10 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2006 Edition
Title 10 - ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A - General Military Law
PART I - ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS
CHAPTER 6 - COMBATANT COMMANDS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 6—COMBATANT COMMANDS

Sec.
161.
Combatant commands: establishment.
162.
Combatant commands: assigned forces; chain of command.
163.
Role of Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff.
164.
Commanders of combatant commands: assignment; powers and duties.
165.
Combatant commands: administration and support.
166.
Combatant commands: budget proposals.
166a.
Combatant commands: funding through the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff.
166b.
Combatant commands: funding for combating terrorism readiness initiatives.
167.
Unified combatant command for special operations forces.
167a.
Unified combatant command for joint warfighting experimentation: acquisition authority.
168.
Military-to-military contacts and comparable activities.

        

Prior Provisions

Prior to enactment of this chapter by Pub. L. 99–433, provisions relating to combat commands were contained in section 124 of this title.

Amendments

2003—Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §848(a)(2), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1555, added item 167a.

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title XV, §1512(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1273, added item 166b.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XIII, §1316(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2899, added item 168.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IX, §902(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1451, added item 166a.

1986—Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9115(b)(2)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–124, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9115(b)(2)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–124; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, §1311(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3985, amended analysis identically adding item 167.

Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §211(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1012, added chapter 6 heading and analysis.

§161. Combatant commands: establishment

(a) Unified and Specified Combatant Commands.—With the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the President, through the Secretary of Defense, shall—

(1) establish unified combatant commands and specified combatant commands to perform military missions; and

(2) prescribe the force structure of those commands.


(b) Periodic Review.—(1) The Chairman periodically (and not less often than every two years) shall—

(A) review the missions, responsibilities (including geographic boundaries), and force structure of each combatant command; and

(B) recommend to the President, through the Secretary of Defense, any changes to such missions, responsibilities, and force structures as may be necessary.


(2) Except during time of hostilities or imminent threat of hostilities, the President shall notify Congress not more than 60 days after—

(A) establishing a new combatant command; or

(B) significantly revising the missions, responsibilities, or force structure of an existing combatant command.


(c) Definitions.—In this chapter:

(1) The term “unified combatant command” means a military command which has broad, continuing missions and which is composed of forces from two or more military departments.

(2) The term “specified combatant command” means a military command which has broad, continuing missions and which is normally composed of forces from a single military department.

(3) The term “combatant command” means a unified combatant command or a specified combatant command.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §211(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1012.)

Matters To Be Considered in Next Assessment of Current Missions, Responsibilities, and Force Structure of Unified Combatant Commands

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §905, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2619, required the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to consider, as part of the next periodic review after Sept. 23, 1996, pursuant to subsec. (b) of this section: (1) whether there was an adequate distribution of responsibilities among the regional unified combatant commands; (2) whether fewer or differently configured commands would permit the United States to better execute warfighting plans; (3) whether any assets or activities were redundant; (4) whether warfighting requirements were adequate to justify current commands; (5) whether exclusion of certain nations from the Areas of Responsibility presented difficulties with respect to national security objectives in those areas; and (6) whether the boundary between the United States Central and European Commands could create command conflicts in the context of a major regional conflict in the Middle East.

Initial Review of Combatant Commands

Section 212 of Pub. L. 99–433 set out 10 areas to be covered in first review of missions, responsibilities, and force structure of unified combatant commands under subsec. (b) of this section, and directed that first report to President be made not later than Oct. 1, 1987.

§162. Combatant commands: assigned forces; chain of command

(a) Assignment of Forces.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretaries of the military departments shall assign all forces under their jurisdiction to unified and specified combatant commands or to the United States element of the North American Aerospace Defense Command to perform missions assigned to those commands. Such assignments shall be made as directed by the Secretary of Defense, including direction as to the command to which forces are to be assigned. The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that such assignments are consistent with the force structure prescribed by the President for each combatant command.

(2) Except as otherwise directed by the Secretary of Defense, forces to be assigned by the Secretaries of the military departments to the combatant commands or to the United States element of the North American Aerospace Defense Command under paragraph (1) do not include forces assigned to carry out functions of the Secretary of a military department listed in sections 3013(b), 5013(b), and 8013(b) of this title or forces assigned to multinational peacekeeping organizations.

(3) A force assigned to a combatant command or to the United States element of the North American Aerospace Defense Command under this section may be transferred from the command to which it is assigned only—

(A) by authority of the Secretary of Defense; and

(B) under procedures prescribed by the Secretary and approved by the President.


(4) Except as otherwise directed by the Secretary of Defense, all forces operating within the geographic area assigned to a unified combatant command shall be assigned to, and under the command of, the commander of that command. The preceding sentence applies to forces assigned to a specified combatant command only as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(b) Chain of Command.—Unless otherwise directed by the President, the chain of command to a unified or specified combatant command runs—

(1) from the President to the Secretary of Defense; and

(2) from the Secretary of Defense to the commander of the combatant command.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §211(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1012; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1313, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1175; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VII, §711, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1073(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2657.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “North American Aerospace Defense Command” for “North American Air Defense Command”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 100–456 inserted “or to the United States element of the North American Air Defense Command”.

1987—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–180 inserted before period at end “or forces assigned to multinational peacekeeping organizations”.

Implementation of Assignment of Forces to Combatant Commands

Section 214(a) of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that section 162(a) of this title shall be implemented not later than 90 days after Oct. 1, 1986.

§163. Role of Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff

(a) Communications Through Chairman of JCS; Assignment of Duties.—Subject to the limitations in section 152(c) of this title, the President may—

(1) direct that communications between the President or the Secretary of Defense and the commanders of the unified and specified combatant commands be transmitted through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; and

(2) assign duties to the Chairman to assist the President and the Secretary of Defense in performing their command function.


