42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2008 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 70 - MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 70—MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS

Sec.
5401.
Findings and purposes.
5402.
Definitions.
5403.
Construction and safety standards.
5404.
Manufactured home installation.
5405.
Judicial review of orders establishing standards; petition; additional evidence before Secretary; certified copy of transcript.
5406.
Submission of cost or other information by manufacturer.
5407.
Research, testing, development, and training by Secretary.
5408.
Cooperation by Secretary with public and private agencies.
5409.
Prohibited acts; exemptions.
5410.
Civil and criminal penalties.
5411.
Injunctive relief.
5412.
Noncompliance with standards or defective nature of manufactured home; administrative or judicial determination; repurchase by manufacturer or repair by distributor or retailer; reimbursement of expenses, etc., by manufacturer; injunctive relief against manufacturer for failure to comply; jurisdiction and venue; damages; period of limitation.
5413.
Inspections and investigations for promulgation or enforcement of standards or execution of other duties.
5414.
Notification and correction of defects by manufacturer.
5415.
Certification by manufacturer of conformity of manufactured home with standards; form and placement of certification.
5416.
Consumer's manual; contents.
5417.
Effect upon antitrust laws.
5418.
Use of services, research and testing facilities of public agencies and independent laboratories.
5419.
Authority to collect fee.
5420.
Failure to report violations; penalties.
5421.
Prohibition on waiver of rights.
5422.
State enforcement.
5423.
Grants to States.
5424.
Rules and regulations.
5425.
Repealed.
5426.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

§5401. Findings and purposes

(a) Findings

Congress finds that—

(1) manufactured housing plays a vital role in meeting the housing needs of the Nation; and

(2) manufactured homes provide a significant resource for affordable homeownership and rental housing accessible to all Americans.

(b) Purposes

The purposes of this chapter are—

(1) to protect the quality, durability, safety, and affordability of manufactured homes;

(2) to facilitate the availability of affordable manufactured homes and to increase homeownership for all Americans;

(3) to provide for the establishment of practical, uniform, and, to the extent possible, performance-based Federal construction standards for manufactured homes;

(4) to encourage innovative and cost-effective construction techniques for manufactured homes;

(5) to protect residents of manufactured homes with respect to personal injuries and the amount of insurance costs and property damages in manufactured housing, consistent with the other purposes of this section;

(6) to establish a balanced consensus process for the development, revision, and interpretation of Federal construction and safety standards for manufactured homes and related regulations for the enforcement of such standards;

(7) to ensure uniform and effective enforcement of Federal construction and safety standards for manufactured homes; and

(8) to ensure that the public interest in, and need for, affordable manufactured housing is duly considered in all determinations relating to the Federal standards and their enforcement.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §602, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 700; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339B(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §602, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2997.)

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–569 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Congress declares that the purposes of this chapter are to reduce the number of personal injuries and deaths and the amount of insurance costs and property damage resulting from manufactured home accidents and to improve the quality and durability of manufactured homes. Therefore, the Congress determines that it is necessary to establish Federal construction and safety standards for manufactured homes and to authorize manufactured home safety research and development.”

1980—Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §612, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3012, provided that: “The amendments made by this title [see Short Title of 2000 Amendment note below] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2000], except that the amendments shall have no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin that is issued under the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5401 et seq.) and published as a proposed rule pursuant to section 553 of title 5, United States Code, on or before that date of the enactment.”

Effective Date

Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §627, formerly §628, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 714, renumbered §627, Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §611(2), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3012, provided that: “The provisions of this title [enacting this chapter and provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect upon the expiration of 180 days following the date of enactment of this title [Aug. 22, 1974].”

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §601(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2997, provided that: “This title [amending this section and sections 5402 to 5404, 5406, 5407, 5409, 5412 to 5415, 5419, 5422, and 5426 of this title, repealing section 5425 of this title, and enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Manufactured Housing Improvement Act of 2000’.”

Short Title

Section 601 of title VI of Pub. L. 93–383, as amended by Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(5), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641, provided that: “This title [enacting this chapter and provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974’.”

Savings Provisions

Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §613, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3012, provided that:

“(a) Standards and Regulations.—The Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards (as such term is defined in section 603 of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5402]) and all regulations pertaining thereto in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2000] shall apply until the effective date of a standard or regulation modifying or superseding the existing standard or regulation that is promulgated under subsection (a) or (b) of section 604 of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974, as amended by this title [42 U.S.C. 5403(a), (b)].

