10 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2006 Edition
Title 10 - ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A - General Military Law
PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS
CHAPTER 18 - MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 18—MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES

Sec.
371.
Use of information collected during military operations.
372.
Use of military equipment and facilities.
373.
Training and advising civilian law enforcement officials.
374.
Maintenance and operation of equipment.
375.
Restriction on direct participation by military personnel.
376.
Support not to affect adversely military preparedness.
377.
Reimbursement.
378.
Nonpreemption of other law.
379.
Assignment of Coast Guard personnel to naval vessels for law enforcement purposes.
380.
Enhancement of cooperation with civilian law enforcement officials.
381.
Procurement by State and local governments of law enforcement equipment suitable for counter-drug activities through the Department of Defense.
382.
Emergency situations involving chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction.

        

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XIV, §1416(a)(2), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2723, added item 382.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1122(a)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1755, added item 381.

1989—Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §1216(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1569, in chapter heading substituted “18” for “8”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043, amended chapter analysis generally substituting, in chapter heading “CHAPTER 8—MILITARY SUPPORT FOR CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES” for “CHAPTER 18—MILITARY COOPERATION WITH CIVILIAN LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS”, in item 374 “Maintenance and operation of equipment” for “Assistance by Department of Defense personnel”, in item 376 “Support not to affect adversely military preparedness” for “Assistance not to affect adversely military preparedness” and in item 380 “Enhancement of cooperation with civilian law enforcement officials” for “Department of Defense drug law enforcement assistance: annual plan”.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1243(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1164, added item 380.

1986—Pub. L. 99–570, title III, §3053(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–76, added item 379.

§371. Use of information collected during military operations

(a) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, provide to Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement officials any information collected during the normal course of military training or operations that may be relevant to a violation of any Federal or State law within the jurisdiction of such officials.

(b) The needs of civilian law enforcement officials for information shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be taken into account in the planning and execution of military training or operations.

(c) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure, to the extent consistent with national security, that intelligence information held by the Department of Defense and relevant to drug interdiction or other civilian law enforcement matters is provided promptly to appropriate civilian law enforcement officials.

(Added Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 amended section generally, designating existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserting reference to military training, and adding subsecs. (b) and (c).

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–570, title III, §3051, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–74, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§3051–3059) of title III of Pub. L. 99–570, enacting section 379 of this title, amending sections 374 and 911 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 374, 525, and 9441 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 89 of Title 14, Coast Guard] may be cited as the ‘Defense Drug Interdiction Assistance Act’.”

Authority for Joint Task Forces to Provide Support to Law Enforcement Agencies Conducting Counter-Terrorism Activities

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1022, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1594, as amended by Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, §1022, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3427, provided that:

“(a) Authority.—A joint task force of the Department of Defense that provides support to law enforcement agencies conducting counter-drug activities may also provide, subject to all applicable laws and regulations, support to law enforcement agencies conducting counter-terrorism activities.

“(b) Availability of Funds.—During fiscal years 2006 and 2007, funds available to a joint task force to support counter-drug activities may also be used to provide the counter-terrorism support authorized by subsection (a).

“(c) Report Required.—Not later than December 31, 2006, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report evaluating the effect on counter-drug and counter-terrorism activities and objectives of using counter-drug funds of a joint task force to provide counter-terrorism support authorized by subsection (a).

“(d) Conditions.—Any support provided under subsection (a) may only be provided in the geographic area of responsibility of the joint task force.”

§372. Use of military equipment and facilities

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make available any equipment (including associated supplies or spare parts), base facility, or research facility of the Department of Defense to any Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement official for law enforcement purposes.

(b) Emergencies Involving Chemical and Biological Agents.—(1) In addition to equipment and facilities described in subsection (a), the Secretary may provide an item referred to in paragraph (2) to a Federal, State, or local law enforcement or emergency response agency to prepare for or respond to an emergency involving chemical or biological agents if the Secretary determines that the item is not reasonably available from another source. The requirement for a determination that an item is not reasonably available from another source does not apply to assistance provided under section 382 of this title pursuant to a request of the Attorney General for the assistance.

