42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2008 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 68 - DISASTER RELIEF
SUBCHAPTER V - MISCELLANEOUS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER V—MISCELLANEOUS

1 See References in Text note below.

§5201. Rules and regulations

(a)(1) The President may prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary and proper to carry out any of the provisions of this chapter, and he may exercise any power or authority conferred on him by any section of this chapter either directly or through such Federal agency or agencies as he may designate.

(2) Deadline for payment of assistance.—Rules and regulations authorized by paragraph (1) shall provide that payment of any assistance under this chapter to a State shall be completed within 60 days after the date of approval of such assistance.

(b) In furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the President or his delegate may accept and use bequests, gifts, or donations of service, money, or property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible, or intangible. All sums received under this subsection shall be deposited in a separate fund on the books of the Treasury and shall be available for expenditure upon the certification of the President or his delegate. At the request of the President or his delegate, the Secretary of the Treasury may invest and reinvest excess monies in the fund. Such investments shall be in public debt securities with maturities suitable for the needs of the fund and shall bear interest at rates determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration current market yields on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities. The interest on such investments shall be credited to, and form a part of, the fund.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title VII, §701, formerly title VI, §601, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 163; Pub. L. 96–446, Oct. 13, 1980, 94 Stat. 1893; Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §108(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4707; renumbered title VII, §701, Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIV, §3411(a)(1), (2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3100.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–707 designated existing provision as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1980—Pub. L. 96–446 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Deadline for Issuance of Regulations

Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §113, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4711, provided that: “Regulations necessary to carry out this title and the amendments made by this title [see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note set out under section 5121 of this title] shall be issued no later than the 180th day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1988].”

[Functions of President under section 113 of Pub. L. 100–707 delegated to Director of Federal Emergency Management Agency by section 5 of Ex. Ord. No. 12673, Mar. 23, 1989, 54 F.R. 12571, set out as a note under section 5195 of this title.]

§5202. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §108(c), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4708

Section, Pub. L. 93–288, title VI, §606, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 164; Pub. L. 95–51, §1, June 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 233; Pub. L. 96–568, §2, Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3334, authorized appropriations of such sums as necessary to carry out this chapter through the close of Sept. 30, 1981.

§5203. Excess disaster assistance payments as budgetary emergency requirements

Beginning in fiscal year 1993, and in each year thereafter, notwithstanding any other provision of law, all amounts appropriated for disaster assistance payments under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.) that are in excess of either the historical annual average obligation of $320,000,000, or the amount submitted in the President's initial budget request, whichever is lower, shall be considered as “emergency requirements” pursuant to section 901(b)(2)(D) 1 of title 2, and such amounts shall on and after December 12, 1991, be so designated.

(Pub. L. 102–229, title I, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1711.)

References in Text

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Section 901 of title 2, referred to in text, was amended by Pub. L. 105–33, title X, §10203(a)(4), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 699, by striking out subsec. (b) and adding a new subsec. (b). As so amended, section 901(b)(2)(D) of title 2 no longer refers to “emergency requirements”. However, “emergency requirements” are referred to elsewhere in section 901.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Dire Emergency Supplemental Appropriations and Transfers for Relief From the Effects of Natural Disasters, for Other Urgent Needs, and for Incremental Cost of “Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm” Act of 1992, and not as a part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

1 See References in Text note below.

§5204. Insular areas disaster survival and recovery; definitions

As used in sections 5204 to 5204c of this title—

(1) the term “insular area” means any of the following: American Samoa, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Virgin Islands;

(2) the term “disaster” means a declaration of a major disaster by the President after September 1, 1989, pursuant to section 5170 of this title; and

(3) the term “Secretary” means the Secretary of the Interior.

(Pub. L. 102–247, title II, §201, Feb. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 37.)

