-Space Transportation            50301
Commercial Space Competitiveness                       50501
Office of Space Commercialization                      50701

Subtitle VI--Earth Observations

Land Remote Sensing Policy                             60101
Remote Sensing                                         60301
Earth Science                                          60501

Subtitle VII--Access to Space

Use of Space Shuttle or Alternatives                   70101
Shuttle Pricing Policy for Commercial and Foreign      70301
Users
Exploration Initiatives                                70501
Human Space Flight Independent Investigation           70701
Commission
International Space Station                            70901
Near-Earth Objects                                     71101
Cooperation for Safety Among Spacefaring Nations       71301

Subtitle I--General

CHAPTER 101--DEFINITIONS

Sec.
10101.  Definitions.

Sec. 10101. Definitions

In this title:
(1) Administration.--The term ``Administration'' means the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
(2) Administrator.--The term ``Administrator'' means the
Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration.

[[Page 3330]]

Subtitle II--General Program and Policy Provisions

CHAPTER 201--NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I--SHORT TITLE, DECLARATION OF POLICY, AND DEFINITIONS

Sec.
20101.  Short title.
20102.  Congressional declaration of policy and purpose.
20103.  Definitions.

SUBCHAPTER II--COORDINATION OF AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE ACTIVITIES

20111.  National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
20112.  Functions of the Administration.
20113.  Powers of the Administration in performance of functions.
20114.  Administration and Department of Defense coordination.
20115.  International cooperation.
20116.  Reports to Congress.
20117.  Disposal of excess land.

SUBCHAPTER III--GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

20131.  Public access to information.
20132.  Security requirements.
20133.  Permission to carry firearms.
20134.  Arrest authority.
20135.  Property rights in inventions.
20136.  Contributions awards.
20137.  Malpractice and negligence suits against United States.
20138.  Insurance and indemnification.
20139.  Insurance for experimental aerospace vehicles.
20140.  Appropriations.
20141.  Misuse of agency name and initials.
20142.  Contracts regarding expendable launch vehicles.
20143.  Full cost appropriations account structure.
20144.  Prize authority.
20145.  Lease of non-excess property.
20146.  Retrocession of jurisdiction.
20147.  Recovery and disposition authority.

SUBCHAPTER IV--UPPER ATMOSPHERE RESEARCH

20161.  Congressional declaration of purpose and policy.
20162.  Definition of upper atmosphere.
20163.  Program authorized.
20164.  International cooperation.

SUBCHAPTER I--SHORT TITLE, DECLARATION OF POLICY, AND DEFINITIONS

Sec. 20101. Short title

This chapter may be cited as the ``National Aeronautics and Space
Act''.

Sec. 20102. Congressional declaration of policy and purpose

(a) Devotion of Space Activities to Peaceful Purposes for Benefit of
All Humankind.--Congress declares that it is the policy of the United
States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes
for the benefit of all humankind.
(b) Aeronautical and Space Activities for Welfare and Security of
United States.--Congress declares that the general

[[Page 3331]]

welfare and security of the United States require that adequate
provision be made for aeronautical and space activities. Congress
further declares that such activities shall be the responsibility of,
and shall be directed by, a civilian agency exercising control over
aeronautical and space activities sponsored by the United States, except
that activities peculiar to or primarily associated with the development
of weapons systems, military operations, or the defense of the United
States (including the research and development necessary to make
effective provision for the defense of the United States) shall be the
responsibility of, and shall be directed by, the Department of Defense;
and that determination as to which agency has responsibility for and
direction of any such activity shall be made by the President.
(c) Commercial Use of Space.--Congress declares that the general
welfare of the United States requires that the Administration seek and
encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of
space.
(d) Objectives of Aeronautical and Space Activities.--The aeronautical
and space activities of the United States shall be conducted so as to
contribute materially to one or more of the following objectives:
(1) The expansion of human knowledge of the Earth and of
phenomena in the atmosphere and space.
(2) The improvement of the usefulness, performance, speed,
safety, and efficiency of aeronautical and space vehicles.
(3) The development and operation of vehicles capable of
carrying instruments, equipment, supplies, and living organisms
through space.
(4) The establishment of long-range studies of the potential
benefits to be gained from, the opportunities for, and the
problems involved in the utilization of aeronautical and space
activities for peaceful and scientific purposes.
(5) The preservation of the role of the United States as a
leader in aeronautical and space science and technology and in
the application thereof to the conduct of peaceful activities
within and outside the atmosphere.
(6) The making available to agencies directly concerned with
national defense of discoveries that have military value or
significance, and the furnishing by such agencies, to the
civilian agency established to direct and control nonmilitary
aeronautical and space activities, of information as to
discoveries which have value or significance to that agency.
(7) Cooperation by the United States with other nations and
groups of nations in work done pursuant to this chapter and in
the peaceful application of the results thereof.
(8) The most effective utilization of the scientific and
engineering resources of the United States, with close
cooperation among all interested agencies of the United States
in order to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort, facilities,
and equipment.
(9) The preservation of the United States preeminent position
in aeronautics and space through research and technology
development related to associated manufacturing processes.

(e) Ground Propulsion Systems Research and Development.--Congress
declares that the general welfare of the United States requires that the
unique competence in scientific and engineering systems of the
Administration also be directed toward

[[Page 3332]]

ground propulsion systems research and development. Such development
shall be conducted so as to contribute to the objectives of developing
energy and petroleum-conserving ground propulsion systems, and of
minimizing the environmental degradation caused by such systems.
(f) Bioengineering Research, Development, and Demonstration
Programs.--Congress declares that the general welfare of the United
States requires that the unique competence of the Administration in
science and engineering systems be directed to assisting in
bioengineering research, development, and demonstration programs
designed to alleviate and minimize the effects of disability.
(g) Warning and Mitigation of Potential Hazards of Near-Earth
Objects.--Congress declares that the general welfare and security of the
United States require that the unique competence of the Administration
be directed to detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing
near-Earth asteroids and comets in order to provide warning and
mitigation of the potential hazard of such near-Earth objects to the
Earth.
(h) Purpose of Chapter.--It is the purpose of this chapter to carry
out and effectuate the policies declared in subsections (a) to (g).

Sec. 20103. Definitions

In this chapter:
(1) Aeronautical and space activities.--The term
``aeronautical and space activities'' means--
(A) research into, and the solution of, problems of
flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere;
(B) the development, construction, testing, and
operation for research purposes of aeronautical and
space vehicles;
(C) the operation of a space transportation system
including the space shuttle, upper stages, space
platforms, and related equipment; and
(D) such other activities as may be required for the
exploration of space.
(2) Aeronautical and space vehicles.--The term ``aeronautical
and space vehicles'' means aircraft, missiles, satellites, and
other space vehicles, manned and unmanned, together with related
equipment, devices, components, and parts.

SUBCHAPTER II--COORDINATION OF AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE ACTIVITIES

Sec. 20111. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

(a) Establishment and Appointment of Administrator.--There is
established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The
Administration shall be headed by an Administrator, who shall be
appointed from civilian life by the President by and with the advice and
consent of the Senate. Under the supervision and direction of the
President, the Administrator shall be responsible for the exercise of
all powers and the discharge of all duties of the Administration and
shall have authority and control over all personnel and activities
thereof.
(b) Deputy Administrator.--There shall be in the Administration a
Deputy Administrator, who shall be appointed from civilian life by the
President by and with the advice and consent of the

[[Page 3333]]

Senate. The Deputy Administrator shall perform such duties and exercise
such powers as the Administrator may prescribe. The Deputy Administrator
shall act for, and exercise the powers of, the Administrator during the
Administrator's absence or disability.
(c) Restriction on Other Business or Employment.--The Administrator
and the Deputy Administrator shall not engage in any other business,
vocation, or employment while serving as such.

Sec. 20112. Functions of the Administration

(a) Planning, Directing, and Conducting Aeronautical and Space
Activities.--The Administration, in order to carry out the purpose of
this chapter, shall--
(1) plan, direct, and conduct aeronautical and space
activities;
(2) arrange for participation by the scientific community in
planning scientific measurements and observations to be made
through use of aeronautical and space vehicles, and conduct or
arrange for the conduct of such measurements and observations;
(3) provide for the widest practicable and appropriate
dissemination of information concerning its activities and the
results thereof;
(4) seek and encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the
fullest commercial use of space; and
(5) encourage and provide for Federal Government use of
commercially provided space services and hardware, consistent
with the requirements of the Federal Government.

(b) Research and Development in Certain Technologies.--
(1) Ground propulsion technologies.--The Administration shall,
to the extent of appropriated funds, initiate, support, and
carry out such research, development, demonstration, and other
related activities in ground propulsion technologies as are
provided for in sections 4 to 10 of the Electric and Hybrid
Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (15
U.S.C. 2503 to 2509).
(2) Solar heating and cooling technologies.--The
Administration shall initiate, support, and carry out such
research, development, demonstrations, and other related
activities in solar heating and cooling technologies (to the
extent that funds are appropriated therefor) as are provided for
in sections 5, 6, and 9 of the Solar Heating and Cooling
Demonstration Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5503, 5504, 5507).

Sec. 20113. Powers of the Administration in performance of functions

(a) Rules and Regulations.--In the performance of its functions, the
Administration is authorized to make, promulgate, issue, rescind, and
amend rules and regulations governing the manner of its operations and
the exercise of the powers vested in it by law.
(b) Officers and Employees.--In the performance of its functions, the
Administration is authorized to appoint and fix the compensation of
officers and employees as may be necessary to carry out such functions.
The officers and employees shall be appointed in accordance with the
civil service laws and their compensation fixed in accordance with
chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, except that--

[[Page 3334]]

(1) to the extent the Administrator deems such action
necessary to the discharge of the Administrator's
responsibilities, the Administrator may appoint not more than
425 of the scientific, engineering, and administrative personnel
of the Administration without regard to such laws, and may fix
the compensation of such personnel not in excess of the rate of
basic pay payable for level III of the Executive Schedule; and
(2) to the extent the Administrator deems such action
necessary to recruit specially qualified scientific and
engineering talent, the Administrator may establish the entrance
grade for scientific and engineering personnel without previous
service in the Federal Government at a level up to 2 grades
higher than the grade provided for such personnel under the
General Schedule, and fix their compensation accordingly.

(c) Property.--In the performance of its functions, the Administration
is authorized--
(1) to acquire (by purchase, lease, condemnation, or
otherwise), construct, improve, repair, operate, and maintain
laboratories, research and testing sites and facilities,
aeronautical and space vehicles, quarters and related
accommodations for employees and dependents of employees of the
Administration, and such other real and personal property
(including patents), or any interest therein, as the
Administration deems necessary within and outside the
continental United States;
(2) to acquire by lease or otherwise, through the
Administrator of General Services, buildings or parts of
buildings in the District of Columbia for the use of the
Administration for a period not to exceed 10 years without
regard to section 8141 of title 40;
(3) to lease to others such real and personal property;
(4) to sell and otherwise dispose of real and personal
property (including patents and rights thereunder) in accordance
with the provisions of chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and in
accordance with title III of the Federal Property and
Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.); and
(5) to provide by contract or otherwise for cafeterias and
other necessary facilities for the welfare of employees of the
Administration at its installations and purchase and maintain
equipment therefor.

(d) Gifts.--In the performance of its functions, the Administration is
authorized to accept unconditional gifts or donations of services,
money, or property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible.
(e) Contracts, Leases, and Agreements.--In the performance of its
functions, the Administration is authorized, without regard to
subsections (a) and (b) of section 3324 of title 31, to enter into and
perform such contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, or other
transactions as may be necessary in the conduct of its work and on such
terms as it may deem appropriate, with any agency or instrumentality of
the United States, or with any State, territory, or possession, or with
any political subdivision thereof, or with any person, firm,
association, corporation, or educational institution. To the maximum
extent practicable and consistent with the accomplishment of the purpose
of this chapter, such contracts, leases, agreements, and other
transactions shall be allocated by the Administrator in a manner which
will enable small-business

[[Page 3335]]

concerns to participate equitably and proportionately in the conduct of
the work of the Administration.
(f) Cooperation With Federal Agencies and Others.--In the performance
of its functions, the Administration is authorized to use, with their
consent, the services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of Federal
and other agencies with or without reimbursement, and on a similar basis
to cooperate with other public and private agencies and
instrumentalities in the use of services, equipment, and facilities.
Each department and agency of the Federal Government shall cooperate
fully with the Administration in making its services, equipment,
personnel, and facilities available to the Administration, and any such
department or agency is authorized, notwithstanding any other provision
of law, to transfer to or to receive from the Administration, without
reimbursement, aeronautical and space vehicles, and supplies and
equipment other than administrative supplies or equipment.
(g) Advisory Committees.--In the performance of its functions, the
Administration is authorized to appoint such advisory committees as may
be appropriate for purposes of consultation and advice to the
Administration.
(h) Offices and Procedures.--In the performance of its functions, the
Administration is authorized to establish within the Administration such
offices and procedures as may be appropriate to provide for the greatest
possible coordination of its activities under this chapter with related
scientific and other activities being carried on by other public and
private agencies and organizations.
(i) Temporary or Intermittent Services of Experts or Consultants.--In
the performance of its functions, the Administration is authorized to
obtain services as provided by section 3109 of title 5, but at rates for
individuals not to exceed the per diem rate equivalent to the maximum
rate payable under section 5376 of title 5.
(j) Aliens.--In the performance of its functions, the Administration
is authorized, when determined by the Administrator to be necessary, and
subject to such security investigations as the Administrator may
determine to be appropriate, to employ aliens without regard to
statutory provisions prohibiting payment of compensation to aliens.
(k) Concessions for Visitors' Facilities.--
(1) In general.--In the performance of its functions, the
Administration is authorized to provide by concession, without
regard to section 1302 of title 40, on such terms as the
Administrator may deem to be appropriate and necessary to
protect the concessioner against loss of the concessioner's
investment in property (but not anticipated profits) resulting
from the Administration's discretionary acts and decisions, for
the construction, maintenance, and operation of all manner of
facilities and equipment for visitors to the several
installations of the Administration and, in connection
therewith, to provide services incident to the dissemination of
information concerning its activities to such visitors, without
charge or with a reasonable charge therefor (with this authority
being in addition to any other authority that the Administration
may have to provide facilities, equipment, and services for
visitors to its installations).

[[Page 3336]]

(2) Public notice and due consideration of proposals.--A
concession agreement under this subsection may be negotiated
with any qualified proposer following due consideration of all
proposals received after reasonable public notice of the
intention to contract.
(3) Reasonable opportunity for profit.--The concessioner shall
be afforded a reasonable opportunity to make a profit
commensurate with the capital invested and the obligations
assumed. The consideration paid by the concessioner for the
concession shall be based on the probable value of the
opportunity and not on maximizing revenue to the United States.
(4) Records and access to records.--Each concession agreement
shall specify the manner in which the concessioner's records are
to be maintained, and shall provide for access to the records by
the Administration and the Comptroller General of the United
States for a period of 5 years after the close of the business
year to which the records relate.
(5) Possessory interests.--A concessioner may be accorded a
possessory interest, consisting of all incidents of ownership
except legal title (which shall vest in the United States), in
any structure, fixture, or improvement the concessioner
constructs or locates upon land owned by the United States. With
the approval of the Administration, such possessory interest may
be assigned, transferred, encumbered, or relinquished by the
concessioner, and, unless otherwise provided by contract, shall
not be extinguished by the expiration or other termination of
the concession and may not be taken for public use without just
compensation.

(l) Detailing Members of Armed Services.--In the performance of its
functions, the Administration is authorized, with the approval of the
President, to enter into cooperative agreements under which members of
the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps may be detailed by the
appropriate Secretary for services in the performance of functions under
this chapter to the same extent as that to which they might be lawfully
assigned in the Department of Defense.
(m) Claims Against the United States.--In the performance of its
functions, the Administration is authorized--
(1) to consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, settle, and
pay, on behalf of the United States, in full satisfaction
thereof, any claim for $25,000 or less against the United States
for bodily injury, death, or damage to or loss of real or
personal property resulting from the conduct of the
Administration's functions as specified in section 20112(a) of
this title, where such claim is presented to the Administration
in writing within 2 years after the accident or incident out of
which the claim arises; and
(2) if the Administration considers that a claim in excess of
$25,000 is meritorious and would otherwise be covered by this
subsection, to report the facts and circumstances to Congress
for its consideration.

Sec. 20114. Administration and Department of Defense coordination

(a) Advise and Consult.--The Administration and the Department of
Defense, through the President, shall advise and consult with each other
on all matters within their respective jurisdictions

[[Page 3337]]

related to aeronautical and space activities and shall keep each other
fully and currently informed with respect to such activities.
(b) Referral to the President.--If the Secretary of Defense concludes
that any request, action, proposed action, or failure to act on the part
of the Administrator is adverse to the responsibilities of the
Department of Defense, or the Administrator concludes that any request,
action, proposed action, or failure to act on the part of the Department
of Defense is adverse to the responsibilities of the Administration, and
the Administrator and the Secretary of Defense are unable to reach an
agreement with respect to the matter, either the Administrator or the
Secretary of Defense may refer the matter to the President for a
decision (which shall be final).

Sec. 20115. International cooperation

The Administration, under the foreign policy guidance of the
President, may engage in a program of international cooperation in work
done pursuant to this chapter, and in the peaceful application of the
results thereof, pursuant to agreements made by the President with the
advice and consent of the Senate.

Sec. 20116. Reports to Congress

(a) Presidential Report.--The President shall transmit to Congress in
May of each year a report, which shall include--
(1) a comprehensive description of the programmed activities
and the accomplishments of all agencies of the United States in
the field of aeronautics and space activities during the
preceding fiscal year; and
(2) an evaluation of such activities and accomplishments in
terms of the attainment of, or the failure to attain, the
objectives described in section 20102(d) of this title.

(b) Recommendations for Additional Legislation.--Any report made under
this section shall contain such recommendations for additional
legislation as the Administrator or the President may consider necessary
or desirable for the attainment of the objectives described in section
20102(d) of this title.
(c) Classified Information.--No information that has been classified
for reasons of national security shall be included in any report made
under this section, unless the information has been declassified by, or
pursuant to authorization given by, the President.

Sec. 20117. Disposal of excess land

Notwithstanding the provisions of this or any other law, the
Administration may not report to a disposal agency as excess to the
needs of the Administration any land having an estimated value in excess
of $50,000 that is owned by the United States and under the jurisdiction
and control of the Administration, unless--
(1) a period of 30 days has passed after the receipt by the
Speaker and the Committee on Science and Technology of the House
of Representatives and the President and the Committee on
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate of a report
by the Administrator or the Administrator's designee containing
a full and complete statement of the action proposed to be taken
and the facts and circumstances relied upon in support of such
action; or

[[Page 3338]]

(2) each such committee before the expiration of that period
has transmitted to the Administrator written notice to the
effect that the committee has no objection to the proposed
action.

SUBCHAPTER III--GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

Sec. 20131. Public access to information

(a) Public Inspection.--Information obtained or developed by the
Administrator in the performance of the Administrator's functions under
this chapter shall be made available for public inspection, except
information--
(1) authorized or required by Federal statute to be withheld;
(2) classified to protect the national security; or
(3) described in subsection (b).

(b) Special Handling of Trade Secret or Confidential Information.--
(1) In general.--The Administrator, for a period of up to 5
years after the development of information described in
paragraph (2), may provide appropriate protections against the
dissemination of such information, including exemption from
subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.
(2) Information described.--Information referred to in
paragraph (1) is information that results from activities
conducted under an agreement entered into under subsections (e)
and (f) of section 20113 of this title, and that would be a
trade secret or commercial or financial information that is
privileged or confidential under the meaning of section
552(b)(4) of title 5 if the information had been obtained from a
non-Federal party participating in such an agreement.

(c) Committees of Congress.--Nothing in this chapter authorizes the
withholding of information by the Administrator from the duly authorized
committees of Congress.

Sec. 20132. Security requirements

The Administrator shall establish such security requirements,
restrictions, and safeguards as the Administrator deems necessary in the
interest of the national security. The Administrator may arrange with
the Director of the Office of Personnel Management for the conduct of
such security or other personnel investigations of the Administration's
officers, employees, and consultants, and its contractors and
subcontractors and their officers and employees, actual or prospective,
as the Administrator deems appropriate. If any such investigation
develops any data reflecting that the individual who is the subject of
the investigation is of questionable loyalty, the matter shall be
referred to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the conduct of a
full field investigation, the results of which shall be furnished to the
Administrator.

Sec. 20133. Permission to carry firearms

As the Administrator deems necessary in the public interest, the
Administrator may--
(1) direct officers and employees of the Administration to
carry firearms while in the conduct of their official duties;
and
(2) authorize employees of contractors and subcontractors of
the Administration who are engaged in the protection of

[[Page 3339]]

property owned by the United States, and located at facilities
owned by or contracted to the United States, to carry firearms
while in the conduct of their official duties.

Sec. 20134. Arrest authority

Under regulations prescribed by the Administrator and approved by the
Attorney General, employees of the Administration and of its contractors
and subcontractors authorized to carry firearms under section 20133 of
this title may arrest without warrant for any offense against the United
States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under
the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe
that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such
felony. Persons granted authority to make arrests by this section may
exercise that authority only while guarding and protecting property
owned or leased by, or under the control of, the United States under the
administration and control of the Administration or one of its
contractors or subcontractors, at facilities owned by or contracted to
the Administration.

Sec. 20135. Property rights in inventions

(a) Definitions.--In this section:
(1) Contract.--The term ``contract'' means any actual or
proposed contract, agreement, understanding, or other
arrangement, and includes any assignment, substitution of
parties, or subcontract executed or entered into thereunder.
(2) Made.--The term ``made'', when used in relation to any
invention, means the conception or first actual reduction to
practice of such invention.
(3) Person.--The term ``person'' means any individual,
partnership, corporation, association, institution, or other
entity.

(b) Exclusive Property of United States.--
(1) In general.--An invention shall be the exclusive property
of the United States if it is made in the performance of any
work under any contract of the Administration, and the
Administrator determines that--
(A) the person who made the invention was employed or
assigned to perform research, development, or
exploration work and the invention is related to the
work the person was employed or assigned to perform, or
was within the scope of the person's employment duties,
whether or not it was made during working hours, or with
a contribution by the Government of the use of
Government facilities, equipment, materials, allocated
funds, information proprietary to the Government, or
services of Government employees during working hours;
or
(B) the person who made the invention was not employed
or assigned to perform research, development, or
exploration work, but the invention is nevertheless
related to the contract, or to the work or duties the
person was employed or assigned to perform, and was made
during working hours, or with a contribution from the
Government of the sort referred to in subparagraph (A).
(2) Patent to united states.--If an invention is the exclusive
property of the United States under paragraph (1), and if such
invention is patentable, a patent therefor shall be issued

[[Page 3340]]

to the United States upon application made by the Administrator,
unless the Administrator waives all or any part of the rights of
the United States to such invention in conformity with the
provisions of subsection (g).

(c) Contract Provisions for Furnishing Reports of Inventions,
Discoveries, Improvements, or Innovations.--Each contract entered into
by the Administrator with any party for the performance of any work
shall contain effective provisions under which the party shall furnish
promptly to the Administrator a written report containing full and
complete technical information concerning any invention, discovery,
improvement, or innovation which may be made in the performance of any
such work.
(d) Patent Application.--No patent may be issued to any applicant
other than the Administrator for any invention which appears to the
Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of
the United States Patent and Trademark Office (hereafter in this section
referred to as the ``Director'') to have significant utility in the
conduct of aeronautical and space activities unless the applicant files
with the Director, with the application or within 30 days after request
therefor by the Director, a written statement executed under oath
setting forth the full facts concerning the circumstances under which
the invention was made and stating the relationship (if any) of the
invention to the performance of any work under any contract of the
Administration. Copies of each such statement and the application to
which it relates shall be transmitted forthwith by the Director to the
Administrator.
(e) Issuance of Patent to Applicant.--Upon any application as to which
any such statement has been transmitted to the Administrator, the
Director may, if the invention is patentable, issue a patent to the
applicant unless the Administrator, within 90 days after receipt of the
application and statement, requests that the patent be issued to the
Administrator on behalf of the United States. If, within such time, the
Administrator files such a request with the Director, the Director shall
transmit notice thereof to the applicant, and shall issue such patent to
the Administrator unless the applicant within 30 days after receipt of
the notice requests a hearing before the Board of Patent Appeals and
Interferences on the question whether the Administrator is entitled
under this section to receive the patent. The Board may hear and
determine, in accordance with rules and procedures established for
interference cases, the question so presented, and its determination
shall be subject to appeal by the applicant or by the Administrator to
the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in accordance
with procedures governing appeals from decisions of the Board of Patent
Appeals and Interferences in other proceedings.
(f) Subsequent Transfer of Patent in Case of False Representations.--
Whenever a patent has been issued to an applicant in conformity with
subsection (e), and the Administrator thereafter has reason to believe
that the statement filed by the applicant in connection with the patent
contained a false representation of a material fact, the Administrator,
within 5 years after the date of issuance of the patent, may file with
the Director a request for the transfer to the Administrator of title to
the patent on the records of the Director. Notice of any such request
shall be transmitted by the Director to the owner of record of the
patent,

[[Page 3341]]

and title to the patent shall be so transferred to the Administrator
unless, within 30 days after receipt of notice, the owner of record
requests a hearing before the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences
on the question whether any such false representation was contained in
the statement filed in connection with the patent. The question shall be
heard and determined, and the determination shall be subject to review,
in the manner prescribed by subsection (e) for questions arising
thereunder. A request made by the Administrator under this subsection
for the transfer of title to a patent, and prosecution for the violation
of any criminal statute, shall not be barred by the failure of the
Administrator to make a request under subsection (e) for the issuance of
the patent to the Administrator, or by any notice previously given by
the Administrator stating that the Administrator had no objection to the
issuance of the patent to the applicant.
(g) Waiver of Rights to Inventions.--Under such regulations in
conformity with this subsection as the Administrator shall prescribe,
the Administrator may waive all or any part of the rights of the United
States under this section with respect to any invention or class of
inventions made or which may be made by any person or class of persons
in the performance of any work required by any contract of the
Administration if the Administrator determines that the interests of the
United States will be served thereby. Any such waiver may be made upon
such terms and under such conditions as the Administrator shall
determine to be required for the protection of the interests of the
United States. Each such waiver made with respect to any invention shall
be subject to the reservation by the Administrator of an irrevocable,
nonexclusive, nontransferable, royalty-free license for the practice of
such invention throughout the world by or on behalf of the United States
or any foreign government pursuant to any treaty or agreement with the
United States. Each proposal for any waiver under this subsection shall
be referred to an Inventions and Contributions Board which shall be
established by the Administrator within the Administration. Such Board
shall accord to each interested party an opportunity for hearing, and
shall transmit to the Administrator its findings of fact with respect to
such proposal and its recommendations for action to be taken with
respect thereto.
(h) Protection of Title.--The Administrator is authorized to take all
suitable and necessary steps to protect any invention or discovery to
which the Administrator has title, and to require contractors or persons
who retain title to inventions or discoveries under this section to
protect the inventions or discoveries to which the Administration has or
may acquire a license of use.
(i) Administration as Defense Agency.--The Administration shall be
considered a defense agency of the United States for the purpose of
chapter 17 of title 35.
(j) Objects Intended for Launch, Launched, or Assembled in Outer
Space.--Any object intended for launch, launched, or assembled in outer
space shall be considered a vehicle for the purpose of section 272 of
title 35.
(k) Use or Manufacture of Patented Inventions Incorporated in Space
Vehicles Launched for Persons Other Than United States.--The use or
manufacture of any patented invention incorporated in a space vehicle
launched by the United States Government for a person other than the
United States shall not be considered to be a use or manufacture by or
for the United

[[Page 3342]]

States within the meaning of section 1498(a) of title 28, unless the
Administration gives an express authorization or consent for such use or
manufacture.

Sec. 20136. Contributions awards

(a) Applications.--Subject to the provisions of this section, the
Administrator is authorized, on the Administrator's own initiative or on
application of any person, to make a monetary award, in an amount and on
terms the Administrator determines to be warranted, to any person (as
defined by section 20135(a) of this title) for any scientific or
technical contribution to the Administration which is determined by the
Administrator to have significant value in the conduct of aeronautical
and space activities. Each application made for such an award shall be
referred to the Inventions and Contributions Board established under
section 20135 of this title. Such Board shall accord to each applicant
an opportunity for hearing on the application, and shall transmit to the
Administrator its recommendation as to the terms of the award, if any,
to be made to the applicant for the contribution. In determining the
terms and conditions of an award the Administrator shall take into
account--
(1) the value of the contribution to the United States;
(2) the aggregate amount of any sums which have been expended
by the applicant for the development of the contribution;
(3) the amount of any compensation (other than salary received
for services rendered as an officer or employee of the
Government) previously received by the applicant for or on
account of the use of the contribution by the United States; and
(4) any other factors the Administrator determines to be
material.

(b) Apportionment of Awards.--If more than one applicant under
subsection (a) claims an interest in the same contribution, the
Administrator shall ascertain and determine the respective interests of
the applicants, and shall apportion any award to be made among the
applicants in amounts the Administrator determines to be equitable.
(c) Surrender of Other Claims.--No award may be made under subsection
(a) unless the applicant surrenders, by means the Administrator
determines to be effective, all claims that the applicant may have to
receive any compensation (other than the award made under this section)
for the use of the contribution or any element thereof at any time by or
on behalf of the United States, or by or on behalf of any foreign
government pursuant to a treaty or agreement with the United States,
within the United States or at any other place.
(d) Report and Waiting Period.--No award may be made under subsection
(a) in an amount exceeding $100,000 unless the Administrator transmits
to the appropriate committees of Congress a full and complete report
concerning the amount and terms of, and the basis for, the proposed
award, and a period of 30 calendar days of regular session of Congress
expires after receipt of the report by the committees.

[[Page 3343]]

Sec. 20137. Malpractice and negligence suits against United States

(a) Exclusive Remedy.--The remedy against the United States provided
by sections 1346(b) and 2672 of title 28, for damages for personal
injury, including death, caused by the negligent or wrongful act or
omission of any physician, dentist, nurse, pharmacist, or paramedical or
other supporting personnel (including medical and dental technicians,
nursing assistants, and therapists) of the Administration in the
performance of medical, dental, or related health care functions
(including clinical studies and investigations) while acting within the
scope of such person's duties or employment therein or therefor shall be
exclusive of any other civil action or proceeding by reason of the same
subject matter against such person (or the estate of such person) whose
act or omission gave rise to the action or proceeding.
(b) Attorney General To Defend any Civil Action or Proceeding for
Malpractice or Negligence.--The Attorney General shall defend any civil
action or proceeding brought in any court against any person referred to
in subsection (a) (or the estate of such person) for any such injury.
Any such person against whom such civil action or proceeding is brought
shall deliver within such time after date of service or knowledge of
service as determined by the Attorney General, all process served upon
such person or an attested true copy thereof to such person's immediate
superior or to whomever was designated by the Administrator to receive
such papers. Such person shall promptly furnish copies of the pleading
and process therein to the United States Attorney for the district
embracing the place wherein the proceeding is brought, to the Attorney
General, and to the Administrator.
(c) Removal of Actions.--Upon a certification by the Attorney General
that any person described in subsection (a) was acting in the scope of
such person's duties or employment at the time of the incident out of
which the suit arose, any such civil action or proceeding commenced in a
State court shall be removed without bond at any time before trial by
the Attorney General to the district court of the United States of the
district and division embracing the place wherein it is pending and the
proceeding deemed a tort action brought against the United States under
the provisions of title 28, and all references thereto. Should a
district court of the United States determine, on a hearing on a motion
to remand held before a trial on the merits, that the case so removed is
one in which a remedy by suit within the meaning of subsection (a) is
not available against the United States, the case shall be remanded to
the State court.
(d) Compromise or Settlement of Claims.--The Attorney General may
compromise or settle any claim asserted in such civil action or
proceeding in the manner provided in section 2677 of title 28, and with
the same effect.
(e) Applicability of Other Provisions of Law.--For purposes of this
section, the provisions of section 2680(h) of title 28 shall not apply
to any cause of action arising out of a negligent or wrongful act or
omission in the performance of medical, dental, or related health care
functions (including clinical studies and investigations).
(f) Liability Insurance for Persons Assigned to Foreign Countries or
Non-Federal Agencies.--The Administrator or the Administrator's designee
may, to the extent that the Administrator

[[Page 3344]]

or the designee deems appropriate, hold harmless or provide liability
insurance for any person described in subsection (a) for damages for
personal injury, including death, caused by such person's negligent or
wrongful act or omission in the performance of medical, dental, or
related health care functions (including clinical studies and
investigations) while acting within the scope of such person's duties if
such person is assigned to a foreign country or detailed for service
with other than a Federal department, agency, or instrumentality or if
the circumstances are such as are likely to preclude the remedies of
third persons against the United States described in section 2679(b) of
title 28, for such damage or injury.