(2) An item referred to in paragraph (1) is any material or expertise of the Department of Defense appropriate for use in preparing for or responding to an emergency involving chemical or biological agents, including the following:

(A) Training facilities.

(B) Sensors.

(C) Protective clothing.

(D) Antidotes.

(Added Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title III, §378, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 284; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XIV, §1416(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2723.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–106 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted at end “The requirement for a determination that an item is not reasonably available from another source does not apply to assistance provided under section 382 of this title pursuant to a request of the Attorney General for the assistance.”

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 amended section generally, inserting “(including associated supplies or spare parts)” and substituting “Department of Defense” for “Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps”.

Transfer of Excess Personal Property

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §1208, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1566, as amended by Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1044, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2493, which authorized the Secretary of Defense to transfer excess personal property of the Department of Defense to Federal and State agencies, provided conditions for transfer, and terminated the Secretary's authority on Sept. 30, 1997, was repealed and restated in section 2576a of this title by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1033(a)(1), (b)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2639, 2640.

§373. Training and advising civilian law enforcement officials

The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make Department of Defense personnel available—

(1) to train Federal, State, and local civilian law enforcement officials in the operation and maintenance of equipment, including equipment made available under section 372 of this title; and

(2) to provide such law enforcement officials with expert advice relevant to the purposes of this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 99–145, title XIV, §1423(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 752; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 amended section generally, substituting provisions authorizing Secretary of Defense, in accordance with applicable law, to make Defense Department personnel available for training, etc., for former subsecs. (a) to (c) authorizing Secretary of Defense to assign members of Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, etc., for training, etc., briefing sessions by Attorney General, and other functions of Attorney General and Administrator of General Services.

1985—Pub. L. 99–145 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Section 1423(b) of Pub. L. 99–145 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1986.”

§374. Maintenance and operation of equipment

(a) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make Department of Defense personnel available for the maintenance of equipment for Federal, State, and local civilian law enforcement officials, including equipment made available under section 372 of this title.

(b)(1) Subject to paragraph (2) and in accordance with other applicable law, the Secretary of Defense may, upon request from the head of a Federal law enforcement agency, make Department of Defense personnel available to operate equipment (including equipment made available under section 372 of this title) with respect to—

(A) a criminal violation of a provision of law specified in paragraph (4)(A);

(B) assistance that such agency is authorized to furnish to a State, local, or foreign government which is involved in the enforcement of similar laws;

(C) a foreign or domestic counter-terrorism operation; or

(D) a rendition of a suspected terrorist from a foreign country to the United States to stand trial.


(2) Department of Defense personnel made available to a civilian law enforcement agency under this subsection may operate equipment for the following purposes:

(A) Detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of air and sea traffic.

(B) Detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of surface traffic outside of the geographic boundary of the United States and within the United States not to exceed 25 miles of the boundary if the initial detection occurred outside of the boundary.

(C) Aerial reconnaissance.

(D) Interception of vessels or aircraft detected outside the land area of the United States for the purposes of communicating with such vessels and aircraft to direct such vessels and aircraft to go to a location designated by appropriate civilian officials.

(E) Operation of equipment to facilitate communications in connection with law enforcement programs specified in paragraph (4)(A).

(F) Subject to joint approval by the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General (and the Secretary of State in the case of a law enforcement operation outside of the land area of the United States)—

(i) the transportation of civilian law enforcement personnel along with any other civilian or military personnel who are supporting, or conducting, a joint operation with civilian law enforcement personnel;

(ii) the operation of a base of operations for civilian law enforcement and supporting personnel; and

(iii) the transportation of suspected terrorists from foreign countries to the United States for trial (so long as the requesting Federal law enforcement agency provides all security for such transportation and maintains custody over the suspect through the duration of the transportation).


(3) Department of Defense personnel made available to operate equipment for the purpose stated in paragraph (2)(D) may continue to operate such equipment into the land area of the United States in cases involving the pursuit of vessels or aircraft where the detection began outside such land area.

(4) In this subsection:

(A) The term “Federal law enforcement agency” means a Federal agency with jurisdiction to enforce any of the following:

(i) The Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.).

