42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2008 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 21 - CIVIL RIGHTS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 21—CIVIL RIGHTS

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERALLY

Sec.
1981.
Equal rights under the law.
1981a.
Damages in cases of intentional discrimination in employment.
1982.
Property rights of citizens.
1983.
Civil action for deprivation of rights.
1984.
Omitted.
1985.
Conspiracy to interfere with civil rights.
1986.
Action for neglect to prevent.
1987.
Prosecution of violation of certain laws.
1988.
Proceedings in vindication of civil rights.
1989.
United States magistrate judges; appointment of persons to execute warrants.
1990.
Marshal to obey precepts; refusing to receive or execute process.
1991.
Fees; persons appointed to execute process.
1992.
Speedy trial.
1993.
Repealed.
1994.
Peonage abolished.
1995.
Criminal contempt proceedings; penalties; trial by jury.
1996.
Protection and preservation of traditional religions of Native Americans.
1996a.
Traditional Indian religious use of peyote.
1996b.
Interethnic adoption.

        

SUBCHAPTER I–A—INSTITUTIONALIZED PERSONS

1997.
Definitions.
1997a.
Initiation of civil actions.
1997b.
Certification requirements; Attorney General to personally sign certification.
1997c.
Intervention in actions.
1997d.
Prohibition of retaliation.
1997e.
Suits by prisoners.
1997f.
Report to Congress.
1997g.
Priorities for use of funds.
1997h.
Notice to Federal departments.
1997i.
Disclaimer respecting standards of care.
1997j.
Disclaimer respecting private litigation.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS

2000a.
Prohibition against discrimination or segregation in places of public accommodation.
2000a–1.
Prohibition against discrimination or segregation required by any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, rule or order of a State or State agency.
2000a–2.
Prohibition against deprivation of, interference with, and punishment for exercising rights and privileges secured by section 2000a or 2000a–1 of this title.
2000a–3.
Civil actions for injunctive relief.
2000a–4.
Community Relations Service; investigations and hearings; executive session; release of testimony; duty to bring about voluntary settlements.
2000a–5.
Civil actions by the Attorney General.
2000a–6.
Jurisdiction; exhaustion of other remedies; exclusiveness of remedies; assertion of rights based on other Federal or State laws and pursuit of remedies for enforcement of such rights.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PUBLIC FACILITIES

2000b.
Civil actions by the Attorney General.
2000b–1.
Liability of United States for costs and attorney's fee.
2000b–2.
Personal suits for relief against discrimination in public facilities.
2000b–3.
“Complaint” defined.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—PUBLIC EDUCATION

2000c.
Definitions.
2000c–1.
Omitted.
2000c–2.
Technical assistance in preparation, adoption, and implementation of plans for desegregation of public schools.
2000c–3.
Training institutes; stipends; travel allowances.
2000c–4.
Grants for inservice training in dealing with and for employment of specialists to advise in problems incident to desegregation; factors for consideration in making grants and fixing amounts, terms, and conditions.
2000c–5.
Payments; adjustments; advances or reimbursement; installments.
2000c–6.
Civil actions by the Attorney General.
2000c–7.
Liability of United States for costs.
2000c–8.
Personal suits for relief against discrimination in public education.
2000c–9.
Classification and assignment.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS

2000d.
Prohibition against exclusion from participation in, denial of benefits of, and discrimination under federally assisted programs on ground of race, color, or national origin.
2000d–1.
Federal authority and financial assistance to programs or activities by way of grant, loan, or contract other than contract of insurance or guaranty; rules and regulations; approval by President; compliance with requirements; reports to Congressional committees; effective date of administrative action.
2000d–2.
Judicial review; administrative procedure provisions.
2000d–3.
Construction of provisions not to authorize administrative action with respect to employment practices except where primary objective of Federal financial assistance is to provide employment.
2000d–4.
Federal authority and financial assistance to programs or activities by way of contract of insurance or guaranty.
2000d–4a.
“Program or activity” and “program” defined.
2000d–5.
Prohibited deferral of action on applications by local educational agencies seeking Federal funds for alleged noncompliance with Civil Rights Act.
2000d–6.
Policy of United States as to application of nondiscrimination provisions in schools of local educational agencies.
2000d–7.
Civil rights remedies equalization.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

2000e.
Definitions.
2000e–1.
Exemption.
2000e–2.
Unlawful employment practices.
2000e–3.
Other unlawful employment practices.
2000e–4.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
2000e–5.
Enforcement provisions.
2000e–6.
Civil actions by the Attorney General.
2000e–7.
Effect on State laws.
2000e–8.
Investigations.
2000e–9.
Conduct of hearings and investigations pursuant to section 161 of title 29.
2000e–10.
Posting of notices; penalties.
2000e–11.
Veterans’ special rights or preference.
2000e–12.
Regulations; conformity of regulations with administrative procedure provisions; reliance on interpretations and instructions of Commission.
2000e–13.
Application to personnel of Commission of sections 111 and 1114 of title 18; punishment for violation of section 1114 of title 18.
2000e–14.
Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council; establishment; composition; duties; report to President and Congress.
2000e–15.
Presidential conferences; acquaintance of leadership with provisions for employment rights and obligations; plans for fair administration; membership.
2000e–16.
Employment by Federal Government.
2000e–16a.
Short title; purpose; definition.
2000e–16b.
Discriminatory practices prohibited.
2000e–16c.
Coverage of previously exempt State employees.
2000e–17.
Procedure for denial, withholding, termination, or suspension of Government contract subsequent to acceptance by Government of affirmative action plan of employer; time of acceptance of plan.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—REGISTRATION AND VOTING STATISTICS

2000f.
Survey for compilation of registration and voting statistics; geographical areas; scope; application of census provisions; voluntary disclosure; advising of right not to furnish information.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—COMMUNITY RELATIONS SERVICE

2000g.
Establishment of Service; Director of Service: appointment, term; personnel.
2000g–1.
Functions of Service.
2000g–2.
Cooperation with other agencies; conciliation assistance in confidence and without publicity; information as confidential; restriction on performance of investigative or prosecuting functions; violations and penalties.
2000g–3.
Reports to Congress.

        

SUBCHAPTER IX—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

2000h.
Criminal contempt proceedings: trial by jury, criminal practice, penalties, exceptions, intent; civil contempt proceedings.
2000h–1.
Double jeopardy; specific crimes and criminal contempts.
2000h–2.
Intervention by Attorney General; denial of equal protection on account of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
2000h–3.
Construction of provisions not to affect authority of Attorney General, etc., to institute or intervene in actions or proceedings.
2000h–4.
Construction of provisions not to exclude operation of State laws and not to invalidate consistent State laws.
2000h–5.
Authorization of appropriations.
2000h–6.
Separability.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERALLY

§1981. Equal rights under the law

(a) Statement of equal rights

All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every State and Territory to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses, and exactions of every kind, and to no other.

(b) “Make and enforce contracts” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “make and enforce contracts” includes the making, performance, modification, and termination of contracts, and the enjoyment of all benefits, privileges, terms, and conditions of the contractual relationship.

(c) Protection against impairment

The rights protected by this section are protected against impairment by nongovernmental discrimination and impairment under color of State law.

(R.S. §1977; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §101, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1071.)

Codification

R.S. §1977 derived from act May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §16, 16 Stat. 144.

Section was formerly classified to section 41 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–166 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that:

“(a) In General.—Except as otherwise specifically provided, this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note below] and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect upon enactment [Nov. 21, 1991].

“(b) Certain Disparate Impact Cases.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, nothing in this Act shall apply to any disparate impact case for which a complaint was filed before March 1, 1975, and for which an initial decision was rendered after October 30, 1983.”

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that: “This Act [enacting section 1981a of this title and sections 60l and 1201 to 1224 of Title 2, The Congress, amending this section and sections 1988, 2000e, 2000e–1, 2000e–2, 2000e–4, 2000e–5, 2000e–16, 12111, 12112, and 12209 of this title, and section 626 of Title 29, Labor, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 2000e and 2000e–4 of this title, and section 1a–5 of Title 16, Conservation] may be cited as the ‘Civil Rights Act of 1991’.”

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–559, which amended section 1988 of this title, is known as “The Civil Rights Attorney's Fees Awards Act of 1976”, see note set out under section 1988 of this title.

Severability

Section 401 of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that: “If any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above], or an amendment made by this Act, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances is held to be invalid, the remainder of this Act and the amendments made by this Act, and the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances, shall not be affected.”

Congressional Findings

Section 2 of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that: “The Congress finds that—

“(1) additional remedies under Federal law are needed to deter unlawful harassment and intentional discrimination in the workplace;

“(2) the decision of the Supreme Court in Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 490 U.S. 642 (1989) has weakened the scope and effectiveness of Federal civil rights protections; and

“(3) legislation is necessary to provide additional protections against unlawful discrimination in employment.”

Purposes of 1991 Amendment

Section 3 of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that: “The purposes of this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above] are—

“(1) to provide appropriate remedies for intentional discrimination and unlawful harassment in the workplace;

“(2) to codify the concepts of ‘business necessity’ and ‘job related’ enunciated by the Supreme Court in Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424 (1971), and in the other Supreme Court decisions prior to Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 490 U.S. 642 (1989);

“(3) to confirm statutory authority and provide statutory guidelines for the adjudication of disparate impact suits under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); and

“(4) to respond to recent decisions of the Supreme Court by expanding the scope of relevant civil rights statutes in order to provide adequate protection to victims of discrimination.”

Legislative History for 1991 Amendment

Section 105(b) of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that: “No statements other than the interpretive memorandum appearing at Vol. 137 Congressional Record S 15276 (daily ed. Oct. 25, 1991) shall be considered legislative history of, or relied upon in any way as legislative history in construing or applying, any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above] that relates to Wards Cove—Business necessity/cumulation/alternative business practice.”

Construction of 1991 Amendment

Section 116 of title I of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that: “Nothing in the amendments made by this title [enacting section 1981a of this title and amending this section, sections 1988, 2000e, 2000e–1, 2000e–2, 2000e–4, 2000e–5, 2000e–16, 12111, and 12112 of this title, and section 626 of Title 29, Labor] shall be construed to affect court-ordered remedies, affirmative action, or conciliation agreements, that are in accordance with the law.”

Alternative Means of Dispute Resolution

Section 118 of title I of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that: “Where appropriate and to the extent authorized by law, the use of alternative means of dispute resolution, including settlement negotiations, conciliation, facilitation, mediation, factfinding, minitrials, and arbitration, is encouraged to resolve disputes arising under the Acts or provisions of Federal law amended by this title [enacting section 1981a of this title and amending this section, sections 1988, 2000e, 2000e–1, 2000e–2, 2000e–4, 2000e–5, 2000e–16, 12111, and 12112 of this title, and section 626 of Title 29, Labor].”

Executive Order No. 13050

Ex. Ord. No. 13050, June 13, 1997, 62 F.R. 32987, which established the President's Advisory Board on Race, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13138, §3(e), Sept. 30, 1999, 64 F.R. 53880, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§1981a. Damages in cases of intentional discrimination in employment

(a) Right of recovery

(1) Civil rights

In an action brought by a complaining party under section 706 or 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000e–5, 2000e–16] against a respondent who engaged in unlawful intentional discrimination (not an employment practice that is unlawful because of its disparate impact) prohibited under section 703, 704, or 717 of the Act [42 U.S.C. 2000e–2, 2000e–3, 2000e–16], and provided that the complaining party cannot recover under section 1981 of this title, the complaining party may recover compensatory and punitive damages as allowed in subsection (b) of this section, in addition to any relief authorized by section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, from the respondent.

(2) Disability

In an action brought by a complaining party under the powers, remedies, and procedures set forth in section 706 or 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000e–5, 2000e–16] (as provided in section 107(a) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12117(a)), and section 794a(a)(1) of title 29, respectively) against a respondent who engaged in unlawful intentional discrimination (not an employment practice that is unlawful because of its disparate impact) under section 791 of title 29 and the regulations implementing section 791 of title 29, or who violated the requirements of section 791 of title 29 or the regulations implementing section 791 of title 29 concerning the provision of a reasonable accommodation, or section 102 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12112), or committed a violation of section 102(b)(5) of the Act, against an individual, the complaining party may recover compensatory and punitive damages as allowed in subsection (b) of this section, in addition to any relief authorized by section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, from the respondent.

(3) Reasonable accommodation and good faith effort

In cases where a discriminatory practice involves the provision of a reasonable accommodation pursuant to section 102(b)(5) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12112(b)(5)] or regulations implementing section 791 of title 29, damages may not be awarded under this section where the covered entity demonstrates good faith efforts, in consultation with the person with the disability who has informed the covered entity that accommodation is needed, to identify and make a reasonable accommodation that would provide such individual with an equally effective opportunity and would not cause an undue hardship on the operation of the business.

(b) Compensatory and punitive damages

(1) Determination of punitive damages

A complaining party may recover punitive damages under this section against a respondent (other than a government, government agency or political subdivision) if the complaining party demonstrates that the respondent engaged in a discriminatory practice or discriminatory practices with malice or with reckless indifference to the federally protected rights of an aggrieved individual.

(2) Exclusions from compensatory damages

Compensatory damages awarded under this section shall not include backpay, interest on backpay, or any other type of relief authorized under section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000e–5(g)].

(3) Limitations

The sum of the amount of compensatory damages awarded under this section for future pecuniary losses, emotional pain, suffering, inconvenience, mental anguish, loss of enjoyment of life, and other nonpecuniary losses, and the amount of punitive damages awarded under this section, shall not exceed, for each complaining party—

(A) in the case of a respondent who has more than 14 and fewer than 101 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $50,000;

(B) in the case of a respondent who has more than 100 and fewer than 201 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $100,000; and

(C) in the case of a respondent who has more than 200 and fewer than 501 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $200,000; and

(D) in the case of a respondent who has more than 500 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $300,000.

(4) Construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the scope of, or the relief available under, section 1981 of this title.

(c) Jury trial

If a complaining party seeks compensatory or punitive damages under this section—

(1) any party may demand a trial by jury; and

(2) the court shall not inform the jury of the limitations described in subsection (b)(3) of this section.

(d) Definitions

As used in this section:

(1) Complaining party

The term “complaining party” means—

(A) in the case of a person seeking to bring an action under subsection (a)(1) of this section, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Attorney General, or a person who may bring an action or proceeding under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); or

(B) in the case of a person seeking to bring an action under subsection (a)(2) of this section, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Attorney General, a person who may bring an action or proceeding under section 794a(a)(1) of title 29, or a person who may bring an action or proceeding under title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12111 et seq.].

(2) Discriminatory practice

The term “discriminatory practice” means the discrimination described in paragraph (1), or the discrimination or the violation described in paragraph (2), of subsection (a) of this section.

(R.S. §1977A, as added Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §102, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1072.)

References in Text

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(A), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VII of the Act is classified generally to subchapter VI (§2000e et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(B) is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, as amended. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§12111 et seq.) of chapter 126 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 1981 of this title.

§1982. Property rights of citizens

All citizens of the United States shall have the same right, in every State and Territory, as is enjoyed by white citizens thereof to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property.

(R.S. §1978.)

Codification

R.S. §1978 derived from act Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §1, 14 Stat. 27.

Section was formerly classified to section 42 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Ex. Ord. No. 11063. Equal Opportunity in Housing

Ex. Ord. No. 11063, Nov. 20, 1962, 27 F.R. 11527, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12259, Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1253; Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604, Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939, provided:

WHEREAS the granting of Federal assistance for the provision, rehabilitation, or operation of housing and related facilities from which Americans are excluded because of their race, color, creed, or national origin is unfair, unjust, and inconsistent with the public policy of the United States as manifested in its Constitution and laws; and

WHEREAS the Congress in the Housing Act of 1949 [see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of this title] has declared that the general welfare and security of the Nation and the health and living standards of its people require the realization as soon as feasible of the goal of a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family; and

WHEREAS discriminatory policies and practices based upon race, color, creed, or national origin now operate to deny many Americans the benefits of housing financed through Federal assistance and as a consequence prevent such assistance from providing them with an alternative to substandard, unsafe, unsanitary, and overcrowded housing; and

WHEREAS such discriminatory policies and practices result in segregated patterns of housing and necessarily produce other forms of discrimination and segregation which deprive many Americans of equal opportunity in the exercise of their unalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and

WHEREAS the executive branch of the Government, in faithfully executing the laws of the United States which authorize Federal financial assistance, directly or indirectly, for the provision, rehabilitation, and operation of housing and related facilities, is charged with an obligation and duty to assure that those laws are fairly administered and that benefits thereunder are made available to all Americans without regard to their race, color, creed, or national origin:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and laws of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Part I—Prevention of Discrimination

Section 101. I hereby direct all departments and agencies in the executive branch of the Federal Government, insofar as their functions relate to the provision, rehabilitation, or operation of housing and related facilities, to take all action necessary and appropriate to prevent discrimination because of race, color, religion (creed), sex, disability, familial status or national origin—

(a) in the sale, leasing, rental, or other disposition of residential property and related facilities (including land to be developed for residential use), or in the use or occupancy thereof, if such property and related facilities are—

(i) owned or operated by the Federal Government, or

(ii) provided in whole or in part with the aid of loans, advances, grants, or contributions hereafter agreed to be made by the Federal Government, or

(iii) provided in whole or in part by loans hereafter insured, guaranteed, or otherwise secured by the credit of the Federal Government, or

(iv) provided by the development or the redevelopment of real property purchased, leased, or otherwise obtained from a State or local public agency receiving Federal financial assistance for slum clearance or urban renewal with respect to such real property under a loan of grant contract hereafter entered into; and

(b) in the lending practices with respect to residential property and related facilities (including land to be developed for residential use) of lending institutions, insofar as such practices relate to loans hereafter insured or guaranteed by the Federal Government.

Sec. 102. I hereby direct the Department of Housing and Urban Development and all other executive departments and agencies to use their good offices and to take other appropriate action permitted by law, including the institution of appropriate litigation, if required, to promote the abandonment of discriminatory practices with respect to residential property and related facilities heretofore provided with Federal financial assistance of the types referred to in Section 101(a)(ii), (iii), and (iv).

Part II—Implementation by Departments and Agencies

Sec. 201. Each executive department and agency subject to this order is directed to submit to the President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing established pursuant to Part IV of this order (hereinafter sometimes referred to as the Committee), within thirty days from the date of this order, a report outlining all current programs administered by it which are affected by this order.

Sec. 202. Each such department and agency shall be primarily responsible for obtaining compliance with the purposes of this order as the order applies to programs administered by it; and is directed to cooperate with the Committee, to furnish it, in accordance with law, such information and assistance as it may request in the performance of its functions, and to report to it at such intervals as the Committee may require.

Sec. 203. Each such department and agency shall, within thirty days from the date of this order, issue such rules and regulations, adopt such procedures and policies, and make such exemptions and exceptions as may be consistent with law and necessary or appropriate to effectuate the purposes of this order. Each such department and agency shall consult with the Committee in order to achieve such consistency and uniformity as may be feasible.

Part III—Enforcement

Sec. 301. The Committee, any subcommittee thereof, and any officer or employee designated by any executive department or agency subject to this order may hold such hearings, public or private, as the Committee, department, or agency may deem advisable for compliance, enforcement, or educational purposes.

Sec. 302. If any executive department or agency subject to this order concludes that any person or firm (including but not limited to any individual, partnership, association, trust, or corporation) or any State or local public agency has violated any rule, regulation, or procedure issued or adopted pursuant to this order, or any nondiscrimination provision included in any agreement or contract pursuant to any such rule, regulation, or procedure, it shall endeavor to end and remedy such violation by informal means, including conference, conciliation, and persuasion unless similar efforts made by another Federal department or agency have been unsuccessful. In conformity with rules, regulations, procedures, or policies issued or adopted by it pursuant to Section 203 hereof, a department or agency may take such action as may be appropriate under its governing laws, including, but not limited to, the following:

It may—

(a) cancel or terminate in whole or in part any agreement or contract with such person, firm, or State or local public agency providing for a loan, grant, contribution, or other Federal aid, or for the payment of a commission or fee;

(b) refrain from extending any further aid under any program administered by it and affected by this order until it is satisfied that the affected person, firm, or State or local public agency will comply with the rules, regulations, and procedures issued or adopted pursuant to this order, and any nondiscrimination provisions included in any agreement or contract;

(c) refuse to approve a lending institution or any other lender as a beneficiary under any program administered by it which is affected by this order or revoke such approval if previously given.

Sec. 303. In appropriate cases executive departments and agencies shall refer to the Attorney General violations of any rules, regulations, or procedures issued or adopted pursuant to this order, or violations of any nondiscrimination provisions included in any agreement or contract, for such civil or criminal action as he may deem appropriate. The Attorney General is authorized to furnish legal advice concerning this order to the Committee and to any department or agency requesting such advice.

Sec. 304. Any executive department or agency affected by this order may also invoke the sanctions provided in Section 302 where any person or firm, including a lender, has violated the rules, regulations, or procedures issued or adopted pursuant to this order, or the nondiscrimination provisions included in any agreement or contract, with respect to any program affected by this order administered by any other executive department or agency.

Part IV—Establishment of the President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing

[Revoked. Ex. Ord. No. 12259, Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1253; Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604, Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939.]

Part V—Powers and Duties of the President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing

Sec. 501. [Revoked. Ex. Ord. No. 12259, Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1253; Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604, Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939.]

Sec. 502. (a) The Committee shall take such steps as it deems necessary and appropriate to promote the coordination of the activities of departments and agencies under this order. In so doing, the Committee shall consider the overall objectives of Federal legislation relating to housing and the right of every individual to participate without discrimination because of race, color, religion (creed), sex, disability, familial status or national origin in the ultimate benefits of the Federal programs subject to this order.

(b) The Committee may confer with representatives of any department or agency, State or local public agency, civic, industry, or labor group, or any other group directly or indirectly affected by this order; examine the relevant rules, regulations, procedures, policies, and practices of any department or agency subject to this order and make such recommendations as may be necessary or desirable to achieve the purposes of this order.

(c) The Committee shall encourage educational programs by civic, educational, religious, industry, labor, and other nongovernmental groups to eliminate the basic causes of discrimination in housing and related facilities provided with Federal assistance.

Sec. 503. [Revoked. Ex. Ord. No. 12259, Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1253; Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604, Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939.]

Part VI—Miscellaneous

Sec. 601. As used in this order, the term “departments and agencies” includes any wholly-owned or mixed-ownership Government corporation, and the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of the United States.

Sec. 602. This order shall become effective immediately.

[Functions of President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing under Ex. Ord. No. 11063 delegated to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development by Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604(a), Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939, set out as a note under section 3608 of this title.]

§1983. Civil action for deprivation of rights

Every person who, under color of any statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage, of any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, subjects, or causes to be subjected, any citizen of the United States or other person within the jurisdiction thereof to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws, shall be liable to the party injured in an action at law, suit in equity, or other proper proceeding for redress, except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer's judicial capacity, injunctive relief shall not be granted unless a declaratory decree was violated or declaratory relief was unavailable. For the purposes of this section, any Act of Congress applicable exclusively to the District of Columbia shall be considered to be a statute of the District of Columbia.

(R.S. §1979; Pub. L. 96–170, §1, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1284; Pub. L. 104–317, title III, §309(c), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3853.)

Codification

R.S. §1979 derived from act Apr. 20, 1871, ch. 22, §1, 17 Stat. 13.

Section was formerly classified to section 43 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–317 inserted before period at end of first sentence “, except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer's judicial capacity, injunctive relief shall not be granted unless a declaratory decree was violated or declaratory relief was unavailable”.

1979—Pub. L. 96–170 inserted “or the District of Columbia” after “Territory”, and provisions relating to Acts of Congress applicable solely to the District of Columbia.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–170 applicable with respect to any deprivation of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws occurring after Dec. 29, 1979, see section 3 of Pub. L. 96–170, set out as a note under section 1343 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§1984. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Mar. 1, 1875, ch. 114, §5, 18 Stat. 337, which was formerly classified to section 46 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, related to Supreme Court review of cases arising under act Mar. 1, 1875. Sections 1 and 2 of act Mar. 1, 1875 were declared unconstitutional in U.S. v. Singleton, 109 U.S. 3, and sections 3 and 4 of such act were repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862.

§1985. Conspiracy to interfere with civil rights

(1) Preventing officer from performing duties

If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire to prevent, by force, intimidation, or threat, any person from accepting or holding any office, trust, or place of confidence under the United States, or from discharging any duties thereof; or to induce by like means any officer of the United States to leave any State, district, or place, where his duties as an officer are required to be performed, or to injure him in his person or property on account of his lawful discharge of the duties of his office, or while engaged in the lawful discharge thereof, or to injure his property so as to molest, interrupt, hinder, or impede him in the discharge of his official duties;

(2) Obstructing justice; intimidating party, witness, or juror

If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire to deter, by force, intimidation, or threat, any party or witness in any court of the United States from attending such court, or from testifying to any matter pending therein, freely, fully, and truthfully, or to injure such party or witness in his person or property on account of his having so attended or testified, or to influence the verdict, presentment, or indictment of any grand or petit juror in any such court, or to injure such juror in his person or property on account of any verdict, presentment, or indictment lawfully assented to by him, or of his being or having been such juror; or if two or more persons conspire for the purpose of impeding, hindering, obstructing, or defeating, in any manner, the due course of justice in any State or Territory, with intent to deny to any citizen the equal protection of the laws, or to injure him or his property for lawfully enforcing, or attempting to enforce, the right of any person, or class of persons, to the equal protection of the laws;

(3) Depriving persons of rights or privileges

If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire or go in disguise on the highway or on the premises of another, for the purpose of depriving, either directly or indirectly, any person or class of persons of the equal protection of the laws, or of equal privileges and immunities under the laws; or for the purpose of preventing or hindering the constituted authorities of any State or Territory from giving or securing to all persons within such State or Territory the equal protection of the laws; or if two or more persons conspire to prevent by force, intimidation, or threat, any citizen who is lawfully entitled to vote, from giving his support or advocacy in a legal manner, toward or in favor of the election of any lawfully qualified person as an elector for President or Vice President, or as a Member of Congress of the United States; or to injure any citizen in person or property on account of such support or advocacy; in any case of conspiracy set forth in this section, if one or more persons engaged therein do, or cause to be done, any act in furtherance of the object of such conspiracy, whereby another is injured in his person or property, or deprived of having and exercising any right or privilege of a citizen of the United States, the party so injured or deprived may have an action for the recovery of damages occasioned by such injury or deprivation, against any one or more of the conspirators.

(R.S. §1980.)

Codification

R.S. §1980 derived from acts July 31, 1861, ch. 33, 12 Stat. 284; Apr. 20, 1871, ch. 22, §2, 17 Stat. 13.

Section was formerly classified to section 47 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§1986. Action for neglect to prevent

Every person who, having knowledge that any of the wrongs conspired to be done, and mentioned in section 1985 of this title, are about to be committed, and having power to prevent or aid in preventing the commission of the same, neglects or refuses so to do, if such wrongful act be committed, shall be liable to the party injured, or his legal representatives, for all damages caused by such wrongful act, which such person by reasonable diligence could have prevented; and such damages may be recovered in an action on the case; and any number of persons guilty of such wrongful neglect or refusal may be joined as defendants in the action; and if the death of any party be caused by any such wrongful act and neglect, the legal representatives of the deceased shall have such action therefor, and may recover not exceeding $5,000 damages therein, for the benefit of the widow of the deceased, if there be one, and if there be no widow, then for the benefit of the next of kin of the deceased. But no action under the provisions of this section shall be sustained which is not commenced within one year after the cause of action has accrued.

(R.S. §1981.)

Codification

R.S. §1981 derived from act Apr. 20, 1871, ch. 22, §6, 17 Stat. 15.

Section was formerly classified to section 48 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§1987. Prosecution of violation of certain laws

The United States attorneys, marshals, and deputy marshals, the United States magistrate judges appointed by the district and territorial courts, with power to arrest, imprison, or bail offenders, and every other officer who is especially empowered by the President, are authorized and required, at the expense of the United States, to institute prosecutions against all persons violating any of the provisions of section 1990 of this title or of sections 5506 to 5516 and 5518 to 5532 of the Revised Statutes, and to cause such persons to be arrested, and imprisoned or bailed, for trial before the court of the United States or the territorial court having cognizance of the offense.

(R.S. §1982; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

References in Text

Sections 5506 to 5510, 5516 to 5519 and 5524 to 5535 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, were repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §341, 35 Stat. 1153; section 5506, 5511 to 5515, and 5520 to 5523, also referred to in text, were repealed by act Feb. 8, 1894, ch. 25, §1, 28 Stat. 37. The provisions of sections 5508, 5510, 5516, 5518 and 5524 to 5532 of the Revised Statutes were reenacted by act Mar. 4, 1909, and classified to sections 51, 52, 54 to 59, 246, 428 and 443 to 445 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure. Those sections were repealed and reenacted as sections 241, 242, 372, 592, 593, 752, 1071, 1581, 1583 and 1588 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, in the general revision of Title 18 by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683.

Codification

R.S. §1982 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §4, 14 Stat. 28; May 31, 1870, Ch. 114, §9, 16 Stat. 142.

Section was formerly classified to section 49 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, eff. Sept. 1, 1948, substituted “United States attorneys” for “district attorneys”. See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes thereunder.

“United States magistrate judges” substituted in text for “magistrates” pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28. Previously, “magistrates” substituted for “commissioners” pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

Reference to the district courts substituted for reference to the circuit courts on authority of section 291 of act Mar. 3, 1911.

§1988. Proceedings in vindication of civil rights

(a) Applicability of statutory and common law

The jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters conferred on the district courts by the provisions of titles 13, 24, and 70 of the Revised Statutes for the protection of all persons in the United States in their civil rights, and for their vindication, shall be exercised and enforced in conformity with the laws of the United States, so far as such laws are suitable to carry the same into effect; but in all cases where they are not adapted to the object, or are deficient in the provisions necessary to furnish suitable remedies and punish offenses against law, the common law, as modified and changed by the constitution and statutes of the State wherein the court having jurisdiction of such civil or criminal cause is held, so far as the same is not inconsistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States, shall be extended to and govern the said courts in the trial and disposition of the cause, and, if it is of a criminal nature, in the infliction of punishment on the party found guilty.

(b) Attorney's fees

In any action or proceeding to enforce a provision of sections 1981, 1981a, 1982, 1983, 1985, and 1986 of this title, title IX of Public Law 92–318 [20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.], the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 [42 U.S.C. 2000bb et seq.], the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000 [42 U.S.C. 2000cc et seq.], title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.], or section 13981 of this title, the court, in its discretion, may allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee as part of the costs, except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer's judicial capacity such officer shall not be held liable for any costs, including attorney's fees, unless such action was clearly in excess of such officer's jurisdiction.

(c) Expert fees

In awarding an attorney's fee under subsection (b) of this section in any action or proceeding to enforce a provision of section 1981 or 1981a of this title, the court, in its discretion, may include expert fees as part of the attorney's fee.

(R.S. §722; Pub. L. 94–559, §2, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2641; Pub. L. 96–481, title II, §205(c), Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2330; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §§103, 113(a), Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1074, 1079; Pub. L. 103–141, §4(a), Nov. 16, 1993, 107 Stat. 1489; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40303, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1942; Pub. L. 104–317, title III, §309(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3853; Pub. L. 106–274, §4(d), Sept. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 804.)

References in Text

Title 13 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Title” meaning title 13 of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§530 to 1093. For complete classification of R.S. §§530 to 1093 to the Code, see Tables.

Title 24 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “Title ‘Civil Rights,’ ” meaning title 24 of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§1977 to 1991, which are classified to sections 1981 to 1983, 1985 to 1987, and 1989 to 1994 of this title. For complete classification of R.S. §§1977 to 1991 to the Code, see Tables.

Title 70 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “Title ‘Crimes,’ ” meaning title 70 of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5323 to 5550. For complete classification of R.S. §§5323 to 5550, see Tables.

Title IX of Public Law 92–318, referred to in subsec. (b), is title IX of Pub. L. 92–318, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 373, as amended, known as the Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, which is classified principally to chapter 38 (§1681 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1681 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 103–141, Nov. 16, 1993, 107 Stat. 1488, which is classified principally to chapter 21B (§2000bb et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000bb of this title and Tables.

The Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 106–274, Sept. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 803, which is classified principally to chapter 21C (§2000cc et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000cc of this title and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

Codification

R.S. §722 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §3, 14 Stat. 27; May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §18, 16 Stat. 144.

Section was formerly classified to section 729 of Title 28 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 869.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–274 inserted “the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000,” after “Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993,” and deleted comma after “section 13981 of this title,”.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–317 inserted before period at end “, except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer's judicial capacity such officer shall not be held liable for any costs, including attorney's fees, unless such action was clearly in excess of such officer's jurisdiction”.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, which directed the amendment of the last sentence of this section by striking “or” after “92–318,” and by inserting “, or section 13981 of this title,” after “1964”, was executed to subsec. (b) of this section by striking “or” after “Act of 1993,” and by inserting “, or section 13981 of this title,” after “1964”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and amendments by Pub. L. 102–166 and Pub. L. 103–141. See 1993 and 1991 Amendment notes below.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–141 inserted “the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993,” before “or title VI”.

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–166, §113(a)(1), designated first sentence of existing provisions as subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–166, §§103, 113(a)(1), designated second sentence of existing provisions as subsec. (b) and inserted “1981a,” after “1981,”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–166, §113(a)(2), added subsec. (c).

1980—Pub. L. 96–481 struck out “or in any civil action or proceeding, by or on behalf of the United States of America, to enforce, or charging a violation of, a provision of the United States Internal Revenue Code,”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–559 authorized the court, in its discretion, to allow a reasonable attorney's fee as part of the prevailing party's costs.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–166 effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as a note under section 1981 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–481 effective Oct. 1, 1981, and applicable to adversary adjudication as defined in section 504(b)(1)(C) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and to civil actions and adversary adjudications described in section 2412 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, which are pending on, or commenced on or after Oct. 1, 1981, see section 208 of Pub. L. 96–481, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2412 of Title 28.

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–559, §1, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2641, provided: “That this Act [amending this section] may be cited as ‘The Civil Rights Attorney's Fees Awards Act of 1976’.”

§1989. United States magistrate judges; appointment of persons to execute warrants

The district courts of the United States and the district courts of the Territories, from time to time, shall increase the number of United States magistrate judges, so as to afford a speedy and convenient means for the arrest and examination of persons charged with the crimes referred to in section 1987 of this title; and such magistrate judges are authorized and required to exercise all the powers and duties conferred on them herein with regard to such offenses in like manner as they are authorized by law to exercise with regard to other offenses against the laws of the United States. Said magistrate judges are empowered, within their respective counties, to appoint, in writing, under their hands, one or more suitable persons, from time to time, who shall execute all such warrants or other process as the magistrate judges may issue in the lawful performance of their duties, and the persons so appointed shall have authority to summon and call to their aid the bystanders or posse comitatus of the proper county, or such portion of the land or naval forces of the United States, or of the militia, as may be necessary to the performance of the duty with which they are charged; and such warrants shall run and be executed anywhere in the State or Territory within which they are issued.

