38 U.S.C.
United States Code, 1999 Edition
Title 38 - VETERANS’ BENEFITS
PART III - READJUSTMENT AND RELATED BENEFITS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

PART III—READJUSTMENT AND RELATED BENEFITS

Chap.
Sec.
30.
All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program
3001
31.
Training and Rehabilitation for Veterans with Service-Connected Disabilities
3100
32.
Post-Vietnam Era Veterans’ Educational Assistance
3201
34.
Veterans’ Educational Assistance
3451
35.
Survivors’ and Dependents’ Educational Assistance
3500
36.
Administration of Educational Benefits
3670
37.
Housing and Small Business Loans
3701
39.
Automobiles and Adaptive Equipment for Certain Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces
3901
41.
Job Counseling, Training, and Placement Service for Veterans
4100
42.
Employment and Training of Veterans
4211
43.
Employment and Reemployment Rights of Members of the Uniformed Services
4301

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(h)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4688, struck out item for chapter 42 and added identical new item for chapter 42.

Pub. L. 103–353, §2(b)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3169, substituted “Employment and Reemployment Rights of Members of the Uniformed Services” and “4301” for “Veterans’ Reemployment Rights” and “2021” in item for chapter 43.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(b)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, substituted “3001” for “1401” in item for chapter 30, “3100” for “1500” in item for chapter 31, “3201” for “1601” in item for chapter 32, “3451” for “1651” in item for chapter 34, “3500” for “1700” in item for chapter 35, “3670” for “1770” in item for chapter 36, “3701” for “1801” in item for chapter 37, “3901” for “1901” in item for chapter 39, “4100” for “2000” in item for chapter 41, and “4211” for “2011” in item for chapter 42.

Pub. L. 102–16, §9(c)(2), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 55, struck out “Disabled and Vietnam Era” after “Employment and Training of” in item for chapter 42.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2563, added item for chapter 30.

1982—Pub. L. 97–306, title III, §301(b)(2), Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1437, substituted “2000” for “2001” in item for chapter 41.

Pub. L. 97–295, §4(35)(A), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1307, substituted “1500” for “1,500” in item for chapter 31.

Pub. L. 97–295, §4(35)(B), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1307, substituted “1651” for “1650” in item for chapter 34.

1981—Pub. L. 97–72, title III, §302(b)(2), Nov. 3, 1981, 95 Stat. 1059, substituted “Housing and Small Business Loans” for “Home, Condominium, and Mobile Home Loans” in item for chapter 37.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(b), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2186, substituted “Training and Rehabilitation for Veterans with Service-Connected Disabilities . . . 1,500” for “Vocational Rehabilitation . . . 1501” in item for chapter 31.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §309(b), title IV, §405, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2391, 2397, added item for chapter 32 and substituted “Survivors’ and Dependents’ Educational Assistance” for “War Orphans’ and Widows’ Education Assistance” in item for chapter 35.

1974—Pub. L. 93–569, §7(d), Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1866, substituted “Home, Condominium, and Mobile Home Loans” for “Home, Farm, and Business Loans” in item for chapter 37.

Pub. L. 93–508, title IV, §404(b), Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1600, added item for chapter 43.

1972—Pub. L. 92–540, title V, §§502(b), 503(b), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1097, 1098, substituted “, Training and” for “and Employment” in item for chapter 41 and added item for chapter 42.

1971—Pub. L. 91–666, §2(b), Jan. 11, 1971, 84 Stat. 2000, substituted “Automobiles and Adaptive Equipment for Certain Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces” for “Automobiles for Disabled Veterans” in item for chapter 39.

1968—Pub. L. 90–631, §2(h)(2), Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1333, substituted “War Orphans’ and Widows’ Educational Assistance . . . 1700” for “War Orphan's Educational Assistance . . . 1701” in item for chapter 35.

1966—Pub. L. 89–358, §§4(c), 6(b), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 23, 27, added item for chapter “34. Veterans’ Educational Assistance . . . 1650”, struck out item for chapter “33. Education of Korean Conflict Veterans . . . 1601” and added item for chapter 36; and substituted “Job Counseling and Employment Placement Service for Veterans” for “Unemployment Benefits for Veterans” in item for chapter 41.

1965—Pub. L. 89–50, §1(b), June 24, 1965, 79 Stat. 173, struck out item for chapter 43 “Mustering-Out Payments”.

Part Referred to in Other Sections

This part is referred to in title 42 section 3013.

CHAPTER 30—ALL-VOLUNTEER FORCE EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER I—PURPOSES; DEFINITIONS

Sec.
3001.
Purposes.
3002.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—BASIC EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE

3011.
Basic educational assistance entitlement for service on active duty.
3012.
Basic educational assistance entitlement for service in the Selected Reserve.
3013.
Duration of basic educational assistance.
3014.
Payment of basic educational assistance.
3015.
Amount of basic educational assistance.
3016.
Inservice enrollment in a program of education.
3017.
Death benefit.
3018.
Opportunity for certain active-duty personnel to withdraw election not to enroll.
3018A.
Opportunity for certain active-duty personnel to enroll before being involuntarily separated from service.
3018B.
Opportunity for certain persons to enroll.
3018C.
Opportunity for certain VEAP participants to enroll.
3019.
Tutorial assistance.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—SUPPLEMENTAL EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE

3021.
Supplemental educational assistance for additional service.
3022.
Amount of supplemental educational assistance.
3023.
Payment of supplemental educational assistance under this subchapter.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—TIME LIMITATION FOR USE OF ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT; GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

3031.
Time limitation for use of eligibility and entitlement.
3032.
Limitations on educational assistance for certain individuals.
3033.
Bar to duplication of educational assistance benefits.
3034.
Program administration.
3035.
Allocation of administration and of program costs.
3036.
Reporting requirement.

        

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §106(b)(1), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3329, added item 3018C.

1992—Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLIV, §4404(b)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2706, added item 3018B.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(b)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, renumbered items 1401 to 1436 as 3001 to 3036, respectively.

Pub. L. 102–54, §14(c)(2), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 285, substituted “subchapter” for “chapter” in item 1423.

1990—Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §561(a)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1573, added item 1418A.

1988—Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§101(b), 103(c), 107(a)(3), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4162, 4166, 4168, added items 1417 to 1419.

1986—Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §301(d)(2), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3268, amended item 1432 generally, substituting “Limitations” for “Limitation”.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 113, 3108, 3485, 3674, 3680A, 3681, 3684A, 3688, 3690, 3692, 3693, 3695, 3697, 3697A, 4213, 5113, 5303A of this title; title 10 sections 708, 2006, 16131, 16132; title 20 sections 1087vv, 9305; title 26 sections 25A, 135; title 29 section 2913.

SUBCHAPTER I—PURPOSES; DEFINITIONS

§3001. Purposes

The purposes of this chapter are—

(1) to provide a new educational assistance program to assist in the readjustment of members of the Armed Forces to civilian life after their separation from military service;

(2) to extend the benefits of a higher education to qualifying men and women who might not otherwise be able to afford such an education;

(3) to provide for vocational readjustment and to restore lost educational opportunities to those service men and women who served on active duty after June 30, 1985;

(4) to promote and assist the All-Volunteer Force program and the Total Force Concept of the Armed Forces by establishing a new program of educational assistance based upon service on active duty or a combination of service on active duty and in the Selected Reserve (including the National Guard) to aid in the recruitment and retention of highly qualified personnel for both the active and reserve components of the Armed Forces;

(5) to give special emphasis to providing educational assistance benefits to aid in the retention of personnel in the Armed Forces; and

(6) to enhance our Nation's competitiveness through the development of a more highly educated and productive work force.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2553, §1401; amended Pub. L. 100–48, §5, June 1, 1987, 101 Stat. 331; renumbered §3001, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3001 was renumbered section 5101 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1401 of this title as this section.

1987—Pars. (2) to (6). Pub. L. 100–48 added pars. (2), (3), and (6), redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (4) and (5), respectively, struck out “and” after “Forces;” in par. (4), and substituted “Forces; and” for “Forces.” in par. (5).

§3002. Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter—

(1) The term “basic educational assistance” means educational assistance provided under subchapter II of this chapter.

(2) The term “supplemental educational assistance” means educational assistance provided under subchapter III of this chapter.

(3) The term “program of education”—

(A) has the meaning given such term in section 3452(b) of this title;

(B) includes—

(i) a preparatory course for a test that is required or used for admission to an institution of higher education; and

(ii) a preparatory course for a test that is required or used for admission to a graduate school; and


(C) in the case of an individual who is not serving on active duty, includes (i) a full-time program of apprenticeship or of other on-job training approved as provided in clause (1) or (2), as appropriate, of section 3687(a) of this title, and (ii) a cooperative program (as defined in section 3482(a)(2) of this title).


(4) The term “Selected Reserve” means the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve of any of the reserve components (including the Army National Guard of the United States and the Air National Guard of the United States) of the Armed Forces, as required to be maintained under section 10143(a) of title 10.

(5) The term “Secretary of Defense” means the Secretary of Defense, except that it means the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy.

(6) The term “active duty” does not include any period during which an individual (A) was assigned full time by the Armed Forces to a civilian institution for a course of education which was substantially the same as established courses offered to civilians, (B) served as a cadet or midshipman at one of the service academies, or (C) served under the provisions of section 12103(d) of title 10 pursuant to an enlistment in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard, or as a Reserve for service in the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve.

(7) The term “active duty” includes full-time National Guard duty first performed after June 30, 1985, by a member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States in the member's status as a member of the National Guard of a State for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the National Guard.

(8) The term “educational institution” has the meaning given such term in section 3452(c) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2554, §1402; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §301(a), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3267; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§108(a)(1), 111(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4169, 4170; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(3), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §563(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1575; renumbered §3002 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1677(d)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3020; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §603(b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4671; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §107(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3329; Pub. L. 106–117, title VII, §701, Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1582.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 3002 to 3004 were renumbered sections 5102 to 5104 of this title, respectively.

Another prior section 3004, Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1225, related to reopening of disallowed claims and to effective date of any subsequent awards, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 87–825, §§5(a), 7, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 950, effective first day of second calendar month which begins after Oct. 15, 1962.

Prior sections 3005 to 3010 were renumbered sections 5105 to 5110 of this title, respectively.

Amendments

1999—Par. (3)(B), (C). Pub. L. 106–117 added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

1996—Par. (7). Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “June 30, 1985” for “November 29, 1989”.

1994—Par. (4). Pub. L. 103–337, §1677(d)(2)(A), substituted “section 10143(a) of title 10” for “section 268(b) of title 10”.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 103–337, §1677(d)(2)(B), substituted “section 12103(d) of title 10” for “section 511(d) of title 10”.

Par. (8). Pub. L. 103–446 added par. (8).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1402 of this title as this section.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3452(b)” for “1652(b)” in subpar. (A) and “3687(a)” for “1787(a)” and “3482(a)(2)” for “1682(a)(2)” in subpar. (B).

1990—Par. (7). Pub. L. 101–510 added par. (7).

1989—Par. (5). Pub. L. 101–237 amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: “The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Defense with respect to members of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department and the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy.”

1988—Par. (3)(B). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(1), substituted “in the case of an individual who is not serving on active duty, includes” for “includes”.

Pub. L. 100–689, §108(a)(1), inserted cl. (i) designation and added cl. (ii).

1986—Par. (3). Pub. L. 99–576 amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The term ‘program of education’ has the meaning given such term in section 1652(b) of this title.”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 563(b) of Pub. L. 101–510, as amended by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only to individuals who before the date of entry on active duty, as defined in section 3002(7) [formerly 1402(7)] of title 38, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), have never served on active duty as defined in section 101(21) of that title.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 108(c) of Pub. L. 100–689 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1432, 1602, and 1631 [now 3032, 3202, and 3231] of this title] shall take effect on January 1, 1989.”

Election of Benefits Under 1996 Amendments

Section 107(b) of Pub. L. 104–275 provided that:

“(1) An individual may only become eligible for benefits under chapter 30 of title 38, United States Code, as a result of the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] by making an election to become entitled to basic educational assistance under such chapter. The election may only be made during the nine-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1996] and in the manner required by the Secretary of Defense.

“(2) In the case of any individual making an election under paragraph (1)—

“(A) the basic pay of an individual who, while a member of the Armed Forces, makes an election under paragraph (1) shall be reduced (in a manner determined by the Secretary of Defense) until the total amount by which such basic pay is reduced is $1,200; or

“(B) to the extent that basic pay is not so reduced before the individual's discharge or release from active duty, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall collect from an individual who makes such an election an amount equal to the difference between $1,200 and the total amount of reductions under subparagraph (A), which amount shall be paid into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

“(3) In the case of any individual making an election under paragraph (1), the 10-year period referred to in section 3031 of such title shall begin on the later of—

“(A) the date determined under such section 3031; or

“(B) the date on which the election under paragraph (1) becomes effective.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3011 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—BASIC EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in sections 3002, 3035, 3232 of this title.

§3011. Basic educational assistance entitlement for service on active duty

(a) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, each individual—

(1) who—

(A) after June 30, 1985, first becomes a member of the Armed Forces or first enters on active duty as a member of the Armed Forces and—

(i) who (I) serves, as the individual's initial obligated period of active duty, at least three years of continuous active duty in the Armed Forces, or (II) in the case of an individual whose initial period of active duty is less than three years, serves at least two years of continuous active duty in the Armed Forces; or

(ii) who serves in the Armed Forces and is discharged or released from active duty (I) for a service-connected disability, for a medical condition which preexisted such service on active duty and which the Secretary determines is not service connected, for hardship, or for a physical or mental condition that was not characterized as a disability and did not result from the individual's own willful misconduct but did interfere with the individual's performance of duty, as determined by the Secretary of each military department in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense or by the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy; (II) for the convenience of the Government, in the case of an individual who completed not less than 20 months of continuous active duty, if the initial obligated period of active duty of the individual was less than three years, or in the case of an individual who completed not less than 30 months of continuous active duty if the initial obligated period of active duty of the individual was at least three years; or (III) involuntarily for the convenience of the Government as a result of a reduction in force, as determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense or by the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy; or


(B) as of December 31, 1989, is eligible for educational assistance benefits under chapter 34 of this title and was on active duty at any time during the period beginning on October 19, 1984, and ending on July 1, 1985, continued on active duty without a break in service and—

(i) after June 30, 1985, serves at least three years of continuous active duty in the Armed Forces; or

(ii) after June 30, 1985, is discharged or released from active duty (I) for a service-connected disability, for a medical condition which preexisted such service on active duty and which the Secretary determines is not service connected, for hardship, or for a physical or mental condition that was not characterized as a disability, as described in subparagraph (A)(ii)(I) of this paragraph; (II) for the convenience of the Government, if the individual completed not less than 30 months of continuous active duty after that date; or (III) involuntarily for the convenience of the Government as a result of a reduction in force, as determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense or by the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy;


(2) who, except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, completed the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or equivalency certificate) not later than—

(A) the original ending date of the individual's initial obligated period of active duty in the case of an individual described in clause (1)(A) of this subsection, regardless of whether the individual is discharged or released from active duty on such date; or

(B) December 31, 1989, in the case of an individual described in clause (1)(B) of this subsection;


except that (i) an individual described in clause (1)(B) of this subsection may meet the requirement of this clause by having successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for) the equivalent of 12 semester hours in a program of education leading to a standard college degree, and (ii) an individual described in clause (1)(A) of this subsection may meet such requirement by having successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for) the equivalent of such 12 semester hours before the end of the individual's initial obligated period of active duty; and

(3) who, after completion of the service described in clause (1) of this subsection—

(A) continues on active duty;

(B) is discharged from active duty with an honorable discharge;

(C) is released after service on active duty characterized by the Secretary concerned as honorable service and is placed on the retired list, is transferred to the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve, or is placed on the temporary disability retired list; or

(D) is released from active duty for further service in a reserve component of the Armed Forces after service on active duty characterized by the Secretary concerned as honorable service;


is entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter.

(b) The basic pay of any individual described in subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section who does not make an election under subsection (c)(1) of this section shall be reduced by $100 for each of the first 12 months that such individual is entitled to such pay. Any amount by which the basic pay of an individual is reduced under this chapter shall revert to the Treasury and shall not, for purposes of any Federal law, be considered to have been received by or to be within the control of such individual.

(c)(1) An individual described in subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section may make an election not to receive educational assistance under this chapter. Any such election shall be made at the time the individual initially enters on active duty as a member of the Armed Forces. Any individual who makes such an election is not entitled to educational assistance under this chapter.

(2) An individual who after December 31, 1976, receives a commission as an officer in the Armed Forces upon graduation from the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, or the Coast Guard Academy is not eligible for educational assistance under this section.

(3) An individual who after December 31, 1976, receives a commission as an officer in the Armed Forces upon completion of a program of educational assistance under section 2107 of title 10 is not eligible for educational assistance under this section if the individual enters on active duty—

(A) before October 1, 1996; or

(B) after September 30, 1996, and while participating in such program received more than $2,000 for each year of such participation.


(d)(1) For purposes of this chapter, any period of service described in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection shall not be considered a part of an individual's initial obligated period of active duty.

(2) The period of service referred to in paragraph (1) is any period terminated because of a defective enlistment and induction based on—

(A) the individual's being a minor for purposes of service in the Armed Forces;

(B) an erroneous enlistment or induction; or

(C) a defective enlistment agreement.


(3) The period of service referred to in paragraph (1) is also any period of service on active duty which an individual in the Selected Reserve was ordered to perform under section 12301, 12302, 12304, 12306, or 12307 of title 10 for a period of less than 2 years.

(e) For the purposes of subsection (a)(2) of this section, an individual who was on active duty on August 2, 1990, and who completes the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or equivalency certificate) before October 28, 1994, shall be considered to have completed such requirements within the individual's initial obligated period of active duty.

(f)(1) For the purposes of this chapter, a member referred to in paragraph (2) or (3) of this subsection who serves the periods of active duty referred to in that paragraph shall be deemed to have served a continuous period of active duty the length of which is the aggregate length of the periods of active duty referred to in that paragraph.

(2) This subsection applies to a member who—

(A) after a period of continuous active duty of not more than 12 months, is discharged or released from active duty under subclause (I) or (III) of subsection (a)(1)(A)(ii) of this section; and

(B) after such discharge or release, reenlists or re-enters on a period of active duty.


(3) This subsection applies to a member who after a period of continuous active duty as an enlisted member or warrant officer, and following successful completion of officer training school, is discharged in order to accept, without a break in service, a commission as an officer in the Armed Forces for a period of active duty.

(g) Notwithstanding section 3002(6)(A) of this title, a period during which an individual is assigned full time by the Armed Forces to a civilian institution for a course of education as described in such section 3002(6)(A) shall not be considered a break in service or a break in a continuous period of active duty of the individual for the purposes of this chapter.

(h)(1) Notwithstanding section 3002(6)(B) of this title, a member referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection who serves the periods of active duty referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (C) of that paragraph shall be deemed to have served a continuous period of active duty whose length is the aggregate length of the periods of active duty referred to in such subparagraphs.

(2) This subsection applies to a member who—

(A) during an initial period of active duty, commences pursuit of a course of education—

(i) at a service academy; or

(ii) at a post-secondary school for the purpose of preparation for enrollment at a service academy;


(B) fails to complete the course of education; and

(C) re-enters on a period of active duty.


(i) The Secretary concerned shall inform any member of the Armed Forces who has not completed that member's initial obligated period of active duty (as described in subsection (a)(1)(A)) and who indicates the intent to be discharged or released from such duty for the convenience of the Government of the minimum active duty requirements for entitlement to educational assistance benefits under this chapter. Such information shall be provided to the member in a timely manner.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2554, §1411; amended Pub. L. 99–145, title VI, §674(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 665; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §§303(a)(1), 307(a)(1), 321(1), title VII, §702(8), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3268, 3269, 3277, 3302; Pub. L. 100–48, §3(a), June 1, 1987, 101 Stat. 331; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§102(a), 103(b)(1), 104(a), 111(a)(2)(A), (3), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4162, 4165, 4166, 4170, 4171; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§409, 423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2084, 2092; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §562(a)(1), (2), (b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1573, 1574; Pub. L. 102–16, §10(a)(1), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 55; renumbered §3011, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §§302(a)(1), 303(a)(1), 304(a), 305(a), 306(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4326–4328; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(e)(10), (f)(2), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4685, 4687; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(e)(2)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §556(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2528; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §§203(a), 207(a), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3326, 3328; Pub. L. 106–117, title VII, §§702(a), 704, Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1583, 1584.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3011 was renumbered section 5111 of this title.

Another prior section 3011, Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1227; Pub. L. 86–490, June 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 161, related to the effective date of an award of increased compensation, dependency and indemnity compensation, or pension, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 87–825, §5(a), Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 950.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 106–117, §702(a)(1), substituted “paragraph (2) or (3)” for “paragraph (2)”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 106–117, §702(a)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 106–117, §704, struck out “Federal” before “Government”.

1998—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–368, §203(a), substituted “successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for)” for “successfully completed” in two places in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–368, §207(a), added subsec. (i).

1996—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–201, §556(a)(1), struck out “or upon completion of a program of educational assistance under section 2107 of title 10” after “Coast Guard Academy”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 104–201, §556(a)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “section 12301, 12302, 12304, 12306, or 12307 of title 10” for “section 672, 673, 673b, 674, or 675 of title 10”.

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(f)(2), substituted “October 28, 1994,” for “the end of the 24-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this subsection”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(e)(10), substituted “the length of which” for “whose length”.

1992—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 102–568, §302(a)(1), substituted “at any time during the period beginning on October 19, 1984, and ending on July 1, 1985, continued on active duty without a break in service” for “on October 19, 1984, and without a break in service since October 19, 1984,”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–568, §303(a)(1)(A), inserted “, except as provided in subsection (e) of this section,” after “who”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–568, §303(a)(1)(B), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–568, §304(a), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–568, §305(a), added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–568, §306(a), added subsec. (h).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1411 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–16 added cls. (A) to (C), redesignated former cl. (C) as (D), and struck out former cls. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

“(A) is discharged from service with an honorable discharge, is placed on the retired list, is transferred to the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve, or is placed on the temporary disability retired list;

“(B) continues on active duty; or”.

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 101–510, §562(a)(1), substituted “for” for “or for” and inserted “, or for a physical or mental condition that was not characterized as a disability and did not result from the individual's own willful misconduct but did interfere with the individual's performance of duty, as determined by the Secretary of each military department in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense or by the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy” after “hardship”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 101–510, §562(a)(2), substituted “for” for “or for” and inserted “, or for a physical or mental condition that was not characterized as a disability, as described in subparagraph (A)(ii)(I) of this paragraph” after “hardship”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §562(b)(1), substituted “paragraphs (2) and (3)” for “paragraph (2)”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §562(b)(2), added par. (3).

1989—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii), (B)(ii). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §409, in concluding provisions, inserted cl. (i) designation and added cl. (ii).

1988—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i)(I). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(2)(A), inserted “, as the individual's initial obligated period of active duty,” after “serves”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 100–689, §102(a), inserted in subcl. (I) “, for a medical condition which preexisted such service on active duty and which the Administrator determines is not service connected,”, substituted a semicolon for “, or” before subcl. (II), and added subcl. (III).

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 100–689, §102(a), inserted in subcl. (I) “, for a medical condition which preexisted such service on active duty and which the Administrator determines is not service connected,”, substituted a semicolon for “, or” before subcl. (II), and added subcl. (III).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–689, §104(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “who, before completion of the service described in clause (1) of this subsection, has received a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency certificate); and”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–689, §103(b)(1), substituted “reduced under this chapter” for “reduced under this subsection”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(3), added subsec. (d).

1987—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–48 substituted “after June 30, 1985” for “during the period beginning on July 1, 1985, and ending on June 30, 1988”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–576, §702(8), inserted a comma after “of this section”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(1)(A), inserted “continuous” after “months of” in two places.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–576, §307(a)(1), inserted “and was on active duty on October 19, 1984, and without a break in service since October 19, 1984,”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(1)(B), inserted “continuous” after “months of”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–576, §303(a)(1), substituted “Any amount by which the basic pay of an individual is reduced under this subsection shall revert to the Treasury and shall not, for purposes of any Federal law, be considered to have been received by or to be within the control of such individual” for “Amounts withheld from basic pay under this subsection shall revert to the Treasury”.

1985—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–145 struck out “and without a break in service on active duty since December 31, 1976,” after “chapter 34 of this title”.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–117, title VII, §702(c), Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1583, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1999] and apply with respect to an individual first appointed as a commissioned officer on or after July 1, 1985.”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §203(b), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3326, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 3012 and 3018 to 3018C of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1998.”

Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §207(d)(1), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3328, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 3012 of this title] shall take effect 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 11, 1998].”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 302(b) of Pub. L. 102–568 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 3012 and 3031 of this title] shall take effect as of October 28, 1986.”

Section 304(b) of Pub. L. 102–568 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as if enacted on June 30, 1985, and apply to the payment of educational assistance for education or training pursued on or after October 1, 1993.”

Section 305(b) of Pub. L. 102–568 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as if enacted on October 19, 1984.”

Section 306(b) of Pub. L. 102–568 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as if enacted on June 30, 1985, and apply to the payment of educational assistance for education or training pursued on or after October 1, 1993.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 562(c) of Pub. L. 101–510 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1412 and 3103A [now 3012 and 5303A] of this title] shall take effect as of October 19, 1984.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 102(c) of Pub. L. 100–689 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1412, 1413, and 3103A [now 3012, 3013, and 5303A] of this title] shall take effect—

“(1) as of July 1, 1985, with respect to individuals discharged or released for a medical condition which preexisted service on active duty or in the Selected Reserve and which the Administrator determines is not service connected; and

“(2) as of October 1, 1987, with respect to individuals involuntarily discharged or released for the convenience of the Government as a result of a reduction in force.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 303(b) of Pub. L. 99–576 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 1412 [now 3012] of this title] shall apply to any reduction in basic pay made under section 1411(b) [now 3011(b)] or 1412(c) [now 3012(c)] of title 38, United States Code, after December 31, 1985.”

Notification Requirement

Section 303(b) of Pub. L. 102–568 directed Secretary of each military department, not later than 60 days after Oct. 29, 1992, to notify each individual who was on active duty in the Armed Forces on Aug. 2, 1990, and who had not met the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or equivalency certificate), of the extension of the period for the completion of such requirements afforded by the amendments made by this section to this section and section 3012 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3012, 3013, 3015, 3016, 3017, 3018, 3018A, 3018B, 3018C, 3021, 3031, 3034, 3036, 3232, 3462, 4214, 5303A of this title; title 10 section 2006; title 42 section 12603.

§3012. Basic educational assistance entitlement for service in the Selected Reserve

(a) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, each individual—

(1) who—

(A) after June 30, 1985, first becomes a member of the Armed Forces or first enters on active duty as a member of the Armed Forces and—

(i) serves, as the individual's initial obligated period of active duty, at least two years of continuous active duty in the Armed Forces, subject to subsection (b) of this section, characterized by the Secretary concerned as honorable service; and

(ii) subject to subsection (b) of this section and beginning within one year after completion of the service on active duty described in subclause (i) of this clause, serves at least four years of continuous duty in the Selected Reserve during which the individual participates satisfactorily in training as required by the Secretary concerned; or


(B) as of December 31, 1989, is eligible for educational assistance under chapter 34 of this title and was on active duty at any time during the period beginning on October 19, 1984, and ending on July 1, 1985, continued on active duty without a break in service and—

(i) after June 30, 1985, serves at least two years of continuous active duty in the Armed Forces, subject to subsection (b) of this section, characterized by the Secretary concerned as honorable service; and

(ii) after June 30, 1985, subject to subsection (b) of this section and beginning within one year after completion of such two years of service, serves at least four continuous years in the Selected Reserve during which the individual participates satisfactorily in training as prescribed by the Secretary concerned;


(2) who, except as provided in subsection (f) of this section, before completion of the service described in clause (1) of this subsection, has completed the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency certificate), except that (i) an individual described in clause (1)(B) of this subsection may meet the requirement of this clause by having successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for) the equivalent of 12 semester hours in a program of education leading to a standard college degree, and (ii) an individual described in clause (1)(A) of this subsection may meet such requirement by having successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for) the equivalent of such 12 semester hours before the end of the individual's initial obligated period of active duty; and

(3) who, after completion of the service described in clause (1) of this subsection—

(A) is discharged from service with an honorable discharge, is placed on the retired list, or is transferred to the Standby Reserve or an element of the Ready Reserve other than the Selected Reserve after service in the Selected Reserve characterized by the Secretary concerned as honorable service; or

(B) continues on active duty or in the Selected Reserve;


is entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter.

(b)(1)(A) The requirement of two years of service under clauses (1)(A)(i) and (1)(B)(i) of subsection (a) of this section is not applicable to an individual who is discharged or released, during such two years, from active duty in the Armed Forces (i) for a service-connected disability, (ii) for a medical condition which preexisted such service on active duty and which the Secretary determines is not service connected, (iii) for hardship, (iv) in the case of an individual discharged or released after 20 months of such service, for the convenience of the Government, (v) involuntarily for the convenience of the Government as a result of a reduction in force, as determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense or by the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, or (vi) for a physical or mental condition that was not characterized as a disability, as described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I) of this title.

(B) The requirement of four years of service under clauses (1)(A)(ii) and (1)(B)(ii) of subsection (a) of this section is not applicable to an individual—

(i) who, during the two years of service described in clauses (1)(A)(i) and (1)(B)(i) of subsection (a) of this section, was discharged or released from active duty in the Armed Forces for a service-connected disability, for a medical condition which preexisted such service on active duty and which the Secretary determines is not service connected, or for a physical or mental condition not characterized as a disability, as described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I) of this title, if the individual was obligated, at the beginning of such two years of service, to serve such four years of service;

(ii) who, during the four years of service described in clauses (1)(A)(ii) and (1)(B)(ii) of subsection (a) of this section, is discharged or released from service in the Selected Reserve (I) for a service-connected disability, (II) for a medical condition which preexisted the individual's becoming a member of the Selected Reserve and which the Secretary determines is not service connected, (III) for hardship, (IV) in the case of an individual discharged or released after 30 months of such service, for the convenience of the Government, (V) involuntarily for the convenience of the Government as a result of a reduction in force, as determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense or by the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, or (VI) for a physical or mental condition not characterized as a disability, as described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I) of this title; or

(iii) who, before completing the four years of service described in clauses (1)(A)(ii) and (1)(B)(ii) of subsection (a) of this section, ceases to be a member of the Selected Reserve during the period beginning on October 1, 1991, and ending on September 30, 1999, by reason of the inactivation of the person's unit of assignment or by reason of involuntarily ceasing to be designated as a member of the Selected Reserve pursuant to section 10143(a) of title 10.


(2) After an individual begins service in the Selected Reserve within one year after completion of the service described in clause (A)(i) or (B)(i) of subsection (a)(1) of this section, the continuity of service of such individual as a member of the Selected Reserve shall not be considered to be broken—

(A) by any period of time (not to exceed a maximum period prescribed by the Secretary concerned by regulation) during which the member is not able to locate a unit of the Selected Reserve of the member's Armed Force that the member is eligible to join or that has a vacancy; or

(B) by any other period of time (not to exceed a maximum period prescribed by the Secretary concerned by regulation) during which the member is not attached to a unit of the Selected Reserve that the Secretary concerned, pursuant to regulations, considers to be inappropriate to consider for such purpose.


(c) The basic pay of any individual described in subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section who does not make an election under subsection (d)(1) of this section shall be reduced by $100 for each of the first 12 months that such individual is entitled to such pay. Any amount by which the basic pay of an individual is reduced under this chapter shall revert to the Treasury and shall not, for purposes of any Federal law, be considered to have been received by or to be within the control of such individual.

(d)(1) An individual described in subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section may make an election not to receive educational assistance under this chapter. Any such election shall be made at the time the individual initially enters on active duty as a member of the Armed Forces. Any individual who makes such an election is not entitled to educational assistance under this chapter.

(2) An individual who after December 31, 1976, receives a commission as an officer in the Armed Forces upon graduation from the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, or the Coast Guard Academy is not eligible for educational assistance under this section.

(3) An individual who after December 31, 1976, receives a commission as an officer in the Armed Forces upon completion of a program of educational assistance under section 2107 of title 10 is not eligible for educational assistance under this section if the individual enters on active duty—

(A) before October 1, 1996; or

(B) after September 30, 1996, and while participating in such program received more than $2,000 for each year of such participation.


(e)(1) An individual described in subclause (I) or (III) of subsection (b)(1)(B)(ii) of this section may elect entitlement to basic educational assistance under section 3011 of this title, based on an initial obligated period of active duty of two years, in lieu of entitlement to assistance under this section.

(2) An individual who makes the election described in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall, for all purposes of this chapter, be considered entitled to educational assistance under section 3011 of this title and not under this section. Such an election is irrevocable.

(f) For the purposes of subsection (a)(2) of this section, an individual who was on active duty on August 2, 1990, and who completes the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or equivalency certificate) before October 28, 1994, shall be considered to have completed such requirements within the individual's initial obligated period of active duty.

(g)(1) The Secretary concerned shall inform any member of the Armed Forces who has not completed that member's initial service (as described in paragraph (2)) and who indicates the intent to be discharged or released from such service for the convenience of the Government of the minimum service requirements for entitlement to educational assistance benefits under this chapter. Such information shall be provided to the member in a timely manner.

(2) The initial service referred to in paragraph (1) is the initial obligated period of active duty (described in subparagraphs 1 (A)(i) or (B)(i) of subsection (a)(1)) or the period of service in the Selected Reserve (described in subparagraphs 1 (A)(ii) or (B)(ii) of subsection (a)(1)).

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2555, §1412; amended Pub. L. 99–145, title VI, §674(2), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 665; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §§303(a)(2), 307(a)(2), 321(2), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3269, 3277; Pub. L. 100–48, §3(b), June 1, 1987, 101 Stat. 331; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§102(b)(1), 103(b)(1), 104(b), 105, 111(a)(2)(B), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4162, 4165, 4166, 4171; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§409, 423(a)(1), (b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2084, 2090, 2092; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §562(a)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1574; renumbered §3012 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLIV, §4419(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2718; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §§302(a)(2), 303(a)(2), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4326, 4327; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §561(m), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1668; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(f)(2), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4687; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(e)(2)(B), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §556(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2528; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §§203(a), 207(b), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3326, 3328; Pub. L. 106–117, title VII, §704, Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1584.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3012 was renumbered section 5112 of this title.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 106–117 struck out “Federal” before “Government”.

1998—Subsec. (a)(2)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 105–368, §203(a), substituted “successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for)” for “successfully completed”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–368, §207(b), added subsec. (g).

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “section 10143(a) of title 10” for “section 268(b) of title 10”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–201, §556(b)(1), struck out “or upon completion of a program of educational assistance under section 2107 of title 10” after “Coast Guard Academy”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 104–201, §556(b)(2), added par. (3).

1994—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–446 substituted “October 28, 1994,” for “the end of the 24-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this subsection”.

1993—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 103–160 substituted “September 30, 1999” for “September 30, 1995”.

1992—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 102–568, §302(a)(2), substituted “at any time during the period beginning on October 19, 1984, and ending on July 1, 1985, continued on active duty without a break in service” for “on October 19, 1984, and without a break in service since October 19, 1984,”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–568, §303(a)(2)(A), inserted “except as provided in subsection (f) of this section,” after “who,”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 102–484 added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–568, §303(a)(2)(B), added subsec. (f).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1412 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I)” for “1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I)” in subpars. (A) and (B)(i) and (ii).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011” for “1411” in pars. (1) and (2).

1990—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 101–510, §562(a)(3)(A), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 101–510, §562(a)(3)(B), substituted “disability, for” for “disability or for” and inserted “, or for a physical or mental condition not characterized as a disability, as described in section 1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I) of this title” before “if the individual”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii)(VI). Pub. L. 101–510, §562(a)(3)(C), added subcl. (VI).

1989—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii), (B)(ii). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(1)(A), substituted “and beginning within one year after completion” for “and after completion”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §409, inserted cl. (i) designation and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(1)(B), substituted “After an individual begins service in the Selected Reserve within one year after completion of the service described in clause (A)(i) or (B)(i) of subsection (a)(1) of this section, the continuity of service of such individual as a member of the Selected Reserve” for “Continuity of service of a member in the Selected Reserve for purposes of such clauses”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(2)(B), inserted “, as the individual's initial obligated period of active duty,”.

Pub. L. 100–689, §102(b)(1)(B), inserted “, subject to subsection (b) of this section,”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 100–689, §102(b)(1)(B), inserted “, subject to subsection (b) of this section,”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–689, §104(b), substituted “completed the requirements of a secondary school diploma” for “received a secondary school diploma”, and inserted “, except that an individual described in clause (1)(B) of this subsection may meet the requirement of this clause by having successfully completed the equivalent of 12 semester hours in a program of education leading to a standard college degree”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–689, §102(b)(1)(A), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “The requirement of four years of service under clauses (1)(A)(ii) and (1)(B)(ii) of subsection (a) of this section is not applicable to an individual who is discharged or released from service in the Selected Reserve for a service-connected disability, for hardship, or (in the case of an individual discharged or released after three and one-half years of such service) for the convenience of the Government.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–689, §103(b)(1), substituted “reduced under this chapter” for “reduced under this subsection”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–689, §105, added subsec. (e).

1987—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–48 substituted “after June 30, 1985,” for “during the period beginning on July 1, 1985, and ending on June 30, 1988”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(2)(A), substituted “subsection (d)” for “subsection (c)”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–576, §307(a)(2), inserted “and was on active duty on October 19, 1984, and without a break in service since October 19, 1984,”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(2)(B), inserted “such” after “three and one-half years of”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–576, §303(a)(2), substituted “Any amount by which the basic pay of an individual is reduced under this subsection shall revert to the Treasury and shall not, for purposes of any Federal law, be considered to have been received by or to be within the control of such individual” for “Any amounts withheld from basic pay under this paragraph shall revert to the Treasury”.

1985—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–145 struck out “and without a break in service on active duty since December 31, 1976,” after “chapter 34 of this title”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 105–368 effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 203(b) of Pub. L. 105–368, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Amendment by section 207(b) of Pub. L. 105–368 effective 120 days after Nov. 11, 1998, see section 207(d)(1) of Pub. L. 105–368, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by section 302(a)(2) of Pub. L. 102–568 effective as of Oct. 28, 1986, see section 302(b) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–510 effective Oct. 19, 1984, see section 562(c) of Pub. L. 101–510, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 102(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–689 effective July 1, 1985, with respect to individuals discharged or released for medical condition which preexisted service on active duty or in Selected Reserve and which Administrator determines is not service connected, and effective Oct. 1, 1987, with respect to individuals involuntarily discharged or released for convenience of Government as a result of reduction in force, see section 102(c) of Pub. L. 100–689, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 303(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99–576 applicable to any reduction in basic pay made under subsec. (c) of this section after Dec. 31, 1985, see section 303(b) of Pub. L. 99–576, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Notification Requirement

For requirement of notification of individuals on active duty in Armed Forces on Aug. 2, 1990, of extension of period for completion of requirements for a secondary school diploma, see section 303(b) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3013, 3016, 3017, 3018, 3018A, 3018B, 3018C, 3021, 3031, 3034, 3036, 5303A of this title; title 10 sections 2006, 16131.

1 So in original. Probably should be “subparagraph”.

§3013. Duration of basic educational assistance

(a)(1) Subject to section 3695 of this title and except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, each individual entitled to basic educational assistance under section 3011 of this title is entitled to 36 months of educational assistance benefits under this chapter (or the equivalent thereof in part-time educational assistance).

(2) Subject to section 3695 of this title and subsection (d) of this section, in the case of an individual described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I) or (III) of this title who is not also described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(i) of this title or an individual described in section 3011(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I) or (III) of this title who is not also described in section 3011(a)(1)(B)(i) of this title, the individual is entitled to one month of educational assistance benefits under this chapter for each month of continuous active duty served by such individual after June 30, 1985, as part of the individual's initial obligated period of active duty in the case of an individual described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I) or (III) of this title, or in the case of an individual described in section 3011(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I) or (III) of this title, after June 30, 1985.

(b) Subject to section 3695 of this title and subsection (d) of this section, each individual entitled to basic educational assistance under section 3012 of this title is entitled to (1) one month of educational assistance benefits under this chapter for each month of continuous active duty served by such individual after June 30, 1985, as part of the individual's initial obligated period of active duty in the case of an individual described in section 3012(a)(1)(A) of this title, or in the case of an individual described in section 3012(a)(1)(B) of this title, after June 30, 1985, and (2) one month of educational assistance benefits under this chapter for each four months served by such individual in the Selected Reserve after the applicable date specified in clause (1) of this subsection (other than any month in which the individual served on active duty).

(c)(1) Subject to section 3695 of this title and except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, each individual entitled to basic educational assistance under section 3018 of this title is entitled to 36 months of educational assistance under this chapter (or the equivalent thereof in part-time educational assistance).

(2) Subject to section 3695 of this title, an individual described in clause (B) or (C) of section 3018(b)(3) of this title whose discharge or release from active duty prevents the reduction of the basic pay of such individual by $1,200 is entitled to the number of months of assistance under this chapter that is equal to the lesser of—

(A) 36 multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount by which the basic pay of the individual has been reduced under section 3018(c) and the denominator of which is $1,200; or

(B) the number of months the individual has served on continuous active duty after June 30, 1985.


(3) Subject to section 3695 of this title and subsection (d) of this section, an individual described in clause (B) or (C)(ii) of section 3018(b)(3) of this title (other than an individual described in paragraph (2) of this subsection) is entitled to the number of months of educational assistance under this chapter that is equal to the number of months the individual has served on continuous active duty after June 30, 1985.

(d) Subject to section 3695 of this title, each individual entitled to educational benefits under section 3018A, 3018B, or 3018C of this title is entitled to the lesser of—

(1) 36 months of educational assistance under this chapter (or the equivalent thereof in part-time educational assistance); or

(2) the number of months of such educational assistance (or such equivalent thereof) that is equal to the number of months served by such individual on active duty.


(e) No individual may receive basic educational assistance benefits under this chapter for a period in excess of 36 months (or the equivalent thereof in part-time educational assistance).

(f)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, any payment of an educational assistance allowance described in paragraph (2) shall not—

(A) be charged against any entitlement of any individual under this chapter; or

(B) be counted toward the aggregate period for which section 3695 of this title limits an individual's receipt of assistance.


(2) Subject to paragraph (3), the payment of the educational assistance allowance referred to in paragraph (1) is the payment of such an allowance to an individual for pursuit of a course or courses under this chapter if the Secretary finds that the individual—

(A) in the case of a person not serving on active duty, had to discontinue such course pursuit as a result of being ordered, in connection with the Persian Gulf War, to serve on active duty under section 672(a), (d), or (g), 673, 673b,1 or 688 of title 10; or

(B) in the case of a person serving on active duty, had to discontinue such course pursuit as a result of being ordered, in connection with such War, to a new duty location or assignment or to perform an increased amount of work; and

(C) failed to receive credit or lost training time toward completion of the individual's approved education, professional, or vocational objective as a result of having to discontinue, as described in subparagraph (A) or (B), his or her course pursuit.


(3) The period for which, by reason of this subsection, an educational assistance allowance is not charged against entitlement or counted toward the applicable aggregate period under section 3695 of this title shall not exceed the portion of the period of enrollment in the course or courses for which the individual failed to receive credit or with respect to which the individual lost training time, as determined under paragraph (2)(C) of this subsection.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2557, §1413; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §321(3), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3277; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§102(b)(2), 103(b)(2), 111(a)(4), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4163, 4165, 4171; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(a)(2), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §561(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1573; renumbered §3013 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–127, §2(a), Oct. 10, 1991, 105 Stat. 619; Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLIV, §4404(b)(2), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2706; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §106(b)(2), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3329.)

References in Text

Sections 672, 673, and 673b of title 10, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(A), were renumbered sections 12301, 12302, and 12304, respectively, of Title 10, Armed Forces, by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992. A new section 672 of Title 10 was enacted by section 1662(e)(4) of Pub. L. 103–337.

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3013 was renumbered section 5113 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “, 3018B, or 3018C” for “or 3018B”.

1992—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–484 inserted “or 3018B” after “section 3018A” in introductory provisions.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1413 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3695” for “1795” in two places, “3011” for “1411”, “3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I)” for “1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I)” in two places, “3011(a)(1)(A)(i)” for “1411(a)(1)(A)(i)”, “3011(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I)” for “1411(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I)” in two places, and “3011(a)(1)(B)(i)” for “1411(a)(1)(B)(i)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3695” for “1795”, “3012” for “1412”, “3012(a)(1)(A)” for “1412(a)(1)(A)”, and “3012(a)(1)(B)” for “1412(a)(1)(B)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3695” for “1795” wherever appearing, “3018” for “1418”, “3018(b)(3)” for “1418(b)(3)” in two places, and “3018(c)” for “1418(c)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3695” for “1795” and “3018A” for “1418A”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–127 added subsec. (f).

1990—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 101–510 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(2)(A), substituted “subsection (d)” for “subsection (c)”.

Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(2)(B), substituted “section 1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I) or (III) of this title, or” for “section 1411(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I) or (III) of this title, or”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(2)(A), substituted “subsection (d)” for “subsection (c)”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(2)(C)(i), inserted reference to par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(2)(C)(ii), added par. (3).

1988—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(4)(A), substituted “Subject to section 1795 of this title and subsection (c) of this section, in the case” for “In the case” and “continuous active duty served by such individual after June 30, 1985, as part of the individual's initial obligated period of active duty in the case of an individual described in section 1411(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I) or (III) of this title, or in the case of an individual described in section 1411(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I) or (III) of this title, after June 30, 1985” for “active duty served by such individual after the date of the beginning of the period for which the individual's basic pay is reduced under section 1411(b) of this title, in the case of an individual described in section 1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I) of this title, or after June 30, 1985, in the case of an individual described in section 1411(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I) of this title”.

Pub. L. 100–689, §102(b)(2), inserted “or (III)” after “section 1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I)” and after “section 1411(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I)”, the first place each appears.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(4)(B), substituted “continuous active duty served by such individual after June 30, 1985, as part of the individual's initial obligated period of active duty in the case of an individual described in section 1412(a)(1)(A) of this title, or in the case of an individual described in section 1412(a)(1)(B) of this title, after June 30, 1985” for “active duty served by such individual after the date of the beginning of the period for which such individual's basic pay is reduced under section 1412(c) of this title, in the case of an individual described in section 1412(a)(1)(A), or after June 30, 1985, in the case of an individual described in section 1412(a)(1)(B) of this title”.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 100–689, §103(b)(2), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1986—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(3)(A), inserted “after the date of the beginning of the period for which the individual's basic pay is reduced under section 1411(b) of this title, in the case of an individual described in section 1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(I) of this title, or after June 30, 1985, in the case of an individual described in section 1411(a)(1)(B)(ii)(I) of this title”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(3)(B)(i), inserted “after the date of the beginning of the period for which such individual's basic pay is reduced under section 1412(c) of this title, in the case of an individual described in section 1412(a)(1)(A), or after June 30, 1985, in the case of an individual described in section 1412(a)(1)(B) of this title”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(3)(B)(ii), inserted “after the applicable date specified in clause (1) of this subsection” after “Selected Reserve”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 102(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–689 effective July 1, 1985, with respect to individuals discharged or released for medical condition which preexisted service on active duty or in Selected Reserve and which Administrator determines is not service connected, and effective Oct. 1, 1987, with respect to individuals involuntarily discharged or released for convenience of Government as a result of reduction in force, see section 102(c) of Pub. L. 100–689, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3031 of this title; title 42 section 12603.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3014. Payment of basic educational assistance

The Secretary shall pay to each individual entitled to basic educational assistance who is pursuing an approved program of education a basic educational assistance allowance to help meet, in part, the expenses of such individual's subsistence, tuition, fees, supplies, books, equipment, and other educational costs.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2557, §1414; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3014, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1414 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

§3015. Amount of basic educational assistance

(a) The amount of payment of educational assistance under this chapter is subject to section 3032 of this title. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a basic educational assistance allowance under this subchapter shall be paid—

(1) at the monthly rate of $528 (as increased from time to time under subsection (g)) for an approved program of education pursued on a full-time basis; or

(2) at an appropriately reduced rate, as determined under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, for an approved program of education pursued on less than a full-time basis.


(b) In the case of an individual entitled to an educational assistance allowance under section 3011 or 3018 of this title and whose initial obligated period of active duty is two years, a basic educational assistance allowance under this chapter shall (except as provided in the succeeding subsections of this section) be paid—

(1) at the monthly rate of $429 (as increased from time to time under subsection (g)) for an approved program of education pursued on a full-time basis; or

(2) at an appropriately reduced rate, as determined under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, for an approved program of education pursued on less than a full-time basis.


(c)(1) The amount of basic educational allowance payable under this chapter to an individual referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection is the amount determined under subsection (a) of this section.

(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection applies to an individual entitled to an educational assistance allowance under section 3011 of this title—

(A) whose initial obligated period of active duty is less than three years;

(B) who, beginning on the date of the commencement of the person's initial obligated period of such duty, serves a continuous period of active duty of not less than three years; and

(C) who, after the completion of that continuous period of active duty, meets one of the conditions set forth in subsection (a)(3) of such section 3011.


(d)(1) In the case of an individual who has a skill or specialty designated by the Secretary concerned as a skill or specialty in which there is a critical shortage of personnel or for which it is difficult to recruit, the Secretary concerned, pursuant to regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, may, at the time the individual first becomes a member of the Armed Forces, increase the rate of the basic educational assistance allowance applicable to such individual to such rate in excess of the rate prescribed under subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate, but the amount of any such increase may not exceed $950 per month.

(2) In the case of an individual who after October 7, 1997, receives an enlistment bonus under section 308a or 308f of title 37, receipt of that bonus does not affect the eligibility of that individual for an increase under paragraph (1) in the rate of the basic educational assistance allowance applicable to that individual, and the Secretary concerned may provide such an increase for that individual (and enter into an agreement with that individual that the United States agrees to make payments pursuant to such an increase) without regard to any provision of law (enacted before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this paragraph) that limits the authority to make such payments.

(e)(1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph and subject to paragraph (2) of this subsection, in the case of an individual who on December 31, 1989, was entitled to educational assistance under chapter 34 of this title, the rate of the basic educational assistance allowance applicable to such individual under this chapter shall be increased by the amount equal to one-half of the educational assistance allowance that would be applicable to such individual under such chapter 34 (as of the time the assistance under this chapter is provided and based on the rates in effect on December 31, 1989) if such chapter were in effect.

(B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, in the case of an individual described in that subparagraph who is pursuing a cooperative program on or after October 9, 1996, the rate of the basic educational assistance allowance applicable to such individual under this chapter shall be increased by the amount equal to one-half of the educational assistance allowance that would be applicable to such individual for pursuit of full-time institutional training under chapter 34 (as of the time the assistance under this chapter is provided and based on the rates in effect on December 31, 1989) if such chapter were in effect.

(2) The number of months for which the rate of the basic educational assistance allowance applicable to an individual is increased under paragraph (1) of this subsection may not exceed the number of months of entitlement to educational assistance under chapter 34 of this title that the individual had remaining on December 31, 1989.

(f) In the case of an individual for whom the Secretary of Defense made contributions under section 3222(c) of this title and who is entitled to educational assistance under section 3018A, 3018B, or 3018C of this chapter, the Secretary shall increase the rate of the basic educational assistance allowance applicable to such individual in excess of the rate provided under subsection (a) of this section in a manner consistent with, as determined by the Secretary of Defense, the agreement entered into with such individual pursuant to the rules and regulations issued by the Secretary of Defense under section 3222(c) of this title.

(g) With respect to any fiscal year, the Secretary shall provide a percentage increase (rounded to the nearest dollar) in the rates payable under subsections (a)(1) and (b)(1) equal to the percentage by which—

(1) the Consumer Price Index (all items, United States city average) for the 12-month period ending on the June 30 preceding the beginning of the fiscal year for which the increase is made, exceeds

(2) such Consumer Price Index for the 12-month period preceding the 12-month period described in paragraph (1).

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2557, §1415; amended Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§103(b)(3), 111(a)(5)(A), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4165, 4171; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §641, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1456; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (5), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §561(b)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1573; Pub. L. 102–25, title III, §337(a), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 90; Pub. L. 102–54, §14(c)(1), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 284; renumbered §3015 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §§301(a), (c), 307(a), (b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4325, 4326, 4328, 4329; Pub. L. 103–66, title XII, §12009(a), (d)(1), (2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 415, 416; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §106(b)(3), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3329; Pub. L. 105–114, title IV, §401(b), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2293; Pub. L. 105–178, title VIII, §8203(a)(1)–(3), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 493; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §565(a), title VI, §656(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2029, 2053.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–261 which was approved Oct. 17, 1998.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–178, §8203(a)(3)(A), struck out “subsections (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), and (g) of” before “this section” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–178, §8203(a)(1)(A), substituted “$528 (as increased from time to time under subsection (g))” for “$400”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–178, §8203(a)(3)(B), in introductory provisions, substituted “In” for “Except as provided in subsections (c), (d), (e), (f), and (g), in” and inserted “(except as provided in the succeeding subsections of this section)” after “under this chapter shall”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–178, §8203(a)(1)(B), substituted “$429 (as increased from time to time under subsection (g))” for “$325”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–261, §656(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 105–261, §565(a), inserted “, at the time the individual first becomes a member of the Armed Forces,” after “Secretary of Defense, may” and substituted “$950 per month” for “$400 per month, in the case of an individual who first became a member of the Armed Forces before November 29, 1989, or $700 per month, in the case of an individual who first became a member of the Armed Forces on or after that date.”

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–178, §8203(a)(2), substituted “, the Secretary shall provide a percentage increase (rounded to the nearest dollar) in the rates payable under subsections (a)(1) and (b)(1)” for “beginning on or after October 1, 1994, the Secretary shall continue to pay, in lieu of the rates payable under subsection (a)(1) or (b)(1) of this section, the monthly rates payable under this subsection for the previous fiscal year and shall provide, for any such fiscal year, a percentage increase in such rates”.

1997—Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–114, §401(b)(1), substituted “(1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph and subject to paragraph (2)” for “(1) Subject to paragraph (2)”.

Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–114, §401(b)(2), added subpar. (B).

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–275 inserted “, 3018B, or 3018C” after “section 3018A”.

1993—Subsecs. (c) to (g). Pub. L. 103–66, §12009(d)(1), (2), made technical amendments to directory language of Pub. L. 102–568, §§301(c), 307(a). See 1992 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–66, §12009(a), struck out par. (1) and par. (2) designation, redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) of former par. (2) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, and substituted “paragraph (1)” for “subparagraph (A)” in par. (2). Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “With respect to the fiscal year beginning on October 1, 1993, the Secretary shall provide a percentage increase in the monthly rates payable under subsections (a)(1) and (b)(1) of this section equal to the percentage by which the Consumer Price Index (all items, United States city average, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) for the 12-month period ending June 30, 1993, exceeds such Consumer Price Index for the 12-month period ending June 30, 1992.”

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–568, §307(b)(1), substituted “(f), and (g)” for “and (f)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §301(a)(1), substituted “$400” for “$300”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–568, §307(b)(2), substituted “(f), and (g)” for “and (f)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §301(a)(2), substituted “$325” for “$250”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–568, §307(a)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 103–66, §12009(d)(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–568, §307(a)(1), (2), as amended by Pub. L. 103–66, §12009(d)(2), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d) and substituted “(a), (b), and (c)” for “(a) and (b)”. Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–568, §307(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 103–66, §12009(d)(2), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–568, §307(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 103–66, §12009(d)(2), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Pub. L. 102–568, §301(c), as amended by Pub. L. 103–66, §12009(d)(1), redesignated par. (2) as (1), substituted “shall provide a percentage increase in the monthly rates payable under subsections (a)(1) and (b)(1) of this section” for “may continue to pay, in lieu of the rates payable under subsection (a)(1) or (b)(1) of this section, the monthly rates payable under paragraph (1) of this subsection and may provide a percentage increase in such rates”, redesignated par. (3) as (2), substituted “Secretary shall” for “Secretary may” and “and shall” for “and may” in introductory provisions, and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “During the period beginning on October 1, 1991, and ending on September 30, 1993, the monthly rates payable under subsection (a)(1) or (b)(1) of this section shall be $350 and $275, respectively.”

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–568, §307(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 103–66, §12009(d)(2), redesignated subsec. (f) as (g).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1415 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3042” for “1432” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 102–25, §337(a)(1), substituted “, (c), (d), (e), and (f)” for “and (c)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011 or 3018” for “1411 or 1418” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 102–25, §337(a)(2), substituted “Except as provided in subsections (c), (d), (e), and (f), in” for “In” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–54 substituted “November 29, 1989” for “the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3222(c)” for “1622(c)” in two places and “3018A” for “1418A”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–25, §337(a)(3), added subsec. (f).

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–510 added subsec. (e).

1989—Subsecs. (a)(2), (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(5), inserted “of Defense” after “prescribed by the Secretary” and after “of this section as the Secretary”.