(b) Oversight by Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may assign to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff responsibility for overseeing the activities of the combatant commands. Such assignment by the Secretary to the Chairman does not confer any command authority on the Chairman and does not alter the responsibility of the commanders of the combatant commands prescribed in section 164(b)(2) of this title.

(2) Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff serves as the spokesman for the commanders of the combatant commands, especially on the operational requirements of their commands. In performing such function, the Chairman shall—

(A) confer with and obtain information from the commanders of the combatant commands with respect to the requirements of their commands;

(B) evaluate and integrate such information;

(C) advise and make recommendations to the Secretary of Defense with respect to the requirements of the combatant commands, individually and collectively; and

(D) communicate, as appropriate, the requirements of the combatant commands to other elements of the Department of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §211(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1013.)

§164. Commanders of combatant commands: assignment; powers and duties

(a) Assignment as Combatant Commander.—(1) The President may assign an officer to serve as the commander of a unified or specified combatant command only if the officer—

(A) has the joint specialty under section 661 of this title; and

(B) has completed a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment (as defined in section 664(f) of this title) as a general or flag officer.


(2) The President may waive paragraph (1) in the case of an officer if the President determines that such action is necessary in the national interest.

(b) Responsibilities of Combatant Commanders.—(1) The commander of a combatant command is responsible to the President and to the Secretary of Defense for the performance of missions assigned to that command by the President or by the Secretary with the approval of the President.

(2) Subject to the direction of the President, the commander of a combatant command—

(A) performs his duties under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense; and

(B) is directly responsible to the Secretary for the preparedness of the command to carry out missions assigned to the command.


(c) Command Authority of Combatant Commanders.—(1) Unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense, the authority, direction, and control of the commander of a combatant command with respect to the commands and forces assigned to that command include the command functions of—

(A) giving authoritative direction to subordinate commands and forces necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command, including authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics;

(B) prescribing the chain of command to the commands and forces within the command;

(C) organizing commands and forces within that command as he considers necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command;

(D) employing forces within that command as he considers necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command;

(E) assigning command functions to subordinate commanders;

(F) coordinating and approving those aspects of administration and support (including control of resources and equipment, internal organization, and training) and discipline necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command; and

(G) exercising the authority with respect to selecting subordinate commanders, selecting combatant command staff, suspending subordinates, and convening courts-martial, as provided in subsections (e), (f), and (g) of this section and section 822(a) of this title, respectively.


(2)(A) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that a commander of a combatant command has sufficient authority, direction, and control over the commands and forces assigned to the command to exercise effective command over those commands and forces. In carrying out this subparagraph, the Secretary shall consult with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(B) The Secretary shall periodically review and, after consultation with the Secretaries of the military departments, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the commander of the combatant command, assign authority to the commander of the combatant command for those aspects of administration and support that the Secretary considers necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command.

(3) If a commander of a combatant command at any time considers his authority, direction, or control with respect to any of the commands or forces assigned to the command to be insufficient to command effectively, the commander shall promptly inform the Secretary of Defense.

(d) Authority Over Subordinate Commanders.—Unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense—

(1) commanders of commands and forces assigned to a combatant command are under the authority, direction, and control of, and are responsible to, the commander of the combatant command on all matters for which the commander of the combatant command has been assigned authority under subsection (c);

(2) the commander of a command or force referred to in clause (1) shall communicate with other elements of the Department of Defense on any matter for which the commander of the combatant command has been assigned authority under subsection (c) in accordance with procedures, if any, established by the commander of the combatant command;

(3) other elements of the Department of Defense shall communicate with the commander of a command or force referred to in clause (1) on any matter for which the commander of the combatant command has been assigned authority under subsection (c) in accordance with procedures, if any, established by the commander of the combatant command; and

(4) if directed by the commander of the combatant command, the commander of a command or force referred to in clause (1) shall advise the commander of the combatant command of all communications to and from other elements of the Department of Defense on any matter for which the commander of the combatant command has not been assigned authority under subsection (c).


(e) Selection of Subordinate Commanders.—(1) An officer may be assigned to a position as the commander of a command directly subordinate to the commander of a combatant command or, in the case of such a position that is designated under section 601 of this title as a position of importance and responsibility, may be recommended to the President for assignment to that position, only—

(A) with the concurrence of the commander of the combatant command; and

(B) in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary of Defense.


(2) The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirement under paragraph (1) for the concurrence of the commander of a combatant command with regard to the assignment (or recommendation for assignment) of a particular officer if the Secretary of Defense determines that such action is in the national interest.

(3) The commander of a combatant command shall—

(A) evaluate the duty performance of each commander of a command directly subordinate to the commander of such combatant command; and

(B) submit the evaluation to the Secretary of the military department concerned and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.


(f) Combatant Command Staff.—(1) Each unified and specified combatant command shall have a staff to assist the commander of the command in carrying out his responsibilities. Positions of responsibility on the combatant command staff shall be filled by officers from each of the armed forces having significant forces assigned to the command.

(2) An officer may be assigned to a position on the staff of a combatant command or, in the case of such a position that is designated under section 601 of this title as a position of importance and responsibility, may be recommended to the President for assignment to that position, only—

(A) with the concurrence of the commander of such command; and

(B) in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary of Defense.


(3) The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirement under paragraph (2) for the concurrence of the commander of a combatant command with regard to the assignment (or recommendation for assignment) of a particular officer to serve on the staff of the combatant command if the Secretary of Defense determines that such action is in the national interest.