(R.S. §§1983, 1984; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Codification

R.S. §§1983 and 1984 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §§4, 5, 14 Stat. 28; May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §§9, 10, 16 Stat. 142.

Section was formerly classified to section 50 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judges” and “magistrate judges” substituted in text for “magistrates” wherever appearing pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, “magistrates” substituted for “commissioners” pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

“District courts” substituted for “circuit courts” on authority of section 291 of act Mar. 3, 1911.

§1990. Marshal to obey precepts; refusing to receive or execute process

Every marshal and deputy marshal shall obey and execute all warrants or other process, when directed to him, issued under the provisions of section 1989 of this title. Every marshal and deputy marshal who refuses to receive any warrant or other process when tendered to him, issued in pursuance of the provisions of this section, or refuses or neglects to use all proper means diligently to execute the same, shall be liable to a fine in the sum of $1,000, for the benefit of the party aggrieved thereby.

(R.S. §§1985, 5517.)

Codification

R.S. §1985 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §5, 14 Stat. 28; May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §10, 16 Stat. 142.

R.S. §5517 derived from act May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §10, 16 Stat. 142.

Section was formerly classified to section 51 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§1991. Fees; persons appointed to execute process

Every person appointed to execute process under section 1989 of this title shall be entitled to a fee of $5 for each party he may arrest and take before any United States magistrate judge, with such other fees as may be deemed reasonable by the magistrate judge for any additional services necessarily performed by him, such as attending at the examination, keeping the prisoner in custody, and providing him with food and lodging during his detention, and until the final determination of the magistrate judge; such fees to be made up in conformity with the fees usually charged by the officers of the courts of justice within the proper district or county, as near as may be practicable, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States on the certificate of the judge of the district within which the arrest is made, and to be recoverable from the defendant as part of the judgment in case of conviction.

(R.S. §1987; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Codification

R.S. §1987 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §7, 14 Stat. 29; May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §12, 16 Stat. 143.

Section was formerly classified to section 53 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judge” and “magistrate judge” substituted in text for “magistrate” wherever appearing pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, “magistrate” substituted for “commissioner” pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

§1992. Speedy trial

Whenever the President has reason to believe that offenses have been, or are likely to be committed against the provisions of section 1990 of this title or of section 5506 to 5516 and 5518 to 5532 of the Revised Statutes, within any judicial district, it shall be lawful for him, in his discretion, to direct the judge, marshal, and United States attorney of such district to attend at such place within the district, and for such time as he may designate, for the purpose of the more speedy arrest and trial of persons so charged, and it shall be the duty of every judge or other officer, when any such requisition is received by him to attend at the place and for the time therein designated.

(R.S. §1988; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909.)

References in Text

Sections 5506 to 5510, 5516 to 5519 and 5524 to 5535 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, were repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §341, 35 Stat. 1153; section 5506, 5511 to 5515, and 5520 to 5523, also referred to in text, were repealed by act Feb. 8, 1894, ch. 25, §1, 28 Stat. 37. The provisions of sections 5508, 5510, 5516, 5518 and 5524 to 5532 of the Revised Statutes were reenacted by act Mar. 4, 1909, and classified to sections 51, 52, 54 to 59, 246, 428 and 443 to 445 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure. Those sections were repealed and reenacted as sections 241, 242, 372, 592, 593, 752, 1071, 1581, 1583 and 1588 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, in the general revision of Title 18 by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683.

Codification

R.S. §1988 derived from act Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §8, 14 Stat. 29.

Section was formerly classified to section 54 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, effective Sept. 1, 1948, substituted “United States attorney” for “district attorney”. See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes thereunder.

§1993. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–315, pt. III, §122, Sept. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 637

Section, R.S. §1989, authorized President to employ land or naval forces to aid in execution of judicial process issued under sections 1981 to 1983 or 1985 to 1992 of this title, or to prevent violation and enforce due execution of sections 1981 to 1983 and 1985 to 1994 of this title. See section 332 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§1994. Peonage abolished

The holding of any person to service or labor under the system known as peonage is abolished and forever prohibited in any Territory or State of the United States; and all acts, laws, resolutions, orders, regulations, or usages of any Territory or State, which have heretofore established, maintained, or enforced, or by virtue of which any attempt shall hereafter be made to establish, maintain, or enforce, directly or indirectly, the voluntary or involuntary service or labor of any persons as peons, in liquidation of any debt or obligation, or otherwise, are declared null and void.

(R.S. §1990.)

Codification

R.S. §1990 derived from act Mar. 2, 1867, ch. 187, §1, 14 Stat. 546.

Section was formerly classified to section 56 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§1995. Criminal contempt proceedings; penalties; trial by jury

In all cases of criminal contempt arising under the provisions of this Act, the accused, upon conviction, shall be punished by fine or imprisonment or both: Provided however, That in case the accused is a natural person the fine to be paid shall not exceed the sum of $1,000, nor shall imprisonment exceed the term of six months: Provided further, That in any such proceeding for criminal contempt, at the discretion of the judge, the accused may be tried with or without a jury: Provided further, however, That in the event such proceeding for criminal contempt be tried before a judge without a jury and the sentence of the court upon conviction is a fine in excess of the sum of $300 or imprisonment in excess of forty-five days, the accused in said proceeding, upon demand therefore, shall be entitled to a trial de novo before a jury, which shall conform as near as may be to the practice in other criminal cases.

This section shall not apply to contempts committed in the presence of the court or so near thereto as to interfere directly with the administration of justice nor to the misbehavior, misconduct, or disobedience, of any officer of the court in respect to the writs, orders, or process of the court.

Nor shall anything herein or in any other provision of law be construed to deprive courts of their power, by civil contempt proceedings, without a jury, to secure compliance with or to prevent obstruction of, as distinguished from punishment for violations of, any lawful writ, process, order, rule, decree, or command of the court in accordance with the prevailing usages of law and equity, including the power of detention.

(Pub. L. 85–315, pt. V, §151, Sept. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 638.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 85–315, Sept. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 634, as amended, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1957, which enacted this section, sections 1975 to 1975e of this title and section 295–1 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, repealed section 1993 of this title, amended section 1971 of this title and sections 1343 and 1861 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 1971 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1971 of this title and Tables.

§1996. Protection and preservation of traditional religions of Native Americans

On and after August 11, 1978, it shall be the policy of the United States to protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise the traditional religions of the American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Native Hawaiians, including but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonials and traditional rites.

(Pub. L. 95–341, §1, Aug. 11, 1978, 92 Stat. 469.)

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–344, §1, Oct. 6, 1994, 108 Stat. 3125, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 1996a of this title] may be cited as the ‘American Indian Religious Freedom Act Amendments of 1994’.”

Short Title

Pub. L. 95–341, as amended, which enacted this section, section 1996a of this title, and a provision set out as a note under this section, is popularly known as the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

Federal Implementation of Protective and Preservation Functions Relating to Native American Religious Cultural Rights and Practices; Presidential Report to Congress

Section 2 of Pub. L. 95–341 provided that the President direct the various Federal departments, agencies, and other instrumentalities responsible for administering relevant laws to evaluate their policies and procedures in consultation with native traditional religious leaders to determine changes necessary to preserve Native American religious cultural rights and practices and report to the Congress 12 months after Aug. 11, 1978.

Ex. Ord. No. 13007. Indian Sacred Sites

Ex. Ord. No. 13007, May 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 26771, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, in furtherance of Federal treaties, and in order to protect and preserve Indian religious practices, it is hereby ordered:

Section 1. Accommodation of Sacred Sites. (a) In managing Federal lands, each executive branch agency with statutory or administrative responsibility for the management of Federal lands shall, to the extent practicable, permitted by law, and not clearly inconsistent with essential agency functions, (1) accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites by Indian religious practitioners and (2) avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of such sacred sites. Where appropriate, agencies shall maintain the confidentiality of sacred sites.

(b) For purposes of this order:

(i) “Federal lands” means any land or interests in land owned by the United States, including leasehold interests held by the United States, except Indian trust lands;

(ii) “Indian tribe” means an Indian or Alaska Native tribe, band, nation, pueblo, village, or community that the Secretary of the Interior acknowledges to exist as an Indian tribe pursuant to Public Law No. 103–454, 108 Stat. 4791 [see 25 U.S.C. 479a, 479a–1], and “Indian” refers to a member of such an Indian tribe; and

(iii) “Sacred site” means any specific, discrete, narrowly delineated location on Federal land that is identified by an Indian tribe, or Indian individual determined to be an appropriately authoritative representative of an Indian religion, as sacred by virtue of its established religious significance to, or ceremonial use by, an Indian religion; provided that the tribe or appropriately authoritative representative of an Indian religion has informed the agency of the existence of such a site.

Sec. 2. Procedures. (a) Each executive branch agency with statutory or administrative responsibility for the management of Federal lands shall, as appropriate, promptly implement procedures for the purposes of carrying out the provisions of section 1 of this order, including, where practicable and appropriate, procedures to ensure reasonable notice is provided of proposed actions or land management policies that may restrict future access to or ceremonial use of, or adversely affect the physical integrity of, sacred sites. In all actions pursuant to this section, agencies shall comply with the Executive memorandum of April 29, 1994, “Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments” [25 U.S.C. 450 note].

(b) Within 1 year of the effective date of this order, the head of each executive branch agency with statutory or administrative responsibility for the management of Federal lands shall report to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, on the implementation of this order. Such reports shall address, among other things, (i) any changes necessary to accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites; (ii) any changes necessary to avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of Indian sacred sites; and (iii) procedures implemented or proposed to facilitate consultation with appropriate Indian tribes and religious leaders and the expeditious resolution of disputes relating to agency action on Federal lands that may adversely affect access to, ceremonial use of, or the physical integrity of sacred sites.

Sec. 3. Nothing in this order shall be construed to require a taking of vested property interests. Nor shall this order be construed to impair enforceable rights to use of Federal lands that have been granted to third parties through final agency action. For purposes of this order, “agency action” has the same meaning as in the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 551(13)).

Sec. 4. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, nor does it, create any right, benefit, or trust responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by any party against the United States, its agencies, officers, or any person.

William J. Clinton.      

§1996a. Traditional Indian religious use of peyote

(a) Congressional findings and declarations

The Congress finds and declares that—

(1) for many Indian people, the traditional ceremonial use of the peyote cactus as a religious sacrament has for centuries been integral to a way of life, and significant in perpetuating Indian tribes and cultures;

(2) since 1965, this ceremonial use of peyote by Indians has been protected by Federal regulation;

(3) while at least 28 States have enacted laws which are similar to, or are in conformance with, the Federal regulation which protects the ceremonial use of peyote by Indian religious practitioners, 22 States have not done so, and this lack of uniformity has created hardship for Indian people who participate in such religious ceremonies;

(4) the Supreme Court of the United States, in the case of Employment Division v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990), held that the First Amendment does not protect Indian practitioners who use peyote in Indian religious ceremonies, and also raised uncertainty whether this religious practice would be protected under the compelling State interest standard; and

(5) the lack of adequate and clear legal protection for the religious use of peyote by Indians may serve to stigmatize and marginalize Indian tribes and cultures, and increase the risk that they will be exposed to discriminatory treatment.

(b) Use, possession, or transportation of peyote

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the use, possession, or transportation of peyote by an Indian for bona fide traditional ceremonial purposes in connection with the practice of a traditional Indian religion is lawful, and shall not be prohibited by the United States or any State. No Indian shall be penalized or discriminated against on the basis of such use, possession or transportation, including, but not limited to, denial of otherwise applicable benefits under public assistance programs.

(2) This section does not prohibit such reasonable regulation and registration by the Drug Enforcement Administration of those persons who cultivate, harvest, or distribute peyote as may be consistent with the purposes of this section and section 1996 of this title.

(3) This section does not prohibit application of the provisions of section 481.111(a) of Vernon's Texas Health and Safety Code Annotated, in effect on October 6, 1994, insofar as those provisions pertain to the cultivation, harvest, and distribution of peyote.

(4) Nothing in this section shall prohibit any Federal department or agency, in carrying out its statutory responsibilities and functions, from promulgating regulations establishing reasonable limitations on the use or ingestion of peyote prior to or during the performance of duties by sworn law enforcement officers or personnel directly involved in public transportation or any other safety-sensitive positions where the performance of such duties may be adversely affected by such use or ingestion. Such regulations shall be adopted only after consultation with representatives of traditional Indian religions for which the sacramental use of peyote is integral to their practice. Any regulation promulgated pursuant to this section shall be subject to the balancing test set forth in section 3 of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (Public Law 103–141; 42 U.S.C. 2000bb–1).

(5) This section shall not be construed as requiring prison authorities to permit, nor shall it be construed to prohibit prison authorities from permitting, access to peyote by Indians while incarcerated within Federal or State prison facilities.

(6) Subject to the provisions of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (Public Law 103–141; 42 U.S.C. 2000bb–1) [42 U.S.C. 2000bb et seq.], this section shall not be construed to prohibit States from enacting or enforcing reasonable traffic safety laws or regulations.

(7) Subject to the provisions of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (Public Law 103–141; 42 U.S.C. 2000bb–1), this section does not prohibit the Secretary of Defense from promulgating regulations establishing reasonable limitations on the use, possession, transportation, or distribution of peyote to promote military readiness, safety, or compliance with international law or laws of other countries. Such regulations shall be adopted only after consultation with representatives of traditional Indian religions for which the sacramental use of peyote is integral to their practice.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term “Indian” means a member of an Indian tribe;

(2) the term “Indian tribe” means any tribe, band, nation, pueblo, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians;

(3) the term “Indian religion” means any religion—

(A) which is practiced by Indians, and

(B) the origin and interpretation of which is from within a traditional Indian culture or community; and


(4) the term “State” means any State of the United States, and any political subdivision thereof.

(d) Protection of rights of Indians and Indian tribes

Nothing in this section shall be construed as abrogating, diminishing, or otherwise affecting—

(1) the inherent rights of any Indian tribe;

(2) the rights, express or implicit, of any Indian tribe which exist under treaties, Executive orders, and laws of the United States;

(3) the inherent right of Indians to practice their religions; and

(4) the right of Indians to practice their religions under any Federal or State law.

(Pub. L. 95–341, §3, as added Pub. L. 103–344, §2, Oct. 6, 1994, 108 Stat. 3125.)

References in Text

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), (7), probably means the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–141, Nov. 16, 1993, 107 Stat. 1488, which is classified principally to chapter 21B (§2000bb et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000bb of this title and Tables.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

§1996b. Interethnic adoption

(1) Prohibited conduct

A person or government that is involved in adoption or foster care placements may not—

(A) deny to any individual the opportunity to become an adoptive or a foster parent, on the basis of the race, color, or national origin of the individual, or of the child, involved; or

(B) delay or deny the placement of a child for adoption or into foster care, on the basis of the race, color, or national origin of the adoptive or foster parent, or the child, involved.

(2) Enforcement

Noncompliance with paragraph (1) is deemed a violation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.].

(3) No effect on the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978

This subsection shall not be construed to affect the application of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 [25 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.].

(Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1808(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1904.)

References in Text

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, referred to in par. (3), is Pub. L. 95–608, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3069, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 21 (§1901 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1901 of Title 25 and Tables.

SUBCHAPTER I–A—INSTITUTIONALIZED PERSONS

§1997. Definitions

As used in this subchapter—

(1) The term “institution” means any facility or institution—

(A) which is owned, operated, or managed by, or provides services on behalf of any State or political subdivision of a State; and

(B) which is—

(i) for persons who are mentally ill, disabled, or retarded, or chronically ill or handicapped;

(ii) a jail, prison, or other correctional facility;

(iii) a pretrial detention facility;

(iv) for juveniles—

(I) held awaiting trial;

(II) residing in such facility or institution for purposes of receiving care or treatment; or

(III) residing for any State purpose in such facility or institution (other than a residential facility providing only elementary or secondary education that is not an institution in which reside juveniles who are adjudicated delinquent, in need of supervision, neglected, placed in State custody, mentally ill or disabled, mentally retarded, or chronically ill or handicapped); or


(v) providing skilled nursing, intermediate or long-term care, or custodial or residential care.


(2) Privately owned and operated facilities shall not be deemed “institutions” under this subchapter if—

(A) the licensing of such facility by the State constitutes the sole nexus between such facility and such State;

(B) the receipt by such facility, on behalf of persons residing in such facility, of payments under title XVI, XVIII [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq., 1395 et seq.], or under a State plan approved under title XIX [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.], of the Social Security Act, constitutes the sole nexus between such facility and such State; or

(C) the licensing of such facility by the State, and the receipt by such facility, on behalf of persons residing in such facility, of payments under title XVI, XVIII [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq., 1395 et seq.], or under a State plan approved under title XIX [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.], of the Social Security Act, constitutes the sole nexus between such facility and such State;


(3) The term “person” means an individual, a trust or estate, a partnership, an association, or a corporation;

(4) The term “State” means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any of the territories and possessions of the United States;

(5) The term “legislative days” means any calendar day on which either House of Congress is in session.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §2, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 349.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in par. (2)(B), (C), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Titles XVI, XVIII, and XIX of the Social Security Act are classified generally to subchapters XVI (§1381 et seq.), XVIII (§1395 et seq.), and XIX (§1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of this title, respectively. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 96–247 provided: “That this Act [enacting this subchapter] may be cited as the ‘Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act’.”

§1997a. Initiation of civil actions

(a) Discretionary authority of Attorney General; preconditions

Whenever the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that any State or political subdivision of a State, official, employee, or agent thereof, or other person acting on behalf of a State or political subdivision of a State is subjecting persons residing in or confined to an institution, as defined in section 1997 of this title, to egregious or flagrant conditions which deprive such persons of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States causing such persons to suffer grievous harm, and that such deprivation is pursuant to a pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities, the Attorney General, for or in the name of the United States, may institute a civil action in any appropriate United States district court against such party for such equitable relief as may be appropriate to insure the minimum corrective measures necessary to insure the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities, except that such equitable relief shall be available under this subchapter to persons residing in or confined to an institution as defined in section 1997(1)(B)(ii) of this title only insofar as such persons are subjected to conditions which deprive them of rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution of the United States.

(b) Discretionary award of attorney fees

In any action commenced under this section, the court may allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee against the United States as part of the costs.

(c) Attorney General to personally sign complaint

The Attorney General shall personally sign any complaint filed pursuant to this section.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §3, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 350; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321–70; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–134 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “Any complaint filed by the Attorney General pursuant to this section shall be personally signed by him.”

§1997b. Certification requirements; Attorney General to personally sign certification

(a) At the time of the commencement of an action under section 1997a of this title the Attorney General shall certify to the court—

(1) that at least 49 calendar days previously the Attorney General has notified in writing the Governor or chief executive officer and attorney general or chief legal officer of the appropriate State or political subdivision and the director of the institution of—

(A) the alleged conditions which deprive rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States and the alleged pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities;

(B) the supporting facts giving rise to the alleged conditions and the alleged pattern or practice, including the dates or time period during which the alleged conditions and pattern or practice of resistance occurred; and when feasible, the identity of all persons reasonably suspected of being involved in causing the alleged conditions and pattern or practice at the time of the certification, and the date on which the alleged conditions and pattern or practice were first brought to the attention of the Attorney General; and

(C) the minimum measures which the Attorney General believes may remedy the alleged conditions and the alleged pattern or practice of resistance;


(2) that the Attorney General has notified in writing the Governor or chief executive officer and attorney general or chief legal officer of the appropriate State or political subdivision and the director of the institution of the Attorney General's intention to commence an investigation of such institution, that such notice was delivered at least seven days prior to the commencement of such investigation and that between the time of such notice and the commencement of an action under section 1997a of this title—

(A) the Attorney General has made a reasonable good faith effort to consult with the Governor or chief executive officer and attorney general or chief legal officer of the appropriate State or political subdivision and the director of the institution, or their designees, regarding financial, technical, or other assistance which may be available from the United States and which the Attorney General believes may assist in the correction of such conditions and pattern or practice of resistance;

(B) the Attorney General has encouraged the appropriate officials to correct the alleged conditions and pattern or practice of resistance through informal methods of conference, conciliation and persuasion, including, to the extent feasible, discussion of the possible costs and fiscal impacts of alternative minimum corrective measures, and it is the Attorney General's opinion that reasonable efforts at voluntary correction have not succeeded; and

(C) the Attorney General is satisfied that the appropriate officials have had a reasonable time to take appropriate action to correct such conditions and pattern or practice, taking into consideration the time required to remodel or make necessary changes in physical facilities or relocate residents, reasonable legal or procedural requirements, the urgency of the need to correct such conditions, and other circumstances involved in correcting such conditions; and


(3) that the Attorney General believes that such an action by the United States is of general public importance and will materially further the vindication of rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States.


(b) The Attorney General shall personally sign any certification made pursuant to this section.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §4, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 350; Pub. L. 97–256, title II, §201(a), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 816; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321–71; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(1)(A)], substituted “the Attorney General” for “he” in introductory provisions and in subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(1)(A)], substituted “the Attorney General” for “he” wherever appearing in introductory provisions and in subpars. (A) to (C).

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(1)(B)], substituted “the Attorney General's” for “his” in introductory provisions and in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(1)(A)], substituted “the Attorney General” for “he”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(2)], amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “Any certification made by the Attorney General pursuant to this section shall be personally signed by him.”

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–256 substituted “section 1997a of this title” for “section 1997 of this title” in provisions preceding par. (1).

§1997c. Intervention in actions

(a) Discretionary authority of Attorney General; preconditions; time period

(1) Whenever an action has been commenced in any court of the United States seeking relief from egregious or flagrant conditions which deprive persons residing in institutions of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States causing them to suffer grievous harm and the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that such deprivation is pursuant to a pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities, the Attorney General, for or in the name of the United States, may intervene in such action upon motion by the Attorney General.

(2) The Attorney General shall not file a motion to intervene under paragraph (1) before 90 days after the commencement of the action, except that if the court determines it would be in the interests of justice, the court may shorten or waive the time period.

(b) Certification requirements by Attorney General

(1) The Attorney General shall certify to the court in the motion to intervene filed under subsection (a) of this section—

(A) that the Attorney General has notified in writing, at least fifteen days previously, the Governor or chief executive officer, attorney general or chief legal officer of the appropriate State or political subdivision, and the director of the institution of—

(i) the alleged conditions which deprive rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States and the alleged pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities;

(ii) the supporting facts giving rise to the alleged conditions, including the dates and time period during which the alleged conditions and pattern or practice of resistance occurred; and

(iii) to the extent feasible and consistent with the interests of other plaintiffs, the minimum measures which the Attorney General believes may remedy the alleged conditions and the alleged pattern or practice of resistance; and


(B) that the Attorney General believes that such intervention by the United States is of general public importance and will materially further the vindication of rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States.


(2) The Attorney General shall personally sign any certification made pursuant to this section.

(c) Attorney General to personally sign motion to intervene

The Attorney General shall personally sign any motion to intervene made pursuant to this section.

(d) Discretionary award of attorney fees; other award provisions unaffected

In any action in which the United States joins as an intervenor under this section, the court may allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee against the United States as part of the costs. Nothing in this subsection precludes the award of attorney's fees available under any other provisions of the United States Code.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §5, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 351; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321–71; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)(1)(A)], substituted “the Attorney General” for “he” in introductory provisions and in cl. (iii).

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)(1)(A)], substituted “the Attorney General” for “he”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)(1)(B)], amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “Any certification made by the Attorney General pursuant to this subsection shall be personally signed by him.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)(2)], amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “Any motion to intervene made by the Attorney General pursuant to this section shall be personally signed by him.”

§1997d. Prohibition of retaliation

No person reporting conditions which may constitute a violation under this subchapter shall be subjected to retaliation in any manner for so reporting.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §6, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 352.)

§1997e. Suits by prisoners

(a) Applicability of administrative remedies

No action shall be brought with respect to prison conditions under section 1983 of this title, or any other Federal law, by a prisoner confined in any jail, prison, or other correctional facility until such administrative remedies as are available are exhausted.

(b) Failure of State to adopt or adhere to administrative grievance procedure

The failure of a State to adopt or adhere to an administrative grievance procedure shall not constitute the basis for an action under section 1997a or 1997c of this title.

(c) Dismissal

(1) The court shall on its own motion or on the motion of a party dismiss any action brought with respect to prison conditions under section 1983 of this title, or any other Federal law, by a prisoner confined in any jail, prison, or other correctional facility if the court is satisfied that the action is frivolous, malicious, fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, or seeks monetary relief from a defendant who is immune from such relief.

(2) In the event that a claim is, on its face, frivolous, malicious, fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, or seeks monetary relief from a defendant who is immune from such relief, the court may dismiss the underlying claim without first requiring the exhaustion of administrative remedies.

(d) Attorney's fees

(1) In any action brought by a prisoner who is confined to any jail, prison, or other correctional facility, in which attorney's fees are authorized under section 1988 1 of this title, such fees shall not be awarded, except to the extent that—

(A) the fee was directly and reasonably incurred in proving an actual violation of the plaintiff's rights protected by a statute pursuant to which a fee may be awarded under section 1988 1 of this title; and

(B)(i) the amount of the fee is proportionately related to the court ordered relief for the violation; or

(ii) the fee was directly and reasonably incurred in enforcing the relief ordered for the violation.


(2) Whenever a monetary judgment is awarded in an action described in paragraph (1), a portion of the judgment (not to exceed 25 percent) shall be applied to satisfy the amount of attorney's fees awarded against the defendant. If the award of attorney's fees is not greater than 150 percent of the judgment, the excess shall be paid by the defendant.

(3) No award of attorney's fees in an action described in paragraph (1) shall be based on an hourly rate greater than 150 percent of the hourly rate established under section 3006A of title 18 for payment of court-appointed counsel.

(4) Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit a prisoner from entering into an agreement to pay an attorney's fee in an amount greater than the amount authorized under this subsection, if the fee is paid by the individual rather than by the defendant pursuant to section 1988 1 of this title.

(e) Limitation on recovery

No Federal civil action may be brought by a prisoner confined in a jail, prison, or other correctional facility, for mental or emotional injury suffered while in custody without a prior showing of physical injury.

(f) Hearings

(1) To the extent practicable, in any action brought with respect to prison conditions in Federal court pursuant to section 1983 of this title, or any other Federal law, by a prisoner confined in any jail, prison, or other correctional facility, pretrial proceedings in which the prisoner's participation is required or permitted shall be conducted by telephone, video conference, or other telecommunications technology without removing the prisoner from the facility in which the prisoner is confined.

(2) Subject to the agreement of the official of the Federal, State, or local unit of government with custody over the prisoner, hearings may be conducted at the facility in which the prisoner is confined. To the extent practicable, the court shall allow counsel to participate by telephone, video conference, or other communications technology in any hearing held at the facility.

(g) Waiver of reply

(1) Any defendant may waive the right to reply to any action brought by a prisoner confined in any jail, prison, or other correctional facility under section 1983 of this title or any other Federal law. Notwithstanding any other law or rule of procedure, such waiver shall not constitute an admission of the allegations contained in the complaint. No relief shall be granted to the plaintiff unless a reply has been filed.

(2) The court may require any defendant to reply to a complaint brought under this section if it finds that the plaintiff has a reasonable opportunity to prevail on the merits.

(h) “Prisoner” defined

As used in this section, the term “prisoner” means any person incarcerated or detained in any facility who is accused of, convicted of, sentenced for, or adjudicated delinquent for, violations of criminal law or the terms and conditions of parole, probation, pretrial release, or diversionary program.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §7, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20416(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1833; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(d)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321–71; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

References in Text

Section 1988 of this title, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), (4), was in the original a reference to section 2 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (42 U.S.C. 1988), and has been translated as reading section 722 of the Revised Statutes of the United States to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Section 2 of the Revised Statutes, which defined the term “county”, was repealed and reenacted as section 2 of Title 1, General Provisions, by act July 30, 1947, ch. 388, 61 Stat. 633, 640.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–134 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to suits by prisoners, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (h), for former provisions relating to exhaustion of remedies, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (d).

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §20416(a)(1), substituted “exceed 180 days” for “exceed ninety days” in par. (1) and inserted before period at end of par. (2) “or are otherwise fair and effective”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–322, §20416(a)(2), inserted “or are otherwise fair and effective” before period at end of par. (1) and “or is no longer fair and effective” before period at end of par. (2).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 20416(b) of Pub. L. 103–322 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1994].”

Nondisclosure of Information in Actions Brought by Prisoners

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title I, §127], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–50, 2681–74, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any action brought by a prisoner under section 1979 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1983) against a Federal, State, or local jail, prison, or correctional facility, or any employee or former employee thereof, arising out of the incarceration of that prisoner—

“(1) the financial records of a person employed or formerly employed by the Federal, State, or local jail, prison, or correctional facility, shall not be subject to disclosure without the written consent of that person or pursuant to a court order, unless a verdict of liability has been entered against that person; and

“(2) the home address, home phone number, social security number, identity of family members, personal tax returns, and personal banking information of a person described in paragraph (1), and any other records or information of a similar nature relating to that person, shall not be subject to disclosure without the written consent of that person, or pursuant to a court order.”

[Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title I, §127], set out above, applicable to fiscal year 2000 and thereafter, see Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title I, §109], set out as an Applicability of Provisions Relating to Use of Counterterrorism Appropriations and Nondisclosure of Information in Actions Brought by Prisoners note under section 524 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.]

1 See References in Text note below.

§1997f. Report to Congress

The Attorney General shall include in the report to Congress on the business of the Department of Justice prepared pursuant to section 522 of title 28—

(1) a statement of the number, variety, and outcome of all actions instituted pursuant to this subchapter including the history of, precise reasons for, and procedures followed in initiation or intervention in each case in which action was commenced;

(2) a detailed explanation of the procedures by which the Department has received, reviewed and evaluated petitions or complaints regarding conditions in institutions;

(3) an analysis of the impact of actions instituted pursuant to this subchapter, including, when feasible, an estimate of the costs incurred by States and other political subdivisions;

(4) a statement of the financial, technical, or other assistance which has been made available from the United States to the State in order to assist in the correction of the conditions which are alleged to have deprived a person of rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States; and

(5) the progress made in each Federal institution toward meeting existing promulgated standards for such institutions or constitutionally guaranteed minima.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §8, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 353; Pub. L. 97–256, title II, §201(b), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 817; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(e)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321–73; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–134 substituted “the report” for “his report” in introductory provisions .

1982—Pub. L. 97–256 substituted “Attorney General” for “Attorney”.

§1997g. Priorities for use of funds

It is the intent of Congress that deplorable conditions in institutions covered by this subchapter amounting to deprivations of rights protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States be corrected, not only by litigation as contemplated in this subchapter, but also by the voluntary good faith efforts of agencies of Federal, State, and local governments. It is the further intention of Congress that where Federal funds are available for use in improving such institutions, priority should be given to the correction or elimination of such unconstitutional or illegal conditions which may exist. It is not the intent of this provision to require the redirection of funds from one program to another or from one State to another.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §9, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 354.)

§1997h. Notice to Federal departments

At the time of notification of the commencement of an investigation of an institution under section 1997a of this title or of the notification of an intention to file a motion to intervene under section 1997c of this title, and if the relevant institution receives Federal financial assistance from the Department of Health and Human Services or the Department of Education, the Attorney General shall notify the appropriate Secretary of the action and the reasons for such action and shall consult with such officials. Following such consultation, the Attorney General may proceed with an action under this subchapter if the Attorney General is satisfied that such action is consistent with the policies and goals of the executive branch.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §10, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 354; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(f)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321–73; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–134 substituted “the action” for “his action” and “the Attorney General is satisfied” for “he is satisfied”.

§1997i. Disclaimer respecting standards of care

Provisions of this subchapter shall not authorize promulgation of regulations defining standards of care.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §11, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 354.)

§1997j. Disclaimer respecting private litigation

The provisions of this subchapter shall in no way expand or restrict the authority of parties other than the United States to enforce the legal rights which they may have pursuant to existing law with regard to institutionalized persons. In this regard, the fact that the Attorney General may be conducting an investigation or contemplating litigation pursuant to this subchapter shall not be grounds for delay of or prejudice to any litigation on behalf of parties other than the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §12, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 354.)

SUBCHAPTER II—PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS

§2000a. Prohibition against discrimination or segregation in places of public accommodation

(a) Equal access

All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin.

(b) Establishments affecting interstate commerce or supported in their activities by State action as places of public accommodation; lodgings; facilities principally engaged in selling food for consumption on the premises; gasoline stations; places of exhibition or entertainment; other covered establishments

Each of the following establishments which serves the public is a place of public accommodation within the meaning of this subchapter if its operations affect commerce, or if discrimination or segregation by it is supported by State action:

(1) any inn, hotel, motel, or other establishment which provides lodging to transient guests, other than an establishment located within a building which contains not more than five rooms for rent or hire and which is actually occupied by the proprietor of such establishment as his residence;

(2) any restaurant, cafeteria, lunchroom, lunch counter, soda fountain, or other facility principally engaged in selling food for consumption on the premises, including, but not limited to, any such facility located on the premises of any retail establishment; or any gasoline station;

(3) any motion picture house, theater, concert hall, sports arena, stadium or other place of exhibition or entertainment; and

(4) any establishment (A)(i) which is physically located within the premises of any establishment otherwise covered by this subsection, or (ii) within the premises of which is physically located any such covered establishment, and (B) which holds itself out as serving patrons of such covered establishment.

(c) Operations affecting commerce; criteria; “commerce” defined

The operations of an establishment affect commerce within the meaning of this subchapter if (1) it is one of the establishments described in paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of this section; (2) in the case of an establishment described in paragraph (2) of subsection (b) of this section, it serves or offers to serve interstate travelers of a substantial portion of the food which it serves, or gasoline or other products which it sells, has moved in commerce; (3) in the case of an establishment described in paragraph (3) of subsection (b) of this section, it customarily presents films, performances, athletic teams, exhibitions, or other sources of entertainment which move in commerce; and (4) in the case of an establishment described in paragraph (4) of subsection (b) of this section, it is physically located within the premises of, or there is physically located within its premises, an establishment the operations of which affect commerce within the meaning of this subsection. For purposes of this section, “commerce” means travel, trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication among the several States, or between the District of Columbia and any State, or between any foreign country or any territory or possession and any State or the District of Columbia, or between points in the same State but through any other State or the District of Columbia or a foreign country.

(d) Support by State action

Discrimination or segregation by an establishment is supported by State action within the meaning of this subchapter if such discrimination or segregation (1) is carried on under color of any law, statute, ordinance, or regulation; or (2) is carried on under color of any custom or usage required or enforced by officials of the State or political subdivision thereof; or (3) is required by action of the State or political subdivision thereof.

(e) Private establishments

The provisions of this subchapter shall not apply to a private club or other establishment not in fact open to the public, except to the extent that the facilities of such establishment are made available to the customers or patrons of an establishment within the scope of subsection (b) of this section.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title II, §201, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 243.)

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–411, §1, Oct. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 2102, provided that: “This Act [amending section 2000e–4 of this title] may be cited as the ‘EEOC Education, Technical Assistance, and Training Revolving Fund Act of 1992’.”