Pub. L. 101–189 inserted “, in the case of an individual who first became a member of the Armed Forces before the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991, or $700 per month, in the case of an individual who first became a member of the Armed Forces on or after that date” before period at end.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(5)(A), substituted “The amount of payment of educational assistance under this chapter is subject to section 1432 of this title. Except” for “Subject to section 1432 of this title and except”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–689, §103(b)(3), inserted reference to section 1418 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §565(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2029, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1998, and shall apply with respect to individuals who first become members of the Armed Forces on or after that date.”

Pub. L. 105–178, title VIII, §8203(a)(4), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 493, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1998, and shall apply with respect to educational assistance allowances paid for months after September 1998. However, no adjustment in rates of educational assistance shall be made under subsection (g) of section 3015 of title 38, United States Code, as amended by paragraph (2), for fiscal year 1999.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 12009(d)(3) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section] shall apply as if included in the enactment of Public Law 102–568.”

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(a) and (c) of Pub. L. 102–568 effective Apr. 1, 1993, but not to be construed to change account from which payment is made for certain portion of payments made under this chapter or chapter 106 of Title 10, Armed Services, see section 301(e) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out as a note under section 16131 of Title 10.

Section 307(c) of Pub. L. 102–568 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall take effect as if enacted on June 30, 1985, and apply to the payment of educational assistance for education or training pursued on or after September 1, 1993.”

1995 Cost-of-Living Adjustment in Rates of Educational Assistance

Fiscal year 1995 cost-of-living adjustments in rates of educational assistance payable under this chapter to be percentage equal to 50 percent of percentage by which such assistance would be increased under subsec. (g) of this section but for section 12009 of Pub. L. 103–66, see section 12009(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 16131 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3018A, 3018B, 3018C, 3032, 3035 of this title; title 10 sections 2006, 16131; title 42 section 12603.

§3016. Inservice enrollment in a program of education

(a) A member of the Armed Forces who—

(1) first becomes a member or first enters on active duty as a member of the Armed Forces after June 30, 1985, and does not make an election under section 3011(c)(1) or section 3012(d)(1);

(2) completes at least two years of service on active duty after such date;

(3) after such service, continues on active duty or in the Selected Reserve without a break in service (except as described in section 3012(b)(2) of this title); and

(4) but for section 3011(a)(1)(A)(i)(I) or 3012(a)(1)(A)(ii) of this title would be eligible for basic educational assistance,


may receive educational assistance under this chapter for enrollment in an approved program of education while continuing to perform the duty described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(i)(I) or 3012(a)(1)(A)(ii) of this title.

(b) A member of the Armed Forces who—

(1) as of December 31, 1989, is eligible for educational assistance benefits under chapter 34 of this title;

(2) after June 30, 1985, has served the two years required by section 3012(a)(1)(B)(i); and

(3) but for section 3012(a)(1)(B)(ii) of this title would be eligible for basic educational assistance,


may, after December 31, 1989, receive educational assistance under this chapter for enrollment in an approved program of education while continuing to perform the duty described in section 3012(a)(1)(B)(ii) of this title.

(c) A member of the Armed Forces who—

(1) completes at least two years of service on active duty after June 30, 1985;

(2) after such service continues on active duty without a break in service; and

(3) but for section 3018(b)(3)(A) of this title would be entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter,


may receive such assistance for enrollment in an approved program of education while continuing to perform the service described in section 3018(b)(2) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2558, §1416; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §321(4), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3278; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §103(b)(4), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4165; renumbered §3016 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1416 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(c)(1)” for “1411(c)(1)”, “3012(d)(1)” for “1412(d)(1)”, “3012(b)(2)” for “1412(b)(2)”, and “3011(a)(1)(A)(i)(I) or 3012(a)(1)(A)(ii)” for “1411(a)(1)(A)(i)(I) or 1412(a)(1)(A)(ii)” in two places.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3012(a)(1)(B)(i)” for “1412(a)(1)(B)(i)” and “3012(a)(1)(B)(ii)” for “1412(a)(1)(B)(ii)” in two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3018(b)(3)(A)” for “1418(b)(3)(A)” and “3018(b)(2)” for “1418(b)(2)”.

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–689 added subsec. (c).

1986—Pub. L. 99–576 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “A member of the Armed Forces who has completed at least two years of service on active duty after June 30, 1985, has continued on active duty or in the Selected Reserve without a break in service (except as described in section 1412(b)(2) of this title), and who but for section 1411(a)(1) or 1412(a)(1) of this title would be eligible for basic educational assistance may receive educational assistance under this chapter for enrollment in an approved program of education while continuing to perform the duty described in section 1411(a)(1) or 1412(a)(1) of this title.”

§3017. Death benefit

(a)(1) In the event of the service-connected death of any individual—

(A) who—

(i) is entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter; or

(ii) is on active duty in the Armed Forces and but for clause (1)(A)(i) or clause (2)(A) of section 3011(a) or clause (1)(A)(i) or (ii) or clause (2) of section 3012(a) of this title would be eligible for such basic educational assistance; and


(B) who dies while on active duty or within one year after discharge or release from active duty,


the Secretary shall make a payment, subject to paragraph (2)(B) of this subsection, in the amount described in subsection (b) of this section to the person or persons described in paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection.

(2)(A) The payment referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be made to the person or persons first listed below who is surviving on the date of such individual's death:

(i) The beneficiary or beneficiaries designated by such individual under the individual's Servicemembers’ Group Life Insurance policy.

(ii) The surviving spouse of the individual.

(iii) The surviving child or children of the individual, in equal shares.

(iv) The surviving parent or parents of the individual, in equal shares.


(B) If no such person survives such individual, no payment shall be made under this section.

(b) The amount of any payment made under this section shall be equal to—

(1) the amount reduced from the individual's pay under section 3011(b), 3012(c), or 3018(c) of this title, less

(2) the total of—

(A) the amount of educational assistance that has been paid to the individual under this chapter before the payment is made under this section; and

(B) the amount of accrued benefits paid or payable with respect to such individual in connection with this chapter.


(c) A payment under this section shall be considered to be a benefit under this title and, for purposes of section 3035(b)(1), it shall be considered to be an entitlement earned under this subchapter.

(Added Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §101(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4161, §1417; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(a)(3), (b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2091, 2092; renumbered §3017 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §308, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4329; Pub. L. 104–275, title IV, §405(c)(2), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3340.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “Servicemembers’ Group” for “Servicemen's Group”.

1992—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 102–568 inserted before comma “or within one year after discharge or release from active duty”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1417 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(a)” for “1411(a)” and “3012(a)” for “1412(a)”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(b), 3012(c), or 3018(c)” for “1411(b), 1412(c), or 1418(c)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3035(b)(1)” for “1435(b)(1)”.

1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(3), substituted “but for clause (1)(A)(i) or clause (2)(A) of section 1411(a) or clause (1)(A)(i) or (ii) or clause (2) of section 1412(a) of this title” for “but for section 1411(a)(1)(A)(i) or division (i) or (ii) of section 1412(a)(1)(A) of this title”.

Effective Date

Section 101(c) of Pub. L. 100–689 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall take effect as of July 1, 1985.”

§3018. Opportunity for certain active-duty personnel to withdraw election not to enroll

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, during the period beginning December 1, 1988, and ending June 30, 1989 (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “open period”), an individual who—

(1) first became a member of the Armed Forces or first entered on active duty as a member of the Armed Forces during the period beginning July 1, 1985, and ending June 30, 1988;

(2) has continuously served on active duty without a break in service since the date the individual first became such a member or first entered on active duty as such a member; and

(3) is serving on active duty during the open period,


shall have the opportunity, in accordance with this section and on such form as the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe, to withdraw an election made under section 3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1) of this title not to receive educational assistance under this chapter.

(b) An individual described in clauses (1) through (3) of subsection (a) of this section who made an election under section 3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1) of this title and who—

(1) while serving on active duty during the open period, makes a withdrawal of such an election;

(2) continues to serve the period of service which, at the beginning of the open period, such individual was obligated to serve;

(3)(A) serves the obligated period of service described in clause (2) of this subsection;

(B) before completing such obligated period of service, is discharged or released from active duty for (i) a service-connected disability, (ii) a medical condition which preexisted such service and which the Secretary determines is not service connected, (iii) hardship, or (iv) a physical or mental condition that was not characterized as a disability and did not result from the individual's own willful misconduct but did interfere with the individual's performance of duty, as determined by the Secretary of each military department in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense (or by the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service of the Navy); or

(C) before completing such obligated period of service, is (i) discharged or released from active duty for the convenience of the Government after completing not less than 20 months of such period of service, if such period was less than three years, or 30 months, if such period was at least three years, or (ii) involuntarily discharged or released from active duty for the convenience of the Government as a result of a reduction in force, as determined by the Secretary concerned in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense;

(4) before completing such obligated period of service (i) has completed the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency certificate), or (ii) has successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for) the equivalent of 12 semester hours in a program of education leading to a standard college degree; and

(5) upon completion of such obligated period of service—

(A) is discharged from service with an honorable discharge, is placed on the retired list, is transferred to the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve, or is placed on the temporary disability retired list;

(B) continues on active duty; or

(C) is released from active duty for further service in a reserve component of the Armed Forces after service on active duty characterized by the Secretary concerned as honorable service,


is entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter.

(c) The basic pay of an individual withdrawing, under subsection (b)(1) of this section, an election under section 3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1) of this title shall be reduced by—

(1) $1,200; or

(2) in the case of an individual described in clause (B) or (C) of subsection (b)(3) of this section whose discharge or release from active duty prevents the reduction of the basic pay of such individual by $1,200, an amount less than $1,200.


(d) A withdrawal under subsection (b)(1) of this section is irrevocable.

(Added Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §103(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4164, §1418; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §10(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 55; renumbered §3018 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–86, title V, §506(b)(2), Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 426; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §309(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4329; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §203(a), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3326.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(4)(ii). Pub. L. 105–368 substituted “successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for)” for “successfully completed”.

1992—Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 102–568 added cl. (iv).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1418 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–86 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(4)(A). See 1989 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1)” for “1411(c)(1) or 1412(d)(1)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1)” for “1411(c)(1) or 1412(d)(1)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–16 substituted “service (i)” for “service,” and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1)” for “1411(c)(1) or 1412(d)(1)” in introductory provisions.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(4)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 102–86, inserted “of Defense” after “Secretary” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–368 effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 203(b) of Pub. L. 105–368, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 309(b) of Pub. L. 102–568 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as if enacted on December 1, 1988.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 506(b)(2) of Pub. L. 102–86 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Dec. 18, 1989.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3013, 3015, 3016, 3017, 3021 of this title.

§3018A. Opportunity for certain active-duty personnel to enroll before being involuntarily separated from service

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an individual who—

(1) after February 2, 1991, is involuntarily separated (as such term is defined in section 1141 of title 10) with an honorable discharge;

(2) before applying for benefits under this section, has completed the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or equivalency certificate) or has successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for) the equivalent of 12 semester hours in a program of education leading to a standard college degree;

(3) in the case of any individual who has made an election under section 3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1) of this title, withdraws such election before such separation pursuant to procedures which the Secretary of each military department shall provide in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense for the purpose of carrying out this section or which the Secretary of Transportation shall provide for such purpose with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy;

(4) in the case of any person enrolled in the educational benefits program provided by chapter 32 of this title makes an irrevocable election, pursuant to procedures referred to in paragraph (3) of this subsection, before such separation to receive benefits under this section in lieu of benefits under such chapter 32; and

(5) before such separation elects to receive assistance under this section pursuant to procedures referred to in paragraph (3) of this subsection,


is entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter.

(b) The basic pay of an individual described in subsection (a) of this section shall be reduced by $1,200.

(c) A withdrawal referred to in subsection (a)(3) of this section is irrevocable.

(d)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3) of this subsection, an individual who is enrolled in the educational benefits program provided by chapter 32 of this title and who makes the election described in subsection (a)(4) of this subsection 1 shall be disenrolled from such chapter 32 program as of the date of such election.

(2) For each individual who is disenrolled from such program, the Secretary shall refund—

(A) as provided in section 3223(b) of this title, to the individual the unused contributions made by the individual to the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account established pursuant to section 3222(a) of this title; and

(B) to the Secretary of Defense the unused contributions (other than contributions made under section 3222(c) of this title) made by such Secretary to the Account on behalf of such individual.


(3) Any contribution made by the Secretary of Defense to the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account pursuant to subsection (c) of section 3222 of this title on behalf of any individual referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall remain in such Account to make payments of benefits to such individual under section 3015(f) of this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §561(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1571, §1418A; amended Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §705(c)(1), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 120; renumbered §3018A and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(d)(4), (i)(4), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4684, 4688; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §203(a), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3326.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–368 substituted “successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for)” for “successfully completed”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(i)(4), substituted “after February 2, 1991,” for “after December 31, 1990, or the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this section, whichever is later,”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(d)(4), substituted “section 3015(f)” for “section 3015(e)”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1418A of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–25 substituted “section 1141 of title 10” for “section 1142 of title 10”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1)” for “1411(c)(1) or 1412(d)(1)”.

Subsec. (d)(2), (3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3223(b)” for “1623(b)”, “3222(a)” for “1622(a)”, and “3222(c)” for “1622(c)” in par. (2) and “3222” for “1622” and “3015(e)” for “1415(e)” in par. (3).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–368 effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 203(b) of Pub. L. 105–368, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3013, 3015, 3035, 4214 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

§3018B. Opportunity for certain persons to enroll

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law—

(1) the Secretary of Defense shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, allow an individual who—

(A) is separated from the active military, naval, or air service with an honorable discharge and receives voluntary separation incentives under section 1174a or 1175 of title 10;

(B) before applying for benefits under this section, has completed the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or equivalency certificate) or has successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for) the equivalent of 12 semester hours in a program of education leading to a standard college degree;

(C) in the case of any individual who has made an election under section 3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1) of this title, withdraws such election before such separation pursuant to procedures which the Secretary of each military department shall provide in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense for the purpose of carrying out this section or which the Secretary of Transportation shall provide for such purpose with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as service in the Navy;

(D) in the case of any person enrolled in the educational benefits program provided by chapter 32 of this title makes an irrevocable election, pursuant to procedures referred to in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, before such separation to receive benefits under this section in lieu of benefits under such chapter 32; and

(E) before such separation elects to receive assistance under this section pursuant to procedures referred to in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph; or


(2) the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, allow an individual who—

(A) separated before October 23, 1992, from the active military, naval, or air service with an honorable discharge and received or is receiving voluntary separation incentives under section 1174a or 1175 of title 10;

(B) before applying for benefits under this section, has completed the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or equivalency certificate) or has successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for) the equivalent of 12 semester hours in a program of education leading to a standard college degree;

(C) in the case of any individual who has made an election under section 3011(c)(1) or 3012(d)(1) of this title, withdraws such election before making an election under this paragraph pursuant to procedures which the Secretary shall provide, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as service in the Navy, which shall be similar to the regulations prescribed under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection;

(D) in the case of any person enrolled in the educational benefits program provided by chapter 32 of this title makes an irrevocable election, pursuant to procedures referred to in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph, before making an election under this paragraph to receive benefits under this section in lieu of benefits under such chapter 32; and

(E) before October 23, 1993, elects to receive assistance under this section pursuant to procedures referred to in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph,


to elect to become entitled to basic education assistance under this chapter.

(b)(1) The basic pay or voluntary separation incentives of an individual who makes an election under subsection (a)(1) to become entitled to basic education assistance under this chapter shall be reduced by $1,200.

(2) The Secretary shall collect $1,200 from an individual who makes an election under subsection (a)(2) to become entitled to basic education assistance under this chapter, which shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

(c) A withdrawal referred to in subsection (a)(1)(C) or (a)(2)(C) of this section is irrevocable.

(d)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3) of this subsection, an individual who is enrolled in the educational benefits program provided by chapter 32 of this title and who makes the election described in subsection (a)(1)(D) or (a)(2)(D) of this section shall be disenrolled from such chapter 32 program as of the date of such election.

(2) For each individual who is disenrolled from such program, the Secretary shall refund—

(A) as provided in section 3223(b) of this title, to the individual the unused contributions made by the individual to the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account established pursuant to section 3222(a) of this title; and

(B) to the Secretary of Defense the unused contributions (other than contributions made under section 3222(c) of this title) made by such Secretary to the Account on behalf of such individual.


(3) Any contribution made by the Secretary of Defense to the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account pursuant to subsection (c) of section 3222 of this title on behalf of any individual referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall remain in such account to make payments of benefits to such individual under section 3015(f) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLIV, §4404(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2704; amended Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(d)(5), (e)(11), (f)(3), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4684, 4685, 4687; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §203(a), title X, §1005(b)(6), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3326, 3365.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(1)(B), (2)(B). Pub. L. 105–368, §203(a), substituted “successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for)” for “successfully completed”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 105–368, §1005(b)(6), which directed the substitution of “before October 23, 1993,” for “before the one-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this section,”, was executed by making the substitution for text which did not include the word “the” before the word “enactment”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(f)(3), substituted “October 23, 1992,” for “the date of enactment of this section”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(e)(11)(A), substituted “(a)(2)(D) of this section” for “(a)(2)(D) of this subsection”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(d)(5), (e)(11)(B), substituted “such account” for “such Account” and “section 3015(f) of this title” for “section 3015(e) of this chapter”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 105–368 effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 203(b) of Pub. L. 105–368, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3013, 3015, 3035 of this title.

§3018C. Opportunity for certain VEAP participants to enroll

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an individual who—

(1) is a participant on October 9, 1996, in the educational benefits program provided by chapter 32 of this title;

(2) is serving on active duty (excluding the periods referred to in section 3202(1)(C) of this title) on such date;

(3) before applying for benefits under this section, has completed the requirements of a secondary school diploma (or equivalency certificate) or has successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for) the equivalent of 12 semester hours in a program of education leading to a standard college degree;

(4) if discharged or released from active duty after the date on which the individual makes the election described in paragraph (5), is discharged or released therefrom with an honorable discharge; and

(5) during the one-year period beginning on October 9, 1996, makes an irrevocable election to receive benefits under this section in lieu of benefits under chapter 32 of this title, pursuant to procedures which the Secretary of each military department shall provide in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense for the purpose of carrying out this section or which the Secretary of Transportation shall provide for such purpose with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy;


may elect to become entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter.

(b) With respect to an individual who makes an election under subsection (a) to become entitled to basic education assistance under this chapter—

(1) the basic pay of the individual shall be reduced (in a manner determined by the Secretary of Defense) until the total amount by which such basic pay is reduced is $1,200; or

(2) to the extent that basic pay is not so reduced before the individual's discharge or release from active duty as specified in subsection (a)(4), the Secretary shall collect from the individual an amount equal to the difference between $1,200 and the total amount of reductions under paragraph (1), which shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.


(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), an individual who is enrolled in the educational benefits program provided by chapter 32 of this title and who makes the election described in subsection (a)(5) shall be disenrolled from such chapter 32 program as of the date of such election.

(2) For each individual who is disenrolled from such program, the Secretary shall refund—

(A) to the individual, as provided in section 3223(b) of this title and subject to subsection (b)(2) of this section, the unused contributions made by the individual to the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account established pursuant to section 3222(a) of this title; and

(B) to the Secretary of Defense the unused contributions (other than contributions made under section 3222(c) of this title) made by such Secretary to the Account on behalf of such individual.


(3) Any contribution made by the Secretary of Defense to the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account pursuant to subsection (c) of section 3222 of this title on behalf of any individual referred to in paragraph (1) shall remain in such account to make payments of benefits to such individual under section 3015(f) of this title.

(d) The procedures provided in regulations referred to in subsection (a) shall provide for notice of the requirements of subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) of section 3011(a)(3) and of subparagraph (A) of section 3012(a)(3) of this title. Receipt of such notice shall be acknowledged in writing.

(Added Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §106(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3327; amended Pub. L. 105–114, title IV, §401(c), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2293; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §203(a), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3326.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–368 substituted “successfully completed (or otherwise received academic credit for)” for “successfully completed”.

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–114, §401(c)(1), substituted “October 9, 1996,” for “the date of the enactment of the Veterans’ Benefits Improvements Act of 1996”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 105–114, §401(c)(2), substituted “after the date on which the individual makes the election described” for “during the one-year period specified”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 105–114, §401(c)(3), substituted “October 9, 1996” for “the date of the enactment of the Veterans’ Benefits Improvements Act of 1996”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–368 effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 203(b) of Pub. L. 105–368, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3013, 3015 of this title.

§3019. Tutorial assistance

(a) An individual entitled to an educational assistance allowance under this chapter shall also be entitled to benefits provided an eligible veteran under section 3492 of this title, subject to the conditions applicable to an eligible veteran under such section.

(b) The amount of such benefits payable under this section may not exceed $100 per month, for a maximum of twelve months, or until a maximum of $1,200 is utilized. This amount is in addition to the amount of educational assistance allowance payable to the individual under this chapter.

(c)(1) An individual's period of entitlement to educational assistance under this chapter shall be charged only with respect to the amount of tutorial assistance paid to the individual under this section in excess of $600.

(2) An individual's period of entitlement to educational assistance under this chapter shall be charged at the rate of one month for each amount of assistance paid to the individual under this section in excess of $600 that is equal to the amount of the monthly educational assistance allowance which the individual is otherwise eligible to receive for full-time pursuit of an institutional course under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §107(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4167, §1419; renumbered §3019 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3020 was renumbered section 5120 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1419 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3492” for “1692”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3035, 3680A of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—SUPPLEMENTAL EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in sections 3002, 3035 of this title; title 10 section 2006.

§3021. Supplemental educational assistance for additional service

(a) The Secretary concerned, pursuant to regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, may provide for the payment of supplemental educational assistance under this subchapter to any individual eligible for basic educational assistance under section 3011 or 3018 of this title who—

(1) serves five or more consecutive years of active duty in the Armed Forces after the years of active duty counted under section 3011(a)(1) of this title without a break in such service; and

(2) after completion of the service described in clause (1) of this subsection—

(A) is discharged from service with an honorable discharge, is placed on the retired list, is transferred to the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve, or is placed on the temporary disability retired list;

(B) continues on active duty without a break in service; or

(C) is released from active duty for further service in a reserve component of the Armed Forces after service on active duty characterized by the Secretary concerned as honorable service.


(b) The Secretary concerned, pursuant to regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, may provide for the payment of supplemental educational assistance under this subchapter to any individual eligible for basic educational assistance under section 3012 or 3018 of this title who—

(1) serves two or more consecutive years of active duty in the Armed Forces after the years of active duty counted under section 3012(a)(1) of this title and four or more consecutive years of duty in the Selected Reserve after the years of duty in the Selected Reserve counted under such section without a break in service; and

(2) after completion of the service described in clause (1) of this subsection—

(A) is discharged from service with an honorable discharge, is placed on the retired list, is transferred to the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve, or is placed on the temporary disability retired list; or

(B) continues on active duty or in the Selected Reserve.


(c) Continuity of service of a member in the Selected Reserve for purposes of subsection (b)(1) of this section shall not be considered to be broken—

(1) by any period of time (not to exceed a maximum period prescribed by the Secretary concerned by regulation) during which the member is not able to locate a unit of the Selected Reserve of the member's Armed Force that the member is eligible to join or that has a vacancy; or

(2) by any other period of time (not to exceed a maximum period prescribed by the Secretary concerned by regulation) during which the member is not attached to a unit of the Selected Reserve that the Secretary concerned, pursuant to regulations, considers to be inappropriate to consider for such purpose.


(d) A period of active duty or duty in the Selected Reserve that occurs before the period of duty by which the individual concerned qualifies for basic educational assistance may not be counted for purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2558, §1421; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §321(5), (6), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3278; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §103(b)(5), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4166; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(4)(B), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3021 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3021 was renumbered section 5121 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1421 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011 or 3018” for “1411 or 1418” in introductory provisions and “3011(a)(1)” for “1411(a)(1)” in par. (1).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3012 or 3018” for “1412 or 1418” in introductory provisions and “3012(a)(1)” for “1412(a)(1)” in par. (1).

1989—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 101–237 inserted “of Defense” after second reference to “Secretary”.

1988—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 100–689 inserted reference to section 1418 of this title.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(5), substituted “after” for “in addition to”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(5), substituted “after” for “in addition to” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(6), substituted “the member's” for “his”.

Effective Date

Section 702(b) of Pub. L. 98–525 provided that: “Subchapter III of chapter 30 of title 38, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall take effect on July 1, 1986.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3022 of this title; title 10 sections 708, 2006.

§3022. Amount of supplemental educational assistance

(a) The amount of payment of educational assistance under this chapter is subject to section 3032 of this title. Except as otherwise provided under subsection (b) of this section, supplemental educational assistance under section 3021 of this title shall be paid—

(1) at a monthly rate of $300 for an approved program of education pursued on a full-time basis; or

(2) at an appropriately reduced rate, as determined under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, for an approved program of education pursued on less than a full-time basis.


(b) In the case of a member of the Armed Forces for whom the Secretary concerned has provided for the payment of supplemental educational assistance who has a skill or specialty designated by the Secretary concerned, pursuant to regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, as a skill or specialty in which there is a critical shortage of personnel, the Secretary concerned, pursuant to such regulations, may increase the rate of the supplemental educational assistance allowance applicable to such individual to such rate in excess of the rate prescribed under subsection (a) of this section as the Secretary concerned considers appropriate, but the amount of any such increase may not exceed $300 per month.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2559, §1422; amended Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §111(a)(5)(B), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4171; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(C), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3022 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3022 was renumbered section 5122 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1422 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3032” for “1432” and “3021” for “1421” in introductory provisions.

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237 inserted “of Defense” after third reference to “Secretary”.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–689 substituted “The amount of payment of educational assistance under this chapter is subject to section 1432 of this title. Except” for “Subject to section 1432 of this title and except”.

§3023. Payment of supplemental educational assistance under this subchapter

The Secretary shall increase the monthly basic educational assistance allowance paid to an individual who is entitled to supplemental educational assistance under this subchapter by the monthly amount of the supplemental educational assistance to which the individual is entitled.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2560, §1423; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3023, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3023 was renumbered section 5123 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1423 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

SUBCHAPTER IV—TIME LIMITATION FOR USE OF ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT; GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

§3031. Time limitation for use of eligibility and entitlement

(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) through (g), and subject to subsection (h), of this section, the period during which an individual entitled to educational assistance under this chapter may use such individual's entitlement expires at the end of the 10-year period beginning on the date of such individual's last discharge or release from active duty, except that such 10-year period shall begin—

(1) in the case of an individual who becomes entitled to such assistance under clause (A) or (B) of section 3012(a)(1) of this title, on the later of the date of such individual's last discharge or release from active duty or the date on which the four-year requirement described in clause (A)(ii) or (B)(ii), respectively, of such section 3012(a)(1) is met; and

(2) in the case of an individual who becomes entitled to such assistance under section 3011(a)(1)(B), on the later of the date of such individual's last discharge or release from active duty or January 1, 1990.


(b) In the case of any eligible individual who has been prevented, as determined by the Secretary, from pursuing a program of education under this chapter within the 10-year period prescribed by subsection (a) of this section because such individual had not met the nature of discharge requirement of this chapter before the nature of such individual's discharge or release was changed by appropriate authority, such 10-year period shall not run during the period of time that such individual was so prevented from pursuing such program of education.

(c) In the case of an individual eligible for educational assistance under the provisions of this chapter who, after such individual's last discharge or release from active duty, was detained by a foreign government or power, the 10-year period described in subsection (a) of this section shall not run (1) while such individual is so detained, or (2) during any period immediately following such individual's release from such detention during which such individual is hospitalized at a military, civilian, or Department of Veterans Affairs medical facility.

(d) In the case of an individual eligible for educational assistance under this chapter—

(1) who was prevented from pursuing such individual's chosen program of education before the expiration of the 10-year period for use of entitlement under this chapter otherwise applicable under this section because of a physical or mental disability which was not the result of the individual's own willful misconduct, and

(2) who applies for an extension of such 10-year period within one year after (A) the last day of such period, or (B) the last day on which such individual was so prevented from pursuing such program, whichever is later,


such 10-year period shall not run with respect to such individual during the period of time that such individual was so prevented from pursuing such program and such 10-year period will again begin running on the first day following such individual's recovery from such disability on which it is reasonably feasible, as determined under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, for such individual to initiate or resume pursuit of a program of education with educational assistance under this chapter.

(e)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, in the case of an individual described in section 3011(a)(1)(B) or 3012(a)(1)(B) of this title who is entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter, the 10-year period prescribed in subsection (a) of this section shall be reduced by an amount of time equal to the amount of time that such individual was not serving on active duty during the period beginning on January 1, 1977, and ending on June 30, 1985.

(2) In the case of an individual to which paragraph (1) of this subsection is applicable and who is described in section 3452(a)(1)(B) of this title, the 10-year period prescribed in subsection (a) of this section shall not be reduced by any period in 1977 before the individual began serving on active duty.

(f)(1) If an individual eligible for educational assistance under this chapter is enrolled under this chapter in an educational institution regularly operated on the quarter or semester system and the period of such individual's entitlement under this chapter would, under section 3013, expire during a quarter or semester, such period shall be extended to the end of such quarter or semester.

(2) If an individual eligible for educational assistance under this chapter is enrolled under this chapter in an educational institution not regularly operated on the quarter or semester system and the period of such individual's entitlement under this chapter would, under section 3013, expire after a major portion of the course is completed, such period shall be extended to the end of the course or for 12 weeks, whichever is the lesser period of extension.

(g) In the case of an individual described in section 3011(f)(3) of this title, the period during which that individual may use the individual's entitlement to educational assistance allowance expires on the last day of the 10-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of the Veterans Millennium Health Care and Benefits Act if that date is later than the date that would otherwise be applicable to that individual under this section.

(h) For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, an individual's last discharge or release from active duty shall not include any discharge or release from a period of active duty of less than 90 days of continuous service unless the individual involved is discharged or released for a service-connected disability, for a medical condition which preexisted such service and which the Secretary determines is not service connected, for hardship, or as a result of a reduction in force as described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(III) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2560, §1431; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §§307(b), 321(7), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3270, 3278; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §111(a)(6), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4171; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§420(a)(1), (b), 423(a)(4), (b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2087, 2088, 2091, 2092; renumbered §3031 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §302(a)(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4327; Pub. L. 106–117, title VII, §702(b), Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1583.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Veterans Millennium Health Care and Benefits Act, referred to in subsec. (g), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–117, which was approved Nov. 30, 1999.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–117, §702(b)(2), in introductory provisions, substituted “through (g)” for “through (e)” and “subsection (h)” for “subsection (g)”.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 106–117, §702(b)(1), (3), added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h).

1992—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 102–568 substituted “June 30, 1985” for “October 18, 1984”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1431 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3012(a)(1)” for “1412(a)(1)” in two places in par. (1) and “3011(a)(1)(B)” for “1411(a)(1)(B)” in par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(a)(1)(B) or 3012(a)(1)(B)” for “1411(a)(1)(B) or 1412(a)(1)(B)” in par. (1) and “3452(a)(1)(B)” for “1652(a)(1)(B)” in par. (2).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3013” for “1413” in pars. (1) and (2).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(III)” for “1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(III)”.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237, §420(a)(1)(B), inserted “, and subject to subsection (g),” before “of this section”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(B), substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–237, §420(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), and substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, in” for “In”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (f)(1), (2). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(4), substituted “, under section 1413,” for “, under this section,”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–237, §420(a)(1)(A), added subsec. (g).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–689 substituted “beginning on the date of such individual's last discharge or release from active duty, except that such 10-year period shall begin—” and pars. (1) and (2) for “beginning on (1) the date of such individual's last discharge or release from active duty, or (2) the last day on which such individual becomes entitled to such assistance, whichever is later”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–576, §§307(b)(1), 321(7)(A), made identical amendments, substituting “(e)” for “(d)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(7)(B), struck out “subchapter II or III of” after “program of education under”, substituted “requirement of this chapter” for “requirement of such subchapter”, struck out the cl. (1) designation before “the nature of such individual's discharge” and struck out “or (2) with respect to educational assistance under subchapter II of this chapter, the Administrator determined, under regulations prescribed by the Administrator, that such discharge or release was under conditions described in section 1411(a)(3) or 1412(a)(3) of this title,” after “appropriate authority,”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–576, §307(b)(3), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–576, §307(b)(2), redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 99–576, §321(7)(C), which directed that subsec. (e)(2) be amended by inserting “not” after “educational institution” was executed to subsec. (f)(2) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening redesignation of subsec. (e) as (f) by section 307(b)(3) of Pub. L. 99–576.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–568 effective Oct. 28, 1986, see section 302(b) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out as a note under section 3011 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 10 section 16133.

§3032. Limitations on educational assistance for certain individuals

(a) In the case of an individual entitled to educational assistance under this chapter who is pursuing a program of education—

(1) while on active duty; or

(2) on less than a half-time basis,


the amount of the monthly educational assistance allowance payable to such individual under this chapter is the amount determined under subsection (b) of this section.

(b) The amount of the educational assistance allowance payable to an individual described in subsection (a) of this section is the lesser of (1) the amount of the educational assistance allowance otherwise payable to such individual under this chapter, or (2) the established charges for tuition and fees that the educational institution involved requires similarly circumstanced nonveterans enrolled in the same program to pay.

(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the amount of the monthly educational assistance allowance payable to an individual pursuing a full-time program of apprenticeship or other on-job training under this chapter is—

(A) for each of the first six months of the individual's pursuit of such program, 75 percent of the monthly educational assistance allowance otherwise payable to such individual under this chapter;

(B) for each of the second six months of the individual's pursuit of such program, 55 percent of such monthly educational assistance allowance; and

(C) for each of the months following the first 12 months of the individual's pursuit of such program, 35 percent of such monthly educational assistance allowance.


(2) In any month in which an individual pursuing a program of education consisting of a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training fails to complete 120 hours of training, the amount of monthly educational assistance allowance payable under this chapter to the individual shall be limited to the same proportion of the applicable rate determined under paragraph (1) of this subsection as the number of hours worked during such month, rounded to the nearest eight hours, bears to 120 hours.

(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, for each month that an individual is paid a monthly educational assistance allowance under this chapter, the individual's entitlement under this chapter shall be charged at the rate of—

(i) 75 percent of a month in the case of payments made in accordance with paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection;

(ii) 55 percent of a month in the case of payments made in accordance with paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection; and

(iii) 35 percent of a month in the case of payments made in accordance with paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection.


(B) Any such charge to the individual's entitlement shall be reduced proportionately in accordance with the reduction in payment under paragraph (2) of this subsection.

(d)(1)(A) The amount of the educational assistance allowance payable under this chapter to an individual who enters into an agreement to pursue, and is pursuing, a program of education exclusively by correspondence is an amount equal to 55 percent of the established charge which the institution requires nonveterans to pay for the course or courses pursued by such individual.

(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “established charge” means the lesser of—

(i) the charge for the course or courses determined on the basis of the lowest extended time payment plan offered by the institution and approved by the appropriate State approving agency; or

(ii) the actual charge to the individual for such course or courses.


(2) Such allowance shall be paid quarterly on a pro rata basis for the lessons completed by the individual and serviced by the institution.

(3) In each case in which the rate of payment to an individual is determined under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the period of entitlement of such individual under this chapter shall be charged at the rate of one month for each payment of educational assistance to the individual that is equal to the amount of monthly educational assistance the individual would otherwise be eligible to receive for full-time pursuit of an institutional course under this chapter.

(e)(1) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, each individual who is pursuing a program of education consisting exclusively of flight training approved as meeting the requirements of section 3034(d) of this title shall be paid an educational assistance allowance under this chapter in the amount equal to 60 percent of the established charges for tuition and fees which similarly circumstanced nonveterans enrolled in the same flight course are required to pay.

(2) No educational assistance allowance may be paid under this chapter to an individual for any month during which such individual is pursuing a program of education consisting exclusively of flight training until the Secretary has received from that individual and the institution providing such training a certification of the flight training received by the individual during that month and the tuition and other fees charged for that training.

(3) The number of months of entitlement charged in the case of any individual for a program of education described in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be equal to the number (including any fraction) determined by dividing the total amount of educational assistance paid such individual for such program by the monthly rate of educational assistance which, except for paragraph (1) of this subsection, such individual would otherwise be paid under subsection (a)(1), (b)(1), (d), or (e)(1) of section 3015 of this title, as the case may be.

(4) The number of solo flying hours for which an individual may be paid an educational assistance allowance under this subsection may not exceed the minimum number of solo flying hours required by the Federal Aviation Administration for the flight rating or certification which is the goal of the individual's flight training.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2561, §1432; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §301(b), (d)(1), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3267, 3268; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§108(a)(2), 111(a)(7)(A), (8), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4169, 4172; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §422(a)(2), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2089; Pub. L. 102–16, §10(a)(3), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 55; renumbered §3032 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §310(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4329; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(d)(6), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4684; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §105(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3327.)

Amendments

1996—Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 104–275 redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (d) and (e), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows:

“(d)(1) The amount of the monthly educational assistance allowance payable to an individual pursuing a cooperative program under this chapter shall be 80 percent of the monthly allowance otherwise payable to such individual under section 3015 and section 3022, if applicable, of this title.

“(2) For each month that an individual is paid a monthly educational assistance allowance for pursuit of a cooperative program under this chapter, the individual's entitlement under this chapter shall be charged at the rate of 80 percent of a month.”

1994—Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 103–446 substituted “(d), or (e)(1)” for “(c), or (d)(1)”.

1992—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §310(a)(1), struck out “(other than tuition and fees charged for or attributable to solo flying hours)” after “for tuition and fees”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 102–568, §310(a)(2), added par. (4).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1432 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3015” for “1415” and “3022” for “1422”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3034(d)” for “1434(d)”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3015” for “1415”.

Pub. L. 102–16 substituted “(c), or (d)(1)” for “or (c)”.

1989—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–237 added subsec. (f).

1988—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(8)(A), (B), designated existing provision as subpar. (A) and substituted “Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, for” for “For”, and redesignated subpars. (A) to (C) as cls. (i) to (iii), respectively.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(8)(C), added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–689, §108(a)(2), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(7)(A), added subsec. (e).

1986—Pub. L. 99–576, §301(d)(1), substituted “Limitations” for “Limitation” in section catchline.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–576, §301(b), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–568 applicable to flight training received under this chapter, chapter 32 of this title, and chapter 106 of Title 10, Armed Forces, after Sept. 30, 1992, see section 310(d) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out as a note under section 16131 of Title 10.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–237 effective Sept. 30, 1990, see section 422(d) of Pub. L. 101–237, set out as a note under section 16131 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 108(a)(2) of Pub. L. 100–689 effective Jan. 1, 1989, see section 108(c) of Pub. L. 100–689, set out as a note under section 3002 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3015, 3022, 3034 of this title.

§3033. Bar to duplication of educational assistance benefits

(a)(1) An individual entitled to educational assistance under a program established by this chapter who is also eligible for educational assistance under a program under chapter 31, 32, or 35 of this title, under chapter 106 or 107 of title 10, or under the Hostage Relief Act of 1980 (Public Law 96–449; 5 U.S.C. 5561 note) may not receive assistance under two or more of such programs concurrently but shall elect (in such form and manner as the Secretary may prescribe) under which program to receive educational assistance.

(2) An individual entitled to educational assistance under chapter 34 of this title may not receive assistance under this chapter before January 1, 1990.

(b) A period of service counted for purposes of repayment under chapter 109 of title 10 of an education loan may not also be counted for purposes of entitlement to educational assistance under this chapter.

(c) An individual who serves in the Selected Reserve may not receive credit for such service under both the program established by this chapter and the program established by chapter 106 of title 10 but shall elect (in such form and manner as the Secretary may prescribe) the program to which such service is to be credited.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2561, §1433; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §306, Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3269; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §10(a)(4), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 55; renumbered §3033, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1433 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–16 substituted “chapter 109 of title 10” for “section 902 of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1981 (10 U.S.C. 2141 note),”.

1989—Subsecs. (a)(1), (c). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–576, §306(a), substituted “chapter 31, 32, or 35 of this title, under chapter 106 or 107 of title 10, or under the Hostage Relief Act of 1980 (Public Law 96–449; 5 U.S.C. 5561 note) may not receive assistance under two or more of such programs” for “chapter 31, 34, or 35 of this title or under chapter 106 or 107 of title 10 may not receive assistance under both programs”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–576, §306(b), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “An individual who is entitled to educational assistance under chapter 106 of title 10 may not also receive educational assistance under this chapter based on entitlement under section 1412 of this title.”

§3034. Program administration

(a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the provisions of sections 3470, 3471, 3474, 3476, 3482(g), 3483, and 3485 of this title and the provisions of subchapters I and II of chapter 36 of this title (with the exception of sections 3680(c), 3680(f), 3686(a), and 3687) shall be applicable to the provision of educational assistance under this chapter.

(2) The term “eligible veteran”, as used in the provisions of the sections enumerated in paragraph (1) of this subsection, shall be deemed to include an individual who is eligible for educational assistance under this chapter.

(3) The Secretary may, without regard to the application to this chapter of so much of the provisions of section 3471 of this title as prohibit the enrollment of an eligible veteran in a program of education in which the veteran is “already qualified”, and pursuant to such regulations as the Secretary shall prescribe, approve the enrollment of such individual in refresher courses (including courses which will permit such individual to update knowledge and skills or be instructed in the technological advances which have occurred in the individual's field of employment during and since the period of such veteran's active military service), deficiency courses, or other preparatory or special education or training courses necessary to enable the individual to pursue an approved program of education.

(b) Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense under this chapter shall be uniform for the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department.

(c) Payment of educational assistance allowance in the case of an eligible individual pursuing a program of education under this chapter on less than a half-time basis shall be made in a lump-sum amount for the entire quarter, semester, or term not later than the last day of the month immediately following the month in which certification is received from the educational institution that such individual has enrolled in and is pursuing a program at such institution. Such lump-sum payment shall be computed at the rate determined under section 3032(b) of this title.

(d) The Secretary may approve the pursuit of flight training (in addition to a course of flight training that may be approved under section 3680A(b) of this title) by an individual entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter if—

(1) such training is generally accepted as necessary for the attainment of a recognized vocational objective in the field of aviation;

(2) the individual possesses a valid private pilot certificate and meets, on the day the individual begins a course of flight training, the medical requirements necessary for a commercial pilot certificate; and

(3) the flight school courses meet Federal Aviation Administration standards for such courses and are approved by the Federal Aviation Administration and the State approving agency.


(e)(1) In the case of a member of the Armed Forces who participates in basic educational assistance under this chapter, the Secretary shall furnish the information described in paragraph (2) to each such member. The Secretary shall furnish such information as soon as practicable after the basic pay of the member has been reduced by $1,200 in accordance with section 3011(b) or 3012(c) of this title and at such additional times as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(2) The information referred to in paragraph (1) is information with respect to the benefits, limitations, procedures, eligibility requirements (including time-in-service requirements), and other important aspects of the basic educational assistance program under this chapter, including application forms for such basic educational assistance under section 5102 of this title.

(3) The Secretary shall furnish the forms described in paragraph (2) and other educational materials to educational institutions, training establishments, and military education personnel, as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(4) The Secretary shall use amounts appropriated for readjustment benefits to carry out this subsection and section 5102 of this title with respect to application forms under that section for basic educational assistance under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2562, §1434; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §§301(c), 302, 305, 308(a), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3268–3270; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§106(a), 111(a)(7)(B), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4166, 4172; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§415(b), 422(a)(1), 423(a)(5)(A), (6), (b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2086, 2088, 2091, 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §2(b)(2), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 49; renumbered §3034 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §313(a)(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4332; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §601(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4670; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §§204(a), 206(a), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3327.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 105–368, §204(a), substituted “pilot certificate” for “pilot's license” in two places and inserted “, on the day the individual begins a course of flight training,” after “meets”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–368, §206(a), added subsec. (e).

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–446 struck out “(1)” before “The Secretary may approve”, redesignated subpars. (A) to (C) as pars. (1) to (3), respectively, and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “This subsection shall not apply to a course of flight training that commences on or after October 1, 1994.”

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §313(a)(4)(A), struck out “3473,” after “3471,”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §313(a)(4)(B), substituted “3680A(b)” for “3473(b)” in introductory provisions.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1434 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3470, 3471, 3473, 3474, 3476, 3482(g), 3483, and 3485” for “1670, 1671, 1673, 1674, 1676, 1682(g), 1683, and 1685” and “3680(c), 3680(f), 3686(a), and 3687” for “1780(c), 1780(f), 1786(a), and 1787”.

Pub. L. 102–16 struck out “1663,” before “1670,”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3471” for “1671”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3032(b)” for “1432(b)”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3473(b)” for “1673(b)” in introductory provisions.

1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(6)(A), inserted “1780(f),” after “1780(c),”.

Pub. L. 101–237, §415(b)(1), struck out “1780(g),” after “1780(c),”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(5)(A), substituted “employment during and since the period of such veteran's active military service)” for “employment)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §415(b)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “The Administrator may, pursuant to regulations which the Administrator shall prescribe, determine and define enrollment in, pursuit of, and attendance at, any program of education by an individual enrolled in or pursuing a program of education under this chapter for any period for which the individual receives educational assistance under this chapter. Subject to such reports and proof as the Administrator may require to show an individual's enrollment in and satisfactory pursuit of such individual's program, the Administrator may withhold payment of benefits to such individual until the required proof is received and the amount of the payment is appropriately adjusted.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(6)(B), added subsec. (c).

Pub. L. 101–237, §415(b)(3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–237, §422(a)(1), added subsec. (d).

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–689, §§106(a)(1), 111(a)(7)(B)(i), designated existing first sentence as par. (1) and inserted “1786(a),” after “1780(g),”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–689, §106(a)(2), (3), designated existing second sentence, defining “eligible veteran”, as par. (2) and substituted “the provisions of the sections enumerated in paragraph (1) of this subsection” for “those provisions”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100–689, §106(a)(4), added par. (3).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 100–689, §111(a)(7)(B)(ii), (iii), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: “When an eligible individual is pursuing a program of education under this chapter by correspondence, the individual's entitlement under this chapter shall be charged at the rate of one month's entitlement for each month of benefits paid to the individual.”

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–576, §§301(c), 308(a), substituted “1683, and 1685” for “and 1683” and “(with the exception of sections 1780(c), 1780(g), and 1787)” for “(with the exception of sections 1777, 1780(a)(5), 1780(b), 1786, 1787, and 1792 of such chapter)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–576, §305, amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “An educational assistance allowance for any period may not be paid to an individual enrolled in or pursuing a program of education under this chapter until the Administrator has received—

“(1) from such individual a certification as to such individual's actual attendance during such period; and

“(2) from the educational institution a certification, or an endorsement of the individual's certificate, that such individual was enrolled in and pursuing a program of education during such period.”

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 99–576, §302, added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 204(a) of Pub. L. 105–368 applicable with respect to courses of flight training beginning on or after Oct. 1, 1998, see section 204(c) of Pub. L. 105–368, set out as a note under section 16136 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §206(b), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3328, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 11, 1998].”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 601(d) of Pub. L. 103–446 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section, section 3241 of this title, and section 16136 of Title 10, Armed Forces] shall take effect as of October 1, 1994.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 422(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–237 effective Sept. 30, 1990, see section 422(d) of Pub. L. 101–237, set out as a note under section 16131 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 106(d) of Pub. L. 100–689 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1641 and 1733 [now 3241 and 3533] of this title] shall take effect on August 15, 1989.”

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–586 not applicable to any person receiving educational assistance for pursuit of an independent study program in which the person was enrolled on Oct. 29, 1992, for as long as such person is continuously thereafter so enrolled and meets requirements of eligibility for such assistance, see section 313(b) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out as a note under section 16136 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Ratification

Pub. L. 101–366, title II, §206(b), Aug. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 442, provided that: “Any use by the Department of Veterans Affairs, during the period beginning on July 2, 1990, and ending on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1990], of any category of information provided by the Department of Defense or the Department of Transportation for making determinations described in section 413(b) of the Veterans’ Benefits Amendments of 1989 (Public Law 101–237) [set out below] is hereby ratified.”

Continued Use of Categories of Information Used Prior to December 18, 1989

Section 413(b) of Pub. L. 101–237 provided that: “Through July 1, 1990, no provision of law shall preclude the Department of Veterans Affairs, in making determinations of the active-duty or Selected Reserve status, or the character of service, of individuals receiving benefits under chapter 30 or 32 of title 38, United States Code, or chapter 106 of title 10, United States Code, from continuing to use any category of information provided by the Department of Defense or Department of Transportation that the Department of Veterans Affairs was using prior to the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 1989], if the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines that the information has proven to be sufficiently reliable in making such determinations.”

Evaluation of Providing Assistance for Flight Training

Section 422(c) of Pub. L. 101–237 provided that:

“(1)(A) The Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall conduct an evaluation of paying educational assistance for flight training under chapter 30 of title 38, United States Code, and chapter 106 of title 10, United States Code.

“(B) The evaluation required by subparagraph (A) shall be designed to determine the effectiveness of the provision of educational assistance referred to in such subparagraph in preparing the recipients of such assistance for recognized vocational objectives in the field of aviation.

“(2) Not later than January 31, 1994, the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Veterans’ Affairs of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report on the evaluation required by paragraph (1). Such report shall include—

“(A) information, separately as to payments made under chapter 30 of title 38, United States Code, and payments made under chapter 106 of title 10, United States Code, regarding—

“(i) the number of recipients paid educational assistance allowances for flight training;

“(ii) the amount of such assistance;

“(iii) the amount paid by the recipients for such training;

“(iv) the vocational objectives of the recipients; and

“(v) the extent to which the training (I) assists the recipients in achieving employment in the field of aviation, or (II) was used only or primarily for recreational or avocational purposes; and

“(B) any recommendations for legislation that the Secretary considers appropriate to include in the report.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3032, 3680A, 3688 of this title.

§3035. Allocation of administration and of program costs

(a) Except to the extent otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, the educational assistance programs established by this chapter shall be administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs.

(b)(1) Except to the extent provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, payments for entitlement earned under subchapter II of this chapter shall be made from funds appropriated to, or otherwise available to, the Department of Veterans Affairs for the payment of readjustment benefits and from transfers from the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account pursuant to section 3232(b)(2)(B) of this title.

(2) Payments for entitlement earned under subchapter II of this chapter that is established under section 3015(d) of this title at a rate in excess of the rate prescribed under subsection (a) or (b) of section 3015 of this title shall, to the extent of that excess, be made from the Department of Defense Education Benefits Fund established under section 2006 of title 10 or from appropriations made to the Department of Transportation, as appropriate.

(3) Payment for entitlements established under section 3018A or 3018B of this title shall be made—

(A) except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this paragraph, from the Department of Defense Education Benefits Fund established under section 2006 of title 10;

(B) in the case of any individual described in section 3018A(a)(3), 3018B(a)(1)(C), or 3018B(a)(2)(C) of this title, from funds appropriated, or otherwise available, to the Department of Veterans Affairs for the payment of readjustment benefits; and

(C) in the case of the increase in payments made under section 3015(f) of this title, from the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account established pursuant to section 3222(a) of this title.


(c) Payments for educational assistance provided under subchapter III of this chapter shall be made from the Department of Defense Education Benefits Fund established under section 2006 of title 10 or from appropriations made to the Department of Transportation, as appropriate.

(d) Funds for the payment by the Secretary of benefits under this chapter that are to be paid from the Department of Defense Education Benefits Fund shall be transferred to the Department of Veterans Affairs from such Fund as necessary and in accordance with agreements entered into under section 2006 of title 10 by the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of the Treasury. Funds for the payment by the Secretary of benefits under this chapter that are to be paid from appropriations made to the Department of Transportation shall be transferred to the Department of Veterans Affairs as necessary. The Secretary and the Secretary of Transportation shall enter into an agreement for the manner in which such transfers are to be made.

(e) Payments for tutorial assistance benefits under section 3019 of this title shall be made—

(1) in the case of the first $600 of such benefits paid to an individual, from funds appropriated, or otherwise available, to the Department of Veterans Affairs for the payment of readjustment benefits; and

(2) in the case of payments to an individual for such benefits in excess of $600, from—

(A) funds appropriated, or otherwise available, to the Department of Veterans Affairs for the payment of readjustment benefits;

(B) the Department of Defense Education Benefits Fund established under section 2006 of title 10; and

(C) funds appropriated to the Department of Transportation,


in the same proportion as the Fund described in subclause (B) of this clause and the funds described in subclause (A) or (C) of this clause are used to pay the educational assistance allowance to the individual under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2562, §1435; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §321(8), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3278; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §107(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4168; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §561(b)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1573; renumbered §3035 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLIV, §4404(b)(3), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2706; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(d)(7), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4684; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §106(c)(2), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3329.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–275 inserted before period at end “and from transfers from the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account pursuant to section 3232(b)(2)(B) of this title”.

1994—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(d)(7)(A), substituted “section 3015(d)” for “section 3015(c)”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(d)(7)(B), substituted “section 3015(f)” for “section 3015(e)”.

1992—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–484 inserted “or 3018B” in introductory provisions and “, 3018B(a)(1)(C), or 3018B(a)(2)(C)” in subpar. (B).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1435 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3015(c)” for “1415(c)” and “3015” for “1415”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3018A” for “1418A” in introductory provisions, “3018A(a)(3)” for “1418A(a)(3)” in subpar. (B), and “3015(e)” for “1415(e)” and “3222(a)” for “1622(a)” in subpar. (C).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3019” for “1419” in introductory provisions.

1990—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §561(b)(3)(A), substituted “paragraphs (2) and (3)” for “paragraph (2)”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §561(b)(3)(B), added par. (3).

1989—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (d), (e)(1), (2)(A). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, wherever appearing.

1988—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–689 added subsec. (e).

1986—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–576 substituted “subsection (a) or (b) of section 1415” for “section 1415(a)”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3017 of this title.

§3036. Reporting requirement

(a) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary shall submit to the Congress at least once every two years separate reports on the operation of the program provided for in this chapter.

(b) The Secretary of Defense shall include in each report submitted under this section—

(1) information indicating (A) the extent to which the benefit levels provided under this chapter are adequate to achieve the purposes of inducing individuals to enter and remain in the Armed Forces and of providing an adequate level of financial assistance to help meet the cost of pursuing a program of education, (B) whether it is necessary for the purposes of maintaining adequate levels of well-qualified active-duty personnel in the Armed Forces to continue to offer the opportunity for educational assistance under this chapter to individuals who have not yet entered active-duty service, and (C) describing the efforts under sections 3011(i) and 3012(g) of this title to inform members of the Armed Forces of the minimum service requirements for entitlement to educational assistance benefits under this chapter and the results from such efforts; and

(2) such recommendations for administrative and legislative changes regarding the provision of educational assistance to members of the Armed Forces and veterans, and their dependents, as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate.


(c) The Secretary shall include in each report submitted under this section—

(1) information concerning the level of utilization of educational assistance and of expenditures under this chapter; and

(2) such recommendations for administrative and legislative changes regarding the provision of educational assistance to members of the Armed Forces and veterans, and their dependents, as the Secretary considers appropriate.


(d)(1) The first report by the Secretary of Defense under this section shall be submitted not later than January 1, 1986.

(2) The first report by the Secretary under this section shall be submitted not later than January 1, 1988.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2563, §1436; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(D), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3036, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §207(c), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3328.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 105–368 added cl. (C).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1436 of this title as this section.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary shall” for “Administrator shall”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(4)(D), inserted “of Defense” after “Secretary” in introductory provisions and par. (2).

Subsecs. (c), (d)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §207(d)(2), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3328, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to reports to Congress submitted by the Secretary of Defense under section 3036 of title 38, United States Code, on or after January 1, 2000.”

CHAPTER 31—TRAINING AND REHABILITATION FOR VETERANS WITH SERVICE-CONNECTED DISABILITIES

Sec.
3100.
Purposes.
3101.
Definitions.
3102.
Basic entitlement.
3103.
Periods of eligibility.
3104.
Scope of services and assistance.
3105.
Duration of rehabilitation programs.
3106.
Initial and extended evaluations; determinations regarding serious employment handicap.
3107.
Individualized vocational rehabilitation plan.
3108.
Allowances.
3109.
Entitlement to independent living services and assistance.
3110.
Leaves of absence.
3111.
Regulations to promote satisfactory conduct and cooperation.
3112.
Revolving fund loans.
3113.
Vocational rehabilitation for hospitalized members of the Armed Forces and veterans.
3114.
Vocational rehabilitation outside the United States.
3115.
Rehabilitation resources.
3116.
Promotion of employment and training opportunities.
3117.
Employment assistance.
3118.
Personnel training, development, and qualifications.
3119.
Rehabilitation research and special projects.
3120.
Program of independent living services and assistance.
3121.
Veterans’ Advisory Committee on Rehabilitation.

        

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(b)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, renumbered items 1500 to 1521 as 3100 to 3121, respectively.