(g) Authority to Suspend Subordinates.—In accordance with procedures established by the Secretary of Defense, the commander of a combatant command may suspend from duty and recommend the reassignment of any officer assigned to such combatant command.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §211(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1013; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §519(a)(2), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1972.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–456 substituted “completed a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment (as defined in section 664(f) of this title)” for “served in at least one joint duty assignment (as defined under section 668(b) of this title)”.

Effective Date

Section 214(c) of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “Subsections (e), (f), and (g) of section 164 of title 10, United States Code (as added by section 211 of this Act), shall take effect at the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 1, 1986], or on such earlier date as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.”

Waiver of Qualifications for Assignment as Combatant Commander

Section 214(b) of Pub. L. 99–433 authorized President, until Oct. 1, 1990, to waive, on a case-by-case basis, certain requirements provided for in subsec. (a) of this section relating to assignment of commanders of combatant commands.

§165. Combatant commands: administration and support

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense, with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall provide for the administration and support of forces assigned to each combatant command.

(b) Responsibility of Secretaries of Military Departments.—Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense and subject to the authority of commanders of the combatant commands under section 164(c) of this title, the Secretary of a military department is responsible for the administration and support of forces assigned by him to a combatant command.

(c) Assignment of Responsibility to Other Components of DOD.—After consultation with the Secretaries of the military departments, the Secretary of Defense may assign the responsibility (or any part of the responsibility) for the administration and support of forces assigned to the combatant commands to other components of the Department of Defense (including Defense Agencies and combatant commands). A component assigned such a responsibility shall discharge that responsibility subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense and subject to the authority of commanders of the combatant commands under section 164(c) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §211(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1016.)

§166. Combatant commands: budget proposals

(a) Combatant Command Budgets.—The Secretary of Defense shall include in the annual budget of the Department of Defense submitted to Congress a separate budget proposal for such activities of each of the unified and specified combatant commands as may be determined under subsection (b).

(b) Content of Proposals.—A budget proposal under subsection (a) for funding of activities of a combatant command shall include funding proposals for such activities of the combatant command as the Secretary (after consultation with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) determines to be appropriate for inclusion. Activities of a combatant command for which funding may be requested in such a proposal include the following:

(1) Joint exercises.

(2) Force training.

(3) Contingencies.

(4) Selected operations.


(c) SOF Training With Foreign Forces.—A funding proposal for force training under subsection (b)(2) may include amounts for training expense payments authorized in section 2011 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §211(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1016; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1052(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1471.)

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–190 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date

Section 214(d) of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “Section 166 of title 10, United States Code (as added by section 211 of this Act), shall take effect with budget proposals for fiscal year 1989.”

§166a. Combatant commands: funding through the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff

(a) Combatant Commander Initiative Fund.—From funds made available in any fiscal year for the budget account in the Department of Defense known as the “Combatant Commander Initiative Fund”, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may provide funds to the commander of a combatant command, upon the request of the commander, or, with respect to a geographic area or areas not within the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command, to an officer designated by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for such purpose. The Chairman may provide such funds for any of the activities named in subsection (b).

(b) Authorized Activities.—Activities for which funds may be provided under subsection (a) are the following:

(1) Force training.

(2) Contingencies.

(3) Selected operations.

(4) Command and control.

(5) Joint exercises (including activities of participating foreign countries).

(6) Humanitarian and civic assistance, to include urgent and unanticipated humanitarian relief and reconstruction assistance.

(7) Military education and training to military and related civilian personnel of foreign countries (including transportation, translation, and administrative expenses).

(8) Personnel expenses of defense personnel for bilateral or regional cooperation programs.

(9) Force protection.

(10) Joint warfighting capabilities.


(c) Priority.—The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in considering requests for funds in the Combatant Commander Initiative Fund, should give priority consideration to—

(1) requests for funds to be used for activities that would enhance the war fighting capability, readiness, and sustainability of the forces assigned to the commander requesting the funds;

(2) the provision of funds to be used for activities with respect to an area or areas not within the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command that would reduce the threat to, or otherwise increase, the national security of the United States; and

(3) the provision of funds to be used for urgent and unanticipated humanitarian relief and reconstruction assistance, particularly in a foreign country where the armed forces are engaged in a contingency operation.


(d) Relationship to Other Funding.—Any amount provided by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during any fiscal year out of the Combatant Commander Initiative Fund for an activity referred to in subsection (b) shall be in addition to amounts otherwise available for that activity for that fiscal year.

(e) Limitations.—(1) Of funds made available under this section for any fiscal year—

(A) not more than $10,000,000 may be used to purchase items with a unit cost in excess of $15,000;

(B) not more than $10,000,000 may be used to pay for any expenses of foreign countries participating in joint exercises as authorized by subsection (b)(5); and

(C) not more than $5,000,000 may be used to provide military education and training (including transportation, translation, and administrative expenses) to military and related civilian personnel of foreign countries as authorized by subsection (b)(7).


(2) Funds may not be provided under this section for any activity that has been denied authorization by Congress.

(f) Inclusion of NORAD.—For purposes of this section, the Commander, United States Element, North American Aerospace Defense Command shall be considered to be a commander of a combatant command.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IX, §902(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1450; amended Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9128, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1935; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IX, §934, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2477; Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §201(a), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 97; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IX, §902, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1854; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §902(a)(2), (b), (c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1558; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title IX, §902, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2351.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 109–364, §902(a), substituted “civic assistance, to include urgent and unanticipated humanitarian relief and reconstruction assistance” for “civil assistance”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 109–364, §902(b), added par. (3).