“(b) Contracts.—Any contract awarded pursuant to a Request for Proposal issued before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2000] shall remain in effect until the earlier of—

“(1) the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act; or

“(2) the expiration of the contract term.”

§5402. Definitions

As used in this chapter, the term—

(1) “manufactured home construction” means all activities relating to the assembly and manufacture of a manufactured home including but not limited to those relating to durability, quality, and safety;

(2) “retailer” means any person engaged in the sale, leasing, or distribution of new manufactured homes primarily to persons who in good faith purchase or lease a manufactured home for purposes other than resale;

(3) “defect” includes any defect in the performance, construction, components, or material of a manufactured home that renders the home or any part thereof not fit for the ordinary use for which it was intended;

(4) “distributor” means any person engaged in the sale and distribution of manufactured homes for resale;

(5) “manufacturer” means any person engaged in manufacturing or assembling manufactured homes, including any person engaged in importing manufactured homes for resale;

(6) “manufactured home” means a structure, transportable in one or more sections, which, in the traveling mode, is eight body feet or more in width or forty body feet or more in length, or, when erected on site, is three hundred twenty or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained therein; except that such term shall include any structure which meets all the requirements of this paragraph except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the Secretary and complies with the standards established under this chapter; and except that such term shall not include any self-propelled recreational vehicle;

(7) “Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard” means a reasonable standard for the construction, design, and performance of a manufactured home which meets the needs of the public including the need for quality, durability, and safety;

(8) “manufactured home safety” means the performance of a manufactured home in such a manner that the public is protected against any unreasonable risk of the occurrence of accidents due to the design or construction of such manufactured home, or any unreasonable risk of death or injury to the user or to the public if such accidents do occur;

(9) “imminent safety hazard” means an imminent and unreasonable risk of death or severe personal injury;

(10) “purchaser” means the first person purchasing a manufactured home in good faith for purposes other than resale;

(11) “Secretary” means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development;

(12) “State” includes each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Canal Zone, and American Samoa;

(13) “United States district courts” means the Federal district courts of the United States and the United States courts of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Canal Zone, and American Samoa;

(14) “administering organization” means the recognized, voluntary, private sector, consensus standards body with specific experience in developing model residential building codes and standards involving all disciplines regarding construction and safety that administers the consensus standards through a development process;

(15) “consensus committee” means the committee established under section 5403(a)(3) of this title;

(16) “consensus standards development process” means the process by which additions, revisions, and interpretations to the Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards and enforcement regulations shall be developed and recommended to the Secretary by the consensus committee;

(17) “primary inspection agency” means a State agency or private organization that has been approved by the Secretary to act as a design approval primary inspection agency or a production inspection primary inspection agency, or both;

(18) “design approval primary inspection agency” means a State agency or private organization that has been approved by the Secretary to evaluate and either approve or disapprove manufactured home designs and quality control procedures;

(19) “installation standards” means reasonable specifications for the installation of a manufactured home, at the place of occupancy, to ensure proper siting, the joining of all sections of the home, and the installation of stabilization, support, or anchoring systems;

(20) “monitoring” means the process of periodic review of the primary inspection agencies, by the Secretary or by a State agency under an approved State plan pursuant to section 5422 of this title, in accordance with regulations promulgated under this chapter, giving due consideration to the recommendations of the consensus committee under section 5403(b) of this title, which process shall be for the purpose of ensuring that the primary inspection agencies are discharging their duties under this chapter; and

(21) “production inspection primary inspection agency” means a State agency or private organization that has been approved by the Secretary to evaluate the ability of manufactured home manufacturing plants to comply with approved quality control procedures and with the Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards promulgated hereunder, including the inspection of homes in the plant.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §603, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 700; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), (d), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339B(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §599A(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2660; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §603(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2998.)

References in Text

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in pars. (12) and (13), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Codification

References to “mobile homes”, wherever appearing in text, changed to “manufactured homes” in view of the amendment of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (this chapter) by section 308(c)(4) of Pub. L. 96–399 requiring the substitution of “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing in title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, and section 339B(c) of Pub. L. 97–35 (set out as a note under section 1703 of Title 12, Banks and Banking) providing that the terms “mobile home” and “manufactured home” shall be deemed to include the terms “mobile homes” and “manufactured homes”, respectively.