(ii) Any of sections 274 through 278 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1324–1328).

(iii) A law relating to the arrival or departure of merchandise (as defined in section 401 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401) into or out of the customs territory of the United States (as defined in general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States) or any other territory or possession of the United States.

(iv) Chapter 705 of title 46.

(v) Any law, foreign or domestic, prohibiting terrorist activities.


(B) The term “land area of the United States” includes the land area of any territory, commonwealth, or possession of the United States.


(c) The Secretary of Defense may, in accordance with other applicable law, make Department of Defense personnel available to any Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement agency to operate equipment for purposes other than described in subsection (b)(2) only to the extent that such support does not involve direct participation by such personnel in a civilian law enforcement operation unless such direct participation is otherwise authorized by law.

(Added Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(9), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 99–570, title III, §3056, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–77; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, §1373(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4007; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1214(a)(1), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1155; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2043; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §§1210, 1216(b), (c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1566, 1569; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1042, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2492; Pub. L. 105–277, div. B, title II, §201, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–567; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(a)(4), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 770; Pub. L. 109–304, §17(a)(1), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1706.)

References in Text

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i), is title III of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (§951 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21. For complete classification of the Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 951 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iii), is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 109–304 substituted “Chapter 705 of title 46” for “The Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)”.

1999—Subsec. (b)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 106–65, §1066(a)(4)(A), realigned margins.

Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(i). Pub. L. 106–65, §1066(a)(4)(B), struck out semicolon after “law enforcement personnel;”.

1998—Subsec. (b)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 105–277, §201(1), (2), added subpars. (C) and (D).

Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(i). Pub. L. 105–277, §201(3), inserted “along with any other civilian or military personnel who are supporting, or conducting, a joint operation with civilian law enforcement personnel;” after “transportation of civilian law enforcement personnel” and struck out “and” at end.

Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(ii). Pub. L. 105–277, §201(4)(A), inserted “and supporting” before “personnel”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(F)(iii). Pub. L. 105–277, §201(4)(B), (C), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–277, §201(5), substituted “a Federal agency” for “an agency” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(v). Pub. L. 105–277, §201(6), added cl. (v).

1992—Subsec. (b)(2)(B) to (F). Pub. L. 102–484, §1042(1), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpars. (B) to (E) as (C) to (F), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–484, §1042(2), substituted “paragraph (2)(D)” for “paragraph (2)(C)”.

1989—Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 101–189, §1210, substituted “and the Attorney General (and the Secretary of State in the case of a law enforcement operation outside of the land area of the United States)” for “, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of State, in connection with a law enforcement operation outside the land area of the United States” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 101–189, §1216(b), substituted “general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States” for “general headnote 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–189, §1216(c), substituted “subsection (b)(2)” for “paragraph (2)”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 substituted “Maintenance and operation of equipment” for “Assistance by Department of Defense personnel” in section catchline, and amended text generally, revising and restating former subsecs. (a) to (d) as subsecs. (a) to (c).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100–418, which directed substitution of “general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States” for “general headnote 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States”, could not be executed because of intervening general amendment by Pub. L. 100–456.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–570, §3056(a), inserted provision at end relating to assistance that such agency is authorized to furnish to any foreign government which is involved in the enforcement of similar laws.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–570, §3056(b), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows:

“(1) In an emergency circumstance, equipment operated by or with the assistance of personnel assigned under subsection (a) may be used outside the land area of the United States (or any territory or possession of the United States) as a base of operations by Federal law enforcement officials to facilitate the enforcement of a law listed in subsection (a) and to transport such law enforcement officials in connection with such operations, if—

“(A) equipment operated by or with the assistance of personnel assigned under subsection (a) is not used to interdict or to interrupt the passage of vessels or aircraft; and

“(B) the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General jointly determine that an emergency circumstance exists.

“(2) For purposes of this subsection, an emergency circumstance may be determined to exist only when—

“(A) the size or scope of the suspected criminal activity in a given situation poses a serious threat to the interests of the United States; and

“(B) enforcement of a law listed in subsection (a) would be seriously impaired if the assistance described in this subsection were not provided.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–661 added subsec. (d).