Sec. 20138. Insurance and indemnification

(a) Definitions.--In this section:
(1) Space vehicle.--The term ``space vehicle'' means an object
intended for launch, launched, or assembled in outer space,
including the space shuttle and other components of a space
transportation system, together with related equipment, devices,
components, and parts.
(2) Third party.--The term ``third party'' means any person
who may institute a claim against a user for death, bodily
injury, or loss of or damage to property.
(3) User.--The term ``user'' includes anyone who enters into
an agreement with the Administration for use of all or a portion
of a space vehicle, who owns or provides property to be flown on
a space vehicle, or who employs a person to be flown on a space
vehicle.

(b) Authorization.--The Administration is authorized on such terms and
to the extent it may deem appropriate to provide liability insurance for
any user of a space vehicle to compensate all or a portion of claims by
third parties for death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to property
resulting from activities carried on in connection with the launch,
operations, or recovery of the space vehicle. Appropriations available
to the Administration may be used to acquire such insurance, but such
appropriations shall be reimbursed to the maximum extent practicable by
the users under reimbursement policies established pursuant to section
20113 of this title.
(c) Indemnification.--Under such regulations in conformity with this
section as the Administrator shall prescribe taking into account the
availability, cost, and terms of liability insurance, any agreement
between the Administration and a user of a space vehicle may provide
that the United States will indemnify the user against claims (including
reasonable expenses of litigation or settlement) by third parties for
death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to property resulting from
activities carried on in connection with the launch, operations, or
recovery of the space vehicle, but only to the extent that such claims
are not compensated by liability insurance of the user. Such
indemnification may be limited to claims resulting from other than the
actual negligence or willful misconduct of the user.
(d) Terms of Indemnification Agreement.--An agreement made under
subsection (c) that provides indemnification must also provide for--
(1) notice to the United States of any claim or suit against
the user for the death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to
the property; and

[[Page 3345]]

(2) control of or assistance in the defense by the United
States, at its election, of that suit or claim.

(e) Certification of Just and Reasonable Amount.--No payment may be
made under subsection (c) unless the Administrator or the
Administrator's designee certifies that the amount is just and
reasonable.
(f) Payments.--Upon the approval by the Administrator, payments under
subsection (c) may be made, at the Administrator's election, either from
funds available for research and development not otherwise obligated or
from funds appropriated for such payments.

Sec. 20139. Insurance for experimental aerospace vehicles

(a) Definitions.--In this section:
(1) Cooperating party.--The term ``cooperating party'' means
any person who enters into an agreement with the Administration
for the performance of cooperative scientific, aeronautical, or
space activities to carry out the purposes of this chapter.
(2) Developer.--The term ``developer'' means a United States
person (other than a natural person) who--
(A) is a party to an agreement with the Administration
for the purpose of developing new technology for an
experimental aerospace vehicle;
(B) owns or provides property to be flown or situated
on that vehicle; or
(C) employs a natural person to be flown on that
vehicle.
(3) Experimental aerospace vehicle.--The term ``experimental
aerospace vehicle'' means an object intended to be flown in, or
launched into, orbital or suborbital flight for the purpose of
demonstrating technologies necessary for a reusable launch
vehicle, developed under an agreement between the Administration
and a developer.
(4) Related entity.--The term ``related entity'' includes a
contractor or subcontractor at any tier, a supplier, a grantee,
and an investigator or detailee.

(b) In General.--The Administrator may provide liability insurance
for, or indemnification to, the developer of an experimental aerospace
vehicle developed or used in execution of an agreement between the
Administration and the developer.
(c) Terms and Conditions.--
(1) In general.--Except as otherwise provided in this section,
the insurance and indemnification provided by the Administration
under subsection (b) to a developer shall be provided on the
same terms and conditions as insurance and indemnification is
provided by the Administration under section 20138 of this title
to the user of a space vehicle.
(2) Insurance.--
(A) In general.--A developer shall obtain liability
insurance or demonstrate financial responsibility in
amounts to compensate for the maximum probable loss from
claims by--
(i) a third party for death, bodily injury, or
property damage, or loss resulting from an
activity carried out in connection with the
development or use of an experimental aerospace
vehicle; and

[[Page 3346]]

(ii) the United States Government for damage or
loss to Government property resulting from such an
activity.
(B) Maximum required.--The Administrator shall
determine the amount of insurance required, but, except
as provided in subparagraph (C), that amount shall not
be greater than the amount required under section
50914(a)(3) of this title for a launch. The
Administrator shall publish notice of the
Administrator's determination and the applicable amount
or amounts in the Federal Register within 10 days after
making the determination.
(C) Increase in dollar amounts.--The Administrator may
increase the dollar amounts set forth in section
50914(a)(3)(A) of this title for the purpose of applying
that section under this section to a developer after
consultation with the Comptroller General and such
experts and consultants as may be appropriate, and after
publishing notice of the increase in the Federal
Register not less than 180 days before the increase goes
into effect. The Administrator shall make available for
public inspection, not later than the date of
publication of such notice, a complete record of any
correspondence received by the Administration, and a
transcript of any meetings in which the Administration
participated, regarding the proposed increase.
(D) Safety review required before administrator
provides insurance.--The Administrator may not provide
liability insurance or indemnification under subsection
(b) unless the developer establishes to the satisfaction
of the Administrator that appropriate safety procedures
and practices are being followed in the development of
the experimental aerospace vehicle.
(3) No indemnification without cross-waiver.--Notwithstanding
subsection (b), the Administrator may not indemnify a developer
of an experimental aerospace vehicle under this section unless
there is an agreement between the Administration and the
developer described in subsection (d).
(4) Application of certain procedures.--If the Administrator
requests additional appropriations to make payments under this
section, like the payments that may be made under section
20138(c) of this title, then the request for those
appropriations shall be made in accordance with the procedures
established by subsections (d) and (e) of section 50915 of this
title.

(d) Cross-Waivers.--
(1) Administrator authorized to waive.--The Administrator, on
behalf of the United States, and its departments, agencies, and
instrumentalities, may reciprocally waive claims with a
developer or cooperating party and with the related entities of
that developer or cooperating party under which each party to
the waiver agrees to be responsible, and agrees to ensure that
its own related entities are responsible, for damage or loss to
its property for which it is responsible, or for losses
resulting from any injury or death sustained by its own
employees or agents, as a result of activities connected to the
agreement or use of the experimental aerospace vehicle.
(2) Limitations.--

[[Page 3347]]

(A) Claims.--A reciprocal waiver under paragraph (1)
may not preclude a claim by any natural person
(including, but not limited to, a natural person who is
an employee of the United States, the developer, the
cooperating party, or their respective subcontractors)
or that natural person's estate, survivors, or subrogees
for injury or death, except with respect to a subrogee
that is a party to the waiver or has otherwise agreed to
be bound by the terms of the waiver.
(B) Liability for negligence.--A reciprocal waiver
under paragraph (1) may not absolve any party of
liability to any natural person (including, but not
limited to, a natural person who is an employee of the
United States, the developer, the cooperating party, or
their respective subcontractors) or such a natural
person's estate, survivors, or subrogees for negligence,
except with respect to a subrogee that is a party to the
waiver or has otherwise agreed to be bound by the terms
of the waiver.
(C) Indemnification for damages.--A reciprocal waiver
under paragraph (1) may not be used as the basis of a
claim by the Administration, or the developer or
cooperating party, for indemnification against the other
for damages paid to a natural person, or that natural
person's estate, survivors, or subrogees, for injury or
death sustained by that natural person as a result of
activities connected to the agreement or use of the
experimental aerospace vehicle.
(D) Willful misconduct.--A reciprocal waiver under
paragraph (1) may not relieve the United States, the
developer, the cooperating party, or the related
entities of the developer or cooperating party, of
liability for damage or loss resulting from willful
misconduct.
(3) Effect on previous waivers.--This subsection applies to
any waiver of claims entered into by the Administration without
regard to the date on which the Administration entered into the
waiver.

(e) Relationship to Other Laws.--
(1) Section 20138.--This section does not apply to any object,
transaction, or operation to which section 20138 of this title
applies.
(2) Section 50919(g)(1).--The Administrator may not provide
indemnification to a developer under this section for launches
subject to license under section 50919(g)(1) of this title.

(f) Termination.--
(1) In general.--The provisions of this section shall
terminate on December 31, 2010.
(2) Effect of termination on agreement.--The termination of
this section shall not terminate or otherwise affect any cross-
waiver agreement, insurance agreement, indemnification
agreement, or other agreement entered into under this section,
except as may be provided in that agreement.

Sec. 20140. Appropriations

(a) Authorization.--
(1) In general.--There are authorized to be appropriated such
sums as may be necessary to carry out this chapter,

[[Page 3348]]

except that nothing in this chapter shall authorize the
appropriation of any amount for--
(A) the acquisition or condemnation of any real
property; or
(B) any other item of a capital nature (such as plant
or facility acquisition, construction, or expansion)
which exceeds $250,000.
(2) Availability.--Sums appropriated pursuant to this
subsection for the construction of facilities, or for research
and development activities, shall remain available until
expended.

(b) Use of Funds for Emergency Repairs of Existing Facilities.--Any
funds appropriated for the construction of facilities may be used for
emergency repairs of existing facilities when such existing facilities
are made inoperative by major breakdown, accident, or other
circumstances and such repairs are deemed by the Administrator to be of
greater urgency than the construction of new facilities.
(c) Termination.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the
authorization of any appropriation to the Administration shall expire
(unless an earlier expiration is specifically provided) at the close of
the third fiscal year following the fiscal year in which the
authorization was enacted, to the extent that such appropriation has not
theretofore actually been made.

Sec. 20141. Misuse of agency name and initials

(a) In General.--No person (as defined by section 20135(a) of this
title) may knowingly use the words ``National Aeronautics and Space
Administration'' or the letters ``NASA'', or any combination, variation,
or colorable imitation of those words or letters either alone or in
combination with other words or letters--
(1) as a firm or business name in a manner reasonably
calculated to convey the impression that the firm or business
has some connection with, endorsement of, or authorization from,
the Administration which does not, in fact, exist; or
(2) in connection with any product or service being offered or
made available to the public in a manner reasonably calculated
to convey the impression that the product or service has the
authorization, support, sponsorship, or endorsement of, or the
development, use, or manufacture by or on behalf of the
Administration which does not, in fact, exist.

(b) Civil Proceeding To Enjoin.--Whenever it appears to the Attorney
General that any person is engaged in an act or practice which
constitutes or will constitute conduct prohibited by subsection (a), the
Attorney General may initiate a civil proceeding in a district court of
the United States to enjoin such act or practice.

Sec. 20142. Contracts regarding expendable launch vehicles

(a) Commitments Beyond Available Appropriations.--The Administrator
may enter into contracts for expendable launch vehicle services that are
for periods in excess of the period for which funds are otherwise
available for obligation, provide for the payment for contingent
liability which may accrue in excess of available appropriations in the
event the Federal Government for its convenience terminates such
contracts, and provide for advance payments reasonably related to launch
vehicle and related equipment, fabrication, and acquisition costs, if
any such contract limits the amount of the payments that the Government
is allowed to

[[Page 3349]]

make under such contract to amounts provided in advance in appropriation
Acts. Such contracts may be limited to sources within the United States
when the Administrator determines that such limitation is in the public
interest.
(b) Termination if Funds Not Available.--If funds are not available to
continue any such contract, the contract shall be terminated for the
convenience of the Government, and the costs of such contract shall be
paid from appropriations originally available for performance of the
contract, from other unobligated appropriations currently available for
the procurement of launch services, or from funds appropriated for such
payments.

Sec. 20143. Full cost appropriations account structure

(a) Accounts for Appropriations.--
(1) Designation of 3 accounts.--Appropriations for the
Administration shall be made in 3 accounts, ``Science,
Aeronautics, and Education'', ``Exploration Systems and Space
Operations'', and an account for amounts appropriated for the
necessary expenses of the Office of the Inspector General.
(2) Reprogramming.--Within the Exploration Systems and Space
Operations account, no more than 10 percent of the funds for a
fiscal year for Exploration Systems may be reprogrammed for
Space Operations, and no more than 10 percent of the funds for a
fiscal year for Space Operations may be reprogrammed for
Exploration Systems. This paragraph shall not apply to
reprogramming for the purposes described in subsection (b)(2).
(3) Availability.--Appropriations shall remain available for 2
fiscal years, unless otherwise specified in law. Each account
shall include the planned full costs of Administration
activities.

(b) Transfers Among Accounts.--
(1) In general.--To ensure the safe, timely, and successful
accomplishment of Administration missions, the Administration
may transfer among accounts as necessary, amounts for--
(A) Federal salaries and benefits;
(B) training, travel, and awards;
(C) facility and related costs;
(D) information technology services;
(E) publishing services;
(F) science, engineering, fabricating, and testing
services; and
(G) other administrative services.
(2) Disaster, act of terrorism, emergency rescue.--The
Administration may also transfer amounts among accounts for the
immediate costs of recovering from damage caused by a major
disaster (as defined in section 102 of the Robert T. Stafford
Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5122))
or by an act of terrorism, or for the immediate costs associated
with an emergency rescue of astronauts.

(c) Transfer of Unexpired Balances.--The unexpired balances of prior
appropriations to the Administration for activities authorized under
this chapter may be transferred to the new account established for such
activity in subsection (a). Balances so transferred may be merged with
funds in the newly established account and thereafter may be accounted
for as one fund under the same terms and conditions.

[[Page 3350]]

Sec. 20144. Prize authority

(a) In General.--The Administration may carry out a program to
competitively award cash prizes to stimulate innovation in basic and
applied research, technology development, and prototype demonstration
that have the potential for application to the performance of the space
and aeronautical activities of the Administration. The Administration
may carry out a program to award prizes only in conformity with this
section.
(b) Topics.--In selecting topics for prize competitions, the
Administrator shall consult widely both within and outside the Federal
Government, and may empanel advisory committees. The Administrator shall
give consideration to prize goals such as the demonstration of the
ability to provide energy to the lunar surface from space-based solar
power systems, demonstration of innovative near-Earth object survey and
deflection strategies, and innovative approaches to improving the safety
and efficiency of aviation systems.
(c) Advertising.--The Administrator shall widely advertise prize
competitions to encourage participation.
(d) Requirements and Registration.--For each prize competition, the
Administrator shall publish a notice in the Federal Register announcing
the subject of the competition, the rules for being eligible to
participate in the competition, the amount of the prize, and the basis
on which a winner will be selected.
(e) Eligibility.--To be eligible to win a prize under this section, an
individual or entity--
(1) shall have registered to participate in the competition
pursuant to any rules promulgated by the Administrator under
subsection (d);
(2) shall have complied with all the requirements under this
section;
(3) in the case of a private entity, shall be incorporated in
and maintain a primary place of business in the United States,
and in the case of an individual, whether participating singly
or in a group, shall be a citizen or permanent resident of the
United States; and
(4) shall not be a Federal entity or Federal employee acting
within the scope of their employment.

(f) Liability.--
(1) Assumption of risk.--Registered participants must agree to
assume any and all risks and waive claims against the Federal
Government and its related entities, except in the case of
willful misconduct, for any injury, death, damage, or loss of
property, revenue, or profits, whether direct, indirect, or
consequential, arising from their participation in a
competition, whether such injury, death, damage, or loss arises
through negligence or otherwise. For the purposes of this
paragraph, the term ``related entity'' means a contractor or
subcontractor at any tier, and a supplier, user, customer,
cooperating party, grantee, investigator, or detailee.
(2) Liability insurance.--Participants must obtain liability
insurance or demonstrate financial responsibility, in amounts
determined by the Administrator, for claims by--
(A) a third party for death, bodily injury, or
property damage, or loss resulting from an activity
carried out in connection with participation in a
competition, with the Federal Government named as an
additional insured under

[[Page 3351]]

the registered participant's insurance policy and
registered participants agreeing to indemnify the
Federal Government against third party claims for
damages arising from or related to competition
activities; and
(B) the Federal Government for damage or loss to
Government property resulting from such an activity.

(g) Judges.--For each competition, the Administration, either directly
or through an agreement under subsection (h), shall assemble a panel of
qualified judges to select the winner or winners of the prize
competition on the basis described pursuant to subsection (d). Judges
for each competition shall include individuals from outside the
Administration, including from the private sector. A judge may not--
(1) have personal or financial interests in, or be an
employee, officer, director, or agent of any entity that is a
registered participant in a competition; or
(2) have a familial or financial relationship with an
individual who is a registered participant.

(h) Administering the Competition.--The Administrator may enter into
an agreement with a private, nonprofit entity to administer the prize
competition, subject to the provisions of this section.
(i) Funding.--
(1) Sources.--Prizes under this section may consist of Federal
appropriated funds and funds provided by the private sector for
such cash prizes. The Administrator may accept funds from other
Federal agencies for such cash prizes. The Administrator may not
give any special consideration to any private sector entity in
return for a donation.
(2) Availability.--
(A) Definition of provisions known as the anti-
deficiency act.--In this paragraph, the term
``provisions known as the Anti-Deficiency Act'' means
sections 1341, 1342, 1349(a), 1350, 1351, 1511, 1512,
1513, 1514, 1515, 1516, 1517, 1518, and 1519 of title
31.
(B) In general.--Notwithstanding any other provision
of law, funds appropriated for prize awards under this
section shall remain available until expended, and may
be transferred, reprogrammed, or expended for other
purposes only after the expiration of 10 fiscal years
after the fiscal year for which the funds were
originally appropriated. No provision in this section
permits obligation or payment of funds in violation of
the provisions known as the Anti-Deficiency Act.
(3) Appropriation or commitment of funds required before
announcement of prize or increase.--
(A) In general.--No prize may be announced under
subsection (d) until all the funds needed to pay out the
announced amount of the prize have been appropriated or
committed in writing by a private source.
(B) Increase.--The Administrator may increase the
amount of a prize after an initial announcement is made
under subsection (d) if--
(i) notice of the increase is provided in the
same manner as the initial notice of the prize;
and
(ii) the funds needed to pay out the announced
amount of the increase have been appropriated or
committed in writing by a private source.

[[Page 3352]]

(4) Notice to committees for prize greater than $50,000,000.--
No prize competition under this section may offer a prize in an
amount greater than $50,000,000 unless 30 days have elapsed
after written notice has been transmitted to the Committee on
Science and Technology of the House of Representatives and the
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the
Senate.
(5) Approval of administrator for prize greater than
$1,000,000.--No prize competition under this section may result
in the award of more than $1,000,000 in cash prizes without the
approval of the Administrator.

(j) Use of Administration Name or Insignia.--A registered participant
in a competition under this section may use the Administration's name,
initials, or insignia only after prior review and written approval by
the Administration.
(k) Compliance With Existing Law.--The Federal Government shall not,
by virtue of offering or providing a prize under this section, be
responsible for compliance by registered participants in a prize
competition with Federal law, including licensing, export control, and
non-proliferation laws, and related regulations.

Sec. 20145. Lease of non-excess property

(a) In General.--The Administrator may enter into a lease under this
section with any person or entity (including another department or
agency of the Federal Government or an entity of a State or local
government) with regard to any non-excess real property and related
personal property under the jurisdiction of the Administrator.
(b) Cash Consideration.--
(1) Fair market value.--A person or entity entering into a
lease under this section shall provide cash consideration for
the lease at fair market value as determined by the
Administrator.
(2) Utilization.--
(A) In general.--The Administrator may utilize amounts
of cash consideration received under this subsection for
a lease entered into under this section to cover the
full costs to the Administration in connection with the
lease. These funds shall remain available until
expended.
(B) Capital revitalization and improvements.--Of any
amounts of cash consideration received under this
subsection that are not utilized in accordance with
subparagraph (A)--
(i) 35 percent shall be deposited in a capital
asset account to be established by the
Administrator, shall be available for maintenance,
capital revitalization, and improvements of the
real property assets and related personal property
under the jurisdiction of the Administrator, and
shall remain available until expended; and
(ii) the remaining 65 percent shall be available
to the respective center or facility of the
Administration engaged in the lease of nonexcess
real property, and shall remain available until
expended for maintenance, capital revitalization,
and improvements of the real property assets and
related personal property at the

[[Page 3353]]

respective center or facility subject to the
concurrence of the Administrator.
(C) No utilization for daily operating costs.--Amounts
utilized under subparagraph (B) may not be utilized for
daily operating costs.

(c) Additional Terms and Conditions.--The Administrator may require
such terms and conditions in connection with a lease under this section
as the Administrator considers appropriate to protect the interests of
the United States.
(d) Relationship to Other Lease Authority.--The authority under this
section to lease property of the Administration is in addition to any
other authority to lease property of the Administration under law.
(e) Lease Restrictions.--
(1) No lease back or other contract.--The Administration is
not authorized to lease back property under this section during
the term of the out-lease or enter into other contracts with the
lessee respecting the property.
(2) Certification that out-lease will not have negative impact
on mission.--The Administration is not authorized to enter into
an out-lease under this section unless the Administrator
certifies that the out-lease will not have a negative impact on
the mission of the Administration.

(f) Reporting Requirements.--The Administrator shall submit an annual
report by January 31st of each year. The report shall include the
following:
(1) Value of arrangements and expenditures of revenues.--
Information that identifies and quantifies the value of the
arrangements and expenditures of revenues received under this
section.
(2) Availability and use of funds for operating plan.--The
availability and use of funds received under this section for
the Administration's operating plan.

(g) Sunset.--The authority to enter into leases under this section
shall expire 10 years after December 26, 2007. The expiration under this
subsection of authority to enter into leases under this section shall
not affect the validity or term of leases or the Administration's
retention of proceeds from leases entered into under this section before
the expiration of the authority.

Sec. 20146. Retrocession of jurisdiction

(a) Definition of State.--In this section, the term ``State'' means
any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of
Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the
Northern Mariana Islands, and any other commonwealth, territory, or
possession of the United States.
(b) Relinquishing Legislative Jurisdiction.--Notwithstanding any other
provision of law, the Administrator may relinquish to a State all or
part of the legislative jurisdiction of the United States over lands or
interests under the control of the Administrator in that State.

Sec. 20147. Recovery and disposition authority

(a) Definitions.--In this section:
(1) Administration human space flight vehicle.--The term
``Administration human space flight vehicle'' means a space
vehicle, as defined in section 20138(a) of this title, that--

[[Page 3354]]

(A) is intended to transport one or more persons;
(B) is designed to operate in outer space; and
(C) is either--
(i) owned by the Administration; or
(ii) owned by an Administration contractor or
cooperating party and operated as part of an
Administration mission or a joint mission with the
Administration.
(2) Crewmember.--The term ``crewmember'' means an astronaut or
other person assigned to an Administration human space flight
vehicle.

(b) Control of Remains.--
(1) In general.--Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), when there
is an accident or mishap resulting in the death of a crewmember
of an Administration human space flight vehicle, the
Administrator may take control over the remains of the
crewmember and order autopsies and other scientific or medical
tests.
(2) Treatment.--Each crewmember shall provide the
Administrator with the crewmember's preferences regarding the
treatment accorded to the crewmember's remains and the
Administrator shall, to the extent possible, respect those
stated preferences.
(3) Construction.--This section shall not be construed to
permit the Administrator to interfere with any Federal
investigation of a mishap or accident.

SUBCHAPTER IV--UPPER ATMOSPHERE RESEARCH

Sec. 20161. Congressional declaration of purpose and policy

(a) Purpose.--The purpose of this subchapter is to authorize and
direct the Administration to develop and carry out a comprehensive
program of research, technology, and monitoring of the phenomena of the
upper atmosphere so as to provide for an understanding of and to
maintain the chemical and physical integrity of the Earth's upper
atmosphere.
(b) Policy.--Congress declares that it is the policy of the United
States to undertake an immediate and appropriate research, technology,
and monitoring program that will provide for understanding the physics
and chemistry of the Earth's upper atmosphere.

Sec. 20162. Definition of upper atmosphere

In this subchapter, the term ``upper atmosphere'' means that portion
of the Earth's sensible atmosphere above the troposphere.

Sec. 20163. Program authorized

(a) In General.--In order to carry out the purposes of this
subchapter, the Administration, in cooperation with other Federal
agencies, shall initiate and carry out a program of research,
technology, monitoring, and other appropriate activities directed to
understand the physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere.
(b) Activities.--In carrying out the provisions of this subchapter,
the Administration shall--
(1) arrange for participation by the scientific and
engineering community, of both the Nation's industrial
organizations and institutions of higher education, in planning
and carrying out appropriate research, in developing necessary
technology, and in making necessary observations and
measurements;

[[Page 3355]]

(2) provide, by way of grant, contract, scholarships, or other
arrangements, to the maximum extent practicable and consistent
with other laws, for the widest practicable and appropriate
participation of the scientific and engineering community in the
program authorized by this subchapter; and
(3) make all results of the program authorized by this
subchapter available to the appropriate regulatory agencies and
provide for the widest practicable dissemination of such
results.

Sec. 20164. International cooperation

In carrying out the provisions of this subchapter, the Administration,
subject to the direction of the President and after consultation with
the Secretary of State, shall make every effort to enlist the support
and cooperation of appropriate scientists and engineers of other
countries and international organizations.

CHAPTER 203--RESPONSIBILITIES AND VISION

Sec.
20301.  General responsibilities.
20302.  Vision for space exploration.
20303.  Contribution to innovation.
20304.  Basic research enhancement.
20305.  National Academies decadal surveys.

Sec. 20301. General responsibilities

(a) Programs.--The Administrator shall ensure that the Administration
carries out a balanced set of programs that shall include, at a minimum,
programs in--
(1) human space flight, in accordance with section 20302 of
this title;
(2) aeronautics research and development; and
(3) scientific research, which shall include, at a minimum--
(A) robotic missions to study the Moon and other
planets and their moons, and to deepen understanding of
astronomy, astrophysics, and other areas of science that
can be productively studied from space;
(B) Earth science research and research on the Sun-
Earth connection through the development and operation
of research satellites and other means;
(C) support of university research in space science,
Earth science, and microgravity science; and
(D) research on microgravity, including research that
is not directly related to human exploration.

(b) Consultation and Coordination.--In carrying out the programs of
the Administration, the Administrator shall--
(1) consult and coordinate to the extent appropriate with
other relevant Federal agencies, including through the National
Science and Technology Council;
(2) work closely with the private sector, including by--
(A) encouraging the work of entrepreneurs who are
seeking to develop new means to launch satellites, crew,
or cargo;
(B) contracting with the private sector for crew and
cargo services, including to the International Space
Station, to the extent practicable;

[[Page 3356]]

(C) using commercially available products (including
software) and services to the extent practicable to
support all Administration activities; and
(D) encouraging commercial use and development of
space to the greatest extent practicable; and
(3) involve other nations to the extent appropriate.

Sec. 20302. Vision for space exploration

(a) In General.--The Administrator shall establish a program to
develop a sustained human presence on the Moon, including a robust
precursor program, to promote exploration, science, commerce, and United
States preeminence in space, and as a stepping-stone to future
exploration of Mars and other destinations. The Administrator is further
authorized to develop and conduct appropriate international
collaborations in pursuit of these goals.
(b) Milestones.--The Administrator shall manage human space flight
programs to strive to achieve the following milestones (in conformity
with section 70502 of this title):
(1) Returning Americans to the Moon no later than 2020.
(2) Launching the Crew Exploration Vehicle as close to 2010 as
possible.
(3) Increasing knowledge of the impacts of long duration stays
in space on the human body using the most appropriate facilities
available, including the International Space Station.
(4) Enabling humans to land on and return from Mars and other
destinations on a timetable that is technically and fiscally
possible.

Sec. 20303. Contribution to innovation

(a) Participation in Interagency Activities.--The Administration shall
be a full participant in any interagency effort to promote innovation
and economic competitiveness through near-term and long-term basic
scientific research and development and the promotion of science,
technology, engineering, and mathematics education, consistent with the
Administration's mission, including authorized activities.
(b) Historic Foundation.--In order to carry out the participation
described in subsection (a), the Administrator shall build on the
historic role of the Administration in stimulating excellence in the
advancement of physical science and engineering disciplines and in
providing opportunities and incentives for the pursuit of academic
studies in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
(c) Balanced Science Program and Robust Authorization Levels.--The
balanced science program authorized by section 101(d) of the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (42
U.S.C. 16611(d)) shall be an element of the contribution by the
Administration to the interagency programs.
(d) Annual Report.--
(1) Requirement.--The Administrator shall submit to Congress
and the President an annual report describing the activities
conducted pursuant to this section, including a description of
the goals and the objective metrics upon which funding decisions
were made.
(2) Content.--Each report submitted pursuant to paragraph (1)
shall include, with regard to science, technology,

[[Page 3357]]

engineering, and mathematics education programs, at a minimum,
the following:
(A) A description of each program.
(B) The amount spent on each program.
(C) The number of students or teachers served by each
program.

Sec. 20304. Basic research enhancement

(a) Definition of Basic Research.--In this section, the term ``basic
research'' has the meaning given the term in Office of Management and
Budget Circular No. A-11.
(b) Coordination.--The Administrator, the Director of the National
Science Foundation, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Defense,
and the Secretary of Commerce shall, to the extent practicable,
coordinate basic research activities related to physical sciences,
technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Sec. 20305. National Academies decadal surveys

(a) In General.--The Administrator shall enter into agreements on a
periodic basis with the National Academies for independent assessments,
also known as decadal surveys, to take stock of the status and
opportunities for Earth and space science discipline fields and
Aeronautics research and to recommend priorities for research and
programmatic areas over the next decade.
(b) Independent Cost Estimates.--The agreements described in
subsection (a) shall include independent estimates of the life cycle
costs and technical readiness of missions assessed in the decadal
surveys whenever possible.
(c) Reexamination.--The Administrator shall request that each National
Academies decadal survey committee identify any conditions or events,
such as significant cost growth or scientific or technological advances,
that would warrant the Administration asking the National Academies to
reexamine the priorities that the decadal survey had established.

Subtitle III--Administrative Provisions

CHAPTER 301--APPROPRIATIONS, BUDGETS, AND ACCOUNTING

Sec.
30101.  Prior authorization of appropriations required.
30102.  Working capital fund.
30103.  Budgets.
30104.  Baselines and cost controls.

Sec. 30101. Prior authorization of appropriations required

Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, no appropriation may
be made to the Administration unless previously authorized by
legislation enacted by Congress.

Sec. 30102. Working capital fund

(a) Establishment.--There is hereby established in the United States
Treasury an Administration working capital fund.
(b) Availability of Amounts.--

[[Page 3358]]

(1) In general.--Amounts in the fund are available for
financing activities, services, equipment, information, and
facilities as authorized by law to be provided--
(A) within the Administration;
(B) to other agencies or instrumentalities of the
United States;
(C) to any State, territory, or possession or
political subdivision thereof;
(D) to other public or private agencies; or
(E) to any person, firm, association, corporation, or
educational institution on a reimbursable basis.
(2) Capital repairs.--The fund shall also be available for the
purpose of funding capital repairs, renovations, rehabilitation,
sustainment, demolition, or replacement of Administration real
property, on a reimbursable basis within the Administration.
(3) No fiscal year limitation.--Amounts in the fund are
available without regard to fiscal year limitation.

(c) Contents.--The capital of the fund consists of--
(1) amounts appropriated to the fund;
(2) the reasonable value of stocks of supplies, equipment, and
other assets and inventories on order that the Administrator
transfers to the fund, less the related liabilities and unpaid
obligations; and
(3) payments received for loss or damage to property of the
fund.

(d) Reimbursement.--The fund shall be reimbursed, in advance, for
supplies and services at rates that will approximate the expenses of
operation, such as the accrual of annual leave, depreciation of plant,
property, and equipment, and overhead.

Sec. 30103. Budgets

(a) Categories.--The proposed budget for the Administration submitted
by the President for each fiscal year shall be accompanied by documents
showing--
(1) by program--
(A) the budget for space operations, including the
International Space Station and the space shuttle;
(B) the budget for exploration systems;
(C) the budget for aeronautics;
(D) the budget for space science;
(E) the budget for Earth science;
(F) the budget for microgravity science;
(G) the budget for education;
(H) the budget for safety oversight; and
(I) the budget for public relations;
(2) the budget for technology transfer programs;
(3) the budget for the Integrated Enterprise Management
Program, by individual element;
(4) the budget for the Independent Technical Authority, both
total and by center;
(5) the total budget for the prize program under section 20144
of this title, and the administrative budget for that program;
and
(6) the comparable figures for at least the 2 previous fiscal
years for each item in the proposed budget.