2003—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–136, §902(a)(2), substituted “Combatant Commander Initiative Fund” for “CINC Initiative Fund” in heading and “Combatant Commander Initiative Fund” for “CINC Initiative Fund” in first sentence.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 108–136, §902(b), added par. (10).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 108–136, §902(a)(2)(B), substituted “Combatant Commander Initiative Fund” for “CINC Initiative Fund”.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 108–136, §902(c)(1), substituted “$10,000,000” for “$7,000,000”.

Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 108–136, §902(c)(2), substituted “$10,000,000” for “$1,000,000”.

Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 108–136, §902(c)(3), substituted “$5,000,000” for “$2,000,000”.

1997—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 105–85 added par. (9).

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–35, §201(a)(1), substituted “the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may provide funds to the commander of a combatant command, upon the request of the commander, or, with respect to a geographic area or areas not within the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command, to an officer designated by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for such purpose” for “the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may provide funds to the commander of a combatant command, upon the request of the commander, or to the Director of the Joint Staff with respect to an area or areas not within the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command.”

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 103–35, §201(a)(2), struck out second of two identical parenthetical phrases at end of par. (7) which read as follows: “(including transportation, translation, and administrative expenses)”.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–484, §934(a), which directed substitution of “funds to the commander of a combatant command, upon the request of the commander, or, with respect to a geographic area or areas not within the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command, to an officer designated by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for such purpose.” for “funds, upon request,” and all that follows through the period, could not be executed because the words did not appear subsequent to the amendment by Pub. L. 102–396, §9128(a). See below.

Pub. L. 102–396, §9128(a), substituted “funds to the commander of a combatant command, upon the request of the commander, or to the Director of the Joint Staff with respect to an area or areas not within the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command.” for “funds, upon request, to the commanders of the combatant commands.”

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 102–396, §9128(b), and Pub. L. 102–484, §934(b), both inserted before period at end “(including transportation, translation, and administrative expenses)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–484, §934(c), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in considering requests for funds in the CINC Initiative Fund, should give priority consideration to requests for funds to be used for activities that would enhance the war fighting capability, readiness, and sustainability of the forces assigned to the commander requesting the funds (c) Priority.—The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in considering requests for funds in the CINC Initiative Fund or the provision of funds to the Director of the Joint Staff under subsection (a), should give priority consideration to—

“(1) requests for funds to be used for activities that would enhance the war fighting capability, readiness, and sustainability of the forces assigned to the commander requesting the funds; and

“(2) the provision of funds to be used for activities with respect to an area or areas not within the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command that would reduce the threat to, or otherwise increase, the national security of the United States..[sic]”

Pub. L. 102–396, §9128(c), inserted before period at end “(c) Priority.—The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in considering requests for funds in the CINC Initiative Fund or the provision of funds to the Director of the Joint Staff under subsection (a), should give priority consideration to—

“(1) requests for funds to be used for activities that would enhance the war fighting capability, readiness, and sustainability of the forces assigned to the commander requesting the funds; and

“(2) the provision of funds to be used for activities with respect to an area or areas not within the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command that would reduce the threat to, or otherwise increase, the national security of the United States.”

Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 102–484, §934(d), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (C) read as follows: “not more than $5,000,000 may be used to provide military education and training (including transportation, translation, and administrative expenses) to military and related civilian personnel of foreign countries as authorized by subsection (b)(7).”

Pub. L. 102–396, §9128(d), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: “not more than $500,000 may be used to provide military education and training to military and related civilian personnel of foreign countries as authorized by subsection (b)(7).”

Redesignation of CINC Initiative Fund

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §902(a)(1), (3), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1558, provided that:

“(1) The CINC Initiative Fund administered under section 166a of title 10, United States Code, is redesignated as the ‘Combatant Commander Initiative Fund’.

“(3) Any reference to the CINC Initiative Fund in any other provision of law or in any regulation, document, record, or other paper of the United States shall be considered to be a reference to the Combatant Commander Initiative Fund.”

§166b. Combatant commands: funding for combating terrorism readiness initiatives

(a) Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiatives Fund.—From funds made available in any fiscal year for the budget account in the Department of Defense known as the “Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiatives Fund”, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may provide funds to the commander of a combatant command, upon the request of the commander, or, with respect to a geographic area or areas not within the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command, to an officer designated by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for such purpose. The Chairman may provide such funds for initiating any activity named in subsection (b) and for maintaining and sustaining the activity for the fiscal year in which initiated and one additional fiscal year.

(b) Authorized Activities.—Activities for which funds may be provided under subsection (a) are the following:

(1) Procurement and maintenance of physical security equipment.

(2) Improvement of physical security sites.

(3) Under extraordinary circumstances—

(A) physical security management planning;

(B) procurement and support of security forces and security technicians;

(C) security reviews and investigations and vulnerability assessments; and

(D) any other activity relating to physical security.


(c) Priority.—The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in considering requests for funds in the Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiatives Fund, should give priority consideration to emergency or emergent unforeseen high-priority requirements for combating terrorism.

(d) Relationship to Other Funding.—Any amount provided by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for a fiscal year out of the Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiatives Fund for an activity referred to in subsection (b) shall be in addition to amounts otherwise available for that activity for that fiscal year.

(e) Limitation.—Funds may not be provided under this section for any activity that has been denied authorization by Congress.

(Added Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title XV, §1512(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1272.)

§167. Unified combatant command for special operations forces

(a) Establishment.—With the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the President, through the Secretary of Defense, shall establish under section 161 of this title a unified combatant command for special operations forces (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “special operations command”). The principal function of the command is to prepare special operations forces to carry out assigned missions.

(b) Assignment of Forces.—Unless otherwise directed by the Secretary of Defense, all active and reserve special operations forces of the armed forces stationed in the United States shall be assigned to the special operations command.