1984—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–525 struck out “(19 U.S.C. 1202)” after “Tariff Schedules of the United States”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Funds for Young Marines Program

Pub. L. 109–289, div. A, title VIII, §8028, Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1279, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, funds available during the current fiscal year and hereafter for ‘Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities, Defense’ may be obligated for the Young Marines program.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 109–148, div. A, title VIII, §8033, Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2705.

Pub. L. 108–287, title VIII, §8037, Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 978.

Pub. L. 108–87, title VIII, §8037, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1080.

Pub. L. 107–248, title VIII, §8037, Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1544.

Pub. L. 107–117, div. A, title VIII, §8040, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2256.

Pub. L. 106–259, title VIII, §8040, Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 683.

Pub. L. 106–79, title VIII, §8043, Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1240.

Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8043, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2307.

Pub. L. 105–56, title VIII, §8047, Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1231.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8048], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009–99.

Counter-Drug Activities; Conditions on Transfers of Funds and Detailing Personnel; Relationship to Other Law

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1011(b)–(d), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2836, provided that:

“(b) Condition on Transfer of Funds.—Funds appropriated for the Department of Defense may not be transferred to a National Drug Control Program agency account except to the extent provided in a law that specifically states—

“(1) the amount authorized to be transferred;

“(2) the account from which such amount is authorized to be transferred; and

“(3) the account to which such amount is authorized to be transferred.

“(c) Condition on Detailing Personnel.—Personnel of the Department of Defense may not be detailed to another department or agency in order to implement the National Drug Control Strategy unless the Secretary of Defense certifies to Congress that the detail of such personnel is in the national security interest of the United States.

“(d) Relationship to Other Law.—A provision of law may not be construed as modifying or superseding the provisions of subsection (b) or (c) unless that provision of law—

“(1) specifically refers to this section; and

“(2) specifically states that such provision of law modifies or supersedes the provisions of subsection (b) or (c), as the case may be.”

Pub. L. 109–289, div. A, title VIII, §8045(a), Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1283, provided that: “None of the funds available to the Department of Defense for any fiscal year for drug interdiction or counter-drug activities may be transferred to any other department or agency of the United States except as specifically provided in an appropriations law.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 109–148, div. A, title VIII, §8052(a), Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2709.

Pub. L. 108–287, title VIII, §8057(a), Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 983.

Pub. L. 108–87, title VIII, §8057(a), Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1085.

Pub. L. 107–248, title VIII, §8058(a), Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1549.

Pub. L. 107–117, div. A, title VIII, §8063(a), Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2261.

Pub. L. 106–259, title VIII, §8062(a), Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 688.

Pub. L. 106–79, title VIII, §8065(a), Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1244.

Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8065(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2311.

Pub. L. 105–56, title VIII, §8071(a), Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1235.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8080(a)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009–104.

Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8096(a), Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 671.

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8154(a), Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2658.

Additional Support for Counter-Drug Activities

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title X, §1004, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1629, as amended by Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1088(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1484; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1041(a)–(d)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2491; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1121(a), (b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1753; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1011(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2836; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1021, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2120; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1021, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1212; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1021, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2382, provided that:

“(a) Support to Other Agencies.—During fiscal years 2002 through 2011, the Secretary of Defense may provide support for the counter-drug activities of any other department or agency of the Federal Government or of any State, local, or foreign law enforcement agency for any of the purposes set forth in subsection (b) if such support is requested—

“(1) by the official who has responsibility for the counter-drug activities of the department or agency of the Federal Government, in the case of support for other departments or agencies of the Federal Government;

“(2) by the appropriate official of a State or local government, in the case of support for State or local law enforcement agencies; or

“(3) by an appropriate official of a department or agency of the Federal Government that has counter-drug responsibilities, in the case of support for foreign law enforcement agencies.

“(b) Types of Support.—The purposes for which the Secretary of Defense may provide support under subsection (a) are the following:

“(1) The maintenance and repair of equipment that has been made available to any department or agency of the Federal Government or to any State or local government by the Department of Defense for the purposes of—

“(A) preserving the potential future utility of such equipment for the Department of Defense; and

“(B) upgrading such equipment to ensure compatibility of that equipment with other equipment used by the Department of Defense.