1986—Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §333(b)(7), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3279, substituted “Program” for “Pilot program” in item 1520.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2171, amended chapter generally, substituting in chapter heading “TRAINING AND REHABILITATION FOR VETERANS WITH SERVICE-CONNECTED DISABILITIES” for “VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION”, in item 1504 “Scope of services and assistance” for “Subsistence allowances”, in item 1505 “Duration of rehabilitation programs” for “Leaves of absence”, in item 1506 “Initial and extended evaluations; determinations regarding serious employment handicap” for “Medical care of trainees”, in item 1507 “Individualized vocational rehabilitation plan” for “Loans to trainees”, in item 1508 “Allowances” for “Regulations to promote good conduct”, in item 1509 “Entitlement to independent living services and assistance” for “Books, supplies, and equipment”, in item 1510 “Leaves of absence” for “Vocational rehabilitation for hospitalized persons”, in item 1511 “Regulations to promote satisfactory conduct and cooperation” for “Training and training facilities”, and adding items 1500 and 1512 to 1521.

1965—Pub. L. 89–138, §2(1), Aug. 26, 1965, 79 Stat. 578, struck out item 1502A, added item 1503, and redesignated former item 1503 as 1511.

1962—Pub. L. 87–591, §2, Aug. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 394, added item 1502A.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 101, 106, 109, 113, 1151, 1163, 1524, 1701, 1718, 1724, 3033, 3485, 3674, 3679, 3680, 3680A, 3681, 3684, 3690, 3693, 3695, 3697A, 3748, 4102A, 4103, 4103A, 4104, 4213, 5113, 5307 of this title; title 2 section 905; title 5 section 8525; title 20 section 1087vv; title 26 sections 25A, 51, 135, 6334; title 29 sections 1721, 2913.

§3100. Purposes

The purposes of this chapter are to provide for all services and assistance necessary to enable veterans with service-connected disabilities to achieve maximum independence in daily living and, to the maximum extent feasible, to become employable and to obtain and maintain suitable employment.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2172, §1500; renumbered §3100, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1500 of this title as this section.

Effective Date

Section 802(a)(1)–(5) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided that:

“(a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) of section 101 [enacting this chapter] shall become effective on April 1, 1981.

“(2) The provisions of sections 1508, 1512, 1516, 1518, 1519, 1520, and 1521 [now 3108, 3112, 3116, 3118, 3119, 3120, and 3121] of title 38, United States Code, as added by section 101(a), shall become effective on October 1, 1980.

“(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the provisions of chapter 31 of title 38, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1980] (other than section 1504, relating to subsistence allowances, and section 1507, relating to loans [former sections 1504 and 1507 of this title, respectively]), shall continue in effect until March 31, 1981.

“(4) Effective on October 1, 1980, sections 1504 and 1507 [former sections 1504 and 1507 of this title] are repealed. During the period beginning on October 1, 1980, and ending on March 31, 1981, the provisions of sections 1508 and 1512 [now 3108 and 3112] of title 38, United States Code, as added by section 101(a), shall apply to veterans pursuing a program of vocational rehabilitation training under chapter 31 of such title in the same manner as sections 1504 and 1507 of such title, respectively, applied to veterans pursuing a program of vocational rehabilitation training under such chapter on September 30, 1980.

“(5) Subsection (c) of section 101 [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3108 of this title] shall become effective on October 1, 1980. Subsection (d) of such section [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3107 of this title] shall become effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1980].”

§3101. Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter—

(1) The term “employment handicap” means an impairment, resulting in substantial part from a disability described in section 3102(1)(A) of this title, of a veteran's ability to prepare for, obtain, or retain employment consistent with such veteran's abilities, aptitudes, and interests.

(2) The term “independence in daily living” means the ability of a veteran, without the services of others or with a reduced level of the services of others, to live and function within such veteran's family and community.

(3) The term “program of education” has the meaning provided in section 3452(b) of this title.

(4) The term “program of independent living services and assistance” includes (A) the services provided for in this chapter that are needed to enable a veteran to achieve independence in daily living, including such counseling, diagnostic, medical, social, psychological, and educational services as are determined by the Secretary to be needed for such veteran to achieve maximum independence in daily living, and (B) the assistance authorized by this chapter for such veteran.

(5) The term “rehabilitated to the point of employability” means rendered employable in an occupation for which a vocational rehabilitation program has been provided under this chapter.

(6) The term “rehabilitation program” means (A) a vocational rehabilitation program, or (B) a program of independent living services and assistance authorized under section 3120 of this title for a veteran for whom a vocational goal has been determined not to be currently reasonably feasible.

(7) The term “serious employment handicap” means a significant impairment, resulting in substantial part from a service-connected disability rated at 10 percent or more, of a veteran's ability to prepare for, obtain, or retain employment consistent with such veteran's abilities, aptitudes, and interests.

(8) The term “vocational goal” means a gainful employment status consistent with a veteran's abilities, aptitudes, and interests.

(9) The term “vocational rehabilitation program” includes—

(A) the services provided for in this chapter that are needed for the accomplishment of the purposes of this chapter, including such counseling, diagnostic, medical, social, psychological, independent living, economic, educational, vocational, and employment services as are determined by the Secretary to be needed—

(i) in the case of a veteran for whom the achievement of a vocational goal has not been determined not to be currently reasonably feasible, (I) to determine whether a vocational goal is reasonably feasible, (II) to improve such veteran's potential to participate in a program of services designed to achieve a vocational goal, and (III) to enable such veteran to achieve maximum independence in daily living, and

(ii) in the case of a veteran for whom the achievement of a vocational goal is determined to be reasonably feasible, to enable such veteran to become, to the maximum extent feasible, employable and to obtain and maintain suitable employment, and


(B) the assistance authorized by this chapter for a veteran receiving any of the services described in clause (A) of this paragraph.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2172, §1501; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §333(b)(1), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3279; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3101 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3323.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3101 was renumbered section 5301 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Par. (1). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(a)(1), inserted “, resulting in substantial part from a disability described in section 3102(1)(A) of this title,” after “impairment”.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(a)(2), inserted “authorized under section 3120 of this title” after “assistance”.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(a)(3), inserted “, resulting in substantial part from a service-connected disability rated at 10 percent or more,” after “impairment”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1501 of this title as this section.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3452(b)” for “1652(b)”.

1989—Pars. (4), (9)(A). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1986—Pars. (6)(B), (9)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99–576 inserted “currently” after “be”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 101(j) of Pub. L. 104–275 provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 3102 to 3109, 3117, 3118, and 3120 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1996].

“(2) The amendments made by subsection (a) (other than paragraph (2)) [amending this section], subsection (d) (other than subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1)) [amending section 3104 of this title], and subsection (i) [amending section 3120 of this title] shall only apply with respect to claims of eligibility or entitlement to services and assistance (including claims for extension of such services and assistance) under chapter 31 of title 38, United States Code, received by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs on or after the date of the enactment of this Act, including those claims based on original applications, and applications seeking to reopen, revise, reconsider, or otherwise adjudicate or readjudicate on any basis claims for services and assistance under such chapter.”

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, as amended, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1728, 3695 of this title.

§3102. Basic entitlement

A person shall be entitled to a rehabilitation program under the terms and conditions of this chapter if—

(1) the person—

(A) is—

(i) a veteran who has a service-connected disability rated at 20 percent or more which was incurred or aggravated in service on or after September 16, 1940; or

(ii) hospitalized or receiving outpatient medical care, services, or treatment for a service-connected disability pending discharge from the active military, naval, or air service, and the Secretary determines that—

(I) the hospital (or other medical facility) providing the hospitalization, care, services, or treatment is doing so under contract or agreement with the Secretary concerned, or is under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs or the Secretary concerned; and

(II) the person is suffering from a disability which will likely be compensable at a rate of 20 percent or more under chapter 11 of this title; and


(B) is determined by the Secretary to be in need of rehabilitation because of an employment handicap; or


(2) the person is a veteran who—

(A) has a service-connected disability rated at 10 percent which was incurred or aggravated in service on or after September 16, 1940; and

(B) is determined by the Secretary to be in need of rehabilitation because of a serious employment handicap.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2173, §1502; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 101–508, title VIII, §8021(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–347; Pub. L. 102–16, §3(a), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 49; renumbered §3102, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title IV, §404(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4338; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3323.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3102 was renumbered section 5302 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Par. (1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(b)(1), substituted “rated at 20 percent or more” for “which is, or but for the receipt of retired pay would be, compensable at a rate of 20 percent or more under chapter 11 of this title and”.

Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(b)(2), substituted “rated at 10 percent” for “which is, or but for the receipt of retired pay would be, compensable at a rate of 10 percent under chapter 11 of this title and”.

Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(b)(3), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “has a serious employment handicap.”

1992—Pub. L. 102–568 amended section generally, making changes in substance and structure.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1502 of this title as this section.

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 102–16 substituted “or receiving outpatient medical care, services, or treatment for a service-connected disability pending discharge from the active military, naval, or air service, and the Secretary determines that (i) the hospital (or other medical facility) providing the hospitalization, care, services, or treatment either is doing so under contract or agreement with the Secretary concerned or is under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs or the Secretary concerned, and (ii) the person is suffering from a disability which” for “for a service-connected disability in a hospital over which the Secretary concerned has jurisdiction pending discharge or release from active military, naval, or air service and is suffering from a disability which the Secretary determines”.

1990—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted “compensable at a rate of 20 percent or more” for “compensable” in cls. (A) and (B).

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary determines” for “Administrator determines” in par. (1)(B) and “Secretary” for “Administrator” in par. (2).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 404(b) of Pub. L. 102–568, as amended by Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §602(c)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4671, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1993, but shall not apply to veterans and other persons who originally applied for assistance under chapter 31 of title 38, United States Code, before November 1, 1990.”

[Section 602(c)(2) of Pub. L. 103–446 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending section 404(b) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out above] shall take effect as of October 29, 1992.”]

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 8021(b) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to veterans and other persons originally applying for assistance under chapter 31 of title 38, United States Code, on or after November 1, 1990.”

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3101, 3113, 3120 of this title.

§3103. Periods of eligibility

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), (c), or (d) of this section, a rehabilitation program may not be afforded to a veteran under this chapter after the end of the twelve-year period beginning on the date of such veteran's discharge or release from active military, naval, or air service.

(b)(1) In any case in which the Secretary determines that a veteran has been prevented from participating in a vocational rehabilitation program under this chapter within the period of eligibility prescribed in subsection (a) of this section because a medical condition of such veteran made it infeasible for such veteran to participate in such a program, the twelve-year period of eligibility shall not run during the period of time that such veteran was so prevented from participating in such a program, and such period of eligibility shall again begin to run on the first day following such veteran's recovery from such condition on which it is reasonably feasible, as determined under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, for such veteran to participate in such a program.

(2) In any case in which the Secretary determines that a veteran has been prevented from participating in a vocational rehabilitation program under this chapter within the period of eligibility prescribed in subsection (a) of this section because—

(A) such veteran had not met the requirement of a discharge or release from active military, naval, or air service under conditions other than dishonorable before (i) the nature of such discharge or release was changed by appropriate authority, or (ii) the Secretary determined, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, that such discharge or release was under conditions other than dishonorable, or

(B) such veteran's discharge or dismissal was, under section 5303 of this title, a bar to benefits under this title before the Secretary made a determination that such discharge or dismissal is not a bar to such benefits,


the twelve-year period of eligibility shall not run during the period of time that such veteran was so prevented from participating in such a program.

(3) In any case in which the Secretary determines that a veteran has been prevented from participating in a vocational rehabilitation program under this chapter within the period of eligibility prescribed in subsection (a) of this section because such veteran had not established the existence of a service-connected disability rated at 10 percent or more, the twelve-year period of eligibility shall not run during the period such veteran was so prevented from participating in such a program.

(c) In any case in which the Secretary determines that a veteran is in need of services to overcome a serious employment handicap, such veteran may be afforded a vocational rehabilitation program after the expiration of the period of eligibility otherwise applicable to such veteran if the Secretary also determines, on the basis of such veteran's current employment handicap and need for such services, that an extension of the applicable period of eligibility is necessary for such veteran and—

(1) that such veteran had not previously been rehabilitated to the point of employability;

(2) that such veteran had previously been rehabilitated to the point of employability but (A) the need for such services had arisen out of a worsening of such veteran's service-connected disability that precludes such veteran from performing the duties of the occupation for which such veteran was previously trained in a vocational rehabilitation program under this chapter, or (B) the occupation for which such veteran had been so trained is not suitable in view of such veteran's current employment handicap and capabilities; or

(3) under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, that an extension of the period of eligibility of such veteran is necessary to accomplish the purposes of a rehabilitation program for such veteran.


(d) In any case in which the Secretary has determined that a veteran's disability or disabilities are so severe that the achievement of a vocational goal currently is not reasonably feasible, such veteran may be afforded a program of independent living services and assistance in accordance with the provisions of section 3120 of this title after the expiration of the period of eligibility otherwise applicable to such veteran if the Secretary also determines that an extension of the period of eligibility of such veteran is necessary for such veteran to achieve maximum independence in daily living.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2173, §1503; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §333(b)(2), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3279; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, §402(d)(1), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 239; renumbered §3103 and amended, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(d)(8), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4684; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(c), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3324.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3103 was renumbered section 5303 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(c)(1), substituted “rated at 10 percent or more” for “described in section 3102(1)(A)(i) of this title”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(c)(2)(A), substituted “current” for “particular” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(c)(2)(B), substituted “veteran's current employment” for “veteran's employment”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(c)(3), substituted “in accordance with the provisions of section 3120 of this title” for “under this chapter”.

1994—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–446 substituted “section 3102(1)(A)(i)” for “section 3102(1)(A)”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1503 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–40 substituted “5303” for “3103”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3102(1)(A)” for “1502(1)(A)”.

1989—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–576 inserted “currently” after “goal”.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

§3104. Scope of services and assistance

(a) Services and assistance which the Secretary may provide under this chapter, pursuant to regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, include the following:

(1) Evaluation, including periodic reevaluations as appropriate with respect to a veteran participating in a rehabilitation program, of the potential for rehabilitation of a veteran, including diagnostic and related services (A) to determine whether the veteran has an employment handicap or a serious employment handicap and whether a vocational goal is reasonably feasible for such veteran, and (B) to provide a basis for planning a suitable vocational rehabilitation program or a program of services and assistance to improve the vocational rehabilitation potential or independent living status of such veteran, as appropriate.

(2) Educational, vocational, psychological, employment, and personal adjustment counseling.

(3) An allowance and other appropriate assistance, as authorized by section 3108 of this title.

(4) A work-study allowance as authorized by section 3485 of this title.

(5) Placement services to effect suitable placement in employment, and postplacement services to attempt to insure satisfactory adjustment in employment.

(6) Personal adjustment and work adjustment training.

(7)(A) Vocational and other training services and assistance, including individualized tutorial assistance, tuition, fees, books, supplies, handling charges, licensing fees, and equipment and other training materials determined by the Secretary to be necessary to accomplish the purposes of the rehabilitation program in the individual case.

(B) Payment for the services and assistance provided under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall be made from funds available for the payment of readjustment benefits.

(8) Loans as authorized by section 3112 of this title.

(9) Treatment, care, and services described in chapter 17 of this title.

(10) Prosthetic appliances, eyeglasses, and other corrective and assistive devices.

(11) Services to a veteran's family as necessary for the effective rehabilitation of such veteran.

(12) For veterans with the most severe service-connected disabilities who require homebound training or self-employment, or both homebound training and self-employment, such license fees and essential equipment, supplies, and minimum stocks of materials as the Secretary determines to be necessary for such a veteran to begin employment and are within the criteria and cost limitations that the Secretary shall prescribe in regulations for the furnishing of such fees, equipment, supplies, and stocks.

(13) Travel and incidental expenses under the terms and conditions set forth in section 111 of this title, plus, in the case of a veteran who because of such veteran's disability has transportation expenses in addition to those incurred by persons not so disabled, a special transportation allowance to defray such additional expenses during rehabilitation, job seeking, and the initial employment stage.

(14) Special services (including services related to blindness and deafness) including—

(A) language training, speech and voice correction, training in ambulation, and one-hand typewriting;

(B) orientation, adjustment, mobility, reader, interpreter, and related services; and

(C) telecommunications, sensory, and other technical aids and devices.


(15) Services necessary to enable a veteran to achieve maximum independence in daily living.

(16) Other incidental goods and services determined by the Secretary to be necessary to accomplish the purposes of a rehabilitation program in an individual case.


(b) A rehabilitation program (including individual courses) to be pursued by a veteran shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2174, §1504; amended Pub. L. 100–323, §11(a)(3)(A), May 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 568; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §3(b)(1), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 102–54, §14(c)(3), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 285; renumbered §3104 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(d), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3324.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3104 was renumbered section 5304 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(d)(1)(A), substituted “the veteran has an employment handicap or” for “such veteran's disability or disabilities cause” and inserted “reasonably” after “goal is”.

Subsec. (a)(7)(A). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(d)(1)(B), struck out “(i)” after “assistance, including” and “, and (ii) job-readiness skills development and counseling under section 14(a)(2) of the Veterans’ Job Training Act (29 U.S.C. 1721 note) for a participant in a program of training under such Act” after “individual case”.

Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(d)(1)(C), substituted “For veterans with the most severe service-connected disabilities who require” for “For the most severely disabled veterans requiring”.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(d)(2), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “A program of independent living services and assistance may include the types of services and assistance described in section 702 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 796a).”

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1504 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3108” for “1508”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3485” for “1685”.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 102–16 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former cls. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, substituted “handling charges, licensing” for “and licensing”, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3112” for “1512”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–54 substituted “(29 U.S.C. 796a)” for “(29 U.S.C. 796)”.

1989—Subsecs. (a), (c). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1988—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 100–323 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–275 effective Oct. 9, 1996, with amendment by section 101(d)(1)(C), (2) of Pub. L. 104–275 only applicable with respect to claims of eligibility or entitlement to services and assistance (including claims for extension of such services and assistance) under this chapter received by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs on or after Oct. 9, 1996, including those claims based on original applications, and applications seeking to reopen, revise, reconsider, or otherwise adjudicate or readjudicate on any basis claims for services and assistance under this chapter, see section 101(j) of Pub. L. 104–275, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 3(b)(2) of Pub. L. 102–16 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply only to payments made on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 22, 1991].”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 16 of Pub. L. 100–323 provided that:

“(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), the provisions of and amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [May 20, 1988].

“(b) Exceptions.—(1) The following provisions of or amendments made by this Act shall take effect for all of fiscal year 1988 and subsequent fiscal years:

“(A) Clause (5) of subsection (b) of section 2002A [now 4102A] of title 38, United States Code, as added by section 2(a)(2) of this Act.

“(B) Subsection (a) of section 2003A [now 4103A] of such title, as amended by section 2(e)(1)(A) of this Act.

“(C) Paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 2004(a) [now 4104(a)] of such title, as amended by section 3(a) of this Act.

“(D) Paragraphs (2) through (5) of section 1774(a) [now 3674(a)] of such title, as added by section 13(a)(1) of this Act.

“(2) The provisions of and amendments made by sections 4 through 11 [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the 60th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 20, 1988].”

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Veterans Pursuing Program of Vocational Rehabilitation Under Former Section 1504 of This Title

During the period beginning on Oct. 1, 1980, and ending on Mar. 31, 1981, the provisions of section 3108 [formerly 1508] of this title, as added by Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2178, shall apply to veterans pursuing a program of vocational rehabilitation training under this chapter in the same manner as former section 1504 of this title applied to veterans pursuing such a program under this chapter on Sept. 30, 1980. See section 802(a)(4) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1163, 1524, 3105, 3106, 3108, 3117, 3120 of this title.

§3105. Duration of rehabilitation programs

(a) In any case in which the Secretary is unable to determine whether it currently is reasonably feasible for a veteran to achieve a vocational goal, the period of extended evaluation under section 3106(c) of this title may not exceed twelve months, except that such period may be extended for additional periods of up to six months each if the Secretary determines before granting any such extension that it is reasonably likely that, during the period of any such extension, a determination can be made whether the achievement of a vocational goal is reasonably feasible in the case of such veteran.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the period of a vocational rehabilitation program for a veteran under this chapter following a determination of the current reasonable feasibility of achieving a vocational goal may not exceed forty-eight months, except that the counseling and placement and postplacement services described in section 3104(a)(2) and (5) of this title may be provided for an additional period not to exceed eighteen months in any case in which the Secretary determines the provision of such counseling and services to be necessary to accomplish the purposes of a rehabilitation program in the individual case.

(c) The Secretary may extend the period of a vocational rehabilitation program for a veteran to the extent that the Secretary determines that an extension of such period is necessary to enable such veteran to achieve a vocational goal if the Secretary also determines—

(1) that such veteran had previously been rehabilitated to the point of employability but (A) such veteran's need for further vocational rehabilitation has arisen out of a worsening of such veteran's service-connected disability that precludes such veteran from performing the duties of the occupation for which such veteran had been so rehabilitated, or (B) the occupation for which such veteran had been so rehabilitated is not suitable in view of such veteran's current employment handicap and capabilities; or

(2) under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, that such veteran has a serious employment handicap and that an extension of such period is necessary to accomplish the purposes of a rehabilitation program for such veteran.


(d) Unless the Secretary determines that a longer period is necessary and likely to result in a substantial increase in a veteran's level of independence in daily living, the period of a program of independent living services and assistance for a veteran under this chapter (following a determination by the Secretary that such veteran's disability or disabilities are so severe that the achievement of a vocational goal currently is not reasonably feasible) may not exceed twenty-four months.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2176, §1505; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §333(b)(3), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3279; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3105 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(e), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3324.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3105 was renumbered section 5305 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “veteran's current employment” for “veteran's employment”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1505 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3106(c)” for “1506(c)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3104(a)(2)” for “1504(a)(2)”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–576, §333(b)(3)(A), inserted “currently” after “it”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–576, §333(b)(3)(B), inserted “current” after “of the”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–576, §333(b)(3)(C), inserted “currently” after “goal”.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3106, 3108 of this title.

§3106. Initial and extended evaluations; determinations regarding serious employment handicap

(a) The Secretary shall provide any veteran who has a service-connected disability rated at 10 percent or more and who applies for benefits under this chapter with an initial evaluation consisting of such services described in section 3104(a)(1) of this title as are necessary (1) to determine whether such veteran is entitled to and eligible for benefits under this chapter, and (2) in the case of a veteran who is determined to be entitled to and eligible for such benefits, to determine—

(A) whether such veteran has a serious employment handicap, and

(B) whether the achievement of a vocational goal currently is reasonably feasible for such veteran if it is reasonably feasible to make such determination without extended evaluation.


(b) In any case in which the Secretary has determined that a veteran has a serious employment handicap and that the achievement of a vocational goal currently is reasonably feasible for such veteran, such veteran shall be provided an individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation developed under section 3107(a) of this title.

(c) In any case in which the Secretary has determined that a veteran has a serious employment handicap but the Secretary is unable to determine, in an initial evaluation pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, whether or not the achievement of a vocational goal currently is reasonably feasible, such veteran shall be provided with an extended evaluation consisting of the services described in section 3104(a)(1) of this title, such services under this chapter as the Secretary determines necessary to improve such veteran's potential for participation in a program of services designed to achieve a vocational goal and enable such veteran to achieve maximum independence in daily living, and assistance as authorized by section 3108 of this title.

(d) In any case in which the Secretary has determined that a veteran has a serious employment handicap and also determines, following such initial and any such extended evaluation, that achievement of a vocational goal currently is not reasonably feasible, the Secretary shall determine whether the veteran is capable of participating in a program of independent living services and assistance under section 3120 of this title.

(e) The Secretary shall in all cases determine as expeditiously as possible whether the achievement of a vocational goal by a veteran currently is reasonably feasible. In the case of a veteran provided extended evaluation under subsection (c) of this section (including any periods of extensions under section 3105(a) of this title), the Secretary shall make such determination not later than the end of such extended evaluation or period of extension, as the case may be. In determining whether the achievement of a vocational goal currently is reasonably feasible, the Secretary shall resolve any reasonable doubt in favor of determining that such achievement currently is reasonably feasible.

(f) In connection with each period of extended evaluation of a veteran and each rehabilitation program for a veteran who is determined to have a serious employment handicap, the Secretary shall assign a Department of Veterans Affairs employee to be responsible for the management and followup of the provision of all services (including appropriate coordination of employment assistance under section 3117 of this title) and assistance under this chapter to such veteran.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2176, §1506; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §333(b)(4), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3279; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3106 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(d)(9), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4684; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(f)(1), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3324.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3106 was renumbered section 5306 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(f)(1)(A), substituted “rated at 10 percent or more” for “described in clause (i) or (ii) of section 3102(1)(A) of this title”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(f)(1)(B), struck out “counseling in accordance with” before “an individualized written plan”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(f)(1)(C), substituted “with an extended” for “with extended”.

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(f)(1)(D), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsecs. (d) and (e) as (e) and (f), respectively.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–446 substituted “clause (i) or (ii) of section 3102(1)(A)” for “section 3102(1)(A) or (B)”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1506 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3102(1)(A)” for “1502(1)(A)” and “3104(a)(1)” for “1504(a)(1)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3107(a)” for “1507(a)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3104(a)(1)” for “1504(a)(1)” and “3108” for “1508”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3105(a)” for “1505(a)”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3117” for “1517”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, wherever appearing.

1986—Subsecs. (a)(2)(B), (b) to (d). Pub. L. 99–576 substituted “currently is reasonably feasible” for “is reasonably feasible” wherever appearing.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1163, 3105, 3107, 3108, 3109, 3118, 3120, 4211 of this title.

§3107. Individualized vocational rehabilitation plan

(a) The Secretary shall formulate an individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation for a veteran described in section 3106(b) of this title. Such plan shall be developed with such veteran and shall include, but not be limited to (1) a statement of long-range rehabilitation goals for such veteran and intermediate rehabilitation objectives related to achieving such goals, (2) a statement of the specific services (which shall include counseling in all cases) and assistance to be provided under this chapter, (3) the projected date for the initiation and the anticipated duration of each such service, and (4) objective criteria and an evaluation procedure and schedule for determining whether such objectives and goals are being achieved.

(b) The Secretary shall review at least annually the plan formulated under subsection (a) of this section for a veteran and shall afford such veteran the opportunity to participate in each such review. On the basis of such review, the Secretary shall (1) redevelop such plan with such veteran if the Secretary determines, under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, that redevelopment of such plan is appropriate, or (2) disapprove redevelopment of such plan if the Secretary determines, under such regulations, that redevelopment of such plan is not appropriate.

(c)(1) Each veteran for whom a plan has been developed or redeveloped under subsection (a) or (b)(1), respectively, of this section or in whose case redevelopment of a plan has been disapproved under subsection (b)(2) of this section, shall be informed of such veteran's opportunity for a review as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection.

(2) In any case in which a veteran does not agree to such plan as proposed, to such plan as redeveloped, or to the disapproval of redevelopment of such plan, such veteran may submit to the person described in section 3106(f) of this title a written statement containing such veteran's objections and request a review of such plan as proposed or redeveloped, or a review of the disapproval of redevelopment of such plan, as the case may be.

(3) The Secretary shall review the statement submitted under paragraph (2) of this subsection and the plan as proposed or as redeveloped, and, if applicable, the disapproval of redevelopment of the plan, and render a decision on such review not later than ninety days after the date on which such veteran submits such statement, unless the case is one for which a longer period for review, not to exceed 150 days after such veteran submits such statement, is allowed under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in which case the Secretary shall render a decision no later than the last day of the period prescribed in such regulations.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2177, §1507; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3107 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(f)(2)(A), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3325.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3107 was renumbered section 5307 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “3106(f)” for “3106(e)”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1507 of this title as this section.

Subsecs. (a), (c)(2). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3106(b)” for “1506(b)” in subsec. (a) and “3106(e)” for “1506(e)” in subsec. (c)(2).

1989—Subsecs. (a), (b), (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Individualized Written Plans and Extensions of Eligibility and Vocational Rehabilitation Program Periods for Veterans in Programs on March 31, 1981

Section 101(d) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided that with respect to veterans participating in a program of vocational rehabilitation under this chapter on Mar. 31, 1981, individualized written plans of vocational rehabilitation were to be formulated under this section as determined by Administrator, and authorized extensions of periods of vocational rehabilitation without regard to certain requirements for determinations of serious employment handicaps.

Veterans Pursuing Program of Vocational Rehabilitation Under Former Section 1507 of This Title

During the period beginning on Oct. 1, 1980, and ending on Mar. 31, 1981, the provisions of section 3112 [formerly 1512] of this title, as added by Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2181, shall apply to veterans pursuing a program of vocational rehabilitation training under this chapter in the same manner as former section 1507 of this title applied to veterans pursuing such a program under this chapter on Sept. 30, 1980, see section 802(a)(4) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1524, 3106, 3120 of this title.

§3108. Allowances

(a)(1) Except in the case of a veteran who makes an election under subsection (f) of this section and subject to the provisions of paragraph (3) of this subsection, each veteran shall be paid a subsistence allowance in accordance with this section during a period determined by the Secretary to be a period of such veteran's participation under this chapter in a rehabilitation program.

(2) In any case in which the Secretary determines, at the conclusion of such veteran's pursuit of a vocational rehabilitation program under this chapter, that such veteran has been rehabilitated to the point of employability, such veteran shall be paid a subsistence allowance, as prescribed in this section for full-time training for the type of program that the veteran was pursuing, for two months while satisfactorily following a program of employment services provided under section 3104(a)(5) of this title.

(3) A subsistence allowance may not be paid under this chapter to a veteran for any period during which such veteran is being provided with an initial evaluation under section 3106(a) of this title or during which such veteran is being provided only with counseling or with placement or postplacement services under section 3105(b) of this title.

(b)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the Secretary shall determine the subsistence allowance to be paid to a veteran under this chapter in accordance with the following table, which shall be the monthly amount shown in column II, III, IV, or V (whichever is applicable as determined by the veteran's dependency status) opposite the appropriate type of program being pursued as specified in column I:

 
Column IColumn

II

Column

III

Column

IV

Column V
Type of

program

No

dependents

One

dependent

Two

dependents

More than

two

dependents

        The amount in column IV, plus the following for each dependent in excess of two:
Institutional training:
Full-time $366 $454 $535      $39
Three-quarter time 275 341 400       30
Half-time 184 228 268       20
Farm cooperative, apprentice, or other on-job training:
Full-time 320 387 446       29
Extended evaluation:
Full-time 366 454 535       39
Independent living training:
Full-time 366 454 535       39
Three-quarter time 275 341 400       30
Half-time 184 228 268       20

(2) With respect to the fiscal year beginning on October 1, 1994, the Secretary shall provide a percentage increase in the monthly rates payable under paragraph (1) of this subsection equal to the percentage by which the Consumer Price Index (all items, United States city average published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) for the 12-month period ending June 30, 1994, exceeds such Consumer Price Index for the 12-month period ending June 30, 1993.

(3) With respect to any fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 1995, the Secretary shall continue to pay, in lieu of the rates payable under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the monthly rates payable under this subsection for the previous fiscal year and shall provide, for any such fiscal year, a percentage increase in such rates equal to the percentage by which—

(A) the Consumer Price Index (all items, United States city average) for the 12-month period ending on June 30 preceding the beginning of the fiscal year for which the increase is made, exceeds

(B) such Consumer Price Index for the 12-month period preceding the 12-month period described in subparagraph (A).


(c)(1) In any case in which the vocational rehabilitation program for a veteran includes training on the job by an employer in any month, such employer shall be required to submit to the Secretary a statement in writing showing any wage, compensation, or other income paid (directly or indirectly) by the employer to such veteran for such month. Based upon such written statement, the Secretary is authorized to reduce the subsistence allowance of such veteran to an amount considered equitable and just in accordance with criteria which the Secretary shall establish in regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe.

(2) A veteran pursuing on-job training or work experience as part of a vocational rehabilitation program in a Federal, State, or local government agency or federally recognized Indian tribe under the provisions of section 3115(a)(1) of this title without pay or for nominal pay shall be paid the appropriate subsistence allowance rate provided in subsection (b) of this section for an institutional program.

(d)(1) The Secretary shall, in accordance with regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, define full-time and each part-time status for veterans participating in rehabilitation programs under this chapter.

(2) A veteran participating in extended evaluation on less than a full-time basis may be paid a proportional subsistence allowance in accordance with regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe.

(e) In any case in which a veteran is pursuing a rehabilitation program on a residential basis in a specialized rehabilitation facility, the Secretary may (1) pay to such facility the cost of such veteran's room and board in lieu of payment to such veteran of the subsistence allowance (not including any portion payable for any dependents) payable under subsection (b) of this section, and (2) pay to such veteran that portion of the allowance for dependents payable, as determined by such veteran's dependency status, under subsection (b) of this section for a full-time institutional program.

(f)(1)(A) In any case in which the Secretary determines that a veteran is eligible for and entitled to rehabilitation under this chapter, to the extent that such veteran has remaining eligibility for and entitlement to educational assistance benefits under chapter 30 of this title, such veteran may elect, as part of a vocational rehabilitation program under this chapter, to pursue an approved program of education and receive allowances and other forms of assistance equivalent to those authorized for veterans enrolled under chapter 30 of this title, if the Secretary approves the educational, professional, or vocational objective chosen by such veteran for such program.

(B) In the event that such veteran makes such an election, the terms and conditions applicable to the pursuit of a comparable program of education and the payment of allowances and provision of assistance under chapter 30 of this title for such a comparable program shall be applied to the pursuit of the approved program of education under this chapter.

(2) A veteran who is receiving an allowance pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection may not receive any of the services or assistance described in section 3104(a)(3), (7), and (8) of this title (other than an allowance and other assistance under this subsection).

(g)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title and subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection, no subsistence allowance may be paid under this section in the case of any veteran who is pursuing a rehabilitation program under this chapter while incarcerated in a Federal, State, or local penal institution for conviction of a felony.

(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply in the case of any veteran who is pursuing a rehabilitation program under this chapter while residing in a halfway house or participating in a work-release program in connection with such veteran's conviction of a felony.

(h) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, the amount of subsistence allowance, or other allowance under subsection (f) of this section, that may be paid to a veteran pursuing a rehabilitation program for any month for which such veteran receives compensation at the rate prescribed in section 1114(j) of this title as the result of hospital treatment (not including post-hospital convalescence) or observation at the expense of the Department of Veterans Affairs may not exceed, when added to any compensation to which such veteran is entitled for such month, an amount equal to the greater of—

(1) the sum of—

(A) the amount of monthly subsistence or other allowance that would otherwise be paid to such veteran under this section, and

(B) the amount of monthly compensation that would be paid to such veteran if such veteran were not receiving compensation at such rate as the result of such hospital treatment or observation; or


(2) the amount of monthly compensation payable under section 1114(j) of this title.


(i) Payment of a subsistence allowance may be made in advance in accordance with the provisions of section 3680(d) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2178, §1508; amended Pub. L. 97–306, title II, §205(a), Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §703(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2564; Pub. L. 98–543, title II, §201, Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2740; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§402(a), 423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2078, 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §3(c), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 49; renumbered §3108 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title IV, §405(a), (b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4338, 4339; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §602(b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4671; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(g), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3325.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3108 was renumbered section 5308 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in former section 1504 of this title prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–466.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(g)(1), substituted “while satisfactorily following a program of employment services provided under section 3104(a)(5) of this title” for “following the conclusion of such pursuit”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(g)(2)(A), inserted “eligible for and” after “veteran is” and substituted “chapter 30” for “chapter 30 or 34” and “enrolled under chapter 30” for “enrolled under either chapter 30 or chapter 34”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(g)(2)(B), substituted “chapter 30” for “chapter 30 or 34”.

1994—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–446 inserted “or federally recognized Indian tribe” after “local government agency”.

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–568, §405(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) and (3).

Pub. L. 102–568, §405(a), increased the monthly rehabilitation subsistence allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $333, $250, $167, $291, $333, $333, $250, and $167 to $366, $275, $184, $320, $366, $366, $275, and $184; in column III from $413, $310, $207, $352, $413, $413, $310, and $207 to $454, $341, $228, $387, $454, $454, $341, and $228; in column IV from $486, $364, $244, $405, $486, $486, $364, and $244 to $535, $400, $268, $446, $535, $535, $$400, and $268; and in column V from $35, $27, $18, $26, $35, $35, $27, and $18 to $39, $30, $20, $29, $39, $39, $30, and $20, respectively.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1508 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3106(a)” for “1506(a)” and “3105(b)” for “1505(b)”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3115(a)(1)” for “1515(a)(1)”.

Pub. L. 102–16 inserted “, State, or local government” after “Federal”.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3104(a)(3)” for “1504(a)(3)”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “1114(j)” for “314(j)” in two places.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3680(d)” for “1780(d)”.

1989—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Pub. L. 101–237, §402(a), increased the monthly rehabilitation subsistence allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $310, $233, $155, $271, $310, $310, $233, and $155 to $333, $250, $167, $291, $333, $333, $250, and $167; in column III from $384, $288, $193, $327, $384, $384, $288, and $193 to $413, $310, $207, $352, $413, $413, $310, and $207; in column IV from $452, $339, $227, $377, $452, $452, $339, and $227 to $486, $364, $244, $405, $486, $486, $364, and $244; in column V from $33, $25, $17, $24, $33, $33, $25, and $17 to $35, $27, $18, $26, $35, $35, $27, and $18, respectively.

Subsecs. (c)(1) to (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(B), substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–543 increased the monthly rehabilitation subsistence allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $282, $212, $141, $246, $282, $282, $212, and $141 to $310, $233, $155, $271, $310, $310, $233, and $155; in column III from $349, $262, $175, $297, $349, $349, $262, and $175 to $384, $288, $193, $323, $384, $384, $288, and $193; in column IV from $411, $308, $206, $343, $411, $411, $308, and $206 to $452, $339, $227, $377, $452, $452, $339, and $227; in column V from $30, $23, $15, $22, $30, $30, $23, and $15 to $33, $25, $17, $24, $33, $33, $25, and $17, respectively.

Subsec. (f)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 98–525 inserted references to chapter 30 of this title.

1982—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 97–306 inserted “not” after “shall” and struck out “if the Administrator determines that all the veteran's living expenses are being defrayed by a Federal, State, or local government” at end.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 405(c) of Pub. L. 102–568 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1993.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 402(b) of Pub. L. 101–237 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 205 of Pub. L. 98–543 provided that: “The amendments made by this part [part A (§§201–205) of title II of Pub. L. 98–543, see Tables for classification] shall take effect as of October 1, 1984.”

Effective Date; Veterans Pursuing Program of Vocational Rehabilitation Under This Chapter

Section effective Oct. 1, 1980, and during period beginning on Oct. 1, 1980, and ending on Mar. 31, 1981, the provisions of this section, as added by Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2178, shall apply to veterans pursuing a program of vocational rehabilitation training under this chapter in the same manner as former section 1504 of this title applied to veterans pursuing such a program under this chapter on Sept. 30, 1980, see section 802(a)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3100 of this title.

Applicability of Subsection (g)(1) to Apportionments Made Before October 17, 1980

Section 101(c) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided that: “The provisions of section 1508(g)(1) [now 3108(g)(1)] of title 38, United States Code, as added by subsection (a) shall not apply to an apportionment made under section 3107(c) [now 5307(c)] of such title before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1980].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3104, 3106, 3112, 3680 of this title.

§3109. Entitlement to independent living services and assistance

In any case in which the Secretary has determined under section 3106(e) of this title that the achievement of a vocational goal by a veteran currently is not reasonably feasible, such veteran shall be entitled, in accordance with the provisions of section 3120 of this title, to a program of independent living services and assistance designed to enable such veteran to achieve maximum independence in daily living.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2181, §1509; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §333(b)(5), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3279; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3109 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(f)(2)(B), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3325.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3109 was renumbered section 5309 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “3106(e)” for “3106(d)”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1509 of this title as this section and substituted “3106(d)” for “1506(d)” and “3120” for “1520”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–576 inserted “currently” after first reference to “veteran”.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

§3110. Leaves of absence

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as the Secretary determines necessary for granting leaves of absence to veterans pursuing rehabilitation programs under this chapter. During authorized leaves of absence, a veteran shall be considered to be pursuing such program.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2181, §1510; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3110, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3110 was renumbered section 5310 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in former section 1505 of this title prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–466.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1510 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

§3111. Regulations to promote satisfactory conduct and cooperation

The Secretary shall prescribe such rules and regulations as the Secretary determines necessary to promote satisfactory conduct and cooperation on the part of veterans who are pursuing rehabilitation programs under this chapter. In any case in which the Secretary determines that a veteran has failed to maintain satisfactory conduct or cooperation, the Secretary may, after determining that all reasonable counseling efforts have been made and are not reasonably likely to be effective, discontinue services and assistance unless the Secretary determines that mitigating circumstances exist. In any case in which such services and assistance have been discontinued, the Secretary may reinstitute such services and assistance only if the Secretary determines that—

(1) the cause of the unsatisfactory conduct or cooperation of such veteran has been removed; and

(2) the rehabilitation program which such veteran proposes to pursue (whether the same or revised) is suitable to such veteran's abilities, aptitudes, and interests.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2181, §1511; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3111, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3111 was renumbered section 5311 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1511 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

§3112. Revolving fund loans

The revolving fund established pursuant to part VII of Veterans Regulation Numbered 1(a) is continued in effect, and may be used by the Secretary, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, for making advances, not in excess of twice the amount of the full-time institutional monthly subsistence allowance for a veteran with no dependents (as provided in section 3108(b) of this title) to veterans pursuing rehabilitation programs under this chapter. Such advances, and advances from such fund made before the effective date of the Veterans’ Rehabilitation and Education Amendments of 1980, shall bear no interest and shall be repaid in such installments, as may be determined by the Secretary, by proper deductions from future payments of compensation, pension, subsistence allowance, educational assistance allowance, or retirement pay.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2181, §1512; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3112 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

References in Text

The revolving fund established pursuant to part VII of Veterans Regulation Numbered 1(a), referred to in text, means the vocational rehabilitation revolving fund established by par. 8 of part VII of Veterans Regulation Numbered 1(a), as added by act Mar. 24, 1943, ch. 22, §2, 57 Stat. 44, which was set out in chapter 12A of former Title 38, Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans’ Relief. The appropriation for such fund made by act July 12, 1943, ch. 218, §1, 57 Stat. 434, was reduced by act June 24, 1954, ch. 359, title I, §101(part), 68 Stat. 293, and repealed by Pub. L. 85–857, §14(82), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1272. Part VII of Veterans Regulation Numbered 1(a) was repealed by section 14(67) of Pub. L. 85–857, effective Jan. 1, 1959, which provided in part, that repeal of part VII should not take effect in such manner as to impair the operation of the deferred repeal of a portion of paragraph 9 of the part as provided in section 21 of the Government Employees Training Act, Pub. L. 85–507, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 337. For continuation of certain rights and benefits see section 12 of Pub. L. 85–857, set out as a note preceding part I of this title.

For effective date of the Veterans’ Rehabilitation and Education Amendments of 1980, referred to in text, see section 802 of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3100 of this title.

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3112 was renumbered section 5312 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in former section 1507 of this title prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–466.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1512 of this title as this section and substituted “3108(b)” for “1508(b)”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Effective Date; Veterans Pursuing Program of Vocational Rehabilitation Under This Chapter

Section effective Oct. 1, 1980, and during period beginning on Oct. 1, 1980, and ending on Mar. 31, 1981, the provisions of this section, as added by Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2181, shall apply to veterans pursuing a program of vocational rehabilitation training under this chapter in the same manner as former section 1507 of this title applied to veterans pursuing such a program under this chapter on Sept. 30, 1980, see section 802(a)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3104 of this title.

§3113. Vocational rehabilitation for hospitalized members of the Armed Forces and veterans

(a) Services and assistance may be provided under this chapter to a person described in subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (B) of section 3102(1) of this title who is hospitalized pending discharge from active military, naval, or air service. In such cases, no subsistence allowance shall be paid.

(b) Services and assistance may be provided under this chapter to a veteran who is receiving care in a Department of Veterans Affairs hospital, nursing home, or domiciliary facility or in any other hospital or medical facility.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2181, §1513; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(B), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3113 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(d)(10), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4684.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3113 was renumbered section 5313 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising subsec. (a) of this section were contained in former section 1510 of this title prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–466.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–446 substituted “subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (B) of section 3102(1)” for “section 3102(1)(B) and (2)”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1513 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3102(1)(B)” for “1502(1)(B)”.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

§3114. Vocational rehabilitation outside the United States

Under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, a vocational rehabilitation program under this chapter may be provided outside the United States if the Secretary determines that such training is (1) necessary in the particular case to provide the preparation needed to render a veteran employable and enable such veteran to obtain and retain suitable employment, and (2) in the best interest of such veteran and the Federal Government.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2182, §1514; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3114, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3114 was renumbered section 5314 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1514 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

§3115. Rehabilitation resources

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for the purpose of providing services under this chapter, the Secretary may—

(1) use the facilities of any Federal agency (including the Department of Veterans Affairs), of any State or local government agency receiving Federal financial assistance, or of any federally recognized Indian tribe, to provide training or work experience as part or all of a veteran's vocational rehabilitation program without pay or for nominal pay in any case in which the Secretary determines that such training or work experience is necessary to accomplish such veteran's rehabilitation;

(2) use the facilities, staff, and other resources of the Department of Veterans Affairs;

(3) employ such additional personnel and experts as the Secretary considers necessary; and

(4) use the facilities and services of any Federal, State, or other public agency, any agency maintained by joint Federal and State contributions, any federally recognized Indian tribe, any public or private institution or establishment, and any private individual.


(b)(1) While pursuing on-job training or work experience under subsection (a)(1) of this section at a Federal agency, a veteran shall be considered to be an employee of the United States for the purposes of the benefits of chapter 81 of title 5, but not for the purposes of laws administered by the Office of Personnel Management.

(2) Except as provided in chapter 17 of this title, hospital care and medical services provided under this chapter shall be furnished in facilities over which the Secretary has direct jurisdiction.

(3) Use of the facilities of a State or local government agency under subsection (a)(1) of this section or use of facilities and services under subsection (a)(4) of this section, shall be procured through contract, agreement, or other cooperative arrangement.

(4) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations providing for the monitoring of training and work experiences provided under such subsection (a)(1) at State or local government agencies and otherwise ensuring that such training or work experience is in the best interest of the veteran and the Federal Government.

(c) For purposes of this section, the term “federally recognized Indian tribe” means any Indian tribe, band, nation, pueblo, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2182, §1515; amended Pub. L. 100–689, title II, §201, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4175; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3115, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4671.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3115 was renumbered section 5315 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in former section 1511 of this title prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–466.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–446, §602(a)(1)(A), struck out “or” after “(including the Department of Veterans Affairs),” and inserted “or of any federally recognized Indian tribe,” after “financial assistance,”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–446, §602(a)(1)(B), inserted “any federally recognized Indian tribe,” after “contributions,”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–446, §602(a)(2), added subsec. (c).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1515 of this title as this section.

1989—Subsecs. (a), (b)(2), (4). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, wherever appearing.

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–689, §201(1), inserted “, or of any State or local government agency receiving Federal financial assistance,” after “Administration)”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–689, §201(2)(A), inserted “at a Federal agency” after “section”.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 100–689, §201(2)(B), added pars. (3) and (4) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: “Use of facilities and services under clause (4) of subsection (a) of this section, shall be procured through contract, agreement, or other cooperative arrangement.”

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1151, 3108 of this title.

§3116. Promotion of employment and training opportunities

(a) The Secretary shall actively promote the development and establishment of employment, training, and other related opportunities for (1) veterans who are participating or who have participated in a rehabilitation program under this chapter, (2) veterans with service-connected disabilities, and (3) other veterans to whom the employment emphases set forth in chapter 42 of this title apply. The Secretary shall promote the development and establishment of such opportunities through Department of Veterans Affairs staff outreach efforts to employers and through Department of Veterans Affairs coordination with Federal, State, and local governmental agencies and appropriate nongovernmental organizations. In carrying out the provisions of this subsection with respect to veterans referred to in clause (3) of the first sentence of this subsection, the Secretary shall place particular emphasis on the needs of categories of such veterans on the basis of applicable rates of unemployment.

(b)(1) The Secretary, pursuant to regulations prescribed in accordance with paragraph (3) of this subsection, may make payments to employers for providing on-job training to veterans who have been rehabilitated to the point of employability in individual cases in which the Secretary determines that such payment is necessary to obtain needed on-job training or to begin employment. Such payments may not exceed the direct expenses incurred by such employers in providing such on-job training or employment opportunity.

(2) In any case in which a veteran described in paragraph (1) of this subsection participates in on-job training described in such paragraph that satisfies the criteria for payment of a training assistance allowance under section 3687 of this title, such veteran shall, to the extent that such veteran has remaining eligibility for and entitlement to such allowance, be paid such allowance.

(3) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations under this subsection in consultation with the Secretary of Labor and, in prescribing such regulations, shall take into consideration the provisions of title V of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. ch. 16, subch. V) and section 4212 of this title, and regulations prescribed under such provisions.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2182, §1516; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3116 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

References in Text

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355, as amended. Title V of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is classified generally to subchapter V (§790 et seq.) of chapter 16 of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of Title 29 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3116 was renumbered section 5316 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1516 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3687” for “1787” in par. (2) and “4212” for “2012” in par. (3).

1989—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (3). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(a)(2) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Coordination With Programs Under Veterans’ Job Training Act

Pub. L. 99–238, title II, §202, Jan. 13, 1986, 99 Stat. 1768, as amended by Pub. L. 102–83, §§5(c)(2), 6(g), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, 408, provided that:

“(a) In General.—In carrying out section 3116(b) [formerly 1516(b)] of title 38, United States Code, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall take all feasible steps to establish and encourage, for veterans who are eligible to have payments made on their behalf under such section, the development of training opportunities through programs of job training consistent with the provisions of the Veterans’ Job Training Act (as redesignated by section 201(a)(1) of this Act) [29 U.S.C. 1721 note] so as to utilize programs of job training established by employers pursuant to such Act.

“(b) Directive.—In carrying out such Act, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall take all feasible steps to ensure that, in the cases of veterans who are eligible to have payments made on their behalf under both such Act and section 3116(b) [formerly 1516(b)] of title 38, United States Code, the authority under such section is utilized, to the maximum extent feasible and consistent with the veteran's best interests, to make payments to employers on behalf of such veterans.”

§3117. Employment assistance

(a)(1) A veteran with a service-connected disability rated at 10 percent or more who has participated in a vocational rehabilitation program under this chapter or a similar program under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.] and who the Secretary has determined to be employable shall be furnished assistance in obtaining employment consistent with such veteran's abilities, aptitudes, interests, and employment handicap, including assistance necessary to insure that such veteran receives the benefit of any applicable provisions of law or regulation providing for special consideration or emphasis or preference for such veteran in employment or training.

(2) Assistance provided under this subsection may include—

(A) direct placement of such veteran in employment;

(B) utilization of the services of disabled veterans outreach program specialists under section 4103A of this title; and

(C) utilization of the job development and placement services of (i) programs under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, (ii) the State employment service and the Veterans’ Employment Service of the Department of Labor, (iii) the Office of Personnel Management, (iv) any other public or nonprofit organization having placement services available, and (v) any for-profit entity in a case in which the Secretary has determined that services necessary to provide such assistance are available from such entity and that comparably effective services are not available, or cannot be obtained cost-effectively, from the entities described in subclauses (i) through (iv) of this clause.


(b)(1) In any case in which a veteran has completed a vocational rehabilitation program for self-employment in a small business enterprise under this chapter, the Secretary shall assist such veteran in securing, as appropriate, a loan under subchapter IV of chapter 37 of this title and shall cooperate with the Small Business Administration to assist such veteran to secure a loan for the purchase of equipment needed to establish such veteran's own business and to insure that such veteran receives the special consideration provided for in section 8 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 633(b)).

(2) In the case of a veteran described in clause (12) of section 3104(a) of this title who has trained under a State rehabilitation program with the objective of self-employment in a small business enterprise, the Secretary may, subject to the limitations and criteria provided for in such clause, provide such veteran with such supplementary equipment and initial stocks and supplies as are determined to be needed by such veteran if such supplementary equipment and initial stocks and supplies, or assistance in acquiring them, are not available through the State program or other sources.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2183, §1517; amended Pub. L. 97–72, title III, §303(k), Nov. 3, 1981, 95 Stat. 1060; Pub. L. 100–689, title II, §202(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4175; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 102–54, §14(c)(4), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 285; renumbered §3117 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(h), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3325.)

References in Text

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (2)(C)(i), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 16 (§701 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of Title 29 and Tables.

Section 8 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 633(b)), referred to in subsec. (b)(1), probably means section 2[4] of the Small Business Act, Pub. L. 85–536, §2[4], July 18, 1958, 72 Stat. 384, as amended by section 8 of Pub. L. 93–237, Jan. 2, 1974, 87 Stat. 1025, which is classified to section 633(b) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3117 was renumbered section 5317 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–275 inserted “rated at 10 percent or more” after “disability”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1517 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–54, §14(c)(4)(A), inserted “(29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.)” after “1973”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “4103A” for “2003A”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 102–54, §14(c)(4)(B), struck out second period at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3104(a)” for “1504(a)”.

1989—Subsecs. (a)(1), (2)(C), (b). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1988—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–689 struck out “and” at end of subcl. (iii), substituted “available, and” for “available” in subcl. (iv), and added subcl. (v).

1981—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–72 inserted provision requiring the Administrator to assist veterans in securing, as appropriate, a loan under subchapter IV of chapter 37 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–72 effective at end of 180-day period beginning on Nov. 3, 1981, see section 305 of Pub. L. 97–72, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3741 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1981, see section 802(a)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3106 of this title.

§3118. Personnel training, development, and qualifications

(a) The Secretary shall provide a program of ongoing professional training and development for Department of Veterans Affairs counseling and rehabilitation personnel engaged in providing rehabilitation services under this chapter. The objective of such training shall be to insure that rehabilitation services for disabled veterans are provided in accordance with the most advanced knowledge, methods, and techniques available for the rehabilitation of handicapped persons. For this purpose, the Secretary may employ the services of consultants and may make grants to and contract with public or private agencies (including institutions of higher learning) to conduct such training and development.

(b) The Secretary shall coordinate with the Commissioner of the Rehabilitation Services Administration in the Department of Education and the Assistant Secretary for Veterans’ Employment in the Department of Labor in planning and carrying out personnel training in areas of mutual programmatic concern.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall establish such qualifications for personnel providing evaluation and rehabilitation services to veterans under this chapter and for employees performing the functions described in section 3106(f) of this title as the Secretary determines are necessary and appropriate to insure the quality of rehabilitation programs under this chapter. In establishing such qualifications, the Secretary shall take into account the qualifications established for comparable personnel under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. ch. 16).

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2184, §1518; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3118 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(f)(2)(C), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3325.)

References in Text

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. ch. 16), referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§701 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of Title 29 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3118 was renumbered section 5318 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “3106(f)” for “3106(e)”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1518 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3106(e)” for “1506(e)”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(a)(2) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

§3119. Rehabilitation research and special projects

(a) The Secretary shall carry out an ongoing program of activities for the purpose of advancing the knowledge, methods, techniques, and resources available for use in rehabilitation programs for veterans. For this purpose, the Secretary shall conduct and provide support for the development or conduct, or both the development and conduct, of—

(1) studies and research concerning the psychological, educational, employment, social, vocational, industrial, and economic aspects of the rehabilitation of disabled veterans, including new methods of rehabilitation; and

(2) projects which are designed to increase the resources and potential for accomplishing the rehabilitation of disabled veterans.


(b) For the purpose specified in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary is authorized to make grants to or contract with public or nonprofit agencies, including institutions of higher learning.

(c) The Secretary shall cooperate with the Commissioner of the Rehabilitation Services Administration and the Director of the Institute of Handicapped Research in the Department of Education, the Assistant Secretary for Veterans’ Employment in the Department of Labor, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services regarding rehabilitation studies, research, and special projects of mutual programmatic concern.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2184, §1519; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3119, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1519 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(a)(2) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

§3120. Program of independent living services and assistance

(a) The Secretary may, under contracts with entities described in subsection (f) of this section, or through facilities of the Veterans Health Administration, which possess a demonstrated capability to conduct programs of independent living services for severely handicapped persons, provide, under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, programs of independent living services and assistance under this chapter, in various geographic regions of the United States, to veterans described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) A program of independent living services and assistance may be made available under this section only to a veteran who has a serious employment handicap resulting in substantial part from a service-connected disability described in section 3102(1)(A)(i) of this title and with respect to whom it is determined under section 3106(d) or (e) of this title that the achievement of a vocational goal currently is not reasonably feasible.

(c) The Secretary shall, to the maximum extent feasible, include among those veterans who are provided with programs of independent living services and assistance under this section substantial numbers of veterans described in subsection (b) of this section who are receiving long-term care in Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals and nursing homes and in nursing homes with which the Secretary contracts for the provision of care to veterans.

(d) A program of independent living services and assistance for a veteran shall consist of such services described in section 3104(a) of this title as the Secretary determines necessary to enable such veteran to achieve maximum independence in daily living. Such veteran shall have the same rights with respect to an individualized written plan of services and assistance as are afforded veterans under section 3107 of this title.