(c) Grade of Commander.—The commander of the special operations command shall hold the grade of general or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, admiral while serving in that position, without vacating his permanent grade. The commander of such command shall be appointed to that grade by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, for service in that position.

(d) Command of Activity or Mission.—(1) Unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense, a special operations activity or mission shall be conducted under the command of the commander of the unified combatant command in whose geographic area the activity or mission is to be conducted.

(2) The commander of the special operations command shall exercise command of a selected special operations mission if directed to do so by the President or the Secretary of Defense.

(e) Authority of Combatant Commander.—(1) In addition to the authority prescribed in section 164(c) of this title, the commander of the special operations command shall be responsible for, and shall have the authority to conduct, all affairs of such command relating to special operations activities.

(2) The commander of such command shall be responsible for, and shall have the authority to conduct, the following functions relating to special operations activities (whether or not relating to the special operations command):

(A) Developing strategy, doctrine, and tactics.

(B) Preparing and submitting to the Secretary of Defense program recommendations and budget proposals for special operations forces and for other forces assigned to the special operations command.

(C) Exercising authority, direction, and control over the expenditure of funds—

(i) for forces assigned to the special operations command; and

(ii) for special operations forces assigned to unified combatant commands other than the special operations command, with respect to all matters covered by paragraph (4) and, with respect to a matter not covered by paragraph (4), to the extent directed by the Secretary of Defense.


(D) Training assigned forces.

(E) Conducting specialized courses of instruction for commissioned and noncommissioned officers.

(F) Validating requirements.

(G) Establishing priorities for requirements.

(H) Ensuring the interoperability of equipment and forces.

(I) Formulating and submitting requirements for intelligence support.

(J) Monitoring the promotions, assignments, retention, training, and professional military education of special operations forces officers.


(3) The commander of the special operations command shall be responsible for—

(A) ensuring the combat readiness of forces assigned to the special operations command; and

(B) monitoring the preparedness to carry out assigned missions of special operations forces assigned to unified combatant commands other than the special operations command.


(4)(A) The commander of the special operations command shall be responsible for, and shall have the authority to conduct, the following:

(i) Development and acquisition of special operations-peculiar equipment.

(ii) Acquisition of special operations-peculiar material, supplies, and services.


(B) Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, the commander of the command, in carrying out his functions under subparagraph (A), shall have authority to exercise the functions of the head of an agency under chapter 137 of this title.

(C) The staff of the commander shall include an inspector general who shall conduct internal audits and inspections of purchasing and contracting actions through the special operations command and such other inspector general functions as may be assigned.

(f) Budget.—In addition to the activities of a combatant command for which funding may be requested under section 166(b) of this title, the budget proposal of the special operations command shall include requests for funding for—

(1) development and acquisition of special operations-peculiar equipment; and

(2) acquisition of other material, supplies, or services that are peculiar to special operations activities.


(g) Intelligence and Special Activities.—This section does not constitute authority to conduct any activity which, if carried out as an intelligence activity by the Department of Defense, would require a notice to the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives under title V of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 413 et seq.).

(h) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations for the activities of the special operations command. Such regulations shall include authorization for the commander of such command to provide for operational security of special operations forces and activities.

(i) Identification of Special Operations Forces.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), for the purposes of this section special operations forces are those forces of the armed forces that—

(A) are identified as core forces or as augmenting forces in the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan, Annex E, dated December 17, 1985;

(B) are described in the Terms of Reference and Conceptual Operations Plan for the Joint Special Operations Command, as in effect on April 1, 1986; or

(C) are designated as special operations forces by the Secretary of Defense.


(2) The Secretary of Defense, after consulting with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the commander of the special operations command, may direct that any force included within the description in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) shall not be considered as a special operations force for the purposes of this section.

(j) Special Operations Activities.—For purposes of this section, special operations activities include each of the following insofar as it relates to special operations:

(1) Direct action.

(2) Strategic reconnaissance.

(3) Unconventional warfare.

(4) Foreign internal defense.

(5) Civil affairs.

(6) Psychological operations.

(7) Counterterrorism.

(8) Humanitarian assistance.

(9) Theater search and rescue.

(10) Such other activities as may be specified by the President or the Secretary of Defense.


(k) Budget Support for Reserve Elements.—(1) Before the budget proposal for the special operations command for any fiscal year is submitted to the Secretary of Defense, the commander of the command shall consult with the Secretaries of the military departments concerning funding for reserve component special operations units. If the Secretary of a military department does not concur in the recommended level of funding with respect to any such unit that is under the jurisdiction of the Secretary, the commander shall include with the budget proposal submitted to the Secretary of Defense the views of the Secretary of the military department concerning such funding.

(2) Before the budget proposal for a military department for any fiscal year is submitted to the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of that military department shall consult with the commander of the special operations command concerning funding for special operations forces in the military personnel budget for a reserve component in that military department. If the commander of that command does not concur in the recommended level of funding with respect to reserve component special operations units, the Secretary shall include with the budget proposal submitted to the Secretary of Defense the views of the commander of that command.

(Added Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9115(b)(1)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–122, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9115(b)(1)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–122; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, §1311(b)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3983; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1211(d), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1156; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VII, §712, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 102–88, title VI, §602(c)(3), Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §925, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2832.)

References in Text

The National Security Act of 1947, referred to in subsec. (g), is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended. Title V of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§413 et seq.) of chapter 15 of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of Title 50 and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Pub. L. 99–661 and Pub. L. 99–500 added identical sections.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103–337 added subsec. (k).