[[Page 3359]]

(b) Additional Budget Information Upon Request by Committees.--The
Administration shall make available, upon request from the Committee on
Science and Technology of the House of Representatives or the Committee
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate--
(1) information on corporate and center general and
administrative costs and service pool costs, including--
(A) the total amount of funds being allocated for
those purposes for any fiscal year for which the
President has submitted an annual budget request to
Congress;
(B) the amount of funds being allocated for those
purposes for each center, for headquarters, and for each
directorate; and
(C) the major activities included in each cost
category; and
(2) the figures on the amount of unobligated funds and
unexpended funds, by appropriations account--
(A) that remained at the end of the fiscal year prior
to the fiscal year in which the budget is being
presented that were carried over into the fiscal year in
which the budget is being presented;
(B) that are estimated will remain at the end of the
fiscal year in which the budget is being presented that
are proposed to be carried over into the fiscal year for
which the budget is being presented; and
(C) that are estimated will remain at the end of the
fiscal year for which the budget is being presented.

(c) Information in Annual Budget Justification.--The Administration
shall provide, at a minimum, the following information in its annual
budget justification:
(1) The actual, current, proposed funding level, and estimated
budgets for the next 5 fiscal years by directorate, theme,
program, project and activity within each appropriations
account.
(2) The proposed programmatic and non-programmatic
construction of facilities.
(3) The budget for headquarters including--
(A) the budget by office, and any division thereof,
for the actual, current, proposed funding level, and
estimated budgets for the next 5 fiscal years;
(B) the travel budget for each office, and any
division thereof, for the actual, current, and proposed
funding level; and
(C) the civil service full time equivalent assignments
per headquarters office, and any division thereof,
including the number of Senior Executive Service,
noncareer, detailee, and contract personnel per office.
(4) Within 14 days of the submission of the budget to Congress
an accompanying volume shall be provided to the Committees on
Appropriations containing the following information for each
center, facility managed by any center, and federally funded
research and development center operated on behalf of the
Administration:
(A) The actual, current, proposed funding level, and
estimated budgets for the next 5 fiscal years by
directorate, theme, program, project, and activity.
(B) The proposed programmatic and non-programmatic
construction of facilities.

[[Page 3360]]

(C) The number of civil service full time equivalent
positions per center for each identified fiscal year.
(D) The number of civil service full time equivalent
positions considered to be uncovered capacity at each
location for each identified fiscal year.
(5) The proposed budget as designated by object class for each
directorate, theme, and program.
(6) Sufficient narrative shall be provided to explain the
request for each program, project, and activity, and an
explanation for any deviation to previously adopted baselines
for all justification materials provided to the Committees.

(d) Estimate of Gross Receipts and Proposed Use of Funds Related to
Lease of Property.--Each annual budget request shall include an annual
estimate of gross receipts and collections and proposed use of all funds
collected pursuant to section 20145 of this title.

Sec. 30104. Baselines and cost controls

(a) Definitions.--In this section:
(1) Development.--The term ``development'' means the phase of
a program following the formulation phase and beginning with the
approval to proceed to implementation, as defined in the
Administration's Procedural Requirements 7120.5c, dated March
22, 2005.
(2) Development cost.--The term ``development cost'' means the
total of all costs, including construction of facilities and
civil servant costs, from the period beginning with the approval
to proceed to implementation through the achievement of
operational readiness, without regard to funding source or
management control, for the life of the program.
(3) Life-cycle cost.--The term ``life-cycle cost'' means the
total of the direct, indirect, recurring, and nonrecurring
costs, including the construction of facilities and civil
servant costs, and other related expenses incurred or estimated
to be incurred in the design, development, verification,
production, operation, maintenance, support, and retirement of a
program over its planned lifespan, without regard to funding
source or management control.
(4) Major program.--The term ``major program'' means an
activity approved to proceed to implementation that has an
estimated life-cycle cost of more than $250,000,000.

(b) Conditions for Development.--
(1) In general.--The Administration shall not enter into a
contract for the development of a major program unless the
Administrator determines that--
(A) the technical, cost, and schedule risks of the
program are clearly identified and the program has
developed a plan to manage those risks;
(B) the technologies required for the program have
been demonstrated in a relevant laboratory or test
environment; and
(C) the program complies with all relevant policies,
regulations, and directives of the Administration.
(2) Report.--The Administrator shall transmit a report
describing the basis for the determination required under
paragraph (1) to the Committee on Science and Technology of the
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce,

[[Page 3361]]

Science, and Transportation of the Senate at least 30 days
before entering into a contract for development under a major
program.
(3) Nondelegation.--The Administrator may not delegate the
determination requirement under this subsection, except in cases
in which the Administrator has a conflict of interest.

(c) Major Program Annual Reports.--
(1) Requirement.--Annually, at the same time as the
President's annual budget submission to Congress, the
Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science and
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report
that includes the information required by this section for each
major program for which the Administration proposes to expend
funds in the subsequent fiscal year. Reports under this
paragraph shall be known as Major Program Annual Reports.
(2) Baseline report.--The first Major Program Annual Report
for each major program shall include a Baseline Report that
shall, at a minimum, include--
(A) the purposes of the program and key technical
characteristics necessary to fulfill those purposes;
(B) an estimate of the life-cycle cost for the
program, with a detailed breakout of the development
cost, program reserves, and an estimate of the annual
costs until development is completed;
(C) the schedule for development, including key
program milestones;
(D) the plan for mitigating technical, cost, and
schedule risks identified in accordance with subsection
(b)(1)(A); and
(E) the name of the person responsible for making
notifications under subsection (d), who shall be an
individual whose primary responsibility is overseeing
the program.
(3) Information updates.--For major programs for which a
Baseline Report has been submitted, each subsequent Major
Program Annual Report shall describe any changes to the
information that had been provided in the Baseline Report, and
the reasons for those changes.

(d) Notification.--
(1) Requirement.--The individual identified under subsection
(c)(2)(E) shall immediately notify the Administrator any time
that individual has reasonable cause to believe that, for the
major program for which he or she is responsible--
(A) the development cost of the program is likely to
exceed the estimate provided in the Baseline Report of
the program by 15 percent or more; or
(B) a milestone of the program is likely to be delayed
by 6 months or more from the date provided for it in the
Baseline Report of the program.
(2) Reasons.--Not later than 30 days after the notification
required under paragraph (1), the individual identified under
subsection (c)(2)(E) shall transmit to the Administrator a
written notification explaining the reasons for the change in
the cost or milestone of the program for which notification was
provided under paragraph (1).

[[Page 3362]]

(3) Notification of congress.--Not later than 15 days after
the Administrator receives a written notification under
paragraph (2), the Administrator shall transmit the notification
to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Transportation of the Senate.

(e) Fifteen Percent Threshold.--
(1) Determination, report, and initiation of analysis.--Not
later than 30 days after receiving a written notification under
subsection (d)(2), the Administrator shall determine whether the
development cost of the program is likely to exceed the estimate
provided in the Baseline Report of the program by 15 percent or
more, or whether a milestone is likely to be delayed by 6 months
or more. If the determination is affirmative, the Administrator
shall--
(A) transmit to the Committee on Science and
Technology of the House of Representatives and the
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of
the Senate, not later than 15 days after making the
determination, a report that includes--
(i) a description of the increase in cost or
delay in schedule and a detailed explanation for
the increase or delay;
(ii) a description of actions taken or proposed
to be taken in response to the cost increase or
delay; and
(iii) a description of any impacts the cost
increase or schedule delay, or the actions
described under clause (ii), will have on any
other program within the Administration; and
(B) if the Administrator intends to continue with the
program, promptly initiate an analysis of the program,
which shall include, at a minimum--
(i) the projected cost and schedule for
completing the program if current requirements of
the program are not modified;
(ii) the projected cost and the schedule for
completing the program after instituting the
actions described under subparagraph (A)(ii); and
(iii) a description of, and the projected cost
and schedule for, a broad range of alternatives to
the program.
(2) Completion of analysis and transmittal to committees.--The
Administration shall complete an analysis initiated under
paragraph (1)(B) not later than 6 months after the Administrator
makes a determination under this subsection. The Administrator
shall transmit the analysis to the Committee on Science and
Technology of the House of Representatives and Committee on
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate not later
than 30 days after its completion.

(f) Thirty Percent Threshold.--If the Administrator determines under
subsection (e) that the development cost of a program will exceed the
estimate provided in the Baseline Report of the program by more than 30
percent, then, beginning 18 months after the date the Administrator
transmits a report under subsection (e)(1)(A), the Administrator shall
not expend any additional funds on the program, other than termination
costs, unless Congress

[[Page 3363]]

has subsequently authorized continuation of the program by law. An
appropriation for the specific program enacted subsequent to a report
being transmitted shall be considered an authorization for purposes of
this subsection. If the program is continued, the Administrator shall
submit a new Baseline Report for the program no later than 90 days after
the date of enactment of the Act under which Congress has authorized
continuation of the program.

CHAPTER 303--CONTRACTING AND PROCUREMENT

Sec.
30301.  Guaranteed customer base.
30302.  Quality assurance personnel.
30303.  Tracking and data relay satellite services.
30304.  Award of contracts to small businesses and disadvantaged
individuals.
30305.  Outreach program.
30306.  Small business contracting.
30307.  Requirement for independent cost analysis.
30308.  Cost effectiveness calculations.
30309.  Use of abandoned and underutilized buildings, grounds, and
facilities.
30310.  Exception to alternative fuel procurement requirement.

Sec. 30301. Guaranteed customer base

No amount appropriated to the Administration may be used to fund
grants, contracts, or other agreements with an expected duration of more
than one year, when a primary effect of the grant, contract, or
agreement is to provide a guaranteed customer base for or establish an
anchor tenancy in new commercial space hardware or services unless an
appropriations Act specifies the new commercial space hardware or
services to be developed or used, or the grant, contract, or agreement
is otherwise identified in such Act.

Sec. 30302. Quality assurance personnel

(a) Exclusion of Administration Personnel.--A person providing
articles to the Administration under a contract entered into after
December 9, 1991, may not exclude Administration quality assurance
personnel from work sites except as provided in a contract provision
that has been submitted to Congress as provided in subsection (b).
(b) Contract Provisions.--The Administration shall not enter into any
contract which permits the exclusion of Administration quality assurance
personnel from work sites unless the Administrator has submitted a copy
of the provision permitting such exclusion to Congress at least 60 days
before entering into the contract.

Sec. 30303. Tracking and data relay satellite services

(a) Contracts.--The Administration is authorized, when so provided in
an appropriation Act, to enter into and to maintain a contract for
tracking and data relay satellite services. Such services shall be
furnished to the Administration in accordance with applicable
authorization and appropriations Acts. The Government shall incur no
costs under such contract prior to the furnishing of such services
except that the contract may provide for the payment for contingent
liability of the Government which may accrue in the event the Government
should decide for its convenience to terminate the contract before the
end of the period of the contract. Facilities which may be required in
the performance of the contract may be constructed on Government-owned
lands if there is included

[[Page 3364]]

in the contract a provision under which the Government may acquire title
to the facilities, under terms and conditions agreed upon in the
contract, upon termination of the contract.
(b) Reports to Congress.--The Administrator shall in January of each
year report to the Committee on Science and Technology and the Committee
on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on
Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on
Appropriations of the Senate the projected aggregate contingent
liability of the Government under termination provisions of any contract
authorized in this section through the next fiscal year. The authority
of the Administration to enter into and to maintain the contract
authorized hereunder shall remain in effect unless repealed by
legislation enacted by Congress.

Sec. 30304. Award of contracts to small businesses and disadvantaged
individuals

The Administrator shall annually establish a goal of at least 8
percent of the total value of prime and subcontracts awarded in support
of authorized programs, including the space station by the time
operational status is obtained, which funds will be made available to
small business concerns or other organizations owned or controlled by
socially and economically disadvantaged individuals (within the meaning
of paragraphs (5) and (6) of section 8(a) of the Small Business Act (15
U.S.C. 637(a))), including Historically Black Colleges and Universities
that are part B institutions (as defined in section 322(2) of the Higher
Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1061(2))), Hispanic-serving
institutions (as defined in section 502(a)(5) of that Act (20 U.S.C.
1101a(a)(5))), Tribal Colleges or Universities (as defined in section
316(b)(3) of that Act (20 U.S.C. 1059c(b)(3))), Alaska Native-serving
institutions (as defined in section 317(b)(2) of that Act (20 U.S.C.
1059d(b)(2))), Native Hawaiian-serving institutions (as defined in
section 317(b)(4) of that Act (20 U.S.C. 1059d(b)(4))), and minority
educational institutions (as defined by the Secretary of Education
pursuant to the General Education Provisions Act (20 U.S.C. 1221 et
seq.)).

Sec. 30305. Outreach program

(a) Establishment.--The Administration shall competitively select an
organization to partner with Administration centers, aerospace
contractors, and academic institutions to carry out a program to help
promote the competitiveness of small, minority-owned, and women-owned
businesses in communities across the United States through enhanced
insight into the technologies of the Administration's space and
aeronautics programs. The program shall support the mission of the
Administration's Innovative Partnerships Program with its emphasis on
joint partnerships with industry, academia, government agencies, and
national laboratories.
(b) Program Structure.--In carrying out the program described in
subsection (a), the organization shall support the mission of the
Administration's Innovative Partnerships Program by undertaking the
following activities:
(1) Facilitating enhanced insight.--Facilitating the enhanced
insight of the private sector into the Administration's
technologies in order to increase the competitiveness of the
private sector in producing viable commercial products.
(2) Creating network.--Creating a network of academic
institutions, aerospace contractors, and Administration centers

[[Page 3365]]

that will commit to donating appropriate technical assistance to
small businesses, giving preference to socially and economically
disadvantaged small business concerns, small business concerns
owned and controlled by service-disabled veterans, and HUBZone
small business concerns. This paragraph shall not apply to any
contracting actions entered into or taken by the Administration.
(3) Creating network of economic development organizations.--
Creating a network of economic development organizations to
increase the awareness and enhance the effectiveness of the
program nationwide.

(c) Report.--Not later than one year after October 15, 2008, and
annually thereafter, the Administrator shall submit a report to the
Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives and
the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate
describing the efforts and accomplishments of the program established
under subsection (a) in support of the Administration's Innovative
Partnerships Program. As part of the report, the Administrator shall
provide--
(1) data on the number of small businesses receiving
assistance, jobs created and retained, and volunteer hours
donated by the Administration, contractors, and academic
institutions nationwide;
(2) an estimate of the total dollar value of the economic
impact made by small businesses that received technical
assistance through the program; and
(3) an accounting of the use of funds appropriated for the
program.

Sec. 30306. Small business contracting

(a) Plan.--In consultation with the Small Business Administration, the
Administrator shall develop a plan to maximize the number and amount of
contracts awarded to small business concerns (within the meaning given
that term in section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632)) and to
meet established contracting goals for such concerns.
(b) Priority.--The Administrator shall establish as a priority meeting
the contracting goals developed in conjunction with the Small Business
Administration to maximize the amount of prime contracts, as measured in
dollars, awarded in each fiscal year by the Administration to small
business concerns (within the meaning given that term in section 3 of
the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632)).

Sec. 30307. Requirement for independent cost analysis

(a) Definition of Implementation.--In this section, the term
``implementation'' means all activity in the life cycle of a project
after preliminary design, independent assessment of the preliminary
design, and approval to proceed into implementation, including critical
design, development, certification, launch, operations, disposal of
assets, and, for technology programs, development, testing, analysis,
and communication of the results.
(b) Requirement.--Before any funds may be obligated for implementation
of a project that is projected to cost more than $250,000,000 in total
project costs, the Administrator shall conduct and consider an
independent life-cycle cost analysis of the project and shall report the
results to Congress. In developing cost

[[Page 3366]]

accounting and reporting standards for carrying out this section, the
Administrator shall, to the extent practicable and consistent with other
laws, solicit the advice of experts outside of the Administration.

Sec. 30308. Cost effectiveness calculations

(a) Definitions.--In this section:
(1) Commercial provider.--The term ``commercial provider''
means any person providing space transportation services or
other space-related activities, the primary control of which is
held by persons other than a Federal, State, local, or foreign
government.
(2) State.--The term ``State'' means each of the several
States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American
Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any
other commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United
States.

(b) In General.--Except as otherwise required by law, in calculating
the cost effectiveness of the cost of the Administration engaging in an
activity as compared to a commercial provider, the Administrator shall
compare the cost of the Administration engaging in the activity using
full cost accounting principles with the price the commercial provider
will charge for such activity.

Sec. 30309. Use of abandoned and underutilized buildings, grounds, and
facilities

(a) Definition of Depressed Communities.--In this section, the term
``depressed communities'' means rural and urban communities that are
relatively depressed, in terms of age of housing, extent of poverty,
growth of per capita income, extent of unemployment, job lag, or surplus
labor.
(b) In General.--In any case in which the Administrator considers the
purchase, lease, or expansion of a facility to meet requirements of the
Administration, the Administrator shall consider whether those
requirements could be met by the use of one of the following:
(1) Abandoned or underutilized buildings, grounds, and
facilities in depressed communities that can be converted to
Administration usage at a reasonable cost, as determined by the
Administrator.
(2) Any military installation that is closed or being closed,
or any facility at such an installation.
(3) Any other facility or part of a facility that the
Administrator determines to be--
(A) owned or leased by the United States for the use
of another agency of the Federal Government; and
(B) considered by the head of the agency involved to
be--
(i) excess to the needs of that agency; or
(ii) underutilized by that agency.

Sec. 30310. Exception to alternative fuel procurement requirement

Section 526(a) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (42
U.S.C. 17142(a)) does not prohibit the Administration from entering into
a contract to purchase a generally available

[[Page 3367]]

fuel that is not an alternative or synthetic fuel or predominantly
produced from a nonconventional petroleum source, if--
(1) the contract does not specifically require the contractor
to provide an alternative or synthetic fuel or fuel from a
nonconventional petroleum source;
(2) the purpose of the contract is not to obtain an
alternative or synthetic fuel or fuel from a nonconventional
petroleum source; and
(3) the contract does not provide incentives for a refinery
upgrade or expansion to allow a refinery to use or increase its
use of fuel from a nonconventional petroleum source.

CHAPTER 305--MANAGEMENT AND REVIEW

Sec.
30501.  Lessons learned and best practices.
30502.  Whistleblower protection.
30503.  Performance assessments.
30504.  Assessment of science mission extensions.

Sec. 30501. Lessons learned and best practices

(a) In General.--The Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on
Science and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate an implementation
plan describing the Administration's approach for obtaining,
implementing, and sharing lessons learned and best practices for its
major programs and projects not later than 180 days after December 30,
2005. The implementation plan shall be updated and maintained to ensure
that it is current and consistent with the burgeoning culture of
learning and safety that is emerging at the Administration.
(b) Required Content.--The implementation plan shall contain at a
minimum the lessons learned and best practices requirements for the
Administration, the organizations or positions responsible for
enforcement of the requirements, the reporting structure, and the
objective performance measures indicating the effectiveness of the
activity.
(c) Incentives.--The Administrator shall provide incentives to
encourage sharing and implementation of lessons learned and best
practices by employees, projects, and programs, as well as penalties for
programs and projects that are determined not to have demonstrated use
of those resources.

Sec. 30502. Whistleblower protection

(a) In General.--Not later than 1 year after December 30, 2005, the
Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science and Technology
of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science,
and Transportation of the Senate a plan describing steps to be taken by
the Administration to protect from retaliation Administration employees
who raise concerns about substantial and specific dangers to public
health and safety or about substantial and specific factors that could
threaten the success of a mission. The plan shall be designed to ensure
that Administration employees have the full protection required by law.
The Administrator shall implement the plan not more than 1 year after
its transmittal.

[[Page 3368]]

(b) Goal.--The Administrator shall ensure that the plan describes a
system that will protect employees who wish to raise or have raised
concerns described in subsection (a).
(c) Plan.--At a minimum, the plan shall include, consistent with
Federal law--
(1) a reporting structure that ensures that the officials who
are the subject of a whistleblower's complaint will not learn
the identity of the whistleblower;
(2) a single point to which all complaints can be made without
fear of retribution;
(3) procedures to enable the whistleblower to track the status
of the case;
(4) activities to educate employees about their rights as
whistleblowers and how they are protected by law;
(5) activities to educate employees about their obligations to
report concerns and their accountability before and after
receiving the results of the investigations into their concerns;
and
(6) activities to educate all appropriate Administration Human
Resources professionals, and all Administration managers and
supervisors, regarding personnel laws, rules, and regulations.

(d) Report.--Not later than February 15 of each year beginning
February 15, 2007, the Administrator shall transmit a report to the
Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives and
the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on
the concerns described in subsection (a) that were raised during the
previous fiscal year. At a minimum, the report shall provide--
(1) the number of concerns that were raised, divided into the
categories of safety and health, mission assurance, and
mismanagement, and the disposition of those concerns, including
whether any employee was disciplined as a result of a concern
having been raised; and
(2) any recommendations for reforms to further prevent
retribution against employees who raise concerns.

Sec. 30503. Performance assessments

(a) In General.--The performance of each division in the Science
directorate of the Administration shall be reviewed and assessed by the
National Academy of Sciences at 5-year intervals.
(b) Timing.--Beginning with the first fiscal year following December
30, 2005, the Administrator shall select at least one division for
review under this section. The Administrator shall select divisions so
that all disciplines will have received their first review within 6
fiscal years of December 30, 2005.
(c) Reports.--Not later than March 1 of each year, beginning with the
first fiscal year after December 30, 2005, the Administrator shall
transmit a report to the Committee on Science and Technology of the
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Transportation of the Senate--
(1) setting forth in detail the results of any external review
under subsection (a);
(2) setting forth in detail actions taken by the
Administration in response to any external review; and

[[Page 3369]]

(3) including a summary of findings and recommendations from
any other relevant external reviews of the Administration's
science mission priorities and programs.

Sec. 30504. Assessment of science mission extensions

(a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall carry out biennial reviews
within each of the Science divisions to assess the cost and benefits of
extending the date of the termination of data collection for those
missions that have exceeded their planned mission lifetime.
(b) Consultation and Consideration of Potential Benefits of
Instruments on Missions.--For those missions that have an operational
component, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or any
other affected agency shall be consulted and the potential benefits of
instruments on missions that are beyond their planned mission lifetime
taken into account.

CHAPTER 307--INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND COMPETITION

Sec.
30701.  Competitiveness and international cooperation.
30702.  Foreign contract limitation.
30703.  Foreign launch vehicles.
30704.  Offshore performance of contracts for the procurement of goods
and services.

Sec. 30701. Competitiveness and international cooperation

(a) Limitation.--
(1) Solicitation of comment.--As part of the evaluation of the
costs and benefits of entering into an obligation to conduct a
space mission in which a foreign entity will participate as a
supplier of the spacecraft, spacecraft system, or launch system,
the Administrator shall solicit comment on the potential impact
of such participation through notice published in Commerce
Business Daily at least 45 days before entering into such an
obligation.
(2) Agreements with people's republic of china.--The
Administrator shall certify to Congress at least 15 days in
advance of any cooperative agreement with the People's Republic
of China, or any company owned by the People's Republic of China
or incorporated under the laws of the People's Republic of
China, involving spacecraft, spacecraft systems, launch systems,
or scientific or technical information, that--
(A) the agreement is not detrimental to the United
States space launch industry; and
(B) the agreement, including any indirect technical
benefit that could be derived from the agreement, will
not improve the missile or space launch capabilities of
the People's Republic of China.
(3) Annual audit.--The Inspector General of the
Administration, in consultation with appropriate agencies, shall
conduct an annual audit of the policies and procedures of the
Administration with respect to the export of technologies and
the transfer of scientific and technical information, to assess
the extent to which the Administration is carrying out its
activities in compliance with Federal export control laws and
with paragraph (2).

[[Page 3370]]

(b) National Interests.--
(1) Definition of united states commercial provider.--In this
subsection, the term ``United States commercial provider'' means
a commercial provider (as defined in section 30308(a) of this
title), organized under the laws of the United States or of a
State (as defined in section 30308(a) of this title), which is--
(A) more than 50 percent owned by United States
nationals; or
(B) a subsidiary of a foreign company and the
Secretary of Commerce finds that--
(i) such subsidiary has in the past evidenced a
substantial commitment to the United States market
through--
(I) investments in the United States
in long-term research, development, and
manufacturing (including the manufacture
of major components and subassemblies);
and
(II) significant contributions to
employment in the United States; and
(ii) the country or countries in which such
foreign company is incorporated or organized, and,
if appropriate, in which it principally conducts
its business, affords reciprocal treatment to
companies described in subparagraph (A) comparable
to that afforded to such foreign company's
subsidiary in the United States, as evidenced by--
(I) providing comparable opportunities
for companies described in subparagraph
(A) to participate in Government
sponsored research and development
similar to that authorized under this
section, section 30307, 30308, 30309, or
30702 of this title, or the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration
Authorization Act of 2000 (Public Law
106-391, 114 Stat. 1577);
(II) providing no barriers to
companies described in subparagraph (A)
with respect to local investment
opportunities that are not provided to
foreign companies in the United States;
and
(III) providing adequate and effective
protection for the intellectual property
rights of companies described in
subparagraph (A).
(2) In general.--Before entering into an obligation described
in subsection (a), the Administrator shall consider the national
interests of the United States described in paragraph (3) of
this subsection.
(3) Description of national interests.--International
cooperation in space exploration and science activities most
effectively serves the United States national interest when it--
(A)(i) reduces the cost of undertaking missions the
United States Government would pursue unilaterally;
(ii) enables the United States to pursue missions that
it could not otherwise afford to pursue unilaterally; or
(iii) enhances United States capabilities to use and
develop space for the benefit of United States citizens;

[[Page 3371]]

(B) is undertaken in a manner that is sensitive to the
desire of United States commercial providers to develop
or explore space commercially;
(C) is consistent with the need for Federal agencies
to use space to complete their missions; and
(D) is carried out in a manner consistent with United
States export control laws.

Sec. 30702. Foreign contract limitation

The Administration shall not enter into any agreement or contract with
a foreign government that grants the foreign government the right to
recover profit in the event that the agreement or contract is
terminated.

Sec. 30703. Foreign launch vehicles

(a) Accord With Space Transportation Policy.--The Administration shall
not launch a payload on a foreign launch vehicle except in accordance
with the Space Transportation Policy announced by the President on
December 21, 2004. This subsection shall not be construed to prevent the
President from waiving the Space Transportation Policy.
(b) Interagency Coordination.--The Administration shall not launch a
payload on a foreign launch vehicle unless the Administration commenced
the interagency coordination required by the Space Transportation Policy
announced by the President on December 21, 2004, at least 90 days before
entering into a development contract for the payload.
(c) Application.--This section shall not apply to any payload for
which development has begun prior to December 30, 2005, including the
James Webb Space Telescope.

Sec. 30704. Offshore performance of contracts for the procurement of
goods and services

The Administrator shall submit to Congress, not later than 120 days
after the end of each fiscal year, a report on the contracts and
subcontracts performed overseas and the amount of purchases directly or
indirectly by the Administration from foreign entities in that fiscal
year. The report shall separately indicate--
(1) the contracts and subcontracts and their dollar values for
which the Administrator determines that essential goods or
services under the contract are available only from a source
outside the United States; and
(2) the items and their dollar values for which the Buy
American Act (41 U.S.C. 10a et seq.) was waived pursuant to
obligations of the United States under international agreements.

CHAPTER 309--AWARDS

Sec.
30901.  Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
30902.  Charles ``Pete'' Conrad Astronomy Awards.

Sec. 30901. Congressional Space Medal of Honor

(a) Authority To Award.--The President may award, and present in the
name of Congress, a medal of appropriate design, which shall be known as
the Congressional Space Medal of Honor,

[[Page 3372]]

to any astronaut who in the performance of the astronaut's duties has
distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious efforts
and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and of humankind.
(b) Appropriations.--There is authorized to be appropriated from time
to time such sums of money as may be necessary to carry out the purposes
of this section.

Sec. 30902. Charles ``Pete'' Conrad Astronomy Awards

(a) Short Title.--This section may be cited as the ``Charles `Pete'
Conrad Astronomy Awards Act''.
(b) Definitions.--In this section:
(1) Amateur astronomer.--The term ``amateur astronomer'' means
an individual whose employer does not provide any funding,
payment, or compensation to the individual for the observation
of asteroids and other celestial bodies, and does not include
any individual employed as a professional astronomer.
(2) Minor planet center.--The term ``Minor Planet Center''
means the Minor Planet Center of the Smithsonian Astrophysical
Observatory.
(3) Near-earth asteroid.--The term ``near-Earth asteroid''
means an asteroid with a perihelion distance of less than 1.3
Astronomical Units from the Sun.
(4) Program.--The term ``Program'' means the Charles ``Pete''
Conrad Astronomy Awards Program established under subsection
(c).

(c) Charles ``Pete'' Conrad Astronomy Awards Program.--
(1) In general.--The Administrator shall establish the Charles
``Pete'' Conrad Astronomy Awards Program.
(2) Awards.--The Administrator shall make awards under the
Program based on the recommendations of the Minor Planet Center.
(3) Award categories.--The Administrator shall make one annual
award, unless there are no eligible discoveries or
contributions, for each of the following categories:
(A) Discovery of brightest near-earth asteroid.--The
amateur astronomer or group of amateur astronomers who
in the preceding calendar year discovered the
intrinsically brightest near-Earth asteroid among the
near-Earth asteroids that were discovered during that
year by amateur astronomers or groups of amateur
astronomers.
(B) Greatest contribution to cataloguing near-earth
asteroids.--The amateur astronomer or group of amateur
astronomers who made the greatest contribution to the
Minor Planet Center's mission of cataloguing near-Earth
asteroids during the preceding year.
(4) Award amount.--An award under the Program shall be in the
amount of $3,000.
(5) Guidelines.--
(A) Citizen or permanent resident.--No individual who
is not a citizen or permanent resident of the United
States at the time of the individual's discovery or
contribution may receive an award under this section.
(B) Finality.--The decisions of the Administrator in
making awards under this section are final.

[[Page 3373]]

CHAPTER 311--SAFETY

Sec.
31101.  Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel.
31102.  Drug and alcohol testing.

Sec. 31101. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

(a) Establishment and Members.--There is established an Aerospace
Safety Advisory Panel consisting of a maximum of 9 members who shall be
appointed by the Administrator for terms of 6 years each. Not more than
4 such members shall be chosen from among the officers and employees of
the Administration.
(b) Chairman.--One member shall be designated by the Panel as its
Chairman.
(c) Duties.--The Panel shall--
(1) review safety studies and operations plans referred to it,
including evaluating the Administration's compliance with the
return-to-flight and continue-to-fly recommendations of the
Columbia Accident Investigation Board, and make reports thereon;
(2) advise the Administrator and Congress with respect to--
(A) the hazards of proposed or existing facilities and
proposed operations;
(B) the adequacy of proposed or existing safety
standards; and
(C) management and culture related to safety; and
(3) perform such other duties as the Administrator may
request.

(d) Compensation and Expenses.--
(1) Compensation.--
(A) Federal officers and employees.--A member of the
Panel who is an officer or employee of the Federal
Government shall receive no compensation for the
member's services as such.
(B) Members appointed from outside the federal
government.--A member of the Panel appointed from
outside the Federal Government shall receive
compensation, at a rate not to exceed the per diem rate
equivalent to the maximum rate payable under section
5376 of title 5, for each day the member is engaged in
the actual performance of duties vested in the Panel.
(2) Expenses.--A member of the Panel shall be allowed
necessary travel expenses (or in the alternative, mileage for
use of a privately owned vehicle and a per diem in lieu of
subsistence not to exceed the rate and amount prescribed in
sections 5702 and 5704 of title 5), and other necessary expenses
incurred by the member in the performance of duties vested in
the Panel, without regard to the provisions of subchapter I of
chapter 57 of title 5, the Standardized Government Travel
Regulations, or section 5731 of title 5.

(e) Annual Report.--The Panel shall submit an annual report to the
Administrator and to Congress. In the first annual report submitted
after December 30, 2005, the Panel shall include an evaluation of the
Administration's management and culture related to safety. Each annual
report shall include an evaluation of the Administration's compliance
with the recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board
through retirement of the space shuttle.