(e) Programs of independent living services and assistance shall be initiated for no more than five hundred veterans in each fiscal year, and the first priority in the provision of such programs shall be afforded to veterans for whom the reasonable feasibility of achieving a vocational goal is precluded solely as a result of a service-connected disability.

(f) Entities described in this subsection are (1) public or nonprofit agencies or organizations, and (2) for-profit entities in cases in which the Secretary determines that services comparable in effectiveness to services available from such an entity are not available, or cannot be obtained cost-effectively from, public or nonprofit agencies or through facilities of the Veterans Health Administration.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2185, §1520; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §333(a), (b)(6), (c), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3279; Pub. L. 100–689, title II, §202(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4176; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§404, 423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2080, 2092; renumbered §3120 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(b)(1), (d)(11), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4682, 4684; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §101(f)(2)(D), (i), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3325.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(i)(1), substituted “serious employment handicap resulting in substantial part from a service-connected disability described in section 3102(1)(A)(i)” for “service-connected disability described in section 3102(1)(A)”.

Pub. L. 104–275, §101(f)(2)(D), substituted “3106(d) or (e)” for “3106(d)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–275, §101(i)(2), struck out “and (b)” after “section 3104(a)”.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(b)(1), substituted “Veterans Health Administration” for “Department of Medicine and Surgery”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(d)(11), which directed substitution of “section 3102(1)(A)(i)” for “section 3012(1)(A)”, could not be executed because the words “section 3012(1)(A)” did not appear.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(b)(1), substituted “Veterans Health Administration” for “Department of Medicine and Surgery”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1520 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3102(1)(A)” for “1502(1)(A)” and “3106(d)” for “1506(d)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3104(a)” for “1504(a)” and “3107” for “1507”.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §404(2)–(4), redesignated former par. (1) of subsec. (a) as entire subsection, substituted “The” for “During fiscal years 1982 through 1989, the”, “subsection (f) of this section” for “paragraph (7) of this subsection” and “subsection (b) of this section” for “paragraph (2) of this subsection”, redesignated former pars. (2), (3), (4), (6), and (7) of subsec. (a) as subsecs. (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this section, respectively, and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: “Any contract for services initiated with respect to any veteran under this section before the end of fiscal year 1989 may be continued in effect after the end of such year for the purposes of providing services and assistance to such veteran in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §404(1), (3), (5), redesignated former subsec. (a)(2) as (b), struck out before period at end “and who is selected pursuant to criteria provided for in regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) of this subsection” and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “Not later than February 1, 1989, the Administrator shall submit to the Committees on Veterans’ Affairs of the Senate and the House of Representatives statistical data regarding veterans’ participation in the program conducted under subsection (a) of this section during fiscal years 1987 and 1988 and any recommendations of the Administrator for administrative or legislative action or both regarding the program.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1), substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §404(3), (6), redesignated former subsec. (a)(3) as (c) and substituted “subsection (b) of this section” for “paragraph (2) of this subsection”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Pub. L. 101–237, §404(3), redesignated former subsec. (a)(4) as (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–237, §404(3), (7), redesignated former subsec. (a)(6) as (e) and substituted “in each fiscal year” for “in each of the fiscal years 1982 through 1989”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Pub. L. 101–237, §404(3), (8), redesignated former subsec. (a)(7) as (f) and substituted “in this subsection are (1) public or nonprofit agencies or organizations, and (2)” for “in this paragraph are (A) public or nonprofit agencies or organizations, and (B)”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–689, §202(b)(1), substituted “entities described in paragraph (7) of this subsection” for “public or nonprofit private agencies or organizations”.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 100–689, §202(b)(2), added par. (7).

1986—Pub. L. 99–576, §333(b)(6), substituted “Program” for “Pilot program” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–576, §333(a)(1)(A), substituted “1989” for “1985”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–576, §333(a)(1)(B), inserted “currently” after “goal”.

Subsec. (a)(5), (6). Pub. L. 99–576, §333(a)(1)(A), substituted “1989” for “1985”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–576, §333(c), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “Not later than September 30, 1984, the Administrator shall submit to the Congress a report on the programs of independent living services and assistance provided for in subsection (a) of this section. Such report shall include—

“(1) the results of a study which the Administrator shall conduct of the accomplishments and cost-effectiveness of such programs, including the extent to which (A) such programs have met needs for comprehensive independent living services that would not otherwise have been met, (B) severely disabled veterans have achieved and maintained greater independence in daily living as a result of participation in the programs, and (C) costs of care in hospital, nursing home, and domiciliary facilities have been and may be avoided as the result of such programs; and

“(2) the Administrator's recommendations for any legislative changes with respect to the provision of independent living services and assistance to veterans for whom the achievement of a vocational goal is not feasible.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–275 effective Oct. 9, 1996, with amendment by section 101(i) of Pub. L. 104–275 only applicable with respect to claims of eligibility or entitlement to services and assistance (including claims for extension of such services and assistance) under this chapter received by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs on or after Oct. 9, 1996, including those claims based on original applications, and applications seeking to reopen, revise, reconsider, or otherwise adjudicate or readjudicate on any basis claims for services and assistance under this chapter, see section 101(j) of Pub. L. 104–275, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(a)(2) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3101, 3103, 3106, 3109 of this title.

§3121. Veterans’ Advisory Committee on Rehabilitation

(a)(1) The Secretary shall appoint an advisory committee to be known as the Veterans’ Advisory Committee on Rehabilitation (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Committee”).

(2) The members of the Committee shall be appointed by the Secretary from the general public and shall serve for terms to be determined by the Secretary not to exceed three years. Veterans with service-connected disabilities shall be appropriately represented in the membership of the Committee, and the Committee shall also include persons who have distinguished themselves in the public and private sectors in the fields of rehabilitation medicine, vocational guidance, vocational rehabilitation, and employment and training programs. The Secretary may designate one of the members of the Committee appointed under this paragraph to chair the Committee.

(3) The Committee shall also include as ex officio members the following: (A) one representative from the Veterans Health Administration and one from the Veterans Benefits Administration, (B) one representative from the Rehabilitation Services Administration of the Department of Education and one from the National Institute for Handicapped Research of the Department of Education, and (C) one representative of the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Veterans’ Employment and Training of the Department of Labor.

(b) The Secretary shall, on a regular basis, consult with and seek the advice of the Committee with respect to the administration of veterans’ rehabilitation programs under this title.

(c) The Committee shall submit to the Secretary an annual report on the rehabilitation programs and activities of the Department of Veterans Affairs and shall submit such other reports and recommendations to the Secretary as the Committee determines appropriate. The annual report shall include an assessment of the rehabilitation needs of veterans and a review of the programs and activities of the Department of Veterans Affairs designed to meet such needs. The Secretary shall submit with each annual report submitted to the Congress pursuant to section 529 of this title a copy of all reports and recommendations of the Committee submitted to the Secretary since the previous annual report of the Secretary was submitted to the Congress pursuant to such section.

(Added Pub. L. 96–466, title I, §101(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2186, §1521; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 102–54, §14(c)(5), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 285; renumbered §3121 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§2(c)(3), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 402, 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(b)(1), (i)(5), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4682, 4688.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–446 substituted “Veterans Health Administration” for “Department of Medicine and Surgery” and “Veterans Benefits Administration” for “Department of Veterans’ Benefits”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1521 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–54 substituted “Veterans’ Employment and Training” for “Veterans’ Employment”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §2(c)(3), substituted “section 529” for “section 214”.

1989—Subsecs. (a)(1), (2), (b). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(a)(2) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3100 of this title.

CHAPTER 32—POST-VIETNAM ERA VETERANS’ EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE

SUBCHAPTER I—PURPOSE; DEFINITIONS

Sec.
3201.
Purpose.
3202.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ELIGIBILITY; CONTRIBUTIONS; AND MATCHING FUND

3221.
Eligibility.
3222.
Contributions; matching fund.
3223.
Refunds of contributions upon disenrollment.
3224.
Death of participant.
3225.
Discharge or release under conditions which would bar the use of benefits.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—ENTITLEMENT; DURATION

3231.
Entitlement; loan eligibility.
3232.
Duration; limitations.
3233.
Apprenticeship or other on-job training.
3234.
Tutorial assistance.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—ADMINISTRATION

3241.
Requirements.
3243.
Deposits; reports.

        

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(b)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, renumbered items 1601 to 1643 as 3201 to 3243, respectively.

Pub. L. 102–16, §5(b), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 50, struck out item 1642 “Reporting requirements”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §107(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4169, added item 1634.

1986—Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §310(b)(3), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3272, added item 1633.

1982—Pub. L. 97–295, §4(36), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1307, inserted “the” after “bar” in item 1625.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 3018A, 3018B, 3018C, 3033, 3485, 3674, 3680A, 3681, 3684A, 3688, 3690, 3692, 3693, 3695, 3697, 3697A, 5113, 5303A of this title; title 20 section 1087vv; title 26 sections 25A, 135, 6334; title 29 section 2913.

SUBCHAPTER I—PURPOSE; DEFINITIONS

§3201. Purpose

It is the purpose of this chapter (1) to provide educational assistance to those men and women who enter the Armed Forces after December 31, 1976, and before July 1, 1985, (2) to assist young men and women in obtaining an education they might not otherwise be able to afford, and (3) to promote and assist the all volunteer military program of the United States by attracting qualified men and women to serve in the Armed Forces.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2393, §1601; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §309(a)(1), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3270; renumbered §3201, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior section 3201 was renumbered section 5501 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1601 of this title as this section.

1986—Pub. L. 99–576 inserted “and before July 1, 1985,”.

Effective Date

Section 406 of title IV of Pub. L. 94–502 provided that: “The provisions of this title [enacting this chapter, amending sections 1652, 1661, and 1662 [now 3452, 3461, and 3462] of this title and section 725s of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3221 of this title] shall become effective on January 1, 1977.”

Short Title

For short titles of Pub. L. 94–502, and title IV of Pub. L. 94–502, which enacted this chapter, see Short Title of 1976 Amendments note set out under section 101 of this title.

Enrollment in Program Before April 1, 1987

Section 309(c), (d) of Pub. L. 99–576 provided that:

“(c) Exception.—Notwithstanding the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 1602 and 1621 [now 3202 and 3221] of this title], any individual on active duty in the Armed Forces who was eligible on June 30, 1985, to enroll in the program established by chapter 32 of title 38, United States Code, may enroll, before April 1, 1987, in such program.

“(d) Notice Requirement.—The Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, shall carry out activities for the purpose of notifying, to the maximum extent feasible, individuals described in subsection (c) of the opportunity provided by such subsection.”

§3202. Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter—

(1)(A) The term “eligible veteran” means any veteran who is not eligible for educational assistance under chapter 34 of this title and who (i) entered military service on or after January 1, 1977, and before July 1, 1985, served on active duty for a period of more than 180 days commencing on or after January 1, 1977, and was discharged or released therefrom under conditions other than dishonorable, or (ii) entered military service on or after January 1, 1977, and before July 1, 1985, and was discharged or released from active duty after January 1, 1977, for a service-connected disability.

(B) The requirement of discharge or release, prescribed in subparagraph (A), shall be waived in the case of any participant who has completed his or her first obligated period of active duty (which began after December 31, 1976) or 6 years of active duty (which began after December 31, 1976), whichever period is less.

(C) For the purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), the term “active duty” does not include any period during which an individual (i) was assigned full time by the Armed Forces to a civilian institution for a course of education which was substantially the same as established courses offered to civilians, (ii) served as a cadet or midshipman at one of the service academies, or (iii) served under the provisions of section 511(d) 1 of title 10 pursuant to an enlistment in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard, or as a Reserve for service in the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve.

(D)(i) The requirement of ineligibility for educational assistance under chapter 34 of this title, prescribed in subparagraph (A), shall be waived in the case of a veteran described in division (ii) of this subparagraph who elects to receive benefits under this chapter instead of assistance under such chapter 34. A veteran who makes such an election shall be ineligible for assistance under such chapter. Such an election is irrevocable.

(ii) A veteran referred to in division (i) of this subparagraph is a veteran who before January 1, 1977, performed military service described in subparagraph (C)(iii), is entitled under section 3452(a)(3)(C) of this title to have such service considered to be “active duty” for the purposes of chapter 34 of this title, and is eligible for assistance under such chapter only by reason of having such service considered to be active duty.

(2) The term “program of education”—

(A) has the meaning given such term in section 3452(b) of this title, and

(B) includes (i) a full-time program of apprenticeship or other on-job training approved as provided in clause (1) or (2), as appropriate, of section 3687(a) of this title, and (ii) in the case of an individual who is not serving on active duty, a cooperative program (as defined in section 3482(a)(2) of this title).


(3) The term “participant” is a person who is participating in the educational benefits program established under this chapter.

(4) The term “educational institution” has the meaning given such term in section 3452(c) of this title.

(5) The term “training establishment” has the meaning given such term in section 3452(e) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2394, §1602; amended Pub. L. 96–466, title IV, §401, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2201; Pub. L. 98–223, title II, §203(a), Mar. 2, 1984, 98 Stat. 41; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §§309(a)(2), 310(a), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3270, 3271; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §108(b)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4169; Pub. L. 102–54, §14(c)(6), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 285; renumbered §3202 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

References in Text

Section 511 of title 10, referred to in par. (1)(C)(iii), was renumbered section 12103 of Title 10, Armed Forces, by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2989.

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 3202 to 3205 were renumbered sections 5502 to 5505 of this title, respectively, and section 5505 was subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1201(g)(4)(A), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4687.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1602 of this title as this section.

Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 102–54 inserted comma after last reference to “1977”.

Par. (1)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3452(a)(3)(C)” for “1652(a)(3)(C)”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3452(b)” for “1652(b)” in subpar. (A) and “3687(a)” for “1787(a)” and “3482(a)(2)” for “1682(a)(2)” in subpar. (B).

Pars. (4), (5). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3452(c)” for “1652(c)” in par. (4) and “3452(e)” for “1652(e)” in par. (5).

1988—Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 100–689 inserted designation “(i)” after “includes” and added cl. (ii).

1986—Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 99–576, §309(a)(2), inserted “and before July 1, 1985,” in two places and substituted “commencing on or after January 1, 1977” for “commencing on or after such date” and “released from active duty after January 1, 1977” for “released from active duty after such date”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 99–576, §310(a)(1), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “The terms ‘program of education’ and ‘educational institution’ shall have the same meaning ascribed to them in sections 1652(b) and 1652(c), respectively, of this title.”

Pars. (4), (5). Pub. L. 99–576, §310(a)(2), added pars. (4) and (5).

1984—Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 98–223 added subpar. (D).

1980—Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 96–466 inserted “who is not eligible for educational assistance under chapter 34 of this title and” after “any veteran” and struck out “initially” before “entered military service” in two places.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–689 effective Jan. 1, 1989, see section 108(c) of Pub. L. 100–689, set out as a note under section 3002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 802(d)(1) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided that: “The amendments made by section 401 [amending this section] shall take effect as of January 1, 1977.”

Enrollment in Program Before April 1, 1987

For provisions for continued eligibility for enrollment in the program established by this chapter until Apr. 1, 1987, of individuals on active duty in the Armed Forces who were eligible therefor on June 30, 1985, and requiring notice of such continued eligibility to affected individuals, see section 309(c), (d) of Pub. L. 99–576, set out as a note under section 3201 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3018C of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—ELIGIBILITY; CONTRIBUTIONS; AND MATCHING FUND

1 See References in Text note below.

§3221. Eligibility

(a) Each person entering military service on or after January 1, 1977, and before July 1, 1985, shall have the right to enroll in the educational benefits program provided by this chapter (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the “program” except where the text indicates otherwise) at any time during such person's service on active duty before July 1, 1985. When a person elects to enroll in the program, such person must participate for at least 12 consecutive months before disenrolling or suspending participation.

(b) The requirement for 12 consecutive months of participation required by subsection (a) of this section shall not apply when (1) the participant suspends participation or disenrolls from the program because of personal hardship as defined in regulations issued jointly by the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense, or (2) the participant is discharged or released from active duty.

(c) A participant shall be permitted to suspend participation or disenroll from the program at the end of any 12-consecutive-month period of participation. If participation is suspended, the participant shall be eligible to make additional contributions to the program under such terms and conditions as shall be prescribed by regulations issued jointly by the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense.

(d) If a participant disenrolls from the program, such participant forfeits any entitlement to benefits under the program except as provided in subsection (e) of this section. A participant who disenrolls from the program is eligible for a refund of such participant's contributions as provided in section 3223 of this title.

(e) A participant who has disenrolled may be permitted to reenroll in the program under such conditions as shall be prescribed jointly by the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense.

(f) An individual who serves in the Selected Reserve may not receive credit for such service under both the program established by this chapter and the program established by chapter 106 of title 10 but shall elect (in such form and manner as the Secretary of Veterans Affairs may prescribe) the program to which such service is to be credited.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2394, §1621; amended Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §309(a)(3), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3270; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§410, 423(b)(1)(A), (4)(A), (6), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2084, 2092, 2093; renumbered §3221 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1621 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3223” for “1623”.

1989—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” after “jointly by the” and struck out “(hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the ‘Secretary’)” after “Secretary of Defense”.

Subsecs. (c), (e). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” after “jointly by the” and inserted “of Defense” after “Secretary” at end.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–237, §410, added subsec. (f).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–576 inserted “and before July 1, 1985,” and “before July 1, 1985” in first sentence.

Enrollment in Program Before April 1, 1987

For provisions for continued eligibility for enrollment in the program established by this chapter until Apr. 1, 1987, of individuals on active duty in the Armed Forces who were eligible therefor on June 30, 1985, and requiring notice of such continued eligibility to affected individuals, see section 309(c), (d) of Pub. L. 99–576, set out as a note under section 3201 of this title.

Suspension of Right To Enroll in Post-Vietnam Era Program

Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §704, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2564, which provided that no individual on active duty in the Armed Forces could initially enroll in the educational assistance program provided for in this chapter during the period beginning on July 1, 1985, and ending on June 30, 1988, was repealed by Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §309(b), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3270.

New Enrollments in Educational Assistance Program After December 31, 1981, Presidential Recommendation to Congress

Section 408 of Pub. L. 94–502 provided that:

“(a)(1) No individual on active duty in the Armed Forces may initially enroll in the educational assistance program provided for in chapter 32 of title 38, United States Code (as added by section 404 of this Act) after December 31, 1981, unless—

“(A) before June 1, 1981, the President submits to both Houses of Congress a written recommendation that such program continue to be open for new enrollments; and

“(B) before the close of the 60-day period after the day on which the President submits to Congress the recommendation described in subparagraph (A), neither the House of Representatives nor the Senate adopts, by an affirmative vote of a majority of those present and voting in that House, a resolution which in substance disapproves such recommendation.

“(2) For purposes of computing the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (1)(B), there shall be excluded—

“(A) the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than 3 days to a day certain or an adjournment of the Congress sine die, and

“(B) any Saturday and Sunday, not excluded under the preceding subparagraph, when either House is not in session.

The recommendation referred to in paragraph (1)(A) shall be delivered to both Houses of Congress on the same day and shall be delivered to the Clerk of the House of Representatives if the House is not in session and to the Secretary of the Senate if the Senate is not in session.

“(b) If new enrollments after December 31, 1981, in the educational assistance program provided for in such chapter 32 are authorized after the application of the provisions of subsection (a), then effective January 1, 1982, section 1622(b) [now 3222(b)] of title 38, United States Code, is amended by striking out ‘Veterans’ Administration’ and inserting in lieu thereof ‘Department of Defense’.”

§3222. Contributions; matching fund

(a) Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, each person electing to participate in the program shall agree to have a monthly deduction made from such person's military pay. Such monthly deduction shall be in any amount not less than $25 nor more than $100 except that the amount must be divisible by 5. Any such amount contributed by the participant or contributed by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to subsection (c) of this section shall be deposited in a deposit fund account entitled the “Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account” (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the “fund”) to be established in the Treasury of the United States. Contributions made by the participant shall be limited to a maximum of $2,700.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, each monthly contribution made by a participant under subsection (a) shall entitle the participant to matching funds from the Department of Defense at the rate of $2 for each $1 contributed by the participant.

(c) The Secretary of Defense is authorized to contribute to the fund of any participant such contributions as the Secretary of Defense deems necessary or appropriate to encourage persons to enter or remain in the Armed Forces, including contributions in lieu of, or to reduce the amount of, monthly deductions under subsection (a) of this section. The Secretary of Defense is authorized to issue such rules and regulations as the Secretary of Defense deems necessary or appropriate to implement the provisions of this subsection.

(d) Subject to the maximum contribution prescribed by subsection (a) of this section, a participant shall be permitted, while serving on active duty, to make a lump-sum contribution to the fund. A lump-sum contribution to the fund by a participant shall be in addition to or in lieu of monthly deductions made from such participant's military pay and shall be considered, for the purposes of paragraph (2) of section 3231(a) of this title, to have been made by monthly deductions from such participant's military pay in the amount of $100 per month or in such lesser amount as may be specified by such participant pursuant to regulations issued jointly by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary.

(e) Any amount transferred to the Secretary from the Secretary of a military department under an interagency agreement for the administration by the Department of Veterans Affairs of an educational assistance program established by the Secretary of Defense under chapter 107 of title 10 may be deposited into and disbursed from the fund for the purposes of such program.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2395, §1622; amended Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §408(b), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2398; Pub. L. 96–466, title IV, §406, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2202; Pub. L. 97–306, title II, §§209, 210, Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1436; Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(6), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1009; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), (4)(A), (B), (D), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3222 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1622 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3231(a)” for “1631(a)”.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(4)(A), inserted “of Defense” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(4)(D), inserted “of Defense” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” at end and inserted “of Defense” after “jointly by the Secretary”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1), (4)(B), substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, and inserted “of Defense” after “established by the Secretary”.

1983—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–160 inserted “of this title” after “section 1631(a)”.

1982—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–306, §210, substituted “$100” for “$75”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–306, §209, added subsec. (e).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–466, §406(a), substituted “Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, each” for “Each”, “$25” for “$50”, and “$100” for “$75”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–466, §406(b), inserted “, including contributions in lieu of, or to reduce the amount of, monthly deductions under subsection (a) of this section” after “Armed Forces”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–466, §406(c), added subsec. (d).

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “Department of Defense” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(d)(2) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3224 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Jan. 1, 1982, because new enrollments after Dec. 31, 1981, in the educational assistance program provided by this chapter, were authorized after application of provisions of section 408(a) of Pub. L. 94–502, see section 408(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as a note under section 3221 of this title.

Refunds for Certain Service Academy Graduates

Pub. L. 101–366, title II, §207, Aug. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 442, as amended by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, directed Secretary of Veterans Affairs to refund, on receipt before Jan. 1, 1992, of an application from an individual, not later than 60 days after receiving such application, the amount, if any, of the individual's unused contributions to the VEAP Account; if the individual has received educational assistance under this chapter, to pay to the individual (out of funds appropriated to the readjustment benefits account) a sum equal to the amount by which the amount of the educational assistance that the individual would have received under chapter 34 of this title for the pursuit of such program exceeds the amount of the educational assistance that the individual did receive under this chapter for the pursuit of such program; or if the individual has not received educational assistance under this chapter, to pay to the individual (out of funds appropriated to the Department of Veterans Affairs Readjustment Benefits account) a sum equal to the amount of educational assistance that the individual would have received under chapter 34 of this title for the pursuit of a program of education if the individual had been entitled to assistance under such program during the period ending on Dec. 31, 1989; and to refund to the Secretary of Defense the unused contributions by such Secretary to the VEAP Account on behalf of such individual.

Educational Assistance Pilot Program; Payment of Monthly Contribution by Secretary; Manner, Scope, Etc., of Payments

Manner, scope, etc., of payments by Secretary in lieu of payments of monthly contributions by persons participating in educational assistance program, see section 903 of Pub. L. 96–342, set out as a note under section 2141 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Matching Funds From Department of Defense After January 1, 1982, If New Enrollments Are Authorized After December 31, 1981

For provisions of section 408(b) of Pub. L. 94–502 directing that “Department of Defense” be substituted for “Veterans’ Administration” in subsec. (b) of this section, effective Jan. 1, 1982, if new enrollments after Dec. 31, 1981, in the educational assistance program provided by this chapter are authorized after application of section 408(a) of Pub. L. 94–502, see section 408 of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as a note under section 3221 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3015, 3018A, 3018B, 3018C, 3035, 3223, 3243 of this title.

§3223. Refunds of contributions upon disenrollment

(a) Contributions made to the program by a participant may be refunded only after the participant has disenrolled from the program or as provided in section 3224 of this title.

(b) If a participant disenrolls from the program prior to discharge or release from active duty, such participant's contributions will be refunded on the date of the participant's discharge or release from active duty or within 60 days of receipt of notice by the Secretary of the participant's discharge or disenrollment, except that refunds may be made earlier in instances of hardship or other good reason as prescribed in regulations issued jointly by the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense.

(c) If a participant disenrolls from the program after discharge or release from active duty, the participant's contributions shall be refunded within 60 days of receipt of an application for a refund from the participant.

(d) In the event the participant (1) dies while on active duty, (2) dies after discharge or release from active duty, or (3) disenrolls or is disenrolled from the program without having utilized any entitlement, the participant may have accrued under the program, or, in the event the participant utilizes part of such participant's entitlement and disenrolls or is disenrolled from the program, the amount contributed by the Secretary of Defense under the authority of section 3222(c) of this title remaining in the fund shall be refunded to such Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2395, §1623; amended Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(7), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1009; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(A), (7), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092, 2093; renumbered §3223 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1623 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3224” for “1624”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3222(c)” for “1622(c)”.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing and inserted “of Defense” after “Secretary” at end.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(7), inserted “of Defense” after first reference to “Secretary” and substituted “such” for “the” before second reference to “Secretary”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–160 inserted “of this title” after “section 1624”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–160 inserted “of this title” after “section 1622(c)”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3018A, 3018B, 3018C, 3221 of this title.

§3224. Death of participant

In the event of a participant's death, the amount of such participant's unused contributions to the fund shall be paid to the living person or persons first listed below:

(1) The beneficiary or beneficiaries designated by such participant under such participant's Servicemembers’ Group Life Insurance policy.

(2) The surviving spouse of the participant.

(3) The surviving child or children of the participant, in equal shares.

(4) The surviving parent or parents of the participant, in equal shares.


If there is no such person living, such amount shall be paid to such participant's estate.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2395, §1624; amended Pub. L. 96–466, title IV, §402, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2201; renumbered §3224, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title IV, §405(c)(2), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3340.)

Amendments

1996—Par. (1). Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “Servicemembers’ Group” for “Servicemen's Group”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1624 of this title as this section.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466 expanded provisions to require payment of a participant's unused contributions to the fund to the surviving spouse, the surviving child or children, or to the surviving parent or parents before payment of such amount to the participant's estate.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 802(d)(2) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided that: “The amendments made by sections 402 through 406 [amending this section and sections 1622, 1631, and 1641 [now 3222, 3231, and 3241] of this title] shall become effective on October 1, 1980.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3223 of this title.

§3225. Discharge or release under conditions which would bar the use of benefits

If a participant in the program is discharged or released from active duty under dishonorable conditions, such participant is automatically disenrolled and any contributions made by such participant shall be refunded to such participant on the date of such participant's discharge or release from active duty or within 60 days from receipt of notice by the Secretary of such discharge or release, whichever is later.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2396, §1625; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3225, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1625 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

SUBCHAPTER III—ENTITLEMENT; DURATION

§3231. Entitlement; loan eligibility

(a)(1) Subject to the provisions of section 3695 of this title limiting the aggregate period for which any person may receive assistance under two or more programs of educational or vocational assistance administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs, a participant shall be entitled to a maximum of 36 monthly benefit payments (or their equivalent in the event of part-time benefits).

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (5)(E) of this subsection and in subsection (e) of this section and section 3233 of this title and subject to section 3241 of this title, the amount of the monthly payment to which any eligible veteran is entitled shall be ascertained by (A) adding all contributions made to the fund by the eligible veteran, (B) multiplying the sum by 3, (C) adding all contributions made to the fund for such veteran by the Secretary of Defense, and (D) dividing the sum by the lesser of 36 or the number of months in which contributions were made by such veteran.

(3) Payment of benefits under this chapter may be made only for periods of time during which an eligible veteran is actually enrolled in and pursuing an approved program of education and, except as provided in paragraph (4), only after an eligible veteran has been discharged or released from active duty.

(4) Payment of benefits under this chapter may be made after a participant has completed his or her first obligated period of active duty (which began after December 31, 1976), or 6 years of active duty (which began after December 31, 1976), whichever period is less.

(5)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, any payment of an educational assistance allowance described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph—

(i) shall not be charged against the entitlement of any eligible veteran under this chapter; and

(ii) shall not be counted toward the aggregate period for which section 3695 of this title limits an individual's receipt of assistance.


(B) The payment of an educational assistance allowance referred to in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph is any payment of a monthly benefit under this chapter to an eligible veteran for pursuit of a course or courses under this chapter if the Secretary finds that the eligible veteran—

(i) in the case of a person not serving on active duty, had to discontinue such course pursuit as a result of being ordered, in connection with the Persian Gulf War, to serve on active duty under section 672(a), (d), or (g), 673, 673b,1 or 688 of title 10; or

(ii) in the case of a person serving on active duty, had to discontinue such course pursuit as a result of being ordered, in connection with such War, to a new duty location or assignment or to perform an increased amount of work; and

(iii) failed to receive credit or training time toward completion of the individual's approved educational, professional, or vocational objective as a result of having to discontinue, as described in clause (i) or (ii) of this subparagraph, his or her course pursuit.


(C) The period for which, by reason of this subsection, an educational assistance allowance is not charged against entitlement or counted toward the applicable aggregate period under section 3695 of this title shall not exceed the portion of the period of enrollment in the course or courses for which the individual failed to receive credit or with respect to which the individual lost training time, as determined under subparagraph (B)(iii) of this paragraph.

(D) The amount in the fund for each eligible veteran who received a payment of an educational assistance allowance described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall be restored to the amount that would have been in the fund for the veteran if the payment had not been made. For purposes of carrying out the previous sentence, the Secretary of Defense shall deposit into the fund, on behalf of each such veteran, an amount equal to the entire amount of the payment made to the veteran.

(E) In the case of a veteran who discontinues pursuit of a course or courses as described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, the formula for ascertaining the amount of the monthly payment to which the veteran is entitled in paragraph (2) of this subsection shall be implemented as if—

(i) the payment made to the fund by the Secretary of Defense under subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, and

(ii) any payment for a course or courses described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph that was paid out of the fund,


had not been made or paid.

(b) Any enlisted member of the Armed Forces participating in the program shall be eligible to enroll in a course, courses, or program of education for the purpose of attaining a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency certificate), as authorized by section 3491(a) of this title, during the last six months of such member's first enlistment and at any time thereafter.

(c) When an eligible veteran is pursuing a program of education under this chapter by correspondence, such eligible veteran's entitlement shall be charged at the rate of 1 month's entitlement for each month of benefits paid to the eligible veteran (computed on the basis of the formula provided in subsection (a)(2) of this section).

(d)(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection, the amount of the educational assistance benefits paid to an eligible veteran who is pursuing a program of education under this chapter while incarcerated in a Federal, State, or local penal institution for conviction of a felony may not exceed the lesser of (A) such amount as the Secretary determines, in accordance with regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, is necessary to cover the cost of established charges for tuition and fees required of similarly circumstanced nonveterans enrolled in the same program and the cost of necessary supplies, books, and equipment, or (B) the applicable monthly benefit payment otherwise prescribed in this section or section 3233 of this title. The amount of the educational assistance benefits payable to a veteran while so incarcerated shall be reduced to the extent that the tuition and fees of the veteran for any course are paid under any Federal program (other than a program administered by the Secretary) or under any State or local program.

(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply in the case of any veteran who is pursuing a program of education under this chapter while residing in a halfway house or participating in a work-release program in connection with such veteran's conviction of a felony.

(e)(1) Subject to subsection (a)(1) of this section, each individual who is pursuing a program of education consisting exclusively of flight training approved as meeting the requirements of section 3241(b) of this title shall be paid educational assistance under this chapter in the amount equal to 60 percent of the established charges for tuition and fees which similarly circumstanced nonveterans enrolled in the same flight course are required to pay.

(2) No payment may be paid under this chapter to an individual for any month during which such individual is pursuing a program of education consisting exclusively of flight training until the Secretary has received from that individual and the institution providing such training a certification of the flight training received by the individual during that month and the tuition and other fees charged for that training.

(3) The entitlement of an eligible veteran pursuing a program of education described in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be charged at the rate of one month for each amount of educational assistance paid which is equal to the monthly benefit otherwise payable to such veteran (computed on the basis of the formula provided in subsection (a)(2) of this section).

(4) The number of solo flying hours for which an individual may be paid an educational assistance allowance under this subsection may not exceed the minimum number of solo flying hours required by the Federal Aviation Administration for the flight rating or certification which is the goal of the individual's flight training.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2396, §1631; amended Pub. L. 96–466, title IV, §§403, 404, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2201; Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §§2003(a)(1), 2005(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 782; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §310(b)(1), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3271; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§108(b)(2), 122, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4170, 4174; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), (4)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §7(b), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 51; renumbered §3231 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–127, §2(b), Oct. 10, 1991, 105 Stat. 619; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §310(c), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4330; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §105(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3327; Pub. L. 105–368, title X, §1005(b)(7), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3365.)

References in Text

Sections 672, 673, and 673b of title 10, referred to in subsec. (a)(5)(B)(i), were renumbered sections 12301, 12302, and 12304, respectively, of Title 10, Armed Forces, by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992. A new section 672 of Title 10 was enacted by section 1662(e)(4) of Pub. L. 103–337.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–368 substituted “subsection (e)” for “subsection (f)”.

1996—Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 104–275 redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (d) and (e), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows:

“(d)(1) The amount of the monthly benefit payment to an individual pursuing a cooperative program under this chapter shall be 80 percent of the monthly benefit otherwise payable to such individual (computed on the basis of the formula provided in subsection (a)(2) of this section).

“(2) For each month that an individual is paid a monthly benefit payment for pursuit of a cooperative program under this chapter, the individual's entitlement under this chapter shall be charged at the rate 80 percent of a month.”

1992—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §310(c)(1), struck out “(other than tuition and fees charged for or attributable to solo flying hours)” after “for tuition and fees”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 102–568, §310(c)(2), added par. (4).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1631 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3695” for “1795”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–127, §2(b)(2), inserted “in paragraph (5)(E) of this subsection and” after “Except as provided”.

Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3233” for “1633” and “3241” for “1641”.

Pub. L. 102–16, §7(b)(1), inserted “subsection (f) of this section and” after “Except as provided in”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–127, §2(b)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3491(a)” for “1691(a)”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3233” for “1633”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3241(b)” for “1641(b)” in par. (1).

Pub. L. 102–16, §7(b)(2), added subsec. (f).

1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(B), substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(4)(A), inserted “of Defense” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–689, §108(b)(2), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–689, §122, added subsec. (e).

1986—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–576 substituted “Except as provided in section 1633 of this title and subject to section 1641 of this title, the” for “The”.

1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–35, §2003(a)(1), struck out applicability to a program of flight training.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–35, §2005(a), struck out subsec. (d) which related to eligibility of veterans for loans authorized by subchapter III of chapter 36 of this title.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–466, §404, inserted reference to provisions of section 1795 of this title limiting the aggregate period for which any person may receive assistance under two or more programs of educational or vocational assistance administered by the Veterans’ Administration, and substituted reference to part-time benefits, for reference to part-time benefit payments.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–466, §403, substituted reference to enrolling in a course, courses, or program of education for the purpose of attaining a secondary school diploma or an equivalency certificate during the last six months of such member's first enlistment and at any time thereafter, for reference to participating in the Predischarge Education Program authorized by subchapter VI of chapter 34 of this title during the last 6 months of such member's first enlistment.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–568 applicable to flight training received under this chapter, chapter 30 of this title, and chapter 106 of Title 10, Armed Forces, after Sept. 30, 1992, see section 310(d) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out as a note under section 16131 of Title 10.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 7(c) of Pub. L. 102–16 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1641 [now 3241] of this title] shall take effect on April 1, 1991.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 108(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–689 effective Jan. 1, 1989, see section 108(c) of Pub. L. 100–689, set out as a note under section 3002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 2006 of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendments made by sections 2003 [amending this section and sections 1641, 1662, 1673, 1681, 1682, and 1780 [now 3241, 3462, 3473, 3481, 3482, and 3680] of this title and repealing section 1677 of this title] and 2005 [amending this section and sections 1686 [repealed], 1737 [repealed], and 1798 [now 3698] of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1981.

“(b) The amendments made by such sections shall not apply to any person receiving educational assistance under section 1677 [now 3477] of title 38, United States Code, as such section was in effect on August 31, 1981, for the pursuit of a program of education (as defined in section 1652(b) [now 3452(b)] of such title) in which such person was enrolled on that date, for as long as such person is continuously thereafter so enrolled and meets the requirements of eligibility for such assistance for the pursuit of such program under the provisions of chapters 34 and 36 of such title, as in effect on that date.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(d)(2) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3224 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Section

This section is referred to in section 3222 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3232. Duration; limitations

(a)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), and subject to paragraph (4), of this subsection, educational assistance benefits shall not be afforded an eligible veteran under this chapter more than 10 years after the date of such veteran's last discharge or release from active duty.

(2)(A) If any eligible veteran was prevented from initiating or completing such veteran's chosen program of education during the delimiting period determined under paragraph (1) of this subsection because of a physical or mental disability which was not the result of such veteran's own willful misconduct, such veteran shall, upon application made in accordance with subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, be granted an extension of the applicable delimiting period for such length of time as the Secretary determines, from the evidence, that such veteran was so prevented from initiating or completing such program of education.

(B) An extension of the delimiting period applicable to an eligible veteran may be granted under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph by reason of the veteran's mental or physical disability only if the veteran submits an application for such extension to the Secretary within one year after (i) the last date of the delimiting period otherwise applicable to the veteran under paragraph (1) of this subsection, or (ii) the termination date of the period of the veteran's mental or physical disability, whichever is later.

(3) When an extension of the applicable delimiting period is granted an eligible veteran under paragraph (2) of this subsection, the delimiting period with respect to such veteran shall again begin to run on the first day after such veteran's recovery from such disability on which it is reasonably feasible, as determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, for such veteran to initiate or resume pursuit of a program of education with educational assistance under this chapter.

(4) For purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection, a veteran's last discharge or release from active duty shall not include any discharge or release from a period of active duty of less than 90 days of continuous service unless the individual involved is discharged or released for a service-connected disability, for a medical condition which preexisted such service and which the Secretary determines is not service connected, for hardship, or as a result of a reduction in force as described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(III) of this title.

(b)(1) In the event that an eligible veteran has not utilized any or all of such veteran's entitlement by the end of the delimiting period applicable to the veteran under subsection (a) of this section and at the end of one year thereafter has not filed a claim for utilizing such entitlement, such eligible veteran is automatically disenrolled.

(2)(A) Any contributions which were made by a veteran disenrolled under paragraph (1) of this subsection and remain in the fund shall be refunded to the veteran after notice of disenrollment is transmitted to the veteran and the veteran applies for such refund.

(B) If no application for refund of contributions under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph is received from a disenrolled veteran within one year after the date the notice referred to in such subparagraph is transmitted to the veteran, it shall be presumed that the veteran's whereabouts is unknown and the funds shall be transferred to the Secretary for payments for entitlement earned under subchapter II of chapter 30.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2396, §1632; amended Pub. L. 97–258, §3(k)(2), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1065; Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(8), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat 1009; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §311, Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3272; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§420(a)(2), 423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2087, 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §4, Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 49; renumbered §3232 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §106(c)(1), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3329.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–275 struck out “, for the purposes of section 1322(a) of title 31,” after “it shall be presumed” and substituted “to the Secretary for payments for entitlement earned under subchapter II of chapter 30” for “as provided in such section”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1632 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(III)” for “1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(III)”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–16 inserted before comma “and at the end of one year thereafter has not filed a claim for utilizing such entitlement”.

1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §420(a)(2)(B), inserted “, and subject to paragraph (4),” before “of this subsection”.

Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101–237, §420(a)(2)(A), added par. (4).

1986—Pub. L. 99–576 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “No educational assistance benefits shall be afforded an eligible veteran under this chapter beyond the date of 10 years after such veteran's last discharge or release from active duty. In the event an eligible veteran has not utilized any or all of such veterans’ entitlement by the end of the 10-year period, such eligible veteran is automatically disenrolled and any contributions made by such veteran remaining in the fund shall be refunded to the veteran following notice to the veteran and an application by the veteran for such refund. If no application is received within 1 year from date of notice, it will be presumed for the purposes of section 1322(a) of title 31 that the individual's whereabouts is unknown and the funds shall be transferred as directed in such section.”

1983—Pub. L. 98–160 struck out the comma after “title 31” and substituted “such section” for “section 1322(a)”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–258 substituted “section 1322(a) of title 31” and “section 1322(a)” for “subsection (a) of section 725s of title 31” and “the last proviso of that subsection”, respectively.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3035 of this title.

§3233. Apprenticeship or other on-job training

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the amount of the monthly benefit payment to an individual pursuing a full-time program of apprenticeship or other on-job training under this chapter is—

(1) for each of the first six months of the individual's pursuit of such program, 75 percent of the monthly benefit payment otherwise payable to such individual under this chapter;

(2) for each of the second six months of the individual's pursuit of such program, 55 percent of such monthly benefit payment; and

(3) for each of the months following the first 12 months of the individual's pursuit of such program, 35 percent of such monthly benefit payment.


(b) In any month in which an individual pursuing a program of education consisting of a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training fails to complete 120 hours of training, the amount of the monthly benefit payment payable under this chapter to the individual shall be limited to the same proportion of the applicable rate determined under subsection (a) of this section as the number of hours worked during such month, rounded to the nearest eight hours, bears to 120 hours.

(c) For each month that an individual is paid a monthly benefit payment under this chapter, the individual's entitlement under this chapter shall be charged at the rate of—

(1) 75 percent of a month in the case of payments made in accordance with subsection (a)(1) of this section;

(2) 55 percent of a month in the case of payments made in accordance with subsection (a)(2) of this section; and

(3) 35 percent of a month in the case of payments made in accordance with subsection (a)(3) of this section.


(d) For any month in which an individual fails to complete 120 hours of training, the entitlement otherwise chargeable under subsection (c) of this section shall be reduced in the same proportion as the monthly benefit payment payable is reduced under subsection (b) of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §310(b)(2), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3271, §1633; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(a)(7), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2091; renumbered §3233, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1633 of this title as this section.

1989—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–237 added subsec. (d).

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3231 of this title.

§3234. Tutorial assistance

(a) An individual entitled to benefits under this chapter shall also be entitled to the benefits provided an eligible veteran under section 3492 of this title, subject to the conditions applicable to an eligible veteran under such section. Any amount paid to an individual under this section shall be in addition to the amount of other benefits paid under this chapter.

(b) An individual's period of entitlement to educational assistance under this chapter shall be charged only with respect to the amount of educational assistance paid to the individual under this section in excess of $600.

(c) An individual's period of entitlement to educational assistance under this chapter shall be charged at the rate of one month for each amount of assistance paid to the individual under this section in excess of $600 that is equal to the amount of monthly educational assistance the individual is otherwise eligible to receive for full-time pursuit of an institutional course under this chapter.

(d) Payments of benefits under this section shall be made—

(1) in the case of the first $600 of such benefits paid to an individual, from funds appropriated, or otherwise available, to the Department of Veterans Affairs for the payment of readjustment benefits; and

(2) in the case of payments to an individual for such benefits in excess of $600, from the fund from contributions made to the fund by the veteran and by the Secretary of Defense in the same proportion as these contributions are used to pay other educational assistance to the individual under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §107(b)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4168, §1634; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(B), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3234 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1634 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3492” for “1692”.

1989—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3680A of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—ADMINISTRATION

§3241. Requirements

(a)(1) The provisions of sections 3470, 3471, 3474, 3476, 3483, 3485, and 3491(a)(1) of this title and the provisions of chapter 36 of this title (with the exception of section 3687) shall be applicable with respect to individuals who are pursuing programs of education while serving on active duty.

(2) The Secretary may, without regard to the application to this chapter of so much of the provisions of section 3471 of this title as prohibit the enrollment of an eligible veteran in a program of education in which the veteran is “already qualified”, and pursuant to such regulations as the Secretary shall prescribe, approve the enrollment of such individual in refresher courses (including courses which will permit such individual to update knowledge and skills or be instructed in the technological advances which have occurred in the individual's field of employment during and since the period of such veteran's active military service), deficiency courses, or other preparatory or special education or training courses necessary to enable the individual to pursue an approved program of education.

(b) The Secretary may approve the pursuit of flight training (in addition to a course of flight training that may be approved under section 3680A(b) of this title) by an individual entitled to basic educational assistance under this chapter if—

(1) such training is generally accepted as necessary for the attainment of a recognized vocational objective in the field of aviation;

(2) the individual possesses a valid pilot certificate and meets, on the day the individual begins a course of flight training, the medical requirements necessary for a commercial pilot certificate; and

(3) the flight school courses meet Federal Aviation Administration standards for such courses and are approved by the Federal Aviation Administration and the State approving agency.


(c) The provisions of sections 3470, 3471, 3474, 3476, 3483, and 3491(a) (other than clause (1)) of this title and the provisions of chapter 36 of this title (with the exception of section 3687) shall be applicable with respect to individuals who are pursuing programs of education following discharge or release from active duty.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2397, §1641; amended Pub. L. 96–466, title IV, §405, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2202; Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §2003(a)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 782; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §§308(b), 310(c), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3270, 3272; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §106(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4167; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(a)(5)(B), (b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2091, 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §§2(b)(2), 7(a), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 49, 51; renumbered §3241 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §313(a)(5), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4332; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §601(b), title XII, §1201(d)(12), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4670, 4684; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §204(a), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3327.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–368 substituted “pilot certificate” for “pilot's license” in two places and inserted “, on the day the individual begins a course of flight training,” after “meets”.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–446, §601(b), struck out “(1)” before “The Secretary may approve”, redesignated subpars. (A) to (C) as pars. (1) to (3), respectively, and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “This subsection shall not apply to a course of flight training that commences on or after October 1, 1994.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(d)(12), struck out “1663,” after “sections”.

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §313(a)(5)(A), struck out “3473,” after “3471,”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–568, §313(a)(5)(B), substituted “3680A(b)” for “3473(b)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–568, §313(a)(5)(A), struck out “3473,” after “3471,”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1641 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3470, 3471, 3473, 3474, 3476, 3483, 3485, and 3491(a)(1)” for “1670, 1671, 1673, 1674, 1676, 1683, 1685, and 1691(a)(1)” and “3687” for “1787”.

Pub. L. 102–16, §2(b)(2), struck out “1663,” before “1670,”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3471” for “1671”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3473(b)” for “1673(b)” in par. (1).

Pub. L. 102–16, §7(a)(2), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3470, 3471, 3473, 3474, 3476, 3483, and 3491(a)” for “1670, 1671, 1673, 1674, 1676, 1683, and 1691(a)” and “3687” for “1787”.

Pub. L. 102–16, §7(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c).

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §423(a)(5)(B), substituted “employment during and since the period of such veteran's active military service)” for “employment)”.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–689, §106(b)(1), designated existing provision as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–689, §106(b)(2), substituted “1691(a) (other than clause (1))” for “1691(a)(1)”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–576, §§308(b), 310(c)(1), (2), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted “section 1787) shall be applicable with respect to individuals who are pursuing programs of education while serving on active duty” for “sections 1777, 1780(c), and 1787) shall be applicable to the program”, and inserted “1685,” after “1683,”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–576, §310(c)(3), added subsec. (b).

1981—Pub. L. 97–35 struck out references to sections 1677 and 1681(c) of this title.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466 inserted “1663,” before “1670,” and substituted “and 1691(a)(1)” for “1696, and 1698”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–368 applicable with respect to courses of flight training beginning on or after Oct. 1, 1998, see section 204(c) of Pub. L. 105–368, set out as a note under section 16136 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 601(b) of Pub. L. 103–446 effective Oct. 1, 1994, see section 601(d) of Pub. L. 103–446, set out as a note under section 3034 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by section 7(a) of Pub. L. 102–16 effective Apr. 1, 1991, see section 7(c) of Pub. L. 102–16, set out as a note under section 3231 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–689 effective Aug. 15, 1989, see section 106(d) of Pub. L. 100–689, set out as a note under section 3034 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2006 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 3231 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(d)(2) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3224 of this title.

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–586 not applicable to any person receiving educational assistance for pursuit of an independent study program in which the person was enrolled on Oct. 29, 1992, for as long as such person is continuously thereafter so enrolled and meets requirements of eligibility for such assistance, see section 313(b) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out as a note under section 16136 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3231, 3680A, 3688 of this title.

[§3242. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to redesignation of sections 1601 to 1643 of this chapter as sections 3201 to 3243 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, section 1642 of this chapter, added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2397, and amended Pub. L. 97–295, §4(37), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1307; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092, was repealed by Pub. L. 102–16, §5(a), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 50.

§3243. Deposits; reports

Deductions made by the Department of Defense from the military pay of any participant shall be promptly transferred to the Secretary for deposit in the fund. The Secretary of Defense shall also submit to the Secretary a report each month showing the name, service number, and the amount of the deduction made from the military pay of each initial enrollee, any contribution made by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to section 3222(c) of this title, as well as any changes in each participant's enrollment and/or contribution. The report shall also include any additional information the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense deem necessary to administer this program. The Secretary shall maintain accounts showing contributions made to the fund by individual participants and by the Secretary of Defense as well as disbursements made from the fund in the form of benefits.

(Added Pub. L. 94–502, title IV, §404, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2397, §1643; amended Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(9), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1009; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (4)(D), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3243 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 3301 to 3305 and 3311 to 3313, which comprised chapter 57, were renumbered sections 5701 to 5705 and 5711 to 5713, respectively, of this title.

Prior sections 3401 to 3405, which comprised chapter 59, were renumbered sections 5901 to 5905, respectively, of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1643 of this title as this section and substituted “3222(c)” for “1622(c)”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing and inserted “of Defense” after “Secretary” in four places.

1983—Pub. L. 98–160 inserted “of this title” after “section 1622(c)”.

CHAPTER 34—VETERANS’ EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE

SUBCHAPTER I—PURPOSE—DEFINITIONS

Sec.
3451.
Purpose.
3452.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT

3461.
Eligibility; entitlement; duration.
3462.
Time limitations for completing a program of education.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—ENROLLMENT

3470.
Selection of program.
3471.
Applications; approval.
[3473.
Repealed.]
3474.
Discontinuance for unsatisfactory conduct or progress.
3476.
Education outside the United States.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—PAYMENTS TO ELIGIBLE VETERANS; VETERAN-STUDENT SERVICES

3481.
Educational assistance allowance.
3482.
Computation of educational assistance allowances.
3483.
Approval of courses.
3484.
Apprenticeship or other on-job training; correspondence courses.
3485.
Work-study allowance.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—SPECIAL ASSISTANCE FOR THE EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED

3490.
Purpose.
3491.
Elementary and secondary education and preparatory educational assistance.
3492.
Tutorial assistance.
3493.
Effect on educational entitlement.

        

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §313(a)(3)(B), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4332, struck out item 3473 “Disapproval of enrollment in certain courses”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(b)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, renumbered items 1651 to 1693 as 3451 to 3493, respectively.

Pub. L. 102–16, §2(b)(1)(B), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 49, struck out item 1663 “Educational and vocational counseling”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §405(d)(4)(B), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2082, substituted “Work-study allowance” for “Veteran-student services” in item 1685.

1988—Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §§107(c)(2)(B), 124(c)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4169, 4175, substituted “Tutorial assistance” for “Special supplementary assistance” in item 1692 and struck out items 1682A “Accelerated payment of educational assistance allowances” and 1686 “Education loans”.

1981—Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §2003(b)(3)(B), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 782, struck out item 1677 “Flight training”.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466, title VI, §601(a)(2), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2208, struck out “SUBCHAPTER VI—PREDISCHARGE EDUCATION PROGRAM” heading and items 1695 “Purpose; definition”, 1696 “Payment of educational assistance allowance”, 1697 “Educational and vocational guidance”, and 1698 “Coordination with and participation by Department of Defense”.

1977—Pub. L. 95–202, title II, §201(c)(1), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1438, added item 1682A.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §210(4), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2388, renumbered item 1697A as 1698.

1974—Pub. L. 93–508, title III, §302(b), Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1591, added item 1686.

1972—Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §404(a), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090, inserted in Subchapter IV heading “VETERAN-STUDENT SERVICES”, and substituted in item 1683 “Approval of courses” for “Apprenticeship or other on-job training”; in item 1684 “Apprenticeship or other on-job training; correspondence courses” for “Measurement of courses”, and in item 1685 “Veteran-student services” for “Overcharges by educational institutions”, struck out item 1672 “Change of program”, item 1675 “Period of operation for approval”, item 1686 “Approval of courses”, and item 1687 “Discontinuance of allowances”, and added item 1697A.

1970—Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(b), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 81, struck out item 1678 “Special training for the educationally disadvantaged” and added subchapters V and VI.

1967—Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §§302(c), 304(b), 306(b)(1), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 185, 186, 188, added items 1677, 1678, and 1683, and renumbered former items 1683 to 1686 as 1684 to 1687, respectively.

1966—Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 12, added “CHAPTER 34—VETERANS’ EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE”.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 101, 111, 113, 1521, 1718, 3011, 3012, 3015, 3016, 3033, 3202, 3485, 3670, 3671, 3672, 3673, 3674, 3680, 3681, 3682, 3683, 3684, 3685, 3687, 3688, 3689, 3690, 3693, 3694, 3695, 3696, 3697, 5113, 5307, 7407 of this title; title 26 sections 25A, 135, 6334; title 29 sections 1721, 2913.

SUBCHAPTER I—PURPOSE—DEFINITIONS

§3451. Purpose

The Congress of the United States hereby declares that the education program created by this chapter is for the purpose of (1) enhancing and making more attractive service in the Armed Forces of the United States, (2) extending the benefits of a higher education to qualified and deserving young persons who might not otherwise be able to afford such an education, (3) providing vocational readjustment and restoring lost educational opportunities to those service men and women whose careers have been interrupted or impeded by reason of active duty after January 31, 1955, and (4) aiding such persons in attaining the vocational and educational status which they might normally have aspired to and obtained had they not served their country.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 12, §1651; renumbered §3451, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising clauses (3) and (4) of this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1175, which was classified to former section 1601(c) of this title, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1651 of this title as this section.

Effective Date

Section 12(a) of Pub. L. 89–358 provided that: “Except as otherwise specifically provided, the provisions of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the date of its enactment [Mar. 3, 1966], but no educational assistance allowance shall be payable under chapter 34 of title 38, United States Code, as added by section 2 of this Act, for any period before June 1, 1966, nor for the month of June 1966, unless (1) the eligible veteran commenced the pursuit of the course of education on or after June 1, 1966, or (2) the pursuit of such course continued through June 30, 1966.”

Savings Provision

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 89–358 provided that: “Nothing in this Act or any amendment or repeal made by it [see Tables for classification], shall affect any right or liability (civil or criminal) which matured under chapter 33 of this title 38 before the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 3, 1966]: and all offenses committed, and all penalties and forfeitures incurred, under any provision of law amended or repealed by this Act, may be punished or recovered, as the case may be, in the same manner and with the same effect as if such amendments or repeals had not been made.”

§3452. Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title—

(a)(1) The term “eligible veteran” means any veteran who—

(A) served on active duty for a period of more than 180 days, any part of which occurred after January 31, 1955, and before January 1, 1977, and was discharged or released therefrom under conditions other than dishonorable; or

(B) contracted with the Armed Forces and was enlisted in or assigned to a reserve component prior to January 1, 1977, and as a result of such enlistment or assignment served on active duty for a period of more than 180 days, any part of which commenced within 12 months after January 1, 1977, and was discharged or released from such active duty under conditions other than dishonorable; or

(C) was discharged or released from active duty, any part of which was performed after January 31, 1955, and before January 1, 1977, or following entrance into active service from an enlistment provided for under clause (B) of this paragraph, because of a service-connected disability.


(2) The requirement of discharge or release, prescribed in paragraph (1)(A) or (B), shall be waived in the case of any individual who served more than one hundred and eighty days in an active-duty status for so long as such individual continues on active duty without a break therein.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A) and section 3461(a), the term “active duty” does not include any period during which an individual (A) was assigned full time by the Armed Forces to a civilian institution for a course of education which was substantially the same as established courses offered to civilians, (B) served as a cadet or midshipman at one of the service academies, or (C) served under the provisions of section 511(d) 1 of title 10 pursuant to an enlistment in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard or as a Reserve for service in the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve unless at some time subsequent to the completion of such period of active duty for training such individual served on active duty for a consecutive period of one year or more (not including any service as a cadet or midshipman at one of the service academies).