1991—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–88 substituted “would require a notice” for “would require—

“(1) a finding under section 662 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2422); or

“(2) a notice” and “title V of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 413 et seq.)” for “section 501(a)(1) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 413)”.

1988—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–456 revised and restated subsec. (e). Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows:

“(1) In addition to the authority prescribed in section 164(c) of this title, the commander of the special operations command shall be responsible for, and shall have the authority to conduct, all affairs of such command relating to special operations activities, including the following functions:

“(A) Developing strategy, doctrine, and tactics.

“(B) Training assigned forces.

“(C) Conducting specialized courses of instruction for commissioned and noncommissioned officers.

“(D) Validating requirements.

“(E) Establishing priorities for requirements.

“(F) Ensuring combat readiness.

“(G) Developing and acquiring special operations-peculiar equipment and acquiring special operations-peculiar material, supplies, and services.

“(H) Ensuring the interoperability of equipment and forces.

“(I) Formulating and submitting requirements for intelligence support.

“(J) Monitoring the promotions, assignments, retention, training, and professional military education of special operations forces officers.

“(2) The commander of such command shall be responsible for monitoring the preparedness of special operations forces assigned to other unified combatant commands to carry out assigned missions.

“(3) Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, the commander of the command, in carrying out his functions under paragraph (1)(G), shall have authority to exercise the functions of the head of an agency under chapter 137 of this title. The staff of the commander shall include an inspector general who shall conduct internal audits and inspections of purchasing and contracting actions through the special operations command and such other inspector general functions as may be assigned.”

1987—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 100–180 added par. (3).

Effective Date

Section 101(c) [§9115(i)] of Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, and section 1311(i) of Pub. L. 99–661, provided that: “Section 167 of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (b)), shall be implemented not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 18, 1986].”

Resources for CINCSOF

Section 1211(b) of Pub. L. 100–180, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §903(f)(5), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 402; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §901, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2617, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense shall provide sufficient resources for the commander of the unified combatant command for special operations forces established pursuant to section 167 of title 10, United States Code, to carry out his duties and responsibilities, including particularly his duties and responsibilities relating to the following functions:

“(1) Developing and acquiring special operations-peculiar equipment and acquiring special operations-peculiar material, supplies, and services.

“(2) Providing advice and assistance to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict in the Assistant Secretary's overall supervision of the preparation and justification of the program recommendations and budget proposals for special operations forces.

“(3) Managing assigned resources from the major force program category for special operations forces of the Five-Year Defense Plan of the Department of Defense (as required to be created pursuant to subsection (e)).”

Major Force Program Category; Program and Budget Execution; Grade for Commanders of Certain Area Special Operations Commands

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IX, §936(a), (b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2479, provided that, during the period beginning on Feb. 1, 1993, and ending on Feb. 1, 1995, the provisions of Pub. L. 99–661, §1311(e), set out below, would apply as if the Secretary of Defense had designated the United States Southern Command and the United States Central Command for the purposes of that section, and required the Secretary of Defense to submit to Congress a report setting forth the Secretary's recommendations for the grade structure for the special operations forces component commander for each unified command not later than Mar. 1, 1994.

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1211(e), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1156, directed that the major force program category for special operations forces of the Five-Year Defense Plan of the Department of Defense created pursuant to Pub. L. 99–661, §1311(c), set out below, was to be created not later than 30 days after Dec. 4, 1987, and required the Secretary of Defense to submit to committees of Congress on such date a report explaining the program recommendations and budget proposals included in such category and a certification that all program recommendations and budget proposals for special operations forces had been included.

Section 1311(c)–(e) of Pub. L. 99–661 provided that:

“(c) Major Force Program Category.—The Secretary of Defense shall create for the special operations forces a major force program category for the Five-Year Defense Plan of the Department of Defense. The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict, with the advice and assistance of the commander of the special operations command, shall provide overall supervision of the preparation and justification of program recommendations and budget proposals to be included in such major force program category.

“(d) Program and Budget Execution.—To the extent that there is authority to revise programs and budgets approved by Congress for special operations forces, such authority may be exercised only by the Secretary of Defense, after consulting with the commander of the special operations command.

“(e) Grade for Commanders of Certain Area Special Operations Commands.—The commander of the special operations command of the United States European Command, the United States Pacific Command, and any other unified combatant command that the Secretary of Defense may designate for the purposes of this section shall be of general or flag officer grade.”

[Identical provisions were contained in section 101(c) [§9115(c)–(e)] of Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, which was repealed by Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IX, §936(c), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2479.]

Report on Capabilities of United States To Conduct Special Operations and Engage in Low Intensity Conflicts

Section 101(c) [§9115(h)(2)] of Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, and section 1311(h)(2) of Pub. L. 99–661, required President, not later than one year after Oct. 1, 1986, to transmit to Congress a report on capabilities of United States to conduct special operations and engage in low intensity conflicts, the report to include a description of deficiencies in such capabilities, actions being taken throughout executive branch to correct such deficiencies, the principal low intensity conflict threats to interests of United States, and the actions taken and to be taken to implement this section.

§167a. Unified combatant command for joint warfighting experimentation: acquisition authority

(a) Limited Acquisition Authority for Commander of Certain Unified Combatant Command.—The Secretary of Defense may delegate to the commander of the unified combatant command referred to in subsection (b) authority of the Secretary under chapter 137 of this title sufficient to enable the commander to develop and acquire equipment described in subsection (c). The exercise of authority so delegated is subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary.

(b) Command Described.—The commander to whom authority is delegated under subsection (a) is the commander of the unified combatant command that has the mission for joint warfighting experimentation, as assigned by the Secretary of Defense.