[[Page 3374]]

Sec. 31102. Drug and alcohol testing

(a) Definition of Controlled Substance.--In this section, the term
``controlled substance'' means any substance under section 102(6) of the
Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802(6)) specified by the
Administrator.
(b) Testing Program.--
(1) Employees of administration.--The Administrator shall
establish a program applicable to employees of the
Administration whose duties include responsibility for safety-
sensitive, security, or national security functions. Such
program shall provide for preemployment, reasonable suspicion,
random, and post-accident testing for use, in violation of
applicable law or Federal regulation, of alcohol or a controlled
substance. The Administrator may also prescribe regulations, as
the Administrator considers appropriate in the interest of
safety, security, and national security, for the conduct of
periodic recurring testing of such employees for such use in
violation of applicable law or Federal regulation.
(2) Employees of contractors.--The Administrator shall, in the
interest of safety, security, and national security, prescribe
regulations. Such regulations shall establish a program that
requires Administration contractors to conduct preemployment,
reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of
contractor employees responsible for safety-sensitive, security,
or national security functions (as determined by the
Administrator) for use, in violation of applicable law or
Federal regulation, of alcohol or a controlled substance. The
Administrator may also prescribe regulations, as the
Administrator considers appropriate in the interest of safety,
security, and national security, for the conduct of periodic
recurring testing of such employees for such use in violation of
applicable law or Federal regulation.
(3) Suspension, disqualification, or dismissal.--In
prescribing regulations under the programs required by this
subsection, the Administrator shall require, as the
Administrator considers appropriate, the suspension,
disqualification, or dismissal of any employee to which
paragraph (1) or (2) applies, in accordance with the provisions
of this section, in any instance where a test conducted and
confirmed under this section indicates that such employee has
used, in violation of applicable law or Federal regulation,
alcohol or a controlled substance.

(c) Prohibition on Service.--
(1) Prohibition unless program of rehabilitation completed.--
No individual who is determined by the Administrator under this
section to have used, in violation of applicable law or Federal
regulation, alcohol or a controlled substance after December 9,
1991, shall serve as an Administration employee with
responsibility for safety-sensitive, security, or national
security functions (as determined by the Administrator), or as
an Administration contractor employee with such responsibility,
unless such individual has completed a program of rehabilitation
described in subsection (d).
(2) Unconditional prohibition.--Any such individual determined
by the Administrator under this section to have used, in
violation of applicable law or Federal regulation, alcohol or a
controlled substance after December 9, 1991, shall not

[[Page 3375]]

be permitted to perform the duties that the individual performed
prior to the date of the determination, if the individual--
(A) engaged in such use while on duty;
(B) prior to such use had undertaken or completed a
rehabilitation program described in subsection (d);
(C) following such determination refuses to undertake
such a rehabilitation program; or
(D) following such determination fails to complete
such a rehabilitation program.

(d) Program for Rehabilitation.--
(1) Regulations and availability of program for contractor
employees.--The Administrator shall prescribe regulations
setting forth requirements for rehabilitation programs which at
a minimum provide for the identification and opportunity for
treatment of employees referred to in subsection (b) in need of
assistance in resolving problems with the use, in violation of
applicable law or Federal regulation, of alcohol or a controlled
substance. Each contractor is encouraged to make such a program
available to all of its employees in addition to those employees
referred to in subsection (b)(2). The Administrator shall
determine the circumstances under which such employees shall be
required to participate in such a program. Nothing in this
subsection shall preclude any Administration contractor from
establishing a program under this subsection in cooperation with
any other such contractor.
(2) Establishment and maintenance of program for
administration employees.--The Administrator shall establish and
maintain a rehabilitation program which at a minimum provides
for the identification and opportunity for treatment of those
employees of the Administration whose duties include
responsibility for safety-sensitive, security, or national
security functions who are in need of assistance in resolving
problems with the use of alcohol or controlled substances.

(e) Procedures for Testing.--In establishing the programs required
under subsection (b), the Administrator shall develop requirements which
shall--
(1) promote, to the maximum extent practicable, individual
privacy in the collection of specimen samples;
(2) with respect to laboratories and testing procedures for
controlled substances, incorporate the Department of Health and
Human Services scientific and technical guidelines dated April
11, 1988, and any subsequent amendments thereto, including
mandatory guidelines which--
(A) establish comprehensive standards for all aspects
of laboratory controlled substances testing and
laboratory procedures to be applied in carrying out this
section, including standards which require the use of
the best available technology for ensuring the full
reliability and accuracy of controlled substances tests
and strict procedures governing the chain of custody of
specimen samples collected for controlled substances
testing;
(B) establish the minimum list of controlled
substances for which individuals may be tested; and
(C) establish appropriate standards and procedures for
periodic review of laboratories and criteria for
certification and revocation of certification of
laboratories to perform controlled substances testing in
carrying out this section;

[[Page 3376]]

(3) require that all laboratories involved in the controlled
substances testing of any individual under this section shall
have the capability and facility, at such laboratory, of
performing screening and confirmation tests;
(4) provide that all tests which indicate the use, in
violation of applicable law or Federal regulation, of alcohol or
a controlled substance by any individual shall be confirmed by a
scientifically recognized method of testing capable of providing
quantitative data regarding alcohol or a controlled substance;
(5) provide that each specimen sample be subdivided, secured,
and labelled in the presence of the tested individual and that a
portion thereof be retained in a secure manner to prevent the
possibility of tampering, so that in the event the individual's
confirmation test results are positive the individual has an
opportunity to have the retained portion assayed by a
confirmation test done independently at a second certified
laboratory if the individual requests the independent test
within 3 days after being advised of the results of the initial
confirmation test;
(6) ensure appropriate safeguards for testing to detect and
quantify alcohol in breath and body fluid samples, including
urine and blood, through the development of regulations as may
be necessary and in consultation with the Department of Health
and Human Services;
(7) provide for the confidentiality of test results and
medical information of employees; and
(8) ensure that employees are selected for tests by
nondiscriminatory and impartial methods, so that no employee is
harassed by being treated differently from other employees in
similar circumstances.

(f) Effect on Other Laws and Regulations.--
(1) Consistency with federal regulation.--No State or local
government shall adopt or have in effect any law, rule,
regulation, ordinance, standard, or order that is inconsistent
with the regulations promulgated under this section.
(2) Continuance of regulations issued before december 9,
1991.--Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict
the discretion of the Administrator to continue in force, amend,
or further supplement any regulations issued before December 9,
1991, that govern the use of alcohol and controlled substances
by Administration employees with responsibility for safety-
sensitive, security, and national security functions (as
determined by the Administrator), or by Administration
contractor employees with such responsibility.

CHAPTER 313--HEALTHCARE

Sec.
31301.  Healthcare program.
31302.  Astronaut healthcare survey.

Sec. 31301. Healthcare program

The Administrator shall develop a plan to better understand the
longitudinal health effects of space flight on humans. In the
development of the plan, the Administrator shall consider the need

[[Page 3377]]

for the establishment of a lifetime healthcare program for
Administration astronauts and their families or other methods to obtain
needed health data from astronauts and retired astronauts.

Sec. 31302. Astronaut healthcare survey

(a) Survey.--The Administrator shall administer an anonymous survey of
astronauts and flight surgeons to evaluate communication, relationships,
and the effectiveness of policies. The survey questions and the analysis
of results shall be evaluated by experts independent of the
Administration. The survey shall be administered on at least a biennial
basis.
(b) Report.--The Administrator shall transmit a report of the results
of the survey to Congress not later than 90 days following completion of
the survey.

CHAPTER 315--MISCELLANEOUS

Sec.
31501.  Orbital debris.
31502.  Maintenance of facilities.
31503.  Laboratory productivity.
31504.  Cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle activities.
31505.  Development of enhanced-use lease policy.

Sec. 31501. Orbital debris

The Administrator, in conjunction with the heads of other Federal
agencies, shall take steps to develop or acquire technologies that will
enable the Administration to decrease the risks associated with orbital
debris.

Sec. 31502. Maintenance of facilities

In order to sustain healthy Centers that are capable of carrying out
the Administration's missions, the Administrator shall ensure that
adequate maintenance and upgrading of those Center facilities is
performed on a regular basis.

Sec. 31503. Laboratory productivity

The Administration's laboratories are a critical component of the
Administration's research capabilities, and the Administrator shall
ensure that those laboratories remain productive.

Sec. 31504. Cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle activities

The Administrator, in cooperation with the Administrator of the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and in coordination with
other agencies that have existing civil capabilities, shall continue to
utilize the capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles as appropriate in
support of Administration and interagency cooperative missions. The
Administrator may enter into cooperative agreements with universities
with unmanned aerial vehicle programs and related assets to conduct
collaborative research and development activities, including development
of appropriate applications of small unmanned aerial vehicle
technologies and systems in remote areas.

Sec. 31505. Development of enhanced-use lease policy

(a) In General.--The Administrator shall develop an agency-wide
enhanced-use lease policy that--

[[Page 3378]]

(1) is based upon sound business practices and lessons learned
from the demonstration centers; and
(2) establishes controls and procedures to ensure
accountability and protect the interests of the Government.

(b) Contents.--The policy required by subsection (a) shall include the
following:
(1) Criteria for determining economic value.--Criteria for
determining whether enhanced-use lease provides better economic
value to the Government than other options, such as--
(A) Federal financing through appropriations; or
(B) sale of the property.
(2) Security and access.--Requirement for the identification
of proposed physical and procedural changes needed to ensure
security and restrict access to specified areas, coordination of
proposed changes with existing site tenants, and development of
estimated costs of such changes.
(3) Measures of effectiveness.--Measures of effectiveness for
the enhanced-use lease program.
(4) Accounting controls.--Accounting controls and procedures
to ensure accountability, such as an audit trail and
documentation to readily support financial transactions.

Subtitle IV--Aeronautics and Space Research and Education

CHAPTER 401--AERONAUTICS

SUBCHAPTER I--GENERAL

Sec.
40101.  Definition of institution of higher education.
40102.  Governmental interest in aeronautics research and development.
40103.  Cooperation with other agencies on aeronautics activities.
40104.  Cooperation among Mission Directorates.

SUBCHAPTER II--HIGH PRIORITY AERONAUTICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAMS

40111.  Fundamental research program.
40112.  Research and technology programs.
40113.  Airspace systems research.
40114.  Aviation safety and security research.
40115.  Aviation weather research.
40116.  University-based Centers for Research on Aviation Training.

SUBCHAPTER III--SCHOLARSHIPS

40131.  Aeronautics scholarships.

SUBCHAPTER IV--DATA REQUESTS

40141.  Aviation data requests.

SUBCHAPTER I--GENERAL

Sec. 40101. Definition of institution of higher education

In this chapter, the term ``institution of higher education'' has the
meaning given the term by section 101 of the Higher Education Act of
1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001).

[[Page 3379]]

Sec. 40102. Governmental interest in aeronautics research and
development

Congress reaffirms the national commitment to aeronautics research
made in chapter 201 of this title. Aeronautics research and development
remains a core mission of the Administration. The Administration is the
lead agency for civil aeronautics research. Further, the government of
the United States shall promote aeronautics research and development
that will expand the capacity, ensure the safety, and increase the
efficiency of the Nation's air transportation system, promote the
security of the Nation, protect the environment, and retain the
leadership of the United States in global aviation.

Sec. 40103. Cooperation with other agencies on aeronautics activities

The Administrator shall coordinate, as appropriate, the
Administration's aeronautics activities with relevant programs in the
Department of Transportation, the Department of Defense, the Department
of Commerce, and the Department of Homeland Security, including the
activities of the Next Generation Air Transportation System Joint
Planning and Development Office established under section 709 of the
Vision 100--Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act (Public Law 108-176,
49 U.S.C. 40101 note).

Sec. 40104. Cooperation among Mission Directorates

Research and development activities performed by the Aeronautics
Research Mission Directorate with the primary objective of assisting in
the development of a flight project in another Mission Directorate shall
be funded by the Mission Directorate seeking assistance.

SUBCHAPTER II--HIGH PRIORITY AERONAUTICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAMS

Sec. 40111. Fundamental research program

(a) Objective.--In order to ensure that the Nation maintains needed
capabilities in fundamental areas of aeronautics research, the
Administrator shall establish a program of long-term fundamental
research in aeronautical sciences and technologies that is not tied to
specific development projects.
(b) Operation.--The <> Administrator shall conduct the
program under this section, in part by awarding grants to institutions
of higher education. The Administrator shall encourage the participation
of institutions of higher education located in States that participate
in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research. All
grants to institutions of higher education under this section shall be
awarded through merit review.

Sec. 40112. Research and technology programs

(a) Supersonic Transport Research and Development.--The Administrator
may establish an initiative with the objective of developing and
demonstrating, in a relevant environment, airframe and propulsion
technologies to enable efficient, economical overland flight of
supersonic civil transport aircraft with no significant impact on the
environment.
(b) Rotorcraft and Other Runway-Independent Air Vehicles.--The
Administrator may establish a rotorcraft and other

[[Page 3380]]

runway-independent air vehicles initiative with the objective of
developing and demonstrating improved safety, noise, and environmental
impact in a relevant environment.
(c) Hypersonics Research.--The Administrator may establish a
hypersonics research program with the objective of exploring the science
and technology of hypersonic flight using air-breathing propulsion
concepts, through a mix of theoretical work, basic and applied research,
and development of flight research demonstration vehicles. The program
may also include the transition to the hypersonic range of Mach 3 to
Mach 5.
(d) Revolutionary Aeronautical Concepts.--The Administrator may
establish a research program which covers a unique range of subsonic,
fixed wing vehicles and propulsion concepts. This research is intended
to push technology barriers beyond current subsonic technology.
Propulsion concepts include advanced materials, morphing engines, hybrid
engines, and fuel cells.
(e) Fuel Cell-Powered Aircraft Research.--
(1) Objective.--The Administrator may establish a fuel cell-
powered aircraft research program whose objective shall be to
develop and test concepts to enable a hydrogen fuel cell-powered
aircraft that would have no hydrocarbon or nitrogen oxide
emissions into the environment.
(2) Approach.--The Administrator may establish a program of
competitively awarded grants available to teams of researchers
that may include the participation of individuals from
universities, industry, and government for the conduct of this
research.

(f) Mars Aircraft Research.--
(1) Objective.--The Administrator may establish a Mars
Aircraft project whose objective shall be to develop and test
concepts for an uncrewed aircraft that could operate for
sustained periods in the atmosphere of Mars.
(2) Approach.--The Administrator may establish a program of
competitively awarded grants available to teams of researchers
that may include the participation of individuals from
universities, industry, and government for the conduct of this
research.

Sec. 40113. Airspace systems research

(a) Objective.--The Airspace Systems Research program shall pursue
research and development to enable revolutionary improvements to and
modernization of the National Airspace System, as well as to enable the
introduction of new systems for vehicles that can take advantage of an
improved, modern air transportation system.
(b) Alignment.--Not later than 1 year after December 30, 2005, the
Administrator shall align the projects of the Airspace Systems Research
program so that they directly support the objectives of the Joint
Planning and Development Office's Next Generation Air Transportation
System Integrated Plan.

Sec. 40114. Aviation safety and security research

(a) Objective.--The Aviation Safety and Security Research program
shall pursue research and development activities that directly address
the safety and security needs of the National Airspace System and the
aircraft that fly in it. The program shall develop

[[Page 3381]]

prevention, intervention, and mitigation technologies aimed at causal,
contributory, or circumstantial factors of aviation accidents.
(b) Alignment.--Not later than 1 year after December 30, 2005, the
Administrator shall align the projects of the Aviation Safety and
Security Research program so that they directly support the objectives
of the Joint Planning and Development Office's Next Generation Air
Transportation System Integrated Plan.

Sec. 40115. Aviation weather research

The Administrator may carry out a program of collaborative research
with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on convective
weather events, with the goal of significantly improving the reliability
of 2-hour to 6-hour aviation weather forecasts.

Sec. 40116. University-based Centers for Research on Aviation Training

(a) In General.--The Administrator shall award grants to institutions
of higher education (or consortia thereof) to establish one or more
Centers for Research on Aviation Training under cooperative agreements
with appropriate Administration Centers.
(b) Purpose.--The purpose of the Centers for Research on Aviation
Training shall be to investigate the impact of new technologies and
procedures, particularly those related to the aircraft flight deck and
to the air traffic management functions, on training requirements for
pilots and air traffic controllers.
(c) Application.--An institution of higher education (or a consortium
of such institutions) seeking funding under this section shall submit an
application to the Administrator at such time, in such manner, and
containing such information as the Administrator may require, including,
at a minimum, a 5-year research plan.
(d) Award Duration.--An award made by the Administrator under this
section shall be for a period of 5 years and may be renewed on the basis
of--
(1) satisfactory performance in meeting the goals of the
research plan proposed in the application submitted under
subsection (c); and
(2) other requirements as specified by the Administrator.

SUBCHAPTER III--SCHOLARSHIPS

Sec. 40131. Aeronautics scholarships

(a) Establishment.--The Administrator shall establish a program of
scholarships for full-time graduate students who are United States
citizens and are enrolled in, or have been accepted by and have
indicated their intention to enroll in, accredited Masters degree
programs in aeronautical engineering or equivalent programs at
institutions of higher education. Each such scholarship shall cover the
costs of room, board, tuition, and fees, and may be provided for a
maximum of 2 years.
(b) Implementation.--Not later than 180 days after December 30, 2005,
the Administrator shall publish regulations governing the scholarship
program under this section.
(c) Cooperative Training Opportunities.--Students who have been
awarded a scholarship under this section shall have the opportunity for
paid employment at one of the Administration Centers engaged in
aeronautics research and development during the

[[Page 3382]]

summer prior to the first year of the student's Masters program, and
between the first and second year, if applicable.

SUBCHAPTER IV--DATA REQUESTS

Sec. 40141. Aviation data requests

The Administrator shall make available upon request satellite imagery
and aerial photography of remote terrain that the Administration owns at
the time of the request to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation
Administration or the Director of the Five Star Medallion Program, to
assist and train pilots in navigating challenging topographical features
of such terrain.

CHAPTER 403--NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM

Sec.
40301.  Purposes.
40302.  Definitions.
40303.  National space grant college and fellowship program.
40304.  Grants or contracts.
40305.  Specific national needs.
40306.  Space grant college and space grant regional consortium.
40307.  Space grant fellowship program.
40308.  Space grant review panel.
40309.  Availability of other Federal personnel and data.
40310.  Designation or award to be on competitive basis.
40311.  Continuing emphasis.

Sec. 40301. Purposes

The purposes of this chapter are to--
(1) increase the understanding, assessment, development, and
utilization of space resources by promoting a strong educational
base, responsive research and training activities, and broad and
prompt dissemination of knowledge and techniques;
(2) utilize the abilities and talents of the universities of
the Nation to support and contribute to the exploration and
development of the resources and opportunities afforded by the
space environment;
(3) encourage and support, within the university community of
the Nation, the existence of interdisciplinary and
multidisciplinary programs of space research that--
(A) engage in integrated activities of training,
research, and public service;
(B) have cooperative programs with industry; and
(C) are coordinated with the overall program of the
Administration;
(4) encourage and support the existence of consortia, made up
of university and industry members, in order to advance the
exploration and development of space resources in cases in which
national objectives can be better fulfilled through such
consortia than through the programs of single universities;
(5) encourage and support Federal funding for graduate
fellowships in fields related to space; and
(6) support activities in colleges and universities generally
for the purpose of creating and operating a network of
institutional programs that will enhance achievements resulting
from efforts under this chapter.

[[Page 3383]]

Sec. 40302. Definitions

In this chapter:
(1) Aeronautical and space activities.--The term
``aeronautical and space activities'' has the meaning given the
term in section 20103 of this title.
(2) Field related to space.--The term ``field related to
space'' means any academic discipline or field of study
(including the physical, natural, and biological sciences, and
engineering, space technology, education, economics, sociology,
communications, planning, law, international affairs, and public
administration) which is concerned with or likely to improve the
understanding, assessment, development, and utilization of
space.
(3) Panel.--The term ``panel'' means the space grant review
panel established pursuant to section 40308 of this title.
(4) Person.--The term ``person'' means any individual, any
public or private corporation, partnership, or other association
or entity (including any space grant college, space grant
regional consortium, institution of higher education, institute,
or laboratory), or any State, political subdivision of a State,
or agency or officer of a State or political subdivision of a
State.
(5) Space environment.--The term ``space environment'' means
the environment beyond the sensible atmosphere of the Earth.
(6) Space grant college.--The term ``space grant college''
means any public or private institution of higher education
which is designated as such by the Administrator pursuant to
section 40306 of this title.
(7) Space grant program.--The term ``space grant program''
means any program that--
(A) is administered by any space grant college, space
grant regional consortium, institution of higher
education, institute, laboratory, or State or local
agency; and
(B) includes 2 or more projects involving education
and one or more of the following activities in the
fields related to space:
(i) Research.
(ii) Training.
(iii) Advisory services.
(8) Space grant regional consortium.--The term ``space grant
regional consortium'' means any association or other alliance
that is designated as a space grant regional consortium by the
Administrator pursuant to section 40306 of this title.
(9) Space resource.--The term ``space resource'' means any
tangible or intangible benefit which can be realized only from--
(A) aeronautical and space activities; or
(B) advancements in any field related to space.
(10) State.--The term ``State'' means any State of the United
States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto
Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth
of the Northern Mariana Islands, or any other territory or
possession of the United States.

Sec. 40303. National space grant college and fellowship program

(a) Establishment.--The Administrator shall establish and maintain,
within the Administration, a program to be known as

[[Page 3384]]

the national space grant college and fellowship program. The national
space grant college and fellowship program shall consist of the
financial assistance and other activities provided for in this chapter.
The Administrator shall establish long-range planning guidelines and
priorities, and adequately evaluate the program.
(b) Functions.--Within the Administration, the program shall--
(1) apply the long-range planning guidelines and the
priorities established by the Administrator under subsection
(a);
(2) advise the Administrator with respect to the expertise and
capabilities which are available through the national space
grant college and fellowship program, and make such expertise
available to the Administration as directed by the
Administrator;
(3) evaluate activities conducted under grants and contracts
awarded pursuant to sections 40304 and 40305 of this title to
ensure that the purposes set forth in section 40301 of this
title are implemented;
(4) encourage other Federal departments, agencies, and
instrumentalities to use and take advantage of the expertise and
capabilities which are available through the national space
grant college and fellowship program, on a cooperative or other
basis;
(5) encourage cooperation and coordination with other Federal
programs concerned with the development of space resources and
fields related to space;
(6) advise the Administrator on the designation of recipients
supported by the national space grant college and fellowship
program and, in appropriate cases, on the termination or
suspension of any such designation; and
(7) encourage the formation and growth of space grant and
fellowship programs.

(c) General Authorities.--To carry out the provisions of this chapter,
the Administrator may--
(1) accept conditional or unconditional gifts or donations of
services, money, or property, real, personal or mixed, tangible
or intangible;
(2) accept and use funds from other Federal departments,
agencies, and instrumentalities to pay for fellowships, grants,
contracts, and other transactions; and
(3) issue such rules and regulations as may be necessary and
appropriate.

Sec. 40304. Grants or contracts

(a) Authority of Administrator.--The Administrator may make grants and
enter into contracts or other transactions under this subsection to
assist any space grant and fellowship program or project if the
Administrator finds that the program or project will carry out the
purposes set forth in section 40301 of this title. The total amount paid
pursuant to a grant or contract may equal not more than 66 percent of
the total cost of the space grant and fellowship program or project
involved, except in the case of grants or contracts paid for with funds
accepted by the Administrator pursuant to section 40303(c)(2) of this
title.
(b) Special Grants.--The Administrator may make special grants under
this subsection to carry out the purposes set forth in section 40301 of
this title. The amount of a special grant may equal up to 100 percent of
the total cost of the project involved.

[[Page 3385]]

A special grant may be made under this subsection only if the
Administrator finds that--
(1) no reasonable means is available through which the
applicant can meet the matching requirement for a grant under
subsection (a);
(2) the probable benefit of the project outweighs the public
interest in the matching requirement; and
(3) the same or equivalent benefit cannot be obtained through
the award of a contract or grant under subsection (a) or section
40305 of this title.

(c) Application.--Any person may apply to the Administrator for a
grant or contract under this section. Application shall be made in such
form and manner, and with such content and other submissions, as the
Administrator shall by regulation prescribe.
(d) Terms and Conditions.--
(1) In general.--Any grant made, or contract entered into,
under this section shall be subject to the limitations and
provisions set forth in paragraphs (2) and (3) and to such other
terms, conditions, and requirements as the Administrator
considers necessary or appropriate.
(2) Limitations.--No payment under any grant or contract under
this section may be applied to--
(A) the purchase of any land;
(B) the purchase, construction, preservation, or
repair of any building; or
(C) the purchase or construction of any launch
facility or launch vehicle.
(3) Leases.--Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the items in
subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of such paragraph may be leased
upon written approval of the Administrator.
(4) Records.--Any person that receives or utilizes any
proceeds of any grant or contract under this section shall keep
such records as the Administrator shall by regulation prescribe
as being necessary and appropriate to facilitate effective audit
and evaluation, including records which fully disclose the
amount and disposition by such recipient of such proceeds, the
total cost of the program or project in connection with which
such proceeds were used, and the amount, if any, of such cost
which was provided through other sources. Such records shall be
maintained for 3 years after the completion of such a program or
project. The Administrator and the Comptroller General of the
United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives,
shall have access, for the purpose of audit and evaluation, to
any books, documents, papers, and records of receipts which, in
the opinion of the Administrator or the Comptroller General, may
be related or pertinent to such grants and contracts.

Sec. 40305. Specific national needs

(a) Identification of Specific Needs and Grant-Making and Contracting
Authority.--The Administrator shall identify specific national needs and
problems relating to space. The Administrator may make grants or enter
into contracts under this section with respect to such needs or
problems. The amount of any such grant or contract may equal up to 100
percent of the total cost of the project involved.

[[Page 3386]]

(b) Applications for Grants or Contracts.--Any person may apply to the
Administrator for a grant or contract under this section. In addition,
the Administrator may invite applications with respect to specific
national needs or problems identified under subsection (a). Application
shall be made in such form and manner, and with such content and other
submissions, as the Administrator shall by regulation prescribe. Any
grant made, or contract entered into, under this section shall be
subject to the limitations and provisions set forth in paragraphs (2)
and (4) of section 40304(d) of this title and to such other terms,
conditions, and requirements as the Administrator considers necessary or
appropriate.

Sec. 40306. Space grant college and space grant regional consortium

(a) Designation and Qualifications.--
(1) Authority to designate.--The Administrator may designate--
(A) any institution of higher education as a space
grant college; and
(B) any association or other alliance of 2 or more
persons, other than individuals, as a space grant
regional consortium.
(2) Space grant college requirements.--No institution of
higher education may be designated as a space grant college
unless the Administrator finds that such institution--
(A) is maintaining a balanced program of research,
education, training, and advisory services in fields
related to space;
(B) will act in accordance with such guidelines as are
prescribed under subsection (b)(2); and
(C) meets such other qualifications as the
Administrator considers necessary or appropriate.
(3) Space grant regional consortium requirements.--No
association or other alliance of 2 or more persons may be
designated as a space grant regional consortium unless the
Administrator finds that such association or alliance--
(A) is established for the purpose of sharing
expertise, research, educational facilities or training
facilities, and other capabilities in order to
facilitate research, education, training, and advisory
services in any field related to space;
(B) will encourage and follow a regional approach to
solving problems or meeting needs relating to space, in
cooperation with appropriate space grant colleges, space
grant programs, and other persons in the region;
(C) will act in accordance with such guidelines as are
prescribed under subsection (b)(2); and
(D) meets such other qualifications as the
Administrator considers necessary or appropriate.

(b) Qualifications and Guidelines.--The Administrator shall by
regulation prescribe--
(1) the qualifications required to be met under paragraphs
(2)(C) and (3)(D) of subsection (a); and
(2) guidelines relating to the activities and responsibilities
of space grant colleges and space grant regional consortia.

(c) Suspension or Termination of Designation.--The Administrator may,
for cause and after an opportunity for hearing, suspend or terminate any
designation under subsection (a).

[[Page 3387]]

Sec. 40307. Space grant fellowship program

(a) Award of Fellowships.--The Administrator shall support a space
grant fellowship program to provide educational and training assistance
to qualified individuals at the graduate level of education in fields
related to space. Such fellowships shall be awarded pursuant to
guidelines established by the Administrator. Space grant fellowships
shall be awarded to individuals at space grant colleges, space grant
regional consortia, other colleges and institutions of higher education,
professional associations, and institutes in such a manner as to ensure
wide geographic and institutional diversity in the pursuit of research
under the fellowship program.
(b) Limitation on Amount Provided.--The total amount which may be
provided for grants under the space grant fellowship program during any
fiscal year shall not exceed an amount equal to 50 percent of the total
funds appropriated for such year pursuant to this chapter.
(c) Authority To Sponsor Other Research Fellowship Programs
Unaffected.--Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the
Administrator from sponsoring any research fellowship program, including
any special emphasis program, which is established under an authority
other than this chapter.

Sec. 40308. Space grant review panel

(a) Establishment.--The Administrator shall establish an independent
committee known as the space grant review panel, which shall not be
subject to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 App.
U.S.C.).
(b) Duties.--The panel shall take such steps as may be necessary to
review, and shall advise the Administrator with respect to--
(1) applications or proposals for, and performance under,
grants and contracts awarded pursuant to sections 40304 and
40305 of this title;
(2) the space grant fellowship program;
(3) the designation and operation of space grant colleges and
space grant regional consortia, and the operation of space grant
and fellowship programs;
(4) the formulation and application of the planning guidelines
and priorities pursuant to subsections (a) and (b)(1) of section
40303 of this title; and
(5) such other matters as the Administrator refers to the
panel for review and advice.

(c) Personnel and Administrative Services.--The Administrator shall
make available to the panel any information, personnel, and
administrative services and assistance which is reasonable to carry out
the duties of the panel.
(d) Members.--
(1) Appointment.--The Administrator shall appoint the voting
members of the panel. A majority of the voting members shall be
individuals who, by reason of knowledge, experience, or
training, are especially qualified in one or more of the
disciplines and fields related to space. The other voting
members shall be individuals who, by reason of knowledge,
experience, or training, are especially qualified in, or
representative of, education, extension services, State
government, industry, economics, planning, or any other activity
related to efforts to enhance the understanding, assessment,
development, or

[[Page 3388]]

utilization of space resources. The Administrator shall consider
the potential conflict of interest of any individual in making
appointments to the panel.
(2) Chairman and vice chairman.--The Administrator shall
select one voting member to serve as the Chairman and another
voting member to serve as the Vice Chairman. The Vice Chairman
shall act as Chairman in the absence or incapacity of the
Chairman.
(3) Reimbursement for expenses.--Voting members of the panel
who are not Federal employees shall be reimbursed for actual and
reasonable expenses incurred in the performance of such duties.
(4) Meetings.--The panel shall meet on a biannual basis and,
at any other time, at the call of the Chairman or upon the
request of a majority of the voting members or of the
Administrator.
(5) Powers.--The panel may exercise such powers as are
reasonably necessary in order to carry out the duties enumerated
in subsection (b).

Sec. 40309. Availability of other Federal personnel and data

Each department, agency, or other instrumentality of the Federal
Government that is engaged in or concerned with, or that has authority
over, matters relating to space--
(1) may, upon a written request from the Administrator, make
available, on a reimbursable basis or otherwise, any personnel
(with their consent and without prejudice to their position and
rating), service, or facility which the Administrator considers
necessary to carry out any provision of this chapter;
(2) may, upon a written request from the Administrator,
furnish any available data or other information which the
Administrator considers necessary to carry out any provision of
this chapter; and
(3) may cooperate with the Administration.

Sec. 40310. Designation or award to be on competitive basis

The Administrator shall not under this chapter designate any space
grant college or space grant regional consortium or award any
fellowship, grant, or contract unless such designation or award is made
in accordance with the competitive, merit-based review process employed
by the Administration on October 30, 1987.

Sec. 40311. Continuing emphasis

The Administration shall continue its emphasis on the importance of
education to expand opportunities for Americans to understand and
participate in the Administration's aeronautics and space projects by
supporting and enhancing science and engineering education, research,
and public outreach efforts.

CHAPTER 405--BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH IN SPACE

Sec.
40501.  Biomedical research joint working group.
40502.  Biomedical research grants.
40503.  Biomedical research fellowships.
40504.  Establishment of electronic data archive.
40505.  Establishment of emergency medical service telemedicine
capability.