(b) The term “program of education” means any curriculum or any combination of unit courses or subjects pursued at an educational institution which is generally accepted as necessary to fulfill requirements for the attainment of a predetermined and identified educational, professional, or vocational objective. Such term also means any curriculum of unit courses or subjects pursued at an educational institution which fulfill requirements for the attainment of more than one predetermined and identified educational, professional, or vocational objective if all the objectives pursued are generally recognized as being reasonably related to a single career field. Such term also means any unit course or subject, or combination of courses or subjects, pursued by an eligible veteran at an educational institution, required by the Administrator of the Small Business Administration as a condition to obtaining financial assistance under the provisions of section 7(i)(1) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 636(i)(1)).

(c) The term “educational institution” means any public or private elementary school, secondary school, vocational school, correspondence school, business school, junior college, teachers’ college, college, normal school, professional school, university, or scientific or technical institution, or other institution furnishing education for adults. Such term includes any entity that provides training required for completion of any State-approved alternative teacher certification program (as determined by the Secretary).

(d) The term “dependent” means—

(1) a child of an eligible veteran;

(2) a dependent parent of an eligible veteran; and

(3) the spouse of an eligible veteran.


(e) The term “training establishment” means any establishment providing apprentice or other training on the job, including those under the supervision of a college or university or any State department of education, or any State apprenticeship agency, or any State board or vocational education, or any joint apprenticeship committee, or the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training established pursuant to chapter 4C of title 29, or any agency of the Federal Government authorized to supervise such training.

(f) The term “institution of higher learning” means a college, university, or similar institution, including a technical or business school, offering postsecondary level academic instruction that leads to an associate or higher degree if the school is empowered by the appropriate State education authority under State law to grant an associate or higher degree. When there is no State law to authorize the granting of a degree, the school may be recognized as an institution of higher learning if it is accredited for degree programs by a recognized accrediting agency. Such term shall also include a hospital offering educational programs at the postsecondary level without regard to whether the hospital grants a postsecondary degree. Such term shall also include an educational institution which is not located in a State, which offers a course leading to a standard college degree, or the equivalent, and which is recognized as such by the secretary of education (or comparable official) of the country or other jurisdiction in which the institution is located.

(g) The term “standard college degree” means an associate or higher degree awarded by (1) an institution of higher learning that is accredited as a collegiate institution by a recognized regional or national accrediting agency; or (2) an institution of higher learning that is a “candidate” for accreditation as that term is used by the regional or national accrediting agencies; or (3) an institution of higher learning upon completion of a course which is accredited by an agency recognized to accredit specialized degree-level programs. For the purpose of this section, the accrediting agency must be one recognized by the Secretary of Education under the provisions of section 3675 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 13, §1652; amended Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §304(c), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 186; Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §201, Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 78; Pub. L. 91–584, §10, Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1577; Pub. L. 93–508, title II, §201, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1581; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §§202, 210(1), 211(1), title IV, §402, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2385, 2388, 2392; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §307(a), title VIII, §801(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2193, 2216; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(38), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1307; renumbered §3452 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §603(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4671; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §102, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3326.)

References in Text

Section 511 of title 10, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(C), was renumbered section 12103 of Title 10, Armed Forces, by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2989.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising subsecs. (a) to (d) of this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1174, 1176, which was classified to former sections 1601(a)(2) and 1611(a)(1), and 1601(a)(3), (5), and (6) of this title, respectively, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “Such” for “For the period ending on September 30, 1996, such”.

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–446 inserted at end “For the period ending on September 30, 1996, such term includes any entity that provides training required for completion of any State-approved alternative teacher certification program (as determined by the Secretary).”

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1652 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3461(a)” for “1661(a)”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3675” for “1775”.

1982—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–295 substituted “section 7(i)(1) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 636(i)(1))” for “402(a) of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2902(a))”.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466, §801(a)(1), inserted “and chapter 36 of this title” after “chapter” in introductory text.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–466, §801(a)(2), substituted “The” for “For the purposes of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title, the”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–466, §§307(a), 801(a)(2), substituted “The” for “For the purposes of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title, the” and inserted provision including within “institution of higher learning” an educational institution which is not located in a State, which offers a course leading to a standard college degree, or the equivalent, and which is recognized as such by the secretary of education (or comparable official) of the country or other jurisdiction in which the institution is located.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–466, §801(a)(2), (3), substituted “The” for “For the purposes of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title, the” and “Secretary of Education” for “Commissioner of Education”.

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–502, §402(1), restricted the definition of an eligible veteran to a veteran who commenced his active duty requirement after Jan. 31, 1955 but before Jan. 1, 1977, with the exception of a veteran who enlisted or was assigned to a reserve component before Jan. 1, 1977 and commenced his active duty requirement within 12 months following Jan. 1, 1977.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94–502, §§211(1), 402(2), substituted “such individual” for “he” and inserted “or (B)” after “paragraph (1)(A)”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 94–502, §211(1), substituted “spouse” for “wife”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–502, §210(1), struck out “United States Code,” after “chapter 4C of title 29,”.

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 94–502, §202, added subsecs. (f) and (g).

1974—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 93–508 substituted “Coast Guard Reserve unless at some time subsequent to the completion of such period of active duty for training such individual served on active duty for a consecutive period of one year or more (not including any service as a cadet or midshipman at one of the service academies)” for “Coast Guard Reserve”.

1970—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–584, §10(1), substituted “more than one hundred eighty days” for “at least two years”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–584, §10(2), expanded the definition of “program of education” to include unit course or subject, or combination of courses or subjects, pursued by eligible veterans at an educational institution, required by the Administrator of the Small Business Administration as a condition to obtaining financial assistance under section 2902(a) of title 42.

Pub. L. 91–219, §201(a), provided that a program of education may include more than one predetermined and identified educational, professional, or vocational objective if all the objectives pursued are generally recognized as being reasonably related to single career field.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–219, §201(b), included within the term “educational institution” any public or private “elementary” school, and substituted “other institution furnishing education for adults”, for “any other institution if it furnishes education at the secondary school level or above”.

1967—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–77 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by title III [see Tables for classification] shall become effective on October 1, 1980.

“(2) Paragraph (2) of section 1691(a) [probably means 1691(b), now 3491(b)] of title 38, United States Code, as added by section 311(2), shall not apply to any person receiving educational assistance under chapter 34 of title 38, United States Code, on October 1, 1980, for the pursuit of a program of education, as defined in section 1652(b) [now 3452(b)] of such title, in which such person is enrolled on that date, for as long as such person continuously thereafter is so enrolled and meets the requirements of eligibility for such assistance for pursuit of such program.”

Section 802(h) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided that: “Section 801 [see Tables for classification] shall become effective on October 1, 1980.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by sections 202, 210(1), and 211(1) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Amendment by section 402 of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Jan. 1, 1977, see section 406 of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3201 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508 provided that: “Titles II and IV of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall become effective on the date of their enactment [Dec. 3, 1974].”

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–77 effective first day of first calendar month which begins more than ten days after Aug. 31, 1967, see section 405 of Pub. L. 90–77, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1524, 3002, 3031, 3101, 3202, 3461, 3672, 3686, 3687 of this title; title 20 section 1070d.

SUBCHAPTER II—ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT

1 See References in Text note below.

§3461. Eligibility; entitlement; duration

Entitlement

(a) Except as provided in subsection (c) and in the second sentence of this subsection, each eligible veteran shall be entitled to educational assistance under this chapter or chapter 36 for a period of one and one-half months (or the equivalent thereof in part-time educational assistance) for each month or fraction thereof of the veteran's service on active duty after January 31, 1955. If an eligible veteran has served a period of 18 months or more on active duty after January 31, 1955, and has been released from such service under conditions that would satisfy the veteran's active duty obligation, the veteran shall be entitled to educational assistance under this chapter for a period of 45 months (or the equivalent thereof in part-time educational assistance). In the case of any person serving on active duty on December 31, 1976, or a person whose eligibility is based on section 3452(a)(1)(B) of this chapter, the ending date for computing such person's entitlement shall be the date of such person's first discharge or release from active duty after December 31, 1976.

Entitlement Limitations

(b) Whenever the period of entitlement under this section of an eligible veteran who is enrolled in an educational institution regularly operated on the quarter or semester system ends during a quarter or semester, such period shall be extended to the termination of such unexpired quarter or semester. In educational institutions not operated on the quarter or semester system, whenever the period of eligibility ends after a major portion of the course is completed such period shall be extended to the end of the course or for twelve weeks, whichever is the lesser period.

(c) Except as provided in subsection (b) and in subchapter V of this chapter, no eligible veteran shall receive educational assistance under this chapter in excess of 45 months.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 13, §1661; amended Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §306(b)(2), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 188; Pub. L. 90–631, §1(b), Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1331; Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(a)(1), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 79; Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §401(1), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1089; Pub. L. 93–508, title II, §202, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1581; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §§203, 211(2), title IV, §403(a), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2386, 2388, 2393; Pub. L. 96–466, title VI, §601(b), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2208; renumbered §3461 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising subsecs. (a) to (c) of this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1176, which was classified to former sections 1610 and 1611(a), 1611(a)(2), (3), and 1611(b) of this title, respectively, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1661 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3452(a)(1)(B)” for “1652(a)(1)(B)”.

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–466 substituted “subchapter V of this chapter” for “subchapters V and VI of this chapter”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §§203(1), 211(2), 403(a), substituted “45 months” for “36 months”, “the veteran's” for “his” in two places, and “the veteran” for “he”, inserted provision establishing the final date of entitlement for person serving on active duty on Dec. 31, 1976 or whose eligibility is based on section 1652(a)(1)(B) of this title as the date of discharge or release from active duty after Dec. 31, 1976, and struck out provision which authorized an additional number of months not exceeding nine to be used for a program leading to a standard undergraduate degree.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–502, §203(2), substituted “subsection (b)” for “subsections (a) and (b)” and “45 months” for “thirty-six months”.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–508, §202(1), inserted “plus an additional number of months, not exceeding nine, as may be utilized in pursuit of a program of education leading to a standard undergraduate college degree”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–508, §202(2), inserted reference to subsec. (a).

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–540 inserted reference to chapter 36.

1970—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–219 substituted “subchapters V and VI of this chapter” for “section 1678 of this title”.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–631, §1(b)(1), substituted references to subsec. (c) and the second sentence of this subsec. for reference to subsec. (b), increased from one month to one and one-half months the amount of educational assistance each eligible veteran shall receive for each month or fraction thereof of active duty service after Jan. 31, 1955, and inserted provisions that an eligible veteran who has served 18 months or more on active duty after Jan. 31, 1955, and has been released under conditions that would satisfy his active duty obligation, shall be entitled to educational assistance under this chapter for a period of 36 months.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–631, §1(b)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b). Former subsec. (b), which set forth entitlement limitations on the amount of educational assistance an eligible veteran, shall receive under this chapter, was struck out.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–631, §1(b), (3), (4), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–631, §1(b)(2), struck out subsec. (d) which required an eligible veteran to elect either educational assistance or vocational rehabilitation when such veteran is entitled to both, or becomes entitled to vocational rehabilitation after receiving educational assistance.

1967—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–77 inserted “and in section 1678 of this chapter” after “subsection (c)”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(f) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5314 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by sections 203 and 211(2) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 1, 1976, and Oct. 15, 1976, respectively, see section 703(a), (b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Amendment by section 403(a) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Jan. 1, 1977, see section 406 of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as a note under section 3201 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–508 effective Dec. 3, 1974, see section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–631 effective first day of second calendar month which begins after Oct. 23, 1968, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 90–631, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3500 of this title.

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–77 effective first day of first calendar month which begins more than ten days after Aug. 31, 1967, see section 405 of Pub. L. 90–77, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3452, 3462, 3482, 3493, 3698 of this title.

§3462. Time limitations for completing a program of education

Delimiting Period for Completion

(a)(1) Subject to paragraph (4) of this subsection, no educational assistance shall be afforded an eligible veteran under this chapter beyond the date 10 years after the veteran's last discharge or release from active duty after January 31, 1955; except that, in the case of any eligible veteran who was prevented from initiating or completing such veteran's chosen program of education within such time period because of a physical or mental disability which was not the result of such veteran's own willful misconduct, such veteran shall, upon application made within one year after (A) the last date of the delimiting period otherwise applicable under this section, (B) the termination of the period of such mental or physical disability, or (C) October 1, 1980, whichever is the latest, be granted an extension of the applicable delimiting period for such length of time as the Secretary determines, from the evidence, that such veteran was so prevented from initiating or completing such program of education. When an extension of the applicable delimiting period is granted a veteran under the preceding sentence, the delimiting period with respect to such veteran will again begin running on the first day following such veteran's recovery from such disability on which it is reasonably feasible, as determined in accordance with regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, for such veteran to initiate or resume pursuit of a program of education with educational assistance under this chapter.

(2)(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, any veteran shall be permitted to use any of such veteran's unused entitlement under section 3461 of this title for the purposes of eligibility for an education loan, pursuant to the provisions of subchapter III of chapter 36 of this title, after the delimiting date otherwise applicable to such veteran under such paragraph (1), if such veteran was pursuing an approved program of education on a full-time basis at the time of the expiration of such veteran's eligibility.

(B) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, any veteran whose delimiting period is extended under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph may continue to use any unused loan entitlement under this paragraph as long as the veteran continues to be enrolled on a full-time basis in pursuit of the approved program of education in which such veteran was enrolled at the time of expiration of such veteran's eligibility (i) until such entitlement is exhausted, (ii) until the expiration of two years after November 23, 1977, or the date of the expiration of the delimiting date otherwise applicable to such veteran under paragraph (1) of this subsection, whichever is later, or (iii) until such veteran has completed the approved program of education in which such veteran was enrolled at the end of the delimiting period referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, whichever occurs first.

(3)(A) Subject to subparagraph (C) of this paragraph and notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, an eligible veteran who served on active duty during the Vietnam era shall be permitted to use any of such veteran's unused entitlement under section 3461 of this title for the purpose of pursuing—

(i) a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training;

(ii) a course with an approved vocational objective; or

(iii) a program of secondary education, if the veteran does not have a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency certificate).


(B) Upon completion of a program or course pursued by virtue of eligibility provided by this paragraph, the Secretary shall provide the veteran with such employment counseling as may be necessary to assist the veteran in obtaining employment consistent with the veteran's abilities, aptitudes, and interests.

(C)(i) Educational assistance shall be provided a veteran for pursuit of a program or course described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph using eligibility provided by this paragraph unless the Secretary determines, based on an examination of the veteran's employment and training history, that the veteran is not in need of such a program or course in order to obtain a reasonably stable employment situation consistent with the veteran's abilities and aptitudes. Any such determination shall be made in accordance with regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe.

(ii) Educational assistance provided a veteran for pursuit of a program described in clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph using eligibility provided by this paragraph shall be provided at the rate determined under section 3491(b)(2) of this title.

(D) Educational assistance may not be provided by virtue of this paragraph after December 31, 1984.

(4) For purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection, a veteran's last discharge or release from active duty shall not include any discharge or release from a period of active duty of less than 90 days of continuous service unless the individual involved is discharged or released for a service-connected disability, for a medical condition which preexisted such service and which the Secretary determines is not service connected, for hardship, or as a result of a reduction in force as described in section 3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(III) of this title.

Correction of Discharge

(b) In the case of any eligible veteran who has been prevented, as determined by the Secretary, from completing a program of education under this chapter within the period prescribed by subsection (a), because the veteran had not met the nature of discharge requirements of this chapter before a change, correction, or modification of a discharge or dismissal made pursuant to section 1553 of title 10, the correction of the military records of the proper service department under section 1552 of title 10, or other corrective action by competent authority, then the 10-year delimiting period shall run from the date the veteran's discharge or dismissal was changed, corrected, or modified.

Savings Clause

(c) In the case of any eligible veteran who was discharged or released from active duty before June 1, 1966, the 10-year delimiting period shall run from such date, if it is later than the date which otherwise would be applicable. In the case of any eligible veteran who was discharged or released from active duty before August 31, 1967, and who pursues a course of farm cooperative training, apprenticeship or other training on the job, the 10-year delimiting period shall run from August 31, 1967, if it is later than the date which would otherwise be applicable.

(d) In the case of any veteran (1) who served on or after January 31, 1955, (2) who became eligible for educational assistance under the provisions of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, and (3) who, subsequent to the veteran's last discharge or release from active duty, was captured and held as a prisoner of war by a foreign government or power, there shall be excluded, in computing the veteran's 10-year period of eligibility for educational assistance, any period during which the veteran was so detained and any period immediately following the veteran's release from such detention during which the veteran was hospitalized at a military, civilian, or Department of Veterans Affairs medical facility.

(e) No educational assistance shall be afforded any eligible veteran under this chapter or chapter 36 of this title after December 31, 1989.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 14, §1662; amended Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §305, Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 188; Pub. L. 93–337, §1, July 10, 1974, 88 Stat. 292; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §211(3), title IV, §403(b), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2388, 2393; Pub. L. 95–202, title II, §203(a)(1), (b)(1), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1439; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §301, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2191; Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §2003(b)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 782; Pub. L. 97–72, title II, §201(a), Nov. 3, 1981, 95 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(39), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1307; Pub. L. 97–306, title II, §206(a), Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1435; Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(10), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1009; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§420(a)(3), 423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2087, 2092; renumbered §3462 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising subsecs. (a) and (b) of this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1176, which was classified to former sections 1612(c) and 1613(a), and 1612(a) of this title, respectively, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1662 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A), (3)(A). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3461” for “1661”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3491(b)(2)” for “1691(b)(2)”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3011(a)(1)(A)(ii)(III)” for “1411(a)(1)(A)(ii)(III)”.

1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §420(a)(3)(B), substituted “Subject to paragraph (4) of this subsection, no” for “No”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B), (C)(i). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101–237, §420(a)(3)(A), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(B), substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

1983—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–160 substituted “October 1, 1980” for “the effective date of the Veterans’ Rehabilitation and Education Amendments of 1980”.

1982—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(39)(A), substituted “November 23, 1977,” for “the date of enactment of this paragraph”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(C)(i). Pub. L. 97–306, §206(a)(1), substituted “shall” for “may” after “Educational assistance”, and substituted “unless the Administrator determines, based on an examination of the veteran's employment and training history, that the veteran is not in need of such a program or course in order to obtain a reasonably stable employment situation consistent with the veteran's abilities and aptitudes” for “only if the veteran has been determined by the Administrator to be in need of such a program or course in order to achieve a suitable occupational or vocational objective”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 97–306, §206(a)(2), substituted “December 31, 1984” for “December 31, 1983”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(39)(B), substituted “June 1, 1966” for “the date for which an educational assistance allowance is first payable under this chapter”, “August 31, 1967,” for “the date of enactment of this sentence” after “active duty before”, and “August 31, 1967” for “the date of enactment of this sentence” after “shall run from”.

1981—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 97–72 added par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–35 struck out provisions relating to applicability to flight training.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–466 inserted “made within one year after (A) the last date of the delimiting period otherwise applicable under this section, (B) the termination of the period of such mental or physical disability, or (C) the effective date of the Veterans’ Rehabilitation and Education Amendments of 1980, whichever is the latest” after “application”, inserted “so” after “that such veteran was”; and inserted provision relating to the running of the delimiting period when an extension of the applicable delimiting period is granted a veteran.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–202 designated existing provisions as par. (1), added par. (2), and inserted “except that, in the case of any eligible veteran who was prevented from initiating or completing such veteran's chosen program of education within such time period because of a physical or mental disability which was not the result of such veteran's own willful misconduct, such veteran shall, upon application, be granted an extension of the applicable delimiting period for such length of time as the Administrator determines, from the evidence, that such veteran was prevented from initiating or completing such program of education” after “active duty after January 31, 1955” in par. (1) as so redesignated.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §211(3), substituted “the veteran's” for “his”.

Subsecs. (b), (d). Pub. L. 94–502, §211(3), substituted “the veteran's” for “his” and “the veteran” for “he”, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–502, §403(b), added subsec. (e).

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–337, §1(1), substituted “10” for “eight”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–337, §1(2), substituted “10-year” for “8-year”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–337, §1(3), substituted “10-year” for “8-year” and “eight year,” respectively.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–337, §1(4), added subsec. (d).

1967—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–77 inserted second sentence respecting commencement of the delimiting period in the case of an eligible veteran discharged from active duty and pursuing training on the job or flight training.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 206(c) of Pub. L. 97–306 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as of January 1, 1982.”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendments

Section 201(b) of Pub. L. 97–72 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1982.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2006 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 3231 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective retroactively to May 31, 1976, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 211(3) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Amendment by section 403(b) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Jan. 1, 1977, see section 406 of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3201 of this title.

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–77 effective first day of first calendar month which begins more than ten days after Aug. 31, 1967, see section 405 of Pub. L. 90–77, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Proposal of Regulations

Section 206(b) of Pub. L. 97–306 directed Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs to publish, not later than 30 days after Oct. 14, 1982, proposed regulations under subsec. (a)(3)(C)(i) of this section and to publish, not later than 90 days after Oct. 14, 1982, final regulations under subsec. (a)(3)(C)(i).

Extension of Time for Pursuit of Educational Programs

Pub. L. 93–293, May 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 176, provided that the eight-year delimiting date for pursuit of educational programs under this chapter for eligible veterans discharged or released from active duty between Jan. 31, 1955, and Sept. 1, 1966, with certain exceptions, was to run from July 1, 1966.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3512, 3698 of this title.

[§3463. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1651 to 1693 of this chapter as sections 3451 to 3493 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, section 1663 of this chapter, added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 15; and amended Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §211(4), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2388; Pub. L. 95–202, title III, §302(a), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1440; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §312, Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3273; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092, which related to educational and vocational counseling, was repealed by Pub. L. 102–16, §2(b)(1)(A), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 49.

SUBCHAPTER III—ENROLLMENT

§3470. Selection of program

Subject to the provisions of this chapter, each eligible veteran may select a program of education to assist the veteran in attaining an educational, professional, or vocational objective at any educational institution (approved in accordance with chapter 36 of this title) selected by the veteran, which will accept and retain the veteran as a student or trainee in any field or branch of knowledge which such institution finds the veteran qualified to undertake or pursue.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 15, §1670; amended Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §211(5), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2388; renumbered §3470, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1177, which was classified to section 1620 (first sentence) of this title, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1670 of this title as this section.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “the veteran” for “him” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3034, 3241 of this title; title 10 section 16136.

§3471. Applications; approval

Any eligible veteran, or any person on active duty (after consultation with the appropriate service education officer), who desires to initiate a program of education under this chapter shall submit an application to the Secretary which shall be in such form, and contain such information, as the Secretary shall prescribe. The Secretary shall approve such application unless the Secretary finds that (1) such veteran or person is not eligible for or entitled to the educational assistance for which application is made, (2) the veteran's or person's selected educational institution or training establishment fails to meet any requirement of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, (3) the veteran's or person's enrollment in, or pursuit of, the program of education selected would violate any provision of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, or (4) the veteran or person is already qualified, by reason of previous education or training, for the educational, professional, or vocational objective for which the program of education is offered. The Secretary shall notify the veteran or person of the approval or disapproval of the veteran's or person's application.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 15, §1671; amended Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §302, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1080; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §211(6), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2388; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §302, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2192; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3471, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1177, which was classified to section 1621 of this title, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1671 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466, among other changes, substituted reference to the veteran's or person's selected educational institution or training establishment failing to meet any requirement of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title for reference to the veteran's or person's program of education failing to meet any of the requirements of this chapter, inserted provision for disapproval of an application upon a finding that the veteran's or person's enrollment in, or pursuit of, the program of education selected would violate this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, and substituted reference to the veteran or person being already qualified, by reason of previous education or training, for the educational, professional, or vocational objective for which the program of education is offered for reference simply to the veteran or person being already qualified.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “unless the Administrator finds” for “unless he finds”, “the veteran or person” for “he”, and “the veteran's or person's” for “his” in two places.

1972—Pub. L. 92–540 inserted provision authorizing any person on active duty, after consultation with the appropriate service education officer, to submit an application to the Administrator.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3034, 3241, 3482, 3491 of this title; title 10 section 16136.

[§3472. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1651 to 1693 of this chapter as sections 3451 to 3493 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, section 1672 of this chapter, added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 15, which related to change of program by veteran, was repealed by Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §401(6), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090.

[§3473. Repealed. Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §313(a)(3)(A), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4332]

Section, added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 16, §1673; amended Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §§302(a), 303(a), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 185; Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §202, Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 78; Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §401(2), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090; Pub. L. 93–508, title II, §203, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §§205, 211(7), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2387, 2388; Pub. L. 95–202, title III, §305(a)(2), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1443; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §§303–305, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2192, 2193; Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §2003(b)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 782; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(40), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 97–306, title II, §§202(a), 203(a), Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §703(b), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2564; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §111(a)(9), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4172; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3473 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, related to disapproval of enrollment in certain courses.

Savings Provision

Repeal not applicable to any person receiving educational assistance for pursuit of an independent study program in which the person was enrolled on Oct. 29, 1992, for as long as such person is continuously thereafter so enrolled and meets requirements of eligibility for such assistance, see section 313(b) of Pub. L. 102–568, set out as a note under section 16136 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§3474. Discontinuance for unsatisfactory conduct or progress

The Secretary shall discontinue the educational assistance allowance of an eligible veteran if, at any time, the Secretary finds that according to the regularly prescribed standards and practices of the educational institution, the veteran's attendance, conduct, or progress is unsatisfactory. The Secretary may renew the payment of the educational assistance allowance only if the Secretary finds that—

(1) the veteran will be resuming enrollment at the same educational institution in the same program of education and the educational institution has both approved such veteran's reenrollment and certified it to the Department of Veterans Affairs; or

(2) in the case of a proposed change of either educational institution or program of education by the veteran—

(A) the cause of the unsatisfactory attendance, conduct, or progress has been removed;

(B) the program proposed to be pursued is suitable to the veteran's aptitudes, interests, and abilities; and

(C) if a proposed change of program is involved, the change meets the requirements for approval under section 3691 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 16, §1674; amended Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §§206, 211(8), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2387, 2388; Pub. L. 95–202, title III, §305(b)(1), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1443; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §306, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2193; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§411(a), 412(b), 423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2084, 2085, 2092; renumbered §3474 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising the first sentence of this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1178, which was classified to former section 1624 of this title, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1674 of this title as this section.

Par. (2)(C). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3691” for “1791”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §412(b), substituted “attendance, conduct,” for “conduct”.

Pars. (1), (2). Pub. L. 101–237, §411(a), added pars. (1) and (2) and struck out former pars. (1) and (2) which read as follows:

“(1) the cause of the unsatisfactory conduct or progress of the eligible veteran has been removed; and

“(2) the program which the eligible veteran now proposes to pursue (whether the same or revised) is suitable to the veteran's aptitudes, interests, and abilities.”

1980—Pub. L. 96–466 struck out provisions relating to the conditions upon which a veteran's progress would be considered unsatisfactory.

1977—Pub. L. 95–202 inserted provisions authorizing the Administrator to determine the veteran's progress to be satisfactory even though the veteran will graduate within a length of time exceeding the approved length if the additional length of time is reasonable in accordance with regulations.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502, §211(8), inserted provision specifying progress as unsatisfactory when the veteran will not be able to graduate within the approved length of the course.

Pub. L. 94–502, §206, substituted “the veteran's” for “his” in two places and “if the Administrator finds” for “if he finds”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective first day of first month beginning 60 days after Nov. 23, 1977, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by sections 206 and 211(8) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Dec. 1, 1976, and Oct. 15, 1976, respectively, see section 703(b), (c) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Study of Methods To Improve Process Under Which Postsecondary Educational Institutions and Courses Are Approved; Report by September 30, 1979; Suspension of Implementation of 1976 Amendment

Section 305(b)(2)–(4) of Pub. L. 95–202, as amended by Pub. L. 96–466, title VIII, §801(m)(2), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2217, directed Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs to study specific methods for improving process by which postsecondary educational institutions and courses at such institutions are approved for purposes of chapters 32, 34, 35, and 36 of this title, and need for legislative and administrative action regarding discontinuing educational assistance allowances to eligible veterans whose conduct or progress is unsatisfactory, required submission of a report on the study to President and Congress not later than Sept. 30, 1979, and directed Administrator to suspend implementation of certain amendments by Pub. L. 94–502 until submission of report.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3034, 3241 of this title; title 10 section 16136.

[§3475. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1651 to 1693 of this chapter as sections 3451 to 3493 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, section 1675 of this chapter, added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 16, which related to period of operation for approval by Administrator, was repealed by Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §401(6), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090.

§3476. Education outside the United States

An eligible veteran may not enroll in any course offered by an educational institution not located in a State unless that educational institution is an approved institution of higher learning and the course is approved by the Secretary. The Secretary may deny or discontinue educational assistance under this chapter in the case of any veteran enrolled in an institution of higher learning not located in a State if the Secretary determines that such enrollment is not in the best interest of the veteran or the Federal Government.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 17, §1676; amended Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §211(9), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2389; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §307(b), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2193; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3476, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §604(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4671.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1177, which was classified to former section 1620 (second and third sentences) of this title, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–446 amended first sentence generally. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: “An eligible veteran may not enroll in any course at an educational institution not located in a State unless such course is pursued at an approved institution of higher learning and the course is approved by the Secretary.”

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1676 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466, among other changes, substituted reference to an eligible veteran not enrolling in any course for reference to an eligible veteran not pursuing a program of education, inserted provision that the course be approved by the Administrator, and substituted reference to any veteran enrolled in an institution of higher learning not located in a State for reference to any veteran in a foreign educational institution.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “the Administrator's” for “his” and “if the Administrator finds” for “if he finds”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 604(b) of Pub. L. 103–446 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to courses approved on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 1994].”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3034, 3241 of this title; title 10 section 16136.

[§§3477, 3478. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1651 to 1693 of this chapter as sections 3451 to 3493 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, sections 1677 and 1678 of this chapter were repealed.

Section 1677, added Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §302(b), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 185; Pub. L. 90–631, §5, Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1335; Pub. L. 91–219, title I, §102, title II, §203, Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 76, 78; Pub. L. 92–540, title I, §102(1), title IV, §401(3), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1075, 1090; Pub. L. 93–508, title I, §102(1), Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1579; Pub. L. 93–602, title II, §203(a), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1958; Pub. L. 95–202, title I, §102(1), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 96–466, title II, §§201(1), 211(1), title VI, §603(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2187, 2189, 2209, which set forth provisions respecting eligibility, approval, etc., for flight training, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §§2003(b)(3)(A), 2006, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 782, 783, effective Oct. 1, 1981, except as otherwise provided for persons receiving educational assistance.

Section 1678, added Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §306(a), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 188, which related to special training for educationally disadvantaged, was repealed by Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(a)(2), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 79.

SUBCHAPTER IV—PAYMENTS TO ELIGIBLE VETERANS; VETERAN-STUDENT SERVICES

Amendments

1972—Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §404(b), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1091, inserted “; VETERAN-STUDENT SERVICES”.

§3481. Educational assistance allowance

General

(a) The Secretary shall, in accordance with the applicable provisions of this section and chapter 36 of this title, pay to each eligible veteran who is pursuing a program of education under this chapter an educational assistance allowance to meet, in part, the expenses of the veteran's subsistence, tuition, fees, supplies, books, equipment, and other educational costs.

Institutional Training

(b) The educational assistance allowance of an eligible veteran pursuing a program of education, other than a program exclusively by correspondence, at an educational institution shall be paid as provided in chapter 36 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 17, §1681; amended Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §205, Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 81; Pub. L. 91–584, §6, Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1576; Pub. L. 92–540, title II, §202, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1079; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §§210(2), 211(10), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2388, 2389; Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §2003(b)(4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 782; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3481, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising subsecs. (a), (b), (d), and (e) of this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1179, which was classified to former section 1631 of this title, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1681 of this title as this section.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1981—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35, §2003(b)(4)(A), struck out applicability to flight training program.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–35, §2003(b)(4)(B), struck out subsec. (c) which related to flight training.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §§210(2), 211(10), substituted “chapter 36” for “section 1780” and “the veteran's” for “his”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §210(2), substituted “chapter 36” for “section 1780”.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–540 inserted heading and provisions requiring allowances to be paid in accordance with the applicable provisions of this section and section 1780 of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–540 inserted heading and substituted provisions requiring allowances of an eligible veteran pursuing a program of education, other than a program exclusively by correspondence or a program of flight training, at an educational institution to be paid as provided in section 1780 of this title, for provisions requiring allowances of an eligible veteran to be paid, as provided in section 1682 of this title, only for the period of his enrollment as approved by the Administrator, but limiting such payments to veterans meeting certain specified requirements while pursuing standard college degrees.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–540 inserted heading and substituted provisions relating to the payment of allowances to eligible veterans pursuing a program of education consisting exclusively of flight training, for provisions authorizing the Administrator to prescribe regulations to determine enrollment in, pursuit of, and attendance at, any program of education or course by an eligible veteran.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–540 struck out subsec. (d) which related to certification to the Administrator from the eligible veteran as to his actual attendance or completion of lessons by correspondence, and from the educational institution that such veteran was enrolled in and pursuing a course of education during such period or completion of lessons by correspondence by the veteran and serviced by the institution.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–540 struck out subsec. (e) which related to the prompt payment of the educational assistance allowance to the veteran.

1970—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–584 excluded programs of apprenticeship and programs of other on-job training authorized by section 1683 of this title for educational assistance to veterans.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–219 inserted provision that the Administrator may pay an educational assistance allowance representing the initial payment of an enrollment period, not exceeding one full month, upon receipt of a certificate of enrollment.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2006 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 3231 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3491 of this title.

§3482. Computation of educational assistance allowances

(a)(1) Except as provided in subsection (b), (c), or (g) of this section, or section 3687 of this title, while pursuing a program of education under this chapter of half-time or more, each eligible veteran shall be paid the monthly educational assistance allowance set forth in column II, III, IV, or V (whichever is applicable as determined by the veteran's dependency status) opposite the applicable type of program as shown in column I:

 
Column IColumn

II

Column

III

Column

IV

Column V
Type of

program

No

dependents

One

dependent

Two

dependents

More than

two

dependents

        The amount in column IV, plus the following for each dependent in excess of two:
Institutional training:
Full-time $376 $448 $510      $32
Three-quarter time 283 336 383       24
Half-time 188 224 255       17
Cooperative 304 355 404       23

(2) A “cooperative” program, other than a “farm cooperative” program, means a full-time program of education which consists of institutional courses and alternate phases of training in a business or industrial establishment with the training in the business or industrial establishment being strictly supplemental to the institutional portion.

(b) The educational assistance allowance of an individual pursuing a program of education—

(1) while on active duty, or

(2) on less than a half-time basis,


shall be computed at the rate of (A) the established charges for tuition and fees which the institution requires similarly circumstanced nonveterans enrolled in the same program to pay, or (B) $376 per month for a full-time course, whichever is the lesser. An individual's entitlement shall be charged for institutional courses on the basis of the applicable monthly training time rate as determined under section 3688 of this title.

(c)(1) An eligible veteran who is enrolled in an educational institution for a “farm cooperative” program consisting of institutional agricultural courses prescheduled to fall within 44 weeks of any period of 12 consecutive months and who pursues such program on—

(A) a full-time basis (a minimum of ten clock hours per week or four hundred and forty clock hours in such year prescheduled to provide not less than eighty clock hours in any three-month period),

(B) a three-quarter-time basis (a minimum of 7 clock hours per week), or

(C) a half-time basis (a minimum of 5 clock hours per week),


shall be eligible to receive an educational assistance allowance at the appropriate rate provided in the table in paragraph (2) of this subsection, if such eligible veteran is concurrently engaged in agricultural employment which is relevant to such institutional agricultural courses as determined under standards prescribed by the Secretary. In computing the foregoing clock hour requirements there shall be included the time involved in field trips and individual and group instruction sponsored and conducted by the educational institution through a duly authorized instructor of such institution in which the veteran is enrolled.

(2) The monthly educational assistance allowance of an eligible veteran pursuing a farm cooperative program under this chapter shall be paid as set forth in column II, III, IV, or V (whichever is applicable as determined by the veteran's dependency status) opposite the basis shown in column I:

 
Column IColumn

II

Column

III

Column

IV

Column V
BasisNo

dependents

One

dependent

Two

dependents

More than

two

dependents

        The amount in column IV, plus the following for each dependent in excess of two:
Full-time $304 $355 $404      $23
Three-quarter time 228 266 303       18
Half-time 152 178 202       12

(d)(1) Notwithstanding the prohibition in section 3471 of this title prohibiting enrollment of an eligible veteran in a program of education in which such veteran has “already qualified,” a veteran shall be allowed up to six months of educational assistance (or the equivalent thereof in part-time assistance) for the pursuit of refresher training to permit such veteran to update such veteran's knowledge and skills and to be instructed in the technological advances which have occurred in such veteran's field of employment during and since the period of such veteran's active military service.

(2) A veteran pursuing refresher training under this subsection shall be paid an educational assistance allowance based upon the rate prescribed in the table in subsection (a)(1) or in subsection (c)(2) of this section, whichever is applicable.

(3) The educational assistance allowance paid under the authority of this subsection shall be charged against the period of entitlement the veteran has earned pursuant to section 3461(a) of this title.

(e) The educational assistance allowance of an eligible veteran pursuing an independent study program which leads to a standard college degree shall be computed at the rate provided in subsection (b) of this section. If the entire training is to be pursued by independent study, the amount of such veteran's entitlement to educational assistance under this chapter shall be charged in accordance with the rate at which the veteran is pursuing the independent study program but at not more than the rate at which such entitlement is charged for pursuit of such program on less than a half-time basis. In any case in which independent study is combined with resident training, the educational assistance allowance shall be paid at the applicable institutional rate based on the total training time determined by adding the number of semester hours (or the equivalent thereof) of resident training to the number of semester hours (or the equivalent thereof) of independent study that do not exceed the number of semester hours (or the equivalent thereof) required for the less than half-time institutional rate, as determined by the Secretary, for resident training. A veteran's entitlement shall be charged for a combination of independent study and resident training on the basis of the applicable monthly training time rate as determined under section 3688 of this title.

(f) The educational assistance allowance of an eligible veteran pursuing a course by open circuit television shall be computed in the same manner that such allowance is computed under subsection (e) of this section for an independent study program.

(g)(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection, the amount of the educational assistance allowance paid to an eligible veteran who is pursuing a program of education under this chapter while incarcerated in a Federal, State, or local penal institution for conviction of a felony may not exceed such amount as the Secretary determines, in accordance with regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, is necessary to cover the cost of established charges for tuition and fees required of similarly circumstanced nonveterans enrolled in the same program and to cover the cost of necessary supplies, books, and equipment, or the applicable monthly educational assistance allowance prescribed for a veteran with no dependents in subsection (a)(1) or (c)(2) of this section or section 3687(b)(1) of this title, whichever is the lesser. The amount of the educational assistance allowance payable to a veteran while so incarcerated shall be reduced to the extent that the tuition and fees of the veteran for any course are paid under any Federal program (other than a program administered by the Secretary) or under any State or local program.

(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply in the case of any veteran who is pursuing a program of education under this chapter while residing in a halfway house or participating in a work-release program in connection with such veteran's conviction of a felony.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 18, §1682; amended Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §§301, 303(b), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 184, 185; Pub. L. 90–631, §3, Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1333; Pub. L. 91–219, title I, §103(a)–(d), title II, §204(a)(3), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 76, 77, 79; Pub. L. 91–584, §9, Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1577; Pub. L. 92–540, title I, §102(2)–(4), title III, §303, title IV, §401(4), (5), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1075, 1081, 1090; Pub. L. 93–508, title I, §102(2)–(4), title II, §204, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1579, 1582; Pub. L. 93–602, title II, §203(b), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1958; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §§201(1)–(3), 207, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2384, 2385, 2387; Pub. L. 95–202, title I, §102(2)–(4), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 96–466, title II, §§201(2)–(4), 211(2)–(4), title III, §§308–310, title VI, §602(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2187–2190, 2194, 2208; Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §2003(b)(5), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 782; Pub. L. 97–306, title II, §§204, 205(b), Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(11), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1009; Pub. L. 98–543, title II, §202(1)–(3), Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2741; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3482 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §104(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3327.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those comprising subsecs. (a), (b)(2), (c)(1), and (c)(2) of this section were contained in Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1176, 1180, which was classified to former sections 1632(a) and (b), (f), (e), and 1611(c) of this title, respectively, prior to repeal by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–275 struck out “in part” after “pursuing a course”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1682 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3687” for “1787”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3688” for “1788” in last sentence.

Subsec. (d)(1), (3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3471” for “1671” in par. (1) and “3461(a)” for “1661(a)” in par. (3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3688” for “1788”.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3687(b)(1)” for “1787(b)(1)”.

1989—Subsecs. (c)(1), (e), (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–543, §202(1), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $342, $257, $171, and $276 to $376, $283, $188 and $304; in column III from $407, $305, $204 and $323 to $448, $336, $224 and $355; in column IV from $464, $348, $232, and $367 to $510, $383, $255, and $404; in column V from $29, $22, $15 and $21 to $32, $24, $17, and $23, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–543, §202(2), substituted “$376” for “$342”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–543, §202(3), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans pursuing a farm cooperative program in column II from $276, $207, and $138 to $304, $228 and $152; in column III from $323, $242 and $162 to $355, $266 and $178; in column IV from $367, $275 and $184 to $404, $303 and $202; in column V from $21, $16 and $11 to $23, $18 and $12, respectively.

1983—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–160 inserted a comma after “hours per week)”.

1982—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–306, §204(1), substituted “(c), or (g)” for “or (c)” after “subsection (b),”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–306, §204(2), substituted provision that the amount of such veteran's entitlement to educational assistance under this chapter shall be charged in accordance with the rate at which the veteran is pursuing the independent study program but at not more than the rate at which such entitlement is charged for pursuit of such program on less than a half-time basis for provision that the entitlement would be charged at one-half of the full-time institutional rate.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 97–306, §205(b)(1), inserted provision that the amount of the educational assistance allowance payable to a veteran while incarcerated shall be reduced to the extent that the tuition and fees of the veteran for any course are paid under any Federal program (other than a program administered by the Administrator) or under any State or local program.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 97–306, §205(b)(2), inserted “not” after “shall”, and struck out “if the Administrator determines that all the veteran's living expenses are being defrayed by a Federal, State, or local government” at the end.

1981—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–35 struck out reference to section 1677 of this title.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–466, §211(2), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $327, $245, $164, and $264 to $342, $257, $171, and $276; in column III from $389, $292, $195, and $309 to $407, $305, $204, and $323; in column IV from $443, $332, $222, and $351 to $464, $348, $232, and $367; in column V from $27, $20, and $14 to $29, $22, and $15, respectively.

Pub. L. 96–466, §201(2), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $311, $233, $156, and $251 to $327, $245, $164, and $264; in column III from $370, $277, $185, and $294 to $389, $292, $195, and $309; in column IV from $422, $317, $211, and $334 to $443, $332, $222, and $351; in column V from $26, $19, $13, and $19 to $27, $20, $14, and $21, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–466, §211(3), substituted “$342” for “$327”.

Pub. L. 96–466, §201(3), substituted “$327” for “$311”.

Pub. L. 96–466, §308, inserted provision that an individual's entitlement be charged for institutional courses on the basis of the applicable monthly training time rate as determined under section 1788 of this title.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–466, §211(4), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans pursuing a farm cooperative program in column II from $264, $198, and $132 to $276, $207, and $138; in column III from $309, $232, and $155 to $323, $242, and $162; in column IV from $351, $263, and $176 to $367, $275, and $184; in column V from $20, $15, and $10 to $21, $16, and $11, respectively.

Pub. L. 96–466, §201(4), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans pursuing a farm cooperative program in column II from $251, $188, and $126 to $264, $198, and $132; in column III from $294, $221, and $147 to $309, $232, and $155; in column IV from $334, $251, and $167 to $351, $263, and $176; in column V from $19 to $20, respectively.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–466, §309, substituted reference to the rate provided in subsec. (b) of this section for reference to the rate provided in subsec. (b)(2) of this section, inserted provision that if the entire training be pursued by independent study, entitlement be charged at one-half of the full-time institutional rate, substituted provisions relating to the payment of the educational assistance allowance in any case in which independent study is combined with resident training for provisions relating to the maximum allowance in those cases where independent study is combined with resident training and the resident training constitutes the major portion of such training, and inserted provision that a veteran's entitlement be charged for a combination of independent study and resident training on the basis of the applicable monthly training time rate as determined under section 1788 of this title.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–466, §310, added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–466, §602(a), added subsec. (g).

1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–202, §102(2), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $292, $219, $146, and $235 to $311, $233, $156, and $251; in column III from $347, $260, $174, and $276 to $370, $277, $185, and $294; in column IV from $396, $297, $198, and $313 to $422, $317, $211, and $334; in column V from $24, $18, $12, and $18 to $26, $19, $13, and $19, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–202, §102(3), substituted “$311” for “$292”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 95–202, §102(4), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans pursuing a farm cooperative program in column II from $235, $176, and $118 to $251, $188, and $126; in column III from $276, $207, and $138 to $294, $221, and $147; in column IV from $313, $235, and $157 to $334, $251, and $167; in column V from $18, $14, and $9 to $19, $15, and $10, respectively.

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–502, §201(1), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $270, $203, $135, and $217 to $292, $219, $146 and $235; in column III from $321, $240, $160, and $255 to $347, $260, $174, and $276; in column IV from $366, $275, $182, and $289 to $396, $297, $198, and $313; in column V from $22, $17, $11, and $17 to $24, $18, $12, and $18, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §201(2), substituted “$292” for “$270”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 94–502, §201(3), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans pursuing a farm cooperative program in column II from $217, $163, and $109 to $235, $176, and $118; in column III from $255, $191, and $128 to $276, $207 and $138; in column IV from $289, $218, and $145 to $313, $235, and $157; in column V from $17, and $13 to $18, and $14, respectively.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–502, §207, added subsec. (e).

1975—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–602 substituted “$270” for “$260”.

1974—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 93–508, §102(2), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $220, $165, $110, and $177 to $270, $203, $135, and $217; in column III from $261, $196, $131, and $208 to $321, $240, $160, and $255; in column IV from $298, $224, $149, and $236 to $366, $275, $182, and $289; and in column V from $18, $14, $9, and $14 to $22, $17, $11, and $17, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–508, §102(3), substituted “$260” for “$220”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 93–508, §102(4), increased the educational assistance allowance rates for eligible veterans pursuing a farm cooperative program in column II from $177, $133, and $89 to $217, $163, and $109; in column III from $208, $156, and $104 to $255, $191, and $128; in column IV from $236, $177, and $118 to $289, $218, and $145; and in column V from $14, $11, and $7 to $17, $13, and $9 respectively.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–508, §204, added subsec. (d).

1972—Subsec. (a)(1), Pub. L. 92–540, §§102(2), 401(4), substituted references to subsec. (c) of this section and section 1787 of this title for references to subsec. (c)(1) or (d) of this section and section 1683 of this title, respectively, and increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $175, $128, $81, and $141 to $220, $165, $110, and $177; in column III from $205, $152, $100, and $167 to $261, $196, $131, and $208; in column IV from $230, $177, $114, and $192 to $298, $224, $149, and $236; and in column V from $13, $10, $7, and $10 to $18, $14, $9, and $14, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–540, §§102(3), 401(5), substituted “$220” for “$175”, and struck out provisions relating to payment of the educational assistance allowance provided by this subsection and the educational assistance allowance provided by section 1696(b) of this title.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 92–540, §§102(4), 303, struck out subsec. (c) which related to the computation of the educational assistance allowance of an eligible veteran pursuing a program of education exclusively by correspondence. Subsec. (d) redesignated (c), and, as so redesignated, in par. (1)(A) generally amended prerequisites for a full-time basis program, in par. (1)(B) substituted “7” for “9”, in par. (1)(C) substituted “5” for “6”, following par. (1)(C) inserted provision relating to the computation of the clock hour requirements, and in par. (2) increased the educational assistance allowance rates for eligible veterans pursuing a farm cooperative program in column II from $141, $101, and $67 to $177, $133, and $89; in column III from $165, $119, and $79 to $208, $156, and $104; in column IV from $190, $138, and $92 to $236, $177, and $118; and in column V from $10, $7, and $4 to $14, $11, and $7, respectively.

1970—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–219, §103(a), increased the monthly educational assistance allowance for eligible veterans in column II from $130, $95, $60, and $105 to $175, $128, $81, and $141; in column III from $155, $115, $75, and $125 to $205, $152, $100, and $167; in column IV from $175, $135, $85, and $145 to $230, $177, $114, and $192; in column V from $10, $7, $5, and $7 to $13, $10, $7, and $10, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–219, §§103(b), 204(a)(3), substituted “$175” for “$130” and inserted provision that educational assistance allowance provided by this subsection and the educational assistance allowance provided by section 1696(b) be made in an amount computed for the entire quarter, semester, or term during the month immediately following the month in which certification is received.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 91–584 inserted definition of “established charge”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 91–219, §103(c), substituted “$175” for “$130”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 91–219, §103(d), increased the educational assistance allowance rates for eligible veterans pursuing a farm cooperative program in column II from $105, $75, and $50 to $141, $101, and $67; in column III from $125, $90, and $60 to $165, $119 and $79; in column IV from $145, $105, and $70 to $190, $138, and $92; in column V from $7, $5, and $3 to $10, $7, and $4, respectively.

1968—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–631, §3(b)(1), inserted “, other than a ‘farm cooperative’ program,” after “A ‘cooperative’ program”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 90–631, §3(a), substituted provisions charging the period of entitlement of any eligible veteran with one month for each $130 paid to such veteran as an educational assistance allowance when such veteran is pursuing a program of education exclusively by correspondence for provisions charging the period of entitlement of any eligible veteran with one-fourth of the elapsed time in following such program of education.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–631, §3(b)(2), inserted requirement that the “farm cooperative” program consist of institutional agricultural courses prescheduled to fall within 44 weeks of any period of 12 consecutive months, inserted provisions making veterans pursuing programs of 6 or 9 clock hours per week eligible to receive an educational assistance allowance, and substituted provisions that the appropriate rate for such allowance shall be as provided in the table set out in subsec. (d)(2) of this section for provisions that the appropriate rate shall be as provided in the table set out in subsec. (a)(1) of this section opposite the word “Cooperative” under Column I of such table.

1967—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 90–77, §301(a), (b), included in text preceding the table references to subsec. (d) of this section, sections 1677 and 1683 of this title, and column V; and, increased the monthly educational assistance allowance in column II from $100, $75, $50, and $80 to $130, $95, $60, and $105; in column III from $125, $95, $65, and $100 to $155, $115, $75, and $125; in column IV from $150, $115, $75, and $120 to $175, $135, $85, and $145 (restricting column IV to two dependents), and added column V (formerly covered in former column IV), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 90–77, §301(c), substituted “$130” for “$100”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–77, §303(b), added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–543 effective Oct. 1, 1984, see section 205 of Pub. L. 98–543, set out as a note under section 3108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2006 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 3231 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 802(b) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by part A of title II [sections 201 to 203 of Pub. L. 96–466, see Tables for classification] shall become effective on October 1, 1980.

“(2) The amendments made by part B of title II [sections 211 to 213 of Pub. L. 96–466, see Tables for classification] shall become effective on January 1, 1981.”

Amendment by sections 308 to 310 of Pub. L. 96–466 [amending this section] effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Amendment by section 602(a) of Pub. L. 96–466 [amending this section] effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(f) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5314 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective retroactively to Oct. 1, 1977, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 703(a) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Section 206 of title II of Pub. L. 93–602 provided that: “The provisions of this title [see Tables for classification] shall become effective on January 1, 1975.”

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Section 501 of Pub. L. 93–508 provided that: “Title I of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall become effective on September 1, 1974.”

Amendment by section 204 of Pub. L. 93–508 effective Dec. 3, 1974, see section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Section 601(a) of Pub. L. 92–540 provided that: “The rate increases provided in Title I of this Act [see Tables for classification] and the rate increases provided by the provisions of section 1787 [now 3687], title 38, United States Code (as added by section 316 of this Act) shall become effective October 1, 1972; except, for those veterans and eligible persons in training on the date of enactment [Oct. 24, 1972], the effective date shall be the date of the commencement of the current enrollment period, but not earlier than September 1, 1972.”

Amendment by section 303 of Pub. L. 92–540 not to effect any enrollment agreement entered into by an eligible veteran prior to Jan. 1, 1973, see section 602 of Pub. L. 92–540, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3686 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Section 301 of Pub. L. 91–219 provided that: “Title I of this Act [see Tables for classification] takes effect February 1, 1970.”

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–631 effective first day of second calendar month which begins after Oct. 23, 1968, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 90–631, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3500 of this title.

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–77 effective first day of first month which begins more than ten days after Aug. 31, 1967, see section 405 of Pub. L. 90–77, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Applicability of Subsection (g)(1) to Apportionments Made Before October 17, 1980

Section 602(d) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided that: “The provisions of section 1682(g)(1) [now 3482(g)(1)] of title 38, United States Code, as added by subsection (a) shall not apply to an apportionment made under section 3107(c) [now 5307(c)] of such title before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1980].”

[Section 802(f) of Pub. L. 96–466 provided in part that, except as otherwise specifically provided, section 602(d) shall become effective Oct. 1, 1980.]

Overpayments to Veterans by Tangipahoa Parish School Board, Amite, Louisiana

Pub. L. 90–493, §5, Aug. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 809, provided that any veteran determined by the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs to have received overpayments of educational benefits under former chapter 33 of title 38, United States Code in connection with the institutional on-farm training program conducted by the Tangipahoa Parish School Board, Amite, Louisiana, would be relieved of all liability to the United States for the amount of such overpayment, remaining due on Aug. 19, 1968, by making application for relief within two years following Aug. 19, 1968.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3002, 3034, 3202, 3491, 3492, 3532, 3680 of this title; title 10 section 16136.

[§3482A. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1651 to 1693 of this chapter as sections 3451 to 3493 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, section 1682A of this chapter, added Pub. L. 95–202, title II, §201(a), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1436; amended Pub. L. 97–295, §4(41), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308, which related to accelerated payment of educational assistance allowances, was repealed by Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §124(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4174.

§3483. Approval of courses

An eligible veteran shall receive the benefits of this chapter while enrolled in a course of education offered by an educational institution only if such course is approved in accordance with the provisions of subchapter I of chapter 36 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 19, §1685; renumbered §1686, Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §304(a), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 186; renumbered §1683, Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §401(7), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090; renumbered §3483, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1683 of this title as this section.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3034, 3241, 3670 of this title; title 10 section 16136.

§3484. Apprenticeship or other on-job training; correspondence courses

Any eligible veteran may pursue a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training or a program of education exclusively by correspondence and be paid an educational assistance allowance or training assistance allowance, as applicable, under the provisions of section 3687 or 3686 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §304, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1081, §1684; renumbered §3484 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1684 of this title as this section and substituted “3687 or 3686” for “1787 or 1786”.

§3485. Work-study allowance

(a)(1) Individuals utilized under the authority of subsection (b) of this section shall be paid an additional educational assistance allowance (hereafter referred to as “work-study allowance”). Such work-study allowance shall be paid in an amount equal to the applicable hourly minimum wage times the number of hours worked during the applicable period, in return for such individual's agreement to perform services, during or between periods of enrollment, aggregating not more than a number of hours equal to 25 times the number of weeks in the semester or other applicable enrollment period, required in connection with (A) the out-reach services program under subchapter II of chapter 77 of this title as carried out under the supervision of a Department of Veterans Affairs employee, (B) the preparation and processing of necessary papers and other documents at educational institutions or regional offices or facilities of the Department of Veterans Affairs, (C) the provision of hospital and domiciliary care and medical treatment under chapter 17 of this title, (D) any other activity of the Department of Veterans Affairs as the Secretary shall determine appropriate, or (E) in the case of an individual who is receiving educational assistance under chapter 106 of title 10, activities relating to the administration of such chapter at Department of Defense, Coast Guard, or National Guard facilities. An individual may elect, in a manner prescribed by the Secretary, to be paid in advance an amount equal to 40 percent of the total amount of the work-study allowance agreed to be paid under the agreement in return for the individual's agreement to perform the number of hours of work specified in the agreement (but not more than an amount equal to 50 times the applicable hourly minimum wage).

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection and subsection (e) of this section, the term “applicable hourly minimum wage” means (A) the hourly minimum wage under section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206(a)), or (B) the hourly minimum wage under comparable law of the State in which the services are to be performed, if such wage is higher than the wage referred to in clause (A) and the Secretary has made a determination to pay such higher wage.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall, subject to the provisions of subsection (e) of this section, utilize, in connection with the activities specified in subsection (a)(1) of this section, the service of individuals who are pursuing programs of rehabilitation, education, or training under chapter 30, 31, 32, or 34 of this title or chapter 106 of title 10, at a rate equal to at least three-quarters of that required of a full-time student. In carrying out this section, the Secretary, wherever feasible, shall give priority to veterans with disabilities rated at 30 percent or more for purposes of chapter 11 of this title. In the event an individual ceases to be at least a three-quarter-time student before completing such agreement, the individual may, with the approval of the Secretary, be permitted to complete such agreement.