References in Text

Sections 5204 to 5204c of this title, referred to in text, was in the original “this title”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 102–247, Feb. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 37, which enacted sections 5204 to 5204c of this title and amended section 5122 of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Omnibus Insular Areas Act of 1992, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

§5204a. Authorization of appropriations for insular areas

There are hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary such sums as may be necessary to—

(1) reconstruct essential public facilities damaged by disasters in the insular areas that occurred prior to February 24, 1992; and

(2) enhance the survivability of essential public facilities in the event of disasters in the insular areas,


except that with respect to the disaster declared by the President in the case of Hurricane Hugo, September 1989, amounts for any fiscal year shall not exceed 25 percent of the estimated aggregate amount of grants to be made under sections 5170b and 5172 of this title for such disaster. Such sums shall remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 102–247, title II, §202, Feb. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 37.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Omnibus Insular Areas Act of 1992, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

§5204b. Technical assistance for insular areas

(a) Upon the declaration by the President of a disaster in an insular area, the President, acting through the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, shall assess, in cooperation with the Secretary and chief executive of such insular area, the capability of the insular government to respond to the disaster, including the capability to assess damage; coordinate activities with Federal agencies, particularly the Federal Emergency Management Agency; develop recovery plans, including recommendations for enhancing the survivability of essential infrastructure; negotiate and manage reconstruction contracts; and prevent the misuse of funds. If the President finds that the insular government lacks any of these or other capabilities essential to the recovery effort, then the President shall provide technical assistance to the insular area which the President deems necessary for the recovery effort.

(b) One year following the declaration by the President of a disaster in an insular area, the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, shall submit to the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and the House Committee on Natural Resources a report on the status of the recovery effort, including an audit of Federal funds expended in the recovery effort and recommendations on how to improve public health and safety, survivability of infrastructure, recovery efforts, and effective use of funds in the event of future disasters.

(Pub. L. 102–247, title II, §203, Feb. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 37; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(p), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4594; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Omnibus Insular Areas Act of 1992, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted “House Committee on Natural Resources” for “House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs”.

Change of Name

“Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency” substituted for “Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency” in subsecs. (a) and (b) on authority of section 612(c) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6, Domestic Security. Any reference to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in title VI of Pub. L. 109–295 or an amendment by title VI to be considered to refer and apply to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency until Mar. 31, 2007, see section 612(f)(2) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§5204c. Hazard mitigation for insular areas

The total of contributions under the last sentence of section 5170c of this title for the insular areas shall not exceed 10 percent of the estimated aggregate amounts of grants to be made under sections 5170b, 5172, 5173, 5174, and 5178 1 of this title for any disaster: Provided, That the President shall require a 50 percent local match for assistance in excess of 10 percent of the estimated aggregate amount of grants to be made under section 5172 of this title for any disaster.

(Pub. L. 102–247, title II, §204, Feb. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 38.)

References in Text

Section 5178 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–390, title II, §206(c), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1571, effective 18 months after Oct. 30, 2000.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Omnibus Insular Areas Act of 1992, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

1 See References in Text note below.

§5205. Disaster grant closeout procedures

(a) Statute of limitations

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), no administrative action to recover any payment made to a State or local government for disaster or emergency assistance under this chapter shall be initiated in any forum after the date that is 3 years after the date of transmission of the final expenditure report for the disaster or emergency.

(2) Fraud exception

The limitation under paragraph (1) shall apply unless there is evidence of civil or criminal fraud.

(b) Rebuttal of presumption of record maintenance

(1) In general

In any dispute arising under this section after the date that is 3 years after the date of transmission of the final expenditure report for the disaster or emergency, there shall be a presumption that accounting records were maintained that adequately identify the source and application of funds provided for financially assisted activities.

(2) Affirmative evidence

The presumption described in paragraph (1) may be rebutted only on production of affirmative evidence that the State or local government did not maintain documentation described in that paragraph.

(3) Inability to produce documentation

The inability of the Federal, State, or local government to produce source documentation supporting expenditure reports later than 3 years after the date of transmission of the final expenditure report shall not constitute evidence to rebut the presumption described in paragraph (1).

(4) Right of access

The period during which the Federal, State, or local government has the right to access source documentation shall not be limited to the required 3-year retention period referred to in paragraph (3), but shall last as long as the records are maintained.

(c) Binding nature of grant requirements

A State or local government shall not be liable for reimbursement or any other penalty for any payment made under this chapter if—

(1) the payment was authorized by an approved agreement specifying the costs;

(2) the costs were reasonable; and

(3) the purpose of the grant was accomplished.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title VII, §705, as added Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §304, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1573.)

§5206. Buy American

(a) Compliance with Buy American Act

No funds authorized to be appropriated under this Act or any amendment made by this Act may be expended by an entity unless the entity, in expending the funds, complies with the Buy American Act (41 U.S.C. 10a et seq.).

(b) Debarment of persons convicted of fraudulent use of “Made in America” labels

(1) In general

If the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency determines that a person has been convicted of intentionally affixing a label bearing a “Made in America” inscription to any product sold in or shipped to the United States that is not made in America, the Administrator shall determine, not later than 90 days after determining that the person has been so convicted, whether the person should be debarred from contracting under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.).