[[Page 3389]]

Sec. 40501. Biomedical research joint working group

(a) Establishment.--The Administrator and the Director of the National
Institutes of Health shall jointly establish a working group to
coordinate biomedical research activities in areas where a microgravity
environment may contribute to significant progress in the understanding
and treatment of diseases and other medical conditions. The joint
working group shall formulate joint and complementary programs in such
areas of research.
(b) Membership.--The joint working group shall include equal
representation from the Administration and the National Institutes of
Health, and shall include representation from National Institutes of
Health councils, as selected by the Director of the National Institutes
of Health, and from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Advisory Council.
(c) Annual Biomedical Research Symposia.--The joint working group
shall organize annual symposia on biomedical research described in
subsection (a) under the joint sponsorship of the Administration and the
National Institutes of Health.
(d) Annual Reporting Requirement.--The joint working group shall
report annually to Congress on its progress in carrying out this
section.

Sec. 40502. Biomedical research grants

(a) Establishment of Program.--The Administrator and the Director of
the National Institutes of Health shall establish a joint program of
biomedical research grants in areas described in section 40501(a) of
this title, where such research requires access to a microgravity
environment. Such program shall be consistent with actions taken by the
joint working group under section 40501 of this title.
(b) Research Opportunity Announcements.--The grants program
established under subsection (a) shall annually issue joint research
opportunity announcements under the sponsorship of the National
Institutes of Health and the Administration. Responses to the
announcements shall be evaluated by a peer review committee whose
members shall be selected by the Director of the National Institutes of
Health and the Administrator, and shall include individuals not employed
by the Administration or the National Institutes of Health.

Sec. 40503. Biomedical research fellowships

The Administrator and the Director of the National Institutes of
Health shall create a joint program of graduate research fellowships in
biomedical research described in section 40501(a) of this title.
Fellowships under such program may provide for participation in approved
research conferences and symposia.

Sec. 40504. Establishment of electronic data archive

The Administrator shall create and maintain a national electronic data
archive for biomedical research data obtained from space-based
experiments.

Sec. 40505. Establishment of emergency medical service telemedicine
capability

The Administrator, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency
Management Agency, the Director of the Office of Foreign Disaster
Assistance, and the Surgeon General of the United States shall

[[Page 3390]]

jointly create and maintain an international telemedicine satellite
consultation capability to support emergency medical services in
disaster-stricken areas.

CHAPTER 407--ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AIRCRAFT

Sec.
40701.  Research and development initiative.
40702.  Additional research and development initiative.
40703.  Research alignment.
40704.  Research program on perceived impact of sonic booms.

Sec. 40701. Research and development initiative

The Administrator may establish an initiative with the objective of
developing, and demonstrating in a relevant environment, technologies to
enable the following commercial aircraft performance characteristics:
(1) Noise levels.--Noise levels on takeoff and on airport
approach and landing that do not exceed ambient noise levels in
the absence of flight operations in the vicinity of airports
from which such commercial aircraft would normally operate.
(2) Energy consumption.--Twenty-five percent reduction in the
energy required for medium- to long-range flights, compared to
aircraft in commercial service as of December 30, 2005.
(3) Emissions.--Nitrogen oxides on take-off and landing that
are significantly reduced, without adversely affecting
hydrocarbons and smoke, relative to aircraft in commercial
service as of December 30, 2005.

Sec. 40702. Additional research and development initiative

The Administrator shall establish an initiative involving the
Administration, universities, industry, and other research organizations
as appropriate, of research, development, and demonstration, in a
relevant environment, of technologies to enable the following commercial
aircraft performance characteristics:
(1) Noise levels.--Noise levels on takeoff and on airport
approach and landing that do not exceed ambient noise levels in
the absence of flight operations in the vicinity of airports
from which such commercial aircraft would normally operate,
without increasing energy consumption or nitrogen oxide
emissions compared to aircraft in commercial service as of
October 15, 2008.
(2) Greenhouse gas emissions.--Significant reductions in
greenhouse gas emissions compared to aircraft in commercial
services as of October 15, 2008.

Sec. 40703. Research alignment

In addition to pursuing the research and development initiative
described in section 40702 of this title, the Administrator shall, to
the maximum extent practicable within available funding, align the
fundamental aeronautics research program to address high priority
technology challenges of the National Academies' Decadal Survey of Civil
Aeronautics, and shall work to increase the degree of involvement of
external organizations, and especially of universities, in the
fundamental aeronautics research program.

[[Page 3391]]

Sec. 40704. Research program on perceived impact of sonic booms

(a) Establishment.--The Administrator shall establish a cooperative
research program with industry, including the conduct of flight
demonstrations in a relevant environment, to collect data on the
perceived impact of sonic booms. The data could enable the promulgation
of appropriate standards for overland commercial supersonic flight
operations.
(b) Coordination.--The Administrator shall ensure that sonic boom
research is coordinated as appropriate with the Administrator of the
Federal Aviation Administration, and as appropriate make use of the
expertise of the Partnership for Air Transportation Noise and Emissions
Reduction Center of Excellence sponsored by the Administration and the
Federal Aviation Administration.

CHAPTER 409--MISCELLANEOUS

Sec.
40901.  Science, Space, and Technology Education Trust Fund.
40902.  National Aeronautics and Space Administration Endeavor Teacher
Fellowship Trust Fund.
40903.  Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research--merit
grant competition requirements.
40904.  Microgravity research.
40905.  Program to expand distance learning in rural underserved areas.
40906.  Equal access to the Administration's education programs.
40907.  Museums.
40908.  Continuation of certain education programs.
40909.  Compliance with title IX of Education Amendments of 1972.

Sec. 40901. Science, Space, and Technology Education Trust Fund

There is appropriated, by transfer from funds appropriated in the
Department of Housing and Urban Development--Independent Agencies
Appropriations Act, 1989 (Public Law 100-404, 102 Stat. 1014), for
``Construction of facilities'', the sum of $15,000,000 to the ``Science,
Space, and Technology Education Trust Fund'', which is hereby
established in the Treasury of the United States. The Secretary of the
Treasury shall invest these funds in the United States Treasury special
issue securities, and interest shall be credited to the Trust Fund on a
quarterly basis. Such interest shall be available for the purpose of
making grants for programs directed at improving science, space, and
technology education in the United States. The Administrator, after
consultation with the Director of the National Science Foundation, shall
review applications made for such grants and determine the distribution
of available funds on a competitive basis. Grants shall be made
available to any awardee only to the extent that the awardee provides
matching funds from non-Federal sources to carry out the program for
which grants from this Trust Fund are made. Of the funds made available
by this Trust Fund, $250,000 shall be disbursed each calendar quarter to
the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. The Administrator
shall submit to Congress an annual report on the grants made pursuant to
this section.

Sec. 40902. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Endeavor
Teacher Fellowship Trust Fund

(a) Establishment.--There is established in the Treasury of the United
States, in tribute to the dedicated crew of the Space

[[Page 3392]]

Shuttle Challenger, a trust fund to be known as the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration Endeavor Teacher Fellowship Trust Fund
(hereafter in this section referred to as the ``Trust Fund''). The Trust
Fund shall consist of amounts which may from time to time, at the
discretion of the Administrator, be transferred from the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration Gifts and Donations Trust Fund.
(b) Investment of Trust Fund.--The Administrator shall direct the
Secretary of the Treasury to invest and reinvest funds in the Trust Fund
in public debt securities with maturities suitable for the needs of the
Trust Fund, and bearing interest at rates determined by the Secretary of
the Treasury, taking into consideration the current average market yield
on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable
maturities. Interest earned shall be credited to the Trust Fund.
(c) Purpose.--Income accruing from the Trust Fund principal shall be
used to create the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Endeavor Teacher Fellowship Program, to the extent provided in advance
in appropriation Acts. The Administrator is authorized to use such funds
to award fellowships to selected United States nationals who are
undergraduate students pursuing a course of study leading to certified
teaching degrees in elementary education or in secondary education in
mathematics, science, or technology disciplines. Awards shall be made
pursuant to standards established for the fellowship program by the
Administrator.

Sec. 40903. Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research--
merit grant competition requirements

(a) Definition of Eligible State.--In this section, the term
``eligible State'' means a State designated by the Administrator as
eligible to compete in the National Science Foundation's Experimental
Program to Stimulate Competitive Research.
(b) Competition.--Making use of the existing infrastructure
established in eligible States by the National Science Foundation, the
Administrator shall conduct a merit grant competition among the eligible
States in areas of research important to the mission of the
Administration. With respect to a grant application by an eligible
State, the Administrator shall consider--
(1) the application's merit and relevance to the mission of
the Administration;
(2) the potential for the grant to serve as a catalyst to
enhance the ability of researchers in the State to become more
competitive for regular Administration funding;
(3) the potential for the grant to improve the environment for
science, mathematics, and engineering education in the State;
and
(4) the need to ensure the maximum distribution of grants
among eligible States, consistent with merit.

(c) Supplemental Grants.--The Administrator shall endeavor, where
appropriate, to supplement grants made under subsection (b) with such
grants for fellowships, traineeships, equipment, or instrumentation as
are available.
(d) Information in Annual Budget Submission.--In order to ensure that
research expertise and talent throughout the Nation is developed and
engaged in Administration research and education activities, the
Administration shall, as part of its annual budget submission, detail
additional steps that can be taken to further

[[Page 3393]]

integrate the participating eligible States in both existing and new or
emerging Administration research programs and center activities.

Sec. 40904. Microgravity research

The Administrator shall--
(1) ensure the capacity to support ground-based research
leading to space-based basic and applied scientific research in
a variety of disciplines with potential direct national benefits
and applications that can be advanced significantly from the
uniqueness of microgravity and the space environment; and
(2) carry out, to the maximum extent practicable, basic,
applied, and commercial International Space Station research in
fields such as molecular crystal growth, animal research, basic
fluid physics, combustion research, cellular biotechnology, low-
temperature physics, and cellular research at a level that will
sustain the existing United States scientific expertise and
research capability in microgravity research.

Sec. 40905. Program to expand distance learning in rural underserved
areas

(a) In General.--The Administrator shall develop or expand programs to
extend science and space educational outreach to rural communities and
schools through video conferencing, interpretive exhibits, teacher
education, classroom presentations, and student field trips.
(b) Priorities.--In carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator
shall give priority to existing programs, including Challenger Learning
Centers--
(1) that utilize community-based partnerships in the field;
(2) that build and maintain video conference and exhibit
capacity;
(3) that travel directly to rural communities and serve low-
income populations; and
(4) with a special emphasis on increasing the number of women
and minorities in the science and engineering professions.

Sec. 40906. Equal access to the Administration's education programs

(a) In General.--The Administrator shall strive to ensure equal access
for minority and economically disadvantaged students to the
Administration's education programs.
(b) Report.--Every 2 years, the Administrator shall submit a report to
the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives
and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate
describing the efforts by the Administrator to ensure equal access for
minority and economically disadvantaged students under this section and
the results of such efforts. As part of the report, the Administrator
shall provide--
(1) data on minority participation in the Administration's
education programs, at a minimum in the categories of--
(A) elementary and secondary education;
(B) undergraduate education; and
(C) graduate education; and
(2) the total value of grants the Administration made to
Historically Black Colleges and Universities and to Hispanic

[[Page 3394]]

Serving Institutions through education programs during the
period covered by the report.

(c) Program.--The Administrator shall establish the Dr. Mae C. Jemison
Grant Program to work with Minority Serving Institutions to bring more
women of color into the field of space and aeronautics.

Sec. 40907. Museums

The Administrator may provide grants to, and enter into cooperative
agreements with, museums and planetariums to enable them to enhance
programs related to space exploration, aeronautics, space science, Earth
science, or microgravity.

Sec. 40908. Continuation of certain education programs

From amounts appropriated to the Administration for education
programs, the Administrator shall ensure the continuation of the Space
Grant Program, the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive
Research, and, consistent with the results of the review under section
614 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization
Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155, 119 Stat. 2933), the Administration
Explorer School program, to motivate and develop the next generation of
explorers.

Sec. 40909. Compliance with title IX of Education Amendments of 1972

To comply with title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C.
1681 et seq.), the Administrator shall conduct compliance reviews of at
least 2 grantees annually.

Subtitle V--Programs Targeting Commercial Opportunities

CHAPTER 501--SPACE COMMERCE

SUBCHAPTER I--GENERAL

Sec.
50101.  Definitions.

SUBCHAPTER II--PROMOTION OF COMMERCIAL SPACE OPPORTUNITIES

50111.  Commercialization of Space Station.
50112.  Promotion of United States Global Positioning System standards.
50113.  Acquisition of space science data.
50114.  Administration of commercial space centers.
50115.  Sources of Earth science data.
50116.  Commercial technology transfer program.

SUBCHAPTER III--FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF SPACE TRANSPORTATION SERVICES

50131.  Requirement to procure commercial space transportation services.
50132.  Acquisition of commercial space transportation services.
50133.  Shuttle privatization.
50134.  Use of excess intercontinental ballistic missiles.

SUBCHAPTER I--GENERAL

Sec. 50101. Definitions

In this chapter:

[[Page 3395]]

(1) Commercial provider.--The term ``commercial provider''
means any person providing space transportation services or
other space-related activities, primary control of which is held
by persons other than Federal, State, local, and foreign
governments.
(2) Payload.--The term ``payload'' means anything that a
person undertakes to transport to, from, or within outer space,
or in suborbital trajectory, by means of a space transportation
vehicle, but does not include the space transportation vehicle
itself except for its components which are specifically designed
or adapted for that payload.
(3) Space-related activities.--The term ``space-related
activities'' includes research and development, manufacturing,
processing, service, and other associated and support
activities.
(4) Space transportation services.--The term ``space
transportation services'' means the preparation of a space
transportation vehicle and its payloads for transportation to,
from, or within outer space, or in suborbital trajectory, and
the conduct of transporting a payload to, from, or within outer
space, or in suborbital trajectory.
(5) Space transportation vehicle.--The term ``space
transportation vehicle'' means any vehicle constructed for the
purpose of operating in, or transporting a payload to, from, or
within, outer space, or in suborbital trajectory, and includes
any component of such vehicle not specifically designed or
adapted for a payload.
(6) State.--The term ``State'' means each of the several
States of the Union, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth
of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other
commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.
(7) United states commercial provider.--The term ``United
States commercial provider'' means a commercial provider,
organized under the laws of the United States or of a State,
that is--
(A) more than 50 percent owned by United States
nationals; or
(B) a subsidiary of a foreign company and the
Secretary of Transportation finds that--
(i) such subsidiary has in the past evidenced a
substantial commitment to the United States market
through--
(I) investments in the United States
in long-term research, development, and
manufacturing (including the manufacture
of major components and subassemblies);
and
(II) significant contributions to
employment in the United States; and
(ii) the country or countries in which such
foreign company is incorporated or organized, and,
if appropriate, in which it principally conducts
its business, affords reciprocal treatment to
companies described in subparagraph (A) comparable
to that afforded to such foreign company's
subsidiary in the United States, as evidenced by--

[[Page 3396]]

(I) providing comparable opportunities
for companies described in subparagraph
(A) to participate in Government-
sponsored research and development
similar to that authorized under this
chapter;
(II) providing no barriers, to
companies described in subparagraph (A)
with respect to local investment
opportunities, that are not provided to
foreign companies in the United States;
and
(III) providing adequate and effective
protection for the intellectual property
rights of companies described in
subparagraph (A).

SUBCHAPTER II--PROMOTION OF COMMERCIAL SPACE OPPORTUNITIES

Sec. 50111. Commercialization of Space Station

(a) Policy.--Congress declares that a priority goal of constructing
the International Space Station is the economic development of Earth
orbital space. Congress further declares that free and competitive
markets create the most efficient conditions for promoting economic
development, and should therefore govern the economic development of
Earth orbital space. Congress further declares that the use of free
market principles in operating, servicing, allocating the use of, and
adding capabilities to the Space Station, and the resulting fullest
possible engagement of commercial providers and participation of
commercial users, will reduce Space Station operational costs for all
partners and the Federal Government's share of the United States burden
to fund operations.
(b) Use of United States Commercially Provided Services.--
(1) In general.--In order to stimulate commercial use of
space, help maximize the utility and productivity of the
International Space Station, and enable a commercial means of
providing crew transfer and crew rescue services for the
International Space Station, the Administration shall--
(A) make use of United States commercially provided
International Space Station crew transfer and crew
rescue services to the maximum extent practicable, if
those commercial services have demonstrated the
capability to meet Administration-specified ascent,
entry, and International Space Station proximity
operations safety requirements;
(B) limit, to the maximum extent practicable, the use
of the Crew Exploration Vehicle to missions carrying
astronauts beyond low Earth orbit once commercial crew
transfer and crew rescue services that meet safety
requirements become operational;
(C) facilitate, to the maximum extent practicable, the
transfer of Administration-developed technologies to
potential United States commercial crew transfer and
rescue service providers, consistent with United States
law; and
(D) issue a notice of intent, not later than 180 days
after October 15, 2008, to enter into a funded,
competitively awarded Space Act Agreement with 2 or more
commercial entities for a Phase 1 Commercial Orbital
Transportation Services crewed vehicle demonstration
program.

[[Page 3397]]

(2) Congressional intent.--It is the intent of Congress that
funding for the program described in paragraph (1)(D) shall not
come at the expense of full funding of the amounts authorized
under section 101(3)(A) of the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration Authorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-422,
122 Stat. 4783), and for future fiscal years, for Orion Crew
Exploration Vehicle development, Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle
development, or International Space Station cargo delivery.
(3) Additional technologies.--The Administration shall make
International Space Station-compatible docking adaptors and
other relevant technologies available to the commercial crew
providers selected to service the International Space Station.
(4) Crew transfer and crew rescue services contract.--If a
commercial provider demonstrates the capability to provide
International Space Station crew transfer and crew rescue
services and to satisfy Administration ascent, entry, and
International Space Station proximity operations safety
requirements, the Administration shall enter into an
International Space Station crew transfer and crew rescue
services contract with that commercial provider for a portion of
the Administration's anticipated International Space Station
crew transfer and crew rescue requirements from the time the
commercial provider commences operations under contract with the
Administration through calendar year 2016, with an option to
extend the period of performance through calendar year 2020.

Sec. 50112. Promotion of United States Global Positioning System
standards

In order to support and sustain the Global Positioning System in a
manner that will most effectively contribute to the national security,
public safety, scientific, and economic interests of the United States,
Congress encourages the President to--
(1) ensure the operation of the Global Positioning System on a
continuous worldwide basis free of direct user fees;
(2) enter into international agreements that promote
cooperation with foreign governments and international
organizations to--
(A) establish the Global Positioning System and its
augmentations as an acceptable international standard;
and
(B) eliminate any foreign barriers to applications of
the Global Positioning System worldwide; and
(3) provide clear direction and adequate resources to the
Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and
Information so that on an international basis the Assistant
Secretary can--
(A) achieve and sustain efficient management of the
electromagnetic spectrum used by the Global Positioning
System; and
(B) protect that spectrum from disruption and
interference.

Sec. 50113. Acquisition of space science data

(a) Definition of Space Science Data.--In this section, the term
``space science data'' includes scientific data concerning--

[[Page 3398]]

(1) the elemental and mineralogical resources of the moon,
asteroids, planets and their moons, and comets;
(2) microgravity acceleration; and
(3) solar storm monitoring.

(b) Acquisition From Commercial Providers.--The Administrator shall,
to the extent possible and while satisfying the scientific or
educational requirements of the Administration, and where appropriate,
of other Federal agencies and scientific researchers, acquire, where
cost effective, space science data from a commercial provider.
(c) Treatment of Space Science Data as Commercial Item Under
Acquisition Laws.--Acquisitions of space science data by the
Administrator shall be carried out in accordance with applicable
acquisition laws and regulations (including chapters 137 and 140 of
title 10). For purposes of such law and regulations, space science data
shall be considered to be a commercial item. Nothing in this subsection
shall be construed to preclude the United States from acquiring, through
contracts with commercial providers, sufficient rights in data to meet
the needs of the scientific and educational community or the needs of
other government activities.
(d) Safety Standards.--Nothing in this section shall be construed to
prohibit the Federal Government from requiring compliance with
applicable safety standards.
(e) Limitation.--This section does not authorize the Administration to
provide financial assistance for the development of commercial systems
for the collection of space science data.

Sec. 50114. Administration of commercial space centers

The Administrator shall administer the Commercial Space Center program
in a coordinated manner from Administration headquarters in Washington,
D.C.

Sec. 50115. Sources of Earth science data

(a) Acquisition.--The Administrator shall, to the extent possible and
while satisfying the scientific or educational requirements of the
Administration, and where appropriate, of other Federal agencies and
scientific researchers, acquire, where cost-effective, space-based and
airborne Earth remote sensing data, services, distribution, and
applications from a commercial provider.
(b) Treatment as Commercial Item Under Acquisition Laws.--Acquisitions
by the Administrator of the data, services, distribution, and
applications referred to in subsection (a) shall be carried out in
accordance with applicable acquisition laws and regulations (including
chapters 137 and 140 of title 10). For purposes of such law and
regulations, such data, services, distribution, and applications shall
be considered to be a commercial item. Nothing in this subsection shall
be construed to preclude the United States from acquiring, through
contracts with commercial providers, sufficient rights in data to meet
the needs of the scientific and educational community or the needs of
other government activities.
(c) Safety Standards.--Nothing in this section shall be construed to
prohibit the Federal Government from requiring compliance with
applicable safety standards.
(d) Administration and Execution.--This section shall be carried out
as part of the Commercial Remote Sensing Program at the Stennis Space
Center.

[[Page 3399]]

Sec. 50116. Commercial technology transfer program

(a) In General.--The Administrator shall execute a commercial
technology transfer program with the goal of facilitating the exchange
of services, products, and intellectual property between the
Administration and the private sector. This program shall place at least
as much emphasis on encouraging the transfer of Administration
technology to the private sector (``spinning out'') as on encouraging
use of private sector technology by the Administration. This program
shall be maintained in a manner that provides clear benefits for the
Administration, the domestic economy, and the research community.
(b) Program Structure.--In carrying out the program described in
subsection (a), the Administrator shall provide program participants
with at least 45 days notice of any proposed changes to the structure of
the Administration's technology transfer and commercialization
organizations that is in effect as of December 30, 2005.

SUBCHAPTER III--FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF SPACE TRANSPORTATION SERVICES

Sec. 50131. Requirement to procure commercial space transportation
services

(a) In General.--Except as otherwise provided in this section, the
Federal Government shall acquire space transportation services from
United States commercial providers whenever such services are required
in the course of its activities. To the maximum extent practicable, the
Federal Government shall plan missions to accommodate the space
transportation services capabilities of United States commercial
providers.
(b) Exceptions.--The Federal Government shall not be required to
acquire space transportation services under subsection (a) if, on a
case-by-case basis, the Administrator or, in the case of a national
security issue, the Secretary of the Air Force, determines that--
(1) a payload requires the unique capabilities of the space
shuttle;
(2) cost effective space transportation services that meet
specific mission requirements would not be reasonably available
from United States commercial providers when required;
(3) the use of space transportation services from United
States commercial providers poses an unacceptable risk of loss
of a unique scientific opportunity;
(4) the use of space transportation services from United
States commercial providers is inconsistent with national
security objectives;
(5) the use of space transportation services from United
States commercial providers is inconsistent with international
agreements for international collaborative efforts relating to
science and technology;
(6) it is more cost effective to transport a payload in
conjunction with a test or demonstration of a space
transportation vehicle owned by the Federal Government; or
(7) a payload can make use of the available cargo space on a
space shuttle mission as a secondary payload, and such payload
is consistent with the requirements of research,

[[Page 3400]]

development, demonstration, scientific, commercial, and
educational programs authorized by the Administrator.

(c) Agreements With Foreign Entities.--Nothing in this section shall
prevent the Administrator from planning or negotiating agreements with
foreign entities for the launch of Federal Government payloads for
international collaborative efforts relating to science and technology.
(d) Delayed Effect.--Subsection (a) shall not apply to space
transportation services and space transportation vehicles acquired or
owned by the Federal Government before October 28, 1998, or with respect
to which a contract for such acquisition or ownership has been entered
into before October 28, 1998.
(e) Historical Purposes.--This section shall not be construed to
prohibit the Federal Government from acquiring, owning, or maintaining
space transportation vehicles solely for historical display purposes.

Sec. 50132. Acquisition of commercial space transportation services

(a) Treatment of Commercial Space Transportation Services as
Commercial Item Under Acquisition Laws.--Acquisitions of space
transportation services by the Federal Government shall be carried out
in accordance with applicable acquisition laws and regulations
(including chapters 137 and 140 of title 10). For purposes of such law
and regulations, space transportation services shall be considered to be
a commercial item.
(b) Safety Standards.--Nothing in this section shall be construed to
prohibit the Federal Government from requiring compliance with
applicable safety standards.

Sec. 50133. Shuttle privatization

The Administrator shall prepare for an orderly transition from the
Federal operation, or Federal management of contracted operation, of
space transportation systems to the Federal purchase of commercial space
transportation services for all nonemergency space transportation
requirements for transportation to and from Earth orbit, including
human, cargo, and mixed payloads. In those preparations, the
Administrator shall take into account the need for short-term economies,
as well as the goal of restoring the Administration's research focus and
its mandate to promote the fullest possible commercial use of space. As
part of those preparations, the Administrator shall plan for the
potential privatization of the space shuttle program. Such plan shall
keep safety and cost effectiveness as high priorities. Nothing in this
section shall prohibit the Administration from studying, designing,
developing, or funding upgrades or modifications essential to the safe
and economical operation of the space shuttle fleet.

Sec. 50134. Use of excess intercontinental ballistic missiles

(a) In General.--The Federal Government shall not--
(1) convert any missile described in subsection (c) to a space
transportation vehicle configuration; or
(2) transfer ownership of any such missile to another person,
except as provided in subsection (b).

(b) Authorized Federal Uses.--
(1) In general.--A missile described in subsection (c) may be
converted for use as a space transportation vehicle by the

[[Page 3401]]

Federal Government if, except as provided in paragraph (2) and
at least 30 days before such conversion, the agency seeking to
use the missile as a space transportation vehicle transmits to
the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Science and
Technology of the House of Representatives, and to the Committee
on Armed Services and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Transportation of the Senate, a certification that the use of
such missile--
(A) would result in cost savings to the Federal
Government when compared to the cost of acquiring space
transportation services from United States commercial
providers;
(B) meets all mission requirements of the agency,
including performance, schedule, and risk requirements;
(C) is consistent with international obligations of
the United States; and
(D) is approved by the Secretary of Defense or the
designee of the Secretary of Defense.
(2) Exception to requirement that certification be transmitted
30 days before conversion.--The requirement under paragraph (1)
that the certification described in that paragraph must be
transmitted at least 30 days before conversion of the missile
shall not apply if the Secretary of Defense determines that
compliance with that requirement would be inconsistent with
meeting immediate national security requirements.

(c) Missiles Referred to.--The missiles referred to in this section
are missiles owned by the United States that--
(1) were formerly used by the Department of Defense for
national defense purposes as intercontinental ballistic
missiles; and
(2) have been declared excess to United States national
defense needs and are in compliance with international
obligations of the United States.

CHAPTER 503--COMMERCIAL REUSABLE IN-SPACE TRANSPORTATION

Sec.
50301.  Definitions.
50302.  Loan guarantees for production of commercial reusable in-space
transportation.

Sec. 50301. Definitions

In this chapter:
(1) Commercial provider.--The term ``commercial provider''
means any person or entity providing commercial reusable in-
orbit space transportation services or systems, primary control
of which is held by persons other than the Federal Government, a
State or local government, or a foreign government.
(2) In-space transportation services.--The term ``in-space
transportation services'' means operations and activities
involved in the direct transportation or attempted
transportation of a payload or object from one orbit to another
by means of an in-space transportation vehicle.
(3) In-space transportation system.--The term ``in-space
transportation system'' means the space and ground elements,

[[Page 3402]]

including in-space transportation vehicles and support space
systems, and ground administration and control facilities and
associated equipment, necessary for the provision of in-space
transportation services.
(4) In-space transportation vehicle.--The term ``in-space
transportation vehicle'' means a vehicle designed--
(A) to be based and operated in space;
(B) to transport various payloads or objects from one
orbit to another orbit; and
(C) to be reusable and refueled in space.
(5) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of
Defense.
(6) United states commercial provider.--The term ``United
States commercial provider'' means any commercial provider
organized under the laws of the United States that is more than
50 percent owned by United States nationals.

Sec. 50302. Loan guarantees for production of commercial reusable in-
space transportation

(a) Authority To Make Loan Guarantees.--The Secretary may guarantee
loans made to eligible United States commercial providers for purposes
of producing commercial reusable in-space transportation services or
systems.
(b) Eligible United States Commercial Providers.--The Secretary shall
prescribe requirements for the eligibility of United States commercial
providers for loan guarantees under this section. Such requirements
shall ensure that eligible providers are financially capable of
undertaking a loan guaranteed under this section.
(c) Limitation on Loans Guaranteed.--The Secretary may not guarantee a
loan for a United States commercial provider under this section unless
the Secretary determines that credit would not otherwise be reasonably
available at the time of the guarantee for the commercial reusable in-
space transportation service or system to be produced utilizing the
proceeds of the loan.
(d) Credit Subsidy.--
(1) Collection required.--The Secretary shall collect from
each United States commercial provider receiving a loan
guarantee under this section an amount equal to the amount, as
determined by the Secretary, to cover the cost, as defined in
section 502(5) of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (2
U.S.C. 661a(5)), of the loan guarantee.
(2) Periodic disbursements.--In the case of a loan guarantee
in which proceeds of the loan are disbursed over time, the
Secretary shall collect the amount required under this
subsection on a pro rata basis, as determined by the Secretary,
at the time of each disbursement.

(e) Other Terms and Conditions.--
(1) Prohibition on subordination.--A loan guaranteed under
this section may not be subordinated to another debt contracted
by the United States commercial provider concerned, or to any
other claims against such provider.
(2) Restriction on income.--A loan guaranteed under this
section may not--
(A) provide income which is excluded from gross income
for purposes of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code
of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.); or

[[Page 3403]]

(B) provide significant collateral or security, as
determined by the Secretary, for other obligations the
income from which is so excluded.
(3) Treatment of guarantee.--The guarantee of a loan under
this section shall be conclusive evidence of the following:
(A) That the guarantee has been properly obtained.
(B) That the loan qualifies for the guarantee.
(C) That, but for fraud or material misrepresentation
by the holder of the loan, the guarantee is valid,
legal, and enforceable.
(4) Other terms and conditions.--The Secretary may establish
any other terms and conditions for a guarantee of a loan under
this section as the Secretary considers appropriate to protect
the financial interests of the United States.

(f) Enforcement of Rights.--
(1) In general.--The Attorney General may take any action the
Attorney General considers appropriate to enforce any right
accruing to the United States under a loan guarantee under this
section.
(2) Forbearance.--The Attorney General may, with the approval
of the parties concerned, forbear from enforcing any right of
the United States under a loan guaranteed under this section for
the benefit of a United States commercial provider if such
forbearance will not result in any cost, as defined in section
502(5) of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (2 U.S.C.
661a(5)), to the United States.
(3) Utilization of property.--Notwithstanding any other
provision of law and subject to the terms of a loan guaranteed
under this section, upon the default of a United States
commercial provider under the loan, the Secretary may, at the
election of the Secretary--
(A) assume control of the physical asset financed by
the loan; and
(B) complete, recondition, reconstruct, renovate,
repair, maintain, operate, or sell the physical asset.

(g) Credit Instruments.--
(1) Authority to issue instruments.--Notwithstanding any other
provision of law, the Secretary may, subject to such terms and
conditions as the Secretary considers appropriate, issue credit
instruments to United States commercial providers of in-space
transportation services or systems, with the aggregate cost (as
determined under the provisions of the Federal Credit Reform Act
of 1990 (2 U.S.C. 661 et seq.)) of such instruments not to
exceed $1,500,000,000, but only to the extent that new budget
authority to cover such costs is provided in subsequent
appropriations Acts or authority is otherwise provided in
subsequent appropriations Acts.
(2) Credit subsidy.--The Secretary shall provide a credit
subsidy for any credit instrument issued under this subsection
in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Credit Reform
Act of 1990 (2 U.S.C. 661 et seq.).
(3) Construction.--The eligibility of a United States
commercial provider of in-space transportation services or
systems for a credit instrument under this subsection is in
addition to any eligibility of such provider for a loan
guarantee under other provisions of this section.