(c) The Secretary shall determine the number of individuals whose services the Department of Veterans Affairs can effectively utilize and the types of services that such individuals may be required to perform, on the basis of a survey, which the Secretary shall conduct annually, of each Department of Veterans Affairs regional office in order to determine the numbers of individuals whose services can effectively be utilized during an enrollment period in each geographical area where Department of Veterans Affairs activities are conducted, and shall determine which individuals shall be offered agreements under this section in accordance with regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, including as criteria (1) the need of the individual to augment the veteran's educational assistance or subsistence allowance; (2) the availability to the individual of transportation to the place where the individual's services are to be performed; (3) the motivation of the individual; and (4) in the case of a disabled veteran pursuing a course of vocational rehabilitation under chapter 31 of this title, the compatibility of the work assignment to the veteran's physical condition.

(d) While performing the services authorized by this section, individuals shall be deemed employees of the United States for the purposes of the benefits of chapter 81 of title 5 but not for the purposes of laws administrated by the Office of Personnel Management.

(e)(1) Subject to paragraph (2) of this subsection, the Secretary may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, enter into an agreement with an individual under this section, or a modification of such an agreement, whereby the individual agrees to perform services of the kind described in clauses (A) through (E) of subsection (a)(1) of this section and agrees that the Secretary shall, in lieu of paying the work-study allowance payable for such services, as provided in subsection (a) of this section, deduct the amount of the allowance from the amount which the individual has been determined to be indebted to the United States by virtue of such individual's participation in a benefits program under this chapter, chapter 30, 31, 32, 35, or 36 (other than an education loan under subchapter III) of this title, or chapter 106 of title 10 (other than an indebtedness arising from a refund penalty imposed under section 2135 1 of such title).

(2)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, the provisions of this section (other than those provisions which are determined by the Secretary to be inapplicable to an agreement under this subsection) shall apply to any agreement authorized under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(B) For the purposes of this subsection, the Secretary may—

(i) waive, in whole or in part, the limitations in subsection (a) of this section concerning the number of hours and periods during which services can be performed by the individual and the provisions of subsection (b) of this section requiring the individual's pursuit of a program of rehabilitation, education, or training;

(ii) in accordance with such terms and conditions as may be specified in the agreement under this subsection, waive or defer charging interest and administrative costs pursuant to section 5315 of this title on the indebtedness to be satisfied by performance of the agreement; and

(iii) notwithstanding the indebtedness offset provisions of section 5314 of this title, waive or defer until the termination of an agreement under this subsection the deduction of all or any portion of the amount of indebtedness covered by the agreement from future payments to the individual as described in section 5314 of this title.


(3)(A) Subject to the provisions of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this paragraph, an agreement authorized under this subsection shall terminate in accordance with the provisions of this section and the terms and conditions of the agreement which are consistent with this subsection.

(B) In no event shall an agreement under this subsection continue in force after the total amount of the individual's indebtedness described in paragraph (1) of this subsection has been recouped, waived, or otherwise liquidated.

(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this paragraph, if the Secretary finds that an individual was without fault and was allowed to perform services described in the agreement after its termination, the Secretary shall, as reasonable compensation therefor, pay the individual at the applicable hourly minimum wage rate for such services as the Secretary determines were satisfactorily performed.

(4) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations to carry out this subsection.

(Added Pub. L. 92–540, title II, §203, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1079, §1685; amended Pub. L. 93–508, title II, §205, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §§208, 211(11), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2388, 2389; Pub. L. 95–202, title I, §105, Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1435; Pub. L. 96–466, title VIII, §801(b), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2216; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(42), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §308(c), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3270; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§405(a)–(d)(2), (4)(A), 423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2080, 2081, 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §§6(a)–(b)(2), 10(a)(5), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 50, 51, 55; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, §402(d)(1), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 239; renumbered §3485 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§2(c)(2), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 402, 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §311, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4330; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §202(a), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3326.)

References in Text

Section 2135 of title 10, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), was renumbered section 16135 of Title 10, Armed Forces, by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1663(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3006.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–368 substituted “An individual may elect, in a manner prescribed by the Secretary, to be paid in advance” for “An individual shall be paid in advance” in last sentence.

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–568 substituted “40 percent” for “40 per centum” and inserted before period at end “(but not more than an amount equal to 50 times the applicable hourly minimum wage)”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1685 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §2(c)(2), substituted “subchapter II of chapter 77” for “subchapter IV of chapter 3”.

Pub. L. 102–16, §10(a)(5), redesignated cls. (1) to (5) as cls. (A) to (E), respectively, and inserted in cl. (E) “, Coast Guard, or National Guard” after “Department of Defense”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–16, §6(b)(1), inserted “and subsection (e) of this section” after “subsection”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–16, §6(b)(2), inserted “, subject to the provisions of subsection (e) of this section,” after “shall” in first sentence.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–40 substituted “5315” for “3115” in par. (2)(B)(ii) and “5314” for “3114” in two places in par. (2)(B)(iii).

Pub. L. 102–16, §6(a), added subsec. (e).

1989—Pub. L. 101–237, §405(d)(4)(A), substituted “Work-study allowance” for “Veteran-student services” as section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1), substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §405(a)(1), (b), (d)(2)(A), (C), (D), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Such work-study allowance shall be paid in an amount equal to the applicable hourly minimum wage times the number of hours worked during the applicable period, in return for such individual's agreement to perform services, during or between periods of enrollment, aggregating not more than a number of hours equal to 25 times the number of weeks in the semester or other applicable enrollment period,” for “Such work-study allowance shall be paid in an amount equal to either the amount of the hourly minimum wage in effect under section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206(a)) times two hundred and fifty or $625, whichever is the higher, in return for such veteran-student's agreement to perform services, during or between periods of enrollment, aggregating two hundred and fifty hours during a semester or other applicable enrollment period,” in second sentence, added cl. (5), substituted references to individuals for references to veteran-students, struck out third and fourth sentences which read as follows: “An agreement may be entered into for the performance of services for periods of less than two hundred and fifty hours. The amount of the work-study allowance to be paid under any such agreement shall be determined by multiplying the number of hours of work performed by the veteran-student under such agreement times either the hourly minimum wage in effect under section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 during the period the work is to be performed or $2.50, whichever is the higher.”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §405(a)(2), (c), (d)(1), substituted “subsection (a)(1) of this section” for “subsection (a) of this section”, “individuals who are pursuing programs of rehabilitation, education, or training under chapter 30, 31, 32, or 34 of this title or chapter 106 of title 10, at a rate equal to at least three-quarters of that required of a full-time student” for “veteran-students who are pursuing full-time programs of rehabilitation, education, or training under chapter 30, 31, 32, or 34 of this title”, “30 percent” for “30 per centum”, and “an individual ceases to be at least a three-quarter-time student before completing such agreement, the individual” for “the veteran ceases to be a full-time student before completing such agreement, the veteran”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1), substituted “Secretary” and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator” and “Veterans’ Administration”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §405(d)(2)(B), (E)–(G), substituted “individuals” for “veterans” and for “veteran-students” wherever appearing, substituted “individual's” for “veteran's” in cl. (2), and substituted “individual” for “veteran” wherever appearing in cls. (1) to (3).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–237, §405(d)(2)(B), substituted “individuals” for “veteran-students”.

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–576 substituted “rehabilitation, education, or training under chapter 30, 31, 32, or 34 of this title” for “education or training under chapters 31 and 34 of this title”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–295 inserted “(29 U.S.C. 206(a))” after “Act of 1938” the first time it appeared.

1980—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–466 substituted “Office of Personnel Management” for “Civil Service Commission”.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–202 substituted “Such work-study allowance shall be paid in an amount equal to either the amount of the hourly minimum wage in effect under section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 times two hundred and fifty or $625, whichever is the higher,” for “Such work-study allowance shall be paid in the amount of $625” and, in the provisions relating to periods of service of less than two hundred and fifty hours, substituted “amount of the work-study allowance to be paid under any such agreement shall be determined by multiplying the number of hours of work performed by the veteran-student under such agreement times either the hourly minimum wage in effect under section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 during the period the work is to be performed or $2.50, whichever is the higher” for “amount of the work-study allowance to be paid shall bear the same ratio to the number of hours of work agreed to be performed as $625 bears to two hundred and fifty hours” and “A veteran-student shall be paid in advance an amount equal to 40 per centum of the total amount of the work-study allowance agreed to be paid under the agreement to perform the number of hours of work specified in the agreement” for provisions setting a flat amount of $250 in advance or a lesser amount in the case of any agreement providing for periods of less than one hundred hours.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §208, inserted provision permitting the veteran who ceases to be a full-time student to complete the agreement, with the approval of the Administrator.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–502, §211(11), substituted “the Administrator shall conduct” for “he shall conduct”, “the Administrator shall prescribe,” for “he shall prescribe,”, and “the veteran's” for “his” in two places.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–508, §205(1), (2), substituted “the amount of $625” for “in advance in the amount of $250”, and “aggregating two hundred and fifty hours” for “aggregating one hundred hours”, and substituted provisions that an agreement may be entered into for the performance of services for periods of less than two hundred and fifty hours, in which case the amount of the work-study allowance to be paid shall bear the same ratio to the number of hours of work agreed to be performed as $625 bears to two hundred and fifty hours and that in the case of any agreement providing for the performance of services for less than one hundred hours, the amount of the advance payment shall bear the same ratio to the number of hours of work agreed to be performed as $625 bears to two hundred and fifty hours, for provisions that advances of lesser amounts may be made in return for agreements to perform services for periods of less than one hundred hours, and that the amount of such advance shall bear the same ratio to the number of hours of work agreed to be performed as $250 bears to one hundred hours.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–508, §205(3), struck out parenthetical provisions relating to a limit of eight-hundred man-years or their equivalent during any fiscal year.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §202(b), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3326, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to agreements entered into under section 3485 of title 38, United States Code, on or after January 1, 1999.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 405(a)–(d)(2), (4)(A) of Pub. L. 101–237 effective May 1, 1990, and applicable to services performed on or after that date, see section 405(e) of Pub. L. 101–237, set out as a note under section 16136 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(h) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective retroactively to Oct. 1, 1977, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–508 effective Dec. 3, 1974, see section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1712A, 3034, 3104, 3241, 3537, 5314, 5315, 7722 of this title; title 10 section 16136.

1 See References in Text note below.

[§§3486, 3487. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1651 to 1693 of this chapter as sections 3451 to 3493 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, sections 1686 and 1687 of this chapter were repealed.

Section 1686, added Pub. L. 93–508, title III, §302(a), Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1591; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §2005(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 783, which related to educational loans to any eligible veteran to whom former section 1662(a)(2) of this title applied, was repealed by Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §124(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4174.

Section 1687, added Pub. L. 89–358, §2, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 19, §1686; renumbered §1687, Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §304(a), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 186, which related to discontinuance of educational assistance allowance by Administrator, was repealed by Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §401(6), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090.

SUBCHAPTER V—SPECIAL ASSISTANCE FOR THE EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in section 3461 of this title.

§3490. Purpose

It is the purpose of this subchapter (1) to encourage and assist veterans who have academic deficiencies to attain a high school education or its equivalent and to qualify for and pursue courses of higher education, (2) to assist eligible veterans to pursue postsecondary education through tutorial assistance where required, and (3) to encourage educational institutions to develop programs which provide special tutorial, remedial, preparatory, or other educational or supplementary assistance to such veterans.

(Added Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(a)(4), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 79, §1690; renumbered §3490, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1690 of this title as this section.

§3491. Elementary and secondary education and preparatory educational assistance

(a) In the case of any eligible veteran who—

(1) has not received a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency certificate), or

(2) is not on active duty and who, in order to pursue a program of education for which the veteran would otherwise be eligible, needs refresher courses, deficiency courses, or other preparatory or special educational assistance to qualify for admission to an appropriate educational institution,


the Secretary may, without regard to so much of the provisions of section 3471 of this title as prohibit the enrollment of an eligible veteran in a program of education in which the veteran is “already qualified”, approve the enrollment of such veteran in an appropriate course or courses or other special educational assistance program.

(b)(1) The Secretary shall pay to an eligible veteran pursuing a course or courses or program pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section, an educational assistance allowance as provided in sections 3481 and 3482(a) or (b) of this title.

(2) The Secretary shall pay to an eligible veteran described in subsection (a)(1) of this section who is pursuing a course or courses or program under this subchapter for the purpose of attaining a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency certificate) an educational assistance allowance (A) at the rate of established charges for tuition and fees required of similarly circumstanced nonveterans enrolled in the same course, courses, or program, or (B) at the institutional full-time rate provided in section 3482(a) of this title, whichever is the lesser.

(c) The provisions of section 3473(d)(1) 1 of this title, relating to the disapproval of enrollment in certain courses, shall be applicable to the enrollment of an eligible veteran who, while serving on active duty, enrolls in one or more courses under this subchapter for the purpose of attaining a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency certificate).

(Added Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(a)(4), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 79, §1691; amended Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §305, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1081; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §211(12), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2389; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §311, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2194; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(43), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 97–306, title II, §203(b), Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3491 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

References in Text

Section 3473(d)(1) of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), was repealed by Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §313(a)(3)(A), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4332.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1691 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3471” for “1671” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3481 and 3482(a)” for “1681 and 1682(a)” in par. (1) and “3482(a)” for “1682(a)” in par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3473(d)(1)” for “1673(d)(1)”.

1989—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(43)(A), inserted “of this title” after “section 1671”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(43)(B), inserted “of this title” after “section 1682(a)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–306 substituted “section 1673(d)(1)” for “section 1673(d)”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–466, §311(1), in provisions preceding par. (1) struck out “not on active duty” after “eligible veteran”, in par. (1) struck out “at the time of the veteran's discharge or release from active duty” after “(or an equivalency certificate)”, and in par. (2) inserted “is not on active duty and who,” before “in order to pursue”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–466, §311(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted reference to subsec. (a)(2) of this section for reference to subsec. (a) of this section, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–466, §311(3), added subsec. (c).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “the veteran's” for “his” and “the veteran” for “he” wherever appearing.

1972—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–540 struck out provision relating to the approval in excess of half-time training as defined pursuant to section 1684 of this title of enrollment in adult evening secondary school courses.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except that subsec. (b)(2) of this section, as added by section 311(2)(C) of Pub. L. 96–466, not applicable to any person receiving educational assistance under this chapter on Oct. 1, 1980, for the pursuit of a program of education in which such person is enrolled on that date, for as long as such person continuously thereafter is so enrolled and meets the requirements of eligibility for such assistance for pursuit of such program, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3231, 3241, 3462, 3473, 3533, 3680 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3492. Tutorial assistance

(a) In the case of any eligible veteran who—

(1) is enrolled in and pursuing a postsecondary course of education on a half-time or more basis at an educational institution; and

(2) has a deficiency in a subject required as a part of, or which is prerequisite to, or which is indispensable to the satisfactory pursuit of, an approved program of education,


the Secretary may approve individualized tutorial assistance for such veteran if such assistance is necessary for the veteran to complete such program successfully.

(b) The Secretary shall pay to an eligible veteran receiving tutorial assistance pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, in addition to the educational assistance allowance provided in section 3482 of this title, the cost of such tutorial assistance in an amount not to exceed $100 per month, for a maximum of twelve months, or until a maximum of $1,200 is utilized, upon certification by the educational institution that—

(1) the individualized tutorial assistance is essential to correct a deficiency of the eligible veteran in a subject required as a part of, or which is prerequisite to, or which is indispensable to the satisfactory pursuit of, an approved program of education;

(2) the tutor chosen to perform such assistance is qualified and is not the eligible veteran's parent, spouse, child (whether or not married or over eighteen years of age), brother, or sister; and

(3) the charges for such assistance do not exceed the customary charges for such tutorial assistance.

(Added Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(a)(4), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 80, §1692; amended Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §306, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1081; Pub. L. 93–508, title II, §206, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1583; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §209, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2388; Pub. L. 95–202, title I, §102(5), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 96–466, title II, §§201(5), 211(5), title III, §312, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2188, 2190, 2195; Pub. L. 98–543, title II, §202(4), Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2742; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §107(c)(1), (2)(A), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4169; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3492 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1692 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3482” for “1682”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1988—Pub. L. 100–689, §107(c)(2)(A), substituted “Tutorial assistance” for “Special supplementary assistance” in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–689, §107(c)(1), substituted “$100” and “$1,200” for “$84” and “$1,008”, respectively.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–543 substituted “$84” and “$1,008” for “$76” and “$911”, respectively.

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–466, §211(5), substituted “$76” and “$911” for “$72” and “$869”, respectively.

Pub. L. 96–466, §201(5), substituted “$72” and “$869” for “$69” and “$828”, respectively.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96–466, §312, inserted “and is not the eligible veteran's parent, spouse, child (whether or not married or over eighteen years of age), brother, or sister” after “is qualified”.

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–202 substituted “$69” and “$828” for “$65” and “$780”, respectively.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “$65” for “$60” and “$780” for “$720”, respectively.

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–508 substituted “$60 per month, for a maximum of twelve months, or until a maximum of $720” for “$50 per month, for a maximum of nine months, or until a maximum of $450”.

1972—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 92–540, §306(1), struck out “marked” before “deficiency”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–540, §306(2), inserted “or until a maximum of $450 is utilized,” after “nine months”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 92–540, §306(1), struck out “marked” before “deficiency”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–543 effective Oct. 1, 1984, see section 205 of Pub. L. 98–543, set out as a note under section 3108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by sections 201(5) and 211(5) of Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, and Jan. 1, 1981, respectively, see section 802(b) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Amendment by section 312 of Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective retroactively to Oct. 1, 1977, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 703(a) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–508 effective Dec. 3, 1974, see section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3019, 3234, 3533 of this title.

§3493. Effect on educational entitlement

The educational assistance allowance or cost of individualized tutorial assistance authorized by this subchapter shall be paid without charge to any period of entitlement the veteran may have earned pursuant to section 3461(a) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(a)(4), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 80, §1693; renumbered §3493 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1693 of this title as this section and substituted “3461(a)” for “1661(a)”.

[§§3495 to 3498. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1651 to 1693 of this chapter as sections 3451 to 3493 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, sections 1695 to 1698 of this chapter, which comprised former subchapter VI of this chapter, were repealed by Pub. L. 96–466, title VI, §601(a)(1), title VIII, §802(f), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2208, 2218, effective Oct. 1, 1980.

Section 1695, added Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(a)(4), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 80, set forth purpose of former subchapter VI relating to a predischarge education program and defined “eligible person” for purposes of such subchapter.

Section 1696, added Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(a)(4), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 80; amended Pub. L. 92–540, title I, §102(5), title III, §307, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1075, 1081; Pub. L. 93–508, title I, §102(5), Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1580; Pub. L. 93–602, title II, §203(c), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1958; Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §§201(4), 210(5), 211(13), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2385, 2388, 2389; Pub. L. 95–202, title I, §102(6), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1434, related to payment of an educational assistance allowance.

Section 1697, added Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §204(a)(4), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 81, related to educational and vocational guidance.

Section 1698, added Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §308, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1082, §1697A; renumbered §1698 and amended Pub. L. 94–502, title II, §§210(3), 211(14), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2388, 2389; Pub. L. 95–202, title III, §302(b), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1441, related to coordination with and participation by Department of Defense in carrying out functions and duties of Department of Defense under predischarge education program.

CHAPTER 35—SURVIVORS’ AND DEPENDENTS’ EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE

SUBCHAPTER I—DEFINITIONS

Sec.
3500.
Purpose.
3501.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT

3510.
Eligibility and entitlement generally.
3511.
Duration of educational assistance.
3512.
Periods of eligibility.
3513.
Application.
3514.
Processing of applications.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PROGRAM OF EDUCATION

3520.
Educational and vocational counseling.
3521.
Approval of application.
3523.
Disapproval of enrollment in certain courses.
3524.
Discontinuance for unsatisfactory progress.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—PAYMENTS TO ELIGIBLE PERSONS

3531.
Educational assistance allowance.
3532.
Computation of educational assistance allowance.
3533.
Special assistance for the educationally disadvantaged.
3534.
Apprenticeship or other on-job training; correspondence courses.
3535.
Approval of courses.
3536.
Specialized vocational training courses.
3537.
Work-study allowance.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—SPECIAL RESTORATIVE TRAINING

3540.
Purpose.
3541.
Entitlement to special restorative training.
3542.
Special training allowance.
3543.
Special administrative provisions.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

3561.
Authority and duties of Secretary.
3562.
Nonduplication of benefits.
3563.
Notification of eligibility.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—PHILIPPINE COMMONWEALTH ARMY AND PHILIPPINE SCOUTS

3565.
Children of certain Philippine veterans.
3566.
Definitions.

        

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(b)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, renumbered items 1700 to 1766 as 3500 to 3566, respectively.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§406(a)(2), 423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2082, 2092, added item 1737 and substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” in item 1761.

1988—Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §124(c)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4175, struck out items 1737 “Education loans” and 1738 “Accelerated payment of educational assistance allowances”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §314(b)(3), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3274, amended items 1720 and 1721 generally.

1977—Pub. L. 95–202, title II, §201(c)(2), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1438, added item 1738.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §309(a), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2391, substituted “SURVIVORS’ AND DEPENDENTS’ EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE” for “WAR ORPHANS’ AND WIDOWS’ EDUCATION ASSISTANCE” in chapter heading.

1974—Pub. L. 93–508, title III, §303(b), Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1592, added item 1737.

1972—Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §405, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1091, substituted in item 1733 “Special assistance for the educationally disadvantaged” for “Measurement of courses”, in item 1734 “Apprenticeship or other on-job training; correspondence courses” for “Overcharges by educational institutions”, and in item 1736 “Specialized vocational training courses” for “Discontinuance of allowances”, and struck out item 1722 “Change of program”, item 1725 “Period of operation for approval”, and item 1737 “Specialized vocational training courses”.

1970—Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §207(b), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 82, inserted item 1763.

1968—Pub. L. 90–631, §2(a)(2), (h)(1), Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1332, 1333, inserted “AND WIDOWS’ ” after “WAR ORPHANS’ ” in chapter heading, and added item 1700.

1966—Pub. L. 89–613, §2, Sept. 30, 1966, 80 Stat. 862, added heading of Subchapter VII “PHILIPPINE COMMONWEALTH ARMY AND PHILIPPINE SCOUTS” and items 1765 and 1766.

Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(10), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 21, struck out items 1726, 1763 to 1768, and subchapter VII heading and items 1771 to 1778 thereunder.

1963—Pub. L. 88–126, §5, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 163, added heading of Subchapter VII “STATE APPROVING AGENCIES” and items 1771 to 1778.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 101, 103, 104, 111, 113, 1718, 1804, 3033, 3485, 3670, 3671, 3672, 3673, 3674, 3680, 3680A, 3681, 3682, 3683, 3684, 3685, 3687, 3688, 3690, 3692, 3693, 3694, 3695, 3696, 3697, 4213, 5113 of this title; title 2 section 905; title 5 sections 5569, 8525; title 10 sections 2182, 2185; title 20 section 1087vv; title 26 sections 25A, 135, 6334.

SUBCHAPTER I—DEFINITIONS

§3500. Purpose

The Congress hereby declares that the educational program established by this chapter is for the purpose of providing opportunities for education to children whose education would otherwise be impeded or interrupted by reason of the disability or death of a parent from a disease or injury incurred or aggravated in the Armed Forces after the beginning of the Spanish-American War, and for the purpose of aiding such children in attaining the educational status which they might normally have aspired to and obtained but for the disability or death of such parent. The Congress further declares that the educational program extended to the surviving spouses of veterans who died of service-connected disabilities and to spouses of veterans with a service-connected total disability permanent in nature is for the purpose of assisting them in preparing to support themselves and their families at a standard of living level which the veteran, but for the veteran's death or service disability, could have expected to provide for the veteran's family.

(Added Pub. L. 90–631, §2(a)(1), Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1331, §1700; amended Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(1), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2391; renumbered §3500, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1700 of this title as this section.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “surviving spouses” for “widows”, “spouses” for “wives”, and “the veteran's” for “his” in two places.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 6(a) of Pub. L. 90–631 provided that: “The amendments made by the first section and sections 2, 3, and 5 of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the first day of the second calendar month which begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1968].”

§3501. Definitions

(a) For the purposes of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title—

(1) The term “eligible person” means—

(A) a child of a person who—

(i) died of a service-connected disability,

(ii) has a total disability permanent in nature resulting from a service-connected disability, or who died while a disability so evaluated was in existence, or

(iii) at the time of application for benefits under this chapter is a member of the Armed Forces serving on active duty listed, pursuant to section 556 of title 37 and regulations issued thereunder, by the Secretary concerned in one or more of the following categories and has been so listed for a total of more than ninety days: (A) missing in action, (B) captured in line of duty by a hostile force, or (C) forcibly detained or interned in line of duty by a foreign government or power.


(B) the surviving spouse of any person who died of a service-connected disability,

(C) the spouse of any member of the Armed Forces serving on active duty who, at the time of application for benefits under this chapter is listed, pursuant to section 556 of title 37 and regulations issued thereunder, by the Secretary concerned in one or more of the following categories and has been so listed for a total of more than ninety days: (i) missing in action, (ii) captured in line of duty by a hostile force, or (iii) forcibly detained or interned in line of duty by a foreign government or power, or

(D) the spouse of any person who has a total disability permanent in nature resulting from a service-connected disability, or the surviving spouse of a veteran who died while a disability so evaluated was in existence,


arising out of active military, naval, or air service after the beginning of the Spanish-American War, but only if such service did not terminate under dishonorable conditions. The standards and criteria for determining whether or not a disability arising out of such service is service connected shall be those applicable under chapter 11 of this title.

(2) The term “child” includes individuals who are married and individuals who are above the age of twenty-three years.

(3) The term “duty with the Armed Forces” as used in section 3512 of this title means (A) active duty, (B) active duty for training for a period of six or more consecutive months, or (C) active duty for training required by section 12103(d) of title 10.

(4) The term “guardian” includes a fiduciary legally appointed by a court of competent jurisdiction, or any other person who has been appointed by the Secretary under section 5502 of this title to receive payment of benefits for the use and benefit of the eligible person.

(5) The term “program of education” means any curriculum or any combination of unit courses or subjects pursued at an educational institution which is generally accepted as necessary to fulfill the requirements for the attainment of a predetermined and identified educational, professional, or vocational objective.

(6) The term “educational institution” means any public or private secondary school, vocational school, correspondence school, business school, junior college, teachers’ college, college, normal school, professional school, university, or scientific or technical institution, or any other institution if it furnishes education at the secondary school level or above.

(7) The term “special restorative training” means training furnished under subchapter V of this chapter.

(8) The term “total disability permanent in nature” means any disability rated total for the purposes of disability compensation which is based upon an impairment reasonably certain to continue throughout the life of the disabled person.

(9) The term “training establishment” means any establishment providing apprentice or other training on the job, including those under the supervision of a college or university or any State department of education, or any State apprenticeship agency, or any State board of vocational education, or any joint apprenticeship committee, or the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training established pursuant to the Act of August 16, 1937, popularly known as the “National Apprenticeship Act” (29 U.S.C. 50 et seq.), or any agency of the Federal Government authorized to supervise such training.

(10) The term “institution of higher learning” means a college, university, or similar institution, including a technical or business school, offering postsecondary level academic instruction that leads to an associate or higher degree if the school is empowered by the appropriate State education authority under State law to grant an associate or higher degree. When there is no State law to authorize the granting of a degree, the school may be recognized as an institution of higher learning if it is accredited for degree programs by a recognized accrediting agency. Such term shall also include a hospital offering educational programs at the postsecondary level without regard to whether the hospital grants a postsecondary degree. Such term shall also include an educational institution which is not located in a State, which offers a course leading to a standard college degree, or the equivalent, and which is recognized by the secretary of education (or comparable official) of the country or other jurisdiction in which the institution is located.

(11) The term “standard college degree” means an associate or higher degree awarded by (A) an institution of higher learning that is accredited as a collegiate institution by a recognized regional or national accrediting agency; or (B) an institution of higher learning that is a “candidate” for accreditation as that term is used by the regional or national accrediting agencies; or (C) an institution of higher learning upon completion of a course which is accredited by an agency recognized to accredit specialized degree-level programs. For the purpose of this section, the accrediting agency must be one recognized by the Secretary of Education under the provisions of section 3675 of this title.


(b) If an eligible person has attained the person's majority and is under no known legal disability, all references in this chapter to “parent or guardian” shall refer to the eligible person.

(c) Any provision of this chapter which requires any action to be taken by or with respect to the parent or guardian of an eligible person who has not attained such person's majority, or who, having attained such person's majority, is under a legal disability, shall not apply when the Secretary determines that its application would not be in the best interest of the eligible person, would result in undue delay, or would not be administratively feasible. In such a case the Secretary, where necessary to protect the interest of the eligible person, may designate some other person (who may be the eligible person) as the person by or with respect to whom the action so required should be taken.

(d) No eligible person may be afforded educational assistance under this chapter unless such person was discharged or released after each period such person was on duty with the Armed Forces under conditions other than dishonorable, or while such person is on duty with the Armed Forces.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1193, §1701; Pub. L. 86–236, §1, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 471; Pub. L. 86–785, §§1–3, Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 88–361, §1, July 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 297; Pub. L. 89–222, §3, Sept. 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 896; Pub. L. 89–349, §1, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1313; Pub. L. 89–358, §4(j), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 24; Pub. L. 90–631, §2(b), (c), Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1332; Pub. L. 91–24, §9(a), June 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 34; Pub. L. 91–584, §1, Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §309, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1083; Pub. L. 93–295, title III, §302, May 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 184; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §§302, 310(2)–(5), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2389, 2391; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §327(a), title VIII, §801(c), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2197, 2216; Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(12), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1009; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, §402(d)(1), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 239; renumbered §3501 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(e)(2)(C), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 501.)

References in Text

The National Apprenticeship Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(9), is act Aug. 16, 1937, ch. 663, 50 Stat. 664, as amended which is classified generally to chapter 4C (§50 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 50 of Title 29 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 3501 to 3505 were renumbered sections 6101 to 6105 of this title, respectively.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “section 12103(d) of title 10” for “section 511(d) of title 10”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1701 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3512” for “1712”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–40 substituted “5502” for “3202”.

Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3675” for “1775”.

1989—Subsecs. (a)(4), (c). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1983—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii), (C). Pub. L. 98–160, §702(12)(A), struck out “, United States Code,” after “title 37” and inserted a comma after “regulations issued thereunder”.

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 98–160, §702(12)(B), substituted “the Act of August 16, 1937, popularly known as the ‘National Apprenticeship Act’ (29 U.S.C. 50 et seq.)” for “chapter 4C of title 29”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–466, §801(c)(1), inserted “and chapter 36 of this title” after “chapter” in introductory text.

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 96–466, §801(c)(2), substituted “The” for “For the purposes of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title, the”.

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 96–466, §§327(a), 801(c)(2), substituted “The” for “For the purposes of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title, the” and inserted provision including within the term “institution of higher learning” an educational institution which is not located in a State, which offers a course leading to a standard college degree, or the equivalent, and which is recognized as such by the secretary of education (or comparable official) of the country or other jurisdiction in which the institution is located.

Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 96–466, §801(c)(2), (3), substituted “The” for “For the purposes of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title, the” and “Secretary of Education” for “Commissioner of Education”.

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(2), substituted “surviving spouse” for “widow” and “spouse” for “wife” in two places.

Subsec. (a)(10), (11). Pub. L. 94–502, §302, added pars. (10), (11).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(3), substituted “the person's” for “his” and “the eligible person” for “the eligible person himself”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(4), substituted “such person's” for “his” and “be the eligible person” for “be the eligible person himself” in the parenthetical phrase.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(5), substituted “such person” for “he” in three places.

1974—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 93–295 substituted “any other person who has been appointed by the Administrator under section 3202 of this title to receive payment of benefits for the use and benefit of the eligible person” for “any person who is determined by the Administrator in accordance with section 3202 of this title to be otherwise legally vested with the care of the eligible person”.

1972—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 92–540, §309(1), inserted reference to correspondence school within the definition of “educational institution”.

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 92–540, §309(2), added par. (9).

1970—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 91–584, §1(3), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (a)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 91–584, §1(5), (6), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

1969—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–24 substituted “the age of twenty-three years” for “the age of twenty-one years”.

1968—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 90–631, §2(b), extended the definition of “eligible person” to include the widow of any person who died of a service-connected disability, or the wife of any person who has a total disability permanent in nature resulting from a service-connected disability, or the widow of a veteran who died while a disability so evaluated was in existence.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–631, §2(c), substituted provisions requiring that any eligible person seeking educational assistance under this chapter to have been discharged or released after each period he was on duty with the armed forces under conditions other than dishonorable, or while he is on duty with the armed forces, for provisions setting forth the purposes of educational assistance programs established under this chapter.

1966—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 89–358, §4(j)(3), struck out “and prior to the end of the induction period” after “Spanish-American War”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 89–358, §4(j)(1), substituted “section 511(d) of title 10” for “section 1013(c)(1) of title 50”.

Subsec. (a)(8) to (10). Pub. L. 89–358, §4(j)(2), struck out par. (8) including the Canal Zone in the term “State” (now incorporated in section 101(20) of this title) and par. (9) defining “induction period” and redesignated par. (10) as (8).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–358, §4(j)(3), struck out “and prior to the end of the induction period” after “Spanish-American War”.

1965—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 89–349, §1(a), (b), generally amended par. (1) and, among other changes, substituted “after the beginning of the Spanish-American War and prior to the end of the induction period” for “during the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean conflict, or the induction period” in first sentence.

Pub. L. 89–222 substituted “such service” the second time it appears for “service during the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, or the Korean conflict” and struck out provisions which prescribed the applicable standards and criteria for determining whether or not a disability arising out of service during the induction period is service-connected.

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 89–349, §1(c), struck out provisions which included the period beginning Sept. 16, 1940, and ending Dec. 6, 1941, and the period beginning Jan. 1, 1947, and ending June 26, 1950, within the term “induction period”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–349, §1(d), substituted “after the beginning of the Spanish-American War and prior to the end of the induction period” for “during the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean conflict, or the induction period”.

1964—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 88–361, §1(a), included the child of a person who has a service-connected disability, or who died while such disability existed.

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 88–361, §1(b), added par. (10).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–361, §1(c), inserted “disability or” before “death” wherever appearing.

1960—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 86–785, §1, substituted “the Korean conflict, or the induction period” for “or the Korean conflict”, inserted “arising out of service during the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, or the Korean conflict” after “whether or not a disability”, and inserted the sentence relating to the criteria for determining whether a disability arising out of service during the induction period is service connected.

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 86–785, §2, added par. (9).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–785, §3, substituted “the Korean conflict, or the induction period” for “or the Korean conflict”.

1959—Subsecs. (a)(1), (d). Pub. L. 86–236 inserted reference to Spanish-American War.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(c), (h) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–295 effective first day of second calendar month following May 31, 1974, see section 401 of Pub. L. 93–295, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–631 effective first day of second calendar month which begins after Oct. 23, 1968, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 90–631, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3500 of this title.

Eligible Person

Pub. L. 86–785, §5, Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1024, as amended by Pub. L. 87–815, §2(b), Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 927, which contained a savings clause which granted five years of educational training to certain children of veterans dying of disabilities incurred subsequent to the Korean War, was repealed by Pub. L. 91–24, §14(c), June 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 35, effective June 11, 1969, except as to any indebtedness which may be due the Government as the result of any benefits granted thereunder.

Children of Spanish-American War Veterans

Period of eligibility for educational assistance of children of Spanish-American War Veterans, see section 2 of Pub. L. 86–236, set out as a note under section 3512 of this title.

Termination of Eligibility Period

Termination of eligibility period for a wife or widow, or an eligible person eight years from Oct. 24, 1972, see section 604 of Pub. L. 92–540, set out as a note under section 3512 of this title.

The period referred to in section 1712 [now 3512] of this title as ending five years from Nov. 8, 1965, in the case of any individual who is an “eligible person” within the meaning of subsec. (a)(1) of this section solely by virtue of the amendment made by section 1 of Pub. L. 89–349 to this section, and who is above the age of seventeen years and below the age of twenty-three years on Nov. 8, 1965, see section 2 of Pub. L. 89–349, set out as a note under section 3512 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3511, 3512, 3540, 3563, 3565, 3686, 3687, 7721 of this title; title 5 section 5924.

SUBCHAPTER II—ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT

§3510. Eligibility and entitlement generally

Each eligible person shall, subject to the provisions of this chapter, be entitled to receive educational assistance.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1194, §1710; renumbered §3510, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1710 of this title as this section.

§3511. Duration of educational assistance

(a)(1) Each eligible person shall be entitled to educational assistance under this chapter for a period not in excess of 45 months (or to the equivalent thereof in part-time training).

(2)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, any payment of an educational assistance allowance described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall not—

(i) be charged against the entitlement of any individual under this chapter; or

(ii) be counted toward the aggregate period for which section 3695 of this title limits an individual's receipt of assistance.


(B) The payment of the educational assistance allowance referred to in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph is the payment of such an allowance to an individual for pursuit of a course or courses under this chapter if the Secretary finds that the individual—

(i) had to discontinue such course pursuit as a result of being ordered, in connection with the Persian Gulf War, to serve on active duty under section 672(a), (d), or (g), 673, 673b,1 or 688 of title 10; and

(ii) failed to receive credit or training time toward completion of the individual's approved educational, professional, or vocational objective as a result of having to discontinue, as described in clause (i) of this subparagraph, his or her course pursuit.


(C) The period for which, by reason of this subsection, an educational assistance allowance is not charged against entitlement or counted toward the applicable aggregate period under section 3695 of this title shall not exceed the portion of the period of enrollment in the course or courses for which the individual failed to receive credit or with respect to which the individual lost training time, as determined under subparagraph (B)(ii) of this paragraph.

(b) If any eligible person pursuing a program of education, or of special restorative training, under this chapter ceases to be an “eligible person” because—

(1) the parent or spouse from whom eligibility is derived is found no longer to have a “total disability permanent in nature”, as defined in section 3501(a)(8) of this title,

(2) the parent or spouse from whom eligibility is derived based upon the provisions of section 3501(a)(1)(A)(iii) or 3501(a)(1)(C) of this title is no longer listed in one of the categories specified therein, or

(3) the spouse, as an eligible person under section 3501(a)(1)(D) of this title, is divorced, without fault on such person's part, from the person upon whose disability such person's eligibility is based,


then such eligible person (if such person has sufficient remaining entitlement) may, nevertheless, be afforded educational assistance under this chapter until the end of the quarter or semester for which enrolled if the educational institution in which such person is enrolled is operated on a quarter or semester system, or if the educational institution is not so operated until the end of the course, or until 12 weeks have expired, whichever first occurs.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1194, §1711; Pub. L. 88–361, §2, July 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 297; Pub. L. 89–358, §4(k), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 24; Pub. L. 90–631, §§1(c), 2(d), Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1331, 1332; Pub. L. 91–24, §9(b), June 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 34; Pub. L. 91–584, §2, Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §§303, 310(6), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2390, 2391; renumbered §3511 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–127, §2(c), Oct. 10, 1991, 105 Stat. 620.)

References in Text

Sections 672, 673, and 673b of title 10, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i), were renumbered sections 12301, 12302, and 12304, respectively, of Title 10, Armed Forces, by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992. A new section 672 of Title 10 was enacted by section 1662(e)(4) of Pub. L. 103–337.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1711 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–127 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3501(a)(8)” for “1701(a)(8)” in par. (1), “3501(a)(1)(A)(iii) or 3501(a)(1)(C)” for “1701(a)(1)(A)(iii) or 1701(a)(1)(C)” in par. (2), and “3501(a)(1)(D)” for “1701(a)(1)(D)” in par. (3).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §303(1), substituted “45 months” for “thirty-six months”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §§303(2), 310(6), substituted “the spouse” for “she”, “such person's” for “her” in two places, “such person” for “he or she” in two places, and “12 weeks” for “nine weeks”.

1970—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–584 added par. (2), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), and substituted “1701(a)(1)(D)” for “1701(a)(1)(C)”.

1969—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–24 substituted “section 1701(a)(8) of this title” for “section 1701(a)(10) of this title”.

1968—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–631, §§1(c), 2(d), redesignated subsec. (d) as (b) and extended applicability of subsec. from any child pursuing a program of education or training to any eligible person pursuing such program, and expanded causes of persons ceasing to be “eligible persons” to include spouses no longer found to have a “total disability permanent in nature” as defined under section 1701(a)(10) of this title, and the individual, as an eligible person under section 1701(a)(1)(C) of this title, is divorced, without fault on her part, from the person upon whose disability her eligibility is based. Former subsec. (b), setting forth reductions in the period of entitlement of an eligible person, was struck out.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–631, §1(c), struck out subsec. (c) which required an eligible person to elect either educational assistance or vocational rehabilitation when such person is entitled to both, or becomes entitled to vocational rehabilitation after receiving educational assistance.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–631, §1(c), redesignated subsec. (d) as (b).

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–358 substituted “34” for “33” and inserted “or under chapter 33 of this title as in effect before February 1, 1965”.

1964—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–361 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by sections 303 and 310(6) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 1, 1976, and Oct. 15, 1976, respectively, see section 703(a), (b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–631 effective first day of second calendar month which begins after Oct. 23, 1968, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 90–631, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3500 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3512, 3533, 3541 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3512. Periods of eligibility

(a) The educational assistance to which an eligible person (within the meaning of section 3501(a)(1)(A) of this title) is entitled under section 3511 of this title or subchapter V of this chapter may be afforded the person during the period beginning on the person's eighteenth birthday, or on the successful completion of the person's secondary schooling, whichever first occurs, and ending on the person's twenty-sixth birthday, except that—

(1) if the person is above the age of compulsory school attendance under applicable State law, and the Secretary determines that the person's best interests will be served thereby, such period may begin before the person's eighteenth birthday;

(2) if the person has a mental or physical handicap, and the Secretary determines that the person's best interests will be served by pursuing a program of special restorative training or a specialized course of vocational training approved under section 3536 of this title, such period may begin before the person's eighteenth birthday, but not before the person's fourteenth birthday;

(3) if the Secretary first finds that the parent from whom eligibility is derived has a service-connected total disability permanent in nature, or if the death of the parent from whom eligibility is derived occurs, after the eligible person's eighteenth birthday but before the person's twenty-sixth birthday, then (unless paragraph (4) applies) such period shall end 8 years after, whichever date last occurs: (A) the date on which the Secretary first finds that the parent from whom eligibility is derived has a service-connected total disability permanent in nature, or (B) the date of death of the parent from whom eligibility is derived;

(4) if the person serves on duty with the Armed Forces as an eligible person after the person's eighteenth birthday but before the person's twenty-sixth birthday, then such period shall end 8 years after the person's first discharge or release from such duty with the Armed Forces (excluding from such 8 years all periods during which the eligible person served on active duty before August 1, 1962, pursuant to (A) a call or order thereto issued to the person as a Reserve after July 30, 1961, or (B) an extension of enlistment, appointment, or period of duty with the Armed Forces pursuant to section 2 of Public Law 87–117); however, in no event shall such period be extended beyond the person's thirty-first birthday by reason of this paragraph;

(5) if the person becomes eligible by reason of the provisions of section 3501(a)(1)(A)(iii) of this title after the person's eighteenth birthday but before the person's twenty-sixth birthday, then (unless clause (4) of this subsection applies) such period shall end eight years after the date on which the person becomes eligible by reason of such provisions, but in no event shall such period be extended beyond the person's thirty-first birthday by reason of this clause; and

(6)(A) if such person is enrolled in an educational institution regularly operated on the quarter or semester system and such period ends during a quarter or semester, such period shall be extended to the end of the quarter or semester; or

(B) if such person is enrolled in an educational institution operated on other than a quarter or semester system and such period ends after a major portion of the course is completed, such period shall be extended to the end of the course, or until 12 weeks have expired, whichever first occurs.


(b)(1) No person made eligible by section 3501(a)(1)(B) or (D) of this title may be afforded educational assistance under this chapter beyond 10 years after whichever of the following last occurs:

(A) The date on which the Secretary first finds the spouse from whom eligibility is derived has a service-connected total disability permanent in nature.

(B) The date of death of the spouse from whom eligibility is derived who dies while a total disability evaluated as permanent in nature was in existence.

(C) The date on which the Secretary determines that the spouse from whom eligibility is derived died of a service-connected disability.


(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, in the case of any eligible person (as defined in section 3501(a)(1)(B), (C), or (D) of this title) who was prevented from initiating or completing such person's chosen program of education within such period because of a physical or mental disability which was not the result of such person's own willful misconduct, such person shall, upon application made within one year after (A) the last date of the delimiting period otherwise applicable under this section, (B) the termination of the period of mental or physical disability, or (C) October 1, 1980, whichever is the latest, be granted an extension of the applicable delimiting period for such length of time as the Secretary determines, from the evidence, that such person was so prevented from initiating or completing such program of education. When an extension of the applicable delimiting period is granted under the exception in the preceding sentence, the delimiting period will again begin running on the first day following such eligible person's recovery from such disability on which it is reasonably feasible, as determined in accordance with regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, for such eligible person to initiate or resume pursuit of a program of education with educational assistance under this chapter.

(3)(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, any eligible person (as defined in clause (B) or (D) of section 3501(a)(1) of this title) may, subject to the approval of the Secretary, be permitted to elect a date referred to in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph to commence receiving educational assistance benefits under this chapter. The date so elected shall be the beginning date of the delimiting period applicable to such person under this section.

(B) The date which an eligible person may elect under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph is any date during the period beginning on the date the person became an eligible person within the meaning of clause (B) or (D) of section 3501(a)(1) of this title and ending on the date determined under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1) of this subsection to be applicable to such person.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, an eligible person may be afforded educational assistance beyond the age limitation applicable to such person under such subsection if (1) such person suspends pursuit of such person's program of education after having enrolled in such program within the time period applicable to such person under such subsection, (2) such person is unable to complete such program after the period of suspension and before attaining the age limitation applicable to such person under such subsection, and (3) the Secretary finds that the suspension was due to conditions beyond the control of such person; but in no event shall educational assistance be afforded such person by reason of this subsection beyond the age limitation applicable to such person under subsection (a) of this section plus a period of time equal to the period such person was required to suspend the pursuit of such person's program, or beyond such person's thirty-first birthday, whichever is earlier.

(d) The term “first finds” as used in this section means the effective date of the rating or date of notification to the veteran from whom eligibility is derived establishing a service-connected total disability permanent in nature whichever is more advantageous to the eligible person.

(e) No person made eligible by section 3501(a)(1)(C) of this title may be afforded educational assistance under this chapter beyond 10 years after the date on which the spouse was listed by the Secretary concerned in one of the categories referred to in such section or December 24, 1970, whichever last occurs.

(f) Any eligible person (as defined in section 3501(a)(1)(B), (C), or (D) of this chapter) shall be entitled to an additional period of eligibility for an education loan under subchapter III of chapter 36 of this title beyond the maximum period provided for in this section pursuant to the same terms and conditions set forth with respect to an eligible veteran in section 3462(a)(2) of this title.

(g) Any entitlement used by any eligible person as a result of eligibility under the provisions of section 3501(a)(1)(A)(iii) or 3501(a)(1)(C) of this title shall be deducted from any entitlement to which such person may subsequently become entitled under the provisions of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1194, §1712; Pub. L. 87–815, §2(a), Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 926; Pub. L. 87–819, §2, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 935; Pub. L. 88–361, §3, July 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 297; Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §307(a), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 189; Pub. L. 90–631, §2(e), Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1333; Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §208, Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 83; Pub. L. 91–584, §3, Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §402(1), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090; Pub. L. 93–337, §2, July 10, 1974, 88 Stat. 292; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §§304, 310(7)–(9), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2390, 2391; Pub. L. 95–202, title II, §203(a)(2), (b)(2), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1439, 1440; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §§321, 322, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2195; Pub. L. 97–66, title VI, §605(a), Oct. 17, 1981, 95 Stat. 1036; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(44), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §702(13), Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1009; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §313, Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3273; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3512 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

References in Text

Section 2 of Public Law 87–117 [75 Stat. 242], referred to in subsec. (a)(4), was set out as a note under former section 263 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1712 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3501(a)(1)(A)” for “1701(a)(1)(A)” and “3511” for “1711” in introductory provisions, “3536” for “1736” in par. (2), and “3501(a)(1)(A)(iii)” for “1701(a)(1)(A)(iii)” in par. (5).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3501(a)(1)(B)” for “1701(a)(1)(B)” in pars. (1) and (2) and “3501(a)(1)” for “1701(a)(1)” in par. (3)(A) and (B).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3501(a)(1)(C)” for “1701(a)(1)(C)”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3501(a)(1)(B)” for “1701(a)(1)(B)” and “3462(a)(2)” for “1662(a)(2)”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3501(a)(1)(A)(iii) or 3501(a)(1)(C)” for “1701(a)(1)(A)(iii) or 1701(a)(1)(C)”.

1989—Subsecs. (a)(1) to (3), (b)(1)(A), (C), (2), (3)(A), (c). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1986—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–576 added par. (3).

1983—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 98–160 substituted “October 1, 1980” for “the effective date of the Veterans’ Rehabilitation and Education Amendments of 1980”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(44)(A), inserted “of this title” after “section 1701(a)(1)(A)”, and inserted a colon after “last occurs” in cl. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(44)(B), substituted “of this title” for “of this chapter” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(44)(C), substituted “December 24, 1970” for “the date of enactment of this subsection”.

1981—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–66 substituted “after whichever of the following last occurs” for “after whichever last occurs” in the provisions preceding subpar. (A), “The date” for “the date” and “permanent in nature.” for “permanent in nature, or;” in subpar. (A), and “The date of death of the spouse from whom eligibility is derived who dies while a total disability evaluated as permanent in nature was in existence” for “the date of death of the spouse from whom eligibility is derived” in subpar. (B), and added subpar. (C).

1980—Subsec. (a)(5), (6). Pub. L. 96–466, §321, added cl. (5) and redesignated former cl. (5) as (6).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96–466, §322, inserted “made within one year after (A) the last date of the delimiting period otherwise applicable under this section, (B) the termination of the period of mental or physical disability, or (C) the effective date of the Veterans’ Rehabilitation and Education Amendments of 1980, whichever is the latest” after “application”, inserted “so” after “that such veteran was”, and inserted provision relating to the running of the delimiting period when an extension of the applicable delimiting period is granted an eligible person.

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–202, §203(a)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and former cls. (1) and (2) thereof as cls. (A) and (B), and added par. (2).

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 95–202, §203(b)(2), added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §§304(1), (2), 310(7), substituted “the person” for “he” and “him” and “the person's” for “his” respectively, in the provision preceding cl. (1), and in cls. (1), (2), (3), and (4), in cls. (3) and (4) “8 years” for “five years”, and cl. (5), “such person” for “he”, “a quarter or semester” for “the last half of a quarter or semester”, “period ends after a major portion of the course is completed” for “periods ends during the last half of the course”, and “12 weeks” for “nine weeks”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(8), substituted “such person” for “him” and “he” wherever appearing, and “such person's” for “his” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–502, §304(3), struck out subsec. (d) which authorized educational assistance to an eligible person beyond the age limits applicable to him under subsec. (a) of this section by a period of time equivalent to the period of time between his eighteenth birthday or the date of his application, whichever was later, and the date of approval of his application, but in no event beyond his thirty-first birthday. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–502, §§304(3), 310(9), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e) and substituted “the spouse” for “her spouse”. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 94–502, §§304(3), 310(9), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f) and substituted “such person” for “he”. Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e).

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–337, §2(1), substituted “may be afforded educational assistance under this chapter beyond 10 years” for “may be afforded educational assistance under this chapter beyond eight years”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93–337, §2(2), substituted “may be afforded educational assistance under this chapter beyond 10 years” for “may be afforded educational assistance under this chapter beyond eight years”.

1972—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 92–540 substituted reference to section 1736 of this title for reference to section 1737 of this title.

1970—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 91–219, §208(1), substituted “last occurs” for “first occurs”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–584, §3(1), substituted “1701(a)(1)(B) or (D)” for “1701(a)(1)(B) or (C)”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–219, §208(2), added subsec. (e).

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 91–584, §3(2), added subsecs. (f) and (g).

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–631, §2(e)(1), inserted “(within the meaning of section 1701(a)(1)(A))” after “to which an eligible person”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–631, §2(e)(2), substituted provisions that no person made eligible by section 1701(a) (1)(B) or (C) may be afforded educational assistance under this chapter beyond 8 years after whichever of the specified events last occurs for provisions that no eligible person may be afforded educational assistance under this chapter unless he was discharged or released after each period he was on duty with the armed forces under conditions other than dishonorable, or while he is on duty with the armed forces.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–77 substituted “twenty-sixth” for “twenty-third” birthday in text preceding cl. (1) and in cls. (3) and (4).

1964—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 88–361, §3(a), inserted provisions relating to parents with a service-connected total disability permanent in nature.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–361, §3(b), added subsec. (d).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–815, among other changes, struck out from cl. (3), provisions which it incorporated into cl. (4), added to such cl. (4) the exclusion from the computation of the five year period, of all periods during which the person served on active duty before Aug. 1, 1962, pursuant to a call as a Reserve after July 30, 1961, or an extension of duty pursuant to Pub. L. 87–117, and redesignated former cl. (4) as (5).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–819 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–66 effective Oct. 17, 1981, see section 701(b)(1) of Pub. L. 97–66, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective retroactively to May 31, 1976, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by sections 304 and 310(7)–(9) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 1, 1976, and Oct. 15, 1976, respectively, see section 703(a), (b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–631 effective first day of second calendar month which begins after Oct. 23, 1968, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 90–631, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3500 of this title.

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–77 effective first day of first calendar month which begins more than ten days after Aug. 31, 1967, see section 405 of Pub. L. 90–77, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Termination of Eligibility Period for a Wife, Widow, or Eligible Person

Section 604 of Pub. L. 92–540, as amended by Pub. L. 93–337, §3, July 10, 1974, 88 Stat. 292, provided that a wife or widow who was eligible to pursue a program of education exclusively by correspondence under section 1786 [now 3686] of this title or entitled to the benefits of section 1733(a) [now 3533(a)] of this title, had 10 years from Oct. 24, 1972, to complete such program of education or receive such benefits and provided that an eligible person, as defined in section 1701(a)(1) [now 3501(a)(1)] of this title, who was entitled to pursue a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training under section 1787 [now 3687] of this title had 10 years from Oct. 24, 1972, to complete such program or training.

Commencement of Delimiting Period in Cases of Death or of Service-Connected Total Disability Permanent in Nature Occurring Before December 1, 1968

Section 2(f) of Pub. L. 90–631, as amended Pub. L. 97–66, title VI, §605(b), Oct. 17, 1981, 95 Stat. 1036, provided that in the case of any person who was an eligible person by reason of section 1701(a)(1)(B) or (D) [now 3501(a)(1)(B) or (D)] of this title, if the date of death or the date of the determination of service-connected total disability permanent in nature of the person from whom eligibility was derived occurred before Dec. 1, 1968, the 10-year delimiting period referred to in subsec. (b)(1) of this section was to run from such date and provided that if the death of the person from whom such eligibility was derived occurred before Dec. 1, 1968, and the date on which the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs determined that such person died of a service-connected disability was later than Dec. 1, 1968, the delimiting period referred to in subsec. (b)(1) of this section was to run from the date on which the Administrator made such determination.

Termination of Eligibility Periods

Section 307(b) of Pub. L. 90–77 provided that anyone made eligible for educational assistance under this chapter by Pub. L. 90–77, and who, on the effective date of Pub. L. 90–77, was below the age of twenty-six, was to remain eligible for said assistance until the expiration of the five year period beginning on the effective date of Pub. L. 90–77 as set out in the Effective Date of 1967 Amendment note under section 101 of this title, excluding from such period any time which elapsed between applying for the assistance and the determination of eligibility by the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs, and also provided that the period of eligibility was to terminate regardless of the five year period when the eligible person reached the age of thirty-one.

Pub. L. 89–349, §2, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1313, provided that anyone made eligible for educational assistance under section 1701 [now 3501] of this title by reason of the amendment of that section by Pub. L. 89–349, and who was between the ages of seventeen and twenty-three on Nov. 8, 1965, was to remain eligible for said assistance until the expiration of the five year period beginning on Nov. 8, 1965.

Section 5 of Pub. L. 88–361 provided that anyone made eligible for educational assistance under section 1701 [now 3501] of this title by reason of the amendment of that section by Pub. L. 88–361, and who was between the ages of seventeen and twenty-three on July 7, 1964, was to remain eligible for said assistance until the expiration of the five year period beginning on July 7, 1964, excluding from such period any time which elapsed between applying for the assistance and the determination of eligibility by the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs, and also provided that the period of eligibility was to terminate regardless of the five year period when the eligible person reached the age of thirty-one.

Extension of Period for Completion of Education

Pub. L. 87–377, §2, Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 806, which contained a savings clause which granted five years of educational training to certain children in the Philippines, was repealed by Pub. L. 91–24, §14(d), June 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 35, effective June 11, 1969, except as to any indebtedness which may be due the Government as the result of any benefits granted thereunder.

Children of Spanish-American War Veterans

Pub. L. 86–236, §2, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 471, as amended by Pub. L. 87–815, §2(b), Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 927, which contained a savings clause which granted five years of educational training to certain children of Spanish-American War veterans, was repealed by Pub. L. 91–24, §14(b), June 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 35, effective June 11, 1969, except as to any indebtedness which may be due the Government as the result of any benefits granted thereunder.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3501, 3565 of this title.