Amendments

2000—Par. (2). Pub. L. 106–569, §603(a)(1), substituted “retailer” for “dealer”.

Pars. (14) to (21). Pub. L. 106–569, §603(a)(2)–(4), added pars. (14) to (21).

1998—Par. (6). Pub. L. 105–276 inserted before semicolon at end “; and except that such term shall not include any self-propelled recreational vehicle”.

1980—Pars. (1), (2), (3). Pub. L. 96–399, §308(c)(4), substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 96–399, §308(c)(4), (d), substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home”, substituted “in the traveling mode, is eight body feet or more in width or forty body feet or more in length, or, when erected on site, is three hundred twenty or more square feet” for “is eight body feet or more in width and is thirty-two body feet or more in length”, and inserted exception relating to inclusion of any structure meeting all requirements of this paragraph except size and with respect to which a certification is voluntarily filed and standards complied with.

Pars. (7), (8), (10). Pub. L. 96–399, §308(c)(4), substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §599A(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2660, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] is made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998].”

§5403. Construction and safety standards

(a) Establishment

(1) Authority

The Secretary shall establish, by order, appropriate Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards, each of which—

(A) shall—

(i) be reasonable and practical;

(ii) meet high standards of protection consistent with the purposes of this chapter; and

(iii) be performance-based and objectively stated, unless clearly inappropriate; and


(B) except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, shall be established in accordance with the consensus standards development process.

(2) Consensus standards and regulatory development process

(A) Initial agreement

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2000, the Secretary shall enter into a contract with an administering organization. The contractual agreement shall—

(i) terminate on the date on which a contract is entered into under subparagraph (B); and

(ii) require the administering organization to—

(I) recommend the initial members of the consensus committee under paragraph (3);

(II) administer the consensus standards development process until the termination of that agreement; and

(III) administer the consensus development and interpretation process for procedural and enforcement regulations and regulations specifying the permissible scope and conduct of monitoring until the termination of that agreement.

(B) Competitively procured contract

Upon the expiration of the 4-year period beginning on the date on which all members of the consensus committee are appointed under paragraph (3), the Secretary shall, using competitive procedures (as such term is defined in section 403 of title 41), enter into a competitively awarded contract with an administering organization. The administering organization shall administer the consensus process for the development and interpretation of the Federal standards, the procedural and enforcement regulations, and regulations specifying the permissible scope and conduct of monitoring, in accordance with this chapter.

(C) Performance review

The Secretary—

(i) shall periodically review the performance of the administering organization; and

(ii) may replace the administering organization with another qualified technical or building code organization, pursuant to competitive procedures, if the Secretary determines in writing that the administering organization is not fulfilling the terms of the agreement or contract to which the administering organization is subject or upon the expiration of the agreement or contract.

(3) Consensus committee

(A) Purpose

There is established a committee to be known as the “consensus committee”, which shall, in accordance with this chapter—

(i) provide periodic recommendations to the Secretary to adopt, revise, and interpret the Federal manufactured housing construction and safety standards in accordance with this subsection;

(ii) provide periodic recommendations to the Secretary to adopt, revise, and interpret the procedural and enforcement regulations, including regulations specifying the permissible scope and conduct of monitoring in accordance with subsection (b) of this section;

(iii) be organized and carry out its business in a manner that guarantees a fair opportunity for the expression and consideration of various positions and for public participation; and

(iv) be deemed to be an advisory committee not composed of Federal employees.

(B) Membership

The consensus committee shall be composed of—

(i) twenty-one voting members appointed by the Secretary, after consideration of the recommendations of the administering organization, from among individuals who are qualified by background and experience to participate in the work of the consensus committee; and

(ii) one nonvoting member appointed by the Secretary to represent the Secretary on the consensus committee.

(C) Disapproval

The Secretary shall state, in writing, the reasons for failing to appoint any individual recommended under paragraph (2)(A)(ii)(I).

(D) Selection procedures and requirements

Each member of the consensus committee shall be appointed in accordance with selection procedures, which shall be based on the procedures for consensus committees promulgated by the American National Standards Institute (or successor organization), except that the American National Standards Institute interest categories shall be modified for purposes of this paragraph to ensure equal representation on the consensus committee of the following interest categories:

(i) Producers

Seven producers or retailers of manufactured housing.