[[Page 3404]]

CHAPTER 505--COMMERCIAL SPACE COMPETITIVENESS

Sec.
50501.  Definitions.
50502.  Launch voucher demonstration program.
50503.  Anchor tenancy and termination liability.
50504.  Use of Government facilities.
50505.  Test facilities.
50506.  Commercial Space Achievement Award.

Sec. 50501. Definitions

In this chapter:
(1) Agency.--The term ``agency'' means an executive agency as
defined in section 105 of title 5.
(2) Anchor tenancy.--The term ``anchor tenancy'' means an
arrangement in which the United States Government agrees to
procure sufficient quantities of a commercial space product or
service needed to meet Government mission requirements so that a
commercial venture is made viable.
(3) Commercial.--The term ``commercial'' means having--
(A) private capital at risk; and
(B) primary financial and management responsibility
for the activity reside with the private sector.
(4) Cost effective.--The term ``cost effective'' means costing
no more than the available alternatives, determined by a
comparison of all related direct and indirect costs including,
in the case of Government costs, applicable Government labor and
overhead costs as well as contractor charges, and taking into
account the ability of each alternative to accommodate mission
requirements as well as the related factors of risk,
reliability, schedule, and technical performance.
(5) Launch.--The term ``launch'' means to place, or attempt to
place, a launch vehicle and its payload, if any, in a suborbital
trajectory, in Earth orbit in outer space, or otherwise in outer
space.
(6) Launch services.--The term ``launch services'' means
activities involved in the preparation of a launch vehicle and
its payload for launch and the conduct of a launch.
(7) Launch support facilities.--The term ``launch support
facilities'' means facilities located at launch sites or launch
ranges that are required to support launch activities, including
launch vehicle assembly, launch vehicle operations and control,
communications, flight safety functions, and payload operations,
control, and processing.
(8) Launch vehicle.--The term ``launch vehicle'' means any
vehicle constructed for the purpose of operating in or placing a
payload in outer space or in suborbital trajectories, and
includes components of that vehicle.
(9) Payload.--The term ``payload'' means an object which a
person undertakes to launch, and includes subcomponents of the
launch vehicle specifically designed or adapted for that object.
(10) Payload integration services.--The term ``payload
integration services'' means activities involved in integrating
multiple payloads into a single payload for launch or
integrating a payload with a launch vehicle.
(11) Space recovery support facilities.--The term ``space
recovery support facilities'' means facilities required to
support activities related to the recovery of payloads returned
from

[[Page 3405]]

space to a space recovery site, including operations and
control, communications, flight safety functions, and payload
processing.
(12) Space transportation infrastructure.--The term ``space
transportation infrastructure'' means facilities, associated
equipment, and real property (including launch sites, launch
support facilities, space recovery sites, and space recovery
support facilities) required to perform launch or space recovery
activities.
(13) State.--The term ``State'' means the several States, the
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United
States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and
any other commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United
States.
(14) United states.--The term ``United States'' means the
States, collectively.

Sec. 50502. Launch voucher demonstration program

(a) Requirement To Establish Program.--The Administrator shall
establish a demonstration program to award vouchers for the payment of
commercial launch services and payload integration services for the
purpose of launching payloads funded by the Administration.
(b) Award of Vouchers.--The Administrator shall award vouchers under
subsection (a) to appropriate individuals as a part of grants
administered by the Administration for the launch of--
(1) payloads to be placed in suborbital trajectories; and
(2) small payloads to be placed in orbit.

(c) Assistance.--The Administrator may provide voucher award
recipients with such assistance (including contract formulation and
technical support during the proposal evaluation) as may be necessary to
ensure the purchase of cost effective and reasonably reliable commercial
launch services and payload integration services.

Sec. 50503. Anchor tenancy and termination liability

(a) Anchor Tenancy Contracts.--Subject to appropriations, the
Administrator or the Administrator of the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration may enter into multiyear anchor tenancy
contracts for the purchase of a good or service if the appropriate
Administrator determines that--
(1) the good or service meets the mission requirements of the
Administration or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, as appropriate;
(2) the commercially procured good or service is cost
effective;
(3) the good or service is procured through a competitive
process;
(4) existing or potential customers for the good or service
other than the United States Government have been specifically
identified;
(5) the long-term viability of the venture is not dependent
upon a continued Government market or other nonreimbursable
Government support; and
(6) private capital is at risk in the venture.

(b) Termination Liability.--
(1) In general.--Contracts entered into under subsection (a)
may provide for the payment of termination liability in

[[Page 3406]]

the event that the Government terminates such contracts for its
convenience.
(2) Fixed schedule of payments and limitation on liability.--
Contracts that provide for the payment of termination liability,
as described in paragraph (1), shall include a fixed schedule of
such termination liability payments. Liability under such
contracts shall not exceed the total payments which the
Government would have made after the date of termination to
purchase the good or service if the contract were not
terminated.
(3) Use of funds.--Subject to appropriations, funds available
for such termination liability payments may be used for purchase
of the good or service upon successful delivery of the good or
service pursuant to the contract. In such case, sufficient funds
shall remain available to cover any remaining termination
liability.

(c) Limitations.--
(1) Duration.--Contracts entered into under this section shall
not exceed 10 years in duration.
(2) Fixed price.--Such contracts shall provide for delivery of
the good or service on a firm, fixed price basis.
(3) Performance specifications.--To the extent practicable,
reasonable performance specifications shall be used to define
technical requirements in such contracts.
(4) Failure to perform.--In any such contract, the appropriate
Administrator shall reserve the right to completely or partially
terminate the contract without payment of such termination
liability because of the contractor's actual or anticipated
failure to perform its contractual obligations.

Sec. 50504. Use of Government facilities

(a) Authority.--
(1) In general.--Federal agencies, including the
Administration and the Department of Defense, may allow non-
Federal entities to use their space-related facilities on a
reimbursable basis if the Administrator, the Secretary of
Defense, or the appropriate agency head determines that--
(A) the facilities will be used to support commercial
space activities;
(B) such use can be supported by existing or planned
Federal resources;
(C) such use is compatible with Federal activities;
(D) equivalent commercial services are not available
on reasonable terms; and
(E) such use is consistent with public safety,
national security, and international treaty obligations.
(2) Consultation.--In carrying out paragraph (1)(E), each
agency head shall consult with appropriate Federal officials.

(b) Reimbursement Payment.--
(1) Amount.--The reimbursement referred to in subsection (a)
may be an amount equal to the direct costs (including salaries
of United States civilian and contractor personnel) incurred by
the United States as a result of the use of such facilities by
the private sector. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term
``direct costs'' means the actual costs that can be
unambiguously associated with such use, and would

[[Page 3407]]

not be borne by the United States Government in the absence of
such use.
(2) Credit to appropriation.--The amount of any payment
received by the United States for use of facilities under this
subsection shall be credited to the appropriation from which the
cost of providing such facilities was paid.

Sec. 50505. Test facilities

(a) Charges.--The Administrator shall establish a policy of charging
users of the Administration's test facilities for the costs associated
with their tests at a level that is competitive with alternative test
facilities. The Administrator shall not implement a policy of seeking
full cost recovery for a facility until at least 30 days after
transmitting a notice to the Committee on Science and Technology of the
House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Transportation of the Senate.
(b) Funding Account.--In planning and budgeting, the Administrator
shall establish a funding account that shall be used for all test
facilities. The account shall be sufficient to maintain the viability of
test facilities during periods of low utilization.

Sec. 50506. Commercial Space Achievement Award

(a) Establishment.--There is established a Commercial Space
Achievement Award. The award shall consist of a medal, which shall be of
such design and materials and bear such inscriptions as determined by
the Secretary of Commerce. A cash prize may also be awarded if funding
for the prize is available under subsection (d).
(b) Criteria for Award.--The Secretary of Commerce shall periodically
make awards under this section to individuals, corporations, corporate
divisions, or corporate subsidiaries substantially engaged in commercial
space activities that in the opinion of the Secretary of Commerce best
meet the following criteria:
(1) Non-governmental revenue.--For corporate entities, at
least half of the revenues from the space-related activities of
the corporation, division, or subsidiary is derived from sources
other than the United States Government.
(2) Substantial contribution.--The activities and achievements
of the individual, corporation, division, or subsidiary have
substantially contributed to the United States gross national
product and the stature of United States industry in
international markets, with due consideration for both the
economic magnitude and the technical quality of the activities
and achievements.
(3) Substantial advancement of technology.--The individual,
corporation, division, or subsidiary has substantially advanced
space technology and space applications directly related to
commercial space activities.

(c) Limitations.--No individual or corporate entity may receive an
award under this section more than once every 5 years.
(d) Funding for Award.--The Secretary of Commerce may seek and accept
gifts of money from public and private sources for the purpose of making
cash prize awards under this section. Such money may be used only for
that purpose, and only such money may be used for that purpose. The
Secretary of Commerce shall make publicly available an itemized list of
the sources of such funding.

[[Page 3408]]

CHAPTER 507--OFFICE OF SPACE COMMERCIALIZATION

Sec.
50701.  Definition of Office.
50702.  Establishment.
50703.  Annual report.

Sec. 50701. Definition of Office

In this chapter, the term ``Office'' means the Office of Space
Commercialization established in section 50702 of this title.

Sec. 50702. Establishment

(a) In General.--There is established within the Department of
Commerce an Office of Space Commercialization.
(b) Director.--The Office shall be headed by a Director, who shall be
a senior executive and shall be compensated at a level in the Senior
Executive Service under section 5382 of title 5 as determined by the
Secretary of Commerce.
(c) Functions of Office.--The Office shall be the principal unit for
the coordination of space-related issues, programs, and initiatives
within the Department of Commerce.
(d) Duties of Director.--The primary responsibilities of the Director
in carrying out the functions of the Office shall include--
(1) promoting commercial provider investment in space
activities by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating
information on space markets, and conducting workshops and
seminars to increase awareness of commercial space
opportunities;
(2) assisting United States commercial providers in the
efforts of those providers to conduct business with the United
States Government;
(3) acting as an industry advocate within the executive branch
of the Federal Government to ensure that the Federal Government
meets the space-related requirements of the Federal Government,
to the fullest extent feasible, using commercially available
space goods and services;
(4) ensuring that the United States Government does not
compete with United States commercial providers in the provision
of space hardware and services otherwise available from United
States commercial providers;
(5) promoting the export of space-related goods and services;
(6) representing the Department of Commerce in the development
of United States policies and in negotiations with foreign
countries to ensure free and fair trade internationally in the
area of space commerce; and
(7) seeking the removal of legal, policy, and institutional
impediments to space commerce.

Sec. 50703. Annual report

The Secretary of Commerce shall submit an annual report on the
activities of the Office, including planned programs and expenditures,
to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate
and the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of
Representatives.

Subtitle VI--Earth Observations

[[Page 3409]]

CHAPTER 601--LAND REMOTE SENSING POLICY

SUBCHAPTER I--GENERAL

Sec.
60101.  Definitions.

SUBCHAPTER II--LANDSAT

60111.  Landsat Program Management.
60112.  Transfer of Landsat 6 program responsibilities.
60113.  Data policy for Landsat 7.

SUBCHAPTER III--LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SPACE SYSTEMS

60121.  General licensing authority.
60122.  Conditions for operation.
60123.  Administrative authority of Secretary.
60124.  Regulatory authority of Secretary.
60125.  Agency activities.

SUBCHAPTER IV--RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION

60131.  Continued Federal research and development.
60132.  Availability of federally gathered unenhanced data.
60133.  Technology demonstration program.
60134.  Preference for private sector land remote sensing system.

SUBCHAPTER V--GENERAL PROVISIONS

60141.  Nondiscriminatory data availability.
60142.  Archiving of data.
60143.  Nonreproduction.
60144.  Reimbursement for assistance.
60145.  Acquisition of equipment.
60146.  Radio frequency allocation.
60147.  Consultation.
60148.  Enforcement.

SUBCHAPTER VI--PROHIBITION OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF WEATHER SATELLITES

60161.  Prohibition.
60162.  Future considerations.

SUBCHAPTER I--GENERAL

Sec. 60101. Definitions

In this chapter:
(1) Cost of fulfilling user requests.--The term ``cost of
fulfilling user requests'' means the incremental costs
associated with providing product generation, reproduction, and
distribution of unenhanced data in response to user requests and
shall not include any acquisition, amortization, or depreciation
of capital assets originally paid for by the United States
Government or other costs not specifically attributable to
fulfilling user requests.
(2) Data continuity.--The term ``data continuity'' means the
continued acquisition and availability of unenhanced data which
are, from the point of view of the user--
(A) sufficiently consistent (in terms of acquisition
geometry, coverage characteristics, and spectral
characteristics) with previous Landsat data to allow
comparisons for global and regional change detection and
characterization; and
(B) compatible with such data and with methods used to
receive and process such data.
(3) Data preprocessing.--The term ``data preprocessing''--
(A) may include--

[[Page 3410]]

(i) rectification of system and sensor
distortions in land remote sensing data as it is
received directly from the satellite in
preparation for delivery to a user;
(ii) registration of such data with respect to
features of the Earth; and
(iii) calibration of spectral response with
respect to such data; but
(B) does not include conclusions, manipulations, or
calculations derived from such data, or a combination of
such data with other data.
(4) Land remote sensing.--The term ``land remote sensing''
means the collection of data which can be processed into imagery
of surface features of the Earth from an unclassified satellite
or satellites, other than an operational United States
Government weather satellite.
(5) Landsat program management.--The term ``Landsat Program
Management'' means the integrated program management structure--
(A) established by, and responsible to, the
Administrator and the Secretary of Defense pursuant to
section 60111(a) of this title; and
(B) consisting of appropriate officers and employees
of the Administration, the Department of Defense, and
any other United States Government agencies the
President designates as responsible for the Landsat
program.
(6) Landsat system.--The term ``Landsat system'' means
Landsats 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and any follow-on land remote
sensing system operated and owned by the United States
Government, along with any related ground equipment, systems,
and facilities owned by the United States Government.
(7) Landsat 6 contractor.--The term ``Landsat 6 contractor''
means the private sector entity which was awarded the contract
for spacecraft construction, operations, and data marketing
rights for the Landsat 6 spacecraft.
(8) Landsat 7.--The term ``Landsat 7'' means the follow-on
satellite to Landsat 6.
(9) National satellite land remote sensing data archive.--The
term ``National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive''
means the archive established by the Secretary of the Interior
pursuant to the archival responsibilities defined in section
60142 of this title.
(10) Noncommercial purposes.--The term ``noncommercial
purposes'' means activities undertaken by individuals or
entities on the condition, upon receipt of unenhanced data,
that--
(A) such data shall not be used in connection with any
bid for a commercial contract, development of a
commercial product, or any other non-United States
Government activity that is expected, or has the
potential, to be profitmaking;
(B) the results of such activities are disclosed in a
timely and complete fashion in the open technical
literature or other method of public release, except
when such disclosure by the United States Government or
its contractors would adversely affect the national
security or foreign policy of the United States or
violate a provision of law or regulation; and

[[Page 3411]]

(C) such data shall not be distributed in competition
with unenhanced data provided by the Landsat 6
contractor.
(11) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of
Commerce.
(12) Unenhanced data.--The term ``unenhanced data'' means land
remote sensing signals or imagery products that are unprocessed
or subject only to data preprocessing.
(13) United states government and its affiliated users.--The
term ``United States Government and its affiliated users''
means--
(A) United States Government agencies;
(B) researchers involved with the United States Global
Change Research Program and its international
counterpart programs; and
(C) other researchers and international entities that
have signed with the United States Government a
cooperative agreement involving the use of Landsat data
for noncommercial purposes.

SUBCHAPTER II--LANDSAT

Sec. 60111. Landsat Program Management

(a) Establishment.--The Administrator and the Secretary of Defense
shall be responsible for management of the Landsat program. Such
responsibility shall be carried out by establishing an integrated
program management structure for the Landsat system.
(b) Management Plan.--The Administrator, the Secretary of Defense, and
any other United States Government official the President designates as
responsible for part of the Landsat program shall establish, through a
management plan, the roles, responsibilities, and funding expectations
for the Landsat program of the appropriate United States Government
agencies. The management plan shall--
(1) specify that the fundamental goal of the Landsat Program
Management is the continuity of unenhanced Landsat data through
the acquisition and operation of a Landsat 7 satellite as
quickly as practicable which is, at a minimum, functionally
equivalent to the Landsat 6 satellite, with the addition of a
tracking and data relay satellite communications capability;
(2) include a baseline funding profile that--
(A) is mutually acceptable to the Administration and
the Department of Defense for the period covering the
development and operation of Landsat 7; and
(B) provides for total funding responsibility of the
Administration and the Department of Defense,
respectively, to be approximately equal to the funding
responsibility of the other as spread across the
development and operational life of Landsat 7;
(3) specify that any improvements over the Landsat 6
functional equivalent capability for Landsat 7 will be funded by
a specific sponsoring agency or agencies, in a manner agreed to
by the Landsat Program Management, if the required funding
exceeds the baseline funding profile required by paragraph (2),
and that additional improvements will be sought only if the
improvements will not jeopardize data continuity; and

[[Page 3412]]

(4) provide for a technology demonstration program whose
objective shall be the demonstration of advanced land remote
sensing technologies that may potentially yield a system which
is less expensive to build and operate, and more responsive to
data users, than is the current Landsat system.

(c) Responsibilities.--The Landsat Program Management shall be
responsible for--
(1) Landsat 7 procurement, launch, and operations;
(2) ensuring that the operation of the Landsat system is
responsive to the broad interests of the civilian, national
security, commercial, and foreign users of the Landsat system;
(3) ensuring that all unenhanced Landsat data remain
unclassified and that, except as provided in subsections (a) and
(b) of section 60146 of this title, no restrictions are placed
on the availability of unenhanced data;
(4) ensuring that land remote sensing data of high priority
locations will be acquired by the Landsat 7 system as required
to meet the needs of the United States Global Change Research
Program, as established in the Global Change Research Act of
1990 (15 U.S.C. 2921 et seq.), and to meet the needs of national
security users;
(5) Landsat data responsibilities pursuant to this chapter;
(6) oversight of Landsat contracts entered into under sections
102 and 103 of the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992
(Public Law 102-555, 106 Stat. 4168);
(7) coordination of a technology demonstration program
pursuant to section 60133 of this title; and
(8) ensuring that copies of data acquired by the Landsat
system are provided to the National Satellite Land Remote
Sensing Data Archive.

(d) Authority To Contract.--The Landsat Program Management may,
subject to appropriations and only under the existing contract authority
of the United States Government agencies that compose the Landsat
Program Management, enter into contracts with the private sector for
services such as satellite operations and data preprocessing.
(e) Landsat Advisory Process.--
(1) Advice and comments.--The Landsat Program Management shall
seek impartial advice and comments regarding the status,
effectiveness, and operation of the Landsat system, using
existing advisory committees and other appropriate mechanisms.
Such advice shall be sought from individuals who represent--
(A) a broad range of perspectives on basic and applied
science and operational needs with respect to land
remote sensing data;
(B) the full spectrum of users of Landsat data,
including representatives from United States Government
agencies, State and local government agencies, academic
institutions, nonprofit organizations, value-added
companies, the agricultural, mineral extraction, and
other user industries, and the public; and
(C) a broad diversity of age groups, sexes, and races.
(2) Reports.--The Landsat Program Management shall prepare and
submit biennially a report to Congress which--
(A) reports the public comments received pursuant to
paragraph (1); and

[[Page 3413]]

(B) includes--
(i) a response to the public comments received
pursuant to paragraph (1);
(ii) information on the volume of use, by
category, of data from the Landsat system; and
(iii) any recommendations for policy or
programmatic changes to improve the utility and
operation of the Landsat system.

Sec. 60112. Transfer of Landsat 6 program responsibilities

The responsibilities of the Secretary with respect to Landsat 6 shall
be transferred to the Landsat Program Management, as agreed to between
the Secretary and the Landsat Program Management, pursuant to section
60111 of this title.

Sec. 60113. Data policy for Landsat 7

(a) Landsat 7 Data Policy.--The Landsat Program Management, in
consultation with other appropriate United States Government agencies,
shall develop a data policy for Landsat 7 which should--
(1) ensure that unenhanced data are available to all users at
the cost of fulfilling user requests;
(2) ensure timely and dependable delivery of unenhanced data
to the full spectrum of civilian, national security, commercial,
and foreign users and the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing
Data Archive;
(3) ensure that the United States retains ownership of all
unenhanced data generated by Landsat 7;
(4) support the development of the commercial market for
remote sensing data;
(5) ensure that the provision of commercial value-added
services based on remote sensing data remains exclusively the
function of the private sector; and
(6) to the extent possible, ensure that the data distribution
system for Landsat 7 is compatible with the Earth Observing
System Data and Information System.

(b) Additional Data Policy Considerations.--In addition, the data
policy for Landsat 7 may provide for--
(1) United States private sector entities to operate ground
receiving stations in the United States for Landsat 7 data;
(2) other means for direct access by private sector entities
to unenhanced data from Landsat 7; and
(3) the United States Government to charge a per image fee,
license fee, or other such fee to entities operating ground
receiving stations or distributing Landsat 7 data.

SUBCHAPTER III--LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SPACE SYSTEMS

Sec. 60121. General licensing authority

(a) Licensing Authority of Secretary.--
(1) In general.--In consultation with other appropriate United
States Government agencies, the Secretary is authorized to
license private sector parties to operate private remote sensing
space systems for such period as the Secretary may specify and
in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter.

[[Page 3414]]

(2) Limitation with respect to system used for other
purposes.--In the case of a private space system that is used
for remote sensing and other purposes, the authority of the
Secretary under this subchapter shall be limited only to the
remote sensing operations of such space system.

(b) Compliance With Law, Regulations, International Obligations, and
National Security.--
(1) In general.--No license shall be granted by the Secretary
unless the Secretary determines in writing that the applicant
will comply with the requirements of this chapter, any
regulations issued pursuant to this chapter, and any applicable
international obligations and national security concerns of the
United States.
(2) List of requirements for complete application.--The
Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a complete and
specific list of all information required to comprise a complete
application for a license under this subchapter. An application
shall be considered complete when the applicant has provided all
information required by the list most recently published in the
Federal Register before the date the application was first
submitted. Unless the Secretary has, within 30 days after
receipt of an application, notified the applicant of information
necessary to complete an application, the Secretary may not deny
the application on the basis of the absence of any such
information.

(c) Deadline for Action on Application.--The Secretary shall review
any application and make a determination thereon within 120 days of the
receipt of such application. If final action has not occurred within
such time, the Secretary shall inform the applicant of any pending
issues and of actions required to resolve them.
(d) Improper Basis for Denial.--The Secretary shall not deny such
license in order to protect any existing licensee from competition.
(e) Requirement To Provide Unenhanced Data.--
(1) Designation of data.--The Secretary, in consultation with
other appropriate United States Government agencies and pursuant
to paragraph (2), shall designate in a license issued pursuant
to this subchapter any unenhanced data required to be provided
by the licensee under section 60122(b)(3) of this title.
(2) Preliminary determination.--The Secretary shall make a
designation under paragraph (1) after determining that--
(A) such data are generated by a system for which all
or a substantial part of the development, fabrication,
launch, or operations costs have been or will be
directly funded by the United States Government; or
(B) it is in the interest of the United States to
require such data to be provided by the licensee
consistent with section 60122(b)(3) of this title, after
considering the impact on the licensee and the
importance of promoting widespread access to remote
sensing data from United States and foreign systems.
(3) Consistency with contract or other arrangement.--A
designation made by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall not
be inconsistent with any contract or other arrangement

[[Page 3415]]

entered into between a United States Government agency and the
licensee.

Sec. 60122. Conditions for operation

(a) License Required for Operation.--No person that is subject to the
jurisdiction or control of the United States may, directly or through
any subsidiary or affiliate, operate any private remote sensing space
system without a license pursuant to section 60121 of this title.
(b) Licensing Requirements.--Any license issued pursuant to this
subchapter shall specify that the licensee shall comply with all of the
requirements of this chapter and shall--
(1) operate the system in such manner as to preserve the
national security of the United States and to observe the
international obligations of the United States in accordance
with section 60146 of this title;
(2) make available to the government of any country (including
the United States) unenhanced data collected by the system
concerning the territory under the jurisdiction of such
government as soon as such data are available and on reasonable
terms and conditions;
(3) make unenhanced data designated by the Secretary in the
license pursuant to section 60121(e) of this title available in
accordance with section 60141 of this title;
(4) upon termination of operations under the license, make
disposition of any satellites in space in a manner satisfactory
to the President;
(5) furnish the Secretary with complete orbit and data
collection characteristics of the system, and inform the
Secretary immediately of any deviation; and
(6) notify the Secretary of any significant or substantial
agreement the licensee intends to enter with a foreign nation,
entity, or consortium involving foreign nations or entities.

(c) Additional Licensing Requirements for Landsat 6 Contractor.--In
addition to the requirements of subsection (b), any license issued
pursuant to this subchapter to the Landsat 6 contractor shall specify
that the Landsat 6 contractor shall--
(1) notify the Secretary of any value added activities (as
defined by the Secretary by regulation) that will be conducted
by the Landsat 6 contractor or by a subsidiary or affiliate; and
(2) if such activities are to be conducted, provide the
Secretary with a plan for compliance with section 60141 of this
title.

Sec. 60123. Administrative authority of Secretary

(a) Functions.--In order to carry out the responsibilities specified
in this subchapter, the Secretary may--
(1) grant, condition, or transfer licenses under this chapter;
(2) seek an order of injunction or similar judicial
determination from a district court of the United States with
personal jurisdiction over the licensee to terminate, modify, or
suspend licenses under this subchapter and to terminate licensed
operations on an immediate basis, if the Secretary determines
that the licensee has substantially failed to comply with any
provisions of this chapter, with any terms, conditions, or
restrictions of such license, or with any international
obligations or national security concerns of the United States;

[[Page 3416]]

(3) provide penalties for noncompliance with the requirements
of licenses or regulations issued under this subchapter,
including civil penalties not to exceed $10,000 (each day of
operation in violation of such licenses or regulations
constituting a separate violation);
(4) compromise, modify, or remit any such civil penalty;
(5) issue subpoenas for any materials, documents, or records,
or for the attendance and testimony of witnesses for the purpose
of conducting a hearing under this section;
(6) seize any object, record, or report pursuant to a warrant
from a magistrate based on a showing of probable cause to
believe that such object, record, or report was used, is being
used, or is likely to be used in violation of this chapter or
the requirements of a license or regulation issued thereunder;
and
(7) make investigations and inquiries and administer to or
take from any person an oath, affirmation, or affidavit
concerning any matter relating to the enforcement of this
chapter.

(b) Review of Agency Action.--Any applicant or licensee that makes a
timely request for review of an adverse action pursuant to paragraph
(1), (3), (5), or (6) of subsection (a) shall be entitled to
adjudication by the Secretary on the record after an opportunity for any
agency hearing with respect to such adverse action. Any final action by
the Secretary under this subsection shall be subject to judicial review
under chapter 7 of title 5.

Sec. 60124. Regulatory authority of Secretary

The Secretary may issue regulations to carry out this subchapter. Such
regulations shall be promulgated only after public notice and comment in
accordance with the provisions of section 553 of title 5.

Sec. 60125. Agency activities

(a) License Application and Issuance.--A private sector party may
apply for a license to operate a private remote sensing space system
which utilizes, on a space-available basis, a civilian United States
Government satellite or vehicle as a platform for such system. The
Secretary, pursuant to this subchapter, may license such system if it
meets all conditions of this subchapter and--
(1) the system operator agrees to reimburse the Government in
a timely manner for all related costs incurred with respect to
such utilization, including a reasonable and proportionate share
of fixed, platform, data transmission, and launch costs; and
(2) such utilization would not interfere with or otherwise
compromise intended civilian Government missions, as determined
by the agency responsible for such civilian platform.

(b) Assistance.--The Secretary may offer assistance to private sector
parties in finding appropriate opportunities for such utilization.
(c) Agreements.--To the extent provided in advance by appropriation
Acts, any United States Government agency may enter into agreements for
such utilization if such agreements are consistent with such agency's
mission and statutory authority, and if such remote sensing space system
is licensed by the Secretary before commencing operation.

[[Page 3417]]

(d) Applicability.--This section does not apply to activities carried
out under subchapter IV.
(e) Effect on FCC Authority.--Nothing in this subchapter shall affect
the authority of the Federal Communications Commission pursuant to the
Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 151 et seq.).

SUBCHAPTER IV--RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION

Sec. 60131. Continued Federal research and development

(a) Roles of Administration and Department of Defense.--
(1) In general.--The Administrator and the Secretary of
Defense are directed to continue and to enhance programs of
remote sensing research and development.
(2) Administration activities authorized and encouraged.--The
Administrator is authorized and encouraged to--
(A) conduct experimental space remote sensing programs
(including applications demonstration programs and basic
research at universities);
(B) develop remote sensing technologies and
techniques, including those needed for monitoring the
Earth and its environment; and
(C) conduct such research and development in
cooperation with other United States Government agencies
and with public and private research entities (including
private industry, universities, non-profit
organizations, State and local governments, foreign
governments, and international organizations) and to
enter into arrangements (including joint ventures) which
will foster such cooperation.

(b) Roles of Department of Agriculture and Department of the
Interior.--
(1) In general.--In order to enhance the ability of the United
States to manage and utilize its renewable and nonrenewable
resources, the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of the
Interior are authorized and encouraged to conduct programs of
research and development in the applications of remote sensing
using funds appropriated for such purposes.
(2) Activities that may be included.--Such programs may
include basic research at universities, demonstrations of
applications, and cooperative activities involving other
Government agencies, private sector parties, and foreign and
international organizations.

(c) Role of Other Federal Agencies.--Other United States Government
agencies are authorized and encouraged to conduct research and
development on the use of remote sensing in the fulfillment of their
authorized missions, using funds appropriated for such purposes.

Sec. 60132. Availability of federally gathered unenhanced data

(a) In General.--All unenhanced land remote sensing data gathered and
owned by the United States Government, including unenhanced data
gathered under the technology demonstration program carried out pursuant
to section 60133 of this title, shall be made available to users in a
timely fashion.
(b) Protection for Commercial Data Distributor.--The President shall
seek to ensure that unenhanced data gathered under

[[Page 3418]]

the technology demonstration program carried out pursuant to section
60133 of this title shall, to the extent practicable, be made available
on terms that would not adversely affect the commercial market for
unenhanced data gathered by the Landsat 6 spacecraft.

Sec. 60133. Technology demonstration program

(a) Establishment.--As a fundamental component of a national land
remote sensing strategy, the President shall establish, through
appropriate United States Government agencies, a technology
demonstration program. The goals of the program shall be to--
(1) seek to launch advanced land remote sensing system
components within 5 years after October 28, 1992;
(2) demonstrate within such 5-year period advanced sensor
capabilities suitable for use in the anticipated land remote
sensing program; and
(3) demonstrate within such 5-year period an advanced land
remote sensing system design that could be less expensive to
procure and operate than the Landsat system projected to be in
operation through the year 2000, and that therefore holds
greater potential for private sector investment and control.

(b) Execution of Program.--In executing the technology demonstration
program, the President shall seek to apply technologies associated with
United States National Technical Means of intelligence gathering, to the
extent that such technologies are appropriate for the technology
demonstration and can be declassified for such purposes without causing
adverse harm to United States national security interests.
(c) Broad Application.--To the greatest extent practicable, the
technology demonstration program established under subsection (a) shall
be designed to be responsive to the broad civilian, national security,
commercial, and foreign policy needs of the United States.
(d) Private Sector Funding.--The technology demonstration program
under this section may be carried out in part with private sector
funding.
(e) Landsat Program Management Coordination.--The Landsat Program
Management shall have a coordinating role in the technology
demonstration program carried out under this section.

Sec. 60134. Preference for private sector land remote sensing system

(a) In General.--If a successor land remote sensing system to Landsat
7 can be funded and managed by the private sector while still achieving
the goals stated in subsection (b) without jeopardizing the domestic,
national security, and foreign policy interests of the United States,
preference should be given to the development of such a system by the
private sector without competition from the United States Government.
(b) Goals.--The goals referred to in subsection (a) are--
(1) to encourage the development, launch, and operation of a
land remote sensing system that adequately serves the civilian,
national security, commercial, and foreign policy interests of
the United States;
(2) to encourage the development, launch, and operation of a
land remote sensing system that maintains data continuity with
the Landsat system; and

[[Page 3419]]

(3) to incorporate system enhancements, including any such
enhancements developed under the technology demonstration
program under section 60133 of this title, which may potentially
yield a system that is less expensive to build and operate, and
more responsive to data users, than is the Landsat system
otherwise projected to be in operation in the future.