“(2) The maintenance, repair, or upgrading of equipment (including computer software), other than equipment referred to in paragraph (1) for the purpose of—

“(A) ensuring that the equipment being maintained or repaired is compatible with equipment used by the Department of Defense; and

“(B) upgrading such equipment to ensure the compatibility of that equipment with equipment used by the Department of Defense.

“(3) The transportation of personnel of the United States and foreign countries (including per diem expenses associated with such transportation), and the transportation of supplies and equipment, for the purpose of facilitating counter-drug activities within or outside the United States.

“(4) The establishment (including an unspecified minor military construction project) and operation of bases of operations or training facilities for the purpose of facilitating counter-drug activities of the Department of Defense or any Federal, State, or local law enforcement agency within or outside the United States or counter-drug activities of a foreign law enforcement agency outside the United States.

“(5) Counter-drug related training of law enforcement personnel of the Federal Government, of State and local governments, and of foreign countries, including associated support expenses for trainees and the provision of materials necessary to carry out such training.

“(6) The detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of—

“(A) air and sea traffic within 25 miles of and outside the geographic boundaries of the United States; and

“(B) surface traffic outside the geographic boundary of the United States and within the United States not to exceed 25 miles of the boundary if the initial detection occurred outside of the boundary.

“(7) Construction of roads and fences and installation of lighting to block drug smuggling corridors across international boundaries of the United States.

“(8) Establishment of command, control, communications, and computer networks for improved integration of law enforcement, active military, and National Guard activities.

“(9) The provision of linguist and intelligence analysis services.

“(10) Aerial and ground reconnaissance.

“(c) Limitation on Counter-Drug Requirements.—The Secretary of Defense may not limit the requirements for which support may be provided under subsection (a) only to critical, emergent, or unanticipated requirements.

“(d) Contract Authority.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may acquire services or equipment by contract for support provided under that subsection if the Department of Defense would normally acquire such services or equipment by contract for the purpose of conducting a similar activity for the Department of Defense.

“(e) Limited Waiver of Prohibition.—Notwithstanding section 376 of title 10, United States Code, the Secretary of Defense may provide support pursuant to subsection (a) in any case in which the Secretary determines that the provision of such support would adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States in the short term if the Secretary determines that the importance of providing such support outweighs such short-term adverse effect.

“(f) Conduct of Training or Operation To Aid Civilian Agencies.—In providing support pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may plan and execute otherwise valid military training or operations (including training exercises undertaken pursuant to section 1206(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (Public Law 101–189; 103 Stat. 1564 [10 U.S.C. 124 note])) for the purpose of aiding civilian law enforcement agencies.

“(g) Relationship to Other Laws.—(1) The authority provided in this section for the support of counter-drug activities by the Department of Defense is in addition to, and except as provided in paragraph (2), not subject to the requirements of chapter 18 of title 10, United States Code.

“(2) Support under this section shall be subject to the provisions of section 375 and, except as provided in subsection (e), section 376 of title 10, United States Code.

“(h) Congressional Notification of Facilities Projects.—(1) When a decision is made to carry out a military construction project described in paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of Senate and House of Representatives] written notice of the decision, including the justification for the project and the estimated cost of the project. The project may be commenced only after the end of the 21-day period beginning on the date on which the written notice is received by Congress.

“(2) Paragraph (1) applies to an unspecified minor military construction project that—

“(A) is intended for the modification or repair of a Department of Defense facility for the purpose set forth in subsection (b)(4); and

“(B) has an estimated cost of more than $500,000.”

Communications Network

Section 1103 of Pub. L. 100–456 related to integration of United States assets dedicated to interdiction of illegal drugs into an effective communications network, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §1204(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1564. See section 1204(a) of Pub. L. 101–189 set out as a note under section 124 of this title.

Enhanced Drug Interdiction and Enforcement Role for National Guard

Section 1105 of Pub. L. 100–456 related to funding and training of National Guard for purpose of drug interdiction and enforcement operations and for operation and maintenance of equipment and facilities for such purpose, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §1207(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1566. See section 112 of Title 32, National Guard.