(ii) Users

Seven persons representing consumer interests, such as consumer organizations, recognized consumer leaders, and owners who are residents of manufactured homes.

(iii) General interest and public officials

Seven general interest and public official members.

(E) Balancing of interests

(i) In general

In order to achieve a proper balance of interests on the consensus committee, the Secretary, in appointing the members of the consensus committee—

(I) shall ensure that all directly and materially affected interests have the opportunity for fair and equitable participation without dominance by any single interest; and

(II) may reject the appointment of any one or more individuals in order to ensure that there is not dominance by any single interest.

(ii) Dominance defined

In this subparagraph, the term “dominance” means a position or exercise of dominant authority, leadership, or influence by reason of superior leverage, strength, or representation.

(F) Additional qualifications

(i) Financial independence

No individual appointed under subparagraph (D)(ii) shall have, and three of the individuals appointed under subparagraph (D)(iii) shall not have—

(I) a significant financial interest in any segment of the manufactured housing industry; or

(II) a significant relationship to any person engaged in the manufactured housing industry.

(ii) Post-employment ban

Each individual described in clause (i) shall be subject to a ban disallowing compensation from the manufactured housing industry during the period of, and during the 1-year following, the membership of the individual on the consensus committee.

(G) Meetings

(i) Notice; open to public

The consensus committee shall provide advance notice of each meeting of the consensus committee to the Secretary and cause to be published in the Federal Register advance notice of each such meeting. All meetings of the consensus committee shall be open to the public.

(ii) Reimbursement

Members of the consensus committee in attendance at meetings of the consensus committee shall be reimbursed for their actual expenses as authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for persons employed intermittently in Government service.

(H) Administration

The consensus committee and the administering organization shall—

(i) operate in conformance with the procedures established by the American National Standards Institute for the development and coordination of American National Standards; and

(ii) apply to the American National Standards Institute and take such other actions as may be necessary to obtain accreditation from the American National Standards Institute.

(I) Staff and technical support

The administering organization shall, upon the request of the consensus committee—

(i) provide reasonable staff resources to the consensus committee; and

(ii) furnish technical support in a timely manner to any of the interest categories described in subparagraph (D) represented on the consensus committee, if—

(I) the support is necessary to ensure the informed participation of the consensus committee members; and

(II) the costs of providing the support are reasonable.

(J) Date of initial appointments

The initial appointments of all the members of the consensus committee shall be completed not later than 90 days after the date on which a contractual agreement under paragraph (2)(A) is entered into with the administering organization.

(4) Revisions of standards

(A) In general

Beginning on the date on which all members of the consensus committee are appointed under paragraph (3), the consensus committee shall, not less than once during each 2-year period—

(i) consider revisions to the Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards; and

(ii) submit proposed revised standards, if approved in a vote of the consensus committee by two-thirds of the members, to the Secretary in the form of a proposed rule, including an economic analysis.

(B) Publication of proposed revised standards

(i) Publication by the Secretary

The consensus committee shall provide a proposed revised standard under subparagraph (A)(ii) to the Secretary who shall, not later than 30 days after receipt, cause such proposed revised standard to be published in the Federal Register for notice and comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5. Unless clause (ii) applies, the Secretary shall provide an opportunity for public comment on such proposed revised standard in accordance with such section 553 and any such comments shall be submitted directly to the consensus committee, without delay.

(ii) Publication of rejected proposed revised standards

If the Secretary rejects the proposed revised standard, the Secretary shall cause to be published in the Federal Register the rejected proposed revised standard, the reasons for rejection, and any recommended modifications set forth.

(C) Presentation of public comments; publication of recommended revisions

(i) Presentation

Any public comments, views, and objections to a proposed revised standard published under subparagraph (B) shall be presented by the Secretary to the consensus committee upon their receipt and in the manner received, in accordance with procedures established by the American National Standards Institute.

(ii) Publication by the Secretary

The consensus committee shall provide to the Secretary any revision proposed by the consensus committee, which the Secretary shall, not later than 30 calendar days after receipt, cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice of the recommended revisions of the consensus committee to the standards, a notice of the submission of the recommended revisions to the Secretary, and a description of the circumstances under which the proposed revised standards could become effective.

(iii) Publication of rejected proposed revised standards

If the Secretary rejects the proposed revised standard, the Secretary shall cause to be published in the Federal Register the rejected proposed revised standard, the reasons for rejection, and any recommended modifications set forth.