SUBCHAPTER V--GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec. 60141. Nondiscriminatory data availability

(a) In General.--Except as provided in subsection (b), any unenhanced
data generated by the Landsat system or any other land remote sensing
system funded and owned by the United States Government shall be made
available to all users without preference, bias, or any other special
arrangement (except on the basis of national security concerns pursuant
to section 60146 of this title) regarding delivery, format, pricing, or
technical considerations which would favor one customer or class of
customers over another.
(b) Exceptions.--Unenhanced data generated by the Landsat system or
any other land remote sensing system funded and owned by the United
States Government may be made available to the United States Government
and its affiliated users at reduced prices, in accordance with this
chapter, on the condition that such unenhanced data are used solely for
noncommercial purposes.

Sec. 60142. Archiving of data

(a) Public Interest.--It is in the public interest for the United
States Government to--
(1) maintain an archive of land remote sensing data for
historical, scientific, and technical purposes, including long-
term global environmental monitoring;
(2) control the content and scope of the archive; and
(3) ensure the quality, integrity, and continuity of the
archive.

(b) Archiving Practices.--The Secretary of the Interior, in
consultation with the Landsat Program Management, shall provide for
long-term storage, maintenance, and upgrading of a basic, global, land
remote sensing data set (hereafter in this section referred to as the
``basic data set'') and shall follow reasonable archival practices to
ensure proper storage and preservation of the basic data set and timely
access for parties requesting data.
(c) Determination of Content of Basic Data Set.--In determining the
initial content of, or in upgrading, the basic data set, the Secretary
of the Interior shall--
(1) use as a baseline the data archived on October 28, 1992;
(2) take into account future technical and scientific
developments and needs, paying particular attention to the
anticipated data requirements of global environmental change
research;
(3) consult with and seek the advice of users and producers of
remote sensing data and data products;
(4) consider the need for data which may be duplicative in
terms of geographical coverage but which differ in terms of
season, spectral bands, resolution, or other relevant factors;
(5) include, as the Secretary of the Interior considers
appropriate, unenhanced data generated either by the Landsat
system, pursuant to subchapter II, or by licensees under
subchapter III;

[[Page 3420]]

(6) include, as the Secretary of the Interior considers
appropriate, data collected by foreign ground stations or by
foreign remote sensing space systems; and
(7) ensure that the content of the archive is developed in
accordance with section 60146 of this title.

(d) Public Domain.--After the expiration of any exclusive right to
sell, or after relinquishment of such right, the data provided to the
National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive shall be in the
public domain and shall be made available to requesting parties by the
Secretary of the Interior at the cost of fulfilling user requests.

Sec. 60143. Nonreproduction

Unenhanced data distributed by any licensee under subchapter III may
be sold on the condition that such data will not be reproduced or
disseminated by the purchaser for commercial purposes.

Sec. 60144. Reimbursement for assistance

The Administrator, the Secretary of Defense, and the heads of other
United States Government agencies may provide assistance to land remote
sensing system operators under the provisions of this chapter.
Substantial assistance shall be reimbursed by the operator, except as
otherwise provided by law.

Sec. 60145. Acquisition of equipment

The Landsat Program Management may, by means of a competitive process,
allow a licensee under subchapter III or any other private party to buy,
lease, or otherwise acquire the use of equipment from the Landsat
system, when such equipment is no longer needed for the operation of
such system or for the sale of data from such system. Officials of other
United States Government civilian agencies are authorized and encouraged
to cooperate with the Secretary in carrying out this section.

Sec. 60146. Radio frequency allocation

(a) Application to Federal Communications Commission.--To the extent
required by the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 151 et seq.), an
application shall be filed with the Federal Communications Commission
for any radio facilities involved with commercial remote sensing space
systems licensed under subchapter III.
(b) Deadline for FCC Action.--It is the intent of Congress that the
Federal Communications Commission complete the radio licensing process
under the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 151 et seq.), upon the
application of any private sector party or consortium operator of any
commercial land remote sensing space system subject to this chapter,
within 120 days of the receipt of an application for such licensing. If
final action has not occurred within 120 days of the receipt of such an
application, the Federal Communications Commission shall inform the
applicant of any pending issues and of actions required to resolve them.
(c) Development and Construction of United States Systems.--Authority
shall not be required from the Federal Communications Commission for the
development and construction of any United States land remote sensing
space system (or component

[[Page 3421]]

thereof), other than radio transmitting facilities or components, while
any licensing determination is being made.
(d) Consistency With International Obligations and Public Interest.--
Frequency allocations made pursuant to this section by the Federal
Communications Commission shall be consistent with international
obligations and with the public interest.

Sec. 60147. Consultation

(a) Consultation With Secretary of Defense.--The Secretary and the
Landsat Program Management shall consult with the Secretary of Defense
on all matters under this chapter affecting national security. The
Secretary of Defense shall be responsible for determining those
conditions, consistent with this chapter, necessary to meet national
security concerns of the United States and for notifying the Secretary
and the Landsat Program Management promptly of such conditions.
(b) Consultation With Secretary of State.--
(1) In general.--The Secretary and the Landsat Program
Management shall consult with the Secretary of State on all
matters under this chapter affecting international obligations.
The Secretary of State shall be responsible for determining
those conditions, consistent with this chapter, necessary to
meet international obligations and policies of the United States
and for notifying promptly the Secretary and the Landsat Program
Management of such conditions.
(2) International aid.--Appropriate United States Government
agencies are authorized and encouraged to provide remote sensing
data, technology, and training to developing nations as a
component of programs of international aid.
(3) Reporting discriminatory distribution.--The Secretary of
State shall promptly report to the Secretary and Landsat Program
Management any instances outside the United States of
discriminatory distribution of Landsat data.

(c) Status Report.--The Landsat Program Management shall, as often as
necessary, provide to Congress complete and updated information about
the status of ongoing operations of the Landsat system, including timely
notification of decisions made with respect to the Landsat system in
order to meet national security concerns and international obligations
and policies of the United States Government.
(d) Reimbursements.--If, as a result of technical modifications
imposed on a licensee under subchapter III on the basis of national
security concerns, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of
Defense or with other Federal agencies, determines that additional costs
will be incurred by the licensee, or that past development costs
(including the cost of capital) will not be recovered by the licensee,
the Secretary may require the agency or agencies requesting such
technical modifications to reimburse the licensee for such additional or
development costs, but not for anticipated profits. Reimbursements may
cover costs associated with required changes in system performance, but
not costs ordinarily associated with doing business abroad.

Sec. 60148. Enforcement

(a) In General.--In order to ensure that unenhanced data from the
Landsat system received solely for noncommercial purposes are not used
for any commercial purpose, the Secretary (in

[[Page 3422]]

collaboration with private sector entities responsible for the
marketing and distribution of unenhanced data generated by the Landsat
system) shall develop and implement a system for enforcing this
prohibition, in the event that unenhanced data from the Landsat system
are made available for noncommercial purposes at a different price than
such data are made available for other purposes.
(b) Authority of Secretary.--Subject to subsection (d), the Secretary
may impose any of the enforcement mechanisms described in subsection (c)
against a person that--
(1) receives unenhanced data from the Landsat system under
this chapter solely for noncommercial purposes (and at a
different price than the price at which such data are made
available for other purposes); and
(2) uses such data for other than noncommercial purposes.

(c) Enforcement Mechanisms.--Enforcement mechanisms referred to in
subsection (b) may include civil penalties of not more than $10,000 (per
day per violation), denial of further unenhanced data purchasing
privileges, and any other penalties or restrictions the Secretary
considers necessary to ensure, to the greatest extent practicable, that
unenhanced data provided for noncommercial purposes are not used to
unfairly compete in the commercial market against private sector
entities not eligible for data at the cost of fulfilling user requests.
(d) Procedures and Regulations.--The Secretary shall issue any
regulations necessary to carry out this section and shall establish
standards and procedures governing the imposition of enforcement
mechanisms under subsection (b). The standards and procedures shall
include a procedure for potentially aggrieved parties to file formal
protests with the Secretary alleging instances where such unenhanced
data have been, or are being, used for commercial purposes in violation
of the terms of receipt of such data. The Secretary shall promptly act
to investigate any such protest, and shall report annually to Congress
on instances of such violations.

SUBCHAPTER VI--PROHIBITION OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF WEATHER SATELLITES

Sec. 60161. Prohibition

Neither the President nor any other official of the Government shall
make any effort to lease, sell, or transfer to the private sector, or
commercialize, any portion of the weather satellite systems operated by
the Department of Commerce or any successor agency.

Sec. 60162. Future considerations

Regardless of any change in circumstances subsequent to October 28,
1992, even if such change makes it appear to be in the national interest
to commercialize weather satellites, neither the President nor any
official shall take any action prohibited by section 60161 of this title
unless this subchapter has first been repealed.

CHAPTER 603--REMOTE SENSING

Sec.
60301.  Definitions.
60302.  General responsibilities.

[[Page 3423]]

60303.  Pilot projects to encourage public sector applications.
60304.  Program evaluation.
60305.  Data availability.
60306.  Education.

Sec. 60301. Definitions

In this chapter:
(1) Geospatial information.--The term ``geospatial
information'' means knowledge of the nature and distribution of
physical and cultural features on the landscape based on
analysis of data from airborne or spaceborne platforms or other
types and sources of data.
(2) High resolution.--The term ``high resolution'' means
resolution better than five meters.
(3) Institution of higher education.--The term ``institution
of higher education'' has the meaning given the term in section
101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).

Sec. 60302. General responsibilities

The Administrator shall--
(1) develop a sustained relationship with the United States
commercial remote sensing industry and, consistent with
applicable policies and law, to the maximum practicable, rely on
their services; and
(2) in conjunction with United States industry and
universities, research, develop, and demonstrate prototype Earth
science applications to enhance Federal, State, local, and
tribal governments' use of government and commercial remote
sensing data, technologies, and other sources of geospatial
information for improved decision support to address their
needs.

Sec. 60303. Pilot projects to encourage public sector applications

(a) In General.--The Administrator shall establish a program of grants
for competitively awarded pilot projects to explore the integrated use
of sources of remote sensing and other geospatial information to address
State, local, regional, and tribal agency needs.
(b) Preferred Projects.--In awarding grants under this section, the
Administrator shall give preference to projects that--
(1) make use of commercial data sets, including high
resolution commercial satellite imagery and derived satellite
data products, existing public data sets where commercial data
sets are not available or applicable, or the fusion of such data
sets;
(2) integrate multiple sources of geospatial information, such
as geographic information system data, satellite-provided
positioning data, and remotely sensed data, in innovative ways;
(3) include funds or in-kind contributions from non-Federal
sources;
(4) involve the participation of commercial entities that
process raw or lightly processed data, often merging that data
with other geospatial information, to create data products that
have significant value added to the original data; and
(5) taken together demonstrate as diverse a set of public
sector applications as possible.

[[Page 3424]]

(c) Opportunities.--In carrying out this section, the Administrator
shall seek opportunities to assist--
(1) in the development of commercial applications potentially
available from the remote sensing industry; and
(2) State, local, regional, and tribal agencies in applying
remote sensing and other geospatial information technologies for
growth management.

(d) Duration.--Assistance for a pilot project under subsection (a)
shall be provided for a period not to exceed 3 years.
(e) Report.--Each recipient of a grant under subsection (a) shall
transmit a report to the Administrator on the results of the pilot
project within 180 days of the completion of that project.
(f) Workshop.--Each recipient of a grant under subsection (a) shall,
not later than 180 days after the completion of the pilot project,
conduct at least one workshop for potential users to disseminate the
lessons learned from the pilot project as widely as feasible.
(g) Regulations.--The Administrator shall issue regulations
establishing application, selection, and implementation procedures for
pilot projects, and guidelines for reports and workshops required by
this section.

Sec. 60304. Program evaluation

(a) Advisory Committee.--The Administrator shall establish an advisory
committee, consisting of individuals with appropriate expertise in
State, local, regional, and tribal agencies, the university research
community, and the remote sensing and other geospatial information
industries, to monitor the program established under section 60303 of
this title. The advisory committee shall consult with the Federal
Geographic Data Committee and other appropriate industry representatives
and organizations. Notwithstanding section 14 of the Federal Advisory
Committee Act (5 App. U.S.C.), the advisory committee established under
this subsection shall remain in effect until the termination of the
program under section 60303 of this title.
(b) Effectiveness Evaluation.--Not later than December 31, 2009, the
Administrator shall transmit to Congress an evaluation of the
effectiveness of the program established under section 60303 of this
title in exploring and promoting the integrated use of sources of remote
sensing and other geospatial information to address State, local,
regional, and tribal agency needs. Such evaluation shall have been
conducted by an independent entity.

Sec. 60305. Data availability

The Administrator shall ensure that the results of each of the pilot
projects completed under section 60303 of this title shall be
retrievable through an electronic, internet-accessible database.

Sec. 60306. Education

The Administrator shall establish an educational outreach program to
increase awareness at institutions of higher education and State, local,
regional, and tribal agencies of the potential applications of remote
sensing and other geospatial information and awareness of the need for
geospatial workforce development.

[[Page 3425]]

CHAPTER 605--EARTH SCIENCE

Sec.
60501.  Goal.
60502.  Transitioning experimental research into operational services.
60503.  Reauthorization of Glory Mission.
60504.  Tornadoes and other severe storms.
60505.  Coordination with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration.
60506.  Sharing of climate related data.

Sec. 60501. Goal

The goal for the Administration's Earth Science program shall be to
pursue a program of Earth observations, research, and applications
activities to better understand the Earth, how it supports life, and how
human activities affect its ability to do so in the future. In pursuit
of this goal, the Administration's Earth Science program shall ensure
that securing practical benefits for society will be an important
measure of its success in addition to securing new knowledge about the
Earth system and climate change. In further pursuit of this goal, the
Administration shall, together with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration and other relevant agencies, provide United States
leadership in developing and carrying out a cooperative international
Earth observations-based research program.

Sec. 60502. Transitioning experimental research into operational
services

(a) Interagency Process.--The Director of the Office of Science and
Technology Policy, in consultation with the Administrator, the
Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
and other relevant stakeholders, shall develop a process to transition,
when appropriate, Administration Earth science and space weather
missions or sensors into operational status. The process shall include
coordination of annual agency budget requests as required to execute the
transitions.
(b) Responsible Agency Official.--The Administrator and the
Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
shall each designate an agency official who shall have the
responsibility for and authority to lead the Administration's and the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's transition activities
and interagency coordination.
(c) Plan.--For each mission or sensor that is determined to be
appropriate for transition under subsection (a), the Administration and
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall transmit to
Congress a joint plan for conducting the transition. The plan shall
include the strategy, milestones, and budget required to execute the
transition. The transition plan shall be transmitted to Congress no
later than 60 days after the successful completion of the mission or
sensor critical design review.

Sec. 60503. Reauthorization of Glory Mission

Congress reauthorizes the Administration to continue with development
of the Glory Mission, which will examine how aerosols and solar energy
affect the Earth's climate.

Sec. 60504. Tornadoes and other severe storms

The Administrator shall ensure that the Administration gives high
priority to those parts of its existing cooperative activities with the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that

[[Page 3426]]

are related to the study of tornadoes and other severe storms, tornado-
force winds, and other factors determined to influence the development
of tornadoes and other severe storms, with the goal of improving the
Nation's ability to predict tornados and other severe storms. Further,
the Administrator shall examine whether there are additional cooperative
activities with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that
should be undertaken in the area of tornado and severe storm research.

Sec. 60505. Coordination with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration

(a) Joint Working Group.--The Administrator and the Administrator of
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall appoint a
Joint Working Group, which shall review and monitor missions of the two
agencies to ensure maximum coordination in the design, operation, and
transition of missions where appropriate. The Joint Working Group shall
also prepare the plans required by subsection (c).
(b) Coordination Report.--Not later than February 15 of each year, the
Administrator and the Administrator of the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration shall jointly transmit a report to the
Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives and
the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on
how the Earth science programs of the Administration and the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration will be coordinated during the
fiscal year following the fiscal year in which the report is
transmitted.
(c) Coordination of Transition Planning and Reporting.--The
Administrator, in conjunction with the Administrator of the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and in consultation with other
relevant agencies, shall evaluate relevant Administration science
missions for their potential operational capabilities and shall prepare
transition plans for the existing and future Earth observing systems
found to have potential operational capabilities.
(d) Limitation.--The Administrator shall not transfer any
Administration Earth science mission or Earth observing system to the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration until the plan required
under subsection (c) has been approved by the Administrator and the
Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and
until financial resources have been identified to support the transition
or transfer in the President's budget request for the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration.

Sec. 60506. Sharing of climate related data

The Administrator shall work to ensure that the Administration's
policies on the sharing of climate related data respond to the
recommendations of the Government Accountability Office's report on
climate change research and data-sharing policies and to the
recommendations on the processing, distribution, and archiving of data
by the National Academies Earth Science Decadal Survey, ``Earth Science
and Applications from Space'', and other relevant National Academies
reports, to enhance and facilitate their availability and widest
possible use to ensure public access to accurate and current data on
global warming.

[[Page 3427]]

Subtitle VII--Access to Space

CHAPTER 701--USE OF SPACE SHUTTLE OR ALTERNATIVES

Sec.
70101.  Recovery of fair value of placing Department of Defense payloads
in orbit with space shuttle.
70102.  Space shuttle use policy.
70103.  Commercial payloads on space shuttle.

Sec. 70101. Recovery of fair value of placing Department of Defense
payloads in orbit with space shuttle

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, or any interagency
agreement, the Administrator shall charge such prices as are necessary
to recover the fair value of placing Department of Defense payloads into
orbit by means of the space shuttle.

Sec. 70102. Space shuttle use policy

(a) Use Policy.--
(1) In general.--
(A) Policy.--It shall be the policy of the United
States to use the space shuttle--
(i) for purposes that require a human presence;
(ii) for purposes that require the unique
capabilities of the space shuttle; or
(iii) when other compelling circumstances exist.
(B) Definition of compelling circumstances.--In this
paragraph, the term ``compelling circumstances''
includes, but is not limited to, occasions when the
Administrator determines, in consultation with the
Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State, that
important national security or foreign policy interests
would be served by a shuttle launch.
(2) Using available cargo space for secondary payloads.--The
policy stated in paragraph (1) shall not preclude the use of
available cargo space, on a space shuttle mission otherwise
consistent with the policy described in paragraph (1), for the
purpose of carrying secondary payloads (as defined by the
Administrator) that do not require a human presence if such
payloads are consistent with the requirements of research,
development, demonstration, scientific, commercial, and
educational programs authorized by the Administrator.

(b) Annual Report.--At least annually, the Administrator shall submit
to Congress a report certifying that the payloads scheduled to be
launched on the space shuttle for the next 4 years are consistent with
the policy set forth in subsection (a)(1). For each payload scheduled to
be launched from the space shuttle that does not require a human
presence, the Administrator shall, in the certified report to Congress,
state the specific circumstances that justified the use of the space
shuttle. If, during the period between scheduled reports to Congress,
any additions are made to the list of certified payloads intended to be
launched from the shuttle, the Administrator shall inform Congress of
the additions and the reasons therefor within 45 days of the change.
(c) Administration Payloads.--The report described in subsection (b)
shall also include those Administration payloads

[[Page 3428]]

designed solely to fly on the space shuttle which have begun the phase
C/D of its development cycle.

Sec. 70103. Commercial payloads on space shuttle

(a) Definitions.--In this section:
(1) Launch vehicle.--The term ``launch vehicle'' means any
vehicle constructed for the purpose of operating in, or placing
a payload in, outer space.
(2) Payload.--The term ``payload'' means an object which a
person undertakes to place in outer space by means of a launch
vehicle, and includes subcomponents of the launch vehicle
specifically designed or adapted for that object.

(b) In General.--Commercial payloads may not be accepted for launch as
primary payloads on the space shuttle unless the Administrator
determines that--
(1) the payload requires the unique capabilities of the space
shuttle; or
(2) launching of the payload on the space shuttle is important
for either national security or foreign policy purposes.

CHAPTER 703--SHUTTLE PRICING POLICY FOR COMMERCIAL AND FOREIGN USERS

Sec.
70301.  Congressional findings and declarations.
70302.  Purpose, policy, and goals.
70303.  Definition of additive cost.
70304.  Duties of Administrator.

Sec. 70301. Congressional findings and declarations

Congress finds and declares that--
(1) the Space Transportation System is a vital element of the
United States space program, contributing to the United States
leadership in space research, technology, and development;
(2) the Space Transportation System is the primary space
launch system for both United States national security and civil
government missions;
(3) the Space Transportation System contributes to the
expansion of United States private sector investment and
involvement in space and therefore should serve commercial
users;
(4) the availability of the Space Transportation System to
foreign users for peaceful purposes is an important means of
promoting international cooperative activities in the national
interest and in maintaining access to space for activities which
enhance the security and welfare of humankind;
(5) the United States is committed to maintaining world
leadership in space transportation;
(6) making the Space Transportation System fully operational
and cost effective in providing routine access to space will
maximize the national economic benefits of the system; and
(7) national goals and the objectives for the Space
Transportation System can be furthered by a stable and fair
pricing policy for the Space Transportation System.

[[Page 3429]]

Sec. 70302. Purpose, policy, and goals

The purpose of this chapter is to set, for commercial and foreign
users, the reimbursement pricing policy for the Space Transportation
System that is consistent with the findings included in section 70301 of
this title, encourages the full and effective use of space, and is
designed to achieve the following goals:
(1) The preservation of the role of the United States as a
leader in space research, technology, and development.
(2) The efficient and cost effective use of the Space
Transportation System.
(3) The achievement of greatly increased commercial space
activity.
(4) The enhancement of the international competitive position
of the United States.

Sec. 70303. Definition of additive cost

In this chapter, the term ``additive cost'' means the average direct
and indirect costs to the Administration of providing additional flights
of the Space Transportation System beyond the costs associated with
those flights necessary to meet the space transportation needs of the
United States Government.

Sec. 70304. Duties of Administrator

(a) Establishment and Implementation of Reimbursement Recovery
System.--The Administrator shall establish and implement a pricing
system to recover reimbursement in accordance with the pricing policy
under section 70302 of this title from each commercial or foreign user
of the Space Transportation System, which, except as provided in
subsections (c), (d), and (e), shall include a base price of not less
than $74,000,000 for each flight of the Space Transportation System in
1982 dollars.
(b) Reports to Congress.--Each year the Administrator shall submit to
the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of
Representatives, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
of the Senate, and the Committee on Science and Technology of the House
of Representatives a report, transmitted contemporaneously with the
annual budget request of the President, which shall inform Congress how
the policy goals contained in section 70302 of this title are being
furthered by the shuttle price for foreign and commercial users.
(c) Reduction of Base Price.--
(1) Authority to reduce.--If at any time the Administrator
finds that the policy goals contained in section 70302 of this
title are not being achieved, the Administrator shall have
authority to reduce the base price established in subsection (a)
after 45 days following receipt by the President of the Senate,
the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the
Committee on Science and Technology of the House of
Representatives of a notice by the Administrator containing a
description of the proposed reduction together with a full and
complete statement of the facts and circumstances which
necessitate such proposed reduction.
(2) Minimum price.--In no case shall the minimum price
established under paragraph (1) be less than additive cost.

(d) Low or No-Cost Flights.--The Administrator may set a price lower
than the price determined under subsection (a) or (c),

[[Page 3430]]

or provide no-cost flights, for any commercial or foreign user of the
Space Transportation System that is involved in research, development,
or demonstration programs with the Administration.
(e) Customer Incentives.--Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection
(a), the Administrator shall have the authority to offer reasonable
customer incentives consistent with the policy goals in section 70302 of
this title.

CHAPTER 705--EXPLORATION INITIATIVES

Sec.
70501.  Space shuttle follow-on.
70502.  Exploration plan and programs.
70503.  Ground-based analog capabilities.
70504.  Stepping stone approach to exploration.
70505.  Lunar outpost.
70506.  Exploration technology research.
70507.  Technology development.
70508.  Robotic or human servicing of spacecraft.

Sec. 70501. Space shuttle follow-on

(a) Policy Statement.--It is the policy of the United States to
possess the capability for human access to space on a continuous basis.
(b) Annual Report.--The Administrator shall transmit an annual report
to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Transportation of the Senate describing the progress being made toward
developing the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Crew Launch Vehicle and
the estimated time before they will demonstrate crewed, orbital
spaceflight.

Sec. 70502. Exploration plan and programs

The Administrator shall--
(1) construct an architecture and implementation plan for the
Administration's human exploration program that is not
critically dependent on the achievement of milestones by fixed
dates;
(2) implement an exploration technology development program to
enable lunar human and robotic operations consistent with
section 20302(b) of this title, including surface power to use
on the Moon and other locations;
(3) conduct an in-situ resource utilization technology program
to develop the capability to use space resources to increase
independence from Earth, and sustain exploration beyond low-
Earth orbit; and
(4) pursue aggressively automated rendezvous and docking
capabilities that can support the International Space Station
and other mission requirements.

Sec. 70503. Ground-based analog capabilities

(a) In General.--The Administrator may establish a ground-based analog
capability in remote United States locations in order to assist in the
development of lunar operations, life support, and in-situ resource
utilization experience and capabilities.
(b) Environmental Characteristics.--The Administrator shall select
locations for the activities described in subsection (a) that--
(1) are regularly accessible;

[[Page 3431]]

(2) have significant temperature extremes and range; and
(3) have access to energy and natural resources (including
geothermal, permafrost, volcanic, or other potential resources).

(c) Involvement of Local Populations and Private Sector Partners.--In
carrying out this section, the Administrator shall involve local
populations, academia, and industrial partners as much as possible to
ensure that ground-based benefits and applications are encouraged and
developed.

Sec. 70504. Stepping stone approach to exploration

In order to maximize the cost-effectiveness of the long-term
exploration and utilization activities of the United States, the
Administrator shall take all necessary steps, including engaging
international partners, to ensure that activities in its lunar
exploration program shall be designed and implemented in a manner that
gives strong consideration to how those activities might also help meet
the requirements of future exploration and utilization activities beyond
the Moon. The timetable of the lunar phase of the long-term
international exploration initiative shall be determined by the
availability of funding. However, once an exploration-related project
enters its development phase, the Administrator shall seek, to the
maximum extent practicable, to complete that project without undue
delays.

Sec. 70505. Lunar outpost

(a) Establishment.--As the Administration works toward the
establishment of a lunar outpost, the Administration shall make no plans
that would require a lunar outpost to be occupied to maintain its
viability. Any such outpost shall be operable as a human-tended facility
capable of remote or autonomous operation for extended periods.
(b) Designation.--The United States portion of the first human-tended
outpost established on the surface of the Moon shall be designated the
``Neil A. Armstrong Lunar Outpost''.

Sec. 70506. Exploration technology research

The Administrator shall carry out a program of long-term exploration-
related technology research and development, including such things as
in-space propulsion, power systems, life support, and advanced avionics,
that is not tied to specific flight projects. The program shall have the
funding goal of ensuring that the technology research and development
can be completed in a timely manner in order to support the safe,
successful, and sustainable exploration of the solar system. In
addition, in order to ensure that the broadest range of innovative
concepts and technologies are captured, the long-term technology program
shall have the goal of having a significant portion of its funding
available for external grants and contracts with universities, research
institutions, and industry.

Sec. 70507. Technology development

The Administrator shall establish an intra-Directorate long-term
technology development program for space and Earth science within the
Science Mission Directorate for the development of new technology. The
program shall be independent of the flight projects under development.
The Administration shall have a goal of funding the intra-Directorate
technology development program at a level of 5 percent of the total
Science Mission Directorate annual budget.

[[Page 3432]]

The program shall be structured to include competitively awarded grants
and contracts.

Sec. 70508. Robotic or human servicing of spacecraft

The Administrator shall take all necessary steps to ensure that
provision is made in the design and construction of all future
observatory-class scientific spacecraft intended to be deployed in Earth
orbit or at a Lagrangian point in space for robotic or human servicing
and repair to the extent practicable and appropriate.

CHAPTER 707--HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION COMMISSION

Sec.
70701.  Definitions.
70702.  Establishment of Commission.
70703.  Tasks of Commission.
70704.  Composition of Commission.
70705.  Powers of Commission.
70706.  Public meetings, information, and hearings.
70707.  Staff of Commission.
70708.  Compensation and travel expenses.
70709.  Security clearances for Commission members and staff.
70710.  Reporting requirements and termination.

Sec. 70701. Definitions

In this chapter:
(1) Commission.--The term ``Commission'' means a Commission
established under this chapter.
(2) Incident.--The term ``incident'' means either an accident
or a deliberate act.

Sec. 70702. Establishment of Commission

(a) Establishment.--The President shall establish an independent,
nonpartisan Commission within the executive branch to investigate any
incident that results in the loss of--
(1) a space shuttle;
(2) the International Space Station or its operational
viability;
(3) any other United States space vehicle carrying humans that
is owned by the Federal Government or that is being used
pursuant to a contract with the Federal Government; or
(4) a crew member or passenger of any space vehicle described
in this subsection.

(b) Deadline for Establishment.--The President shall establish a
Commission within 7 days after an incident specified in subsection (a).

Sec. 70703. Tasks of Commission

A Commission established pursuant to this chapter shall, to the extent
possible, undertake the following tasks:
(1) Investigation.--Investigate the incident.
(2) Cause.--Determine the cause of the incident.
(3) Contributing factors.--Identify all contributing factors
to the cause of the incident.
(4) Recommendations.--Make recommendations for corrective
actions.
(5) Additional findings or recommendations.--Provide any
additional findings or recommendations deemed by the

[[Page 3433]]

Commission to be important, whether or not they are related to
the specific incident under investigation.
(6) Report.--Prepare a report to Congress, the President, and
the public.

Sec. 70704. Composition of Commission

(a) Number of Commissioners.--A Commission established pursuant to
this chapter shall consist of 15 members.
(b) Selection.--The members of a Commission shall be chosen in the
following manner:
(1) Appointment by president.--The President shall appoint the
members, and shall designate the Chairman and Vice Chairman of
the Commission from among its members.
(2) Lists provided by leaders of congress.--The majority
leader of the Senate, the minority leader of the Senate, the
Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the minority leader
of the House of Representatives shall each provide to the
President a list of candidates for membership on the Commission.
The President may select one of the candidates from each of the
4 lists for membership on the Commission.
(3) Prohibition regarding federal officers and employees and
members of congress.--No officer or employee of the Federal
Government or Member of Congress shall serve as a member of the
Commission.
(4) Prohibition regarding contractors.--No member of the
Commission shall have, or have pending, a contractual
relationship with the Administration.
(5) Prohibition regarding conflict of interest.--The President
shall not appoint any individual as a member of a Commission
under this section who has a current or former relationship with
the Administrator that the President determines would constitute
a conflict of interest.
(6) Experience.--To the extent practicable, the President
shall ensure that the members of the Commission include some
individuals with experience relative to human carrying
spacecraft, as well as some individuals with investigative
experience and some individuals with legal experience.
(7) Diversity.--To the extent practicable, the President shall
seek diversity in the membership of the Commission.

(c) Deadline for Appointment.--All members of a Commission established
under this chapter shall be appointed no later than 30 days after the
incident.
(d) Initial Meeting.--A Commission shall meet and begin operations as
soon as practicable.
(e) Subsequent Meetings.--After its initial meeting, a Commission
shall meet upon the call of the Chairman or a majority of its members.
(f) Quorum.--Eight members of a Commission shall constitute a quorum.
(g) Vacancies.--Any vacancy in a Commission shall not affect its
powers, but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original
appointment was made.

Sec. 70705. Powers of Commission

(a) Hearings and Evidence.--A Commission or, on the authority of the
Commission, any subcommittee or member thereof, may, for the purpose of
carrying out this chapter--

[[Page 3434]]

(1) hold such hearings and sit and act at such times and
places, take such testimony, receive such evidence, administer
such oaths; and
(2) require, by subpoena or otherwise, the attendance and
testimony of such witnesses and the production of such books,
records, correspondence, memoranda, papers, and documents,

as the Commission or such designated subcommittee or member may
determine advisable.
(b) Contracting.--A Commission may, to such extent and in such amounts
as are provided in appropriation Acts, enter into contracts to enable
the Commission to discharge its duties under this chapter.
(c) Information From Federal Agencies.--
(1) In general.--A Commission may secure directly from any
executive department, bureau, agency, board, commission, office,
independent establishment, or instrumentality of the Government,
information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics for the
purposes of this chapter. Each department, bureau, agency,
board, commission, office, independent establishment, or
instrumentality shall, to the extent authorized by law, furnish
such information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics
directly to the Commission, upon request made by the Chairman,
the chairman of any subcommittee created by a majority of the
Commission, or any member designated by a majority of the
Commission.
(2) Receipt, handling, storage, and dissemination.--
Information shall only be received, handled, stored, and
disseminated by members of the Commission and its staff
consistent with all applicable statutes, regulations, and
Executive orders.