Additional Department of Defense Drug Law Enforcement Assistance

Pub. L. 99–570, title III, §3057, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–77, provided that the Secretary of Defense was to submit to Congress, within 90 days after Oct. 27, 1986, a list of all forms of assistance that were to be made available by the Department of Defense to civilian drug law enforcement and drug interdiction agencies and a plan for promptly lending equipment and rendering drug interdiction-related assistance included on the list, provided for congressional approval of the list and plan, required the Secretary to convene a conference of the heads of Government agencies with jurisdiction over drug law enforcement to determine the appropriate distribution of the assets or other assistance to be made available by the Department to such agencies, and provided for monitoring of the Department's performance by the General Accounting Office.

§375. Restriction on direct participation by military personnel

The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to ensure that any activity (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment or detail of any personnel) under this chapter does not include or permit direct participation by a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in a search, seizure, arrest, or other similar activity unless participation in such activity by such member is otherwise authorized by law.

(Added Pub. L. 97–86, title IX §905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §1211, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1567.)

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–189 substituted “any activity” for “the provision of any support”, struck out “to any civilian law enforcement official” after “any personnel)”, and substituted “a search, seizure, arrest,” for “a search and seizure, an arrest,”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “The Secretary of Defense shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to insure that the provision of any assistance (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment of any personnel) to any civilian law enforcement official under this chapter does not include or permit direct participation by a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in an interdiction of a vessel or aircraft, a search and seizure, arrest, or other similar activity unless participation in such activity by such member is otherwise authorized by law.”

§376. Support not to affect adversely military preparedness

Support (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment or detail of any personnel) may not be provided to any civilian law enforcement official under this chapter if the provision of such support will adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to ensure that the provision of any such support does not adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 97–86, title, IX, §905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 substituted “Support” for “Assistance” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Assistance (including the provision of any equipment or facility or the assignment of any personnel) may not be provided to any civilian law enforcement official under this chapter if the provision of such assistance will adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States. The Secretary of Defense shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to insure that the provision of any such assistance does not adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States.”

§377. Reimbursement

(a) To the extent otherwise required by section 1535 of title 31 (popularly known as the “Economy Act”) or other applicable law, the Secretary of Defense shall require a civilian law enforcement agency to which support is provided under this chapter to reimburse the Department of Defense for that support.

(b) An agency to which support is provided under this chapter is not required to reimburse the Department of Defense for such support if such support—

(1) is provided in the normal course of military training or operations; or

(2) results in a benefit to the element of the Department of Defense providing the support that is substantially equivalent to that which would otherwise be obtained from military operations or training.

(Added Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “The Secretary of Defense shall issue regulations providing that reimbursement may be a condition of assistance to a civilian law enforcement official under this chapter.”

§378. Nonpreemption of other law

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to limit the authority of the executive branch in the use of military personnel or equipment for civilian law enforcement purposes beyond that provided by law before December 1, 1981.

(Added Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §905(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(10), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 reenacted section without change.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “before December 1, 1981” for “prior to the enactment of this chapter”.

§379. Assignment of Coast Guard personnel to naval vessels for law enforcement purposes

(a) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide that there be assigned on board every appropriate surface naval vessel at sea in a drug-interdiction area members of the Coast Guard who are trained in law enforcement and have powers of the Coast Guard under title 14, including the power to make arrests and to carry out searches and seizures.

(b) Members of the Coast Guard assigned to duty on board naval vessels under this section shall perform such law enforcement functions (including drug-interdiction functions)—

(1) as may be agreed upon by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security; and

(2) as are otherwise within the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard.


(c) No fewer than 500 active duty personnel of the Coast Guard shall be assigned each fiscal year to duty under this section. However, if at any time the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of Defense, determines that there are insufficient naval vessels available for purposes of this section, such personnel may be assigned other duty involving enforcement of laws listed in section 374(b)(4)(A) of this title.

(d) In this section, the term “drug-interdiction area” means an area outside the land area of the United States (as defined in section 374(b)(4)(B) of this title) in which the Secretary of Defense (in consultation with the Attorney General) determines that activities involving smuggling of drugs into the United States are ongoing.