(2) Definition of debar

In this subsection, the term “debar” has the meaning given the term in section 2393(c) of title 10.

(Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §306, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1574; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 106–390, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1552, known as the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2000 Amendment note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

The Buy American Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is title III of act Mar. 3, 1933, ch. 212, 47 Stat. 1520, as amended, which is classified generally to sections 10a, 10b, and 10c of Title 41, Public Contracts. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 10a of Title 41 and Tables.

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.

Change of Name

“Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency” and “Administrator” substituted for “Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency” and “Director”, respectively, in subsec. (b)(1) on authority of section 612(c) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6, Domestic Security. Any reference to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in title VI of Pub. L. 109–295 or an amendment by title VI to be considered to refer and apply to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency until Mar. 31, 2007, see section 612(f)(2) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§5207. Firearms policies

(a) Prohibition on confiscation of firearms

No officer or employee of the United States (including any member of the uniformed services), or person operating pursuant to or under color of Federal law, or receiving Federal funds, or under control of any Federal official, or providing services to such an officer, employee, or other person, while acting in support of relief from a major disaster or emergency, may—

(1) temporarily or permanently seize, or authorize seizure of, any firearm the possession of which is not prohibited under Federal, State, or local law, other than for forfeiture in compliance with Federal law or as evidence in a criminal investigation;

(2) require registration of any firearm for which registration is not required by Federal, State, or local law;

(3) prohibit possession of any firearm, or promulgate any rule, regulation, or order prohibiting possession of any firearm, in any place or by any person where such possession is not otherwise prohibited by Federal, State, or local law; or

(4) prohibit the carrying of firearms by any person otherwise authorized to carry firearms under Federal, State, or local law, solely because such person is operating under the direction, control, or supervision of a Federal agency in support of relief from the major disaster or emergency.

(b) Limitation

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit any person in subsection (a) from requiring the temporary surrender of a firearm as a condition for entry into any mode of transportation used for rescue or evacuation during a major disaster or emergency, provided that such temporarily surrendered firearm is returned at the completion of such rescue or evacuation.

(c) Private rights of action

(1) In general

Any individual aggrieved by a violation of this section may seek relief in an action at law, suit in equity, or other proper proceeding for redress against any person who subjects such individual, or causes such individual to be subjected, to the deprivation of any of the rights, privileges, or immunities secured by this section.

(2) Remedies

In addition to any existing remedy in law or equity, under any law, an individual aggrieved by the seizure or confiscation of a firearm in violation of this section may bring an action for return of such firearm in the United States district court in the district in which that individual resides or in which such firearm may be found.

(3) Attorney fees

In any action or proceeding to enforce this section, the court shall award the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee as part of the costs.

(Pub. L. 93–288, title VII, §706, as added Pub. L. 109–295, title V, §557, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1391.)

§5208. Disaster Relief report

The Federal Emergency Management Agency shall on and after December 26, 2007, submit a monthly “Disaster Relief” report to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives to include—

(1) status of the Disaster Relief fund including obligations, allocations, and amounts undistributed/unallocated;

(2) allocations, obligations, and expenditures for Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma and all open disasters;

(3) information on national flood insurance claims;

(4) obligations, allocations, and expenditures by State for unemployment, crisis counseling, inspections, housing assistance, manufactured housing, public assistance, and individual assistance;

(5) mission assignment obligations by agency, including:

(A) the amounts to other agencies that are in suspense because the Federal Emergency Management Agency has not yet reviewed and approved the documentation supporting the expenditure or for which an agency has been mission assigned but has not submitted necessary documentation for reimbursement;

(B) an explanation if the amounts of reported obligations and expenditures do not reflect the status of such obligations and expenditures from a government-wide perspective; and

(C) each such agency's actual obligation and expenditure data;


(6) the amount of credit card purchases by agency and mission assignment;

(7) specific reasons for all waivers granted and a description of each waiver;

(8) a list of all contracts that were awarded on a sole source or limited competition basis, including the dollar amount, the purpose of the contract, and the reason for the lack of competitive award; and

(9) an estimate of when available appropriations will be exhausted, assuming an average disaster season.

(Pub. L. 110–161, div. E, title III, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2064.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2008, and also as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008, and not as part of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act which comprises this chapter.