Short Title of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–261, §1, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 103, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 2000e–16 and 2000e–17 of this title, amending sections 5108 and 5314 to 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 2000e to 2000e–6, 2000e–8, 2000e–9, 2000e–13, and 2000e–14 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2000e–5 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 88–352 provided: “That this Act [enacting subchapters II to IX of this chapter, amending sections 2204 and 2205 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, section 1447(d) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and sections 1971 and 1975a to 1975d of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2000e of this title] may be cited as the ‘Civil Rights Act of 1964’.”

§2000a–1. Prohibition against discrimination or segregation required by any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, rule or order of a State or State agency

All persons shall be entitled to be free, at any establishment or place, from discrimination or segregation of any kind on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin, if such discrimination or segregation is or purports to be required by any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, rule, or order of a State or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title II, §202, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 244.)

§2000a–2. Prohibition against deprivation of, interference with, and punishment for exercising rights and privileges secured by section 2000a or 2000a–1 of this title

No person shall (a) withhold, deny, or attempt to withhold or deny, or deprive or attempt to deprive any person of any right or privilege secured by section 2000a or 2000a–1 of this title, or (b) intimidate, threaten, or coerce, or attempt to intimidate, threaten, or coerce any person with the purpose of interfering with any right or privilege secured by section 2000a or 2000a–1 of this title, or (c) punish or attempt to punish any person for exercising or attempting to exercise any right or privilege secured by section 2000a or 2000a–1 of this title.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title II, §203, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 244.)

§2000a–3. Civil actions for injunctive relief

(a) Persons aggrieved; intervention by Attorney General; legal representation; commencement of action without payment of fees, costs, or security

Whenever any person has engaged or there are reasonable grounds to believe that any person is about to engage in any act or practice prohibited by section 2000a–2 of this title, a civil action for preventive relief, including an application for a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or other order, may be instituted by the person aggrieved and, upon timely application, the court may, in its discretion, permit the Attorney General to intervene in such civil action if he certifies that the case is of general public importance. Upon application by the complainant and in such circumstances as the court may deem just, the court may appoint an attorney for such complainant and may authorize the commencement of the civil action without the payment of fees, costs, or security.

(b) Attorney's fees; liability of United States for costs

In any action commenced pursuant to this subchapter, the court, in its discretion, may allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee as part of the costs, and the United States shall be liable for costs the same as a private person.

(c) State or local enforcement proceedings; notification of State or local authority; stay of Federal proceedings

In the case of an alleged act or practice prohibited by this subchapter which occurs in a State, or political subdivision of a State, which has a State or local law prohibiting such act or practice and establishing or authorizing a State or local authority to grant or seek relief from such practice or to institute criminal proceedings with respect thereto upon receiving notice thereof, no civil action may be brought under subsection (a) of this section before the expiration of thirty days after written notice of such alleged act or practice has been given to the appropriate State or local authority by registered mail or in person, provided that the court may stay proceedings in such civil action pending the termination of State or local enforcement proceedings.

(d) References to Community Relations Service to obtain voluntary compliance; duration of reference; extension of period

In the case of an alleged act or practice prohibited by this subchapter which occurs in a State, or political subdivision of a State, which has no State or local law prohibiting such act or practice, a civil action may be brought under subsection (a) of this section: Provided, That the court may refer the matter to the Community Relations Service established by subchapter VIII of this chapter for as long as the court believes there is a reasonable possibility of obtaining voluntary compliance, but for not more than sixty days: Provided further, That upon expiration of such sixty-day period, the court may extend such period for an additional period, not to exceed a cumulative total of one hundred and twenty days, if it believes there then exists a reasonable possibility of securing voluntary compliance.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title II, §204, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 244.)

§2000a–4. Community Relations Service; investigations and hearings; executive session; release of testimony; duty to bring about voluntary settlements

The Service is authorized to make a full investigation of any complaint referred to it by the court under section 2000a–3(d) of this title and may hold such hearings with respect thereto as may be necessary. The Service shall conduct any hearings with respect to any such complaint in executive session, and shall not release any testimony given therein except by agreement of all parties involved in the complaint with the permission of the court, and the Service shall endeavor to bring about a voluntary settlement between the parties.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title II, §205, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 244.)

§2000a–5. Civil actions by the Attorney General

(a) Complaint

Whenever the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that any person or group of persons is engaged in a pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of any of the rights secured by this subchapter, and that the pattern or practice is of such a nature and is intended to deny the full exercise of the rights herein described, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in the appropriate district court of the United States by filing with it a complaint (1) signed by him (or in his absence the Acting Attorney General), (2) setting forth facts pertaining to such pattern or practice, and (3) requesting such preventive relief, including an application for a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order or other order against the person or persons responsible for such pattern or practice, as he deems necessary to insure the full enjoyment of the rights herein described.

(b) Three-judge district court for cases of general public importance: hearing, determination, expedition of action, review by Supreme Court; single judge district court: hearing, determination, expedition of action

In any such proceeding the Attorney General may file with the clerk of such court a request that a court of three judges be convened to hear and determine the case. Such request by the Attorney General shall be accompanied by a certificate that, in his opinion, the case is of general public importance. A copy of the certificate and request for a three-judge court shall be immediately furnished by such clerk to the chief judge of the circuit (or in his absence, the presiding circuit judge of the circuit) in which the case is pending. Upon receipt of the copy of such request it shall be the duty of the chief judge of the circuit or the presiding circuit judge, as the case may be, to designate immediately three judges in such circuit, of whom at least one shall be a circuit judge and another of whom shall be a district judge of the court in which the proceeding was instituted, to hear and determine such case, and it shall be the duty of the judges so designated to assign the case for hearing at the earliest practicable date, to participate in the hearing and determination thereof, and to cause the case to be in every way expedited. An appeal from the final judgment of such court will lie to the Supreme Court.

In the event the Attorney General fails to file such a request in any such proceeding, it shall be the duty of the chief judge of the district (or in his absence, the acting chief judge) in which the case is pending immediately to designate a judge in such district to hear and determine the case. In the event that no judge in the district is available to hear and determine the case, the chief judge of the district, or the acting chief judge, as the case may be, shall certify this fact to the chief judge of the circuit (or in his absence, the acting chief judge) who shall then designate a district or circuit judge of the circuit to hear and determine the case.

It shall be the duty of the judge designated pursuant to this section to assign the case for hearing at the earliest practicable date and to cause the case to be in every way expedited.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title II, §206, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 245.)

§2000a–6. Jurisdiction; exhaustion of other remedies; exclusiveness of remedies; assertion of rights based on other Federal or State laws and pursuit of remedies for enforcement of such rights

(a) The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction of proceedings instituted pursuant to this subchapter and shall exercise the same without regard to whether the aggrieved party shall have exhausted any administrative or other remedies that may be provided by law.

(b) The remedies provided in this subchapter shall be the exclusive means of enforcing the rights based on this subchapter, but nothing in this subchapter shall preclude any individual or any State or local agency from asserting any right based on any other Federal or State law not inconsistent with this subchapter, including any statute or ordinance requiring nondiscrimination in public establishments or accommodations, or from pursuing any remedy, civil or criminal, which may be available for the vindication or enforcement of such right.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title II, §207, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 245.)

SUBCHAPTER III—PUBLIC FACILITIES

§2000b. Civil actions by the Attorney General

(a) Complaint; certification; institution of civil action; relief requested; jurisdiction; impleading additional parties as defendants

Whenever the Attorney General receives a complaint in writing signed by an individual to the effect that he is being deprived of or threatened with the loss of his right to the equal protection of the laws, on account of his race, color, religion, or national origin, by being denied equal utilization of any public facility which is owned, operated, or managed by or on behalf of any State or subdivision thereof, other than a public school or public college as defined in section 2000c of this title, and the Attorney General believes the complaint is meritorious and certifies that the signer or signers of such complaint are unable, in his judgment, to initiate and maintain appropriate legal proceedings for relief and that the institution of an action will materially further the orderly progress of desegregation in public facilities, the Attorney General is authorized to institute for or in the name of the United States a civil action in any appropriate district court of the United States against such parties and for such relief as may be appropriate, and such court shall have and shall exercise jurisdiction of proceedings instituted pursuant to this section. The Attorney General may implead as defendants such additional parties as are or become necessary to the grant of effective relief hereunder.

(b) Persons unable to initiate and maintain legal proceedings

The Attorney General may deem a person or persons unable to initiate and maintain appropriate legal proceedings within the meaning of subsection (a) of this section when such person or persons are unable, either directly or through other interested persons or organizations, to bear the expense of the litigation or to obtain effective legal representation; or whenever he is satisfied that the institution of such litigation would jeopardize the personal safety, employment, or economic standing of such person or persons, their families, or their property.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title III, §301, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 246.)

§2000b–1. Liability of United States for costs and attorney's fee

In any action or proceeding under this subchapter the United States shall be liable for costs, including a reasonable attorney's fee, the same as a private person.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title III, §302, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 246.)

§2000b–2. Personal suits for relief against discrimination in public facilities

Nothing in this subchapter shall affect adversely the right of any person to sue for or obtain relief in any court against discrimination in any facility covered by this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title III, §303, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 246.)

§2000b–3. “Complaint” defined

A complaint as used in this subchapter is a writing or document within the meaning of section 1001, title 18.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title III, §304, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 246.)

SUBCHAPTER IV—PUBLIC EDUCATION

§2000c. Definitions

As used in this subchapter—

(a) “Secretary” means the Secretary of Education.

(b) “Desegregation” means the assignment of students to public schools and within such schools without regard to their race, color, religion, sex or national origin, but “desegregation” shall not mean the assignment of students to public schools in order to overcome racial imbalance.

(c) “Public school” means any elementary or secondary educational institution, and “public college” means any institution of higher education or any technical or vocational school above the secondary school level, provided that such public school or public college is operated by a State, subdivision of a State, or governmental agency within a State, or operated wholly or predominantly from or through the use of governmental funds or property, or funds or property derived from a governmental source.

(d) “School board” means any agency or agencies which administer a system of one or more public schools and any other agency which is responsible for the assignment of students to or within such system.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §401, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 246; Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, §906(a), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 375; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, §301(a)(1), title V, §507, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 692.)

Amendments

1972—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–318 inserted “sex” after “religion,”.

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary means the Secretary of Education” substituted for “Commissioner means the Commissioner of Education” in subsec. (a) pursuant to sections 301(a)(1) and 507 of Pub. L. 96–88, which are classified to sections 3441(a)(1) and 3507 of Title 20, Education, and which transferred all functions of Commissioner of Education of Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to Secretary of Education.

§2000c–1. Omitted

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §402, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 247, authorized the Commissioner to conduct a survey and make a report to the President and the Congress within two years of July, 1964 concerning the availability of educational opportunities for minority group members.

§2000c–2. Technical assistance in preparation, adoption, and implementation of plans for desegregation of public schools

The Secretary is authorized, upon the application of any school board, State, municipality, school district, or other governmental unit legally responsible for operating a public school or schools, to render technical assistance to such applicant in the preparation, adoption, and implementation of plans for the desegregation of public schools. Such technical assistance may, among other activities, include making available to such agencies information regarding effective methods of coping with special educational problems occasioned by desegregation, and making available to such agencies personnel of the Department of Education or other persons specially equipped to advise and assist them in coping with such problems.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §403, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 247; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, §301(a)(1), (b)(2), title V, §507, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 678, 692.)

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary”, meaning the Secretary of Education, and “Department of Education” substituted in text for “Commissioner” and “Office of Education”, respectively, pursuant to sections 301(a)(1), (b)(2) and 507 of Pub. L. 96–88, which are classified to sections 3441(a)(1), (b)(2) and 3507 of Title 20, Education, and which transferred all functions of Commissioner of Education to Secretary of Education and transferred Office of Education to the Department of Education.

§2000c–3. Training institutes; stipends; travel allowances

The Secretary is authorized to arrange, through grants or contracts, with institutions of higher education for the operation of short-term or regular session institutes for special training designed to improve the ability of teachers, supervisors, counselors, and other elementary or secondary school personnel to deal effectively with special educational problems occasioned by desegregation. Individuals who attend such an institute on a full-time basis may be paid stipends for the period of their attendance at such institute in amounts specified by the Secretary in regulations, including allowances for travel to attend such institute.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §404, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 247; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, §301(a)(1), title V, §507, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 692.)

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary”, meaning the Secretary of Education, substituted in text for “Commissioner” pursuant to sections 301(a)(1) and 507 of Pub. L. 96–88, which are classified to sections 3441(a)(1) and 3507 of Title 20, Education, and which transferred all functions of Commissioner of Education to Secretary of Education.

§2000c–4. Grants for inservice training in dealing with and for employment of specialists to advise in problems incident to desegregation; factors for consideration in making grants and fixing amounts, terms, and conditions

(a) The Secretary is authorized, upon application of a school board, to make grants to such board to pay, in whole or in part, the cost of—

(1) giving to teachers and other school personnel inservice training in dealing with problems incident to desegregation, and

(2) employing specialists to advise in problems incident to desegregation.


(b) In determining whether to make a grant, and in fixing the amount thereof and the terms and conditions on which it will be made, the Secretary shall take into consideration the amount available for grants under this section and the other applications which are pending before him; the financial condition of the applicant and the other resources available to it; the nature, extent, and gravity of its problems incident to desegregation; and such other factors as he finds relevant.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §405, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 247; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, §301(a)(1), title V, §507, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 692.)

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary”, meaning the Secretary of Education, substituted in text for “Commissioner” pursuant to sections 301(a)(1) and 507 of Pub. L. 96–88, which are classified to sections 3441(a)(1) and 3507 of Title 20, Education, and which transferred all functions of Commissioner of Education to Secretary of Education.

§2000c–5. Payments; adjustments; advances or reimbursement; installments

Payments pursuant to a grant or contract under this subchapter may be made (after necessary adjustments on account of previously made overpayments or underpayments) in advance or by way of reimbursement, and in such installments, as the Secretary may determine.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §406, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, §301(a)(1), title V, §507, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 692.)

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary”, meaning the Secretary of Education, substituted in text for “Commissioner” pursuant to sections 301(a)(1) and 507 of Pub. L. 96–88, which are classified to sections 3441(a)(1) and 3507 of Title 20, Education, and which transferred all functions of Commissioner of Education to Secretary of Education.

§2000c–6. Civil actions by the Attorney General

(a) Complaint; certification; notice to school board or college authority; institution of civil action; relief requested; jurisdiction; transportation of pupils to achieve racial balance; judicial power to insure compliance with constitutional standards; impleading additional parties as defendants

Whenever the Attorney General receives a complaint in writing—

(1) signed by a parent or group of parents to the effect that his or their minor children, as members of a class of persons similarly situated, are being deprived by a school board of the equal protection of the laws, or

(2) signed by an individual, or his parent, to the effect that he has been denied admission to or not permitted to continue in attendance at a public college by reason of race, color, religion, sex or national origin,


and the Attorney General believes the complaint is meritorious and certifies that the signer or signers of such complaint are unable, in his judgment, to initiate and maintain appropriate legal proceedings for relief and that the institution of an action will materially further the orderly achievement of desegregation in public education, the Attorney General is authorized, after giving notice of such complaint to the appropriate school board or college authority and after certifying that he is satisfied that such board or authority has had a reasonable time to adjust the conditions alleged in such complaint, to institute for or in the name of the United States a civil action in any appropriate district court of the United States against such parties and for such relief as may be appropriate, and such court shall have and shall exercise jurisdiction of proceedings instituted pursuant to this section, provided that nothing herein shall empower any official or court of the United States to issue any order seeking to achieve a racial balance in any school by requiring the transportation of pupils or students from one school to another or one school district to another in order to achieve such racial balance, or otherwise enlarge the existing power of the court to insure compliance with constitutional standards. The Attorney General may implead as defendants such additional parties as are or become necessary to the grant of effective relief hereunder.

(b) Persons unable to initiate and maintain legal proceedings

The Attorney General may deem a person or persons unable to initiate and maintain appropriate legal proceedings within the meaning of subsection (a) of this section when such person or persons are unable, either directly or through other interested persons or organizations, to bear the expense of the litigation or to obtain effective legal representation; or whenever he is satisfied that the institution of such litigation would jeopardize the personal safety, employment, or economic standing of such person or persons, their families, or their property.

(c) “Parent” and “complaint” defined

The term “parent” as used in this section includes any person standing in loco parentis. A “complaint” as used in this section is a writing or document within the meaning of section 1001, title 18.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §407, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, §906(a), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 375.)

Amendments

1972—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 92–318 inserted “sex” after “religion,”.

§2000c–7. Liability of United States for costs

In any action or proceeding under this subchapter the United States shall be liable for costs the same as a private person.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §408, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 249.)

§2000c–8. Personal suits for relief against discrimination in public education

Nothing in this subchapter shall affect adversely the right of any person to sue for or obtain relief in any court against discrimination in public education.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §409, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 249.)

§2000c–9. Classification and assignment

Nothing in this subchapter shall prohibit classification and assignment for reasons other than race, color, religion, sex or national origin.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IV, §410, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 249; Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, §906(a), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 375.)

Amendments

1972—Pub. L. 92–318 inserted “sex” after “religion,”.

SUBCHAPTER V—FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS

§2000d. Prohibition against exclusion from participation in, denial of benefits of, and discrimination under federally assisted programs on ground of race, color, or national origin

No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VI, §601, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 252.)

Coordination of Implementation and Enforcement of Provisions

For provisions relating to the coordination of implementation and enforcement of the provisions of this subchapter by the Attorney General, see section 1–201 of Ex. Ord. No. 12250, Nov. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 72995, set out as a note under section 2000d–1 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 13160. Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Sex, Color, National Origin, Disability, Religion, Age, Sexual Orientation, and Status as a Parent in Federally Conducted Education and Training Programs

Ex. Ord. No. 13160, June 23, 2000, 65 F.R. 39775, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 921–932 of title 20, United States Code; section 2164 of title 10, United States Code; section 2001 et seq., of title 25, United States Code; section 7301 of title 5, United States Code; and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and to achieve equal opportunity in Federally conducted education and training programs and activities, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Statement of policy on education programs and activities conducted by executive departments and agencies.

1–101. The Federal Government must hold itself to at least the same principles of nondiscrimination in educational opportunities as it applies to the education programs and activities of State and local governments, and to private institutions receiving Federal financial assistance. Existing laws and regulations prohibit certain forms of discrimination in Federally conducted education and training programs and activities—including discrimination against people with disabilities, prohibited by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 701 et seq., as amended, employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or religion, prohibited by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000e–17 [42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.], as amended, discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, or religion in educational programs receiving Federal assistance, under Title VI of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d [et seq.], and sex-based discrimination in education programs receiving Federal assistance under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq. Through this Executive Order, discrimination on the basis of race, sex, color, national origin, disability, religion, age, sexual orientation, and status as a parent will be prohibited in Federally conducted education and training programs and activities.

1–102. No individual, on the basis of race, sex, color, national origin, disability, religion, age, sexual orientation, or status as a parent, shall be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in, a Federally conducted education or training program or activity.

Sec. 2. Definitions.

2–201. “Federally conducted education and training programs and activities” includes programs and activities conducted, operated, or undertaken by an executive department or agency.

2–202. “Education and training programs and activities” include, but are not limited to, formal schools, extracurricular activities, academic programs, occupational training, scholarships and fellowships, student internships, training for industry members, summer enrichment camps, and teacher training programs.

2–203. The Attorney General is authorized to make a final determination as to whether a program falls within the scope of education and training programs and activities covered by this order, under subsection 2–202, or is excluded from coverage, under section 3.

2–204. “Military education or training programs” are those education and training programs conducted by the Department of Defense or, where the Coast Guard is concerned, the Department of Transportation, for the primary purpose of educating or training members of the armed forces or meeting a statutory requirement to educate or train Federal, State, or local civilian law enforcement officials pursuant to 10 U.S.C. Chapter 18.

2–205. “Armed Forces” means the Armed Forces of the United States.

2–206. “Status as a parent” refers to the status of an individual who, with respect to an individual who is under the age of 18 or who is 18 or older but is incapable of self-care because of a physical or mental disability, is:

(a) a biological parent;

(b) an adoptive parent;

(c) a foster parent;

(d) a stepparent;

(e) a custodian of a legal ward;

(f) in loco parentis over such an individual; or

(g) actively seeking legal custody or adoption of such an individual.

Sec. 3. Exemption from coverage.

3–301. This order does not apply to members of the armed forces, military education or training programs, or authorized intelligence activities. Members of the armed forces, including students at military academies, will continue to be covered by regulations that currently bar specified forms of discrimination that are now enforced by the Department of Defense and the individual service branches. The Department of Defense shall develop procedures to protect the rights of and to provide redress to civilians not otherwise protected by existing Federal law from discrimination on the basis of race, sex, color, national origin, disability, religion, age, sexual orientation, or status as a parent and who participate in military education or training programs or activities conducted by the Department of Defense.

3–302. This order does not apply to, affect, interfere with, or modify the operation of any otherwise lawful affirmative action plan or program.

3–303. An individual shall not be deemed subjected to discrimination by reason of his or her exclusion from the benefits of a program established consistent with federal law or limited by Federal law to individuals of a particular race, sex, color, disability, national origin, age, religion, sexual orientation, or status as a parent different from his or her own.

3–304. This order does not apply to ceremonial or similar education or training programs or activities of schools conducted by the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, that are culturally relevant to the children represented in the school. “Culturally relevant” refers to any class, program, or activity that is fundamental to a tribe's culture, customs, traditions, heritage, or religion.

3–305. This order does not apply to (a) selections based on national origin of foreign nationals to participate in covered education or training programs, if such programs primarily concern national security or foreign policy matters; or (b) selections or other decisions regarding participation in covered education or training programs made by entities outside the executive branch. It shall be the policy of the executive branch that education or training programs or activities shall not be available to entities that select persons for participation in violation of Federal or State law.

3–306. The prohibition on discrimination on the basis of age provided in this order does not apply to age-based admissions of participants to education or training programs, if such programs have traditionally been age-specific or must be age-limited for reasons related to health or national security.

Sec. 4. Administrative enforcement.

4–401. Any person who believes himself or herself to be aggrieved by a violation of this order or its implementing regulations, rules, policies, or guidance may, personally or through a representative, file a written complaint with the agency that such person believes is in violation of this order or its implementing regulations, rules, policies, or guidance. Pursuant to procedures to be established by the Attorney General, each executive department or agency shall conduct an investigation of any complaint by one of its employees alleging a violation of this Executive Order.

4–402. (a) If the office within an executive department or agency that is designated to investigate complaints for violations of this order or its implementing rules, regulations, policies, or guidance concludes that an employee has not complied with this order or any of its implementing rules, regulations, policies, or guidance, such office shall complete a report and refer a copy of the report and any relevant findings or supporting evidence to an appropriate agency official. The appropriate agency official shall review such material and determine what, if any, disciplinary action is appropriate.

(b) In addition, the designated investigating office may provide appropriate agency officials with a recommendation for any corrective and/or remedial action. The appropriate officials shall consider such recommendation and implement corrective and/or remedial action by the agency, when appropriate. Nothing in this order authorizes monetary relief to the complainant as a form of remedial or corrective action by an executive department or agency.

4–403. Any action to discipline an employee who violates this order or its implementing rules, regulations, policies, or guidance, including removal from employment, where appropriate, shall be taken in compliance with otherwise applicable procedures, including the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, Public Law No. 95–454, 92 Stat. 1111 [see Tables for classification].

Sec. 5. Implementation and Agency Responsibilities.

5–501. The Attorney General shall publish in the Federal Register such rules, regulations, policies, or guidance, as the Attorney General deems appropriate, to be followed by all executive departments and agencies. The Attorney General shall address:

a. which programs and activities fall within the scope of education and training programs and activities covered by this order, under subsection 2–202, or excluded from coverage, under section 3 of this order;

b. examples of discriminatory conduct;

c. applicable legal principles;

d. enforcement procedures with respect to complaints against employees;

e. remedies;

f. requirements for agency annual and tri-annual reports as set forth in section 6 of this order; and

g. such other matters as deemed appropriate.

5–502. Within 90 days of the publication of final rules, regulations, policies, or guidance by the Attorney General, each executive department and agency shall establish a procedure to receive and address complaints regarding its Federally conducted education and training programs and activities. Each executive department and agency shall take all necessary steps to effectuate any subsequent rules, regulations, policies, or guidance issued by the Attorney General within 90 days of issuance.

5–503. The head of each executive department and agency shall be responsible for ensuring compliance within this order.

5–504. Each executive department and agency shall cooperate with the Attorney General and provide such information and assistance as the Attorney General may require in the performance of the Attorney General's functions under this order.

5–505. Upon request and to the extent practicable, the Attorney General shall provide technical advice and assistance to executive departments and agencies to assist in full compliance with this order.

Sec. 6. Reporting Requirements.

6–601. Consistent with the regulations, rules, policies, or guidance issued by the Attorney General, each executive department and agency shall submit to the Attorney General a report that summarizes the number and nature of complaints filed with the agency and the disposition of such complaints. For the first 3 years after the date of this order, such reports shall be submitted annually within 90 days of the end of the preceding year's activities. Subsequent reports shall be submitted every 3 years and within 90 days of the end of each 3-year period.

Sec. 7. General Provisions.

7–701. Nothing in this order shall limit the authority of the Attorney General to provide for the coordinated enforcement of nondiscrimination requirements in Federal assistance programs under Executive Order 12250 [42 U.S.C. 2000d–1 note].

Sec. 8. Judicial Review.

8–801. This order is not intended, and should not be construed, to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or its employees. This order is not intended, however, to preclude judicial review of final decisions in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 701, et seq.

William J. Clinton.      

§2000d–1. Federal authority and financial assistance to programs or activities by way of grant, loan, or contract other than contract of insurance or guaranty; rules and regulations; approval by President; compliance with requirements; reports to Congressional committees; effective date of administrative action

Each Federal department and agency which is empowered to extend Federal financial assistance to any program or activity, by way of grant, loan, or contract other than a contract of insurance or guaranty, is authorized and directed to effectuate the provisions of section 2000d of this title with respect to such program or activity by issuing rules, regulations, or orders of general applicability which shall be consistent with achievement of the objectives of the statute authorizing the financial assistance in connection with which the action is taken. No such rule, regulation, or order shall become effective unless and until approved by the President. Compliance with any requirement adopted pursuant to this section may be effected (1) by the termination of or refusal to grant or to continue assistance under such program or activity to any recipient as to whom there has been an express finding on the record, after opportunity for hearing, of a failure to comply with such requirement, but such termination or refusal shall be limited to the particular political entity, or part thereof, or other recipient as to whom such a finding has been made and, shall be limited in its effect to the particular program, or part thereof, in which such noncompliance has been so found, or (2) by any other means authorized by law: Provided, however, That no such action shall be taken until the department or agency concerned has advised the appropriate person or persons of the failure to comply with the requirement and has determined that compliance cannot be secured by voluntary means. In the case of any action terminating, or refusing to grant or continue, assistance because of failure to comply with a requirement imposed pursuant to this section, the head of the Federal department or agency shall file with the committees of the House and Senate having legislative jurisdiction over the program or activity involved a full written report of the circumstances and the grounds for such action. No such action shall become effective until thirty days have elapsed after the filing of such report.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VI, §602, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 252.)

Delegation of Functions

Function of the President relating to approval of rules, regulations, and orders of general applicability under this section, delegated to the Attorney General, see section 1–101 of Ex. Ord. No. 12250, Nov. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 72995, set out below.

Equal Opportunity in Federal Employment

Nondiscrimination in government employment and in employment by government contractors and subcontractors, see Ex. Ord. No. 11246, eff. Sept. 24, 1965, 30 F.R. 12319, and Ex. Ord. No. 11478, eff. Aug. 8, 1969, 34 F.R. 12985, set out as notes under section 2000e of this title.

Executive Order No. 11247

Ex. Ord. No. 11247, eff. Sept. 24, 1965, 30 F.R. 12327, which related to enforcement of coordination of nondiscrimination in federally assisted programs, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11764, eff. Jan. 21, 1974, 39 F.R. 2575, formerly set out below.

Executive Order No. 11764

Ex. Ord. No. 11764, Jan. 21, 1974, 39 F.R. 2575, which related to coordination of enforcement of provisions of this subchapter, was revoked by section 1–501 of Ex. Ord. No. 12250, Nov. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 72996, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12250. Leadership and Coordination of Implementation and Enforcement of Nondiscrimination Laws

Ex. Ord. No. 12250, Nov. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 72995, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, including section 602 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d–1), Section 902 of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1682), and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and in order to provide, under the leadership of the Attorney General, for the consistent and effective implementation of various laws prohibiting discriminatory practices in Federal programs and programs receiving Federal financial assistance, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–1. Delegation of Function

1–101. The function vested in the President by Section 602 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d–1), relating to the approval of rules, regulations, and orders of general applicability, is hereby delegated to the Attorney General.

1–102. The function vested in the President by Section 902 of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1682), relating to the approval of rules, regulations, and orders of general applicability, is hereby delegated to the Attorney General.

1–2. Coordination of Nondiscrimination Provisions

1–201. The Attorney General shall coordinate the implementation and enforcement by Executive agencies of various nondiscrimination provisions of the following laws:

(a) Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.).

(b) Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.).

(c) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 794).

(d) Any other provision of Federal statutory law which provides, in whole or in part, that no person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, national origin, handicap, religion, or sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.

1–202. In furtherance of the Attorney General's responsibility for the coordination of the implementation and enforcement of the nondiscrimination provisions of laws covered by this Order, the Attorney General shall review the existing and proposed rules, regulations, and orders of general applicability of the Executive agencies in order to identify those which are inadequate, unclear or unnecessarily inconsistent.

1–203. The Attorney General shall develop standards and procedures for taking enforcement actions and for conducting investigations and compliance reviews.

1–204. The Attorney General shall issue guidelines for establishing reasonable time limits on efforts to secure voluntary compliance, on the initiation of sanctions, and for referral to the Department of Justice for enforcement where there is noncompliance.

1–205. The Attorney General shall establish and implement a schedule for the review of the agencies’ regulations which implement the various nondiscrimination laws covered by this Order.

1–206. The Attorney General shall establish guidelines and standards for the development of consistent and effective recordkeeping and reporting requirements by Executive agencies; for the sharing and exchange by agencies of compliance records, findings, and supporting documentation; for the development of comprehensive employee training programs; for the development of effective information programs; and for the development of cooperative programs with State and local agencies, including sharing of information, deferring of enforcement activities, and providing technical assistance.

1–207. The Attorney General shall initiate cooperative programs between and among agencies, including the development of sample memoranda of understanding, designed to improve the coordination of the laws covered by this Order.

1–3. Implementation by the Attorney General

1–301. In consultation with the affected agencies, the Attorney General shall promptly prepare a plan for the implementation of this Order. This plan shall be submitted to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

1–302. The Attorney General shall periodically evaluate the implementation of the nondiscrimination provisions of the laws covered by this Order, and advise the heads of the agencies concerned on the results of such evaluations as to recommendations for needed improvement in implementation or enforcement.

1–303. The Attorney General shall carry out his functions under this Order, including the issuance of such regulations as he deems necessary, in consultation with affected agencies.

1–304. The Attorney General shall annually report to the President through the Director of the Office of Management and Budget on the progress in achieving the purposes of this Order. This report shall include any recommendations for changes in the implementation or enforcement of the nondiscrimination provisions of the laws covered by this Order.

1–305. The Attorney General shall chair the Interagency Coordinating Council established by Section 507 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 794c).

1–4. Agency Implementation

1–401. Each Executive agency shall cooperate with the Attorney General in the performance of the Attorney General's functions under this Order and shall, unless prohibited by law, furnish such reports and information as the Attorney General may request.

1–402. Each Executive agency responsible for implementing a nondiscrimination provision of a law covered by this Order shall issue appropriate implementing directives (whether in the nature of regulations or policy guidance). To the extent permitted by law, they shall be consistent with the requirements prescribed by the Attorney General pursuant to this Order and shall be subject to the approval of the Attorney General, who may require that some or all of them be submitted for approval before taking effect.

1–403. Within 60 days after a date set by the Attorney General, Executive agencies shall submit to the Attorney General their plans for implementing their responsibilities under this Order.

1–5. General Provisions

1–501. Executive Order No. 11764 is revoked. The present regulations of the Attorney General relating to the coordination of enforcement of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [this subchapter] shall continue in effect until revoked or modified (28 CFR 42.401 to 42.415).

1–502. Executive Order No. 11914 is revoked. The present regulations of the Secretary of Health and Human Services relating to the coordination of the implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended [29 U.S.C. 794], shall be deemed to have been issued by the Attorney General pursuant to this Order and shall continue in effect until revoked or modified by the Attorney General.

1–503. Nothing in this Order shall vest the Attorney General with the authority to coordinate the implementation and enforcement by Executive agencies of statutory provisions relating to equal employment.

1–504. Existing agency regulations implementing the nondiscrimination provisions of laws covered by this Order shall continue in effect until revoked or modified.

Jimmy Carter.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13166. Improving Access to Services for Persons With Limited English Proficiency

Ex. Ord. No. 13166, Aug. 11, 2000, 65 F.R. 50121, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to improve access to federally conducted and federally assisted programs and activities for persons who, as a result of national origin, are limited in their English proficiency (LEP), it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Goals.

The Federal Government provides and funds an array of services that can be made accessible to otherwise eligible persons who are not proficient in the English language. The Federal Government is committed to improving the accessibility of these services to eligible LEP persons, a goal that reinforces its equally important commitment to promoting programs and activities designed to help individuals learn English. To this end, each Federal agency shall examine the services it provides and develop and implement a system by which LEP persons can meaningfully access those services consistent with, and without unduly burdening, the fundamental mission of the agency. Each Federal agency shall also work to ensure that recipients of Federal financial assistance (recipients) provide meaningful access to their LEP applicants and beneficiaries. To assist the agencies with this endeavor, the Department of Justice has today issued a general guidance document (LEP Guidance), which sets forth the compliance standards that recipients must follow to ensure that the programs and activities they normally provide in English are accessible to LEP persons and thus do not discriminate on the basis of national origin in violation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.], as amended, and its implementing regulations. As described in the LEP Guidance, recipients must take reasonable steps to ensure meaningful access to their programs and activities by LEP persons.

Sec. 2. Federally Conducted Programs and Activities.

Each Federal agency shall prepare a plan to improve access to its federally conducted programs and activities by eligible LEP persons. Each plan shall be consistent with the standards set forth in the LEP Guidance, and shall include the steps the agency will take to ensure that eligible LEP persons can meaningfully access the agency's programs and activities. Agencies shall develop and begin to implement these plans within 120 days of the date of this order, and shall send copies of their plans to the Department of Justice, which shall serve as the central repository of the agencies’ plans.

Sec. 3. Federally Assisted Programs and Activities.

Each agency providing Federal financial assistance shall draft title VI guidance specifically tailored to its recipients that is consistent with the LEP Guidance issued by the Department of Justice. This agency-specific guidance shall detail how the general standards established in the LEP Guidance will be applied to the agency's recipients. The agency-specific guidance shall take into account the types of services provided by the recipients, the individuals served by the recipients, and other factors set out in the LEP Guidance. Agencies that already have developed title VI guidance that the Department of Justice determines is consistent with the LEP Guidance shall examine their existing guidance, as well as their programs and activities, to determine if additional guidance is necessary to comply with this order. The Department of Justice shall consult with the agencies in creating their guidance and, within 120 days of the date of this order, each agency shall submit its specific guidance to the Department of Justice for review and approval. Following approval by the Department of Justice, each agency shall publish its guidance document in the Federal Register for public comment.