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title III, §3053(b)(1), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–75; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2045; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314.)

Amendments

2002—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (c). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 amended section generally, substituting “every appropriate surface naval vessel” for “appropriate surface naval vessels” in subsec. (a), substituting “section 374(b)(4)(A)” for “section 374(a)(1)” in subsec. (c), and inserting “(as defined in section 374(b)(4)(B) of this title)” in subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§380. Enhancement of cooperation with civilian law enforcement officials

(a) The Secretary of Defense, in cooperation with the Attorney General, shall conduct an annual briefing of law enforcement personnel of each State (including law enforcement personnel of the political subdivisions of each State) regarding information, training, technical support, and equipment and facilities available to civilian law enforcement personnel from the Department of Defense.

(b) Each briefing conducted under subsection (a) shall include the following:

(1) An explanation of the procedures for civilian law enforcement officials—

(A) to obtain information, equipment, training, expert advice, and other personnel support under this chapter; and

(B) to obtain surplus military equipment.


(2) A description of the types of information, equipment and facilities, and training and advice available to civilian law enforcement officials from the Department of Defense.

(3) A current, comprehensive list of military equipment which is suitable for law enforcement officials from the Department of Defense or available as surplus property from the Administrator of General Services.


(c) The Attorney General and the Administrator of General Services shall—

(1) establish or designate an appropriate office or offices to maintain the list described in subsection (b)(3) and to furnish information to civilian law enforcement officials on the availability of surplus military equipment; and

(2) make available to civilian law enforcement personnel nationwide, tollfree telephone communication with such office or offices.

(Added Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1243(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1163; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2046.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to annual briefing of law enforcement personnel of each State by Secretary of Defense and Attorney General and establishment of offices and telephone communication with those offices regarding surplus military equipment for provisions requiring the Secretary to report to Congress on the availability of assistance, etc., to civilian law enforcement and drug interdiction agencies and to convene a conference and requiring the Comptroller General to monitor and report on the Secretary's compliance with those requirements.

§381. Procurement by State and local governments of law enforcement equipment suitable for counter-drug activities through the Department of Defense

(a) Procedures.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall establish procedures in accordance with this subsection under which States and units of local government may purchase law enforcement equipment suitable for counter-drug activities through the Department of Defense. The procedures shall require the following:

(A) Each State desiring to participate in a procurement of equipment suitable for counter-drug activities through the Department of Defense shall submit to the Department, in such form and manner and at such times as the Secretary prescribes, the following:

(i) A request for law enforcement equipment.

(ii) Advance payment for such equipment, in an amount determined by the Secretary based on estimated or actual costs of the equipment and administrative costs incurred by the Department.


(B) A State may include in a request submitted under subparagraph (A) only the type of equipment listed in the catalog produced under subsection (c).

(C) A request for law enforcement equipment shall consist of an enumeration of the law enforcement equipment that is desired by the State and units of local government within the State. The Governor of a State may establish such procedures as the Governor considers appropriate for administering and coordinating requests for law enforcement equipment from units of local government within the State.

(D) A State requesting law enforcement equipment shall be responsible for arranging and paying for shipment of the equipment to the State and localities within the State.


(2) In establishing the procedures, the Secretary of Defense shall coordinate with the General Services Administration and other Federal agencies for purposes of avoiding duplication of effort.

(b) Reimbursement of Administrative Costs.—In the case of any purchase made by a State or unit of local government under the procedures established under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall require the State or unit of local government to reimburse the Department of Defense for the administrative costs to the Department of such purchase.

(c) GSA Catalog.—The Administrator of General Services, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, shall produce and maintain a catalog of law enforcement equipment suitable for counter-drug activities for purchase by States and units of local government under the procedures established by the Secretary under this section.

(d) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States.

(2) The term “unit of local government” means any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State; an Indian tribe which performs law enforcement functions as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or any agency of the District of Columbia government or the United States Government performing law enforcement functions in and for the District of Columbia or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

(3) The term “law enforcement equipment suitable for counter-drug activities” has the meaning given such term in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. In prescribing the meaning of the term, the Secretary may not include any equipment that the Department of Defense does not procure for its own purposes.