(c) Equipment.—The equipment referred to in subsection (a) is as follows:

(1) Equipment for battle management command, control, communications, and intelligence.

(2) Any other equipment that the commander referred to in subsection (b) determines necessary and appropriate for—

(A) facilitating the use of joint forces in military operations; or

(B) enhancing the interoperability of equipment used by the various components of joint forces.


(d) Exceptions.—The authority delegated under subsection (a) does not apply to the development or acquisition of a system for which—

(1) the total expenditure for research, development, test, and evaluation is estimated to be $10,000,000 or more; or

(2) the total expenditure for procurement is estimated to be $50,000,000 or more.


(e) Internal Audits and Inspections.—The commander referred to in subsection (b) shall require the inspector general of that command to conduct internal audits and inspections of purchasing and contracting administered by the commander under the authority delegated under subsection (a).

(f) Termination.—The Secretary may delegate the authority referred to in subsection (a) only during fiscal years 2004 through 2008, and any authority so delegated shall not be in effect after September 30, 2008.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §848(a)(1), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1554; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VIII, §846(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3391.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted “through 2008” for “through 2006” and “September 30, 2008” for “September 30, 2006”.

Comptroller General Report

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §848(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1555, required the Comptroller General to review the implementation of this section and submit to Congress a report on such review not later than two years after Nov. 24, 2003.

§168. Military-to-military contacts and comparable activities

(a) Program Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may conduct military-to-military contacts and comparable activities that are designed to encourage a democratic orientation of defense establishments and military forces of other countries.

(b) Administration.—The Secretary may provide funds appropriated for carrying out subsection (a) to the following officials for use as provided in subsection (c):

(1) The commander of a combatant command, upon the request of the commander.

(2) An officer designated by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, with respect to an area or areas not under the area of responsibility of a commander of a combatant command.

(3) The head of any Department of Defense component.


(c) Authorized Activities.—An official provided funds under subsection (b) may use those funds for the following activities and expenses:

(1) The activities of traveling contact teams, including any transportation expense, translation services expense, or administrative expense that is related to such activities.

(2) The activities of military liaison teams.

(3) Exchanges of civilian or military personnel between the Department of Defense and defense ministries of foreign governments.

(4) Exchanges of military personnel between units of the armed forces and units of foreign armed forces.

(5) Seminars and conferences held primarily in a theater of operations.

(6) Distribution of publications primarily in a theater of operations.

(7) Personnel expenses for Department of Defense civilian and military personnel to the extent that those expenses relate to participation in an activity described in paragraph (3), (4), (5), or (6).

(8) Reimbursement of military personnel appropriations accounts for the pay and allowances paid to reserve component personnel for service while engaged in any activity referred to in another paragraph of this subsection.


(d) Relationship to Other Funding.—Any amount provided during any fiscal year to an official under subsection (b) for an activity or expense referred to in subsection (c) shall be in addition to amounts otherwise available for those activities and expenses for that fiscal year.

(e) Limitations.—(1) Funds may not be provided under this section for a fiscal year for any activity for which—

(A) funding was proposed in the budget submitted to Congress for that fiscal year pursuant to section 1105(a) of title 31; and

(B) Congress did not authorize appropriations.


(2) An activity may not be conducted under this section with a foreign country unless the Secretary of State approves the conduct of such activity in that foreign country.

(3) Funds may not be provided under this section for a fiscal year for any country that is not eligible in that fiscal year for assistance under chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.

(4) Except for those activities specifically authorized under subsection (c), funds may not be used under this section for the provision of defense articles or defense services to any country or for assistance under chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.

(f) Active Duty End Strengths.—A member of a reserve component who is engaged in activities authorized under this section shall not be counted for purposes of the following personnel strength limitations:

(1) The end strength for active-duty personnel authorized pursuant to section 115(a)(1) of this title for the fiscal year in which the member carries out the activities referred to under this section.

(2) The authorized daily average for members in pay grades E–8 and E–9 under section 517 of this title for the calendar year in which the member carries out such activities.

(3) The authorized strengths for commissioned officers under section 523 of this title for the fiscal year in which the member carries out such activities.


(g) Military-to-Military Contacts Defined.—In this section, the term “military-to-military contacts” means contacts between members of the armed forces and members of foreign armed forces through activities described in subsection (c).

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XIII, §1316(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2898; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §416, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 289; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IV, §416(e), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1868.)

References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), (4), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended. Chapter 5 of part II of the Act is classified generally to part V (§2347 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 32 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of Title 22 and Tables.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–375 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(1) A member of a reserve component referred to in paragraph (2) shall not be counted for purposes of the following personnel strength limitations:

“(A) The end strength for active-duty personnel authorized pursuant to section 115(a)(1) of this title for the fiscal year in which the member carries out the activities referred to in paragraph (2).

“(B) The authorized daily average for members in pay grades E–8 and E–9 under section 517 of this title for the calendar year in which the member carries out such activities.

“(C) The authorized strengths for commissioned officers under section 523 of this title for the fiscal year in which the member carries out such activities.

“(2) A member of a reserve component referred to in paragraph (1) is any member on active duty under an order to active duty for 180 days or more who is engaged in activities authorized under this section.”

1996—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 104–106 added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

Limitation on Military-to-Military Exchanges and Contacts With Chinese People's Liberation Army

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title XII, §1201, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 779, provided that:

“(a) Limitation.—The Secretary of Defense may not authorize any military-to-military exchange or contact described in subsection (b) to be conducted by the armed forces with representatives of the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China if that exchange or contact would create a national security risk due to an inappropriate exposure specified in subsection (b).

“(b) Covered Exchanges and Contacts.—Subsection (a) applies to any military-to-military exchange or contact that includes inappropriate exposure to any of the following:

“(1) Force projection operations.