Sec. 4. Consultations.

In carrying out this order, agencies shall ensure that stakeholders, such as LEP persons and their representative organizations, recipients, and other appropriate individuals or entities, have an adequate opportunity to provide input. Agencies will evaluate the particular needs of the LEP persons they and their recipients serve and the burdens of compliance on the agency and its recipients. This input from stakeholders will assist the agencies in developing an approach to ensuring meaningful access by LEP persons that is practical and effective, fiscally responsible, responsive to the particular circumstances of each agency, and can be readily implemented.

Sec. 5. Judicial Review.

This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers or employees, or any person.

William J. Clinton.      

§2000d–2. Judicial review; administrative procedure provisions

Any department or agency action taken pursuant to section 2000d–1 of this title shall be subject to such judicial review as may otherwise be provided by law for similar action taken by such department or agency on other grounds. In the case of action, not otherwise subject to judicial review, terminating or refusing to grant or to continue financial assistance upon a finding of failure to comply with any requirement imposed pursuant to section 2000d–1 of this title, any person aggrieved (including any State or political subdivision thereof and any agency of either) may obtain judicial review of such action in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5, and such action shall not be deemed committed to unreviewable agency discretion within the meaning of that chapter.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VI, §603, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 253.)

Codification

“Chapter 7 of title 5” and “that chapter” substituted in text for “section 10 of the Administrative Procedure Act” and “that section”, respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Prior to the enactment of Title 5, section 10 of the Administrative Procedure Act was classified to section 1009 of Title 5.

§2000d–3. Construction of provisions not to authorize administrative action with respect to employment practices except where primary objective of Federal financial assistance is to provide employment

Nothing contained in this subchapter shall be construed to authorize action under this subchapter by any department or agency with respect to any employment practice of any employer, employment agency, or labor organization except where a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is to provide employment.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VI, §604, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 253.)

§2000d–4. Federal authority and financial assistance to programs or activities by way of contract of insurance or guaranty

Nothing in this subchapter shall add to or detract from any existing authority with respect to any program or activity under which Federal financial assistance is extended by way of a contract of insurance or guaranty.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VI, §605, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 253.)

§2000d–4a. “Program or activity” and “program” defined

For the purposes of this subchapter, the term “program or activity” and the term “program” mean all of the operations of—

(1)(A) a department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of a State or of a local government; or

(B) the entity of such State or local government that distributes such assistance and each such department or agency (and each other State or local government entity) to which the assistance is extended, in the case of assistance to a State or local government;

(2)(A) a college, university, or other postsecondary institution, or a public system of higher education; or

(B) a local educational agency (as defined in section 7801 of title 20), system of vocational education, or other school system;

(3)(A) an entire corporation, partnership, or other private organization, or an entire sole proprietorship—

(i) if assistance is extended to such corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship as a whole; or

(ii) which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health care, housing, social services, or parks and recreation; or


(B) the entire plant or other comparable, geographically separate facility to which Federal financial assistance is extended, in the case of any other corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship; or

(4) any other entity which is established by two or more of the entities described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3);


any part of which is extended Federal financial assistance.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VI, §606, as added Pub. L. 100–259, §6, Mar. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 31; amended Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §391(q), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4024; Pub. L. 107–110, title X, §1076(y), Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 2093.)

Amendments

2002—Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 107–110 substituted “7801” for “8801”.

1994—Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 103–382 substituted “section 8801 of title 20” for “section 198(a)(10) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–110 effective Jan. 8, 2002, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 107–110, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Exclusion From Coverage

This section not to be construed to extend application of Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000a et seq.] to ultimate beneficiaries of Federal financial assistance excluded from coverage before Mar. 22, 1988, see section 7 of Pub. L. 100–259, set out as a Construction note under section 1687 of Title 20, Education.

Abortion Neutrality

This section not to be construed to force or require any individual or hospital or any other institution, program, or activity receiving Federal funds to perform or pay for an abortion, see section 8 of Pub. L. 100–259, set out as a note under section 1688 of Title 20, Education.

§2000d–5. Prohibited deferral of action on applications by local educational agencies seeking Federal funds for alleged noncompliance with Civil Rights Act

The Secretary of Education shall not defer action or order action deferred on any application by a local educational agency for funds authorized to be appropriated by this Act, by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.], by the Act of September 30, 1950 1 (Public Law 874, Eighty-first Congress), or by the Cooperative Research Act [20 U.S.C. 331 et seq.], on the basis of alleged noncompliance with the provisions of this subchapter for more than sixty days after notice is given to such local agency of such deferral unless such local agency is given the opportunity for a hearing as provided in section 2000d–1 of this title, such hearing to be held within sixty days of such notice, unless the time for such hearing is extended by mutual consent of such local agency and the Secretary, and such deferral shall not continue for more than thirty days after the close of any such hearing unless there has been an express finding on the record of such hearing that such local educational agency has failed to comply with the provisions of this subchapter: Provided, That, for the purpose of determining whether a local educational agency is in compliance with this subchapter, compliance by such agency with a final order or judgment of a Federal court for the desegregation of the school or school system operated by such agency shall be deemed to be compliance with this subchapter, insofar as the matters covered in the order or judgment are concerned.

(Pub. L. 89–750, title I, §182, Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1209; Pub. L. 90–247, title I, §112, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 787; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, §301(a)(1), title V, §507, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 692; Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §392(b)(1), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4026.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 89–750, Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1191, as amended, known as the Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1966. For complete classification of that Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1966 Amendment note set out under section 6301 of Title 20, Education, and Tables.

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 89–10, Apr. 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 27, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 70 (§6301 et seq.) of Title 20. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6301 of Title 20 and Tables.

Act of September 30, 1950, referred to in text, is act Sept. 30, 1950, ch. 1124, 64 Stat. 1100, as amended, popularly known as the Educational Agencies Financial Aid Act, which was classified generally to chapter 13 (§236 et seq.) of Title 20 prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §331(b), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3965. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Cooperative Research Act, referred to in text, is act July 26, 1954, ch. 576, 68 Stat. 533, which was classified generally to chapter 15 (§331 et seq.) of Title 20, and terminated on July 1, 1975, under provisions of section 402(c)(1) of Pub. L. 93–380, title IV, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 544. See section 1851 et seq. of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1966, and not as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, title VI of which comprises this subchapter.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–382, which directed amendment of this section by striking out “by the Act of September 23, 1950 (Public Law 815, 81st Congress),”, was executed by striking out “by the Act of September 23, 1950 (Public Law 815, Eighty-first Congress)” before “or by the Cooperative” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1968—Pub. L. 90–247 inserted proviso.

Effective Date

Section 191 of Pub. L. 89–750 provided that: “The provisions of this title [enacting this section and sections 241m, 871 to 880, and 886 of Title 20, Education, amending sections 241b, 241c, 241e, 241f, 241g, 241h, 241j, 241k, 241l, 244, 331a, 332a, 332b, 821, 822, 823, 841, 842, 843, 844, 861, 862, 863, 864, 883, and 884 of Title 20, repealing section 241d of Title 20, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 241a, 241b, and 241c of Title 20] shall be effective with respect to fiscal years beginning after June 30, 1966, except as specifically provided otherwise.”

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Education” and “Secretary” substituted in text for “Commissioner of Education” and “Commissioner”, respectively, pursuant to sections 301(a)(1) and 507 of Pub. L. 96–88, which are classified to sections 3441(a)(1) and 3507 of Title 20, Education, and which transferred all functions of Commissioner of Education of Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to Secretary of Education.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2000d–6. Policy of United States as to application of nondiscrimination provisions in schools of local educational agencies

(a) Declaration of uniform policy

It is the policy of the United States that guidelines and criteria established pursuant to title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.] and section 182 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 2000d–5] dealing with conditions of segregation by race, whether de jure or de facto, in the schools of the local educational agencies of any State shall be applied uniformly in all regions of the United States whatever the origin or cause of such segregation.

(b) Nature of uniformity

Such uniformity refers to one policy applied uniformly to de jure segregation wherever found and such other policy as may be provided pursuant to law applied uniformly to de facto segregation wherever found.

(c) Prohibition of construction for diminution of obligation for enforcement or compliance with nondiscrimination requirements

Nothing in this section shall be construed to diminish the obligation of responsible officials to enforce or comply with such guidelines and criteria in order to eliminate discrimination in federally assisted programs and activities as required by title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.].

(d) Additional funds

It is the sense of the Congress that the Department of Justice and the Secretary of Education should request such additional funds as may be necessary to apply the policy set forth in this section throughout the United States.

(Pub. L. 91–230, §2, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 121; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, §301, title V, §507, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 692.)

References in Text

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is classified generally to this subchapter (§2000d et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1969, and not as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, title VI of which comprises this subchapter.

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Education” substituted for “Department of Health, Education, and Welfare” in subsec. (d) pursuant to sections 301 and 507 of Pub. L. 96–88, which are classified to sections 3441 and 3507 of Title 20, Education, and which transferred functions and offices (relating to education) of Department and Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to Secretary of Education.

§2000d–7. Civil rights remedies equalization

(a) General provision

(1) A State shall not be immune under the Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution of the United States from suit in Federal court for a violation of section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 794], title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 [20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.], the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 [42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.], title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.], or the provisions of any other Federal statute prohibiting discrimination by recipients of Federal financial assistance.

(2) In a suit against a State for a violation of a statute referred to in paragraph (1), remedies (including remedies both at law and in equity) are available for such a violation to the same extent as such remedies are available for such a violation in the suit against any public or private entity other than a State.

(b) Effective date

The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall take effect with respect to violations that occur in whole or in part after October 21, 1986.

(Pub. L. 99–506, title X, §1003, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1845.)

References in Text

The Education Amendments of 1972, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 92–318, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 235, as amended. Title IX of the Act, known as the Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, is classified principally to chapter 38 (§1681 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1681 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Age Discrimination Act of 1975, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is title III of Pub. L. 94–135, Nov. 28, 1975, 89 Stat. 728, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 76 (§6101 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6101 of this title and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is classified generally to this subchapter (§2000d et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986, and not as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, title VI of which comprises this subchapter.

SUBCHAPTER VI—EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

§2000e. Definitions

For the purposes of this subchapter—

(a) The term “person” includes one or more individuals, governments, governmental agencies, political subdivisions, labor unions, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, mutual companies, joint-stock companies, trusts, unincorporated organizations, trustees, trustees in cases under title 11, or receivers.

(b) The term “employer” means a person engaged in an industry affecting commerce who has fifteen or more employees for each working day in each of twenty or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, and any agent of such a person, but such term does not include (1) the United States, a corporation wholly owned by the Government of the United States, an Indian tribe, or any department or agency of the District of Columbia subject by statute to procedures of the competitive service (as defined in section 2102 of title 5), or (2) a bona fide private membership club (other than a labor organization) which is exempt from taxation under section 501(c) of title 26, except that during the first year after March 24, 1972, persons having fewer than twenty-five employees (and their agents) shall not be considered employers.

(c) The term “employment agency” means any person regularly undertaking with or without compensation to procure employees for an employer or to procure for employees opportunities to work for an employer and includes an agent of such a person.

(d) The term “labor organization” means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce, and any agent of such an organization, and includes any organization of any kind, any agency, or employee representation committee, group, association, or plan so engaged in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning grievances, labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours, or other terms or conditions of employment, and any conference, general committee, joint or system board, or joint council so engaged which is subordinate to a national or international labor organization.

(e) A labor organization shall be deemed to be engaged in an industry affecting commerce if (1) it maintains or operates a hiring hall or hiring office which procures employees for an employer or procures for employees opportunities to work for an employer, or (2) the number of its members (or, where it is a labor organization composed of other labor organizations or their representatives, if the aggregate number of the members of such other labor organization) is (A) twenty-five or more during the first year after March 24, 1972, or (B) fifteen or more thereafter, and such labor organization—

(1) is the certified representative of employees under the provisions of the National Labor Relations Act, as amended [29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.], or the Railway Labor Act, as amended [45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.];

(2) although not certified, is a national or international labor organization or a local labor organization recognized or acting as the representative of employees of an employer or employers engaged in an industry affecting commerce; or

(3) has chartered a local labor organization or subsidiary body which is representing or actively seeking to represent employees of employers within the meaning of paragraph (1) or (2); or

(4) has been chartered by a labor organization representing or actively seeking to represent employees within the meaning of paragraph (1) or (2) as the local or subordinate body through which such employees may enjoy membership or become affiliated with such labor organization; or

(5) is a conference, general committee, joint or system board, or joint council subordinate to a national or international labor organization, which includes a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce within the meaning of any of the preceding paragraphs of this subsection.


(f) The term “employee” means an individual employed by an employer, except that the term “employee” shall not include any person elected to public office in any State or political subdivision of any State by the qualified voters thereof, or any person chosen by such officer to be on such officer's personal staff, or an appointee on the policy making level or an immediate adviser with respect to the exercise of the constitutional or legal powers of the office. The exemption set forth in the preceding sentence shall not include employees subject to the civil service laws of a State government, governmental agency or political subdivision. With respect to employment in a foreign country, such term includes an individual who is a citizen of the United States.

(g) The term “commerce” means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, transmission, or communication among the several States; or between a State and any place outside thereof; or within the District of Columbia, or a possession of the United States; or between points in the same State but through a point outside thereof.

(h) The term “industry affecting commerce” means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder or obstruct commerce or the free flow of commerce and includes any activity or industry “affecting commerce” within the meaning of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 [29 U.S.C. 401 et seq.], and further includes any governmental industry, business, or activity.

(i) The term “State” includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Wake Island, the Canal Zone, and Outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act [43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.].

(j) The term “religion” includes all aspects of religious observance and practice, as well as belief, unless an employer demonstrates that he is unable to reasonably accommodate to an employee's or prospective employee's religious observance or practice without undue hardship on the conduct of the employer's business.

(k) The terms “because of sex” or “on the basis of sex” include, but are not limited to, because of or on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions; and women affected by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions shall be treated the same for all employment-related purposes, including receipt of benefits under fringe benefit programs, as other persons not so affected but similar in their ability or inability to work, and nothing in section 2000e–2(h) of this title shall be interpreted to permit otherwise. This subsection shall not require an employer to pay for health insurance benefits for abortion, except where the life of the mother would be endangered if the fetus were carried to term, or except where medical complications have arisen from an abortion: Provided, That nothing herein shall preclude an employer from providing abortion benefits or otherwise affect bargaining agreements in regard to abortion.

(l) The term “complaining party” means the Commission, the Attorney General, or a person who may bring an action or proceeding under this subchapter.

(m) The term “demonstrates” means meets the burdens of production and persuasion.

(n) The term “respondent” means an employer, employment agency, labor organization, joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining program, including an on-the-job training program, or Federal entity subject to section 2000e–16 of this title.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §701, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 253; Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 662; Pub. L. 92–261, §2, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 103; Pub. L. 95–555, §1, Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2076; Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §330, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2679; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §§104, 109(a), Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1074, 1077.)

References in Text

The National Labor Relations Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is act July 5, 1935, ch. 372, 49 Stat. 449, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§151 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 167 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Railway Labor Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is act May 20, 1926, ch. 347, 44 Stat. 577, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 8 (§151 et seq.) of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 151 of Title 45 and Tables.

The Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, referred to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 86–257, Sept. 14, 1959, 73 Stat. 519, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 11 (§401 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of Title 29 and Tables.

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (i), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, referred to in subsec. (i), is act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§1331 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1331 of Title 43 and Tables.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–166, §109(a), inserted at end “With respect to employment in a foreign country, such term includes an individual who is a citizen of the United States.”

Subsecs. (l) to (n). Pub. L. 102–166, §104, added subsecs. (l) to (n).

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–598 substituted “trustees in cases under title 11” for “trustees in bankruptcy”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 95–555 added subsec. (k).

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–261, §2(1), included within “person” governments, governmental agencies, and political subdivisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–261, §2(2), substituted “fifteen or more employees” for “twenty-five or more employees”, extended coverage to include State and local governments, excepted from coverage any department or agency of the District of Columbia subject by statute to procedures of the competitive service, as defined in section 2102 of title 5, and substituted provisions under which persons having fewer than twenty-five employees during the first year after March 24, 1972, were not to be considered employers, for provisions under which persons having fewer than a specified number of employees during the first year after the effective date of this section, and the second and third years after such date were not to be considered employers.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–261, §2(3), struck out from term “employment agency” exemption from coverage for agencies of the United States, States or political subdivisions of States, other than the United States Employment Service and the system of State and local employment services receiving Federal assistance.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–261, §2(4), substituted provisions which set forth the number of members for a labor organization to be deemed to be engaged in an industry affecting commerce as twenty-five or more during the first year after March 24, 1972, and fifteen or more thereafter, for provisions which set forth the number of members for a labor organization to be deemed to be engaged in an industry affecting commerce as one hundred or more during the first year after the effective date of this section, seventy-five or more during the second year after such date, fifty or more during the third year after such date, and twenty-five or more thereafter.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 92–261, §2(5), inserted provisions enumerating persons excepted from term “employee”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 92–261, §2(6), inserted “, and further includes any governmental industry, business, or activity” after “Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 92–261, §2(7), added subsec. (j).

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–554 struck out proviso which stated that it shall be the policy of the United States to insure equal employment opportunities for Federal employees without discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin and directed the President to utilize his existing authority to effectuate this policy.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by section 104 of Pub. L. 102–166 effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as a note under section 1981 of this title.

Section 109(c) of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 2000e–1, 12111, and 12112 of this title] shall not apply with respect to conduct occurring before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1991].”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment; Exceptions to Application

Section 2 of Pub. L. 95–555 provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendment made by this Act [amending this section] shall be effective on the date of enactment [Oct. 31, 1978].

“(b) The provisions of the amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall not apply to any fringe benefit program or fund, or insurance program which is in effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 31, 1978] until 180 days after enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date

Subsecs. (a), (b) of section 716 of Pub. L. 88–352 provided that:

“(a) This title [enacting this section and sections 2000e–1, 2000e–4, 2000e–7 to 2000e–15 of this title, and amending sections 2204 and 2205(a)(45) of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees] shall become effective one year after the date of its enactment [July 2, 1964].

“(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a), sections of this title other than sections 703, 704, 706, and 707 [sections 2000e–2, 2000e–3, 2000e–5, and 2000e–6 of this title] shall become effective immediately [July 2, 1964].”

Glass Ceiling

Title II of Pub. L. 102–166, entitled the “Glass Ceiling Act of 1991”, established a Glass Ceiling Commission which was to submit to Congress, no later than 15 months after Nov. 21, 1991, study and recommendations concerning eliminating artificial barriers to advancement of women and minorities in the workplace and increasing opportunities and developmental experiences of women and minorities to foster advancement to management and decisionmaking positions in businesses, authorized creation of a National Award for Diversity and Excellence in American Executive Management which was to be awarded annually by the Commission to a qualified business concern which promoted more diverse skilled work force at management and decisionmaking levels in business, and further provided for composition of Commission, powers, staff and consultants, confidentiality of information, appropriations, and termination of Commission and authority to make awards 4 years after Nov. 21, 1991.

Readjustment of Benefits

Section 3 of Pub. L. 95–555 provided that: “Until the expiration of a period of one year from the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 31, 1978] or, if there is an applicable collective-bargaining agreement in effect on the date of enactment of this Act, until the termination of that agreement, no person who, on the date of enactment of this Act is providing either by direct payment or by making contributions to a fringe benefit fund or insurance program, benefits in violation with this Act [amending this section and enacting provisions set out above] shall, in order to come into compliance with this Act, reduce the benefits or the compensation provided any employee on the date of enactment of this Act, either directly or by failing to provide sufficient contributions to a fringe benefit fund or insurance program: Provided, That where the costs of such benefits on the date of enactment of this Act are apportioned between employers and employees, the payments or contributions required to comply with this Act may be made by employers and employees in the same proportion: And provided further, That nothing in this section shall prevent the readjustment of benefits or compensation for reasons unrelated to compliance with this Act.”

Executive Order No. 11126

Ex. Ord. No. 11126, Nov. 1, 1963, 28 F.R. 11717, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11221, May 6, 1965, 30 F.R. 6427; Ex. Ord. No. 12007, Aug. 22, 1977, 42 F.R. 42839, which related to the Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women and the Citizens’ Advisory Council on the Status of Women, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12050, Apr. 4, 1978, 43 F.R. 14431, formerly set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 11246. Equal Opportunity in Federal Employment

Ex. Ord. No. 11246, Sept. 24, 1965, 30 F.R. 12319, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11375, Oct. 13, 1967, 32 F.R. 14303; Ex. Ord. No. 11478, Aug. 8, 1969, 34 F.R. 12985; Ex. Ord. No. 12086, Oct. 5, 1978, 43 F.R. 46501; Ex. Ord. No. 13279, §4, Dec. 12, 2002, 67 F.R. 77143, provided:

Under and by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Part I—Nondiscrimination in Government Employment

[Superseded. Ex. Ord. No. 11478, eff. Aug. 8, 1969, 34 F.R. 12985.]

Part II—Nondiscrimination in Employment by Government Contractors and Subcontractors

subpart a—duties of the secretary of labor

Sec. 201. The Secretary of Labor shall be responsible for the administration and enforcement of Parts II and III of this Order. The Secretary shall adopt such rules and regulations and issue such orders as are deemed necessary and appropriate to achieve the purposes of Parts II and III of this Order.

subpart b—contractors’ agreements

Sec. 202. Except in contracts exempted in accordance with Section 204 of this Order, all Government contracting agencies shall include in every Government contract hereafter entered into the following provisions:

“During the performance of this contract, the contractor agrees as follows:

“(1) The contractor will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Such action shall include, but not be limited to the following: employment, upgrading, demotion, or transfer; recruitment or recruitment advertising; layoff or termination; rates of pay or other forms of compensation; and selection for training, including apprenticeship. The contractor agrees to post in conspicuous places, available to employees and applicants for employment, notices to be provided by the contracting officer setting forth the provisions of this nondiscrimination clause.

“(2) The contractor will, in all solicitations or advertisements for employees placed by or on behalf of the contractor, state that all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex or national origin.

“(3) The contractor will send to each labor union or representative of workers with which he has a collective bargaining agreement or other contract or understanding, a notice, to be provided by the agency contracting officer, advising the labor union or workers’ representative of the contractor's commitments under Section 202 of Executive Order No. 11246 of September 24, 1965, and shall post copies of the notice in conspicuous places available to employees and applicants for employment.

“(4) The contractor will comply with all provisions of Executive Order No. 11246 of Sept. 24, 1965, and of the rules, regulations, and relevant orders of the Secretary of Labor.

“(5) The contractor will furnish all information and reports required by Executive Order No. 11246 of September 24, 1965, and by the rules, regulations, and orders of the Secretary of Labor, or pursuant thereto, and will permit access to his books, records, and accounts by the contracting agency and the Secretary of Labor for purposes of investigation to ascertain compliance with such rules, regulations, and orders.

“(6) In the event of the contractor's noncompliance with the nondiscrimination clauses of this contract or with any of such rules, regulations, or orders, this contract may be cancelled, terminated or suspended in whole or in part and the contractor may be declared ineligible for further Government contracts in accordance with procedures authorized in Executive Order No. 11246 of Sept. 24, 1965, and such other sanctions may be imposed and remedies invoked as provided in Executive Order No. 11246 of September 24, 1965, or by rule, regulation, or order of the Secretary of Labor, or as otherwise provided by law.

“(7) The contractor will include the provisions of paragraphs (1) through (7) in every subcontract or purchase order unless exempted by rules, regulations, or orders of the Secretary of Labor issued pursuant to Section 204 of Executive Order No. 11246 of September 24, 1965 [section 204 of this Order] so that such provisions will be binding upon each subcontractor or vendor. The contractor will take such action with respect to any subcontract or purchase order as may be directed by the Secretary of Labor as a means of enforcing such provisions including sanctions for noncompliance: Provided, however, that in the event the contractor becomes involved in, or is threatened with, litigation with a subcontractor or vendor as a result of such direction, the contractor may request the United States to enter into such litigation to protect the interests of the United States.”

Sec. 203. (a) Each contractor having a contract containing the provisions prescribed in Section 202 shall file, and shall cause each of his subcontractors to file, Compliance Reports with the contracting agency or the Secretary of Labor as may be directed. Compliance Reports shall be filed within such times and shall contain such information as to the practices, policies, programs, and employment policies, programs, and employment statistics of the contractor and each subcontractor, and shall be in such form, as the Secretary of Labor may prescribe.

(b) Bidders or prospective contractors or subcontractors may be required to state whether they have participated in any previous contract subject to the provisions of this Order, or any preceding similar Executive order, and in that event to submit, on behalf of themselves and their proposed subcontractors, Compliance Reports prior to or as an initial part of their bid or negotiation of a contract.

(c) Whenever the contractor or subcontractor has a collective bargaining agreement or other contract or understanding with a labor union or an agency referring workers or providing or supervising apprenticeship or training for such workers, the Compliance Report shall include such information as to such labor union's or agency's practices and policies affecting compliance as the Secretary of Labor may prescribe: Provided, That to the extent such information is within the exclusive possession of a labor union or any agency referring workers or providing or supervising apprenticeship or training and such labor union or agency shall refuse to furnish such information to the contractor, the contractor shall so certify to the Secretary of Labor as part of its Compliance Report and shall set forth what efforts he has made to obtain such information.

(d) The Secretary of Labor may direct that any bidder or prospective contractor or subcontractor shall submit, as part of his Compliance Report, a statement in writing, signed by an authorized officer or agent on behalf of any labor union or any agency referring workers or providing or supervising apprenticeship or other training, with which the bidder or prospective contractor deals, with supporting information, to the effect that the signer's practices and policies do not discriminate on the grounds of race, color, religion, sex or national origin, and that the signer either will affirmatively cooperate in the implementation of the policy and provisions of this order or that it consents and agrees that recruitment, employment, and the terms and conditions of employment under the proposed contract shall be in accordance with the purposes and provisions of the order. In the event that the union, or the agency shall refuse to execute such a statement, the Compliance Report shall so certify and set forth what efforts have been made to secure such a statement and such additional factual material as the Secretary of Labor may require.

Sec. 204. (a) The Secretary of Labor may, when the Secretary deems that special circumstances in the national interest so require, exempt a contracting agency from the requirement of including any or all of the provisions of Section 202 of this Order in any specific contract, subcontract, or purchase order.

(b) The Secretary of Labor may, by rule or regulation, exempt certain classes of contracts, subcontracts, or purchase orders (1) whenever work is to be or has been performed outside the United States and no recruitment of workers within the limits of the United States is involved; (2) for standard commercial supplies or raw materials; (3) involving less than specified amounts of money or specified numbers of workers; or (4) to the extent that they involve subcontracts below a specified tier.

(c) Section 202 of this Order shall not apply to a Government contractor or subcontractor that is a religious corporation, association, educational institution, or society, with respect to the employment of individuals of a particular religion to perform work connected with the carrying on by such corporation, association, educational institution, or society of its activities. Such contractors and subcontractors are not exempted or excused from complying with the other requirements contained in this Order.

(d) The Secretary of Labor may also provide, by rule, regulation, or order, for the exemption of facilities of a contractor that are in all respects separate and distinct from activities of the contractor related to the performance of the contract: provided, that such an exemption will not interfere with or impede the effectuation of the purposes of this Order: and provided further, that in the absence of such an exemption all facilities shall be covered by the provisions of this Order.

subpart c—powers and duties of the secretary of labor and the contracting agencies

Sec. 205. The Secretary of Labor shall be responsible for securing compliance by all Government contractors and subcontractors with this Order and any implementing rules or regulations. All contracting agencies shall comply with the terms of this Order and any implementing rules, regulations, or orders of the Secretary of Labor. Contracting agencies shall cooperate with the Secretary of Labor and shall furnish such information and assistance as the Secretary may require.

Sec. 206. (a) The Secretary of Labor may investigate the employment practices of any Government contractor or subcontractor to determine whether or not the contractual provisions specified in Section 202 of this Order have been violated. Such investigation shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the Secretary of Labor.

(b) The Secretary of Labor may receive and investigate complaints by employees or prospective employees of a Government contractor or subcontractor which allege discrimination contrary to the contractual provisions specified in Section 202 of this Order.

Sec. 207. The Secretary of Labor shall use his best efforts, directly and through interested Federal, State, and local agencies, contractors, and all other available instrumentalities to cause any labor union engaged in work under Government contracts or any agency referring workers or providing or supervising apprenticeship or training for or in the course of such work to cooperate in the implementation of the purposes of this Order. The Secretary of Labor shall, in appropriate cases, notify the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Department of Justice, or other appropriate Federal agencies whenever it has reason to believe that the practices of any such labor organization or agency violate Title VI or Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [sections 2000d to 2000d–4 of this title and this subchapter] or other provision of Federal law.

Sec. 208. (a) The Secretary of Labor, or any agency, officer, or employee in the executive branch of the Government designated by rule, regulation, or order of the Secretary, may hold such hearings, public or private, as the Secretary may deem advisable for compliance, enforcement, or educational purposes.

(b) The Secretary of Labor may hold, or cause to be held, hearings in accordance with Subsection (a) of this Section prior to imposing, ordering, or recommending the imposition of penalties and sanctions under this Order. No order for debarment of any contractor from further Government contracts under Section 209(a)(6) shall be made without affording the contractor an opportunity for a hearing.

subpart d—sanctions and penalties

Sec. 209. (a) In accordance with such rules, regulations, or orders as the Secretary of Labor may issue or adopt, the Secretary may:

(1) Publish, or cause to be published, the names of contractors or unions which it has concluded have complied or have failed to comply with the provisions of this Order or of the rules, regulations, and orders of the Secretary of Labor.

(2) Recommend to the Department of Justice that, in cases in which there is substantial or material violation or the threat of substantial or material violation of the contractual provisions set forth in Section 202 of this Order, appropriate proceedings be brought to enforce those provisions, including the enjoining, within the limitations of applicable law, of organizations, individuals, or groups who prevent directly or indirectly, or seek to prevent directly or indirectly, compliance with the provisions of this Order.

(3) Recommend to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or the Department of Justice that appropriate proceedings be instituted under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [this subchapter].

(4) Recommend to the Department of Justice that criminal proceedings be brought for the furnishing of false information to any contracting agency or to the Secretary of Labor as the case may be.

(5) After consulting with the contracting agency, direct the contracting agency to cancel, terminate, suspend, or cause to be cancelled, terminated, or suspended, any contract, or any portion or portions thereof, for failure of the contractor or subcontractor to comply with equal employment opportunity provisions of the contract. Contracts may be cancelled, terminated, or suspended absolutely or continuance of contracts may be conditioned upon a program for future compliance approved by the Secretary of Labor.

(6) Provide that any contracting agency shall refrain from entering into further contracts, or extensions or other modifications of existing contracts, with any noncomplying contractor, until such contractor has satisfied the Secretary of Labor that such contractor has established and will carry out personnel and employment policies in compliance with the provisions of this Order.

(b) Pursuant to rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary shall make reasonable efforts, within a reasonable time limitation, to secure compliance with the contract provisions of this Order by methods of conference, conciliation, mediation, and persuasion before proceedings shall be instituted under subsection (a)(2) of this Section, or before a contract shall be cancelled or terminated in whole or in part under subsection (a)(5) of this Section.

Sec. 210. Whenever the Secretary of Labor makes a determination under Section 209, the Secretary shall promptly notify the appropriate agency. The agency shall take the action directed by the Secretary and shall report the results of the action it has taken to the Secretary of Labor within such time as the Secretary shall specify. If the contracting agency fails to take the action directed within thirty days, the Secretary may take the action directly.

Sec. 211. If the Secretary of Labor shall so direct, contracting agencies shall not enter into contracts with any bidder or prospective contractor unless the bidder or prospective contractor has satisfactorily complied with the provisions of this Order or submits a program for compliance acceptable to the Secretary of Labor.

Sec. 212. When a contract has been cancelled or terminated under Section 209(a)(5) or a contractor has been debarred from further Government contracts under Section 209(a)(6) of this Order, because of noncompliance with the contract provisions specified in Section 202 of this Order, the Secretary of Labor shall promptly notify the Comptroller General of the United States.

subpart e—certificates of merit

Sec. 213. The Secretary of Labor may provide for issuance of a United States Government Certificate of Merit to employers or labor unions, or other agencies which are or may hereafter be engaged in work under Government contracts, if the Secretary is satisfied that the personnel and employment practices of the employer, or that the personnel, training, apprenticeship, membership, grievance and representation, upgrading, and other practices, and policies of the labor union or other agency conform to the purposes and provisions of this Order.

Sec. 214. Any Certificate of Merit may at any time be suspended or revoked by the Secretary of Labor if the holder thereof, in the judgment of the Secretary, has failed to comply with the provisions of this Order.

Sec. 215. The Secretary of Labor may provide for the exemption of any employer, labor union, or other agency from any reporting requirements imposed under or pursuant to this Order if such employer, labor union, or other agency has been awarded a Certificate of Merit which has not been suspended or revoked.

Part III—Nondiscrimination Provisions in Federally Assisted Construction Contracts

Sec. 301. Each executive department and agency which administers a program involving Federal financial assistance shall require as a condition for the approval of any grant, contract, loan, insurance, or guarantee thereunder, which may involve a construction contract, that the applicant for Federal assistance undertake and agree to incorporate, or cause to be incorporated, into all construction contracts paid for in whole or in part with funds obtained from the Federal Government or borrowed on the credit of the Federal Government pursuant to such grant, contract, loan, insurance, or guarantee, or undertaken pursuant to any Federal program involving such grant, contract, loan, insurance, or guarantee, the provisions prescribed for Government contracts by Section 202 of this Order or such modification thereof, preserving in substance the contractor's obligations thereunder, as may be approved by the Secretary of Labor; together with such additional provisions as the Secretary deems appropriate to establish and protect the interest of the United States in the enforcement of those obligations. Each such applicant shall also undertake and agree (1) to assist and cooperate actively with the Secretary of Labor in obtaining the compliance of contractors and subcontractors with those contract provisions and with the rules, regulations and relevant orders of the Secretary, (2) to obtain and to furnish to the Secretary of Labor such information as the Secretary may require for the supervision of such compliance, (3) to carry out sanctions and penalties for violation of such obligations imposed upon contractors and subcontractors by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to Part II, Subpart D, of this Order, and (4) to refrain from entering into any contract subject to this Order, or extension or other modification of such a contract with a contractor debarred from Government contracts under Part II, Subpart D, of this Order.

Sec. 302. (a) “Construction contract,” as used in this Order means any contract for the construction, rehabilitation, alteration, conversion, extension, or repair of buildings, highways, or other improvements to real property.

(b) The provisions of Part II of this Order shall apply to such construction contracts, and for purposes of such application the administering department or agency shall be considered the contracting agency referred to therein.