(5) Review by the Secretary

(A) In general

The Secretary shall either adopt, modify, or reject a standard, as submitted by the consensus committee under paragraph (4)(A).

(B) Timing

Not later than 12 months after the date on which a standard is submitted to the Secretary by the consensus committee, the Secretary shall take action regarding such standard under subparagraph (C).

(C) Procedures

If the Secretary—

(i) adopts a standard recommended by the consensus committee, the Secretary shall—

(I) issue a final order without further rulemaking; and

(II) cause the final order to be published in the Federal Register;


(ii) determines that any standard should be rejected, the Secretary shall—

(I) reject the standard; and

(II) cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice to that effect, together with the reason or reasons for rejecting the proposed standard; or


(iii) determines that a standard recommended by the consensus committee should be modified, the Secretary shall—

(I) cause to be published in the Federal Register the proposed modified standard, together with an explanation of the reason or reasons for the determination of the Secretary; and

(II) provide an opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5.

(D) Final order

Any final standard under this paragraph shall become effective pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.

(6) Failure to act

If the Secretary fails to take final action under paragraph (5) and to cause notice of the action to be published in the Federal Register before the expiration of the 12-month period beginning on the date on which the proposed revised standard is submitted to the Secretary under paragraph (4)(A)—

(A) the Secretary shall appear in person before the appropriate housing and appropriations subcommittees and committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate (referred to in this paragraph as the “committees”) on a date or dates to be specified by the committees, but in no event later than 30 days after the expiration of that 12-month period, and shall state before the committees the reasons for failing to take final action as required under paragraph (5); and

(B) if the Secretary does not appear in person as required under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall thereafter, and until such time as the Secretary does appear as required under subparagraph (A), be prohibited from expending any funds collected under authority of this title in an amount greater than that collected and expended in the fiscal year immediately preceding December 27, 2000, indexed for inflation as determined by the Congressional Budget Office.

(b) Other orders

(1) Regulations

The Secretary may issue procedural and enforcement regulations and revisions to existing regulations as necessary to implement the provisions of this chapter. The consensus committee may submit to the Secretary proposed procedural and enforcement regulations and recommendations for the revision of such regulations.

(2) Interpretative bulletins

The Secretary may issue interpretative bulletins to clarify the meaning of any Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard or procedural and enforcement regulation. The consensus committee may submit to the Secretary proposed interpretative bulletins to clarify the meaning of any Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard or procedural and enforcement regulation.

(3) Review by consensus committee

Before issuing a procedural or enforcement regulation or an interpretative bulletin—

(A) the Secretary shall—

(i) submit the proposed procedural or enforcement regulation or interpretative bulletin to the consensus committee; and

(ii) provide the consensus committee with a period of 120 days to submit written comments to the Secretary on the proposed procedural or enforcement regulation or the interpretative bulletin; and


(B) if the Secretary rejects any significant comment provided by the consensus committee under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall provide a written explanation of the reasons for the rejection to the consensus committee; and

(C) following compliance with subparagraphs (A) and (B), the Secretary shall—

(i) cause the proposed regulation or interpretative bulletin and the consensus committee's written comments, along with the Secretary's response thereto, to be published in the Federal Register; and

(ii) provide an opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5.

(4) Required action

Not later than 120 days after the date on which the Secretary receives a proposed regulation or interpretative bulletin submitted by the consensus committee, the Secretary shall—

(A) approve the proposal and cause the proposed regulation or interpretative bulletin to be published for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5; or

(B) reject the proposed regulation or interpretative bulletin and—

(i) provide to the consensus committee a written explanation of the reasons for rejection; and

(ii) cause to be published in the Federal Register the rejected proposed regulation or interpretive bulletin, the reasons for rejection, and any recommended modifications set forth.

(5) Authority to act and emergency

If the Secretary determines, in writing, that such action is necessary to address an issue on which the Secretary determines that the consensus committee has not made a timely recommendation following a request by the Secretary, or in order to respond to an emergency that jeopardizes the public health or safety, the Secretary may issue an order that is not developed under the procedures set forth in subsection (a) of this section or in this subsection, if the Secretary—

(A) provides to the consensus committee a written description and sets forth the reasons why action is necessary and all supporting documentation; and

(B) issues the order after notice and an opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5, and causes the order to be published in the Federal Register.