§3513. Application

The parent or guardian of a person or the eligible person if such person has attained legal majority for whom educational assistance is sought under this chapter shall submit an application to the Secretary which shall be in such form and contain such information as the Secretary shall prescribe. If the Secretary finds that the person on whose behalf the application is submitted is an eligible person, the Secretary shall approve the application provisionally. The Secretary shall notify the parent or guardian or eligible person (if the person has attained legal majority) of the provisional approval or of the disapproval of the application.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1195, §1713; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §305, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2390; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3513, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1713 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502 inserted reference to eligible person who have attained legal majority and substituted “the Administrator shall approve” for “he shall approve”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

§3514. Processing of applications

(a) Further processing of an application for educational assistance and the award of such assistance shall be pursuant to the requirements of subchapters III and IV of this chapter unless the parent or guardian requests special restorative training for the eligible person, in which case the application will be processed under subchapter V of this chapter.

(b) If the request for special restorative training is approved, educational assistance will be afforded pursuant to the terms of subchapter V of this chapter. If the request for special restorative training is disapproved, or if approved the restorative training is completed or discontinued, any educational assistance subsequently afforded will be in accordance with subchapters III and IV of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1195, §1714; renumbered §3514, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1714 of this title as this section.

SUBCHAPTER III—PROGRAM OF EDUCATION

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in section 3514 of this title.

§3520. Educational and vocational counseling

The Secretary may, upon request, arrange for educational or vocational counseling for persons eligible for benefits under this chapter to assist such persons in selecting their educational, vocational, or professional objectives and in developing their programs of education.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1195, §1720; Pub. L. 90–631, §2(g), Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1333; Pub. L. 91–584, §4, Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1576; Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §310, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1083; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(10), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2391; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §323(a), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2196; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(45), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §314(a), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3273; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3520, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1720 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–576 substituted “Educational and vocational counseling” for “Development of educational plan” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(a) Upon provisional approval of an application for educational assistance for a person eligible within the meaning of section 1701(a)(1)(A) of this title, the Administrator may, upon request, arrange for educational or vocational counseling to assist the parent or guardian and the eligible person in selecting such person's educational, vocational, or professional objective and in developing such person's program of education. During, or after, such counseling, the parent or guardian shall prepare for the eligible person an educational plan which shall set forth the selected objective, the proposed program of education, a list of the educational institutions at which such program would be pursued, an estimate of the sum which would be required for tuition and fees in completion of such program, and such other information as the Administrator shall require. This educational plan shall be signed by the parent or guardian and shall become an integral part of the application for educational assistance under this chapter.

“(b) The Administrator may, on request, arrange for educational counseling for persons eligible for educational assistance under section 1701(a)(1)(B), (C), or (D) of this title.”

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(45)(A), inserted “of this title” after “section 1701(a)(1)(A)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(45)(B), substituted “of this title” for “of this chapter”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–466 substituted “the Administrator may, upon request, arrange for” for “the Administrator shall arrange for, and the eligible person shall take advantage of,” and struck out provision that educational or vocational counseling not be required where the eligible person has been accepted for, or is pursuing, courses which lead to a standard college degree, at an approved institution.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “such person's” for “his” in two places.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–540 inserted provisions exempting the eligible person from counseling where such person has been accepted for, or is pursuing, courses which lead to a standard college degree at an approved institution.

1970—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–584 substituted “section 1701(a)(1)(B), (C), or (D)” for “section 1701(a)(1) (B) or (C)”.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–631, §2(g)(1), (2), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and inserted “for a person eligible within the meaning of section 1701(a)(1)(A)” after “for educational assistance”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–631, §2(g)(3), added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub, L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–631 effective first day of second calendar month which begins after Oct. 23, 1968, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 90–631, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3500 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3561 of this title.

§3521. Approval of application

The Secretary shall approve an application if the Secretary finds that—

(1) the proposed program of education constitutes a “program of education” as that term is defined in this chapter;

(2) the eligible person is not already qualified, by reason of previous education or training, for the educational, professional, or vocational objective for which the program of education is offered;

(3) the eligible person's proposed educational institution or training establishment is in compliance with all the requirements of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title; and

(4) it does not appear that the enrollment in or pursuit of such person's program of education would violate any provisions of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1196, §1721; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(11), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2391; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §324, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2196; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §314(b)(1), (2), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3273; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3521, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1721 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1986—Pub. L. 99–576 substituted “Approval of application” for “Final approval of application” in section catchline, struck out “finally” before “approve an application” in introductory provisions, struck out former cl. (1) which read “section 1720 of this title has been complied with;”, and redesignated cls. (2) to (5) as cls. (1) to (4), respectively.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466, among other changes, inserted provision conditioning approval of an application upon the educational institution's or training establishment's compliance with all the requirements of this chapter and chapter 36 of this title and substituted reference to the enrollment in or pursuit of such person's program of education violating any provisions of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title for reference to the pursuit of such program violating any provision of this chapter.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “if the Administrator finds” for “if he finds”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

[§3522. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1700 to 1766 of this chapter as sections 3500 to 3566 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, section 1722 of this chapter, Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1196, which related to change of program by eligible person, was repealed by Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §402(2), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090.

§3523. Disapproval of enrollment in certain courses

(a) The Secretary shall not approve the enrollment of an eligible person in—

(1) any bartending course or personality development course;

(2) any sales or sales management course which does not provide specialized training within a specific vocational field;

(3) any type of course which the Secretary finds to be avocational or recreational in character (or the advertising for which the Secretary finds contains significant avocational or recreational themes) unless the eligible person submits justification showing that the course will be a bona fide use in the pursuit of the person's present or contemplated business or occupation; or

(4) any independent study program except an accredited independent study program (including open circuit television) leading to a standard college degree.


(b) The Secretary shall not approve the enrollment of an eligible person in any course of flight training other than one given by an educational institution of higher learning for credit toward a standard college degree the eligible person is seeking.

(c) The Secretary shall not approve the enrollment of an eligible person in any course to be pursued by radio.

(d) The Secretary shall not approve the enrollment of an eligible person in any course which is to be pursued as a part of such person's regular secondary school education (except as provided in section 3533 of this title), but this subsection shall not prevent the enrollment of an eligible person in a course not leading to a standard college degree if the Secretary finds that such person has ended such person's secondary school education (by completion or otherwise) and that such course is a specialized vocational course pursued for the purpose of qualifying in a bona fide vocational objective.

(e) An eligible person may not enroll in any course at an educational institution which is not located in a State or in the Republic of the Philippines, unless such course is pursued at an approved institution of higher learning and the course is approved by the Secretary. The Secretary, in the Secretary's discretion, may deny or discontinue educational assistance under this chapter in the case of any eligible person in such an institution if the Secretary determines that such enrollment is not in the best interest of the eligible person or the Federal Government.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1196, §1723; Pub. L. 86–785, §4, Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1024; Pub. L. 87–546, July 25, 1962, 76 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §209, Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 83; Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §311, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1083; Pub. L. 93–508, title II, §207, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1583; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §§306, 310(12)–(14), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2390, 2392; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §§325, 326, 327(b), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2196, 2197; Pub. L. 97–306, title II, §202(b), Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (2), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3523 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §313(a)(7), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4333; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §104(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3327.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 104–275, §104(b)(1), inserted “(including open circuit television)” after “accredited independent study program”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–275, §104(b)(2), substituted “radio.” for “radio or by open circuit television, except that the Secretary may approve the enrollment of an eligible person in a course, to be pursued in residence, leading to a standard college degree which includes, as an integral part thereof, subjects offered through open circuit television.”

1992—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–568 substituted “an accredited independent study program” for “one”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1723 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3533” for “1733”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing in subsecs. (a) to (e) and substituted “Secretary's” for “Administrator's” in subsec. (e).

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–306, §202(b), struck out designation “(1)” before “The Administrator”, redesignated cls. (A) to (D) as (1) to (4), respectively, in cl. (2) as so redesignated, substituted “any sales or sales management course which does not provide specialized training within a specific vocational field;” for “any course with a vocational objective, unless the eligible person or the institution offering such course presents evidence satisfactory to the Administrator showing that at least one-half of the persons who completed such course over such period, and who are not unavailable for employment, attained employment for an average of ten hours a week in an occupational category for which the course was designed to provide training;”, and struck out par. (2) which had provided exceptions to the provisions of par. (1)(B) for persons pursuing the course while serving on active duty, institutions with an enrollment not exceeding 35 percent of eligible veterans and eligible persons, and instances of administrative hardship to the institution.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–466, §325, designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated cls. (1), (2), (3), and (4) as (A), (B), (C), and (D), respectively, and in cl. (B) as so redesignated, struck out reference to any sales or management course which does not provide specialized training within a specific vocational field and substituted reference to presenting evidence showing that at least one-half of the persons who completed such course over such period attained employment for an average of ten hours a week in an occupational category for which the course was designed to provide training for reference to submitting justification showing that at least one-half of the persons who completed such course over the preceding two-year period (but excluding persons who completed such course with assistance under this title while serving on active duty) have been employed in the occupational category for which the course was designed to provide training, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–466, §326, struck out provisions relating to the approval of the enrollment of an eligible person in any course to be pursued by correspondence or any course to be pursued at an educational institution not located in a State or in the Republic of the Philippines, substituted reference to subjects offered through open circuit television for reference to subjects offered through the medium of open circuit televised instruction, if the major portion of the course requires conventional classroom or laboratory attendance, and struck out provisions permitting the Administrator to deny or discontinue the educational assistance of any eligible person in a foreign educational institution upon a finding that such enrollment is not in the best interest of the eligible person or the Government.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–466, §327(b), added subsec. (e).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §§306, 310(12), substituted “the Administrator finds contains” for “he finds contains” and added cl. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(13), substituted “the Administrator's” for “his” and “if the Administrator finds” for “if he finds”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(14), substituted “such person's” for “his” in two places.

1974—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 93–508, §207(1), substituted “or in any other course with a vocational objective, unless the” for “unless the”, “who completed” for “completing”, and “, and who are not unavailable for employment, have been employed in the occupational category for which the course was designed to provide training” for “have been employed in the sales or sales management field”, and inserted parenthetical provisions relating to the exclusion of persons who completed the course with assistance under this title in the computation of the number of people who completed the course.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 93–508, §207(2), substituted “in character (or the advertising for which he finds contains significant avocational or recreational themes) unless the” for “in character unless the”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–508, §207(3), substituted “an eligible person in any course to be” for “an eligible person in any course of institutional on-farm training, any course to be”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–508, §207(4), substituted “course not leading to a standard college degree if the” for “course to be pursued below the college level if the”.

1972—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–540, §311(1), struck out prohibition on approval by the Administrator of the enrollment of an eligible person in any course of apprentice or other training on the job, inserted provision authorizing approval of correspondence courses as provided in section 1786 of this title, and substituted provision relating to approval by the Administrator of enrollment at an educational institution not located in a State or the Republic of the Philippines and provision authorizing the Administrator to deny or discontinue assistance, for provisions setting forth the criteria for approval by the Administrator of enrollment in a foreign educational institution in the case of any eligible person.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–540, §311(2), inserted “(except as provided in section 1733 of this title)” after “regular secondary school education”.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–219 struck out “dancing course” from the enumeration of non-approved courses, inserted provisions directing the Administrator not to approve any enrollment in any sales or sales management course with some exceptions, and struck out reference to photography, entertainment, music, and enumerated sports or athletic course.

1962—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–546 authorized the Administrator to approve enrollment in foreign educational institutions if the subjects to be taken are part of and creditable towards completion of an approved course in a “principal institution”, the tuition and fees of the foreign institution are paid by the “principal institution”, and such institution agrees to submit enrollment certificates and monthly certifications as to attendance, conduct, and progress to the Veterans’ Administration.

1960—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–785 substituted “open circuit television (except as herein provided)” for “television”, and authorized the Administrator to approve enrollment in a course pursued in residence, leading to a standard college degree, which utilizes open circuit televised instruction, if the major portion of the course requires conventional classroom or laboratory attendance.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 202(c) of Pub. L. 97–306 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1673 [renumbered 3473] of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1982.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–508 effective Dec. 3, 1974, see section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

§3524. Discontinuance for unsatisfactory progress

The Secretary shall discontinue the educational assistance allowance on behalf of an eligible person if, at any time, the Secretary finds that according to the regularly prescribed standards and practices of the educational institution such person is attending, the person's attendance, conduct, or progress is unsatisfactory. The Secretary may renew the payment of the educational assistance allowance only if the Secretary finds that—

(1) the eligible person will be resuming enrollment at the same educational institution in the same program of education and the educational institution has both approved such eligible person's reenrollment and certified it to the Department of Veterans Affairs; or

(2) in the case of a proposed change of either educational institution or program of education by the eligible person—

(A) the cause of the unsatisfactory attendance, conduct, or progress has been removed;

(B) the program proposed to be pursued is suitable to the eligible person's aptitudes, interests, and abilities; and

(C) if a proposed change of program is involved, the change meets the requirements for approval under section 3691 of this title.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1197, §1724; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §§307, 310(15), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2390, 2392; Pub. L. 95–202, title III, §305(b)(1), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1443; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §328, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2197; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§411(b), 412(b), 423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2084, 2085, 2092; renumbered §3524 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1724 of this title as this section.

Par. (2)(C). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3691” for “1791”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §412(b), substituted “attendance, conduct,” for “conduct”.

Pars. (1), (2). Pub. L. 101–237, §411(b), added pars. (1) and (2) and struck out former pars. (1) and (2) which read as follows:

“(1) the cause of the unsatisfactory conduct or progress of the eligible person has been removed; and

“(2) the program which the eligible person now proposes to pursue (whether the same or revised) is suitable to the person's aptitudes, interests, and abilities.”

1980—Pub. L. 96–466 struck out provisions relating to the conditions upon which an eligible person's progress would be considered unsatisfactory.

1977—Pub. L. 95–202 inserted provisions authorizing the Administrator to determine the veteran's progress to be satisfactory even though the veteran will graduate within a length of time exceeding the approved length if the additional length of time is reasonable in accordance with regulations.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502, §310(15), substituted “such person is attending” for “he is attending”, “the Administrator finds that” for “he finds that”, and “the person's” for “his” in two places.

Pub. L. 94–502, §307, inserted provision specifying progress as unsatisfactory when the veteran will not be able to graduate within the approved length of the course.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective first day of first month beginning 60 days after Nov. 23, 1977, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by sections 307 and 310(15) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Dec. 1, 1976, and Oct. 15, 1976, respectively, see section 703(b), (c) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Suspension of Implementation of 1976 Amendment

For provisions directing the Administrator to suspend the implementation of the amendment to this section by section 307 of Pub. L. 94–502 in the case of any accredited educational institution which submits to the Administrator its course catalog or bulletin and a certification that the policies and regulations described in cls. (6) and (7) of section 1776(b) [now 3676(b)(6) and (7)] of this title are being enforced by such institution, unless the Administrator finds that the catalog or bulletin fails to state fully and clearly the policies and regulations, and for that suspension to continue until the Administrator submits the report required under section 305(b)(2) of Pub. L. 95–202, see section 305(b)(4)(A) of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 3474 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 5 section 5569; title 10 section 2184.

[§§3525, 3526. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1700 to 1766 of this chapter as sections 3500 to 3566 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, sections 1725 and 1726 of this chapter were repealed.

Section 1725, Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1197, which related to period of operation for approval by Administrator, was repealed by Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §402(2), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090.

Section 1726, Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1197, which provided for control by agencies of United States, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(3), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 20.

SUBCHAPTER IV—PAYMENTS TO ELIGIBLE PERSONS

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in section 3514 of this title.

§3531. Educational assistance allowance

(a) The Secretary shall, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 36 of this title, pay to the parent or guardian of each eligible person who is pursuing a program of education under this chapter, and who applies therefor on behalf of such eligible person, an educational assistance allowance to meet, in part, the expenses of the eligible person's subsistence, tuition, fees, supplies, books, equipment, and other educational costs.

(b) The educational assistance allowance of an eligible person pursuing a program of education at an educational institution shall be paid as provided in chapter 36 of this title.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1197, §1731; Pub. L. 89–358, §4(l), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 24; Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §312, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1083; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §§309(c), 310(16), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2391, 2392; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §329, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2197; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3531, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1731 of this title as this section.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–466 substituted provisions that the educational assistance allowance of an eligible person pursuing a program of education at an educational institution be paid as provided in chapter 36 of this title for provisions that no educational assistance allowance be paid on behalf of an eligible person enrolled in a course in an educational institution which does not lead to a standard college degree for any period until the Administrator received from the eligible person a certification as to the person's actual attendance during such period and from the educational institution a certification, or an endorsement on the eligible person's certificate, that the person was enrolled in and pursuing a course of education during such period.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §309(c), substituted “chapter 36” for “section 1780”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(16), substituted “the person's” for “his” and “the person” for “he”.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–540, §312(1), inserted provision requiring the Administrator to pay in accordance with the provisions of section 1780 of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–540, §312(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (d) as (b). Former subsec. (b), which provided for the payment of the educational assistance allowance, pursuant to section 1732 of this title, to the eligible person only for a period of his enrollment as approved by the Administrator subject to certain limitations, was struck out.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–540, §312(2), struck out subsec. (c) which authorized the Administrator, pursuant to regulations, to determine enrollment in, pursuit of, and attendance at, any program of education or course by an eligible person.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–540, §312(3), redesignated subsec. (d) as (b).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–540, §312(2), struck out subsec. (e) which related to the prompt payment by the Administrator of the allowance to the eligible person.

1966—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–358 added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which conditioned payment of allowance to eligible person taking college degree course on receipt from such person of certification of enrollment and pursuit of such course and from educational institution certification or indorsement on student's certification of enrollment and pursuit of such course, prescribed such conditions for eligible person taking a course not leading to college degree as are now incorporated in subsec. (d) of this section, and required payments to be made within twenty days after receipt of requisite certifications, now incorporated in subsec. (e) of this section.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–358 redesignated provisions of former subsec. (c)(1)(B), (2) as subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–358 added subsec. (e). Concluding sentence of former subsec. (c), struck out by Pub. L. 89–358, provided for payment of such allowances within twenty days after receipt by the Administrator of requisite certifications.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

§3532. Computation of educational assistance allowance

(a)(1) The educational assistance allowance on behalf of an eligible person who is pursuing a program of education consisting of institutional courses shall be paid at the monthly rate of $485 for full-time, $365 for three-quarter-time, or $242 for half-time pursuit.

(2) The educational assistance allowance on behalf of an eligible person pursuing a program of education on less than a half-time basis shall be paid at the rate of (A) the established charges for tuition and fees that the educational institution involved requires similarly circumstanced nonveterans enrolled in the same program to pay, or (B) $485 per month for a full-time course, whichever is the lesser.

(b) The educational assistance allowance to be paid on behalf of an eligible person who is pursuing a full-time program of education which consists of institutional courses and alternate phases of training in a business or industrial establishment with the training in the business or industrial establishment being strictly supplemental to the institutional portion, shall be computed at the rate of $485 per month.

(c)(1) An eligible person who is enrolled in an educational institution for a “farm cooperative” program consisting of institutional agricultural courses prescheduled to fall within forty-four weeks of any period of twelve consecutive months and who pursues such program on—

(A) a full-time basis (a minimum of ten clock hours per week or four hundred and forty clock hours in such year prescheduled to provide not less than eighty clock hours in any three-month period),

(B) a three-quarter-time basis (a minimum of seven clock hours per week), or

(C) a half-time basis (a minimum of five clock hours per week),


shall be eligible to receive an educational assistance allowance at the appropriate rate provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, if such eligible person is concurrently engaged in agricultural employment which is relevant to such institutional agricultural courses as determined under standards prescribed by the Secretary. In computing the foregoing clock hour requirements there shall be included the time involved in field trips and individual and group instruction sponsored and conducted by the educational institution through a duly authorized instructor of such institution in which the person is enrolled.

(2) The monthly educational assistance allowance to be paid on behalf of an eligible person pursuing a farm cooperative program under this chapter shall be $392 for full-time, $294 for three-quarter-time, and $196 for half-time pursuit.

(d) If a program of education is pursued by an eligible person at an institution located in the Republic of the Philippines, the educational assistance allowance computed for such person under this section shall be paid at the rate of $0.50 for each dollar.

(e) In the case of an eligible person who is pursuing a program of education under this chapter while incarcerated in a Federal, State, or local penal institution for conviction of a felony, the educational assistance allowance shall be paid in the same manner prescribed in section 3482(g) of this title for incarcerated veterans, except that the references therein to the monthly educational assistance allowance prescribed for a veteran with no dependents shall be deemed to refer to the applicable allowance payable to an eligible person under corresponding provisions of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, as determined by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1198, §1732; Pub. L. 89–222, §1, Sept. 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 896; Pub. L. 91–219, title I, §104(a), (b), title II, §210, Mar. 25, 1970, 84 Stat. 77, 78, 83; Pub. L. 92–540, title I, §103(1)–(3), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1075, 1076; Pub. L. 93–508, title I, §103(1)–(3), title II, §208, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1580, 1584; Pub. L. 93–602, title II, §204(a), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1958; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §§301(1), 308, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2389, 2390; Pub. L. 95–202, title I, §103(1), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 96–466, title II, §§202(1), 212(1), title III, §330, title VI, §602(b), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2188, 2190, 2198, 2209; Pub. L. 98–543, title II, §203(1), Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2742; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§403(a)(1)–(7), 423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2078, 2079, 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §10(a)(6), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 56; renumbered §3532 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §316(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4334; Pub. L. 103–446, title V, §507(b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4664; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §105(c), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3327; Pub. L. 105–178, title VIII, §8210(a), as added Pub. L. 105–206, title IX, §9014(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 866.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–178, §8210(a)(1), as added by Pub. L. 105–206, §9014(b), substituted “$485” for “$404”, “$365” for “$304”, and “$242” for “$202”.

Subsecs. (a)(2), (b). Pub. L. 105–178, §8210(a)(2), (3), as added by Pub. L. 105–206, §9014(b), substituted “$485” for “$404”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–178, §8210(a)(4), as added by Pub. L. 105–206, §9014(b), substituted “$392” for “$327”, “$294” for “$245”, and “$196” for “$163”.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–275 substituted “$404” for “$327”.

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–446 substituted “the rate of” for “a rate in Philippine pesos equivalent to”.

1992—Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 102–568 struck out pars. (3) and (4) which related to the monthly educational assistance allowance to be paid for persons pursuing an independent study program and for persons pursuing a course in part by open circuit television.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1732 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3688” for “1788”.

Pub. L. 102–16 substituted “Secretary” for “Secretary of Veterans Affairs”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3482(g)” for “1682(g)”.

Pub. L. 102–16 substituted “Secretary” for “Secretary of Veterans Affairs”.

1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §403(a)(1), substituted “paid at the monthly rate of $404 for full-time, $304 for three-quarter-time, or $202 for half-time pursuit.” for “computed at the rate prescribed in section 1682(a)(1) of this title for full-time, three-quarter-time, or half-time pursuit, as appropriate, of an institutional program by an eligible veteran with no dependents.”

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §403(a)(2), substituted “paid at the rate of (A) the established charges for tuition and fees that the educational institution involved requires similarly circumstanced nonveterans enrolled in the same program to pay, or (B) $404 per month for a full-time course, whichever is the lesser.” for “computed at the rate prescribed in section 1682(b)(2) of this title for less-than-half-time pursuit of an institutional program by an eligible veteran.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237, §403(a)(3), substituted “$327” for “$304”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §403(a)(4), substituted “$327 for full-time, $245 for three-quarter-time, and $163 for half-time pursuit.” for “computed at the rate prescribed in section 1682(c)(2) of this title for full-time, three-quarter-time, or half-time pursuit, as appropriate, of a farm cooperative program by an eligible veteran with no dependents.”

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–237, §403(a)(5), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The monthly educational assistance allowance to be paid on behalf of an eligible person pursuing an independent study program which leads to a standard college degree shall be computed at the rate prescribed in section 1682(e) of this title.”

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101–237, §403(a)(6), substituted “paragraph (3) of this subsection” for “section 1682(e) of this title”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–237, §403(a)(7), inserted before period at end “, except that the references therein to the monthly educational assistance allowance prescribed for a veteran with no dependents shall be deemed to refer to the applicable allowance payable to an eligible person under corresponding provisions of this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, as determined by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs”.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–304 substituted “$304” for “$276”.

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–466, §212(1), substituted “$276” for “$264”.

Pub. L. 96–466, §202(1), substituted “$264” for “$251”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 96–466, §330, added par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–466, §602(b), added subsec. (e).

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–202 substituted “$251” for “$235”.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §301(1), substituted “$235” for “$217”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 94–502, §308, added par. (3).

1975—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–602 substituted “$217” for “$209”.

1974—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 93–508, §103(1), substituted “prescribed in section 1682(a)(1) of this title for full-time, three-quarter-time, or half-time pursuit, as appropriate, of an institutional program by an eligible veteran with no dependents” for “of (A) $220 per month if pursued on a full-time basis, (B) $165 per month if pursued on a three-quarter-time basis, and (C) $110 per month if pursued on a half-time basis”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 93–508, §103(2), substituted “prescribed in section 1682(b)(2) of this title for less-than-half-time pursuit of an institutional program by an eligible veteran” for “of (A) the established charges for tuition and fees which the institution requires other individuals enrolled in the same program to pay, or (B) $220 per month for a full-time course whichever is the lesser”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–508, §103(3), substituted “$209” for “$177”.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 93–508, §208, added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1972—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 92–540 §103(1), substituted “$220” for “$175” in cl. (A), “$165” for “$128” in cl. (B), and “$110” for “$81” in cl. (C).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 92–540, §103(2), substituted “$220” for “$175”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–540, §103(3), substituted “$177” for “$141”.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–219, §104(a), designated existing provision as par. (1), substituted “(A) $175” for “(1) $130”, “(B) $128” for “(2) $95”, and “(C) $81” for “(3) $60”, respectively in par. (1) as so designated, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–219, §104(b), substituted “$141” for “$105”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–219, §210, substituted provision that if a program of education is pursued by an eligible person at an institution located in the Republic of the Philippines, the educational assistance allowance computed for such person should be paid at a specified rate in Philippine pesos, for provision forbidding educational assistance allowance to a person who is pursuing an institutional course on a less than prescribed basis.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–222, §1(a), substituted “$130”, “$95”, and “$60” for “$110”, “$80”, and “$50”, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–222, §1(b), substituted “$105” for “$90”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendments

Title IX of Pub. L. 105–206 effective simultaneously with enactment of Pub. L. 105–178 and to be treated as included in Pub. L. 105–178 at time of enactment, see section 9016 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Pub. L. 105–178, title VIII, §8210(e), as added by Pub. L. 105–206, title IX, §9014(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 866, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 3534, 3542, and 3687 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1998, and shall apply with respect to educational assistance allowances paid for months after September 1998.”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–446 applicable with respect to payments made after Dec. 31, 1994, see section 507(c) of Pub. L. 103–446, set out as a note under section 107 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 316(c) of Pub. L. 102–568 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 3688 of this title] apply to enrollments in courses beginning on or after July 1, 1993.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 403(c) of Pub. L. 101–237 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1733, 1734, 1742, and 1787 [now 3533, 3534, 3542, and 3687] of this title] shall take effect on January 1, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–543 effective Oct. 1, 1984, see section 205 of Pub. L. 98–543, set out as a note under section 3108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by sections 202(1) and 212(1) of Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, and Jan. 1, 1981, respectively, see section 802(b) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Amendment by section 330 of Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Amendment by section 602(b) of Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(f) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5314 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective retroactively to Oct. 1, 1977, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 703(a) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–602 effective Jan. 1, 1975, see section 206 of Pub. L. 93–602, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(1)–(3) of Pub. L. 93–508 effective Sept. 1, 1974, see section 501 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Amendment by section 208 of Pub. L. 93–508 effective Dec. 3, 1974, see section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–540 effective Oct. 1, 1972, except for those veterans and eligible persons in training on Oct. 24, 1972, see section 601(a) of Pub. L. 92–540, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(a), (b) of Pub. L. 91–219 effective Feb. 1, 1970, see section 301 of Pub. L. 91–219, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Section 4 of Pub. L. 89–222 provided that: “The amendments made by the first and second sections of this Act [amending this section and section 1742 [now 3542] of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the second calendar month following the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1965].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3565, 3680 of this title; title 42 section 3796d–1.

§3533. Special assistance for the educationally disadvantaged

(a)(1) Any eligible person shall be entitled to the assistance provided an eligible veteran under section 3491(a) (if pursued in a State) of this title and be paid an educational assistance allowance therefor in the manner prescribed by section 3491(b) of this title, except that the corresponding rate provisions of this chapter shall apply, as determined by the Secretary, to such pursuit by an eligible person.

(2) Educational assistance under this chapter for the first five months of full-time pursuit of a program (or the equivalent thereof in part-time educational assistance) consisting of such course or courses shall be provided without charge to entitlement.

(b) Any eligible person shall, without charge to any entitlement such person may have under section 3511 of this title, be entitled to the benefits provided an eligible veteran under section 3492 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §313, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1084, §1733; amended Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(17), (18), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2392; Pub. L. 98–223, title II, §203(b), Mar. 2, 1984, 98 Stat. 41; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §106(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4167; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §403(a)(8), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2079; Pub. L. 102–16, §10(a)(6), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 56; renumbered §3533 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1733 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3491(a)” for “1691(a)” and “3491(b)” for “1691(b)”.

Pub. L. 102–16 substituted “Secretary” for “Secretary of Veterans Affairs”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3511” for “1711” and “3492” for “1692”.

1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “assistance provided an eligible veteran under section 1691(a) (if pursued in a State) of this title and be paid an educational assistance allowance therefor in the manner prescribed by section 1691(b) of this title, except that the corresponding rate provisions of this chapter shall apply, as determined by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, to such pursuit by an eligible person.” for “benefits provided an eligible veteran (with no dependents) under section 1691 (if pursued in a State) of this title.”

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–689 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “Any eligible spouse or surviving spouse shall, without charge to any entitlement such spouse may have under section 1711 of this title, be entitled to the benefits provided an eligible veteran (with no dependents) under section 1691 (if pursued in a State) of this title.”

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–223 inserted “(with no dependents)” after “an eligible veteran” and struck out “and be paid an educational assistance allowance under the provisions of section 1732(a) of this title”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(17), substituted “spouse or surviving spouse” for “wife or widow” and “such spouse” for “she”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §310(18), substituted “such person” for “he”.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–237 effective Jan. 1, 1990, see section 403(c) of Pub. L. 101–237, set out as a note under section 3532 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–689 effective Aug. 15, 1989, see section 106(d) of Pub. L. 100–689, set out as a note under section 3034 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Termination of Eligibility Period

Termination of eligibility period for a wife or widow, or an eligible person eight years from Oct. 24, 1972, see section 604 of Pub. L. 92–540, set out as a note under section 3512 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3523, 3688 of this title.

§3534. Apprenticeship or other on-job training; correspondence courses

(a) Any eligible person shall be entitled to pursue, in a State, a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training and be paid a training assistance allowance as provided in section 3687 of this title.

(b) Any eligible spouse or surviving spouse shall be entitled to pursue a program of education exclusively by correspondence and be paid an educational assistance allowance as provided in section 3686 (other than subsection (a)(2)) of this title and the period of such spouse's entitlement shall be charged with one month for each $485 which is paid to the spouse as an educational assistance allowance for such course.

(Added Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §313, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1084, §1734; amended Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(19), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2392; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §403(a)(9), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2079; renumbered §3534 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 105–178, title VIII, §8210(b), as added Pub. L. 105–206, title IX, §9014(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 866.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–178, §8210(b), as added by Pub. L. 105–206, §9014(b), substituted “$485” for “$404”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1734 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3687” for “1787”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3686” for “1786”.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “1786 (other than subsection (a)(2)) of this title and the period of such spouse's entitlement shall be charged with one month for each $404 which is paid to the spouse as an educational assistance allowance for such course” for “1786 of this title”.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “spouse or surviving spouse” for “wife or widow”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendments

Title IX of Pub. L. 105–206 effective simultaneously with enactment of Pub. L. 105–178 and to be treated as included in Pub. L. 105–178 at time of enactment, see section 9016 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–178 effective Oct. 1, 1998, and applicable with respect to educational assistance allowances paid for months after Sept. 1998, see section 8210(e) of Pub. L. 105–178, set out as a note under section 3532 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–237 effective Jan. 1, 1990, see section 403(c) of Pub. L. 101–237, set out as a note under section 3532 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

§3535. Approval of courses

An eligible person shall receive the benefits of this chapter while enrolled in a course of education offered by an educational institution only if such course (1) is approved in accordance with the provisions of subchapter I of chapter 36 of this title, or (2) is approved for the enrollment of the particular individual under the provisions of section 3536 of this title.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1199, §1735; Pub. L. 88–126, §2, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 162; Pub. L. 89–358, §4(n), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 25; Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §402(4), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090; renumbered §3535 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1735 of this title as this section and substituted “3536” for “1736”.

1972—Pub. L. 92–540 substituted reference to section 1736 of this title for reference to section 1737 of this title.

1966—Pub. L. 89–358 redesignated former subsec. (a) as the entire section, struck out therefrom the introductory phrase “Until the date for the expiration of all education and training under chapter 33 of this title,”, substituted “An eligible person” for “and eligible person”, “chapter” for “subchapter”, and “subchapter I of chapter 36 of this title” for “this section or subchapter VII of this chapter”, and struck out former subsec. (b) which provided for scope of approval and is now incorporated in section 1770(b) of this title.

1963—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–126, §2(1), (2), inserted “Until the date for the expiration of all education and training under chapter 33 of this title, and” before “eligible person”, and “or subchapter VII of this chapter” after “this section”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–126, §2(3), inserted “or section 1778.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–126, §2(4), repealed subsec. (c) which related to the responsibility of the Administrator, after the expiration date of all education and training under chapter 33 of this title, for the approval of any additional courses.

§3536. Specialized vocational training courses

The Secretary may approve a specialized course of vocational training leading to a predetermined vocational objective for the enrollment of an eligible person under this subchapter if the Secretary finds that such course, either alone or when combined with other courses, constitutes a program of education which is suitable for that person and is required because of a mental or physical handicap.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1199, §1737; Pub. L. 88–126, §4, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 162; renumbered §1736, Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §402(3), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(20), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2392; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3536, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1736 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “if the Administrator finds” for “if he finds”.

1963—Pub. L. 88–126 substituted “The” for “Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of section 1735 of this title, the”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3512, 3535, 3672 of this title.

§3537. Work-study allowance

(a) Subject to subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary shall utilize, in connection with the activities described in section 3485(a) of this title, the services of any eligible person who is pursuing, in a State, at least a three-quarter-time program of education (other than a course of special restorative training) and shall pay to such person an additional educational assistance allowance (hereafter in this section referred to as “work-study allowance”) in return for such eligible person's agreement to perform such services. The amount of the work-study allowance shall be determined in accordance with section 3485(a) of this title.

(b) The Secretary's utilization of, and payment of a work-study allowance for, the services of an eligible person pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to the same requirements, terms, and conditions as are set out in section 3485 of this title with regard to individuals pursuing at least three-quarter-time programs of education referred to in subsection (b) of such section.

(Added Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §406(a)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2082, §1737; renumbered §3537 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1737 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3485(a)” for “1685(a)” in two places.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3485” for “1685”.

Effective Date

Section 406(b) of Pub. L. 101–237 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall take effect on May 1, 1990.”

[§3538. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1700 to 1766 of this chapter as sections 3500 to 3566 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, section 1738 of this chapter, added Pub. L. 95–202, title II, §201(b), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1437, which related to accelerated payment of educational assistance allowances, was repealed by Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §124(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4174.

SUBCHAPTER V—SPECIAL RESTORATIVE TRAINING

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in sections 3501, 3512, 3514, 3672 of this title.

§3540. Purpose

The purpose of special restorative training is to overcome, or lessen, the effects of a manifest physical or mental disability which would handicap an eligible person (as defined in section 3501(a)(1)(A) of this title) in the pursuit of a program of education.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1200, §1740; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §331, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2198; renumbered §3540 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1740 of this title as this section and substituted “3501(a)(1)(A)” for “1701(a)(1)(A)”.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466 inserted “(as defined in section 1701(a)(1)(A) of this title)” after “person”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

§3541. Entitlement to special restorative training

(a) The Secretary at the request of the parent or guardian of an eligible person is authorized—

(1) to determine whether such person is in need of special restorative training; and

(2) where need is found to exist, to prescribe a course which is suitable to accomplish the purposes of this chapter.


Such a course, at the discretion of the Secretary, may contain elements that would contribute toward an ultimate objective of a program of education.

(b) The total period of educational assistance under this subchapter and other subchapters of this chapter may not exceed the amount of entitlement as established in section 3511 of this title, except that the Secretary may extend such period in the case of any person if the Secretary finds that additional assistance is necessary to accomplish the purpose of special restorative training as stated in subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1200, §1741; Pub. L. 88–361, §6, July 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 298; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(21), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2392; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3541 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1741 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3511” for “1711”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “if the Administrator finds” for “if he finds”.

1964—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–361 authorized the Administrator to extend the period if he finds additional assistance necessary to accomplish the purpose of special restorative training.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–433, §2, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 442, provided that: “The amendments made by section 6 of the Act of July 7, 1964 (Public Law 88–361, 78 Stat. 297) [amending this section], shall take effect as of January 1, 1964.”

§3542. Special training allowance

(a) While the eligible person is enrolled in and pursuing a full-time course of special restorative training, the parent or guardian shall be entitled to receive on behalf of such person a special training allowance computed at the basic rate of $485 per month. If the charges for tuition and fees applicable to any such course are more than $152 per calendar month, the basic monthly allowance may be increased by the amount that such charges exceed $152 a month, upon election by the parent or guardian of the eligible person to have such person's period of entitlement reduced by one day for each $16.16 that the special training allowance paid exceeds the basic monthly allowance.

(b) No payments of a special training allowance shall be made for the same period for which the payment of an educational assistance allowance is made or for any period during which the training is pursued on less than a full-time basis.

(c) Full-time training for the purpose of this section shall be determined by the Secretary with respect to the capacities of the individual trainee.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1200, §1742; Pub. L. 89–222, §2, Sept. 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 896; Pub. L. 91–219, title I, §104(c), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 78; Pub. L. 92–540, title I, §103(4), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1076; Pub. L. 93–508, title I, §103(4), Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1580; Pub. L. 93–602, title II, §204(b), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1958; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §301(2), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2389; Pub. L. 95–202, title I, §103(2), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1435; Pub. L. 96–466, title II, §§202(2), 212(2), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2188, 2190; Pub. L. 98–543, title II, §203(2), Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2742; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§403(a)(10), 423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2080, 2092; renumbered §3542, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 105–178, title VIII, §8210(c), as added Pub. L. 105–206, title IX, §9014(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 866.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–178, §8210(c), as added by Pub. L. 105–206, §9014(b), substituted “$485” for “$404” and “$16.16” for “$13.46” and substituted “$152” for “$127” in two places.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1742 of this title as this section.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237, §403(a)(10), substituted “$404” for “$376”, “$127” for “$119” in two places, and “$13.46” for “$12.58”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–543 substituted “$376” for “$342”, “$119” for “$108” in two places, and “$12.58” for “$11.44”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–466, §212(2), substituted “$342” for “$327”, “$108” for “$103” in two places, and “$11.44” for “$10.92”.

Pub. L. 96–466, §202(2), substituted “$327” for “$311”, “$103” for “$98” in two places, and “$10.92” for “$10.40”.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–202 substituted “$311” for “$292”, “$98” for “$92” in two places, and “$10.40” for “$9.76”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “$292” for “$270”, “$92” for “$85” in two places, and “$9.76” for “$9.02”.

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–602 substituted “$270”, “$85”, “$85”, and “$9.02” for “$260”, “$82”, “$82”, and “$8.69” respectively.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–508 substituted “behalf of such person”, “$260”, “$82”, “$82”, and “$8.69” for “his behalf a”, “$220”, “$69”, “$69”, and “$7.35” respectively.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–540 substituted “$220” for “$175”, “$69” for “$55”, and “$7.35” for “$6.80”, respectively.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–219 substituted “$175” for “$130”, “$55” for “$41”, and “$6.80” for “$4.25” respectively.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–222 substituted “$130”, “$41”, “$41” and “$4.25” for “$110”, “$35”, “$35” and “$3.60”, respectively.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendments

Title IX of Pub. L. 105–206 effective simultaneously with enactment of Pub. L. 105–178 and to be treated as included in Pub. L. 105–178 at time of enactment, see section 9016 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–178 effective Oct. 1, 1998, and applicable with respect to educational assistance allowances paid for months after September 1998, see section 8210(e) of Pub. L. 105–178, set out as a note under section 3532 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 403(a)(10) of Pub. L. 101–237 effective Jan. 1, 1990, see section 403(c) of Pub. L. 101–237, set out as a note under section 3532 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–543 effective Oct. 1, 1984, see section 205 of Pub. L. 98–543, set out as a note under section 3108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by sections 202(2) and 212(c) of Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, and Jan. 1, 1981, respectively, see section 802(b) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective retroactively to Oct. 1, 1977, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 703(a) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–602 effective Jan. 1, 1975, see section 206 of Pub. L. 93–602, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–508 effective Sept. 1, 1974, see section 501 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–540 effective Oct. 1, 1972, except for those veterans and eligible persons in training on Oct. 24, 1972, see section 601(a) of Pub. L. 92–540, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–219 effective Feb. 1, 1970, see section 301 of Pub. L. 91–219, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–222 effective first day of second calendar month following September 30, 1965, see section 4 of Pub. L. 89–222, set out as a note under section 3532 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3565 of this title.

§3543. Special administrative provisions

(a) In carrying out the Secretary's responsibilities under this chapter the Secretary may by agreement arrange with public or private educational institutions or others to provide training arrangements as may be suitable and necessary to accomplish the purposes of this subchapter. In any instance where the Secretary finds that a customary tuition charge is not applicable, the Secretary may agree on the fair and reasonable amounts which may be charged the parent or guardian for the training provided to an eligible person.

(b) The Secretary shall make such rules and regulations as the Secretary may deem necessary in order to promote good conduct on the part of the persons who are following courses of special restorative training and otherwise to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1200, §1743; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(22), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2392; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (2), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3543, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1743 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary's” for “Administrator's” in subsec. (a) and “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing in subsecs. (a) and (b).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “the Administrator's” for “his” and “the Administrator may agree” for “he may agree”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “the Administrator may deem” for “he may deem”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER VI—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

§3561. Authority and duties of Secretary

(a) The Secretary may provide the educational and vocational counseling authorized under section 3520 of this title, and may provide additional counseling if the Secretary deems it to be necessary to accomplish the purposes of this chapter.

(b) Where any provision of this chapter authorizes or requires any function, power, or duty to be exercised by a State, or by any officer or agency thereof, such function, power, or duty shall, with respect to the Republic of the Philippines, be exercised by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1200, §1761; Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(1), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 19; Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(23), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2392; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §323(b), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2196; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3561 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1761 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3520” for “1720”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–466 substituted “authorized” for “required” and “may provide additional counseling” for “may provide or require additional counseling”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “if the Administrator deems” for “if he deems”.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–358 redesignated subsec. (b) as (a) and struck out provisions of former subsec. (a) for audit and review of payments by the GAO as provided by Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 and Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–358 redesignated subsec. (d) as (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (a).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–358 struck out subsec. (c) which provided for use of other Federal agencies. See now, section 1790 of this title.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–358 redesignated subsec. (d) as (b).

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

§3562. Nonduplication of benefits

The commencement of a program of education or special restorative training under this chapter shall be a bar (1) to subsequent payments of compensation, dependency and indemnity compensation, or pension based on the death of a parent to an eligible person over the age of eighteen by reason of pursuing a course in an educational institution, or (2) to increased rates, or additional amounts, of compensation, dependency and indemnity compensation, or pension because of such a person whether eligibility is based upon the death or upon the total permanent disability of the parent.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1201, §1762; Pub. L. 88–361, §4, July 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 298; Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(2), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 20; renumbered §3562, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1762 of this title as this section.

1966—Pub. L. 89–358 redesignated former subsec. (a) as the entire section and deleted former subsec. (b) which prohibited payment of educational assistance allowance or special training allowance on behalf of any eligible person for any period paid for under other provision of law where the payment would constitute a duplication of benefits and which is now incorporated in section 1781 of this title.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–361 inserted “whether eligibility is based upon the death or upon the total permanent disability of the parent”.

§3563. Notification of eligibility

The Secretary shall notify the parent or guardian of each eligible person defined in section 3501(a)(1)(A) of this title of the educational assistance available to such person under this chapter. Such notification shall be provided not later than the month in which such eligible person attains such person's thirteenth birthday or as soon thereafter as feasible.

(Added Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §207(a), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 82, §1763; amended Pub. L. 94–502, title III, §310(24), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2392; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(46), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3563 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1763 of this title as this section and substituted “3501(a)(1)(A)” for “1701(a)(1)(A)”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–295 substituted “of this title” for “of this chapter”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “such person's” for “his”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

[§3564. Vacant]

Codification

Prior to renumbering of sections 1700 to 1766 of this chapter as sections 3500 to 3566 by Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, section 1764 of this chapter, Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1201, which provided for dismissal for conflict of interest, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–358, §§3(a)(3), 12(a), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 20, 28, effective Mar. 3, 1966.

SUBCHAPTER VII—PHILIPPINE COMMONWEALTH ARMY AND PHILIPPINE SCOUTS

§3565. Children of certain Philippine veterans

basic eligibility

(a) The term “eligible person” as used in section 3501(a)(1) of this title includes the children of those Commonwealth Army veterans and “New” Philippine Scouts who meet the requirements of service-connected disability or death, based on service as defined in section 3566 of this title.

administrative provisions

(b) The provisions of this chapter and chapter 36 shall apply to the educational assistance for children of Commonwealth Army veterans and “New” Philippine Scouts, except that—

(1) educational assistance allowances authorized by section 3532 of this title and the special training allowance authorized by section 3542 of this title shall be paid at the rate of $0.50 for each dollar, and

(2) any reference to a State approving agency shall be deemed to refer to the Secretary.

delimiting dates

(c) In the case of any individual who is an eligible person solely by virtue of subsection (a) of this section, and who is above the age of seventeen years and below the age of twenty-three years on September 30, 1966, the period referred to in section 3512 of this title shall not end until the expiration of the five-year period which begins on September 30, 1966.

(Added Pub. L. 89–613, §1, Sept. 30, 1966, 80 Stat. 861, §1765; amended Pub. L. 91–24, §9(c), June 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 34; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(47), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3565 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title V, §507(b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4664.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–446 substituted “the rate of” for “a rate in Philippine pesos equivalent to”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1765 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3501(a)(1)” for “1701(a)(1)” and “3566” for “1766”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3532” for “1732” and “3542” for “1742”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3512” for “1712”.

1989—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–295 inserted “of this title” after “section 1766”.

1969—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–24 substituted “September 30, 1966” for “the date of enactment of this section” and “September 30, 1966” for “the date of enactment of such section”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–446 applicable with respect to payments made after Dec. 31, 1994, see section 507(c) of Pub. L. 103–446, set out as a note under section 107 of this title.

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 89–358, §12(b), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 28, provided that the provisions of subsec. (b) of this section, relating to payment of reporting allowance at rate of $1 per month, as in effect before Mar. 3, 1966, were to remain in effect through May 31, 1966.

§3566. Definitions

(a) The term “Commonwealth Army veterans” means persons who served before July 1, 1946, in the organized military forces of the Government of the Philippines, while such forces were in the service of the Armed Forces pursuant to the military order of the President dated July 26, 1941, including among such military forces organized guerrilla forces under commanders appointed, designated, or subsequently recognized by the Commander-in-Chief, Southwest Pacific Area, or other competent authority in the Army of the United States, and who were discharged or released from such service under conditions other than dishonorable.

(b) The term “ ‘New’ Philippine Scouts” means Philippine Scouts who served under section 14 of the Armed Forces Voluntary Recruitment Act of 1945, and who were discharged or released from such service under conditions other than dishonorable.

(Added Pub. L. 89–613, §1, Sept. 30, 1966, 80 Stat. 861, §1766; renumbered §3566, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

References in Text

Section 14 of the Armed Forces Voluntary Recruitment Act of 1945, referred to in subsec. (b), means section 14 of act Oct. 6, 1945, ch. 393, 59 Stat. 543, which enacted section 637 of former Title 10, Army and Air Force, and was omitted from the Code in the revision and reenactment of Title 10, Armed Forces, by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 1.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1766 of this title as this section.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 101, 3565 of this title.

CHAPTER 36—ADMINISTRATION OF EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS

SUBCHAPTER I—STATE APPROVING AGENCIES

Sec.
3670.
Scope of approval.
3671.
Designation.
3672.
Approval of courses.
3673.
Cooperation.
3674.
Reimbursement of expenses.
3674A.
Evaluations of agency performance; qualifications and performance of agency personnel.
3675.
Approval of accredited courses.
3676.
Approval of nonaccredited courses.
3677.
Approval of training on the job.
3678.
Notice of approval of courses.
3679.
Disapproval of courses.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

3680.
Payment of educational assistance or subsistence allowances.
3680A.
Disapproval of enrollment in certain courses.
3681.
Limitations on educational assistance.
3682.
Control by agencies of the United States.
3683.
Conflicting interests.
3684.
Reports by veterans, eligible persons, and institutions; reporting fee.
3684A.
Procedures relating to computer matching programs.1

        

3685.
Overpayments to eligible persons or veterans.
3686.
Correspondence courses.
3687.
Apprenticeship or other on-job training.
3688.
Measurement of courses.
[3689.
Repealed.]
3690.
Overcharges by educational institutions; discontinuance of allowances; examination of records; false or misleading statements.
3691.
Change of program.
3692.
Advisory committee.
3693.
Compliance surveys.
3694.
Use of other Federal agencies.
3695.
Limitation on period of assistance under two or more programs.
3696.
Limitation on certain advertising, sales, and enrollment practices.
3697.
Funding of contract educational and vocational counseling.
3697A.
Educational and vocational counseling.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—EDUCATION LOANS

3698.
Eligibility for loans; amount and conditions of loans; interest rate on loans.
3699.
Revolving fund; insurance.

        

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §103(a)(1)(B), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3326, struck out item 3689 “Period of operation for approval”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §313(a)(8), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4333, added item 3680A.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(b)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, renumbered items 1770 to 1799 as 3670 to 3699, respectively.

Pub. L. 102–16, §2(b)(4), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 49, added item 1797A.

1990—Pub. L. 101–366, title II, §206(c), Aug. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 442, added item 1784A.

1988—Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §124(c)(3), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4175, substituted in heading for subchapter III “EDUCATION LOANS” for “EDUCATION LOANS TO ELIGIBLE VETERANS AND ELIGIBLE PERSONS”.

Pub. L. 100–687, div. B, title XIII, §1302(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4128, added item 1797.

Pub. L. 100–323, §13(b)(1)(B), May 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 573, added item 1774A.

1982—Pub. L. 97–295, §4(48), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308, substituted “Payment of educational assistance or subsistence allowances” for “Payment of educational or subsistence assistance allowances” in item 1780.

1980—Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §343(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2199, substituted “Reports by veterans, eligible persons, and institutions” for “Reports by institutions” in item 1784.

1976—Pub. L. 94–502, title V, §511(2), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2402, substituted “Compliance surveys” for “Institutions listed by Attorney General” in item 1793.

1974—Pub. L. 93–508, title II, §212(b), title III, §301(b), Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1586, 1591, added subchapter III heading and items 1796, 1798, and 1799.

1972—Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §406, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1091, redesignated items 1788 to 1791 as 1792 to 1795, added items 1780 and 1788 to 1791, and substituted in item 1786 “Correspondence courses” for “Examination of records” and in item 1787 “Apprenticeship or other on-job training” for “False or misleading statements”.

1970—Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §213(2), Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 84, substituted “Limitations on educational assistance” for “Nonduplication of benefits” as item 1781.

1968—Pub. L. 90–631, §1(d)(2), Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1331, added item 1791.

1967—Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §§304(e), 308(b), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 188, 189, added item 1777 and renumbered former items 1777 and 1778 as 1778 and 1779, respectively, and provided for the reporting fee in item 1784.

1966—Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(4), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 20, substituted “CHAPTER 36—ADMINISTRATION OF EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS” heading, including Subchapter I and II analyses, preceding section 1770 of this title for “SUBCHAPTER VII—STATE APPROVING AGENCIES” heading preceding section 1771 of this title, Subchapter VII heading being redesignated Subchapter I.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 113, 1713, 3013, 3231, 3241, 3452, 3461, 3462, 3470, 3471, 3481, 3485, 3501, 3511, 3521, 3531, 3532, 3565, 4213 of this title; title 5 section 5569; title 10 sections 2185, 16131; title 45 sections 911, 1014.

SUBCHAPTER I—STATE APPROVING AGENCIES

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in sections 3034, 3483, 3535 of this title; title 10 section 16136.

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

§3670. Scope of approval

(a) A course approved under and for the purposes of this chapter shall be deemed approved for the purposes of chapters 34 and 35 of this title.

(b) Any course approved under chapter 33 of this title, prior to February 1, 1965, under subchapter VII of chapter 35 of this title, prior to March 3, 1966, and not disapproved under section 3483, section 1656 (as in effect prior to February 1, 1965), or section 3679 of this title, shall be deemed approved for the purposes of this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(5), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 20, §1770; amended Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §403(1), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(49), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; renumbered §3670 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

References in Text

Chapter 33 of this title, prior to February 1, 1965, referred to in subsec. (b), means Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1174 to 1192, which was classified to sections 1601, 1610 to 1613, 1620 to 1626, 1631 to 1634, 1641 to 1645, 1651 to 1656, and 1661 to 1669 of this title, and was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Subchapter VII of chapter 35 of this title, prior to March 3, 1966, referred to in subsec. (b), means Pub. L. 88–126, §1, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 158 to 162, which was classified to sections 1771 to 1778 of this title, and was redesignated as subchapter I of this chapter by section 3(a)(4) of Pub. L. 89–358.

Section 1656 of this title, as in effect prior to February 1, 1965, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 85–857, §1656, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1189, which was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 89–358, and is covered by section 3679 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1770 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3483” for “1683” and “3679” for “1779”.

1982—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–295 substituted “March 3, 1966” and “section 1779” for “the date of enactment of this chapter” and “section 1778”, respectively.

1972—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–540 substituted “1683” for “1686”.

§3671. Designation

(a) Unless otherwise established by the law of the State concerned, the chief executive of each State is requested to create or designate a State department or agency as the “State approving agency” for such State for the purposes of this chapter and chapters 34 and 35 of this title.

(b)(1) If any State fails or declines to create or designate a State approving agency, or fails to enter into an agreement under section 3674(a), the provisions of this chapter which refer to the State approving agency shall, with respect to such State, be deemed to refer to the Secretary.

(2) In the case of courses subject to approval by the Secretary under section 3672 of this title, the provisions of this chapter which refer to a State approving agency shall be deemed to refer to the Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 88–126, §1, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 158, §1771; amended Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(6), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 20; Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §403(2), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090; Pub. L. 94–502, title V, §513(a)(1), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2402; Pub. L. 100–323, §13(b)(4), May 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 573; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3671 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1771 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3674(a)” for “1774(a)” in par. (1) and “3672” for “1772” in par. (2).

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–323 inserted “or fails to enter into an agreement under section 1774(a),” after “State approving agency,”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “such” for “his”.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–540 inserted “this chapter and” after “purposes of”.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–358 substituted “chapters 34 and 35 of this title” for “this chapter after the date for the expiration of all education and training provided in chapter 33 of this title. Such agency may be the agency designated or created in accordance with section 1641 of this title”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

§3672. Approval of courses

(a) An eligible person or veteran shall receive the benefits of this chapter and chapters 34 and 35 of this title while enrolled in a course of education offered by an educational institution only if (1) such course is approved as provided in this chapter and chapters 34 and 35 of this title by the State approving agency for the State where such educational institution is located, or by the Secretary, or (2) such course is approved (A) for the enrollment of the particular individual under the provisions of section 3536 of this title or (B) for special restorative training under subchapter V of chapter 35 of this title. Approval of courses by State approving agencies shall be in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and chapters 34 and 35 of this title and such other regulations and policies as the State approving agency may adopt. Each State approving agency shall furnish the Secretary with a current list of educational institutions specifying courses which it has approved, and, in addition to such list, it shall furnish such other information to the Secretary as it and the Secretary may determine to be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter and chapters 34 and 35 of this title. Each State approving agency shall notify the Secretary of the disapproval of any course previously approved and shall set forth the reasons for such disapproval.

(b) The Secretary shall be responsible for the approval of courses of education offered by any agency of the Federal Government authorized under other laws to supervise such education. The Secretary may approve any course in any other educational institution in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and chapters 34 and 35 of this title.