(c) The term “applicant” as used in this Order means an applicant for Federal assistance or, as determined by agency regulation, other program participant, with respect to whom an application for any grant, contract, loan, insurance, or guarantee is not finally acted upon prior to the effective date of this Part, and it includes such an applicant after he becomes a recipient of such Federal assistance.

Sec. 303(a). The Secretary of Labor shall be responsible for obtaining the compliance of such applicants with their undertakings under this Order. Each administering department and agency is directed to cooperate with the Secretary of Labor and to furnish the Secretary such information and assistance as the Secretary may require in the performance of the Secretary's functions under this Order.

(b) In the event an applicant fails and refuses to comply with the applicant's undertakings pursuant to this Order, the Secretary of Labor may, after consulting with the administering department or agency, take any or all of the following actions: (1) direct any administering department or agency to cancel, terminate, or suspend in whole or in part the agreement, contract or other arrangement with such applicant with respect to which the failure or refusal occurred; (2) direct any administering department or agency to refrain from extending any further assistance to the applicant under the program with respect to which the failure or refusal occurred until satisfactory assurance of future compliance has been received by the Secretary of Labor from such applicant; and (3) refer the case to the Department of Justice or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission for appropriate law enforcement or other proceedings.

(c) In no case shall action be taken with respect to an applicant pursuant to clause (1) or (2) of subsection (b) without notice and opportunity for hearing.

Sec. 304. Any executive department or agency which imposes by rule, regulation, or order requirements of nondiscrimination in employment, other than requirements imposed pursuant to this Order, may delegate to the Secretary of Labor by agreement such responsibilities with respect to compliance standards, reports, and procedures as would tend to bring the administration of such requirements into conformity with the administration of requirements imposed under this Order: Provided, That actions to effect compliance by recipients of Federal financial assistance with requirements imposed pursuant to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [sections 2000d to 2000d–4 of this title] shall be taken in conformity with the procedures and limitations prescribed in Section 602 thereof [section 2000d–1 of this title] and the regulations of the administering department or agency issued thereunder.

Part IV—Miscellaneous

Sec. 401. The Secretary of Labor may delegate to any officer, agency, or employee in the Executive branch of the Government, any function or duty of the Secretary under Parts II and III of this Order.

Sec. 402. The Secretary of Labor shall provide administrative support for the execution of the program known as the “Plans for Progress.”

Sec. 403. (a) Executive Orders Nos. 10590 (January 19, 1955), 10722 (August 5, 1957), 10925 (March 6, 1961), 11114 (June 22, 1963), and 11162 (July 28, 1964), are hereby superseded and the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity established by Executive Order No. 10925 is hereby abolished. All records and property in the custody of the Committee shall be transferred to the Civil Service Commission and the Secretary of Labor, as appropriate.

(b) Nothing in this Order shall be deemed to relieve any person of any obligation assumed or imposed under or pursuant to any Executive Order superseded by this Order. All rules, regulations, orders, instructions, designations, and other directives issued by the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity and those issued by the heads of various departments or agencies under or pursuant to any of the Executive orders superseded by this Order, shall, to the extent that they are not inconsistent with this Order, remain in full force and effect unless and until revoked or superseded by appropriate authority. References in such directives to provisions of the superseded orders shall be deemed to be references to the comparable provisions of this Order.

Sec. 404. The General Services Administration shall take appropriate action to revise the standard Government contract forms to accord with the provisions of this Order and of the rules and regulations of the Secretary of Labor.

Sec. 405. This Order shall become effective thirty days after the date of this Order.

Ex. Ord. No. 11478. Equal Employment Opportunity in Federal Government

Ex. Ord. No. 11478, Aug. 8, 1969, 34 F.R. 12985, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11590, Apr. 23, 1971, 36 F.R. 7831; Ex. Ord. No. 12106, Dec. 26, 1978, 44 F.R. 1053; Ex. Ord. No. 13087, May 28, 1998, 63 F.R. 30097; Ex. Ord. No. 13152, May 2, 2000, 65 F.R. 26115, provided:

NOW THEREFORE, under and by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. It is the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal opportunity in Federal employment for all persons, to prohibit discrimination in employment because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, handicap, age, sexual orientation, or status as a parent., [sic] and to promote the full realization of equal employment opportunity through a continuing affirmative program in each executive department and agency. This policy of equal opportunity applies to and must be an integral part of every aspect of personnel policy and practice in the employment, development, advancement, and treatment of civilian employees of the Federal Government, to the extent permitted by law.

Sec. 2. The head of each executive department and agency shall establish and maintain an affirmative program of equal employment opportunity for all civilian employees and applicants for employment within his jurisdiction in accordance with the policy set forth in section 1. It is the responsibility of each department and agency head, to the maximum extent possible, to provide sufficient resources to administer such a program in a positive and effective manner; assure that recruitment activities reach all sources of job candidates; utilize to the fullest extent the present skills of each employee; provide the maximum feasible opportunity to employees to enhance their skills so they may perform at their highest potential and advance in accordance with their abilities; provide training and advice to managers and supervisors to assure their understanding and implementation of the policy expressed in this Order; assure participation at the local level with other employers, schools, and public or private groups in cooperative efforts to improve community conditions which affect employability; and provide for a system within the department or agency for periodically evaluating the effectiveness with which the policy of this Order is being carried out.

Sec. 3. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall be responsible for directing and furthering the implementation of the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal opportunity in Federal employment for all employees or applicants for employment (except with regard to aliens employed outside the limits of the United States) and to prohibit discrimination in employment because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, handicap, or age.

Sec. 4. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, after consultation with all affected departments and agencies, shall issue such rules, regulations, orders, and instructions and request such information from the affected departments and agencies as it deems necessary and and [sic] appropriate to carry out its responsibilities under this Order.

Sec. 5. All departments and agencies shall cooperate with and assist the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in the performance of its functions under this Order and shall furnish the Commission such reports and information as it may request. The head of each department or agency shall comply with rules, regulations, orders and instructions issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission pursuant to Section 4 of this Order.

Sec. 6. “Status as a parent” refers to the status of an individual who, with respect to an individual who is under the age of 18 or who is 18 or older but is incapable of self-care because of a physical or mental disability, is:

(a) a biological parent;

(b) an adoptive parent;

(c) a foster parent;

(d) a stepparent;

(e) a custodian of a legal ward;

(f) in loco parentis over such an individual; or

(g) actively seeking legal custody or adoption of such an individual.

Sec. 7. The Office of Personnel Management shall be authorized to develop guidance on the provisions of this order prohibiting discrimination on the basis of an individual's sexual orientation or status as a parent.

Sec. 8. This Order applies (a) to military departments as defined in section 102 of title 5, United States Code, and executive agencies (other than the General Accounting Office [now Government Accountability Office]) as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code, and to the employees thereof (including employees paid from nonappropriated funds), and (b) to those portions of the legislative and judicial branches of the Federal Government and of the Government of the District of Columbia having positions in the competitive service and to the employees in those positions. This Order does not apply to aliens employed outside the limits of the United States.

Sec. 9. Part I of Executive Order No. 11246 of September 24, 1965, and those parts of Executive Order No. 11375 of October 13, 1967, which apply to Federal employment, are hereby superseded.

Sec. 10. This Order shall be applicable to the United States Postal Service and to the Postal Rate Commission established by the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 [Title 39, Postal Service].

Sec. 11. This Executive Order does not confer any right or benefit enforceable in law or equity against the United States or its representatives.

Executive Order No. 12050

Ex. Ord. No. 12050, Apr. 4, 1978, 43 F.R. 14431, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12057, May 8, 1978, 43 F.R. 19811; Ex. Ord. No. 12135, May 9, 1979, 44 F.R. 27639; Ex. Ord. No. 12336, Dec. 21, 1981, 46 F.R. 62239, which established a National Advisory Committee for Women, was omitted in view of the revocation of sections 1 to 5 and 7 and 8 by Ex. Ord. No. 12135, May 9, 1979, 44 F.R. 27639 and the revocation of section 6 by Ex. Ord. No. 12336, Dec. 21, 1981, 46 F.R. 62239.

Ex. Ord. No. 12067. Coordination of Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Programs

Ex. Ord. No. 12067, June 30, 1978, 43 F.R. 28967, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including Section 9 of Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1978 (43 FR 19807) [set out under section 2000e–4 of this title and in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organizations and Employees], it is ordered as follows:

1–1. Implementation of Reorganization Plan

1–101. The transfer to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of all the functions of the Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council, and the termination of that Council, as provided by Section 6 of Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1978 (43 FR 19807) [set out under section 2000e–4 of this title and in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees] shall be effective on July 1, 1978.

1–2. Responsibilities of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

1–201. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall provide leadership and coordination to the efforts of Federal departments and agencies to enforce all Federal statutes, Executive orders, regulations, and policies which require equal employment opportunity without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or handicap. It shall strive to maximize effort, promote efficiency, and eliminate conflict, competition, duplication and inconsistency among the operations, functions and jurisdictions of the Federal departments and agencies having responsibility for enforcing such statutes, Executive orders, regulations and policies.

1–202. In carrying out its functions under this order the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall consult with and utilize the special expertise of Federal departments and agencies with equal employment opportunity responsibilities. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall cooperate with such departments and agencies in the discharge of their equal employment responsibilities.

1–203. All Federal departments and agencies shall cooperate with and assist the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in the performance of its functions under this order and shall furnish the Commission such reports and information as it may request.

1–3. Specific Responsibilities

1–301. To implement its responsibilities under Section 1–2, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall, where feasible:

(a) develop uniform standards, guidelines, and policies defining the nature of employment discrimination on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or handicap under all Federal statutes, Executive orders, regulations, and policies which require equal employment opportunity;

(b) develop uniform standards and procedures for investigations and compliance reviews to be conducted by Federal departments and agencies under any Federal statute, Executive order, regulation or policy requiring equal employment opportunity;

(c) develop procedures with the affected agencies, including the use of memoranda of understanding, to minimize duplicative investigations or compliance reviews of particular employers or classes of employers or others covered by Federal statutes, Executive orders, regulations or policies requiring equal employment opportunity;

(d) ensure that Federal departments and agencies develop their own standards and procedures for undertaking enforcement actions when compliance with equal employment opportunity requirements of any Federal statute, Executive order, regulation or policy cannot be secured by voluntary means;

(e) develop uniform record-keeping and reporting requirements concerning employment practices to be utilized by all Federal departments and agencies having equal employment enforcement responsibilities;

(f) provide for the sharing of compliance records, findings, and supporting documentation among Federal departments and agencies responsible for ensuring equal employment opportunity;

(g) develop uniform training programs for the staff of Federal departments and agencies with equal employment opportunity responsibilities;

(h) assist all Federal departments and agencies with equal employment opportunity responsibilities in developing programs to provide appropriate publications and other information for those covered and those protected by Federal equal employment opportunity statutes, Executive orders, regulations, and policies; and

(i) initiate cooperative programs, including the development of memoranda of understanding between agencies, designed to improve the coordination of equal employment opportunity compliance and enforcement.

1–302. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall assist the Office of Personnel Management, or its successor, in establishing uniform job-related qualifications and requirements for job classifications and descriptions for Federal employees involved in enforcing all Federal equal employment opportunity provisions.

1–303. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall issue such rules, regulations, policies, procedures or orders as it deems necessary to carry out its responsibilities under this order. It shall advise and offer to consult with the affected Federal departments and agencies during the development of any proposed rules, regulations, policies, procedures or orders and shall formally submit such proposed issuances to affected departments and agencies at least 15 working days prior to public announcement. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall use its best efforts to reach agreement with the agencies on matters in dispute. Departments and agencies shall comply with all final rules, regulations, policies, procedures or orders of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

1–304. All Federal departments and agencies shall advise and offer to consult with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission during the development of any proposed rules, regulations, policies, procedures or orders concerning equal employment opportunity. Departments and agencies shall formally submit such proposed issuances to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and other interested Federal departments and agencies at least 15 working days prior to public announcement. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall review such proposed rules, regulations, policies, procedures or orders to ensure consistency among the operations of the various Federal departments and agencies. Issuances related to internal management and administration are exempt from this clearance process. Case handling procedures unique to a single program also are exempt, although the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission may review such procedures in order to assure maximum consistency within the Federal equal employment opportunity program.

1–305. Before promulgating significant rules, regulations, policies, procedures or orders involving equal employment opportunity, the Commission and affected departments and agencies shall afford the public an opportunity to comment.

1–306. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission may make recommendations concerning staff size and resource needs of the Federal departments and agencies having equal employment opportunity responsibilities to the Office of Management and Budget.

1–307. (a) It is the intent of this order that disputes between or among agencies concerning matters covered by this order shall be resolved through good faith efforts of the affected agencies to reach mutual agreement. Use of the dispute resolution mechanism contained in Subsections (b) and (c) of this Section should be resorted to only in extraordinary circumstances.

(b) Whenever a dispute which cannot be resolved through good faith efforts arises between the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and another Federal department or agency concerning the issuance of an equal employment opportunity rule, regulation, policy, procedure, order or any matter covered by this Order, the Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or the head of the affected department or agency may refer the matter to the Executive Office of the President. Such reference must be in writing and may not be made later than 15 working days following receipt of the initiating agency's notice of intent publicly to announce an equal employment opportunity rule, regulation, policy, procedure or order. If no reference is made within the 15 day period, the decision of the agency which initiated the proposed issuance will become effective.

(c) Following reference of a disputed matter to the Executive Office of the President, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs and Policy (or such other official as the President may designate) shall designate an official within the Executive Office of the President to meet with the affected agencies to resolve the dispute within a reasonable time.

1–4. Annual Report

1–401. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall include in the annual report transmitted to the President and the Congress pursuant to Section 715 of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000e–14), a statement of the progress that has been made in achieving the purpose of this order. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall provide Federal departments and agencies an opportunity to comment on the report prior to formal submission.

1–5. General Provisions

1–501. Nothing in this order shall relieve or lessen the responsibilities or obligations imposed upon any person or entity by Federal equal employment law, Executive order, regulation or policy.

1–502. Nothing in this order shall limit the Attorney General's role as legal adviser to the Executive Branch.

Jimmy Carter.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12086. Consolidation of Contract Compliance Functions for Equal Employment Opportunity

Ex. Ord. No. 12086, Oct. 5, 1978, 43 F.R. 46501, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, including Section 202 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 581c) [31 U.S.C. 1531], in order to provide for the transfer to the Department of Labor of certain contract compliance functions relating to equal employment opportunity, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–1. Transfer of Functions

1–101. The functions concerned with being primarily responsible for the enforcement of the equal employment opportunity provisions under Parts II and III of Executive Order. No. 11246, as amended [set out as a note above], are transferred or reassigned to the Secretary of Labor from the following agencies:

(a) Department of the Treasury.

(b) Department of Defense.

(c) Department of the Interior.

(d) Department of Commerce.

(e) Department of Health and Human Services.

(f) Department of Housing and Urban Development.

(g) Department of Transportation.

(h) Department of Energy.

(i) Environmental Protection Agency.

(j) General Services Administration.

(k) Small Business Administration.

1–102. The records, property, personnel and positions, and unexpended balances of appropriations or funds related to the functions transferred or reassigned by this Order, that are available and necessary to finance or discharge those functions, are transferred to the Secretary of Labor.

1–103. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall make such determinations, issue such orders, and take all actions necessary or appropriate to effectuate the transfers or reassignments provided by this Order, including the transfer of funds, records, property, and personnel.

1–2. Conforming Amendments to Executive Order No. 11246

1–201(a). In order to reflect the transfer of enforcement responsibility to the Secretary of Labor, Section 201 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, is amended to read:

Sec. 201. The Secretary of Labor shall be responsible for the administration and enforcement of Parts II and III of this Order. The Secretary shall adopt such rules and regulations and issue such orders as are deemed necessary and appropriate to achieve the purposes of Parts II and III of this Order.”.

(b) Paragraph (7) of the contract clauses specified in Section 202 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, is amended to read:

“(7) The contractor will include the provisions of paragraphs (1) through (7) in every subcontract or purchase order unless exempted by rules, regulations, or orders of the Secretary of Labor issued pursuant to Section 204 of Executive Order No. 11246 of September 24, 1965, so that such provisions will be binding upon each subcontractor or vendor. The contractor will take such action with respect to any subcontract or purchase order as may be directed by the Secretary of Labor as a means of enforcing such provisions including sanctions for noncompliance: Provided, however, that in the event the contractor becomes involved in, or is threatened with, litigation with a subcontractor or vendor as a result of such direction, the contractor may request the United States to enter into such litigation to protect the interests of the United States.”.

1–202. In subsection (c) of Section 203 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, delete “contracting agency” in the proviso and substitute “Secretary of Labor” therefor.

1–203. In both the beginning and end of subsection (d) of Section 203 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, delete “contracting agency or the” in the phrase “contracting agency or the Secretary”.

1–204. Section 205 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, is amended by deleting the last two sentences, which dealt with agency designation of compliance officers, and revising the rest of that Section to read:

Sec. 205. The Secretary of Labor shall be responsible for securing compliance by all Government contractors and subcontractors with this Order and any implementing rules or regulations. All contracting agencies shall comply with the terms of this Order and any implementing rules, regulations, or orders of the Secretary of Labor. Contracting agencies shall cooperate with the Secretary of Labor and shall furnish such information and assistance as the Secretary may require.”.

1–205. In order to delete references to the contracting agencies conducting investigations, Section 206 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, is amended to read:

Sec. 206. (a) The Secretary of Labor may investigate the employment practices of any Government contractor or subcontractor to determine whether or not the contractual provisions specified in Section 202 of this Order have been violated. Such investigation shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the Secretary of Labor.”.

“(b) The Secretary of Labor may receive and investigate complaints by employees or prospective employees of a Government contractor or subcontractor which allege discrimination contrary to the contractual provisions specified in Section 202 of this Order.”.

1–206. In Section 207 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, delete “contracting agencies, other” in the first sentence.

1–207. The introductory clause in Section 209(a) of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, is amended by deleting “or the appropriate contracting agency” from “In accordance with such rules, regulations, or orders as the Secretary of Labor may issue or adopt, the Secretary or the appropriate contracting agency may:”.

1–208. In paragraph (5) of Section 209(a) of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, insert at the beginning the phrase “After consulting with the contracting agency, direct the contracting agency to”, and at the end of paragraph (5) delete “contracting agency” and substitute therefor “Secretary of Labor” so that paragraph (5) is amended to read:

“(5) After consulting with the contracting agency, direct the contracting agency to cancel, terminate, suspend, or cause to be cancelled, terminated, or suspended, any contract, or any portion or portions thereof, for failure of the contractor or subcontractor to comply with equal employment opportunity provisions of the contract. Contracts may be cancelled, terminated, or suspended absolutely or continuance of contracts may be conditioned upon a program for future compliance approved by the Secretary of Labor.”.

1–209. In order to reflect the transfer from the agencies to the Secretary of Labor of the enforcement functions, substitute “Secretary of Labor” for “each contracting agency” in Section 209(b) of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, so that Section 209(b) is amended to read:

“(b) Pursuant to rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary shall make reasonable efforts, within a reasonable time limitation, to secure compliance with the contract provisions of this Order by methods of conference, conciliation, mediation, and persuasion before proceedings shall be instituted under subsection (a)(2) of this Section, or before a contract shall be cancelled or terminated in whole or in part under subsection (a)(5) of this Section.”.

1–210. In order to reflect the responsibility of the contracting agencies for prompt compliance with the directions of the Secretary of Labor, Sections 210 and 211 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, are amended to read:

Sec. 210. Whenever the Secretary of Labor makes a determination under Section 209, the Secretary shall promptly notify the appropriate agency. The agency shall take the action directed by the Secretary and shall report the results of the action it has taken to the Secretary of Labor within such time as the Secretary shall specify. If the contracting agency fails to take the action directed within thirty days, the Secretary may take the action directly.”.

Sec. 211. If the Secretary of Labor shall so direct, contracting agencies shall not enter into contracts with any bidder or prospective contractor unless the bidder or prospective contractor has satisfactorily complied with the provisions of this Order or submits a program for compliance acceptable to the Secretary of Labor.”.

1–211. Section 212 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, is amended to read:

Sec. 212. When a contract has been cancelled or terminated under Section 209(a)(5) or a contractor has been debarred from further Government contracts under Section 209(a)(6) of this Order, because of noncompliance with the contract provisions specified in Section 202 of this Order, the Secretary of Labor shall promptly notify the Comptroller General of the United States.”.

1–212. In order to reflect the transfer of enforcement responsibility to the Secretary of Labor, references to the administering department or agency are deleted in clauses (1), (2), and (3) of Section 301 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, and those clauses are amended to read:

“(1) to assist and cooperate actively with the Secretary of Labor in obtaining the compliance of contractors and subcontractors with those contract provisions and with the rules, regulations and relevant orders of the Secretary, (2) to obtain and to furnish to the Secretary of Labor such information as the Secretary may require for the supervision of such compliance, (3) to carry out sanctions and penalties for violation of such obligations imposed upon contractors and subcontractors by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to Part II, Subpart D, of this Order,”.

1–213. In order to reflect the transfer from the agencies to the Secretary of Labor of the enforcement functions “Secretary of Labor” shall be substituted for “administering department or agency” in Section 303 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, and Section 303 is amended to read:

Sec. 303(a). The Secretary of Labor shall be responsible for obtaining the compliance of such applicants with their undertakings under this Order. Each administering department and agency is directed to cooperate with the Secretary of Labor and to furnish the Secretary such information and assistance as the Secretary may require in the performance of the Secretary's functions under this Order.”.

“(b) In the event an applicant fails and refuses to comply with the applicant's undertakings pursuant to this Order, the Secretary of Labor may, after consulting with the administering department or agency, take any or all of the following actions: (1) direct any administering department or agency to cancel, terminate, or suspend in whole or in part the agreement, contract or other arrangement with such applicant with respect to which the failure or refusal occurred; (2) direct any administering department or agency to refrain from extending any further assistance to the applicant under the program with respect to which the failure or refusal occurred until satisfactory assurance of future compliance has been received by the Secretary of Labor from such applicant; and (3) refer the case to the Department of Justice or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission for appropriate law enforcement or other proceedings.”.

“(c) In no case shall action be taken with respect to an applicant pursuant to clause (1) or (2) of subsection (b) without notice and opportunity for hearing.”.

1–214. Section 401 of Executive Order No. 11246, as amended, is amended to read:

Sec. 401. The Secretary of Labor may delegate to any officer, agency, or employee in the Executive branch of the Government, any function or duty of the Secretary under Parts II and III of this Order.”.

1–3. General Provisions

1–301. The transfers or reassignments provided by Section 1–1 of this Order shall take effect at such time or times as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine. The Director shall ensure that all such transfers or reassignments take effect within 60 days.

1–302. The conforming amendments provided by Section 1–2 of this Order shall take effect on October 8, 1978; except that, with respect to those agencies identified in Section 1–101 of this Order, the conforming amendments shall be effective on the effective date of the transfer or reassignment of functions as specified pursuant to Section 1–301 of this Order.

Executive Order No. 12135

Ex. Ord. No. 12135, May 9, 1979, 44 F.R. 27639, which established the President's Advisory Committee for Women, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12336, Dec. 21, 1981, 46 F.R. 62239, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12336. Task Force on Legal Equity for Women

Ex. Ord. No. 12336, Dec. 21, 1981, 46 F.R. 62239, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12355, Apr. 1, 1982, 47 F.R. 14479, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution of the United States of America, and in order to provide for the systematic elimination of regulatory and procedural barriers which have unfairly precluded women from receiving equal treatment from Federal activities, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment. (a) There is established the Task Force on Legal Equity for Women.

(b) The Task Force members shall be appointed by the President from among nominees by the heads of the following Executive agencies, each of which shall have one representative on the Task Force.

(1) Department of State.

(2) Department of The Treasury.

(3) Department of Defense.

(4) Department of Justice.

(5) Department of The Interior.

(6) Department of Agriculture.

(7) Department of Commerce.

(8) Department of Labor.

(9) Department of Health and Human Services.

(10) Department of Housing and Urban Development.

(11) Department of Transportation.

(12) Department of Energy.

(13) Department of Education.

(14) Agency for International Development.

(15) Veterans Administration [now Department of Veterans Affairs].

(16) Office of Management and Budget.

(17) International Communication Agency.

(18) Office of Personnel Management.

(19) Environmental Protection Agency.

(20) ACTION [now Corporation for National and Community Service].

(21) Small Business Administration.

(c) The President shall designate one of the members to chair the Task Force. Other agencies may be invited to participate in the functions of the Task Force.

Sec. 2. Functions. (a) The members of the Task Force shall be responsible for coordinating and facilitating in their respective agencies, under the direction of the head of their agency, the implementation of changes ordered by the President in sex-discriminatory Federal regulations, policies, and practices.

(b) The Task Force shall periodically report to the President on the progress made throughout the Government in implementing the President's directives.

(c) The Attorney General shall complete the review of Federal laws, regulations, policies, and practices which contain language that unjustifiably differentiates, or which effectively discriminates, on the basis of sex. The Attorney General or his designee shall, on a quarterly basis, report his findings to the President through the Cabinet Council on Legal Policy.

Sec. 3. Administration. (a) The head of each Executive agency shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide the Task Force with such information and advice as the Task Force may identify as being useful to fulfill its functions.

(b) The agency with its representative chairing the Task Force shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide the Task Force with such administrative support as may be necessary for the effective performance of its functions.

(c) The head of each agency represented on the Task Force shall, to the extent permitted by law, furnish its representative such administrative support as is necessary and appropriate.

Sec. 4. General Provisions. (a) Section 1–101(h) of Executive Order No. 12258, as amended, is revoked.

(b) Executive Order No. 12135 is revoked.

(c) Section 6 of Executive Order No. 12050, as amended, is revoked.

Ronald Reagan.      


[The International Communication Agency was redesignated the United States Information Agency, see section 303 of Pub. L. 97–241, title III, Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 1461 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For abolition of United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau), transfer of functions, and treatment of references thereto, see sections 6531, 6532, and 6551 of Title 22.]

Ex. Ord. No. 13171. Hispanic Employment in the Federal Government

Ex. Ord. No. 13171, Oct. 12, 2000, 65 F.R. 61251, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to improve the representation of Hispanics in Federal employment, within merit system principles and consistent with the application of appropriate veterans’ preference criteria, to achieve a Federal workforce drawn from all segments of society, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the executive branch to recruit qualified individuals from appropriate sources in an effort to achieve a workforce drawn from all segments of society. Pursuant to this policy, this Administration notes that Hispanics remain underrepresented in the Federal workforce: they make up only 6.4 percent of the Federal civilian workforce, roughly half of their total representation in the civilian labor force. This Executive Order, therefore, affirms ongoing policies and recommends additional policies to eliminate the underpresentation [sic] of Hispanics in the Federal workforce.

Sec. 2. Responsibilities of Executive Departments and Agencies. The head of each executive department and agency (agency) shall establish and maintain a program for the recruitment and career development of Hispanics in Federal employment. In its program, each agency shall:

(a) provide a plan for recruiting Hispanics that creates a fully diverse workforce for the agency in the 21st century;

(b) assess and eliminate any systemic barriers to the effective recruitment and consideration of Hispanics, including but not limited to:

(1) broadening the area of consideration to include applicants from all appropriate sources;

(2) ensuring that selection factors are appropriate and achieve the broadest consideration of applicants and do not impose barriers to selection based on nonmerit factors; and

(3) considering the appointment of Hispanic Federal executives to rating, selection, performance review, and executive resources panels and boards;

(c) improve outreach efforts to include organizations outside the Federal Government in order to increase the number of Hispanic candidates in the selection pool for the Senior Executive Service;

(d) promote participation of Hispanic employees in management, leadership, and career development programs;

(e) ensure that performance plans for senior executives, managers, and supervisors include specific language related to significant accomplishments on diversity recruitment and career development and that accountability is predicated on those plans;

(f) establish appropriate agency advisory councils that include Hispanic Employment Program Managers;

(g) implement the goals of the Government-wide Hispanic Employment Initiatives issued by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) in September 1997 (Nine-Point Plan), and the Report to the President's Management Council on Hispanic Employment in the Federal Government of March 1999;

(h) ensure that managers and supervisors receive periodic training in diversity management in order to carry out their responsibilities to maintain a diverse workforce; and

(i) reflect a continuing priority for eliminating Hispanic underrepresentation in the Federal workforce and incorporate actions under this order as strategies for achieving workforce diversity goals in the agency's Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) Annual Performance Plan.

Sec. 3. Cooperation. All efforts taken by heads of agencies under sections 1 and 2 of this order shall, as appropriate, further partnerships and cooperation among Federal, public, and private sector employers, and appropriate Hispanic organizations whenever such partnerships and cooperation are possible and would promote the Federal employment of qualified individuals. In developing the long-term comprehensive strategies required by section 2 of this order, agencies shall, as appropriate, consult with and seek information and advice from experts in the areas of special targeted recruitment and diversity in employment.

Sec. 4. Responsibilities of the Office of Personnel Management. The Office of Personnel Management is required by law and regulations to undertake a Government-wide minority recruitment effort. Pursuant to that on-going effort and in implementation of this order, the Director of OPM shall:

(a) provide Federal human resources management policy guidance to address Hispanic underrepresentation where it occurs;

(b) take the lead in promoting diversity to executive agencies for such actions as deemed appropriate to promote equal employment opportunity;

(c) within 180 days from the date of this order, prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this order;

(d) within 60 days from the date of this order, establish an Interagency Task Force, chaired by the Director and composed of agency officials at the Deputy Secretary level, or the equivalent. This Task Force shall meet semi-annually to:

(1) review best practices in strategic human resources management planning, including alignment with agency GPRA plans;

(2) assess overall executive branch progress in complying with the requirements of this order;

(3) provide advice on ways to increase Hispanic community involvement; and

(4) recommend any further actions, as appropriate, in eliminating the underrepresentation of Hispanics in the Federal workforce where it occurs; and

(e) issue an annual report with findings and recommendations to the President on the progress made by agencies on matters related to this order. The first annual report shall be issued no later than 1 year from the date of this order.

Sec. 5. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch. It does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable in law or equity except as may be identified in existing laws and regulations, by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers or employees, or any other person.

William J. Clinton.      

§2000e–1. Exemption

(a) Inapplicability of subchapter to certain aliens and employees of religious entities

This subchapter shall not apply to an employer with respect to the employment of aliens outside any State, or to a religious corporation, association, educational institution, or society with respect to the employment of individuals of a particular religion to perform work connected with the carrying on by such corporation, association, educational institution, or society of its activities.

(b) Compliance with statute as violative of foreign law

It shall not be unlawful under section 2000e–2 or 2000e–3 of this title for an employer (or a corporation controlled by an employer), labor organization, employment agency, or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining (including on-the-job training programs) to take any action otherwise prohibited by such section, with respect to an employee in a workplace in a foreign country if compliance with such section would cause such employer (or such corporation), such organization, such agency, or such committee to violate the law of the foreign country in which such workplace is located.

(c) Control of corporation incorporated in foreign country

(1) If an employer controls a corporation whose place of incorporation is a foreign country, any practice prohibited by section 2000e–2 or 2000e–3 of this title engaged in by such corporation shall be presumed to be engaged in by such employer.

(2) Sections 2000e–2 and 2000e–3 of this title shall not apply with respect to the foreign operations of an employer that is a foreign person not controlled by an American employer.

(3) For purposes of this subsection, the determination of whether an employer controls a corporation shall be based on—

(A) the interrelation of operations;

(B) the common management;

(C) the centralized control of labor relations; and

(D) the common ownership or financial control,


of the employer and the corporation.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §702, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 255; Pub. L. 92–261, §3, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 103; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §109(b)(1), Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1077.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–166 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1972—Pub. L. 92–261 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “This subchapter shall not apply to an employer with respect to the employment of aliens outside any State, or to a religious corporation, association, or society with respect to the employment of individuals of a particular religion to perform work connected with the carrying on by such corporation, association, or society of its religious activities or to an educational institution with respect to the employment of individuals to perform work connected with the educational activities of such institution.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–166 inapplicable to conduct occurring before Nov. 21, 1991, see section 109(c) of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as a note under section 2000e of this title.

§2000e–2. Unlawful employment practices

(a) Employer practices

It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer—

(1) to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; or

(2) to limit, segregate, or classify his employees or applicants for employment in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

(b) Employment agency practices

It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employment agency to fail or refuse to refer for employment, or otherwise to discriminate against, any individual because of his race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, or to classify or refer for employment any individual on the basis of his race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

(c) Labor organization practices

It shall be an unlawful employment practice for a labor organization—

(1) to exclude or to expel from its membership, or otherwise to discriminate against, any individual because of his race, color, religion, sex, or national origin;

(2) to limit, segregate, or classify its membership or applicants for membership, or to classify or fail or refuse to refer for employment any individual, in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities, or would limit such employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee or as an applicant for employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; or

(3) to cause or attempt to cause an employer to discriminate against an individual in violation of this section.

(d) Training programs

It shall be an unlawful employment practice for any employer, labor organization, or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs to discriminate against any individual because of his race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in admission to, or employment in, any program established to provide apprenticeship or other training.

(e) Businesses or enterprises with personnel qualified on basis of religion, sex, or national origin; educational institutions with personnel of particular religion

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, (1) it shall not be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to hire and employ employees, for an employment agency to classify, or refer for employment any individual, for a labor organization to classify its membership or to classify or refer for employment any individual, or for an employer, labor organization, or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining programs to admit or employ any individual in any such program, on the basis of his religion, sex, or national origin in those certain instances where religion, sex, or national origin is a bona fide occupational qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of that particular business or enterprise, and (2) it shall not be an unlawful employment practice for a school, college, university, or other educational institution or institution of learning to hire and employ employees of a particular religion if such school, college, university, or other educational institution or institution of learning is, in whole or in substantial part, owned, supported, controlled, or managed by a particular religion or by a particular religious corporation, association, or society, or if the curriculum of such school, college, university, or other educational institution or institution of learning is directed toward the propagation of a particular religion.

(f) Members of Communist Party or Communist-action or Communist-front organizations

As used in this subchapter, the phrase “unlawful employment practice” shall not be deemed to include any action or measure taken by an employer, labor organization, joint labor-management committee, or employment agency with respect to an individual who is a member of the Communist Party of the United States or of any other organization required to register as a Communist-action or Communist-front organization by final order of the Subversive Activities Control Board pursuant to the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 [50 U.S.C. 781 et seq.].

(g) National security

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, it shall not be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to fail or refuse to hire and employ any individual for any position, for an employer to discharge any individual from any position, or for an employment agency to fail or refuse to refer any individual for employment in any position, or for a labor organization to fail or refuse to refer any individual for employment in any position, if—

(1) the occupancy of such position, or access to the premises in or upon which any part of the duties of such position is performed or is to be performed, is subject to any requirement imposed in the interest of the national security of the United States under any security program in effect pursuant to or administered under any statute of the United States or any Executive order of the President; and

(2) such individual has not fulfilled or has ceased to fulfill that requirement.