(Added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1122(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1754.)

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Deadline for Establishing Procedures

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1122(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1755, directed the Secretary of Defense to establish procedures under subsec. (a) of this section not later than six months after Nov. 30, 1993.

§382. Emergency situations involving chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense, upon the request of the Attorney General, may provide assistance in support of Department of Justice activities relating to the enforcement of section 175 or 2332c 1 of title 18 during an emergency situation involving a biological or chemical weapon of mass destruction. Department of Defense resources, including personnel of the Department of Defense, may be used to provide such assistance if—

(1) the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General jointly determine that an emergency situation exists; and

(2) the Secretary of Defense determines that the provision of such assistance will not adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States.


(b) Emergency Situations Covered.—In this section, the term “emergency situation involving a biological or chemical weapon of mass destruction” means a circumstance involving a biological or chemical weapon of mass destruction—

(1) that poses a serious threat to the interests of the United States; and

(2) in which—

(A) civilian expertise and capabilities are not readily available to provide the required assistance to counter the threat immediately posed by the weapon involved;

(B) special capabilities and expertise of the Department of Defense are necessary and critical to counter the threat posed by the weapon involved; and

(C) enforcement of section 175 or 2332c 1 of title 18 would be seriously impaired if the Department of Defense assistance were not provided.


(c) Forms of Assistance.—The assistance referred to in subsection (a) includes the operation of equipment (including equipment made available under section 372 of this title) to monitor, contain, disable, or dispose of the weapon involved or elements of the weapon.

(d) Regulations.—(1) The Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General shall jointly prescribe regulations concerning the types of assistance that may be provided under this section. Such regulations shall also describe the actions that Department of Defense personnel may take in circumstances incident to the provision of assistance under this section.

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the regulations may not authorize the following actions:

(i) Arrest.

(ii) Any direct participation in conducting a search for or seizure of evidence related to a violation of section 175 or 2332c 1 of title 18.

(iii) Any direct participation in the collection of intelligence for law enforcement purposes.


(B) The regulations may authorize an action described in subparagraph (A) to be taken under the following conditions:

(i) The action is considered necessary for the immediate protection of human life, and civilian law enforcement officials are not capable of taking the action.

(ii) The action is otherwise authorized under subsection (c) or under otherwise applicable law.


(e) Reimbursements.—The Secretary of Defense shall require reimbursement as a condition for providing assistance under this section to the extent required under section 377 of this title.

(f) Delegations of Authority.—(1) Except to the extent otherwise provided by the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense may exercise the authority of the Secretary of Defense under this section. The Secretary of Defense may delegate the Secretary's authority under this section only to an Under Secretary of Defense or an Assistant Secretary of Defense and only if the Under Secretary or Assistant Secretary to whom delegated has been designated by the Secretary to act for, and to exercise the general powers of, the Secretary.

(2) Except to the extent otherwise provided by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General may exercise the authority of the Attorney General under this section. The Attorney General may delegate that authority only to the Associate Attorney General or an Assistant Attorney General and only if the Associate Attorney General or Assistant Attorney General to whom delegated has been designated by the Attorney General to act for, and to exercise the general powers of, the Attorney General.

(g) Relationship to Other Authority.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict any executive branch authority regarding use of members of the armed forces or equipment of the Department of Defense that was in effect before September 23, 1996.

(Added Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XIV, §1416(a)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2721; amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(6), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1900.)

References in Text

Section 2332c of title 18, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b)(2)(C), and (d)(2)(A)(ii), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–277, div. I, title II, §201(c)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–871.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted “September 23, 1996” for “the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997”.

Military Assistance to Civil Authorities To Respond to Act or Threat of Terrorism

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1023, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 747, authorized the Secretary of Defense, upon the request of the Attorney General, to provide assistance to civil authorities in responding to an act of terrorism or threat of an act of terrorism within the United States, if the Secretary determined that certain conditions were met, subject to reimbursement and limitations on funding and personnel, and provided that this authority applied between Oct. 1, 1999, and Sept. 30, 2004.