(d) Assistance From Federal Agencies.--
(1) General services administration.--The Administrator of
General Services shall provide to a Commission on a reimbursable
basis administrative support and other services for the
performance of the Commission's tasks.
(2) Other departments and agencies.--In addition to the
assistance prescribed in paragraph (1), departments and agencies
of the United States may provide to the Commission such
services, funds, facilities, staff, and other support services
as they may determine advisable and as may be authorized by law.
(3) Administration engineering and safety center.--The
Administration Engineering and Safety Center shall provide data
and technical support as requested by the Commission.

Sec. 70706. Public meetings, information, and hearings

(a) Public Meetings and Release of Public Versions of Reports.--A
Commission shall--
(1) hold public hearings and meetings to the extent
appropriate; and
(2) release public versions of the reports required under this
chapter.

(b) Public Hearings.--Any public hearings of a Commission shall be
conducted in a manner consistent with the protection of information
provided to or developed for or by the Commission as required by any
applicable statute, regulation, or Executive order.

[[Page 3435]]

Sec. 70707. Staff of Commission

(a) Appointment and Compensation.--The Chairman, in consultation with
the Vice Chairman, in accordance with rules agreed upon by a Commission,
may appoint and fix the compensation of a staff director and such other
personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to carry out its
functions.
(b) Detailees.--Any Federal Government employee, except for an
employee of the Administration, may be detailed to a Commission without
reimbursement from the Commission, and such detailee shall retain the
rights, status, and privileges of his or her regular employment without
interruption.
(c) Consultant Services.--A Commission may procure the services of
experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, but
at rates not to exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic
pay in effect for positions at level IV of the Executive Schedule under
section 5315 of title 5. An expert or consultant whose services are
procured under this subsection shall disclose any contract or
association the expert or consultant has with the Administration or any
Administration contractor.

Sec. 70708. Compensation and travel expenses

(a) Compensation.--Each member of a Commission may be compensated at a
rate not to exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay
in effect for positions at level IV of the Executive Schedule under
section 5315 of title 5 for each day during which that member is engaged
in the actual performance of the duties of the Commission.
(b) Travel Expenses.--While away from their homes or regular places of
business in the performance of services for the Commission, members of a
Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu
of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in
the Government service are allowed expenses under section 5703 of title
5.

Sec. 70709. Security clearances for Commission members and staff

The appropriate Federal agencies or departments shall cooperate with a
Commission in expeditiously providing to the Commission members and
staff appropriate security clearances to the extent possible pursuant to
existing procedures and requirements. No person shall be provided with
access to classified information under this chapter without the
appropriate security clearances.

[[Page 3436]]

Sec. 70710. Reporting requirements and termination

(a) Interim Reports.--A Commission may submit to the President and
Congress interim reports containing such findings, conclusions, and
recommendations for corrective actions as have been agreed to by a
majority of Commission members.
(b) Final Report.--A Commission shall submit to the President and
Congress, and make concurrently available to the public, a final report
containing such findings, conclusions, and recommendations for
corrective actions as have been agreed to by a majority of Commission
members. Such report shall include any minority views or opinions not
reflected in the majority report.
(c) Termination.--
(1) In general.--A Commission, and all the authorities of this
chapter with respect to that Commission, shall terminate 60 days
after the date on which the final report is submitted under
subsection (b).
(2) Administrative activities before termination.--A
Commission may use the 60-day period referred to in paragraph
(1) for the purpose of concluding its activities, including
providing testimony to committees of Congress concerning its
reports and disseminating the final report.

CHAPTER 709--INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION

Sec.
70901.  Peaceful uses of space station.
70902.  Allocation of International Space Station research budget.
70903.  International Space Station research.
70904.  International Space Station completion.
70905.  National laboratory designation.
70906.  International Space Station National Laboratory Advisory
Committee.
70907.  Maintaining use through at least 2020.

Sec. 70901. Peaceful uses of space station

No civil space station authorized under section 103(a)(1) of the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act, Fiscal
Year 1991 (Public Law 101-611, 104 Stat. 3190) may be used to carry or
place in orbit any nuclear weapon or any other weapon of mass
destruction, to install any such weapon on any celestial body, or to
station any such weapon in space in any other manner. This civil space
station may be used only for peaceful purposes.

Sec. 70902. Allocation of International Space Station research budget

The Administrator shall allocate at least 15 percent of the funds
budgeted for International Space Station research to ground-based, free-
flyer, and International Space Station life and microgravity science
research that is not directly related to supporting the human
exploration program, consistent with section 40904 of this title.

Sec. 70903. International Space Station research

The Administrator shall--
(1) carry out a program of microgravity research consistent
with section 40904 of this title; and
(2) consider the need for a life sciences centrifuge and any
associated holding facilities.

[[Page 3437]]

Sec. 70904. International Space Station completion

(a) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States to achieve diverse
and growing utilization of, and benefits from, the International Space
Station.
(b) Elements, Capabilities, and Configuration Criteria.--The
Administrator shall ensure that the International Space Station will--
(1) be assembled and operated in a manner that fulfills
international partner agreements, as long as the Administrator
determines that the shuttle can safely enable the United States
to do so;
(2) be used for a diverse range of microgravity research,
including fundamental, applied, and commercial research,
consistent with section 40904 of this title;
(3) have an ability to support a crew size of at least 6
persons, unless the Administrator transmits to the Committee on
Science and Technology of the House of Representatives and the
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate
not later than 60 days after December 30, 2005, a report
explaining why such a requirement should not be met, the impact
of not meeting the requirement on the International Space
Station research agenda and operations and international partner
agreements, and what additional funding or other steps would be
required to have an ability to support a crew size of at least 6
persons;
(4) support Crew Exploration Vehicle docking and automated
docking of cargo vehicles or modules launched by either heavy-
lift or commercially-developed launch vehicles;
(5) support any diagnostic human research, on-orbit
characterization of molecular crystal growth, cellular research,
and other research that the Administration believes is necessary
to conduct, but for which the Administration lacks the capacity
to return the materials that need to be analyzed to Earth; and
(6) be operated at an appropriate risk level.

(c) Contingencies.--
(1) Policy.--The Administrator shall ensure that the
International Space Station can have available, if needed,
sufficient logistics and on-orbit capabilities to support any
potential period during which the space shuttle or its follow-on
crew and cargo systems are unavailable, and can have available,
if needed, sufficient surge delivery capability or
prepositioning of spares and other supplies needed to
accommodate any such hiatus.
(2) Plan.--Before making any change in the International Space
Station assembly sequence in effect on December 30, 2005, the
Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science and
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a plan to
carry out the policy described in paragraph (1).

Sec. 70905. National laboratory designation

(a) Definition of United States Segment of the International Space
Station.--In this section the term ``United States segment of the
International Space Station'' means those elements of the International
Space Station manufactured--

[[Page 3438]]

(1) by the United States; or
(2) for the United States by other nations in exchange for
funds or launch services.

(b) Designation.--To further the policy described in section 70501(a)
of this title, the United States segment of the International Space
Station is hereby designated a national laboratory.
(c) Management.--
(1) Partnerships.--The Administrator shall seek to increase
the utilization of the International Space Station by other
Federal entities and the private sector through partnerships,
cost-sharing agreements, and other arrangements that would
supplement Administration funding of the International Space
Station.
(2) Contracting.--The Administrator may enter into a contract
with a nongovernmental entity to operate the International Space
Station national laboratory, subject to all applicable Federal
laws and regulations.

Sec. 70906. International Space Station National Laboratory Advisory
Committee

(a) Establishment.--Not later than one year after October 15, 2008,
the Administrator shall establish under the Federal Advisory Committee
Act a committee to be known as the ``International Space Station
National Laboratory Advisory Committee'' (hereafter in this section
referred to as the ``Committee'').
(b) Membership.--
(1) Composition.--The Committee shall be composed of
individuals representing organizations that have formal
agreements with the Administration to utilize the United States
portion of the International Space Station, including
allocations within partner elements.
(2) Chair.--The Administrator shall appoint a chair from among
the members of the Committee, who shall serve for a 2-year term.

(c) Duties of the Committee.--
(1) In general.--The Committee shall monitor, assess, and make
recommendations regarding effective utilization of the
International Space Station as a national laboratory and
platform for research.
(2) Annual report.--The Committee shall submit to the
Administrator, on an annual basis or more frequently as
considered necessary by a majority of the members of the
Committee, a report containing the assessments and
recommendations required by paragraph (1).

(d) Duration.--The Committee shall exist for the life of the
International Space Station.

Sec. 70907. Maintaining use through at least 2020

The Administrator shall take all necessary steps to ensure that the
International Space Station remains a viable and productive facility
capable of potential United States utilization through at least 2020 and
shall take no steps that would preclude its continued operation and
utilization by the United States after 2015.

[[Page 3439]]

CHAPTER 711--NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS

Sec.
71101.  Reaffirmation of policy.
71102.  Requests for information.
71103.  Developing policy and recommending responsible Federal agency.
71104.  Planetary radar.

Sec. 71101. Reaffirmation of policy

Congress reaffirms the policy set forth in section 20102(g) of this
title (relating to surveying near-Earth asteroids and comets).

Sec. 71102. Requests for information

The Administrator shall issue requests for information on--
(1) a low-cost space mission with the purpose of rendezvousing
with, attaching a tracking device, and characterizing the
Apophis asteroid; and
(2) a medium-sized space mission with the purpose of detecting
near-Earth objects equal to or greater than 140 meters in
diameter.

Sec. 71103. Developing policy and recommending responsible Federal
agency

Within 2 years after October 15, 2008, the Director of the Office of
Science and Technology Policy shall--
(1) develop a policy for notifying Federal agencies and
relevant emergency response institutions of an impending near-
Earth object threat, if near-term public safety is at risk; and
(2) recommend a Federal agency or agencies to be responsible
for--
(A) protecting the United States from a near-Earth
object that is expected to collide with Earth; and
(B) implementing a deflection campaign, in
consultation with international bodies, should one be
necessary.

Sec. 71104. Planetary radar

The Administrator shall maintain a planetary radar that is comparable
to the capability provided through the Deep Space Network Goldstone
facility of the Administration.

CHAPTER 713--COOPERATION FOR SAFETY AMONG SPACEFARING NATIONS

Sec.
71301.  Common docking system standard to enable rescue.
71302.  Information sharing to avoid physical or radio-frequency
interference.

Sec. 71301. Common docking system standard to enable rescue

In order to maximize the ability to rescue astronauts whose space
vehicles have become disabled, the Administrator shall enter into
discussions with the appropriate representatives of spacefaring nations
who have or plan to have crew transportation systems capable of orbital
flight or flight beyond low Earth orbit for the purpose of agreeing on a
common docking system standard.

[[Page 3440]]

Sec. 71302. Information sharing to avoid physical or radio-frequency
interference

The Administrator shall, in consultation with other agencies of the
Federal Government as the Administrator considers appropriate, initiate
discussions with the appropriate representatives of spacefaring nations
to determine an appropriate frame-work under which information intended
to promote safe access into outer space, operations in outer space, and
return from outer space to Earth free from physical or radio-frequency
interference can be shared among the nations.

SEC. 4. CONFORMING AMENDMENTS TO OTHER LAWS.

(a) Title 5.--Section 9811(a)(1)(E) of title 5, United States Code, is
amended by striking ``section 203(c)(2)(A) of the National Aeronautics
and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2473(c)(2)(A))'' and substituting
``section 20113(b)(1) of title 51''.
(b) Title 31.--Section 1304(a)(3)(D) of title 31, United States Code,
is amended by striking ``section 203 of the National Aeronautics and
Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2473)'' and substituting ``section 20113 of
title 51''.
(c) Title 35.--Section 210(a)(7) of title 35, United States Code, is
amended by striking ``section 305 of the National Aeronautics and Space
Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2457)'' and substituting ``section 20135 of title
51''.
(d) Transfer of Chapters 701 and 703 of Title 49, United States
Code.--
(1) Title 49, united states code.--Title 49, United States
Code, is amended as follows:
(A) In the analysis for title 49, United States Code,
the item related to subtitle IX is amended to read as
follows:
[TRANSFERRED]''.
(B) The heading and analysis for subtitle IX of title
49, United States Code, are amended to read as follows:

``Subtitle IX--[Transferred]

``Chapter                                                           Sec.
[Transferred]
[Transferred]''.
(2) Renumbering and transfer of chapters.--Chapters 701 and
703 of title 49, United States Code, are renumbered as chapters
509 and 511, respectively, of title 51, United States Code,
and <> transferred so as
to appear after chapter 507 of title 51, United States Code, as
enacted by section 3 of this Act.
(3) Renumbering of sections in chapter 509 of title 51, united
states code.--In chapter 509 of title 51, United States Code, as
renumbered by paragraph (2), and in the chapter analysis, the
sections are renumbered as follows:
(A) Section 70101 is renumbered 50901.
(B) Section 70102 is renumbered 50902.
(C) Section 70103 is renumbered 50903.
(D) Section 70104 is renumbered 50904.
(E) Section 70105 is renumbered 50905.
(F) Section 70105a is renumbered 50906.

[[Page 3441]]

(G) Section 70106 is renumbered 50907.
(H) Section 70107 is renumbered 50908.
(I) Section 70108 is renumbered 50909.
(J) Section 70109 is renumbered 50910.
(K) Section 70109a is renumbered 50911.
(L) Section 70110 is renumbered 50912.
(M) Section 70111 is renumbered 50913.
(N) Section 70112 is renumbered 50914.
(O) Section 70113 is renumbered 50915.
(P) Section 70114 is renumbered 50916.
(Q) Section 70115 is renumbered 50917.
(R) Section 70116 is renumbered 50918.
(S) Section 70117 is renumbered 50919.
(T) Section 70118 is renumbered 50920.
(U) Section 70119 is renumbered 50921.
(V) Section 70120 is renumbered 50922.
(W) Section 70121 is renumbered 50923.
(4) Renumbering of sections in chapter 511 of title 51, united
states code.--In chapter 511 of title 51, United States Code, as
renumbered by paragraph (2), and in the chapter analysis, the
sections are renumbered as follows:
(A) Section 70301 is renumbered 51101.
(B) Section 70302 is renumbered 51102.
(C) Section 70303 is renumbered 51103.
(D) Section 70304 is renumbered 51104.
(E) Section 70305 is renumbered 51105.
(5) Cross references in chapter 509 of title 51, united states
code.--
(A) Section 50902(11) of title 51, United States Code,
as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended--
(i) by striking ``section 70104(c)'' and
substituting ``section 50904(c)''; and
(ii) by striking ``section 70105a'' and
substituting ``section 50906''.
(B) Section 50902(19) of title 51, United States Code,
as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by striking
``section 70120(c)(2)'' and substituting ``section
50922(c)(2)''.
(C) Section 50904(a)(2) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70102(1)(A) or (B)'' and substituting
``section 50902(1)(A) or (B)''.
(D) Section 50904(a)(3) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70102(1)(C)'' and substituting
``section 50902(1)(C)''.
(E) Section 50904(a)(4) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70102(1)(C)'' and substituting
``section 50902(1)(C)''.
(F) Section 50905(b)(5)(A) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70112(a)(2) and (c)'' and
substituting ``section 50914(a)(2) and (c)''.
(G) Section 50906(c) of title 51, United States Code,
as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by striking
``section 70105(b)(2)(C)'' and substituting ``section
50905(b)(2)(C)''.

[[Page 3442]]

(H) Section 50906(i) of title 51, United States Code,
as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by striking
``sections 70106, 70107, 70108, 70109, 70110, 70112,
70115, 70116, 70117, and 70121'' and substituting
``sections 50907, 50908, 50909, 50910, 50912, 50914,
50917, 50918, 50919, and 50923''.
(I) Section 50907(a) of title 51, United States Code,
as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by striking
``sections 70104(c), 70105, and 70105a'' and
substituting ``sections 50904(c), 50905, and 50906''.
(J) Section 50908(b)(2) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70105(c)'' and substituting ``section
50905(c)''.
(K) Section 50908(e) of title 51, United States Code,
as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by striking
``section 70110'' and substituting ``section 50912''.
(L) Section 50909(b) of title 51, United States Code,
as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by striking
``section 70110'' and substituting ``section 50912''.
(M) Section 50912(a)(1) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70105(a) or 70105a'' and substituting
``section 50905(a) or 50906''.
(N) Section 50912(a)(2) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70104(c)'' and substituting ``section
50904(c)''.
(O) Section 50912(a)(3)(A) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70107(b) or (c)'' and substituting
``section 50908(b) or (c)''.
(P) Section 50912(a)(3)(B) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70108(a)'' and substituting ``section
50909(a)''.
(Q) Section 50915(a)(1)(A) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70112(a)(1)(A)'' and substituting
``section 50914(a)(1)(A)''.
(R) Section 50915(a)(2) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended--
(i) by striking ``section 70112(a)(1)(A)'' and
substituting ``section 50914(a)(1)(A)''; and
(ii) by striking ``section 70112(a)(1)'' and
substituting ``section 50914(a)(1)''.
(S) Section 50916 of title 51, United States Code, as
renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by striking
``section 70106(b)'' and substituting ``section
50907(b)''.
(T) Section 50919(b)(2) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992
(15 U.S.C. 5601 et seq.)'' and substituting ``chapter
601 of this title''.
(U) Section 50922(c)(2)(B) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (3), is amended by
striking ``section 70102'' and substituting ``section
50902''.
(6) Cross references in chapter 511 of title 51, united states
code.--
(A) Section 51101(1) of title 51, United States Code,
as renumbered by paragraph (4), is amended by striking

[[Page 3443]]

``section 502 of the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1993 (15
U.S.C. 5802)'' and substituting ``section 50501 of this
title''.
(B) Section 51104(d)(1) of title 51, United States
Code, as renumbered by paragraph (4), is amended by
striking ``section 303 of this title'' and substituting
``section 303 of title 49''.
(7) Analysis for title 51, united states code.--The analysis
for title 51, United States Code, as enacted by section 3 of
this Act, is amended by adding, after the item for chapter 507,
the following items:


Commercial Space Launch Activities                    50901
Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants 51101''.
(8) Deemed <> references to title 49,
united states code.--In title 49, United States Code, references
to ``this title'' are deemed to refer also to chapters 509 and
511 of title 51, United States Code.

(e) National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of
2005.--Section 304 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Authorization Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16654) is amended as follows:
(1) Subsection (a)(1) is redesignated as subsection (a) and
amended to read as follows:

``(a) Assessment of Certain Missions.--Not later than 60 days after
the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall carry out an
assessment under section 30504 of title 51, United States Code, for at
least the following missions: FAST, TIMED, Cluster, Wind, Geotail,
Polar, TRACE, Ulysses, and Voyager.''.
(2) Subsection (b) is amended by striking ``subsection
(a)(1)'' and substituting ``subsection (a)''.

SEC. 5. <> TRANSITIONAL AND SAVINGS
PROVISIONS.

(a) Definitions.--In this section:
(1) Source provision.--The term ``source provision'' means a
provision of law that is replaced by a title 51 provision.
(2) Title 51 provision.--The term ``title 51 provision'' means
a provision of title 51, United States Code, that is enacted by
section 3.

(b) Cutoff Date.--The title 51 provisions replace certain provisions
of law enacted on or before July 1, 2009. If a law enacted after that
date amends or repeals a source provision, that law is deemed to amend
or repeal, as the case may be, the corresponding title 51 provision. If
a law enacted after that date is otherwise inconsistent with a title 51
provision or a provision of this Act, that law supersedes the title 51
provision or provision of this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.
(c) Original Date of Enactment Unchanged.--For purposes of determining
whether one provision of law supersedes another based on enactment later
in time, a title 51 provision is deemed to have been enacted on the date
of enactment of the corresponding source provision.
(d) References to Title 51 Provisions.--A reference to a title 51
provision is deemed to refer to the corresponding source provision.
(e) References to Source Provisions.--A reference to a source
provision, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law,
is deemed to refer to the corresponding title 51 provision.

[[Page 3444]]

(f) Regulations, Orders, and Other Administrative Actions.--A
regulation, order, or other administrative action in effect under a
source provision continues in effect under the corresponding title 51
provision.
(g) Actions Taken and Offenses Committed.--An action taken or an
offense committed under a source provision is deemed to have been taken
or committed under the corresponding title 51 provision.

SEC. 6. <> REPEALS.

The following provisions of law are repealed, except with respect to
rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, or
proceedings that were begun before the date of enactment of this Act:

Schedule of Laws Repealed
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Act                                    Section                   United States Code
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public                           102                 42 U.S.C. 2451
103                 42 U.S.C. 2452
201         42 U.S.C. 2471 (prior)
202                 42 U.S.C. 2472
203                 42 U.S.C. 2473
204                 42 U.S.C. 2474
205                 42 U.S.C. 2475
206                 42 U.S.C. 2476
207                42 U.S.C. 2476a
208                42 U.S.C. 2476b
302                 42 U.S.C. 2453
303                 42 U.S.C. 2454
304(a)              42 U.S.C. 2455(a)
304(e)                 42 U.S.C. 2456
304(f)                42 U.S.C. 2456a
305                 42 U.S.C. 2457
306                 42 U.S.C. 2458
307                42 U.S.C. 2458a
308                42 U.S.C. 2458b
309                42 U.S.C. 2458c
310                 42 U.S.C. 2459
311                42 U.S.C. 2459b
312                42 U.S.C. 2459c
313                42 U.S.C. 2459f
314              42 U.S.C. 2459f-1
315                42 U.S.C. 2459j
316                42 U.S.C. 2459k
317                42 U.S.C. 2459l
401                 42 U.S.C. 2481
402                 42 U.S.C. 2482
403                 42 U.S.C. 2483
404                 42 U.S.C. 2484


Act of June 15, 1959 (Public Law 86-45)...........                             4                 42 U.S.C. 2460


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                                  6                 42 U.S.C. 2477
Authorization Act, 1968 (Public Law 90-67).......


Joint Resolution of September 29, 1969 (Public Law                          1, 2                 42 U.S.C. 2461
91-76)...........................................


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                                  6                 42 U.S.C. 2463
Authorization Act, 1978 (Public Law 95-76).......



[[Page 3445]]


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                             106(a)                 42 U.S.C. 2464
Authorization Act, 1983 (Public Law 97-324)......


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                                201                 42 U.S.C. 2466
Authorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-170)....
202                42 U.S.C. 2466a
203                42 U.S.C. 2466b
204                42 U.S.C. 2466c


National Space Grant College and Fellowship Act                              203                42 U.S.C. 2486a
(Title II of Public Law 100-147).................
204                42 U.S.C. 2486b
205                42 U.S.C. 2486c
206                42 U.S.C. 2486d
207                42 U.S.C. 2486e
208                42 U.S.C. 2486f
209                42 U.S.C. 2486g
210                42 U.S.C. 2486h
211                42 U.S.C. 2486i
213                42 U.S.C. 2486k
214                42 U.S.C. 2486l


Department of Housing and Urban Development--                (par. under heading                 42 U.S.C. 2467
Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1989             ``Science, Space, and
(Public Law 100-404).............................    Technology Education Trust
Fund'', at 102 Stat. 1028)


Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and     (pars. under heading ``Small                42 U.S.C. 2473b
Urban Development, and Independent Agencies        and Disadvantaged Business'',
Appropriations Act, 1990 (Public Law 101-144)....             at 103 Stat. 863)


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                                112                42 U.S.C. 2465a
Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law
101-611).........................................
115(b)                 15 U.S.C. 1535
123    (not previously classified)
203                42 U.S.C. 2465c
206                42 U.S.C. 2465f


Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and          (1st par. under heading                42 U.S.C. 2459d
Urban Development, and Independent Agencies                    ``Administrative
Appropriations Act, 1992 (Public Law 102-139)....    Provisions'', at 105 Stat.
771)


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                                 19                42 U.S.C. 2459e
Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1992 (Public Law
102-195).........................................
20                42 U.S.C. 2467a
21(a)             42 U.S.C. 2473c(a)
21(c)             42 U.S.C. 2473c(c)
21(d)             42 U.S.C. 2473c(d)

[[Page 3446]]


21(e)             42 U.S.C. 2473c(e)
21(f)             42 U.S.C. 2473c(f)
21(g)             42 U.S.C. 2473c(g)
21(h)             42 U.S.C. 2473c(h)


Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law                             3                 15 U.S.C. 5602
102-555).........................................
101                 15 U.S.C. 5611
102                 15 U.S.C. 5612
103                 15 U.S.C. 5613
104                 15 U.S.C. 5614
105                 15 U.S.C. 5615
201                 15 U.S.C. 5621
202                 15 U.S.C. 5622
203                 15 U.S.C. 5623
204                 15 U.S.C. 5624
205                 15 U.S.C. 5625
301                 15 U.S.C. 5631
302                 15 U.S.C. 5632
303                 15 U.S.C. 5633
401                 15 U.S.C. 5641
501                 15 U.S.C. 5651
502                 15 U.S.C. 5652
503                 15 U.S.C. 5653
504                 15 U.S.C. 5654
505                 15 U.S.C. 5655
506                 15 U.S.C. 5656
507                 15 U.S.C. 5657
508                 15 U.S.C. 5658
601                 15 U.S.C. 5671
602                 15 U.S.C. 5672


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                                304                42 U.S.C. 2467b
Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1993 (Public Law
102-588).........................................
502                 15 U.S.C. 5802
504                 15 U.S.C. 5803
506                 15 U.S.C. 5805
507                 15 U.S.C. 5806
508                 15 U.S.C. 5807
510                 15 U.S.C. 5808
602                42 U.S.C. 2487a
603                42 U.S.C. 2487b
604                42 U.S.C. 2487c
606                42 U.S.C. 2487e
607                42 U.S.C. 2487f
608                42 U.S.C. 2487g


Commercial Space Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-303).                             2                42 U.S.C. 14701
101                42 U.S.C. 14711
104(b)             42 U.S.C. 14712(b)
105                42 U.S.C. 14713
106                42 U.S.C. 14714
107     42 U.S.C. 14715, 15 U.S.C.
5621, 5622
201                42 U.S.C. 14731
202                42 U.S.C. 14732
204                42 U.S.C. 14733
205                42 U.S.C. 14734
206                42 U.S.C. 14735


Technology Administration Act of 1998 (Public Law                              8                15 U.S.C. 1511e
105-309).........................................


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                                126                42 U.S.C. 2475a
Authorization Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-391)...
301                42 U.S.C. 2459g

[[Page 3447]]


304                42 U.S.C. 2459h
305                42 U.S.C. 2475b
325                42 U.S.C. 2473d


Commercial Reusable In-Space Transportation Act of                           903                42 U.S.C. 14752
2002 (Title IX of Public Law 107-248)............
904                42 U.S.C. 14753


Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and         (last par. under heading                42 U.S.C. 2459i
Urban Development, and Independent Agencies                    ``Administrative
Appropriations Act, 2003 (Division K of Public       Provisions'', at 117 Stat.
Law 108-7).......................................                          520)


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                             101(a)             42 U.S.C. 16611(a)
Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155)...
101(b)             42 U.S.C. 16611(b)
101(h)(1)          42 U.S.C. 16611(h)(1)
101(i)             42 U.S.C. 16611(i)
103                42 U.S.C. 16613
105                42 U.S.C. 16614
107                42 U.S.C. 16615
110                42 U.S.C. 16618
202                42 U.S.C. 16631
203                42 U.S.C. 16632
204                42 U.S.C. 16633
205                42 U.S.C. 16634
301                42 U.S.C. 16651
304(a) (matter before par.     42 U.S.C. 16654(a) (matter
(1))               before par. (1))
304(a)(2)          42 U.S.C. 16654(a)(2)
305(2)             42 U.S.C. 16655(2)
305(3)             42 U.S.C. 16655(3)
306                42 U.S.C. 16656
311                42 U.S.C. 16671
312                42 U.S.C. 16672
313                42 U.S.C. 16673
314                42 U.S.C. 16674
315                42 U.S.C. 16675
316                42 U.S.C. 16676
401                42 U.S.C. 16701
411                42 U.S.C. 16711
421                42 U.S.C. 16721
422                42 U.S.C. 16722
423                42 U.S.C. 16723
424                42 U.S.C. 16724
425                42 U.S.C. 16725
426                42 U.S.C. 16726
427                42 U.S.C. 16727
431                42 U.S.C. 16741
441                42 U.S.C. 16751
501(a)             42 U.S.C. 16761(a)
501(b)             42 U.S.C. 16761(b)
503                42 U.S.C. 16763
504                42 U.S.C. 16764
505                42 U.S.C. 16765
506(1)             42 U.S.C. 16766(1)
506(2)             42 U.S.C. 16766(2)
507(a)             42 U.S.C. 16767(a)
507(b)             42 U.S.C. 16767(b)
507(d)             42 U.S.C. 16767(d)
601                42 U.S.C. 16781
612                42 U.S.C. 16791
613                42 U.S.C. 16792
615                42 U.S.C. 16794
616                42 U.S.C. 16795

[[Page 3448]]


618                42 U.S.C. 16797
619(b)             42 U.S.C. 16798(b)
621                42 U.S.C. 16811
707                42 U.S.C. 16821
708                42 U.S.C. 16822
709                42 U.S.C. 16823
821                42 U.S.C. 16841
822                42 U.S.C. 16842
823                42 U.S.C. 16843
824                42 U.S.C. 16844
825                42 U.S.C. 16845
826                42 U.S.C. 16846
827                42 U.S.C. 16847
828                42 U.S.C. 16848
829                42 U.S.C. 16849
830                42 U.S.C. 16850


America COMPETES Act (Public Law 110-69)..........                       2001(a)            42 U.S.C. 16611a(a)
2001(b)            42 U.S.C. 16611a(b)
2001(c)            42 U.S.C. 16611a(c)
2001(e)            42 U.S.C. 16611a(e)
2002(b)             42 U.S.C. 16712(b)
2003                42 U.S.C. 16658


Science Appropriations Act, 2008 (Public Law 110-        (7th par. under heading               42 U.S.C. 16611b
161, div. B, title III)..........................              ``Administrative
Provisions'', at 121 Stat.
1919)


National Aeronautics and Space Administration                                201                42 U.S.C. 17711
Authorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-422)...
204(b)             42 U.S.C. 17712(b)
204(c)             42 U.S.C. 17712(c)
204(d)             42 U.S.C. 17712(d)
206(a)             42 U.S.C. 17713(a)
208                42 U.S.C. 17714
302                42 U.S.C. 17721
303                42 U.S.C. 17722
304(b)             42 U.S.C. 17723(b)
304(c)             42 U.S.C. 17723(c)
307                42 U.S.C. 17724
403                42 U.S.C. 17731
404(a)             42 U.S.C. 17732(a)
404(b)             42 U.S.C. 17732(b)
405(b)             42 U.S.C. 17733(b)
407                42 U.S.C. 17734
501                42 U.S.C. 17741
502                42 U.S.C. 17742
601(a)             42 U.S.C. 17751(a)
602                42 U.S.C. 17752
704(b)             42 U.S.C. 17781(b)
704(c)             42 U.S.C. 17781(c)
801(a)             42 U.S.C. 17791(a)
803                42 U.S.C. 17793
804                42 U.S.C. 17794
805                42 U.S.C. 17795
902                42 U.S.C. 17801
1002(a)             42 U.S.C. 17811(a)
1003(a)             42 U.S.C. 17812(a)
1102(b)             42 U.S.C. 17821(b)
1103                42 U.S.C. 17822
1104                42 U.S.C. 17823
1107                42 U.S.C. 17824
1109(c)             42 U.S.C. 17825(c)
1112                42 U.S.C. 17827
1116                42 U.S.C. 17828
1117                42 U.S.C. 17829



[[Page 3449]]


Science Appropriations Act, 2009 (Public Law 111-      (3d proviso in par. under          42 U.S.C. 16611b note
8, div. B, title III.............................        heading ``Cross Agency
Support'', at 123 Stat. 589)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Approved December 18, 2010.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY--H.R. 3237:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

HOUSE REPORTS: No. 111-325 (Comm. on the Judiciary).
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 156 (2010):
Jan. 13, considered and passed House.
Dec. 3, considered and passed Senate.