(h) Seniority or merit system; quantity or quality of production; ability tests; compensation based on sex and authorized by minimum wage provisions

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, it shall not be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to apply different standards of compensation, or different terms, conditions, or privileges of employment pursuant to a bona fide seniority or merit system, or a system which measures earnings by quantity or quality of production or to employees who work in different locations, provided that such differences are not the result of an intention to discriminate because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, nor shall it be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to give and to act upon the results of any professionally developed ability test provided that such test, its administration or action upon the results is not designed, intended or used to discriminate because of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. It shall not be an unlawful employment practice under this subchapter for any employer to differentiate upon the basis of sex in determining the amount of the wages or compensation paid or to be paid to employees of such employer if such differentiation is authorized by the provisions of section 206(d) of title 29.

(i) Businesses or enterprises extending preferential treatment to Indians

Nothing contained in this subchapter shall apply to any business or enterprise on or near an Indian reservation with respect to any publicly announced employment practice of such business or enterprise under which a preferential treatment is given to any individual because he is an Indian living on or near a reservation.

(j) Preferential treatment not to be granted on account of existing number or percentage imbalance

Nothing contained in this subchapter shall be interpreted to require any employer, employment agency, labor organization, or joint labor-management committee subject to this subchapter to grant preferential treatment to any individual or to any group because of the race, color, religion, sex, or national origin of such individual or group on account of an imbalance which may exist with respect to the total number or percentage of persons of any race, color, religion, sex, or national origin employed by any employer, referred or classified for employment by any employment agency or labor organization, admitted to membership or classified by any labor organization, or admitted to, or employed in, any apprenticeship or other training program, in comparison with the total number or percentage of persons of such race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in any community, State, section, or other area, or in the available work force in any community, State, section, or other area.

(k) Burden of proof in disparate impact cases

(1)(A) An unlawful employment practice based on disparate impact is established under this subchapter only if—

(i) a complaining party demonstrates that a respondent uses a particular employment practice that causes a disparate impact on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin and the respondent fails to demonstrate that the challenged practice is job related for the position in question and consistent with business necessity; or

(ii) the complaining party makes the demonstration described in subparagraph (C) with respect to an alternative employment practice and the respondent refuses to adopt such alternative employment practice.


(B)(i) With respect to demonstrating that a particular employment practice causes a disparate impact as described in subparagraph (A)(i), the complaining party shall demonstrate that each particular challenged employment practice causes a disparate impact, except that if the complaining party can demonstrate to the court that the elements of a respondent's decisionmaking process are not capable of separation for analysis, the decisionmaking process may be analyzed as one employment practice.

(ii) If the respondent demonstrates that a specific employment practice does not cause the disparate impact, the respondent shall not be required to demonstrate that such practice is required by business necessity.

(C) The demonstration referred to by subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be in accordance with the law as it existed on June 4, 1989, with respect to the concept of “alternative employment practice”.

(2) A demonstration that an employment practice is required by business necessity may not be used as a defense against a claim of intentional discrimination under this subchapter.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, a rule barring the employment of an individual who currently and knowingly uses or possesses a controlled substance, as defined in schedules I and II of section 102(6) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802(6)), other than the use or possession of a drug taken under the supervision of a licensed health care professional, or any other use or possession authorized by the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.] or any other provision of Federal law, shall be considered an unlawful employment practice under this subchapter only if such rule is adopted or applied with an intent to discriminate because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

(l) Prohibition of discriminatory use of test scores

It shall be an unlawful employment practice for a respondent, in connection with the selection or referral of applicants or candidates for employment or promotion, to adjust the scores of, use different cutoff scores for, or otherwise alter the results of, employment related tests on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

(m) Impermissible consideration of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices

Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, an unlawful employment practice is established when the complaining party demonstrates that race, color, religion, sex, or national origin was a motivating factor for any employment practice, even though other factors also motivated the practice.

(n) Resolution of challenges to employment practices implementing litigated or consent judgments or orders

(1)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and except as provided in paragraph (2), an employment practice that implements and is within the scope of a litigated or consent judgment or order that resolves a claim of employment discrimination under the Constitution or Federal civil rights laws may not be challenged under the circumstances described in subparagraph (B).

(B) A practice described in subparagraph (A) may not be challenged in a claim under the Constitution or Federal civil rights laws—

(i) by a person who, prior to the entry of the judgment or order described in subparagraph (A), had—

(I) actual notice of the proposed judgment or order sufficient to apprise such person that such judgment or order might adversely affect the interests and legal rights of such person and that an opportunity was available to present objections to such judgment or order by a future date certain; and

(II) a reasonable opportunity to present objections to such judgment or order; or


(ii) by a person whose interests were adequately represented by another person who had previously challenged the judgment or order on the same legal grounds and with a similar factual situation, unless there has been an intervening change in law or fact.


(2) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to—

(A) alter the standards for intervention under rule 24 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or apply to the rights of parties who have successfully intervened pursuant to such rule in the proceeding in which the parties intervened;

(B) apply to the rights of parties to the action in which a litigated or consent judgment or order was entered, or of members of a class represented or sought to be represented in such action, or of members of a group on whose behalf relief was sought in such action by the Federal Government;

(C) prevent challenges to a litigated or consent judgment or order on the ground that such judgment or order was obtained through collusion or fraud, or is transparently invalid or was entered by a court lacking subject matter jurisdiction; or

(D) authorize or permit the denial to any person of the due process of law required by the Constitution.


(3) Any action not precluded under this subsection that challenges an employment consent judgment or order described in paragraph (1) shall be brought in the court, and if possible before the judge, that entered such judgment or order. Nothing in this subsection shall preclude a transfer of such action pursuant to section 1404 of title 28.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §703, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 255; Pub. L. 92–261, §8(a), (b), Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 109; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §§105(a), 106, 107(a), 108, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1074–1076.)

References in Text

The Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, referred to in subsec. (f), is title I (§§1–32) of act Sept. 23, 1950, ch. 1024, 64 Stat. 987, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§781 et seq.) of chapter 23 of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (k)(3), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Federal civil rights laws, referred to in subsec. (n)(1), are classified generally to chapter 21 (§1981 et seq.) of this title.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (n)(2)(A), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 102–166, §105(a), added subsec. (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 102–166, §106, added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 102–166, §107(a), added subsec. (m).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 102–166, §108, added subsec. (n).

1972—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 92–261, §8(a), inserted “or applicants for employment” after “his employees”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 92–261, §8(b), inserted “or applicants for membership” after “membership”.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–166 effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as a note under section 1981 of this title.

Subversive Activities Control Board

Subversive Activities Control Board established by act Sept. 23, 1950, ch. 1024, §12, 64 Stat. 977, and ceased to operate on June 30, 1973.

§2000e–3. Other unlawful employment practices

(a) Discrimination for making charges, testifying, assisting, or participating in enforcement proceedings

It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to discriminate against any of his employees or applicants for employment, for an employment agency, or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs, to discriminate against any individual, or for a labor organization to discriminate against any member thereof or applicant for membership, because he has opposed any practice made an unlawful employment practice by this subchapter, or because he has made a charge, testified, assisted, or participated in any manner in an investigation, proceeding, or hearing under this subchapter.

(b) Printing or publication of notices or advertisements indicating prohibited preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination; occupational qualification exception

It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer, labor organization, employment agency, or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs, to print or publish or cause to be printed or published any notice or advertisement relating to employment by such an employer or membership in or any classification or referral for employment by such a labor organization, or relating to any classification or referral for employment by such an employment agency, or relating to admission to, or employment in, any program established to provide apprenticeship or other training by such a joint labor-management committee, indicating any preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination, based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, except that such a notice or advertisement may indicate a preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based on religion, sex, or national origin when religion, sex, or national origin is a bona fide occupational qualification for employment.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §704, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 257; Pub. L. 92–261, §8(c), Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 109.)

Amendments

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–261, §8(c)(1), inserted provision making it an unlawful employment practice for a joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs, to discriminate against the specified individuals.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–261, §8(c)(2), inserted provisions making prohibitions applicable to joint labor-management committees controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs, and notices or advertisements of such joint labor-management committees relating to admission to, or employment in, any program established to provide apprenticeship or other training.

§2000e–4. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

(a) Creation; composition; political representation; appointment; term; vacancies; Chairman and Vice Chairman; duties of Chairman; appointment of personnel; compensation of personnel

There is hereby created a Commission to be known as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which shall be composed of five members, not more than three of whom shall be members of the same political party. Members of the Commission shall be appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate for a term of five years. Any individual chosen to fill a vacancy shall be appointed only for the unexpired term of the member whom he shall succeed, and all members of the Commission shall continue to serve until their successors are appointed and qualified, except that no such member of the Commission shall continue to serve (1) for more than sixty days when the Congress is in session unless a nomination to fill such vacancy shall have been submitted to the Senate, or (2) after the adjournment sine die of the session of the Senate in which such nomination was submitted. The President shall designate one member to serve as Chairman of the Commission, and one member to serve as Vice Chairman. The Chairman shall be responsible on behalf of the Commission for the administrative operations of the Commission, and, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, shall appoint, in accordance with the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, such officers, agents, attorneys, administrative law judges, and employees as he deems necessary to assist it in the performance of its functions and to fix their compensation in accordance with the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates: Provided, That assignment, removal, and compensation of administrative law judges shall be in accordance with sections 3105, 3344, 5372, and 7521 of title 5.

(b) General Counsel; appointment; term; duties; representation by attorneys and Attorney General

(1) There shall be a General Counsel of the Commission appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, for a term of four years. The General Counsel shall have responsibility for the conduct of litigation as provided in sections 2000e–5 and 2000e–6 of this title. The General Counsel shall have such other duties as the Commission may prescribe or as may be provided by law and shall concur with the Chairman of the Commission on the appointment and supervision of regional attorneys. The General Counsel of the Commission on the effective date of this Act shall continue in such position and perform the functions specified in this subsection until a successor is appointed and qualified.

(2) Attorneys appointed under this section may, at the direction of the Commission, appear for and represent the Commission in any case in court, provided that the Attorney General shall conduct all litigation to which the Commission is a party in the Supreme Court pursuant to this subchapter.

(c) Exercise of powers during vacancy; quorum

A vacancy in the Commission shall not impair the right of the remaining members to exercise all the powers of the Commission and three members thereof shall constitute a quorum.

(d) Seal; judicial notice

The Commission shall have an official seal which shall be judicially noticed.

(e) Reports to Congress and the President

The Commission shall at the close of each fiscal year report to the Congress and to the President concerning the action it has taken and the moneys it has disbursed. It shall make such further reports on the cause of and means of eliminating discrimination and such recommendations for further legislation as may appear desirable.

(f) Principal and other offices

The principal office of the Commission shall be in or near the District of Columbia, but it may meet or exercise any or all its powers at any other place. The Commission may establish such regional or State offices as it deems necessary to accomplish the purpose of this subchapter.

(g) Powers of Commission

The Commission shall have power—

(1) to cooperate with and, with their consent, utilize regional, State, local, and other agencies, both public and private, and individuals;

(2) to pay to witnesses whose depositions are taken or who are summoned before the Commission or any of its agents the same witness and mileage fees as are paid to witnesses in the courts of the United States;

(3) to furnish to persons subject to this subchapter such technical assistance as they may request to further their compliance with this subchapter or an order issued thereunder;

(4) upon the request of (i) any employer, whose employees or some of them, or (ii) any labor organization, whose members or some of them, refuse or threaten to refuse to cooperate in effectuating the provisions of this subchapter, to assist in such effectuation by conciliation or such other remedial action as is provided by this subchapter;

(5) to make such technical studies as are appropriate to effectuate the purposes and policies of this subchapter and to make the results of such studies available to the public;

(6) to intervene in a civil action brought under section 2000e–5 of this title by an aggrieved party against a respondent other than a government, governmental agency or political subdivision.

(h) Cooperation with other departments and agencies in performance of educational or promotional activities; outreach activities

(1) The Commission shall, in any of its educational or promotional activities, cooperate with other departments and agencies in the performance of such educational and promotional activities.

(2) In exercising its powers under this subchapter, the Commission shall carry out educational and outreach activities (including dissemination of information in languages other than English) targeted to—

(A) individuals who historically have been victims of employment discrimination and have not been equitably served by the Commission; and

(B) individuals on whose behalf the Commission has authority to enforce any other law prohibiting employment discrimination,


concerning rights and obligations under this subchapter or such law, as the case may be.

(i) Personnel subject to political activity restrictions

All officers, agents, attorneys, and employees of the Commission shall be subject to the provisions of section 7324 1 of title 5, notwithstanding any exemption contained in such section.

(j) Technical Assistance Training Institute

(1) The Commission shall establish a Technical Assistance Training Institute, through which the Commission shall provide technical assistance and training regarding the laws and regulations enforced by the Commission.

(2) An employer or other entity covered under this subchapter shall not be excused from compliance with the requirements of this subchapter because of any failure to receive technical assistance under this subsection.

(3) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992.

(k) EEOC Education, Technical Assistance, and Training Revolving Fund

(1) There is hereby established in the Treasury of the United States a revolving fund to be known as the “EEOC Education, Technical Assistance, and Training Revolving Fund” (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the “Fund”) and to pay the cost (including administrative and personnel expenses) of providing education, technical assistance, and training relating to laws administered by the Commission. Monies in the Fund shall be available without fiscal year limitation to the Commission for such purposes.

(2)(A) The Commission shall charge fees in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph to offset the costs of education, technical assistance, and training provided with monies in the Fund. Such fees for any education, technical assistance, or training—

(i) shall be imposed on a uniform basis on persons and entities receiving such education, assistance, or training,

(ii) shall not exceed the cost of providing such education, assistance, and training, and

(iii) with respect to each person or entity receiving such education, assistance, or training, shall bear a reasonable relationship to the cost of providing such education, assistance, or training to such person or entity.


(B) Fees received under subparagraph (A) shall be deposited in the Fund by the Commission.

(C) The Commission shall include in each report made under subsection (e) of this section information with respect to the operation of the Fund, including information, presented in the aggregate, relating to—

(i) the number of persons and entities to which the Commission provided education, technical assistance, or training with monies in the Fund, in the fiscal year for which such report is prepared,

(ii) the cost to the Commission to provide such education, technical assistance, or training to such persons and entities, and

(iii) the amount of any fees received by the Commission from such persons and entities for such education, technical assistance, or training.


(3) The Secretary of the Treasury shall invest the portion of the Fund not required to satisfy current expenditures from the Fund, as determined by the Commission, in obligations of the United States or obligations guaranteed as to principal by the United States. Investment proceeds shall be deposited in the Fund.

(4) There is hereby transferred to the Fund $1,000,000 from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation of the Commission.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §705, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 258; Pub. L. 92–261, §8(d)–(f), Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 109, 110; Pub. L. 93–608, §3(1), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1972; Pub. L. 95–251, §2(a)(11), Mar. 27, 1978, 92 Stat. 183; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §§110(a), 111, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1078; Pub. L. 102–411, §2, Oct. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 2102; Pub. L. 104–66, title II, §2031, Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 728.)

References in Text

The provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, referred to in subsec. (a), are classified to section 3301 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The General Schedule, referred to in subsec. (a), is set out under section 5332 of Title 5.

The effective date of this Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 92–261, which was approved Mar. 24, 1972.

Section 7324 of title 5, referred to in subsec. (i), which related to Executive agency employees or District of Columbia government employees influencing elections or taking part in political campaigns, was omitted in the general revision of subchapter III of chapter 73 of Title 5 by Pub. L. 103–94, §2(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1003, which enacted a new section 7324, relating to prohibition of political activities while on duty. See section 7323 of Title 5.

Codification

In subsec. (a), reference to section “5372” of title 5 substituted for reference to section “5362” on authority of Pub. L. 95–454, §801(a)(3)(A)(ii), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1221, which redesignated sections 5361 through 5365 of title 5 as sections 5371 through 5375.

In subsec. (i), “section 7324 of title 5” substituted for “section 9 of the Act of August 2, 1939, as amended (the Hatch Act)” on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Prior to the enactment of Title 5, section 9 of the Act of August 2, 1939, as amended, was classified to section 118i of Title 5.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (k)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–66 substituted “including information, presented in the aggregate, relating to” for “including” in introductory provisions, “the number of persons and entities” for “the identity of each person or entity” in cl. (i), “such persons and entities” for “such person or entity” in cl. (ii), and “fees” for “fee” and “such persons and entities” for “such person or entity” in cl. (iii).

1992—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 102–411 added subsec. (k).

1991—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–166, §111, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 102–166, §110(a), added subsec. (j).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–251 substituted “administrative law judges” for “hearing examiners” wherever appearing.

1975—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–608 struck out reporting requirement of names, salaries, and duties of all individuals in employ of Commission.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–261, §8(d), struck out provisions setting forth length of terms of original members of Commission and provisions authorizing Vice Chairman to act as Chairman in certain circumstances, inserted provisions relating to continuation in office of all members of Commission, and substituted provisions requiring appointment of officers, etc., in accordance with provisions of title 5, fixing compensation of such officers, etc., in accordance with provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, and requiring assignment, removal, and compensation of hearing examiners in accordance with specified sections, for provisions requiring appointment of officers, etc., in accordance with civil service laws, and fixing compensation of such officers, etc., in accordance with the Classification Act of 1949, as amended.

Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 92–261, §8(e), added subsec. (b), struck out subsec. (e) which amended sections 2204 and 2205 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, and redesignated existing subsecs. (b), (c), and (d) as (c), (d), and (e), respectively.

Subsec. (g)(6). Pub. L. 92–261, §8(f), substituted provisions which authorized Commission to intervene in a civil action brought under section 2000e–5 of this title where respondent is other than a government, governmental agency, or political subdivision for provisions which authorized Commission to refer matters to Attorney General with recommendations to intervene or institute civil actions.

Subsecs. (h) to (j). Pub. L. 92–261, §8(e)(2), (3), struck out subsec. (h) which provided for legal representation for Commission, and redesignated subsecs. (i) and (j) as (h) and (i), respectively.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 110(b) of Pub. L. 102–166 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1991].”

Amendment by section 111 of Pub. L. 102–166 effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as a note under section 1981 of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which a report required under subsec. (e) of this section is listed in item 20 on page 165), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, and section 1(a)(4) [div. A, §1402(1)] of Pub. L. 106–554, set out as notes under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978 Superseded by Civil Service Reform Act of 1978

Section 905 of Pub. L. 95–454, Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224, provided in part that any provision in Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978 [set out below] inconsistent with any provision of that Act [see Tables for classification] was superseded thereby.

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 1 OF 1978

43 F.R. 19807, 92 Stat. 3781

Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, February 23, 1978, pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 9 of Title 5 of the United States Code.

EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY

Section 1. Transfer of Equal Pay Enforcement Functions

All functions related to enforcing or administering Section 6(d) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, (29 U.S.C. 206(d)) are hereby transferred to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Such functions include, but shall not be limited to, the functions relating to equal pay administration and enforcement now vested in the Secretary of Labor, the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor, and the Civil Service Commission pursuant to Sections 4(d)(1); 4(f); 9; 11(a), (b), and (c); 16(b) and (c) and 17 of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, (29 U.S.C. 204(d)(1); 204(f); 209; 211(a), (b), and (c); 216(b) and (c) and 217) and Section 10(b)(1) of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947, as amended, (29 U.S.C. 259).

Sec. 2. Transfer of Age Discrimination Enforcement Functions

All functions vested in the Secretary of Labor or in the Civil Service Commission pursuant to Sections 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended, (29 U.S.C. 621, 623, 626, 627, 628, 629, 630, 631, 632, 633, and 633a) are hereby transferred to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. All functions related to age discrimination administration and enforcement pursuant to Sections 6 and 16 of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended, (29 U.S.C. 625 and 634) are hereby transferred to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

Sec. 3. Transfer of Equal Opportunity in Federal Employment Enforcement Functions

(a) All equal opportunity in Federal employment enforcement and related functions vested in the Civil Service Commission pursuant to Section 717(b) and (c) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, (42 U.S.C. 2000e–16(b) and (c)), are hereby transferred to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

(b) The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission may delegate to the Civil Service Commission or its successor the function of making a preliminary determination on the issue of discrimination whenever, as a part of a complaint or appeal before the Civil Service Commission on other grounds, a Federal employee alleges a violation of Section 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, (42 U.S.C. 2000e–16) provided that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission retains the function of making the final determination concerning such issue of discrimination.

Sec. 4. Transfer of Federal Employment of Handicapped Individuals Enforcement Functions

All Federal employment of handicapped individuals enforcement functions and related functions vested in the Civil Service Commission pursuant to Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791) are hereby transferred to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The function of being co-chairman of the Interagency Committee on Handicapped Employees now vested in the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission pursuant to Section 501 is hereby transferred to the Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

Sec. 5. Transfer of Public Sector 707 Functions

Any function of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concerning initiation of litigation with respect to State or local government, or political subdivisions under Section 707 of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, (42 U.S.C. 2000e–6) and all necessary functions related thereto, including investigation, findings, notice and an opportunity to resolve the matter without contested litigation, are hereby transferred to the Attorney General, to be exercised by him in accordance with procedures consistent with said Title VII. The Attorney General is authorized to delegate any function under Section 707 of said Title VII to any officer or employee of the Department of Justice.

Sec. 6. Transfer of Functions and Abolition of the Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council

All functions of the Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council, which was established pursuant to Section 715 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, (42 U.S.C. 2000e–14), are hereby transferred to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council is hereby abolished.

Sec. 7. Savings Provision

Administrative proceedings including administrative appeals from the acts of an executive agency (as defined by Section 105 of Title 5 of the United States Code) commenced or being conducted by or against such executive agency will not abate by reason of the taking effect of this Plan. Consistent with the provisions of this Plan, all such proceedings shall continue before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission otherwise unaffected by the transfers provided by this Plan. Consistent with the provisions of this Plan, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall accept appeals from those executive agency actions which occurred prior to the effective date of this Plan in accordance with law and regulations in effect on such effective date. Nothing herein shall affect any right of any person to judicial review under applicable law.

Sec. 8. Incidental Transfers

So much of the personnel, property, records and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred under this Plan, as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the appropriate department, agency, or component at such time or times as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide, except that no such unexpended balances transferred shall be used for purposes other than those for which the appropriation was originally made. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide for terminating the affairs of the Council abolished herein and for such further measures and dispositions as such Director deems necessary to effectuate the purposes of this Reorganization Plan.

Sec. 9. Effective Date

This Reorganization Plan shall become effective at such time or times, on or before October 1, 1979, as the President shall specify, but not sooner than the earliest time allowable under Section 906 of Title 5 of the United States Code.

[Pursuant to Ex. Ord. No. 12106, Dec. 26, 1978, 44 F.R. 1053, the transfer to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of certain functions of the Civil Service Commission relating to enforcement of equal employment opportunity programs as provided by sections 1 to 4 of this Reorg. Plan is effective Jan. 1, 1979.]

[Pursuant to Ex. Ord. No. 12144, June 22, 1979, 44 F.R. 37193, sections 1 and 2 of this Reorg. Plan are effective July 1, 1979, except for transfer of functions already effective Jan. 1, 1979, under Ex. Ord. No. 12106 above.]

[Pursuant to Ex. Ord. No. 12068, June 30, 1978, 43 F.R. 28971, section 5 of this Reorg. Plan is effective July 1, 1978.]

[Pursuant to Ex. Ord. No. 12067, June 30, 1978, 43 F.R. 28967, section 6 of this Reorg. Plan is effective July 1, 1978.]

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

I am submitting to you today Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978. This Plan makes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission the principal Federal agency in fair employment enforcement. Together with actions I shall take by Executive Order, it consolidates Federal equal employment opportunity activities and lays, for the first time, the foundation of a unified, coherent Federal structure to combat job discrimination in all its forms.

In 1940 President Roosevelt issued the first Executive Order forbidding discrimination in employment by the Federal government. Since that time the Congress, the courts and the Executive Branch—spurred by the courage and sacrifice of many people and organizations—have taken historic steps to extend equal employment opportunity protection throughout the private as well as public sector. But each new prohibition against discrimination unfortunately has brought with it a further dispersal of Federal equal employment opportunity responsibility. This fragmentation of authority among a number of Federal agencies has meant confusion and ineffective enforcement for employees, regulatory duplication and needless expense for employers.

Fair employment is too vital for haphazard enforcement. My Administration will aggressively enforce our civil rights laws. Although discrimination in any area has severe consequences, limiting economic opportunity affects access to education, housing and health care. I, therefore, ask you to join with me to reorganize administration of the civil rights laws and to begin that effort by reorganizing the enforcement of those laws which ensure an equal opportunity to a job.

Eighteen government units now exercise important responsibilities under statutes, Executive Orders and regulations relating to equal employment opportunity:

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, [section 2000e et seq. of this title] which bans employment discrimination based on race, national origin, sex or religion. The EEOC acts on individual complaints and also initiates private sector cases involving a “pattern or practice” of discrimination.

The Department of Labor and 11 other agencies enforce Executive Order 11246 [set out as a note under section 2000e of this title]. This prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, national origin, sex, or religion and requires affirmative action by government contractors. While the Department now coordinates enforcement of this “contract compliance” program, it is actually administered by eleven other departments and agencies. The Department also administers those statutes requiring contractors to take affirmative action to employ handicapped people, disabled veterans and Vietnam veterans.

In addition, the Labor Department enforces the Equal Pay Act of 1963 [section 206(d) of Title 29, Labor], which prohibits employers from paying unequal wages based on sex, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 [section 621 et seq. of Title 29], which forbids age discrimination against persons between the ages of 40 and 65.

The Department of Justice litigates Title VII cases involving public sector employers—State and local governments. The Department also represents the Federal government in lawsuits against Federal contractors and grant recipients who are in violation of Federal nondiscrimination prohibitions.

The Civil Service Commission (CSC) enforces Title VII and all other nondiscrimination and affirmative action requirements for Federal employment. The CSC rules on complaints filed by individuals and monitors affirmative action plans submitted annually by other Federal agencies.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council includes representatives from EEOC, Labor, Justice, CSC and the Civil Rights Commission. It is charged with coordinating the Federal equal employment opportunity enforcement effort and with eliminating overlap and inconsistent standards.

In addition to these major government units, other agencies enforce various equal employment opportunity requirements which apply to specific grant programs. The Department of the Treasury, for example, administers the anti-discrimination prohibitions applicable to recipients of revenue sharing funds.

These programs have had only limited success. Some of the past deficiencies include:

 —inconsistent standards of compliance;

 —duplicative, inconsistent paperwork requirements and investigative efforts;

 —conflicts within agencies between their program responsibilities and their responsibility to enforce the civil rights laws;

 —confusion on the part of workers about how and where to seek redress;

 —lack of accountability.

I am proposing today a series of steps to bring coherence to the equal employment enforcement effort. These steps, to be accomplished by the Reorganization Plan and Executive Orders, constitute an important step toward consolidation of equal employment opportunity enforcement. They will be implemented over the next two years, so that the agencies involved may continue their internal reform.

Its experience and broad scope make the EEOC suitable for the role of principal Federal agency in fair employment enforcement. Located in the Executive Branch and responsible to the President, the EEOC has developed considerable expertise in the field of employment discrimination since Congress created it by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [section 2000e–4 of this title]. The Commission has played a pioneer role in defining both employment discrimination and its appropriate remedies.

While it has had management problems in past administrations, the EEOC's new leadership is making substantial progress in correcting them. In the last seven months the Commission has redesigned its internal structures and adopted proven management techniques. Early experience with these procedures indicates a high degree of success in reducing and expediting new cases. At my direction, the Office of Management and Budget is actively assisting the EEOC to ensure that these reforms continue.

The Reorganization Plan I am submitting will accomplish the following:

On July 1, 1978, abolish the Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council (42 U.S.C. 2000e–14) and transfer its duties to the EEOC (no positions or funds shifted).

On October 1, 1978, shift enforcement of equal employment opportunity for Federal employees from the CSC to the EEOC (100 positions and $6.5 million shifted).

On July 1, 1979, shift responsibility for enforcing both the Equal Pay Act and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act from the Labor Department to the EEOC (198 positions and $5.3 million shifted for Equal Pay; 119 positions and $3.5 million for Age Discrimination).

Clarify the Attorney General's authority to initiate “pattern or practice” suits under Title VII in the public sector.

In addition, I will issue an Executive Order on October 1, 1978, to consolidate the contract compliance program—now the responsibility of Labor and eleven “compliance agencies”—into the Labor Department (1,517 positions and $33.1 million shifted).

These proposed transfers and consolidations reduce from fifteen to three the number of Federal agencies having important equal employment opportunity responsibilities under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Federal contract compliance provisions.

Each element of my Plan is important to the success of the entire proposal.

By abolishing the Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council and transferring its responsibilities to the EEOC, this plan places the Commission at the center of equal employment opportunity enforcement. With these new responsibilities, the EEOC can give coherence and direction to the government's efforts by developing strong uniform enforcement standards to apply throughout the government: standardized data collection procedures, joint training programs, programs to ensure the sharing of enforcement related data among agencies, and methods and priorities for complaint and compliance reviews. Such direction has been absent in the Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council.

It should be stressed, however, that affected agencies will be consulted before EEOC takes any action. When the Plan has been approved, I intend to issue an Executive Order which will provide for consultation, as well as a procedure for reviewing major disputed issues within the Executive Office of the President. The Attorney General's responsibility to advise the Executive Branch on legal issues will also be preserved.

Transfer of the Civil Service Commission's equal employment opportunity responsibilities to EEOC is needed to ensure that: (1) Federal employees have the same rights and remedies as those in the private sector and in State and local government; (2) Federal agencies meet the same standards as are required of other employers; and (3) potential conflicts between an agency's equal employment opportunity and personnel management functions are minimized. The Federal government must not fall below the standard of performance it expects of private employers.

The Civil Service Commission has in the past been lethargic in enforcing fair employment requirements within the Federal government. While the Chairman and other Commissioners I have appointed have already demonstrated their personal commitment to expanding equal employment opportunity, responsibility for ensuring fair employment for Federal employees should rest ultimately with the EEOC.

We must ensure that the transfer in no way undermines the important objectives of the comprehensive civil service reorganization which will be submitted to Congress in the near future. When the two plans take effect; I will direct the EEOC and the CSC to coordinate their procedures to prevent any duplication and overlap.

The Equal Pay Act now administered by the Labor Department, prohibits employers from paying unequal wages based on sex. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which is enforced by EEOC, contains a broader ban on sex discrimination. The transfer of Equal Pay responsibility from the Labor Department to the EEOC will minimize overlap and centralize enforcement of statutory prohibitions against sex discrimination in employment.

The transfer will strengthen efforts to combat sex discrimination. Such efforts would be enhanced still further by passage of the legislation pending before you, which I support, that would prohibit employers from excluding women disabled by pregnancy from participating in disability programs.

There is now virtually complete overlap in the employers, labor organizations, and employment agencies covered by Title VII and by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. This overlap is burdensome to employers and confusing to victims of discrimination. The proposed transfer of the age discrimination program from the Labor Department to the EEOC will eliminate the duplication.

The Plan I am proposing will not affect the Attorney General's responsibility to enforce Title VII against State or local governments or to represent the Federal government in suits against Federal contractors and grant recipients. In 1972, the Congress determined that the Attorney General should be involved in suits against State and local governments. This proposal reinforces that judgment and clarifies the Attorney General's authority to initiate litigation against State or local governments engaged in a “pattern or practice” of discrimination. This in no way diminishes the EEOC's existing authority to investigate complaints filed against State or local governments and, where appropriate, to refer them to the Attorney General. The Justice Department and the EEOC will cooperate so that the Department sues on valid referrals, as well as on its own “pattern or practice” cases.

A critical element of my proposals will be accomplished by Executive Order rather than by the Reorganization Plan. This involves consolidation in the Labor Department of the responsibility to ensure that Federal contractors comply with Executive Order 11246. Consolidation will achieve the following: promote consistent standards, procedures, and reporting requirements; remove contractors from the jurisdiction of multiple agencies; prevent an agency's equal employment objectives from being outweighed by its procurement and construction objectives; and produce more effective law enforcement through unification of planning, training and sanctions. By 1981, after I have had an opportunity to review the manner in which both the EEOC and the Labor Department are exercising their new responsibilities, I will determine whether further action is appropriate.

Finally, the responsibility for enforcing grant-related equal employment provisions will remain with the agencies administering the grant programs. With the EEOC acting as coordinator of Federal equal employment programs, we will be able to bring overlap and duplication to a minimum. We will be able, for example, to see that a university's employment practices are not subject to duplicative investigations under both Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 [section 1681 et seq. of Title 20, Education] and the contract compliance program. Because of the similarities between the Executive Order program and those statutes requiring Federal contractors to take affirmative action to employ handicapped individuals and disabled and Vietnam veterans, I have determined that enforcement of these statues should remain in the Labor Department.

Each of the changes set forth in the Reorganization Plan accompanying this message is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in Section 901(a) of Title 5 of the United States Code. I have taken care to determine that all functions abolished by the Plan are done only under the statutory authority provided by Section 903(b) of Title 5 of the United States Code.

I do not anticipate that the reorganizations contained in this Plan will result in any significant change in expenditures. They will result in a more efficient and manageable enforcement program.

The Plan I am submitting is moderate and measured. It gives the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission—an agency dedicated solely to this purpose—the primary Federal responsibility in the area of job discrimination, but it is designed to give this agency sufficient time to absorb its new responsibilities. This reorganization will produce consistent agency standards, as well as increased accountability. Combined with the intense commitment of those charged with these responsibilities, it will become possible for us to accelerate this nation's progress in ensuring equal job opportunities for all our people.

Jimmy Carter.      

The White House, February 23, 1978.

Ex. Ord. No. 12106. Transfer of Certain Equal Employment Enforcement Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 12106, Dec. 26, 1978, 44 F.R. 1053, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by Section 9 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978 (43 FR 19807) [set out above], in order to effectuate the transfer of certain functions relating to the enforcement of equal employment programs, and in order to make certain technical amendments in other Orders to reflect this transfer of functions, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–101. The transfer to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of certain functions of the Civil Service Commission, relating to enforcement of equal employment opportunity programs as provided by Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978 (43 FR 19807) shall be effective on January 1, 1979.

1–102. Executive Order No. 11478, as amended [set out as a note under section 2000e of this title], is further amended by deleting the preamble, by substituting “national origin, handicap, or age” for “or national origin” in the first sentence of Section 1, and revising Sections 3, 4, and 5 to read as follows:

Sec. 3. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall be responsible for directing and furthering the implementation of the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal opportunity in Federal employment for all employees or applicants for employment (except with regard to aliens employed outside the limits of the United States) and to prohibit discrimination in employment because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, handicap, or age.

Sec. 4. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, after consultation with all affected departments and agencies, shall issue such rules, regulations, orders, and instructions and request such information from the affected departments and agencies as it deems necessary and appropriate to carry out this Order.

Sec. 5. All departments and agencies shall cooperate with and assist the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in the performance of its functions under this Order and shall furnish the Commission such reports and information as it may request. The head of each department or agency shall comply with rules, regulations, orders and instructions issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission pursuant to Section 4 of this Order.”

1–103. Executive Order No. 11022, as amended [set out as a note under section 3001 of this title], is further amended by revising Section 1(b) to read as follows:

“(b) The Council shall be composed of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], who shall be Chairman, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the Secretary of Transportation, the Administrator of Veterans Affairs, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, the Director of the Community Services Administration, and the Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.”