“(2) Nuclear operations.

“(3) Advanced combined-arms and joint combat operations.

“(4) Advanced logistical operations.

“(5) Chemical and biological defense and other capabilities related to weapons of mass destruction.

“(6) Surveillance and reconnaissance operations.

“(7) Joint warfighting experiments and other activities related to a transformation in warfare.

“(8) Military space operations.

“(9) Other advanced capabilities of the Armed Forces.

“(10) Arms sales or military-related technology transfers.

“(11) Release of classified or restricted information.

“(12) Access to a Department of Defense laboratory.

“(c) Exceptions.—Subsection (a) does not apply to any search-and-rescue or humanitarian operation or exercise.

“(d) Annual Certification by Secretary.—The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives, not later than December 31 each year, a certification in writing as to whether or not any military-to-military exchange or contact during that calendar year was conducted in violation of subsection (a).

“(e) Annual Report.—Not later than March 31 each year beginning in 2001, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report providing the Secretary's assessment of the current state of military-to-military exchanges and contacts with the People's Liberation Army. The report shall include the following:

“(1) A summary of all such military-to-military contacts during the period since the last such report, including a summary of topics discussed and questions asked by the Chinese participants in those contacts.

“(2) A description of the military-to-military exchanges and contacts scheduled for the next 12-month period and a plan for future contacts and exchanges.

“(3) The Secretary's assessment of the benefits the Chinese expect to gain from those military-to-military exchanges and contacts.

“(4) The Secretary's assessment of the benefits the Department of Defense expects to gain from those military-to-military exchanges and contacts.

“(5) The Secretary's assessment of how military-to-military exchanges and contacts with the People's Liberation Army fit into the larger security relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China.

“(f) Report of Past Military-to-Military Exchanges and Contacts With the PRC.—Not later than March 31, 2000, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report on past military-to-military exchanges and contacts between the United States and the People's Republic of China. The report shall be unclassified, but may contain a classified annex, and shall include the following:

“(1) A list of the general and flag grade officers of the People's Liberation Army who have visited United States military installations since January 1, 1993.

“(2) The itinerary of the visits referred to in paragraph (2)[(1)], including the installations visited, the duration of the visits, and the activities conducted during the visits.

“(3) The involvement, if any, of the general and flag officers referred to in paragraph (1) in the Tiananmen Square massacre of June 1989.

“(4) A list of the facilities in the People's Republic of China that United States military officers have visited as a result of any military-to-military exchange or contact program between the United States and the People's Republic of China since January 1, 1993.

“(5) A list of facilities in the People's Republic of China that have been the subject of a requested visit by the Department of Defense that has been denied by People's Republic of China authorities.

“(6) A list of facilities in the United States that have been the subject of a requested visit by the People's Liberation Army that has been denied by the United States.

“(7) Any official documentation (such as memoranda for the record, after-action reports, and final itineraries) and all receipts for expenses over $1,000, concerning military-to-military exchanges or contacts between the United States and the People's Republic of China in 1999.

“(8) A description of military-to-military exchanges or contacts between the United States and the People's Republic of China scheduled for 2000.

“(9) An assessment regarding whether or not any People's Republic of China military officials have been shown classified material as a result of military-to-military exchanges or contacts between the United States and the People's Republic of China.”

Agreements for Exchange of Defense Personnel Between United States and Foreign Countries

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1082, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2672, provided that:

“(a) Authority To Enter Into International Exchange Agreements.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may enter into international defense personnel exchange agreements.

“(2) For purposes of this section, an international defense personnel exchange agreement is an agreement with the government of an ally of the United States or another friendly foreign country for the exchange of—

“(A) military and civilian personnel of the Department of Defense; and

“(B) military and civilian personnel of the defense ministry of that foreign government.

“(b) Assignment of Personnel.—(1) Pursuant to an international defense personnel exchange agreement, personnel of the defense ministry of a foreign government may be assigned to positions in the Department of Defense and personnel of the Department of Defense may be assigned to positions in the defense ministry of such foreign government. Positions to which exchanged personnel are assigned may include positions of instructors.

“(2) An agreement for the exchange of personnel engaged in research and development activities may provide for assignment of Department of Defense personnel to positions in private industry that support the defense ministry of the host foreign government.

“(3) An individual may not be assigned to a position pursuant to an international defense personnel exchange agreement unless the assignment is acceptable to both governments.

“(c) Reciprocity of Personnel Qualifications Required.—Each government shall be required under an international defense personnel exchange agreement to provide personnel with qualifications, training, and skills that are essentially equal to those of the personnel provided by the other government.

“(d) Payment of Personnel Costs.—(1) Each government shall pay the salary, per diem, cost of living, travel costs, cost of language or other training, and other costs for its own personnel in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations of such government.

“(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to the following costs:

“(A) The cost of temporary duty directed by the host government.

“(B) The cost of training programs conducted to familiarize, orient, or certify exchanged personnel regarding unique aspects of the assignments of the exchanged personnel.

“(C) Costs incident to the use of the facilities of the host government in the performance of assigned duties.

“(e) Prohibited Conditions.—No personnel exchanged pursuant to an agreement under this section may take or be required to take an oath of allegiance to the host country or to hold an official capacity in the government of such country.

“(f) Relationship to Other Authority.—The requirements in subsections (c) and (d) shall apply in the exercise of any authority of the Secretaries of the military departments to enter into an agreement with the government of a foreign country to provide for the exchange of members of the armed forces and military personnel of the foreign country. The Secretary of Defense may prescribe regulations for the application of such subsections in the exercise of such authority.”