(c) In the case of programs of apprenticeship where—

(1) the standards have been approved by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to section 2 of the Act of August 16, 1937 (popularly known as the “National Apprenticeship Act”) (29 U.S.C. 50a), as a national apprenticeship program for operation in more than one State, and

(2) the training establishment is a carrier directly engaged in interstate commerce which provides such training in more than one State,


the Secretary shall act as a “State approving agency” as such term is used in section 3687(a)(1) of this title and shall be responsible for the approval of all such programs.

(d) Pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Secretary in consultation with the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary shall actively promote the development of programs of training on the job (including programs of apprenticeship) for the purposes of sections 3677 and 3687 of this title and shall utilize the services of disabled veterans’ outreach program specialists under section 4103A of this title to promote the development of such programs.

(e) A program of education exclusively by correspondence, and the correspondence portion of a combination correspondence-residence course leading to a vocational objective, that is offered by an educational institution (as defined in section 3452(c) of this title) may be approved only if (1) the educational institution is accredited by an entity recognized by the Secretary of Education, and (2) at least 50 percent of those pursuing such a program or course require six months or more to complete the program or course.

(Added Pub. L. 88–126, §1, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 158, §1772; amended Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(7), (8), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 20, 21; Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §211, Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 83; Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §403(3)–(5), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090; Pub. L. 96–466, title V, §502, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2203; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(50), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3672 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §605(a)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4671.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–446 added subsec. (e).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1772 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3536” for “1736”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3687(a)(1)” for “1787(a)(1)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3677 and 3687” for “1777 and 1787” and “4103A” for “2003A”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1982—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(50)(A), inserted “of this title” after “34 and 35” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(50)(B), substituted “section 2 of the Act of August 16, 1937 (popularly known as the ‘National Apprenticeship Act’) (29 U.S.C. 50a),” for “section 50a of title 29”.

1980—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–466 added subsec. (d).

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–540, §403(3), (4), inserted “this chapter and” before “chapters 34 and 35” and substituted “1736” for “1737”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–540, §403(3), inserted “this chapter and” before “chapters 34 and 35”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–540, §403(5), substituted “1787(a)(1)” for “1683(a)(1)”.

1970—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–219 added subsec. (c).

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(7), (8), substituted “under subchapter V of chapter 35 of this title” for “under subchapter V of this chapter” in first sentence, and substituted “chapters 34 and 35” for “this chapter” twice in first sentence, and wherever appearing in second, third, and fourth sentences, and inserted “or veteran” after “eligible person”, in first sentence.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(7), substituted “chapters 34 and 35” for “this chapter”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 605(b) of Pub. L. 103–446 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 3675, 3680, and 3686 of this title] shall apply with respect to programs of education exclusively by correspondence and to correspondence-residence courses commencing more than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 1994].”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(e) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 4101 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3671, 3675 of this title.

§3673. Cooperation

(a) The Secretary and each State approving agency shall take cognizance of the fact that definite duties, functions, and responsibilities are conferred upon the Secretary and each State approving agency under the educational programs established under this chapter and chapters 34 and 35 of this title. To assure that such programs are effectively and efficiently administered, the cooperation of the Secretary and the State approving agencies is essential. It is necessary to establish an exchange of information pertaining to activities of educational institutions, and particular attention should be given to the enforcement of approval standards, enforcement of enrollment restrictions, and fraudulent and other criminal activities on the part of persons connected with educational institutions in which eligible persons or veterans are enrolled under this chapter and chapters 34 and 35 of this title.

(b) The Secretary will furnish the State approving agencies with copies of such Department of Veterans Affairs informational material as may aid them in carrying out chapters 34 and 35 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 88–126, §1, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 158, §1773; amended Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(7), (11), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 20, 21; Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §403(6), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(51), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3673, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1773 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing in subsecs. (a) and (b) and “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration” in subsec. (b).

1982—Pub. L. 97–295 inserted “of this title” after “34 and 35” wherever appearing.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–540 inserted “this chapter and” before “chapters 34 and 35” wherever appearing.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(7), (11), substituted “chapters 34 and 35” for “this chapter” twice and inserted “or veterans” after “eligible persons”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(7), substituted “chapters 34 and 35” for “this chapter”.

§3674. Reimbursement of expenses

(a)(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) through (4) of this subsection, the Secretary is authorized to enter into contracts or agreements with State and local agencies to pay such State and local agencies for reasonable and necessary expenses of salary and travel incurred by employees of such agencies and an allowance for administrative expenses in accordance with the formula contained in subsection (b) of this section in (A) rendering necessary services in ascertaining the qualifications of educational institutions for furnishing courses of education to eligible persons or veterans under this chapter and chapters 30 through 35 of this title and chapter 106 of title 10, and in the supervision of such educational institutions, and (B) furnishing, at the request of the Secretary, any other services in connection with such chapters. Each such contract or agreement shall be conditioned upon compliance with the standards and provisions of such chapters. The Secretary may also reimburse such agencies for work performed by their subcontractors where such work has a direct relationship to the requirements of such chapters, and has had the prior approval of the Secretary.

(2)(A) The Secretary shall, effective at the beginning of fiscal year 1988, make payments to State and local agencies, out of amounts available for the payment of readjustment benefits, for the reasonable and necessary expenses of salary and travel incurred by employees of such agencies in carrying out contracts or agreements entered into under this section, for expenses approved by the Secretary that are incurred in carrying out activities described in section 3674A(a)(4) 1 of this title (except for administrative overhead expenses allocated to such activities), and for the allowance for administrative expenses described in subsection (b).

(B) The Secretary shall make such a payment to an agency within a reasonable time after the agency has submitted a report pursuant to paragraph (3)(A) 2 of this subsection.

(C) Subject to paragraph (4) of this subsection, the amount of any such payment made to an agency for any period shall be equal to the amount of the reasonable and necessary expenses of salary and travel certified by such agency for such period in accordance with paragraph (3) of this subsection plus the allowance for administrative expenses described in subsection (b) and the amount of expenses approved by the Secretary that are incurred in carrying out activities described in section 3674A(a)(4) 1 of this title for such period (except for administrative overhead expenses allocated to such activities).

(3) Each State and local agency with which a contract or agreement is entered into under this section shall submit to the Secretary on a monthly or quarterly basis, as determined by the agency, a report containing a certification of the reasonable and necessary expenses incurred for salary and travel by such agency under such contract or agreement for the period covered by the report. The report shall be submitted in the form and manner required by the Secretary.

(4) The total amount made available under this section for any fiscal year may not exceed $13,000,000. For any fiscal year in which the total amount that would be made available under this section would exceed $13,000,000 except for the provisions of this paragraph, the Secretary shall provide that each agency shall receive the same percentage of $13,000,000 as the agency would have received of the total amount that would have been made available without the limitation of this paragraph.

(b) The allowance for administrative expenses incurred pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be paid in accordance with the following formula:


 
Total salary cost reimbursable under this sectionAllowable for administrative expense
$5,000 or less $693.
Over $5,000 but not exceeding $10,000 $1,247.
Over $10,000 but not exceeding $35,000 $1,247 for the first $10,000, plus $1,155 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof.
Over $35,000 but not exceeding $40,000 $7,548.
Over $40,000 but not exceeding $75,000 $7,548 for the first $40,000, plus $999 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof.
Over $75,000 but not exceeding $80,000 $14,969.
Over $80,000 $14,969 for the first $80,000, plus $872 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof.

(c) Each State and local agency with which the Secretary contracts or enters into an agreement under subsection (a) of this section shall report to the Secretary on September 30, 1978, and periodically, but not less often than annually, thereafter, as determined by the Secretary, on the activities in the preceding twelve months (or the period which has elapsed since the last report under this subsection was submitted) carried out under such contract or agreement. Each such report shall describe, in such detail as the Secretary shall prescribe, services performed and determinations made in connection with ascertaining the qualifications of educational institutions in connection with this chapter and chapters 32, 34, and 35 of this title and in supervising such institutions.

(Added Pub. L. 88–126, §1, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 159, §1774; amended Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(7), (8), (11), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 20, 21; Pub. L. 90–631, §4, Oct. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 1334; Pub. L. 92–540, title IV, §403(7), 411, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1090, 1092; Pub. L. 93–508, title II, §210(1), Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 94–502, title V, §503, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2399; Pub. L. 95–202, title III, §303, Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1441; Pub. L. 96–466, title II, §§203(1), 213(1), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2188, 2190; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(51), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 100–323, §13(a)(1), (b)(5), May 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 571, 573; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§414, 423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2085, 2092; Pub. L. 102–16, §10(a)(7), Mar. 22, 1991, 105 Stat. 56; renumbered §3674 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §606(a)(1), (b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4672.)

References in Text

Section 3674A(a)(4) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A), (C), was redesignated section 3674A(a)(3), and section 3674A(a)(5) was redesignated section 3674A(a)(4), by Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §606(c)(1)(B), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4672.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–446, §606(b), struck out “(A)” before “Each State” and struck out subpar. (B) which read as follows: “The Secretary shall transmit a report to the Congress on a quarterly basis which summarizes—

“(i) the amounts for which certifications were made by State and local agencies in the reports submitted under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph with respect to the quarter for which the report is made; and

“(ii) the amounts of the payments made by the Secretary for such quarter with respect to such certifications and with respect to administrative expenses.”

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–446, §606(a)(1), substituted “$13,000,000” for “$12,000,000” wherever appearing.

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1774 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 102–16 substituted “chapter 106” for “chapters 106 and 107”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A), (C). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3674A(a)(4)” for “1774A(a)(4)”.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–237, §414(1), substituted “section, for expenses approved by the Secretary that are incurred in carrying out activities described in section 1774A(a)(4) of this title (except for administrative overhead expenses allocated to such activities), and for” for “section and for”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–237, §414(2), inserted before period at end “and the amount of expenses approved by the Secretary that are incurred in carrying out activities described in section 1774A(a)(4) of this title for such period (except for administrative overhead expenses allocated to such activities)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–323, §13(b)(5), in subpar. (A) substituted “chapters 30 through 35 of this title and chapters 106 and 107 of title 10” for “chapters 34 and 35 of this title”, in subpar. (B) substituted “such chapters” for “chapters 34 and 35 of this title”, and in provisions following subpar. (B) substituted “provisions of such chapters” for “provisions of chapters 34 and 35 of this title” and “requirements of such chapters” for “requirements of chapter 32, 34, 35, or 36 of this title”.

Pub. L. 100–323, §13(a)(1)(A), (B), substituted “(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) through (4) of this subsection, the Administrator is” for “The Administrator is”, and redesignated pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 100–323, §13(a)(1)(C), added pars. (2) to (4).

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–295 inserted “of this title” after “34 and 35” wherever appearing.

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–466, §213(1), increased allowance for administrative expenses by substituting “$693” for “$662”, “$1,247” for “$1,191” in two places, “$1,155” for “$1,103”, “$7,548” for “$7,205” in two places, “$999” for “$953”, “$14,969” for “$14,288” in two places, and “$872” for “$833”.

Pub. L. 96–466, §203(1), increased allowance for administrative expenses by substituting “$662” for “$630”, “$1,191” for “$1,134” in two places, “$1,103” for “$1,050”, “$7,205” for “$6,862” in two places, “$953” for “$908”, “$14,288” for “$13,608” in two places, and “$833” for “$793”.

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–202, §303(1), increased allowance for administrative expenses by substituting “$630” for “$600”, “$1,134” for “$1,080” in two places, “$1,050” for “$1,000”, “$6,862” for “$6,535” in two places, “$908” for “$865”, “$13,608” for “$12,960” in two places, and “$793” for “$755”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–202, §303(2), added subsec. (c).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §503(1), inserted provision authorizing Administrator to reimburse State and local agencies for work performed by their subcontractors, where the work performed has a direct relationship to the requirements of this chapter, chapters 32, 34, and 35, and has prior approval of the Administrator.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §503(2), increased allowance for administrative expenses from “$550” to “$600”; “$1000” to “$1080”; “$1000 for the first $10,000 plus $925 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof” to “$1,080 for the first $10,000 plus $1,000 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof”; “$6,050” to “$6,535”; “$6,050 for the first $40,000 plus $800 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof” to “$6,535 for the first $40,000 plus $865 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof”; “$12,000” to “$12,960”; “$12,000 for the first $80,000 plus $700 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof” to “$12,960 for the first $80,000 plus $755 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof”.

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–508 increased allowance for administrative expenses from “$500” to “$550”; “$900” to “$1,000”; “$900 for the first $10,000 plus $800 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof” to “$1,000 for the first $10,000 plus $925 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof”; “$5,250” to “$6,050”; “$5,250 for the first $40,000 plus $700 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof” to “$6,050 for the first $40,000 plus $800 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof”; “$10,450” to “$12,000”; and “$10,450 for the first $80,000 plus $600 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof” to “$12,000 for the first $80,000 plus $700 for each additional $5,000 or fraction thereof”.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–540, §403(7), inserted “this chapter and” before “chapters 34 and 35” in cl. (1).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–540, §411, provided for recomputation of formula for reimbursement of expenses by doubling amounts paid as allowance for administrative expenses.

1968—Pub. L. 90–631 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted “and an allowance for administrative expenses in accordance with the formula contained in subsection (b) of this section” after “employees of such agencies”, and added subsec. (b).

1966—Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(7), (11), substituted “chapters 34 and 35” for “this chapter” in three places and inserted “or veterans” after “eligible persons” in cl. (1).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 606(a)(2) of Pub. L. 103–446 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to services provided under such section after September 30, 1994.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 13(a)(1)(A), (B), (b)(5) of Pub. L. 100–223 effective May 20, 1988, and amendment by section 13(a)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 100–323 effective for all of fiscal year 1988 and subsequent fiscal years, see section 16(a), (b)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 100–323, set out as a note under section 3104 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by sections 203(1) and 213(1) of Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, and Jan. 1, 1981, respectively, see section 802(b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3482 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–202 effective first day of first month beginning 60 days after Nov. 23, 1977, see section 501 of Pub. L. 95–202, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 703(a) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–508 effective Dec. 3, 1974, see section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 90–631 provided that: “The amendments made by section 4 of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to contracts and agreements entered into under section 1774 [now 3674] of title 38, United States Code, effective for periods beginning after June 30, 1968.”

Reimbursement From Account Used for Payment of Readjustment Benefits

Section 13(a)(2) of Pub. L. 100–323 provided that: “If any payment is made to State or local approving agencies with respect to activities carried out under subchapter I of chapter 36 of title 38, United States Code, for fiscal year 1988 before the date of the enactment of this Act [May 20, 1988] and from an account other than the account used for payment of readjustment benefits, the account from which such payment was made shall be reimbursed from the account used for payment of readjustment benefits.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3671, 3674A, 3683 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(3)”.

§3674A. Evaluations of agency performance; qualifications and performance of agency personnel

(a) The Secretary shall—

(1)(A) conduct, in conjunction with State approving agencies, an annual evaluation of each State approving agency on the basis of standards developed by the Secretary in conjunction with the State approving agencies, and (B) provide each such agency an opportunity to comment on the evaluation;

(2) take into account the results of annual evaluations carried out under clause (1) when negotiating the terms and conditions of a contract or agreement under section 3674 of this title;

(3) cooperate with State approving agencies in developing and implementing a uniform national curriculum, to the extent practicable, for training new employees and for continuing the training of employees of such agencies, and sponsor, with the agencies, such training and continuation of training; and

(4) prescribe prototype qualification and performance standards, developed in conjunction with State approving agencies, for use by such agencies in the development of qualification and performance standards for State approving agency personnel carrying out approval responsibilities under a contract or agreement entered into under section 3674(a).


(b)(1) Each State approving agency carrying out a contract or agreement with the Secretary under section 3674(a) of this title shall—

(A) apply qualification and performance standards based on the standards developed under subsection (a)(4); and

(B) make available to any person, upon request, the criteria used to carry out its functions under a contract or agreement entered into under section 3674(a) of this title.


(2) In developing and applying standards described in subsection (a)(4), the State approving agency may take into consideration the State's merit system requirements and other local requirements and conditions.

(3) The Secretary shall provide assistance in developing such standards to a State approving agency that requests it.

(Added Pub. L. 100–323, §13(b)(1)(A), May 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 572, §1774A; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3674A and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §606(c), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4672; Pub. L. 105–368, title X, §1005(b)(8), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3365.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–368 struck out “after the 18-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this section” after “section 3674(a) of this title” in introductory provisions.

1994—Subsec. (a)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 103–446, §606(c)(1), redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (3) and (4), respectively, and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: “supervise functionally the provision of course-approval services by State approving agencies under this subchapter;”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–446, §606(c)(2)(A), substituted “subsection (a)(4)” for “subsection (a)(5) of this section” in pars. (1)(A) and (2).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–446, §606(c)(2)(B), inserted “of this title” after “section 3674(a)” in introductory provisions and subpar. (B).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1774A of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(2), (5). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3674” for “1774” in par. (2) and “3674(a)” for “1774(a)” in par. (5).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3674(a)” for “1774(a)” in introductory provisions and in subpar. (B).

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Implementation

Section 13(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–323 directed Administrator, for purposes of implementing amendments by section 13(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–323, and within 120 days after May 20, 1988, to publish prototype standards developed under subsec. (a)(5) of this section, directed each State approving agency, within 1 year after Administrator published the standards, to submit to Administrator a copy of the standards to be implemented by such agency under subsec. (b)(1)(A) of this section, and provided that Administrator could comment on consistency of the State's standards and prototype standards.

Applicability of Qualification Standards to Persons Employed on May 20, 1988

Section 13(b)(3) of Pub. L. 100–323 provided that: “None of the qualification standards implemented pursuant to the amendments made by paragraph (1) [enacting this section] shall apply to any person employed by a State approving agency on the date of the enactment of this Act [May 20, 1988] as long as such person remains in the position in which the person is employed on such date.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3674, 3682 of this title.

§3675. Approval of accredited courses

(a)(1) A State approving agency may approve the courses offered by an educational institution when—

(A) such courses have been accredited and approved by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association;

(B) such courses are conducted under the Act of February 23, 1917 (20 U.S.C. 11 et seq.); 1

(C) such courses are accepted by the State department of education for credit for a teacher's certificate or a teacher's degree; or

(D) such courses are approved by the State as meeting the requirement of regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under sections 1819(f)(2)(A)(i) and 1919(f)(2)(A)(i) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395i–3(f)(2)(A)(i) and 1396r(f)(2)(A)(i)).


(2)(A) For the purposes of this chapter, the Secretary of Education shall publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies and associations which that Secretary determines to be reliable authority as to the quality of training offered by an educational institution.

(B) Except as provided in section 3672(e) of this title, a State approving agency may utilize the accreditation of any accrediting association or agency listed pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph for approval of courses specifically accredited and approved by such accrediting association or agency.

(3)(A) An educational institution shall submit an application for approval of courses to the appropriate State approving agency. In making application for approval, the institution (other than an elementary school or secondary school) shall transmit to the State approving agency copies of its catalog or bulletin which must be certified as true and correct in content and policy by an authorized representative of the institution.

(B) Each catalog or bulletin transmitted by an institution under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall—

(i) state with specificity the requirements of the institution with respect to graduation;

(ii) include the information required under paragraphs (6) and (7) of section 3676(b) of this title; and

(iii) include any attendance standards of the institution, if the institution has and enforces such standards.


(b) As a condition of approval under this section, the State approving agency must find the following:

(1) The educational institution keeps adequate records, as prescribed by the State approving agency, to show the progress and grades of the eligible person or veteran and to show that satisfactory standards relating to progress and conduct are enforced.

(2) The educational institution maintains a written record of the previous education and training of the eligible person or veteran that clearly indicates that appropriate credit has been given by the educational institution for previous education and training, with the training period shortened proportionately.

(3) The educational institution and its approved courses meet the criteria of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 3676(c) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 88–126, §1, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 159, §1775; amended Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(8), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 21; Pub. L. 94–502, title V, §§504, 513(a)(2), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2399, 2402; Pub. L. 96–466, title VIII, §801(d), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2216; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3675 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §312, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4330; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §605(a)(2)(A), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4672; Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §103(c), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3326.)

References in Text

Act of February 23, 1917, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B), is act Feb. 23, 1917, ch. 114, 39 Stat. 929, as amended, known as the Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act, which was classified to sections 11 to 15 and 16 to 28 of Title 20, Education, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–33, title VI, §6201, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 653. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 11 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–275 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “As a condition to approval under this section, the State approving agency must find that adequate records are kept by the educational institution to show the progress of each eligible person or veteran and must include as a minimum (except for attendance) the requirements set forth in section 3676(c)(7) of this title. The State approving agency must also find that the educational institution maintains a written record of the previous education and training of the eligible person or veteran and clearly indicates that appropriate credit has been given by the institution for previous education and training, with the training period shortened proportionately and the eligible person or veteran and the Secretary so notified.”

1994—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–446 substituted “Except as provided in section 3672(e) of this title, a State” for “A State”.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–568 designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former par. (1) as subpar. (A), redesignated former par. (2) as subpar. (B), substituted “the Act of February 23, 1917 (20 U.S.C. 11 et seq.);” for “sections 11–28 of title 20; or”, redesignated former par. (3) as subpar. (C), added subpar. (D) and pars. (2) and (3), and struck out former concluding provisions which read as follows: “For the purposes of this chapter the Secretary of Education shall publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies and associations which the Secretary determines to be reliable authority as to the quality of training offered by an educational institution and the State approving agencies may, upon concurrence, utilize the accreditation of such accrediting associations or agencies for approval of the courses specifically accredited and approved by such accrediting association or agency. In making application for approval, the institution shall transmit to the State approving agency copies of its catalog or bulletin which must be certified as true and correct in content and policy by an authorized representative of the school. The catalog or bulletin must specifically state its progress requirements for graduation and must include as a minimum the information required by sections 3676(b)(6) and (7) of this title.”

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1775 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3676(b)(6)” for “1776(b)(6)” in last sentence.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3676(c)(7)” for “1776(c)(7)”.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–466 substituted “Secretary” for “Commissioner” in two places.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §513(a)(2), substituted “the Commissioner determines” for “he determines”.

Pub. L. 94–502, §504(1), inserted provision requiring that copies of the school bulletin be certified by an authorized representative of the school and that the bulletin specify the progress requirements for graduation and certain other information.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §504(2), inserted provision requiring that school records contain as a minimum, except for attendance, the requirements set forth in section 1776(c)(7) of this title.

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–358 inserted “or veteran” after “eligible person” in three places.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–446 applicable with respect to programs of education exclusively by correspondence and to correspondence-residence courses commencing more than 90 days after Nov. 2, 1994, see section 605(b) of Pub. L. 103–446, set out as a note under section 3672 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 802(h) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by sections 504 and 513(a)(2) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Dec. 1, 1976, and Oct. 15, 1976, respectively, see section 703(b), (c) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3452, 3501, 3676 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3676. Approval of nonaccredited courses

(a) No course of education which has not been approved by a State approving agency pursuant to section 3675 of this title, which is offered by a public or private, profit or nonprofit, educational institution shall be approved for the purposes of this chapter unless the educational institution offering such course submits to the appropriate State approving agency a written application for approval of such course in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

(b) Such application shall be accompanied by not less than two copies of the current catalog or bulletin which is certified as true and correct in content and policy by an authorized owner or official and includes the following:

(1) Identifying data, such as volume number and date of publication;

(2) Names of the institution and its governing body, officials and faculty;

(3) A calendar of the institution showing legal holidays, beginning and ending date of each quarter, term, or semester, and other important dates;

(4) Institution policy and regulations on enrollment with respect to enrollment dates and specific entrance requirements for each course;

(5) Institution policy and regulations relative to leave, absences, class cuts, makeup work, tardiness and interruptions for unsatisfactory attendance;

(6) Institution policy and regulations relative to standards of progress required of the student by the institution (this policy will define the grading system of the institution, the minimum grades considered satisfactory, conditions for interruption for unsatisfactory grades or progress and a description of the probationary period, if any, allowed by the institution, and conditions of reentrance for those students dismissed for unsatisfactory progress. A statement will be made regarding progress records kept by the institution and furnished the student);

(7) Institution policy and regulations relating to student conduct and conditions for dismissal for unsatisfactory conduct;

(8) Detailed schedules of fees, charges for tuition, books, supplies, tools, student activities, laboratory fees, service charges, rentals, deposits, and all other charges;

(9) Policy and regulations of the institution relative to the refund of the unused portion of tuition, fees, and other charges in the event the student does not enter the course or withdraws or is discontinued therefrom;

(10) A description of the available space, facilities, and equipment;

(11) A course outline for each course for which approval is requested, showing subjects or units in the course, type of work or skill to be learned, and approximate time and clock hours to be spent on each subject or unit; and

(12) Policy and regulations of the institution relative to granting credit for previous educational training.


(c) The appropriate State approving agency may approve the application of such institution when the institution and its non-accredited courses are found upon investigation to have met the following criteria:

(1) The courses, curriculum, and instruction are consistent in quality, content, and length with similar courses in public schools and other private schools in the State, with recognized accepted standards.

(2) There is in the institution adequate space, equipment, instructional material, and instructor personnel to provide training of good quality.

(3) Educational and experience qualifications of directors, administrators, and instructors are adequate.

(4) The institution maintains a written record of the previous education and training of the eligible person and clearly indicates that appropriate credit has been given by the institution for previous education and training, with the training period shortened proportionately and the eligible person and the Secretary so notified.

(5) A copy of the course outline, schedule of tuition, fees, and other charges, regulations pertaining to absence, grading policy, and rules of operation and conduct will be furnished the eligible person upon enrollment.

(6) Upon completion of training, the eligible person is given a certificate by the institution indicating the approved course and indicating that training was satisfactorily completed.

(7) Adequate records as prescribed by the State approving agency are kept to show attendance and progress or grades, and satisfactory standards relating to attendance, progress, and conduct are enforced.

(8) The institution complies with all local, city, county, municipal, State, and Federal regulations, such as fire codes, building and sanitation codes. The State approving agency may require such evidence of compliance as is deemed necessary.

(9) The institution is financially sound and capable of fulfilling its commitments for training.

(10) The institution does not utilize advertising of any type which is erroneous or misleading, either by actual statement, omission, or intimation. The institution shall not be deemed to have met this requirement until the State approving agency (A) has ascertained from the Federal Trade Commission whether the Commission has issued an order to the institution to cease and desist from any act or practice, and (B) has, if such an order has been issued, given due weight to that fact.

(11) The institution does not exceed its enrollment limitations as established by the State approving agency.

(12) The institution's administrators, directors, owners, and instructors are of good reputation and character.

(13) The institution has and maintains a policy for the refund of the unused portion of tuition, fees, and other charges in the event the eligible person fails to enter the course or withdraws or is discontinued therefrom at any time prior to completion and such policy must provide that the amount charged to the eligible person for tuition, fees, and other charges for a portion of the course shall not exceed the approximate pro rata portion of the total charges for tuition, fees, and other charges that the length of the completed portion of the course bears to its total length.

(14) Such additional criteria as may be deemed necessary by the State approving agency.


(d) The Secretary may waive, in whole or in part, the requirements of subsection (c)(13) of this section in the case of an educational institution which—

(1) is a college, university, or similar institution offering postsecondary level academic instruction that leads to an associate or higher degree,

(2) is operated by an agency of a State or of a unit of local government,

(3) is located within such State or, in the case of an institution operated by an agency of a unit of local government, within the boundaries of the area over which such unit has taxing jurisdiction, and

(4) is a candidate for accreditation by a regional accrediting association,


if the Secretary determines, pursuant to regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, that such requirements would work an undue administrative hardship because the total amount of tuition, fees, and other charges at such institution is nominal.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, a course of education shall not be approved under this section if it is to be pursued in whole or in part by independent study.

(Added Pub. L. 88–126, §1, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 159, §1776; amended Pub. L. 89–358, §3(a)(9), Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 21; Pub. L. 97–66, title VI, §606, Oct. 17, 1981, 95 Stat. 1037; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3676 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §313(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4331.)

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–568 added subsec. (e).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1776 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3675” for “1775”.

1989—Subsecs. (c)(4), (d). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1981—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–66 added subsec. (d).

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–358 struck out “1653 or” before “1775”.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–66 effective Oct. 17, 1981, see section 701(b)(1) of Pub. L. 97–66, set out as a note under section 1114 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3675 of this title.

§3677. Approval of training on the job

(a) Any State approving agency may approve a program of training on the job (other than a program of apprenticeship) only when it finds that the job which is the objective of the training is one in which progression and appointment to the next higher classification are based upon skills learned through organized and supervised training on the job and not on such factors as length of service and normal turnover, and that the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of this section are met.

(b)(1) The training establishment offering training which is desired to be approved for the purposes of this chapter must submit to the appropriate State approving agency a written application for approval which, in addition to furnishing such information as is required by the State approving agency, contains a certification that—

(A) the wages to be paid the eligible veteran or person (i) upon entrance into training, are not less than wages paid nonveterans in the same training position and are at least 50 per centum of the wages paid for the job for which the veteran or person is to be trained, and (ii) such wages will be increased in regular periodic increments until, not later than the last full month of the training period, they will be at least 85 per centum of the wages paid for the job for which such eligible veteran or person is being trained; and

(B) there is reasonable certainty that the job for which the eligible veteran or person is to be trained will be available to the veteran or person at the end of the training period.


(2) The requirement under paragraph (1)(A)(ii) shall not apply with respect to a training establishment operated by the United States or by a State or local government.

(c) As a condition for approving a program of training on the job (other than a program of apprenticeship) the State approving agency must find upon investigation that the following criteria are met:

(1) The training content of the course is adequate to qualify the eligible veteran or person for appointment to the job for which the veteran or person is to be trained.

(2) The job customarily requires full-time training for a period of not less than six months and not more than two years.

(3) The length of the training period is not longer than that customarily required by the training establishments in the community to provide an eligible veteran or person with the required skills, arrange for the acquiring of job knowledge, technical information, and other facts which the eligible veteran or person will need to learn in order to become competent on the job for which the veteran or person is being trained.

(4) Provision is made for related instruction for the individual eligible veteran or person who may need it.

(5) There is in the training establishment adequate space, equipment, instructional material, and instructor personnel to provide satisfactory training on the job.

(6) Adequate records are kept to show the progress made by each eligible veteran or person toward such veteran's or person's job objective.

(7) No course of training will be considered bona fide if given to an eligible veteran or person who is already qualified by training and experience for the job.

(8) A signed copy of the training agreement for each eligible veteran or person, including the training program and wage scale as approved by the State approving agency, is provided to the veteran or person and to the Secretary and the State approving agency by the employer.

(9) That the course meets such other criteria as may be established by the State approving agency.

(Added Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §304(d), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 186, §1777; amended Pub. L. 91–219, title II, §212, Mar. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 83; Pub. L. 92–540, title III, §314, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1084; Pub. L. 94–502, title V, §513(a)(3), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2402; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3677, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §205(a), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3327.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–368 designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, of par. (1), redesignated former cls. (A) and (B) of par. (1) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, of subpar. (A), and added par. (2).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1777 of this title as this section.

1989—Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “the veteran or person” for “he” and “him”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “the veteran or person” for “he” in two places, and “such veteran's or person's” for “his”.

1972—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 92–540 inserted “or person” after “veteran” wherever appearing.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–219 inserted “and supervised”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–368, title II, §205(b), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3327, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to approval of programs of training on the job under section 3677 of title 38, United States Code, on or after October 1, 1998.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective first day of first calendar month which begins more than ten days after Aug. 31, 1967, see section 405 of Pub. L. 90–77, set out as an Effective Date of 1967 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3672, 3687 of this title.

§3678. Notice of approval of courses

The State approving agency, upon determining that an educational institution has complied with all the requirements of this chapter, will issue a letter to such institution setting forth the courses which have been approved for the purposes of this chapter, and will furnish an official copy of such letter and any subsequent amendments to the Secretary. The letter of approval shall be accompanied by a copy of the catalog or bulletin of the institution, as approved by the State approving agency, and shall contain the following information:

(1) date of letter and effective date of approval of courses;

(2) proper address and name of each educational institution;

(3) authority for approval and conditions of approval, referring specifically to the approved catalog or bulletin published by the educational institution;

(4) name of each course approved;

(5) where applicable, enrollment limitations such as maximum numbers authorized and student-teacher ratio;

(6) signature of responsible official of State approving agency; and

(7) such other fair and reasonable provisions as are considered necessary by the appropriate State approving agency.

(Added Pub. L. 88–126, §1, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 162, §1777; renumbered §1778, Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §304(d), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 186; amended Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3678, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1778 of this title as this section.

1989—Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator”.

§3679. Disapproval of courses

(a) Any course approved for the purposes of this chapter which fails to meet any of the requirements of this chapter shall be immediately disapproved by the appropriate State approving agency. An educational institution which has its courses disapproved by a State approving agency will be notified of such disapproval by a certified or registered letter of notification and a return receipt secured.

(b) Each State approving agency shall notify the Secretary of each course which it has disapproved under this section. The Secretary shall notify the State approving agency of the Secretary's disapproval of any educational institution under chapter 31 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 88–126, §1, Sept. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 162, §1778; renumbered §1779, Pub. L. 90–77, title III, §304(d), Aug. 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 186; amended Pub. L. 94–502, title V, §513(a)(4), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2402; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §423(b)(1)(A), (2), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2092; renumbered §3679, Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 renumbered section 1779 of this title as this section.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–237 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing and “Secretary's” for “Administrator's”.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502 substituted “the Administrator's disapproval” for “his disapproval”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3670 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in section 3034 of this title; title 10 section 16136.

§3680. Payment of educational assistance or subsistence allowances

Period for Which Payment May Be Made

(a) Payment of educational assistance or subsistence allowances to eligible veterans or eligible persons pursuing a program of education or training, other than a program by correspondence, in an educational institution under chapter 31, 34, or 35 of this title shall be paid as provided in this section and, as applicable, in section 3108, 3482, 3491, or 3532 of this title. Such payments shall be paid only for the period of such veterans’ or persons’ enrollment in, and pursuit of, such program, but no amount shall be paid—

(1) to any eligible veteran or eligible person for any period when such veteran or person is not pursuing such veteran's or person's course in accordance with the regularly established policies and regulations of the educational institution, with the provisions of such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, and with the requirements of this chapter or of chapter 34 or 35 of this title, but payment may be made for an actual period of pursuit of one or more unit subjects pursued for a period of time shorter than the enrollment period at the educational institution;

(2) to any eligible veteran or person for auditing a course; or

(3) to any eligible veteran or person for a course for which the grade assigned is not used in computing the requirements for graduation including a course from which the student withdraws unless—

(A) the eligible veteran or person withdraws because he or she is ordered to active duty; or

(B) the Secretary finds there are mitigating circumstances, except that, in the first instance of withdrawal (without regard to withdrawals described in subclause (A) of this clause) by the eligible veteran or person from a course or courses with respect to which the veteran or person has been paid assistance under this title, mitigating circumstances shall be considered to exist with respect to courses totaling not more than six semester hours or the equivalent thereof.


Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Secretary may, subject to such regulations as the Secretary shall prescribe, continue to pay allowances to eligible veterans and eligible persons enrolled in courses set forth in clause (1) of this subsection—

(A) during periods when the schools are temporarily closed under an established policy based upon an Executive order of the President or due to an emergency situation;

(B) during periods between consecutive school terms where such veterans or persons transfer from one approved educational institution to another approved educational institution for the purpose of enrolling in and pursuing a similar course at the second institution if the period between such consecutive terms does not exceed 30 days; or

(C) during periods between a semester, term, or quarter where the educational institution certifies the enrollment of the eligible veteran or eligible person on an individual semester, term, or quarter basis if the interval between such periods does not exceed one full calendar month.

Correspondence Training Certifications

(b) No educational assistance allowance shall be paid to an eligible veteran or spouse or surviving spouse enrolled in and pursuing a program of education exclusively by correspondence until the Secretary shall have received—

(1) from the eligible veteran or spouse or surviving spouse a certificate as to the number of lessons actually completed by the veteran or spouse or surviving spouse and serviced by the educational institution; and

(2) from the training establishment a certification or an endorsement on the veteran's or spouse's or surviving spouse's certificate, as to the number of lessons completed by the veteran or spouse or surviving spouse and serviced by the institution.

Apprenticeship and Other On-Job Training

(c) No training assistance allowance shall be paid to an eligible veteran or eligible person enrolled in and pursuing a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training until the Secretary shall have received—

(1) from such veteran or person a certification as to such veteran's or person's actual attendance during such period; and

(2) from the training establishment a certification, or an endorsement on the veteran's or person's certificate, that such veteran or person was enrolled in and pursuing a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training during such period.

Advance Payment of Initial Educational Assistance or Subsistence Allowance

(d)(1) The educational assistance or subsistence allowance advance payment provided for in this subsection is based upon a finding by the Congress that eligible veterans and eligible persons may need additional funds at the beginning of a school term to meet the expenses of books, travel, deposits, and payment for living quarters, the initial installment of tuition, and the other special expenses which are concentrated at the beginning of a school term.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this subsection, and under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, an eligible veteran or eligible person shall be paid an educational assistance allowance or subsistence allowance, as appropriate, advance payment. Such advance payment shall be made in an amount equivalent to the allowance for the month or fraction thereof in which pursuit of the program will commence, plus the allowance for the succeeding month. In the case of a person on active duty, who is pursuing a program of education, the advance payment shall be in a lump sum based upon the amount payable for the entire quarter, semester, or term, as applicable. In no event shall an advance payment be made under this subsection to a veteran or person intending to pursue a program of education on less than a half-time basis. An advance payment may not be made under this subsection to any veteran or person unless the veteran or person requests such payment and the Secretary finds that the educational institution at which such veteran or person is accepted or enrolled has agreed to, and can satisfactorily, carry out the provisions of paragraphs (4)(B) and (C) and (5) of this subsection. The application for advance payment, to be made on a form prescribed by the Secretary, shall—

(A) in the case of an initial enrollment of a veteran or person in an educational institution, contain information showing that the veteran or person (i) is eligible for educational benefits, (ii) has been accepted by the institution, and (iii) has notified the institution of such veteran's or person's intention to attend that institution; and

(B) in the case of a re-enrollment of a veteran or person, contain information showing that the veteran or person (i) is eligible to continue such veteran's or person's program of education or training and (ii) intends to re-enroll in the same institution,


and, in either case, shall also state the number of semester or clock-hours to be pursued by such veteran or person.

(3) For purposes of the Secretary's determination whether any veteran or person is eligible for an advance payment under this section, the information submitted by the institution, the veteran or person, shall establish such veteran's or person's eligibility unless there is evidence in such veteran's or person's file in the processing office establishing that the veteran or person is not eligible for such advance payment.

(4) The advance payment authorized by paragraph (2) of this subsection shall, in the case of an eligible veteran or eligible person, be (A) drawn in favor of the veteran or person; (B) mailed to the educational institution listed on the application form for temporary care and delivery to the veteran or person by such institution; and (C) delivered to the veteran or person upon such veteran's or person's registration at such institution, but in no event shall such delivery be made earlier than thirty days before the program of education is to commence.

(5) Upon delivery of the advance payment pursuant to paragraph (4) of this subsection, the institution shall submit to the Secretary a certification of such delivery. If such delivery is not effected within thirty days after commencement of the program of education in question, such institution shall return such payment to the Secretary forthwith.

Recovery of Erroneous Payments

(e)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), if an eligible veteran or eligible person fails to enroll in or pursue a course for which an educational assistance or subsistence allowance advance payment is made, the amount of such payment and any amount of subsequent payments which, in whole or in part, are due to erroneous information required to be furnished under subsection (d)(2) of this section, shall become an overpayment and shall constitute a liability of such veteran or person to the United States and may be recovered, unless waived pursuant to section 5302 of this title, from any benefit otherwise due such veteran or person under any law administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs or may be recovered in the same manner as any other debt due the United States.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the recovery of an overpayment of an educational allowance or subsistence allowance advance payment to an eligible veteran or eligible person who fails to enroll in or pursue a course of education for which the payment is made if such failure is due to the death of the veteran or person.

Payments for Less Than Half-Time Training

(f) Payment of educational assistance allowance in the case of any eligible veteran or eligible person pursuing a program of education on less than a half-time basis shall be made in an amount computed for the entire quarter, semester, or term not later than the last day of the month immediately following the month in which certification is received from the educational institution that such veteran or person has enrolled in and is pursuing a program at such institution. Such lump sum payment shall be computed at the rate provided in section 3482(b) or 3532(a)(2) of this title, as applicable.

Determination of Enrollment, Pursuit, and Attendance

(g) The Secretary may, pursuant to regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, determine and define enrollment in, pursuit of, and attendance at, any program of education or training or course by an eligible veteran or eligible person for any period for which the veteran or person receives an educational assistance or subsistence allowance under this chapter for pursuing such program or course. Subject to such reports and proof as the Secretary may require to show an eligible veteran's or eligible person's enrollment in and satisfactory pursuit of such person's program, the Secretary may withhold payment of benefits to such eligible veteran or eligible person until the required proof is received and the amount of the payment is appropriately adjusted. The Secretary may accept such veteran's or person's monthly certification of enrollment in and satisfactory pursuit of such veteran's or person's program as sufficient proof of the certified matters.

(Added Pub. L. 92–540, title II, §201, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1076, §1780; amended Pub. L. 93–208, Dec. 28, 1973, 87 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 93–508, title II, §209, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 94–502, title V, §§505, 506, 513(a)(5)–(12), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2400, 2402, 2403; Pub. L. 96–466, title III, §§341, 342, title VI, §§601(c), (d), 602(c), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2198, 2208, 2209; Pub. L. 97–35, title XX, §2003(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 782; Pub. L. 97–295, §4(52), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 97–306, title II, §205(c), Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 99–576, title III, §§315(a)(1), 316, title VII, §701(59), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3274, 3296; Pub. L. 100–689, title I, §121(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4173; Pub. L. 101–237, title IV, §§412(a), 415(a), 423(b)(1), (2), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2085, 2086, 2092; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, §402(d)(1), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 239; renumbered §3680 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), (c)(1), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–127, §6(a), Oct. 10, 1991, 105 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §314, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4333; Pub. L. 103–446, title VI, §605(a)(2)(B), title XII, §1201(i)(6), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4672, 4688.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 103–446, §605(a)(2)(B), inserted “or” at end of par. (2), substituted period for “; or” at end of par. (3), and struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “to any eligible veteran or person for pursuit of a program of education exclusively by correspondence as authorized under section 3686 of this title or for the pursuit of a correspondence portion of a combination correspondence-residence course leading to a vocational objective where the normal period of time required to complete such correspondence course or portion is less than 6 months. A certification as to the normal period of time required to complete the course must be made to the Secretary by the educational institution.”

Subsec. (a)(C). Pub. L. 103–446, §1201(i)(6), substituted “one full” for “1 full”.

1992—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–568 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Subject to paragraph (2), if” for “If”, struck out comma after “eligible person”, and added par. (2).

1991—Pub. L. 102–83, §5(a), renumbered section 1780 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3108, 3482, 3491, or 3532” for “1508, 1682, 1691, or 1732” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–127 amended cl. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (3) read as follows: “to any eligible veteran or person for a course for which the grade assigned is not used in computing the requirements for graduation including a course from which the student withdraws unless the Secretary finds there are mitigating circumstances, except that, in the first instance of withdrawal by an eligible veteran or person from a course or courses with respect to which such veteran or person has been paid assistance under this title, mitigating circumstances shall be considered to exist with respect to courses totaling not more than six semester hours or the equivalent thereof; or”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3686” for “1786”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–40 substituted “5302” for “3102”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(1), substituted “3482(b) or 3532(a)(2)” for “1682(b) or 1732(a)(2)”.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §412(a), struck out “enrolled in a course which leads to a standard college degree, or a course that meets the requirements of section 1788(a)(7) of this title,” after “or eligible person” in cl. (1) of second sentence, redesignated cls. (3) to (5) as (2) to (4), respectively, and struck out former cl. (2) which read as follows: “to any eligible veteran or eligible person enrolled in a course which does not lead to a standard college degree (excluding courses that meet the requirements of section 1788(a)(7) of this title and programs of apprenticeship and programs of other on-job training authorized by section 1787 of this title) for any day of absence in excess of thirty days in a twelve-month period, not counting as absences weekends or legal holidays (or customary vacation periods connected therewith) established by Federal or State law (or in the case of the Republic of the Philippines, Philippine law) during which the institution is not regularly in session and periods (not to exceed five days in any twelve-month period) when the institution is not in session because of teacher conferences or teacher training sessions;”, substituted “set forth in clause (1)” for “set forth in clause (1) or (2)” in third sentence, struck out “, and such periods shall not be counted as absences for the purposes of clause (2) of this subsection” before semicolon at end of subcl. (A), and struck out “, but such periods shall be counted as absences for the purposes of clause (2) of this subsection” before punctuation at end of subcls. (B) and (C).

Subsecs. (b), (c), (d)(2). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(2), substituted “Secretary's” for “Administrator's”.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(B), substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–237, §423(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 101–237, §415(a), substituted “the Secretary may withhold payment of benefits to such eligible veteran or eligible person until the required proof is received and the amount of the payment is appropriately adjusted. The Secretary may accept such veteran's or person's monthly certification of enrollment in and satisfactory pursuit of such veteran's or person's program as sufficient proof of the certified matters.” for “the Administrator is authorized to withhold the final payment of benefits to such person until the required proof is received and the amount of the final payment is appropriately adjusted.”

1988—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 100–689 inserted “, except that, in the first instance of withdrawal by an eligible veteran or person from a course or courses with respect to which such veteran or person has been paid assistance under this title, mitigating circumstances shall be considered to exist with respect to courses totaling not more than six semester hours or the equivalent thereof” after “circumstances”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–576, §315(a)(1)(A), inserted “or a course that meets the requirements of section 1788(a)(7) of this title” after “degree”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–576, §315(a)(1)(B), inserted “courses that meet the requirements of section 1788(a)(7) of this title and” after “excluding”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 99–576, §701(59), substituted “person” for “serviceman” after “In the case of a”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–576, §316, substituted “not later than the last day of” for “during”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(52)(A), and Pub. L. 97–306, §205(c)(1), made identical amendments by substituting “section 1508” for “section 1504”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(52)(B), substituted “than 6 months” for “the 6 months” after “portion is less”.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 97–306, §205(c)(2)–(4), struck out cl. (6) which provided that no amount would be paid to any eligible veteran or person incarcerated in a Federal, State, or local prison or jail for any course to the extent the tuition and fees of the veteran or person were paid under any Federal program (other than a program administered by the Administrator) or under any State or local program, or for which there were no tuition and fees.

Subsec. (a)(A) to (C). Pub. L. 97–295, §4(52)(C), inserted “of this subsection” after “clause (2)” wherever appearing.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35 struck out applicability to flight training program.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–466, §§341(a), 342, 602(c), in provisions preceding cl. (1) inserted “in, and pursuit of, such program” after “enrollment”, in cl. (1) inserted reference to not pursuing a course in accordance with provisions of regulations prescribed by the Administrator pursuant to subsec. (g) of this section and reference to payment for an actual period of pursuit of one or more unit subjects pursued for a period of time shorter than the enrollment period at the educational institution, in cl. (2) inserted reference to periods when the institution is not in session because of teacher conferences or teacher training sessions, and added cl. (6).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 96–466, §601(c)(1), struck out “(other than under subchapter VI of chapter 34)” after “who is pursuing a program of education” and substituted “paragraphs (4)(B) and (C) and (5)” for “paragraphs 5(B) and (C) and (6)”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 96–466, §601(c)(2), (3), redesignated par. (4) as (3). Former par. (3), which related to the entitlement of a person eligible for education or training under the provisions of subchapter VI of chapter 34 of this title to a lump-sum educational assistance allowance advance payment, was struck out.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 96–466, §601(c)(3), (4), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and substituted “paragraph (2)” for “paragraphs (2) and (3)”. Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (d)(5), (6). Pub. L. 96–466, §601(c)(4), (5), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and substituted “paragraph (4)” for “paragraph (5)”. Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–466, §601(d)(1), substituted “under subsection (d)(2) of this section” for “under subsection (d)(2) and (3) of this section”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–466, §601(d)(2), struck out “(except as provided by subsection (d)(3) of this section)” after “half-time basis”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–466, §341(b), inserted “and define” after “determine”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–502, §§505, 506, 513(a)(5), authorized the Administrator to continue allowances to eligible veterans and persons during periods between consecutive school terms where the veteran or person transfers from one approved school to another approved school, provided the period not exceed 30 days, and during periods between a semester, term, or quarter where the educational institution certifies the enrollment of the veteran or person on an individual semester, term, or quarter basis, provided that the period not exceed 1 full calendar month, substituted “such veteran's or person's” for “his”, and added cls. (3) to (5).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–502, §513(a)(5), substituted “spouse or surviving spouse” for “wife or widow” wherever appearing, and “spouse's or surviving spouse's” for “wife's or widow's”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–502, §513(a)(6), substituted “such veteran's or person's” for “his”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–502, §513(a)(6)–(8), substituted “persons may need” for “persons need” in cl. (1), “such veteran's or person's” for “his” in two places and inserted provision prohibiting advance payments unless the veteran request them and the Administrator finds that the educational institution has agreed to and can carry out the requirements of cls. (5) (B), (C) and (6) of this subsection in cl. (2), substituted “such veteran's or person's” for “his” in two places and “the veteran or person” for “he” in cl. (4), and “such veteran's or person's” for “his” in cl. (5).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–502, §513(a)(9)–(11), struck out subsec. (e) which provided for prepayment of subsequent educational assistance or subsistence allowances, redesignated subsec. (f) as (e) and substituted “such veteran or person” for “him”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–502, §513(a)(10), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 94–502, §513(a)(10), (12), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g), substituted “which the Administrator shall” for “which he shall”, “the veteran or person” for “he”, and authorized the Administrator to withhold final payment of benefits to the veteran or person until proof of the veteran's or person's enrollment in and satisfactory pursuit of the educational program is received. Former subsec. (g) redesignated (f).

1974—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 93–508 substituted “legal holidays (or customary vacation periods connected therewith)” for “legal holidays”.

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–208 inserted provisions that the Administrator may continue to pay allowances to eligible veterans and eligible persons enrolled in courses set forth in cl. (1) or (2) of this subsection during periods when the schools are temporarily closed under an established policy based upon an Executive Order of the President or due to an emergency situation, and that such periods shall not be counted as absences for the purposes of cl. (2).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 605(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 103–446 applicable with respect to programs of education exclusively by correspondence and to correspondence-residence courses commencing more than 90 days after Nov. 2, 1994, see section 605(b) of Pub. L. 103–446, set out as a note under section 3672 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 102–127 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as of August 1, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 121(b) of Pub. L. 100–689 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply so as to require that mitigating circumstances be considered to exist only with respect to withdrawals from a course or courses being pursued with assistance under title 38, United States Code, that occur on or after June 1, 1989.”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2006 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 3231 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by sections 341 and 342 of Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(c) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Amendment by sections 601(c), (d) and 602(c) of Pub. L. 96–466 effective Oct. 1, 1980, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 802(f) of Pub. L. 96–466, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5314 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 505 of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Dec. 1, 1976, and amendment by sections 506 and 513(a)(5), (6), (11), (12) of Pub. L. 94–502 effective Oct. 15, 1976, see section 703(b), (c) of Pub. L. 94–502, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3693 of this title.

Section 513(b) of Pub. L. 94–502 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraphs (7), (8), (9), and (10) of subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect June 1, 1977, and shall apply with respect to educational assistance allowances and subsistence allowances paid under title 38, United States Code, for months after May 1977.”

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–508 effective Dec. 3, 1974, see section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3452 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 603 of Pub. L. 92–540 provided that:

“(a) The prepayment provisions of subsection (e) of section 1780 [now 3680] of title 38, United States Code (as added by section 201 of this Act), shall become effective on November 1, 1972.

“(b) The advance payment provisions of section 1780 [now 3680] of title 38, United States Code (as added by section 201 of this Act), shall become effective on August 1, 1973, or at such time prior thereto as the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs shall specify in a certification filed with the Committees on Veterans’ Affairs of the Congress.”

Study of Tuition Assistance Allowance Program Abuses

Section 105 of Pub. L. 93–508 authorized the Administrator to study the potential administrative difficulties and abuses that would arise if some form of variable tuition assistance allowance program were enacted after consideration of past difficulties and abuses which arose after the Second World War and such difficulties and abuses as were being experienced by the Veterans’ Administration in managing certain current programs, and to report to the Congress and the President his findings and recommendations for legislative and administrative action no later than one year after Dec. 3, 1974.

Ex. Ord. No. 12020. Payment of Benefits When Schools Are Temporarily Closed To Conserve Energy

Ex. Ord. No. 12020, Nov. 8, 1977, 42 F.R. 58509, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by clause (A) of Section 1780(a) [now 3680(a)] of Title 38 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States of America, in order to establish a national policy in regard to payment of educational benefits to veterans and their dependents during periods in which schools are closed to conserve energy, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Whenever an educational institution submits evidence which satisfies the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs that energy consumption will be abnormally high during the winter months or that available energy supplies will be inadequate to meet the needs of the school, and that, in the interest of energy conservation, the institution plans to close between semesters or terms for a period not to exceed 45 days, the Administrator may continue to pay monthly educational assistance benefits to veterans and eligible persons enrolled in such schools. Such authority may be exercised only once during any 12-month period with respect to any educational institution.

Sec. 2. The Administrator shall advise veterans and other eligible persons of the effect of accepting educational assistance benefits under the provisions of Section 1 of this Order on their period of entitlement.

Jimmy Carter.      

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3034, 3108, 3684, 3698, 5113 of this title.

§3680A. Disapproval of enrollment in certain courses

(a) The Secretary shall not approve the enrollment of an eligible veteran in—

(1) any bartending course or personality development course;

(2) any sales or sales management course which does not provide specialized training within a specific vocational field;

(3) any type of course which the Secretary finds to be avocational or recreational in character (or the advertising for which the Secretary finds contains significant avocational or recreational themes) unless the veteran submits justification showing that the course will be of bona fide use in the pursuit of the veteran's present or contemplated business or occupation; or

(4) any independent study program except an accredited independent study program (including open circuit television) leading to a standard college degree.


(b) Except to the extent otherwise specifically provided in this title or chapter 106 of title 10, the Secretary shall not approve the enrollment of an eligible veteran in any course of flight training other than one given by an educational institution of higher learning for credit toward a standard college degree the eligible veteran is seeking.

(c) The Secretary shall not approve the enrollment of an eligible veteran in any course to be pursued by radio.

(d)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the Secretary shall not approve the enrollment of any eligible veteran, not already enrolled, in any course for any period during which the Secretary finds that more than 85 percent of the students enrolled in the course are having all or part of their tuition, fees, or other charges paid to or for them by the educational institution or by the Department of Veterans Affairs under this title or under chapter 106 of title 10. The Secretary may waive the requirements of this subsection, in whole or in part, if the Secretary determines, pursuant to regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, it to be in the interest of the eligible veteran and the Federal Government. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any course offered by an educational institution if the total number of veterans and persons receiving assistance under this chapter or chapter 30, 31, 32, or 35 of this title or under chapter 106 of title 10 who are enrolled in such institution equals 35 percent or less, or such other percent as the Secretary prescribes in regulations, of the total student enrollment at such institution (computed separately for the main campus and any branch or extension of such institution), except that the Secretary may apply the provisions of this subsection with respect to any course in which the Secretary has reason to believe that the enrollment of such veterans and persons may be in excess of 85 percent of the total student enrollment in such course.

(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection does not apply with respect to the enrollment of a veteran—

(A) in a course offered pursuant to section 3019, 3034(a)(3), 3234, or 3241(a)(2) of this title;

(B) in a farm cooperative training course; or

(C) in a course described in subsection (g).


(e) The Secretary may not approve the enrollment of an eligible veteran in a course not leading to a standard college degree offered by a proprietary profit or proprietary nonprofit educational institution if—

(1) the educational institution has been operating for less than two years;

(2) the course is offered at a branch of the educational institution and the branch has been operating for less than two years; or

(3) following either a change in ownership or a complete move outside its original general locality, the educational institution does not retain substantially the same faculty, student body, and courses as before the change in ownership or the move outside the general locality (as determined in accordance with regulations the Secretary shall prescribe) unless the educational institution following such change or move has been in operation for at least two years.


(f) The Secretary may not approve the enrollment of an eligible veteran in a course as a part of a program of education offered by an educational institution if the course is provided under contract by another educational institution or entity and—

(1) the Secretary would be barred under subsection (e) from approving the enrollment of an eligible veteran in the course of the educational institution or entity providing the course under contract; or

(2) the educational institution or entity providing the course under contract has not obtained approval for the course under this chapter.


(g) Notwithstanding subsections (e) and (f)(1), the Secretary may approve the enrollment of an eligible veteran in a course approved under this chapter if the course is offered by an educational institution under contract with the Department of Defense or the Department of Transportation and is given on or immediately adjacent to a military base, Coast Guard station, National Guard facility, or facility of the Selected Reserve.

(Added Pub. L. 102–568, title III, §313(a)(2), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4331; amended Pub. L. 104–275, title I, §§103(a)(2), (b), 104(c), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3326, 3327; Pub. L. 105–114, title IV, §401(d), (e), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2293; Pub. L. 105–368, title X, §1005(b)(9), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3365.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–368 struck out “section” bef