1–104. Executive Order No. 11480 of September 9, 1969 [set out as a note under section 791 of Title 29, Labor], is amended by deleting “and the Chairman of the United States Civil Service Commission” in Section 4 and substituting therefor “Director of the Office of Personnel Management, and the Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission”.

1–105. Executive Order No. 11830 of January 9, 1975 [set out as a note under section 791 of Title 29, Labor], is amended by deleting Section 2 and revising Section 1 to read as follows:

“In accord with Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791) and Section 4 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978 (43 FR 19808) the Interagency Committee on Handicapped Employees is enlarged and composed of the following, or their designees whose positions are Executive level IV or higher:

“(1) Secretary of Defense.

“(2) Secretary of Labor.

“(3) Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], Co-Chairman.

“(4) Director of the Office of Personnel Management.

“(5) Administrator of Veterans Affairs.

“(6) Administrator of General Services.

“(7) Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission.

“(8) Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Co-Chairman.

“(9) Such other members as the President may designate.”

1–106. This Order shall be effective on January 1, 1979.

Jimmy Carter.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12144. Transfer of Certain Equal Pay and Age Discrimination in Employment Enforcement Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 12144, June 22, 1979, 44 F.R. 37193, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including Section 9 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978 (43 FR 19807) [set out above], in order to effectuate the transfer of certain functions relating to the enforcement of equal pay and age discrimination in employment programs from the Department of Labor to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–101. Sections 1 and 2 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978 (43 FR 19807) [set out as a note above] shall become effective on July 1, 1979, with the exception of the transfer of functions from the Civil Service Commission, already effective January 1, 1979 (Executive Order No. 12106 [set out above]).

1–102. The records, property, personnel and positions, and unexpended balances of appropriations or funds, available or to be made available, which relate to the functions transferred as provided in this Order are hereby transferred from the Department of Labor to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

1–103. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall make such determinations, issue such Orders, and take all actions necessary or appropriate to effectuate the transfers provided in this Order, including the transfer of funds, records, property, and personnel.

1–104. This Order shall be effective July 1, 1979.

Jimmy Carter.      

1 See References in Text note below.

§2000e–5. Enforcement provisions

(a) Power of Commission to prevent unlawful employment practices

The Commission is empowered, as hereinafter provided, to prevent any person from engaging in any unlawful employment practice as set forth in section 2000e–2 or 2000e–3 of this title.

(b) Charges by persons aggrieved or member of Commission of unlawful employment practices by employers, etc.; filing; allegations; notice to respondent; contents of notice; investigation by Commission; contents of charges; prohibition on disclosure of charges; determination of reasonable cause; conference, conciliation, and persuasion for elimination of unlawful practices; prohibition on disclosure of informal endeavors to end unlawful practices; use of evidence in subsequent proceedings; penalties for disclosure of information; time for determination of reasonable cause

Whenever a charge is filed by or on behalf of a person claiming to be aggrieved, or by a member of the Commission, alleging that an employer, employment agency, labor organization, or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs, has engaged in an unlawful employment practice, the Commission shall serve a notice of the charge (including the date, place and circumstances of the alleged unlawful employment practice) on such employer, employment agency, labor organization, or joint labor-management committee (hereinafter referred to as the “respondent”) within ten days, and shall make an investigation thereof. Charges shall be in writing under oath or affirmation and shall contain such information and be in such form as the Commission requires. Charges shall not be made public by the Commission. If the Commission determines after such investigation that there is not reasonable cause to believe that the charge is true, it shall dismiss the charge and promptly notify the person claiming to be aggrieved and the respondent of its action. In determining whether reasonable cause exists, the Commission shall accord substantial weight to final findings and orders made by State or local authorities in proceedings commenced under State or local law pursuant to the requirements of subsections (c) and (d) of this section. If the Commission determines after such investigation that there is reasonable cause to believe that the charge is true, the Commission shall endeavor to eliminate any such alleged unlawful employment practice by informal methods of conference, conciliation, and persuasion. Nothing said or done during and as a part of such informal endeavors may be made public by the Commission, its officers or employees, or used as evidence in a subsequent proceeding without the written consent of the persons concerned. Any person who makes public information in violation of this subsection shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both. The Commission shall make its determination on reasonable cause as promptly as possible and, so far as practicable, not later than one hundred and twenty days from the filing of the charge or, where applicable under subsection (c) or (d) of this section, from the date upon which the Commission is authorized to take action with respect to the charge.

(c) State or local enforcement proceedings; notification of State or local authority; time for filing charges with Commission; commencement of proceedings

In the case of an alleged unlawful employment practice occurring in a State, or political subdivision of a State, which has a State or local law prohibiting the unlawful employment practice alleged and establishing or authorizing a State or local authority to grant or seek relief from such practice or to institute criminal proceedings with respect thereto upon receiving notice thereof, no charge may be filed under subsection (a) 1 of this section by the person aggrieved before the expiration of sixty days after proceedings have been commenced under the State or local law, unless such proceedings have been earlier terminated, provided that such sixty-day period shall be extended to one hundred and twenty days during the first year after the effective date of such State or local law. If any requirement for the commencement of such proceedings is imposed by a State or local authority other than a requirement of the filing of a written and signed statement of the facts upon which the proceeding is based, the proceeding shall be deemed to have been commenced for the purposes of this subsection at the time such statement is sent by registered mail to the appropriate State or local authority.

(d) State or local enforcement proceedings; notification of State or local authority; time for action on charges by Commission

In the case of any charge filed by a member of the Commission alleging an unlawful employment practice occurring in a State or political subdivision of a State which has a State or local law prohibiting the practice alleged and establishing or authorizing a State or local authority to grant or seek relief from such practice or to institute criminal proceedings with respect thereto upon receiving notice thereof, the Commission shall, before taking any action with respect to such charge, notify the appropriate State or local officials and, upon request, afford them a reasonable time, but not less than sixty days (provided that such sixty-day period shall be extended to one hundred and twenty days during the first year after the effective day of such State or local law), unless a shorter period is requested, to act under such State or local law to remedy the practice alleged.

(e) Time for filing charges; time for service of notice of charge on respondent; filing of charge by Commission with State or local agency; seniority system

(1) A charge under this section shall be filed within one hundred and eighty days after the alleged unlawful employment practice occurred and notice of the charge (including the date, place and circumstances of the alleged unlawful employment practice) shall be served upon the person against whom such charge is made within ten days thereafter, except that in a case of an unlawful employment practice with respect to which the person aggrieved has initially instituted proceedings with a State or local agency with authority to grant or seek relief from such practice or to institute criminal proceedings with respect thereto upon receiving notice thereof, such charge shall be filed by or on behalf of the person aggrieved within three hundred days after the alleged unlawful employment practice occurred, or within thirty days after receiving notice that the State or local agency has terminated the proceedings under the State or local law, whichever is earlier, and a copy of such charge shall be filed by the Commission with the State or local agency.

(2) For purposes of this section, an unlawful employment practice occurs, with respect to a seniority system that has been adopted for an intentionally discriminatory purpose in violation of this subchapter (whether or not that discriminatory purpose is apparent on the face of the seniority provision), when the seniority system is adopted, when an individual becomes subject to the seniority system, or when a person aggrieved is injured by the application of the seniority system or provision of the system.

(f) Civil action by Commission, Attorney General, or person aggrieved; preconditions; procedure; appointment of attorney; payment of fees, costs, or security; intervention; stay of Federal proceedings; action for appropriate temporary or preliminary relief pending final disposition of charge; jurisdiction and venue of United States courts; designation of judge to hear and determine case; assignment of case for hearing; expedition of case; appointment of master

(1) If within thirty days after a charge is filed with the Commission or within thirty days after expiration of any period of reference under subsection (c) or (d) of this section, the Commission has been unable to secure from the respondent a conciliation agreement acceptable to the Commission, the Commission may bring a civil action against any respondent not a government, governmental agency, or political subdivision named in the charge. In the case of a respondent which is a government, governmental agency, or political subdivision, if the Commission has been unable to secure from the respondent a conciliation agreement acceptable to the Commission, the Commission shall take no further action and shall refer the case to the Attorney General who may bring a civil action against such respondent in the appropriate United States district court. The person or persons aggrieved shall have the right to intervene in a civil action brought by the Commission or the Attorney General in a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political subdivision. If a charge filed with the Commission pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, is dismissed by the Commission, or if within one hundred and eighty days from the filing of such charge or the expiration of any period of reference under subsection (c) or (d) of this section, whichever is later, the Commission has not filed a civil action under this section or the Attorney General has not filed a civil action in a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political subdivision, or the Commission has not entered into a conciliation agreement to which the person aggrieved is a party, the Commission, or the Attorney General in a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political subdivision, shall so notify the person aggrieved and within ninety days after the giving of such notice a civil action may be brought against the respondent named in the charge (A) by the person claiming to be aggrieved or (B) if such charge was filed by a member of the Commission, by any person whom the charge alleges was aggrieved by the alleged unlawful employment practice. Upon application by the complainant and in such circumstances as the court may deem just, the court may appoint an attorney for such complainant and may authorize the commencement of the action without the payment of fees, costs, or security. Upon timely application, the court may, in its discretion, permit the Commission, or the Attorney General in a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political subdivision, to intervene in such civil action upon certification that the case is of general public importance. Upon request, the court may, in its discretion, stay further proceedings for not more than sixty days pending the termination of State or local proceedings described in subsection (c) or (d) of this section or further efforts of the Commission to obtain voluntary compliance.

(2) Whenever a charge is filed with the Commission and the Commission concludes on the basis of a preliminary investigation that prompt judicial action is necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act, the Commission, or the Attorney General in a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political subdivision, may bring an action for appropriate temporary or preliminary relief pending final disposition of such charge. Any temporary restraining order or other order granting preliminary or temporary relief shall be issued in accordance with rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. It shall be the duty of a court having jurisdiction over proceedings under this section to assign cases for hearing at the earliest practicable date and to cause such cases to be in every way expedited.

(3) Each United States district court and each United States court of a place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States shall have jurisdiction of actions brought under this subchapter. Such an action may be brought in any judicial district in the State in which the unlawful employment practice is alleged to have been committed, in the judicial district in which the employment records relevant to such practice are maintained and administered, or in the judicial district in which the aggrieved person would have worked but for the alleged unlawful employment practice, but if the respondent is not found within any such district, such an action may be brought within the judicial district in which the respondent has his principal office. For purposes of sections 1404 and 1406 of title 28, the judicial district in which the respondent has his principal office shall in all cases be considered a district in which the action might have been brought.

(4) It shall be the duty of the chief judge of the district (or in his absence, the acting chief judge) in which the case is pending immediately to designate a judge in such district to hear and determine the case. In the event that no judge in the district is available to hear and determine the case, the chief judge of the district, or the acting chief judge, as the case may be, shall certify this fact to the chief judge of the circuit (or in his absence, the acting chief judge) who shall then designate a district or circuit judge of the circuit to hear and determine the case.

(5) It shall be the duty of the judge designated pursuant to this subsection to assign the case for hearing at the earliest practicable date and to cause the case to be in every way expedited. If such judge has not scheduled the case for trial within one hundred and twenty days after issue has been joined, that judge may appoint a master pursuant to rule 53 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(g) Injunctions; appropriate affirmative action; equitable relief; accrual of back pay; reduction of back pay; limitations on judicial orders

(1) If the court finds that the respondent has intentionally engaged in or is intentionally engaging in an unlawful employment practice charged in the complaint, the court may enjoin the respondent from engaging in such unlawful employment practice, and order such affirmative action as may be appropriate, which may include, but is not limited to, reinstatement or hiring of employees, with or without back pay (payable by the employer, employment agency, or labor organization, as the case may be, responsible for the unlawful employment practice), or any other equitable relief as the court deems appropriate. Back pay liability shall not accrue from a date more than two years prior to the filing of a charge with the Commission. Interim earnings or amounts earnable with reasonable diligence by the person or persons discriminated against shall operate to reduce the back pay otherwise allowable.

(2)(A) No order of the court shall require the admission or reinstatement of an individual as a member of a union, or the hiring, reinstatement, or promotion of an individual as an employee, or the payment to him of any back pay, if such individual was refused admission, suspended, or expelled, or was refused employment or advancement or was suspended or discharged for any reason other than discrimination on account of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin or in violation of section 2000e–3(a) of this title.

(B) On a claim in which an individual proves a violation under section 2000e–2(m) of this title and a respondent demonstrates that the respondent would have taken the same action in the absence of the impermissible motivating factor, the court—

(i) may grant declaratory relief, injunctive relief (except as provided in clause (ii)), and attorney's fees and costs demonstrated to be directly attributable only to the pursuit of a claim under section 2000e–2(m) of this title; and

(ii) shall not award damages or issue an order requiring any admission, reinstatement, hiring, promotion, or payment, described in subparagraph (A).

(h) Provisions of chapter 6 of title 29 not applicable to civil actions for prevention of unlawful practices

The provisions of chapter 6 of title 29 shall not apply with respect to civil actions brought under this section.

(i) Proceedings by Commission to compel compliance with judicial orders

In any case in which an employer, employment agency, or labor organization fails to comply with an order of a court issued in a civil action brought under this section, the Commission may commence proceedings to compel compliance with such order.

(j) Appeals

Any civil action brought under this section and any proceedings brought under subsection (i) of this section shall be subject to appeal as provided in sections 1291 and 1292, title 28.

(k) Attorney's fee; liability of Commission and United States for costs

In any action or proceeding under this subchapter the court, in its discretion, may allow the prevailing party, other than the Commission or the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee (including expert fees) as part of the costs, and the Commission and the United States shall be liable for costs the same as a private person.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §706, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 92–261, §4, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 104; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §§107(b), 112, 113(b), Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1075, 1078, 1079.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), means Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which is classified principally to subchapters II to IX of this chapter (§2000a et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

Rules 65 and 53 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), (5), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Chapter 6 (§101 et seq.) of title 29, referred to in subsec. (h), is a reference to act Mar. 23, 1932, ch. 90, 47 Stat. 70, as amended, popularly known as the Norris-LaGuardia Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–166, §112, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–166, §107(b), designated existing provisions as pars. (1) and (2)(A) and added par. (2)(B).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 102–166, §113(b), inserted “(including expert fees)” after “attorney's fee”.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–261, §4(a), added subsec. (a). Former subsec. (a) redesignated (b) and amended generally.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–261, §4(a), redesignated former subsec. (a) as (b), modified the procedure for the filing and consideration of charges by the Commission, subjected to coverage unlawful employment practices of joint labor-management committees controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs, required the Commission to accord substantial weight to final findings and orders made by State or local authorities in proceedings commenced under State or local law in its determination of reasonable cause, and inserted provision setting forth the time period, after charges have been filed, allowed to the Commission to determine reasonable cause. Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 92–261, §4(a), redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively. Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–261, §4(a), redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e), extended from ninety to one hundred and eighty days after the occurrence of the alleged unlawful employment practice the time for filing charges under this section and from two hundred and ten to three hundred days the time for filing such charges where the person aggrieved initially instituted proceedings with a State or local agency, and inserted requirement that notice of the charge be served on the respondent within ten days after filing. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f)(1).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 92–261, §4(a), redesignated former subsec. (e) as par. (1), substituted provisions setting forth the procedure for civil actions where the Commission was unable to secure from the respondents a conciliation agreement to prevent further unlawful employment practices for provisions setting forth the procedure for civil actions where the Commission was unable to obtain voluntary compliance with this subchapter and inserted provisions setting forth the procedure for civil action where the respondent is a government, governmental agency, or political subdivision and the Commission could not secure a conciliation agreement, added par. (2), redesignated former subsec. (f) as par. (3), substituted “aggrieved person” for “plaintiff”, and added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 92–261, §4(a), inserted provisions which authorized the court to order affirmative action not limited solely to the enumerated affirmative acts and such other equitable relief as deemed appropriate, and provisions which set forth the accrual date for back pay.

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 92–261, §4(b)(1), (2), substituted “this section” for “subsection (e) of this section”.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–166 effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as a note under section 1981 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Section 14 of Pub. L. 92–261 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act to section 706 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [this section] shall be applicable with respect to charges pending with the Commission on the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 24, 1972] and all charges filed thereafter.”

1 So in original. Probably should be subsection “(b)”.

§2000e–6. Civil actions by the Attorney General

(a) Complaint

Whenever the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that any person or group of persons is engaged in a pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of any of the rights secured by this subchapter, and that the pattern or practice is of such a nature and is intended to deny the full exercise of the rights herein described, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in the appropriate district court of the United States by filing with it a complaint (1) signed by him (or in his absence the Acting Attorney General), (2) setting forth facts pertaining to such pattern or practice, and (3) requesting such relief, including an application for a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order or other order against the person or persons responsible for such pattern or practice, as he deems necessary to insure the full enjoyment of the rights herein described.

(b) Jurisdiction; three-judge district court for cases of general public importance: hearing, determination, expedition of action, review by Supreme Court; single judge district court: hearing, determination, expedition of action

The district courts of the United States shall have and shall exercise jurisdiction of proceedings instituted pursuant to this section, and in any such proceeding the Attorney General may file with the clerk of such court a request that a court of three judges be convened to hear and determine the case. Such request by the Attorney General shall be accompanied by a certificate that, in his opinion, the case is of general public importance. A copy of the certificate and request for a three-judge court shall be immediately furnished by such clerk to the chief judge of the circuit (or in his absence, the presiding circuit judge of the circuit) in which the case is pending. Upon receipt of such request it shall be the duty of the chief judge of the circuit or the presiding circuit judge, as the case may be, to designate immediately three judges in such circuit, of whom at least one shall be a circuit judge and another of whom shall be a district judge of the court in which the proceeding was instituted, to hear and determine such case, and it shall be the duty of the judges so designated to assign the case for hearing at the earliest practicable date, to participate in the hearing and determination thereof, and to cause the case to be in every way expedited. An appeal from the final judgment of such court will lie to the Supreme Court.

In the event the Attorney General fails to file such a request in any such proceeding, it shall be the duty of the chief judge of the district (or in his absence, the acting chief judge) in which the case is pending immediately to designate a judge in such district to hear and determine the case. In the event that no judge in the district is available to hear and determine the case, the chief judge of the district, or the acting chief judge, as the case may be, shall certify this fact to the chief judge of the circuit (or in his absence, the acting chief judge) who shall then designate a district or circuit judge of the circuit to hear and determine the case.

It shall be the duty of the judge designated pursuant to this section to assign the case for hearing at the earliest practicable date and to cause the case to be in every way expedited.

(c) Transfer of functions, etc., to Commission; effective date; prerequisite to transfer; execution of functions by Commission

Effective two years after March 24, 1972, the functions of the Attorney General under this section shall be transferred to the Commission, together with such personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with such functions unless the President submits, and neither House of Congress vetoes, a reorganization plan pursuant to chapter 9 of title 5, inconsistent with the provisions of this subsection. The Commission shall carry out such functions in accordance with subsections (d) and (e) of this section.

(d) Transfer of functions, etc., not to affect suits commenced pursuant to this section prior to date of transfer

Upon the transfer of functions provided for in subsection (c) of this section, in all suits commenced pursuant to this section prior to the date of such transfer, proceedings shall continue without abatement, all court orders and decrees shall remain in effect, and the Commission shall be substituted as a party for the United States of America, the Attorney General, or the Acting Attorney General, as appropriate.

(e) Investigation and action by Commission pursuant to filing of charge of discrimination; procedure

Subsequent to March 24, 1972, the Commission shall have authority to investigate and act on a charge of a pattern or practice of discrimination, whether filed by or on behalf of a person claiming to be aggrieved or by a member of the Commission. All such actions shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures set forth in section 2000e–5 of this title.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §707, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 261; Pub. L. 92–261, §5, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 107.)

Amendments

1972—Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 92–261 added subsecs. (c) to (e).

Transfer of Functions

Any function of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concerning initiation of litigation with respect to State or local government, or political subdivisions under this section, and all necessary functions related thereto, including investigation, findings, notice and an opportunity to resolve the matter without contested litigation, were transferred to the Attorney General, to be exercised by him in accordance with procedures consistent with this subchapter, and with the Attorney General authorized to delegate any function under this section to any officer or employee of the Department of Justice, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1978, §5, 43 F.R. 19807, 92 Stat. 3781, set out as a note under section 2000e–4 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 12068. Transfer of Certain Functions to Attorney General

Ex. Ord. No. 12068, June 30, 1978, 43 F.R. 28971, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including Section 9 of Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1978 (43 FR 19807) [set out as a note under section 2000e–4 of this title], in order to clarify the Attorney General's authority to initiate public sector litigation under Section 707 of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000e–6), it is ordered as follows:

1–1. Section 707 Functions of the Attorney General

1–101. Section 5 of Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1978 (43 FR 19807) [set out as a note under section 2000e–4 of this title] shall become effective on July 1, 1978.

1–102. The functions transferred to the Attorney General by Section 5 of Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1978 [set out as a note under section 2000e–4 of this title] shall, consistent with Section 707 of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended [this section], be performed in accordance with Department of Justice procedures heretofore followed under Section 707.

Jimmy Carter.      

§2000e–7. Effect on State laws

Nothing in this subchapter shall be deemed to exempt or relieve any person from any liability, duty, penalty, or punishment provided by any present or future law of any State or political subdivision of a State, other than any such law which purports to require or permit the doing of any act which would be an unlawful employment practice under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §708, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 262.)

§2000e–8. Investigations

(a) Examination and copying of evidence related to unlawful employment practices

In connection with any investigation of a charge filed under section 2000e–5 of this title, the Commission or its designated representative shall at all reasonable times have access to, for the purposes of examination, and the right to copy any evidence of any person being investigated or proceeded against that relates to unlawful employment practices covered by this subchapter and is relevant to the charge under investigation.

(b) Cooperation with State and local agencies administering State fair employment practices laws; participation in and contribution to research and other projects; utilization of services; payment in advance or reimbursement; agreements and rescission of agreements

The Commission may cooperate with State and local agencies charged with the administration of State fair employment practices laws and, with the consent of such agencies, may, for the purpose of carrying out its functions and duties under this subchapter and within the limitation of funds appropriated specifically for such purpose, engage in and contribute to the cost of research and other projects of mutual interest undertaken by such agencies, and utilize the services of such agencies and their employees, and, notwithstanding any other provision of law, pay by advance or reimbursement such agencies and their employees for services rendered to assist the Commission in carrying out this subchapter. In furtherance of such cooperative efforts, the Commission may enter into written agreements with such State or local agencies and such agreements may include provisions under which the Commission shall refrain from processing a charge in any cases or class of cases specified in such agreements or under which the Commission shall relieve any person or class of persons in such State or locality from requirements imposed under this section. The Commission shall rescind any such agreement whenever it determines that the agreement no longer serves the interest of effective enforcement of this subchapter.

(c) Execution, retention, and preservation of records; reports to Commission; training program records; appropriate relief from regulation or order for undue hardship; procedure for exemption; judicial action to compel compliance

Every employer, employment agency, and labor organization subject to this subchapter shall (1) make and keep such records relevant to the determinations of whether unlawful employment practices have been or are being committed, (2) preserve such records for such periods, and (3) make such reports therefrom as the Commission shall prescribe by regulation or order, after public hearing, as reasonable, necessary, or appropriate for the enforcement of this subchapter or the regulations or orders thereunder. The Commission shall, by regulation, require each employer, labor organization, and joint labor-management committee subject to this subchapter which controls an apprenticeship or other training program to maintain such records as are reasonably necessary to carry out the purposes of this subchapter, including, but not limited to, a list of applicants who wish to participate in such program, including the chronological order in which applications were received, and to furnish to the Commission upon request, a detailed description of the manner in which persons are selected to participate in the apprenticeship or other training program. Any employer, employment agency, labor organization, or joint labor-management committee which believes that the application to it of any regulation or order issued under this section would result in undue hardship may apply to the Commission for an exemption from the application of such regulation or order, and, if such application for an exemption is denied, bring a civil action in the United States district court for the district where such records are kept. If the Commission or the court, as the case may be, finds that the application of the regulation or order to the employer, employment agency, or labor organization in question would impose an undue hardship, the Commission or the court, as the case may be, may grant appropriate relief. If any person required to comply with the provisions of this subsection fails or refuses to do so, the United States district court for the district in which such person is found, resides, or transacts business, shall, upon application of the Commission, or the Attorney General in a case involving a government, governmental agency or political subdivision, have jurisdiction to issue to such person an order requiring him to comply.

(d) Consultation and coordination between Commission and interested State and Federal agencies in prescribing recordkeeping and reporting requirements; availability of information furnished pursuant to recordkeeping and reporting requirements; conditions on availability

In prescribing requirements pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, the Commission shall consult with other interested State and Federal agencies and shall endeavor to coordinate its requirements with those adopted by such agencies. The Commission shall furnish upon request and without cost to any State or local agency charged with the administration of a fair employment practice law information obtained pursuant to subsection (c) of this section from any employer, employment agency, labor organization, or joint labor-management committee subject to the jurisdiction of such agency. Such information shall be furnished on condition that it not be made public by the recipient agency prior to the institution of a proceeding under State or local law involving such information. If this condition is violated by a recipient agency, the Commission may decline to honor subsequent requests pursuant to this subsection.

(e) Prohibited disclosures; penalties

It shall be unlawful for any officer or employee of the Commission to make public in any manner whatever any information obtained by the Commission pursuant to its authority under this section prior to the institution of any proceeding under this subchapter involving such information. Any officer or employee of the Commission who shall make public in any manner whatever any information in violation of this subsection shall be guilty, of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned not more than one year.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §709, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 262; Pub. L. 92–261, §6, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 107.)

Amendments

1972—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–261 inserted provisions authorizing the Commission to engage in and contribute to the cost of research and other projects undertaken by State and local agencies and provisions authorizing the Commission to make advance payments to State and local agencies and their employees for services rendered to the Commission, and struck out provisions relating to agreements between the Commission and State and local agencies prohibiting private civil actions under section 2000e–5 of this title in specified cases.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–261 struck out “Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section,” before “every employer, employment agency, and labor organization subject to this subchapter shall (1)”, required the party seeking an exemption to bring an action in the district court only after the Commission denied the application for the exemption, and inserted provision which authorized the Commission, or the Attorney General in a case involving a government, etc., to apply for a court order compelling compliance with the recordkeeping and reporting obligations set out in this subsection.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–261 substituted provisions requiring consultation and coordination between Federal and State agencies in prescribing recordkeeping and reporting requirements pursuant to subsec. (c) of this section, and authorizing the Commission to furnish information obtained pursuant to subsec. (c) of this section to interested State and local agencies, for provisions exempting from recordkeeping and reporting requirements employers, etc., required to keep records and make reports under State or local fair employment practice laws, except for the maintenance of notations by such employers, etc., which reflect the differences in coverage or enforcement between State or local laws and the provisions of this subchapter, and dispensing with recordkeeping and reporting requirements where the employer reports under some Executive Order prescribing fair employment practices for Government contractors or subcontractors.

§2000e–9. Conduct of hearings and investigations pursuant to section 161 of title 29

For the purpose of all hearings and investigations conducted by the Commission or its duly authorized agents or agencies, section 161 of title 29 shall apply.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §710, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 264; Pub. L. 92–261, §7, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 109.)

Amendments

1972—Pub. L. 92–261 substituted provisions making applicable section 161 of title 29 to all hearings and investigations conducted by the Commission or its authorized agents or agencies, for provisions enumerating the investigatory powers of the Commission and the procedure for their enforcement.

§2000e–10. Posting of notices; penalties

(a) Every employer, employment agency, and labor organization, as the case may be, shall post and keep posted in conspicuous places upon its premises where notices to employees, applicants for employment, and members are customarily posted a notice to be prepared or approved by the Commission setting forth excerpts, from or, summaries of, the pertinent provisions of this subchapter and information pertinent to the filing of a complaint.

(b) A willful violation of this section shall be punishable by a fine of not more than $100 for each separate offense.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §711, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 265.)

§2000e–11. Veterans’ special rights or preference

Nothing contained in this subchapter shall be construed to repeal or modify any Federal, State, territorial, or local law creating special rights or preference for veterans.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §712, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 265.)

§2000e–12. Regulations; conformity of regulations with administrative procedure provisions; reliance on interpretations and instructions of Commission

(a) The Commission shall have authority from time to time to issue, amend, or rescind suitable procedural regulations to carry out the provisions of this subchapter. Regulations issued under this section shall be in conformity with the standards and limitations of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.

(b) In any action or proceeding based on any alleged unlawful employment practice, no person shall be subject to any liability or punishment for or on account of (1) the commission by such person of an unlawful employment practice if he pleads and proves that the act or omission complained of was in good faith, in conformity with, and in reliance on any written interpretation or opinion of the Commission, or (2) the failure of such person to publish and file any information required by any provision of this subchapter if he pleads and proves that he failed to publish and file such information in good faith, in conformity with the instructions of the Commission issued under this subchapter regarding the filing of such information. Such a defense, if established, shall be a bar to the action or proceeding, notwithstanding that (A) after such act or omission, such interpretation or opinion is modified or rescinded or is determined by judicial authority to be invalid or of no legal effect, or (B) after publishing or filing the description and annual reports, such publication or filing is determined by judicial authority not to be in conformity with the requirements of this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §713, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 265.)

Codification

In subsec. (a), “subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5” substituted for “the Administrative Procedure Act” on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Religious Liberty

Pub. L. 103–317, title VI, §610, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1774, provided that:

“(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—

“(1) the liberties protected by our Constitution include religious liberty protected by the first amendment;

“(2) citizens of the United States profess the beliefs of almost every conceivable religion;

“(3) Congress has historically protected religious expression even from governmental action not intended to be hostile to religion;

“(4) the Supreme Court has written that ‘the free exercise of religion means, first and foremost, the right to believe and profess whatever religious doctrine one desires’;

“(5) the Supreme Court has firmly settled that under our Constitution the public expression of ideas may not be prohibited merely because the content of the ideas is offensive to some;

“(6) Congress enacted the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 [42 U.S.C. 2000bb et seq.] to restate and make clear again our intent and position that religious liberty is and should forever be granted protection from unwarranted and unjustified government intrusions and burdens;

“(7) the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has written proposed guidelines to title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.], published in the Federal Register on October 1, 1993, that expand the definition of religious harassment beyond established legal standards set forth by the Supreme Court, and that may result in the infringement of religious liberty;

“(8) such guidelines do not appropriately resolve issues related to religious liberty and religious expression in the workplace;

“(9) properly drawn guidelines for the determination of religious harassment should provide appropriate guidance to employers and employees and assist in the continued preservation of religious liberty as guaranteed by the first amendment;

“(10) the Commission states in its proposed guidelines that it retains wholly separate guidelines for the determination of sexual harassment because the Commission believes that sexual harassment raises issues about human interaction that are to some extent unique; and

“(11) the subject of religious harassment also raises issues about human interaction that are to some extent unique in comparison to other harassment.

“(b) Category of Religious Harassment in Proposed Guidelines.—For purposes of issuing final regulations under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.] in connection with the proposed guidelines published by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission on October 1, 1993 (58 Fed. Reg. 51266), the Chairperson of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall ensure that—

“(1) the category of religion shall be withdrawn from the proposed guidelines at this time;

“(2) any new guidelines for the determination of religious harassment shall be drafted so as to make explicitly clear that symbols or expressions of religious belief consistent with the first amendment and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 [42 U.S.C. 2000bb et seq.] are not to be restricted and do not constitute proof of harassment;

“(3) the Commission shall hold public hearings on such new proposed guidelines; and

“(4) the Commission shall receive additional public comment before issuing similar new regulations.”

§2000e–13. Application to personnel of Commission of sections 111 and 1114 of title 18; punishment for violation of section 1114 of title 18

The provisions of sections 111 and 1114, title 18, shall apply to officers, agents, and employees of the Commission in the performance of their official duties. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 111 and 1114 of title 18, whoever in violation of the provisions of section 1114 of such title kills a person while engaged in or on account of the performance of his official functions under this Act shall be punished by imprisonment for any term of years or for life.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §714, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 265; Pub. L. 92–261, §8(g), Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 110.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, means Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which is classified principally to subchapters II to IX of this chapter (§2000a et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1972—Pub. L. 92–261 inserted provisions which made section 1114 of title 18 applicable to officers, etc., of the Commission and set forth punishment for violation of such section 1114.

§2000e–14. Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council; establishment; composition; duties; report to President and Congress

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall have the responsibility for developing and implementing agreements, policies and practices designed to maximize effort, promote efficiency, and eliminate conflict, competition, duplication and inconsistency among the operations, functions and jurisdictions of the various departments, agencies and branches of the Federal Government responsible for the implementation and enforcement of equal employment opportunity legislation, orders, and policies. On or before October 1 of each year, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall transmit to the President and to the Congress a report of its activities, together with such recommendations for legislative or administrative changes as it concludes are desirable to further promote the purposes of this section.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §715, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 265; Pub. L. 92–261, §10, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 111; Pub. L. 94–273, §3(24), Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 377; 1978 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §6, eff. July 1, 1978, 43 F.R. 19807, 92 Stat. 3781.)

Codification

The first sentence of this section, which read “There shall be established an Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council (hereinafter referred to in this section as the Council) composed of the Secretary of Labor, the Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Attorney General, the Chairman of the United States Civil Service Commission, and the Chairman of the United States Civil Rights Commission, or their respective delegates” was omitted pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1978, §6, 43 F.R. 19807, 92 Stat. 3781, set out as a note under section 2000e–4 of this title, which abolished the Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council, effective July 1, 1978, as provided by section 1–101 of Ex. Ord. No. 12067, June 30, 1978, 43 F.R. 28967, set out as a note under section 2000e of this title. See Transfer of Functions note below.

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–273 substituted “October” for “July”.

1972—Pub. L. 92–261 substituted provisions which established the Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council and set forth the composition, powers, and duties of the Council for provisions which directed the Secretary of Labor to make a report to the Congress not later than June 30, 1965 concerning discrimination in employment because of age.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in this section relating to transmittal of a report and recommendations to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and item 19 on page 165 of House Document No. 103–7.

Transfer of Functions

“Equal Employment Opportunity Commission” substituted in text for “Council”, meaning Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council, pursuant to Reorg. Plan. No. 1 of 1978, §6, 43 F.R. 19807, 92 Stat. 3781, set out as a note under section 2000e–4 of this title, which abolished Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council and transferred its functions to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, effective July 1, 1978, as provided by section 1–101 of Ex. Ord. No. 12067, June 30, 1978, 43 F.R. 28967, set out as a note under section 2000e of this title.

Submission of Specific Legislative Recommendations to Congress by January 1, 1967, to Implement Report on Age Discrimination

Pub. L. 89–601, title VI, §606, Sept. 23, 1966, 80 Stat. 845, directed the Secretary of Labor to submit to the Congress not later than Jan. 1, 1967 his specific legislative recommendations for implementing the conclusions and recommendations contained in his report on age discrimination in employment made pursuant to provisions of this section prior to its amendment in 1972.

§2000e–15. Presidential conferences; acquaintance of leadership with provisions for employment rights and obligations; plans for fair administration; membership

The President shall, as soon as feasible after July 2, 1964, convene one or more conferences for the purpose of enabling the leaders of groups whose members will be affected by this subchapter to become familiar with the rights afforded and obligations imposed by its provisions, and for the purpose of making plans which will result in the fair and effective administration of this subchapter when all of its provisions become effective. The President shall invite the participation in such conference or conferences of (1) the members of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, (2) the members of the Commission on Civil Rights, (3) representatives of State and local agencies engaged in furthering equal employment opportunity, (4) representatives of private agencies engaged in furthering equal employment opportunity, and (5) representatives of employers, labor organizations, and employment agencies who will be subject to this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §716(c), July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 266.)

Executive Order No. 11197

Ex. Ord. No. 11197, eff. Feb. 5, 1965, 30 F.R. 1721, which established the President's Council on Equal Opportunity, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11247, eff. Sept. 24, 1965, 30 F.R. 12327, formerly set out as a note under section 2000d–1 of this title.

§2000e–16. Employment by Federal Government

(a) Discriminatory practices prohibited; employees or applicants for employment subject to coverage

All personnel actions affecting employees or applicants for employment (except with regard to aliens employed outside the limits of the United States) in military departments as defined in section 102 of title 5, in executive agencies as defined in section 105 of title 5 (including employees and applicants for employment who are paid from nonappropriated funds), in the United States Postal Service and the Postal Regulatory Commission, in those units of the Government of the District of Columbia having positions in the competitive service, and in those units of the judicial branch of the Federal Government having positions in the competitive service, in the Smithsonian Institution, and in the Government Printing Office, the Government Accountability Office, and the Library of Congress shall be made free from any discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

(b) Equal Employment Opportunity Commission; enforcement powers; issuance of rules, regulations, etc.; annual review and approval of national and regional equal employment opportunity plans; review and evaluation of equal employment opportunity programs and publication of progress reports; consultations with interested parties; compliance with rules, regulations, etc.; contents of national and regional equal employment opportunity plans; authority of Librarian of Congress

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall have authority to enforce the provisions of subsection (a) of this section through appropriate remedies, including reinstatement or hiring of employees with or without back pay, as will effectuate the policies of this section, and shall issue such rules, regulations, orders and instructions as it deems necessary and appropriate to carry out its responsibilities under this section. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall—

(1) be responsible for the annual review and approval of a national and regional equal employment opportunity plan which each department and agency and each appropriate unit referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall submit in order to maintain an affirmative program of equal employment opportunity for all such employees and applicants for employment;

(2) be responsible for the review and evaluation of the operation of all agency equal employment opportunity programs, periodically obtaining and publishing (on at least a semiannual basis) progress reports from each such department, agency, or unit; and

(3) consult with and solicit the recommendations of interested individuals, groups, and organizations relating to equal employment opportunity.


The head of each such department, agency, or unit shall comply with such rules, regulations, orders, and instructions which shall include a provision that an employee or applicant for employment shall be notified of any final action taken on any complaint of discrimination filed by him thereunder. The plan submitted by each department, agency, and unit shall include, but not be limited to—

(1) provision for the establishment of training and education programs designed to provide a maximum opportunity for employees to advance so as to perform at their highest potential; and

(2) a description of the qualifications in terms of training and experience relating to equal employment opportunity for the principal and operating officials of each such department, agency, or unit responsible for carrying out the equal employment opportunity program and of the allocation of personnel and resources proposed by such department, agency, or unit to carry out its equal employment opportunity program.


With respect to employment in the Library of Congress, authorities granted in this subsection to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall be exercised by the Librarian of Congress.

(c) Civil action by employee or applicant for employment for redress of grievances; time for bringing of action; head of department, agency, or unit as defendant

Within 90 days of receipt of notice of final action taken by a department, agency, or unit referred to in subsection (a) of this section, or by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission upon an appeal from a decision or order of such department, agency, or unit on a complaint of discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin, brought pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, Executive Order 11478 or any succeeding Executive orders, or after one hundred and eighty days from the filing of the initial charge with the department, agency, or unit or with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission on appeal from a decision or order of such department, agency, or unit until such time as final action may be taken by a department, agency, or unit, an employee or applicant for employment, if aggrieved by the final disposition of his complaint, or by the failure to take final action on his complaint, may file a civil action as provided in section 2000e–5 of this title, in which civil action the head of the department, agency, or unit, as appropriate, shall be the defendant.

(d) Section 2000e–5(f) through (k) of this title applicable to civil actions

The provisions of section 2000e–5(f) through (k) of this title, as applicable, shall govern civil actions brought hereunder, and the same interest to compensate for delay in payment shall be available as in cases involving nonpublic parties..1

(e) Government agency or official not relieved of responsibility to assure nondiscrimination in employment or equal employment opportunity

Nothing contained in this Act shall relieve any Government agency or official of its or his primary responsibility to assure nondiscrimination in employment as required by the Constitution and statutes or of its or his responsibilities under Executive Order 11478 relating to equal employment opportunity in the Federal Government.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §717, as added Pub. L. 92–261, §11, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 111; amended 1978 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §3, eff. Jan. 1, 1979, 43 F.R. 19807, 92 Stat. 3781; Pub. L. 96–191, §8(g), Feb. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 34; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §114, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1079; Pub. L. 104–1, title II, §201(c)(1), Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 8; Pub. L. 105–220, title III, §341(a), Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1092; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §604(f), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3242.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (e), means Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which is classified principally to subchapters II to IX of this chapter (§2000a et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

Executive Order 11478, as amended, referred to in subsecs. (c) and (e), is set out as a note under section 2000e of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–435 substituted “Postal Regulatory Commission” for “Postal Rate Commission”.

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–220 inserted “in the Smithsonian Institution,” before “and in the Government Printing Office,”.

1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–1 substituted “units of the judicial branch” for “units of the legislative and judicial branches” and inserted “Government Printing Office, the General Accounting Office, and the” before “Library of Congress”.

1991—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–166, §114(1), substituted “90 days” for “thirty days”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–166, §114(2), inserted before the period “, and the same interest to compensate for delay in payment shall be available as in cases involving nonpublic parties.”

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–191 struck out “(other than the General Accounting Office)” after “in executive agencies”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–220 effective Aug. 7, 1998, and applicable to and may be raised in any administrative or judicial claim or action brought before Aug. 7, 1998, but pending on such date, and any administrative or judicial claim or action brought after such date regardless of whether the claim or action arose prior to such date, if the claim or action was brought within the applicable statute of limitations, see section 341(d) of Pub. L. 105–220, set out as a note under section 633a of Title 29, Labor.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–1 effective 1 year after Jan. 23, 1995, see section 1311(d) of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–166 effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as a note under section 1981 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–191 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 10(a) of Pub. L. 96–191.

Transfer of Functions

“Equal Employment Opportunity Commission” substituted for “Civil Service Commission” in subsecs. (b) and (c) pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1978, §3, 43 F.R. 19807, 92 Stat. 3781, set out as a note under section 2000e–4 of this title, which transferred all equal opportunity in Federal employment enforcement and related functions vested in Civil Service Commission by subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, with certain authority delegable to Director of Office of Personnel Management, effective Jan. 1, 1979, as provided by section 1–101 of Ex. Ord. No. 12106, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1053, set out as a note under section 2000e–4 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 13145. To Prohibit Discrimination in Federal Employment Based on Genetic Information

Ex. Ord. No. 13145, Feb. 8, 2000, 65 F.R. 6877, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. Nondiscrimination in Federal Employment on the Basis of Protected Genetic Information.

1–101. It is the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal employment opportunity in Federal employment for all qualified persons and to prohibit discrimination against employees based on protected genetic information, or information about a request for or the receipt of genetic services. This policy of equal opportunity applies to every aspect of Federal employment.

1–102. The head of each Executive department and agency shall extend the policy set forth in section 1101 to all its employees covered by section 717 of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000e–16).

1–103. Executive departments and agencies shall carry out the provisions of this order to the extent permitted by law and consistent with their statutory and regulatory authorities, and their enforcement mechanisms. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall be responsible for coordinating the policy of the Government of the United States to prohibit discrimination against employees in Federal employment based on protected genetic information, or information about a request for or the receipt of genetic services.

Sec. 2. Requirements Applicable to Employing Departments and Agencies.

1–201. Definitions.

(a) The term “employee” shall include an employee, applicant for employment, or former employee covered by section 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000e–16).

(b) Genetic monitoring means the periodic examination of employees to evaluate acquired modifications to their genetic material, such as chromosomal damage or evidence of increased occurrence of mutations, that may have developed in the course of employment due to exposure to toxic substances in the workplace, in order to identify, evaluate, respond to the effects of, or control adverse environmental exposures in the workplace.

(c) Genetic services means health services, including genetic tests, provided to obtain, assess, or interpret genetic information for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, or for genetic education or counseling.

(d) Genetic test means the analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, proteins, or certain metabolites in order to detect disease-related genotypes or mutations. Tests for metabolites fall within the definition of “genetic tests” when an excess or deficiency of the metabolites indicates the presence of a mutation or mutations. The conducting of metabolic tests by a department or agency that are not intended to reveal the presence of a mutation shall not be considered a violation of this order, regardless of the results of the tests. Test results revealing a mutation shall, however, be subject to the provisions of this order.

(e) Protected genetic information.

(1) In general, protected genetic information means:

(A) information about an individual's genetic tests;

(B) information about the genetic tests of an individual's family members; or

(C) information about the occurrence of a disease, or medical condition or disorder in family members of the individual.

(2) Information about an individual's current health status (including information about sex, age, physical exams, and chemical, blood, or urine analyses) is not protected genetic information unless it is described in subparagraph (1).

1–202. In discharging their responsibilities under this order, departments and agencies shall implement the following nondiscrimination requirements.

(a) The employing department or agency shall not discharge, fail or refuse to hire, or otherwise discriminate against any employee with respect to the compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment of that employee, because of protected genetic information with respect to the employee, or because of information about a request for or the receipt of genetic services by such employee.

(b) The employing department or agency shall not limit, segregate, or classify employees in any way that would deprive or tend to deprive any employee of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect that employee's status, because of protected genetic information with respect to the employee or because of information about a request for or the receipt of genetic services by such employee.

(c) The employing department or agency shall not request, require, collect, or purchase protected genetic information with respect to an employee, or information about a request for or the receipt of genetic services by such employee.

(d) The employing department or agency shall not disclose protected genetic information with respect to an employee, or information about a request for or the receipt of genetic services by an employee except:

(1) to the employee who is the subject of the information, at his or her request;

(2) to an occupational or other health researcher, if the research conducted complies with the regulations and protections provided for under part 46 of title 45, of the Code of Federal Regulations;

(3) if required by a Federal statute, congressional subpoena, or an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction, except that if the subpoena or court order was secured without the knowledge of the individual to whom the information refers, the employer shall provide the individual with adequate notice to challenge the subpoena or court order, unless the subpoena or court order also imposes confidentiality requirements; or

(4) to executive branch officials investigating compliance with this order, if the information is relevant to the investigation.

(e) The employing department or agency shall not maintain protected genetic information or information about a request for or the receipt of genetic services in general personnel files; such information shall be treated as confidential medical records and kept separate from personnel files.

Sec. 3. Exceptions.

1–301. The following exceptions shall apply to the nondiscrimination requirements set forth in section 1202.

(a) The employing department or agency may request or require information defined in section 1–201(e)(1)(C) with respect to an applicant who has been given a conditional offer of employment or to an employee if:

(1) the request or requirement is consistent with the Rehabilitation Act [of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.] and other applicable law;

(2) the information obtained is to be used exclusively to assess whether further medical evaluation is needed to diagnose a current disease, or medical condition or disorder, or under the terms of section 1–301(b) of this order;

(3) such current disease, or medical condition or disorder could prevent the applicant or employee from performing the essential functions of the position held or desired; and

(4) the information defined in section 1–201(e)(1)(C) of this order will not be disclosed to persons other than medical personnel involved in or responsible for assessing whether further medical evaluation is needed to diagnose a current disease, or medical condition or disorder, or under the terms of section 1–301(b) of this order.

(b) The employing department or agency may request, collect, or purchase protected genetic information with respect to an employee, or any information about a request for or receipt of genetic services by such employee if:

(1) the employee uses genetic or health care services provided by the employer (other than use pursuant to section 1–301(a) of this order);

(2) the employee who uses the genetic or health care services has provided prior knowing, voluntary, and written authorization to the employer to collect protected genetic information;

(3) the person who performs the genetic or health care services does not disclose protected genetic information to anyone except to the employee who uses the services for treatment of the individual; pursuant to section 1–202(d) of this order; for program evaluation or assessment; for compiling and analyzing information in anticipation of or for use in a civil or criminal legal proceeding; or, for payment or accounting purposes, to verify that the service was performed (but in such cases the genetic information itself cannot be disclosed);

(4) such information is not used in violation of sections 1–202(a) or 1–202(b) of this order.

(c) The employing department or agency may collect protected genetic information with respect to an employee if the requirements of part 46 of title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations are met.

(d) Genetic monitoring of biological effects of toxic substances in the workplace shall be permitted if all of the following conditions are met:

(1) the employee has provided prior, knowing, voluntary, and written authorization;

(2) the employee is notified when the results of the monitoring are available and, at that time, the employer makes any protected genetic information that may have been acquired during the monitoring available to the employee and informs the employee how to obtain such information;

(3) the monitoring conforms to any genetic monitoring regulations that may be promulgated by the Secretary of Labor; and

(4) the employer, excluding any licensed health care professionals that are involved in the genetic monitoring program, receives results of the monitoring only in aggregate terms that do not disclose the identity of specific employees.

(e) This order does not limit the statutory authority of a Federal department or agency to:

(1) promulgate or enforce workplace safety and health laws and regulations;

(2) conduct or sponsor occupational or other health research that is conducted in compliance with regulations at part 46 of title 45, of the Code of Federal Regulations; or

(3) collect protected genetic information as a part of a lawful program, the primary purpose of which is to carry out identification purposes.

Sec. 4. Miscellaneous.

1–401. The head of each department and agency shall take appropriate action to disseminate this policy and, to this end, shall designate a high level official responsible for carrying out its responsibilities under this order.

1–402. Nothing in this order shall be construed to:

(a) limit the rights or protections of an individual under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701, et seq.), the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), or other applicable law; or

(b) require specific benefits for an employee or dependent under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program or similar program.

1–403. This order clarifies and makes uniform Administration policy and does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its officers or employees, or any other person.

William J. Clinton.      

1 So in original.

§2000e–16a. Short title; purpose; definition

(a) Short title

Sections 2000e–16a to 2000e–16c of this title may be cited as the “Government Employee Rights Act of 1991”.

(b) Purpose

The purpose of sections 2000e–16a to 2000e–16c of this title is to provide procedures to protect the rights of certain government employees, with respect to their public employment, to be free of discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability.

(c) “Violation” defined

For purposes of sections 2000e–16a to 2000e–16c of this title, the term “violation” means a practice that violates section 2000e–16b(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 102–166, title III, §301, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 103–283, title III, §312(f)(1), July 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 1446; Pub. L. 104–1, title V, §504(a)(1), Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 40.)

References in Text

Sections 2000e–16a to 2000e–16c of this title, referred to in text, was in the original “this title”, meaning title III of Pub. L. 102–166, which is classified generally to sections 2000e–16a to 2000e–16c of this title. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1201 of Title 2, The Congress.

Amendments

1995—Pub. L. 104–1 amended section generally, substituting “rights of certain government employees” for “right of Senate and other government employees” in subsec. (b) and striking out definitions of “Senate employee” and “head of employing office” in subsec. (c).

1994—Subsec. (c)(1)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 103–283, which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by striking out subpar. (B), redesignating subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C), respectively, and striking out “or (B)” after “described in subparagraph (A)” in subpars. (B) and (C), was executed by making the amendment to subsec. (c)(1) to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “any employee of the Architect of the Capitol who is assigned to the Senate Restaurants or to the Superintendent of the Senate Office Buildings;”.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 1981 of this title.

§2000e–16b. Discriminatory practices prohibited

(a) Practices

All personnel actions affecting the Presidential appointees described in section 1219 1 of title 2 or the State employees described in section 2000e–16c of this title shall be made free from any discrimination based on—

(1) race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, within the meaning of section 2000e–16 of this title;

(2) age, within the meaning of section 633a of title 29; or

(3) disability, within the meaning of section 791 of title 29 and sections 12112 to 12114 of this title.

(b) Remedies

The remedies referred to in sections 1219(a)(1) 1 of title 2 and 2000e–16c(a) of this title—

(1) may include, in the case of a determination that a violation of subsection (a)(1) or (a)(3) of this section has occurred, such remedies as would be appropriate if awarded under sections 2000e–5(g), 2000e–5(k), and 2000e–16(d) of this title, and such compensatory damages as would be appropriate if awarded under section 1981 or sections 1981a(a) and 1981a(b)(2) of this title;

(2) may include, in the case of a determination that a violation of subsection (a)(2) of this section has occurred, such remedies as would be appropriate if awarded under section 633a(c) of title 29; and

(3) may not include punitive damages.

(Pub. L. 102–166, title III, §302, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 104–1, title V, §504(a)(1), Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 40.)

References in Text

Section 1219 of title 2, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–331, §5(a), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4072.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1202 of Title 2, The Congress.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 104–1 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “All personnel actions affecting employees of the Senate shall be made free from any discrimination based on—

“(1) race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, within the meaning of section 2000e–16 of this title;

“(2) age, within the meaning of section 633a of title 29; or

“(3) handicap or disability, within the meaning of section 791 of title 29 and sections 12112 to 12114 of this title.”

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 1981 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2000e–16c. Coverage of previously exempt State employees

(a) Application

The rights, protections, and remedies provided pursuant to section 2000e–16b of this title shall apply with respect to employment of any individual chosen or appointed, by a person elected to public office in any State or political subdivision of any State by the qualified voters thereof—

(1) to be a member of the elected official's personal staff;

(2) to serve the elected official on the policymaking level; or

(3) to serve the elected official as an immediate advisor with respect to the exercise of the constitutional or legal powers of the office.

(b) Enforcement by administrative action

(1) In general

Any individual referred to in subsection (a) of this section may file a complaint alleging a violation, not later than 180 days after the occurrence of the alleged violation, with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which, in accordance with the principles and procedures set forth in sections 554 through 557 of title 5, shall determine whether a violation has occurred and shall set forth its determination in a final order. If the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission determines that a violation has occurred, the final order shall also provide for appropriate relief.

(2) Referral to State and local authorities

(A) Application

Section 2000e–5(d) of this title shall apply with respect to any proceeding under this section.

(B) Definition

For purposes of the application described in subparagraph (A), the term “any charge filed by a member of the Commission alleging an unlawful employment practice” means a complaint filed under this section.

(c) Judicial review

Any party aggrieved by a final order under subsection (b) of this section may obtain a review of such order under chapter 158 of title 28. For the purpose of this review, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall be an “agency” as that term is used in chapter 158 of title 28.

(d) Standard of review

To the extent necessary to decision and when presented, the reviewing court shall decide all relevant questions of law and interpret constitutional and statutory provisions. The court shall set aside a final order under subsection (b) of this section if it is determined that the order was—

(1) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not consistent with law;

(2) not made consistent with required procedures; or

(3) unsupported by substantial evidence.


In making the foregoing determinations, the court shall review the whole record or those parts of it cited by a party, and due account shall be taken of the rule of prejudicial error.

(e) Attorney's fees

If the individual referred to in subsection (a) of this section is the prevailing party in a proceeding under this subsection,1 attorney's fees may be allowed by the court in accordance with the standards prescribed under section 2000e–5(k) of this title.

(Pub. L. 102–166, title III, §304, formerly §321, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1097; renumbered §304 and amended Pub. L. 104–1, title V, §504(a)(3), (4), Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 41.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1220 of Title 2, The Congress.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 304 of Pub. L. 102–166 was classified to section 1204 of Title 2, The Congress, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–1.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–1, §504(a)(4), struck out “and 1207(h) of title 2” before “shall apply” in introductory provisions.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 1981 of this title.

1 So in original.

§2000e–17. Procedure for denial, withholding, termination, or suspension of Government contract subsequent to acceptance by Government of affirmative action plan of employer; time of acceptance of plan

No Government contract, or portion thereof, with any employer, shall be denied, withheld, terminated, or suspended, by any agency or officer of the United States under any equal employment opportunity law or order, where such employer has an affirmative action plan which has previously been accepted by the Government for the same facility within the past twelve months without first according such employer full hearing and adjudication under the provisions of section 554 of title 5, and the following pertinent sections: Provided, That if such employer has deviated substantially from such previously agreed to affirmative action plan, this section shall not apply: Provided further, That for the purposes of this section an affirmative action plan shall be deemed to have been accepted by the Government at the time the appropriate compliance agency has accepted such plan unless within forty-five days thereafter the Office of Federal Contract Compliance has disapproved such plan.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, §718, as added Pub. L. 92–261, §13, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 113.)

SUBCHAPTER VII—REGISTRATION AND VOTING STATISTICS

§2000f. Survey for compilation of registration and voting statistics; geographical areas; scope; application of census provisions; voluntary disclosure; advising of right not to furnish information

The Secretary of Commerce shall promptly conduct a survey to compile registration and voting statistics in such geographic areas as may be recommended by the Commission on Civil Rights. Such a survey and compilation shall, to the extent recommended by the Commission on Civil Rights, only include a count of persons of voting age by race, color, and national origin, and determination of the extent to which such persons are registered to vote, and have voted in any statewide primary or general election in which the Members of the United States House of Representatives are nominated or elected, since January 1, 1960. Such information shall also be collected and compiled in connection with the Nineteenth Decennial Census, and at such other times as the Congress may prescribe. The provisions of section 9 and chapter 7 of title 13 shall apply to any survey, collection, or compilation of registration and voting statistics carried out under this subchapter: Provided, however, That no person shall be compelled to disclose his race, color, national origin, or questioned about his political party affiliation, how he voted, or the reasons therefore, nor shall any penalty be imposed for his failure or refusal to make such disclosure. Every person interrogated orally, by written survey or questionnaire or by any other means with respect to such information shall be fully advised with respect to his right to fail or refuse to furnish such information.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title VIII, §801, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 266.)

SUBCHAPTER VIII—COMMUNITY RELATIONS SERVICE

§2000g. Establishment of Service; Director of Service: appointment, term; personnel

There is hereby established in and as a part of the Department of Commerce a Community Relations Service (hereinafter referred to as the “Service”), which shall be headed by a Director who shall be appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate for a term of four years. The Director is authorized to appoint, subject to the civil service laws and regulations, such other personnel as may be necessary to enable the Service to carry out its functions and duties, and to fix their compensation in accordance with chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title X, §1001(a), July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 267; Pub. L. 95–624, §5, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3462.)

References in Text

The civil service laws, referred to in text, are set forth in Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. See, particularly, section 3301 et seq. of Title 5.

Codification

References to “chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5” and “section 3109 of title 5” substituted in text for “the Classification Act of 1949, as amended” and “section 15 of the Act of August 2, 1946 (60 Stat. 810; 5 U.S.C. 55a)”, respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1978—Pub. L. 95–624 struck out provision authorizing the Director to procure the services of experts and consultants at rates for individuals not in excess of $75 per diem.

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 1 OF 1966

Eff. Apr. 22, 1966, 31 F.R. 6187, 80 Stat. 1607

Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, February 10, 1966, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 203, as amended [see 5 U.S.C. 901 et seq.].

COMMUNITY RELATIONS SERVICE

Section 1. Transfer of Service

Subject to the provisions of this reorganization plan, the Community Relations Service now existing in the Department of Commerce under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. No. 88–352, July 2, 1964) [see Short Title note under 42 U.S.C. 2000a], including the office of Director there of, is hereby transferred to the Department of Justice.

Sec. 2. Transfer of Functions

All functions of the Community Relations Service, and all functions of the Director of the Community Relations Service, together with all functions of the Secretary of Commerce and the Department of Commerce with respect thereto, are hereby transferred to the Attorney General.

Sec. 3. Incidental Transfers

(a) Section 1 hereof shall be deemed to transfer to the Department of Justice the personnel, property, and records of the Community Relations Service and the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds available or to be made available to the Service.

(b) Such further measures and dispositions as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall deem to be necessary in order to effectuate the transfers referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall be carried out in such manner as he shall direct and by such agencies as he shall designate.

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

I transmit herewith Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1966, prepared in accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, as amended, and providing for reorganization of community relations functions in the area of civil rights.

After a careful review of the activities of the Federal agencies involved in the field of civil rights, it became clear that the elimination of duplication and undesirable overlap required the consolidation of certain functions.

As a first step, I issued Executive Orders 11246 and 11247 on September 24, 1965.

Executive Order 11246 simplified and clarified executive branch assignments of responsibility for enforcing civil rights policies and placed responsibility for the Government-wide coordination of the enforcement activities of executive agencies in the Secretary of Labor with respect to employment by Federal contractors and in the Civil Service Commission with respect to employment by Federal agencies.

Executive Order 11247 directed the Attorney General to assist Federal agencies in coordinating their enforcement activities with respect to title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination in federally assisted programs.

As a further step for strengthening the operation and coordination of our civil rights programs, I now recommend transfer of the functions of the Community Relations Service, established in the Department of Commerce under title X of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, to the Attorney General and transfer of the Service, including the Office of Director, to the Department of Justice.

The Community Relations Service was located in the Department of Commerce by the Congress on the assumption that a primary need would be the conciliation of disputes arising out of the public accommodations title of the act. That decision was appropriate on the basis of information available at that time. The need for conciliation in this area has not been as great as anticipated because of the voluntary progress that has been made by businessmen and business organizations.

To be effective, assistance to communities in the identification and conciliation of disputes should be closely and tightly coordinated. Thus, in any particular situation that arises within a community, representatives of Federal agencies whose programs are involved should coordinate their efforts through a single agency. In recent years, the Civil Rights Division of the Justice Department has played such a coordinating role in many situations, and has done so with great effectiveness.

Placing the Community Relations Service within the Justice Department will enhance the ability of the Justice Department to mediate and conciliate and will insure that the Federal Government speaks with a unified voice in those tense situations where the good offices of the Federal Government are called upon to assist.

In this, as in other areas of Federal operations, we will move more surely and rapidly toward our objectives if we improve Federal organization and the arrangements for interagency coordination. The accompanying reorganization plan has that purpose.

The present distribution of Federal civil rights responsibilities clearly indicates that the activities of the Community Relations Service will fit most appropriately in the Department of Justice.

The Department of Justice has primary program responsibilities in civil rights matters and deep and broad experience in the conciliation of civil rights disputes. Congress has assigned it a major role in the implementation of the Civil Rights Act of 1957, 1960, and 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Department of Justice performs related functions under other acts of Congress. Most of these responsibilities require not only litigation, but also efforts at persuasion, negotiation, and explanation, especially with local governments and law enforcement authorities. In addition, under the Law Enforcement Assistance Act the Department will be supporting local programs in the area of police-community relations.

The test of the effectiveness of an enforcement agency is not how many legal actions are initiated and won, but whether there is compliance with the law. Thus, every such agency necessarily engages in extensive efforts to obtain compliance with the law and the avoidance of disputes. In fact, title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 requires each agency concerned to attempt to obtain compliance by voluntary means before taking further action.

Among the heads of Cabinet departments the President looks principally to the Attorney General for advice and judgment on civil rights issues. The latter is expected to be familiar with civil rights problems in all parts of the Nation and to make recommendations for executive and legislative action.

The Attorney General already has responsibility with respect to a major portion of Federal conciliation efforts in the civil rights field. Under Executive Order 11247, he coordinates the Government-wide enforcement of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which relies heavily on the achievement of compliance through persuasion and negotiation.

In the light of these facts, the accompanying reorganization plan would transfer the functions of the Community Relations Service and of its Director to the Attorney General. In so providing, the plan, of course, follows the established pattern of Federal organization by vesting all the transferred powers in the head of the department. The Attorney General will provide for the organization of the Community Relations Service as a separate unit within the Department of Justice.

The functions transferred by the reorganization plan would be carried out with full regard for the provisions of section 1003 of title X of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 relating to (1) cooperation with appropriate State or local, public, or private agencies; (2) the confidentiality of information acquired with the understanding that it would be so held; and (3) the limitation on the performance of investigative or prosecutive functions by personnel of the Service.

This transfer will benefit both the Department of Justice and the Community Relations Service in the fulfillment of their existing functions.

The Attorney General will benefit in his role as the President's adviser by obtaining an opportunity to anticipate and meet problems before the need for legal action arises.

The Community Relations Service, brought into closer relationship with the Attorney General and the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice, will gain by becoming a primary resource in a coordinated effort in civil rights under the leadership of the Attorney General. The Community Relations Service will have direct access to the extensive information, experience, staff, and facilities within the Department and in other Federal agencies.

Finally, the responsibility for coordinating major Government activities under the Civil Rights Act aimed at voluntary and peaceful resolution of discriminatory practices will be centered in one department. Thus, the reorganization will permit the most efficient and effective utilization of resources in this field. Together the Service and the Department will have a larger capacity for accomplishment than they do apart.

Although the reorganizations provided for in the reorganization plan will not of themselves result in immediate savings, the improvement achieved in administration will permit a fuller and more effective utilization of manpower and will in the future allow the performance of the affected functions at lower costs than would otherwise be possible.

After investigation I have found and hereby declare that each organization included in Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1966 is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in section 2(a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949, as amended.

I recommend that the Congress allow the reorganization plan to become effective.

Lyndon B. Johnson.      

The White House, February 10, 1966.

§2000g–1. Functions of Service

It shall be the function of the Service to provide assistance to communities and persons therein in resolving disputes, disagreements, or difficulties relating to discriminatory practices based on race, color, or national origin which impair the rights of persons in such communities under the Constitution or laws of the United States or which affect or may affect interstate commerce. The Service may offer its services in cases of such disputes, disagreements, or difficulties whenever, in its judgment, peaceful relations among the citizens of the community involved are threatened thereby, and it may offer its services either upon its own motion or upon the request of an appropriate State or local official or other interested person.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title X, §1002, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 267.)

§2000g–2. Cooperation with other agencies; conciliation assistance in confidence and without publicity; information as confidential; restriction on performance of investigative or prosecuting functions; violations and penalties

(a) The Service shall, whenever possible, in performing its functions, seek and utilize the cooperation of appropriate State or local, public, or private agencies.

(b) The activities of all officers and employees of the Service in providing conciliation assistance shall be conducted in confidence and without publicity, and the Service shall hold confidential any information acquired in the regular performance of its duties upon the understanding that it would be so held. No officer or employee of the Service shall engage in the performance of investigative or prosecuting functions of any department or agency in any litigation arising out of a dispute in which he acted on behalf of the Service. Any officer or other employee of the Service, who shall make public in any manner whatever any information in violation of this subsection, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title X, §1003, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 267.)

§2000g–3. Reports to Congress

Subject to the provisions of sections 2000a–4 and 2000g–2(b) of this title, the Director shall, on or before January 31 of each year, submit to the Congress a report of the activities of the Service during the preceding fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title X, §1004, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 267.)

SUBCHAPTER IX—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

§2000h. Criminal contempt proceedings: trial by jury, criminal practice, penalties, exceptions, intent; civil contempt proceedings

In any proceeding for criminal contempt arising under title II, III, IV, V, VI, or VII of this Act, the accused, upon demand therefor, shall be entitled to a trial by jury, which shall conform as near as may be to the practice in criminal cases. Upon conviction, the accused shall not be fined more than $1,000 or imprisoned for more than six months.

This section shall not apply to contempts committed in the presence of the court, or so near thereto as to obstruct the administration of justice, nor to the misbehavior, misconduct, or disobedience of any officer of the court in respect to writs, orders, or process of the court. No person shall be convicted of criminal contempt hereunder unless the act or omission constituting such contempt shall have been intentional, as required in other cases of criminal contempt.

Nor shall anything herein be construed to deprive courts of their power, by civil contempt proceedings, without a jury, to secure compliance with or to prevent obstruction of, as distinguished from punishment for violations of, any lawful writ, process, order, rule, decree, or command of the court in accordance with the prevailing usages of law and equity, including the power of detention.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title XI, §1101, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 268.)

References in Text

Title II, III, IV, V, VI, or VII of this Act, referred to in text, mean title II, III, IV, V, VI, or VII of Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 243, as amended. Titles II, III, and IV are classified generally to subchapters II (§2000a et seq.), III (§2000b et seq.), and IV (§2000c et seq.) of this chapter. Title V amended sections 1975a to 1975d of this title. Title VI enacted sections 2000d to 2000d–4 of this title. Title VII enacted sections 2000e to 2000e–15 of this title, amended sections 2204 and 2205 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 2000e of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

§2000h–1. Double jeopardy; specific crimes and criminal contempts

No person should be put twice in jeopardy under the laws of the United States for the same act or omission. For this reason, an acquittal or conviction in a prosecution for a specific crime under the laws of the United States shall bar a proceeding for criminal contempt, which is based upon the same act or omission and which arises under the provisions of this Act; and an acquittal or conviction in a proceeding for criminal contempt, which arises under the provisions of this Act, shall bar a prosecution for a specific crime under the laws of the United States based upon the same act or omission.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title XI, §1102, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 268.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which is classified principally to subchapters II to IX of this chapter (§2000a et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

§2000h–2. Intervention by Attorney General; denial of equal protection on account of race, color, religion, sex or national origin

Whenever an action has been commenced in any court of the United States seeking relief from the denial of equal protection of the laws under the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution on account of race, color, religion, sex or national origin, the Attorney General for or in the name of the United States may intervene in such action upon timely application if the Attorney General certifies that the case is of general public importance. In such action the United States shall be entitled to the same relief as if it had instituted the action.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title IX, §902, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 266; Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, §906(a), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 375.)

Amendments

1972—Pub. L. 92–318 inserted “sex” after “religion,”.

§2000h–3. Construction of provisions not to affect authority of Attorney General, etc., to institute or intervene in actions or proceedings

Nothing in this Act shall be construed to deny, impair, or otherwise affect any right or authority of the Attorney General or of the United States or any agency or officer thereof under existing law to institute or intervene in any action or proceeding.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title XI, §1103, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 268.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which is classified principally to subchapters II to IX of this chapter (§2000a et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

§2000h–4. Construction of provisions not to exclude operation of State laws and not to invalidate consistent State laws

Nothing contained in any title of this Act shall be construed as indicating an intent on the part of Congress to occupy the field in which any such title operates to the exclusion of State laws on the same subject matter, nor shall any provision of this Act be construed as invalidating any provision of State law unless such provision is inconsistent with any of the purposes of this Act, or any provision thereof.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title XI, §1104, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 268.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which is classified principally to subchapters II to IX of this chapter (§2000a et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

§2000h–5. Authorization of appropriations

There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title XI, §1105, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 268.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which is classified principally to subchapters II to IX of this chapter (§2000a et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

§2000h–6. Separability

If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the application of the provision to other persons not similarly situated or to other circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

(Pub. L. 88–352, title XI, §1106, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 268.)

References in Text

This Act and the Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which is classified principally to subchapters II to IX of this chapter (§2000a et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.