(6) Changes

Any statement of policies, practices, or procedures relating to construction and safety standards, regulations, inspections, monitoring, or other enforcement activities that constitutes a statement of general or particular applicability to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy by the Secretary is subject to subsection (a) of this section or this subsection. Any change adopted in violation of subsection (a) of this section or this subsection is void.

(7) Transition

Until the date on which the consensus committee is appointed pursuant to subsection (a)(3) of this section, the Secretary may issue proposed orders, pursuant to notice and comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5 that are not developed under the procedures set forth in this section for new and revised standards.

(c) Effective date of orders establishing standards

Each order establishing a Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard shall specify the date such standard is to take effect, which shall not be sooner than one hundred and eighty days or later than one year after the date such order is issued, unless the Secretary finds, for good cause shown, that an earlier or later effective date is in the public interest, and publishes his reasons for such finding.

(d) Supremacy of Federal standards

Whenever a Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard established under this chapter is in effect, no State or political subdivision of a State shall have any authority either to establish, or to continue in effect, with respect to any manufactured home covered, any standard regarding the construction or safety applicable to the same aspect of performance of such manufactured home which is not identical to the Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard. Federal preemption under this subsection shall be broadly and liberally construed to ensure that disparate State or local requirements or standards do not affect the uniformity and comprehensiveness of the standards promulgated under this section nor the Federal superintendence of the manufactured housing industry as established by this chapter. Subject to section 5404 of this title, there is reserved to each State the right to establish standards for the stabilizing and support systems of manufactured homes sited within that State, and for the foundations on which manufactured homes sited within that State are installed, and the right to enforce compliance with such standards, except that such standards shall be consistent with the purposes of this chapter and shall be consistent with the design of the manufacturer.

(e) Considerations in establishing and interpreting standards and regulations

The consensus committee, in recommending standards, regulations, and interpretations, and the Secretary, in establishing standards or regulations or issuing interpretations under this section, shall—

(1) consider relevant available manufactured home construction and safety data, including the results of the research, development, testing, and evaluation activities conducted pursuant to this chapter, and those activities conducted by private organizations and other governmental agencies to determine how to best protect the public;

(2) consult with such State or interstate agencies (including legislative committees) as he deems appropriate;

(3) consider whether any such proposed standard is reasonable for the particular type of manufactured home or for the geographic region for which it is prescribed;

(4) consider the probable effect of such standard on the cost of the manufactured home to the public; and

(5) consider the extent to which any such standard will contribute to carrying out the purposes of this chapter.

(f) Coverage; exclusion

The Secretary shall exclude from the coverage of this chapter any structure which the manufacturer certifies, in a form prescribed by the Secretary, to be:

(1) designed only for erection or installation on a site-built permanent foundation;

(2) not designed to be moved once so erected or installed;

(3) designed and manufactured to comply with a nationally recognized model building code or an equivalent local code, or with a State or local modular building code recognized as generally equivalent to building codes for site-built housing, or with minimum property standards adopted by the Secretary pursuant to title II of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1707 et seq.]; and

(4) to the manufacturer's knowledge is not intended to be used other than on a site-built permanent foundation.

(g) Manufactured housing construction and safety standards

(1) The Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards established by the Secretary under this section shall include preemptive energy conservation standards in accordance with this subsection.

(2) The energy conservation standards established under this subsection shall be cost-effective energy conservation performance standards designed to ensure the lowest total of construction and operating costs.

(3) The energy conservation standards established under this subsection shall take into consideration the design and factory construction techniques of manufactured homes and shall provide for alternative practices that result in net estimated energy consumption equal to or less than the specified standards.

(h) New performance standards for hardboard siding

The Secretary shall develop a new standard for hardboard panel siding on manufactured housing taking into account durability, longevity, consumer's costs for maintenance and any other relevant information pursuant to subsection (e) of this section. The Secretary shall consult with the National Manufactured Home Advisory Council and the National Commission on Manufactured Housing in establishing the new standard. The new performance standard developed shall ensure the durability of hardboard sidings for at least a normal life of a mortgage with minimum maintenance required. Not later than 180 days from October 28, 1992, the Secretary shall update the standards for hardboard siding.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §604, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 701; Pub. L. 95–128, title IX, §902(a), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1149; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(l), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2233; Pub. L. 100–242, title V, §568, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1948; Pub. L. 102–550, title IX, §907, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3873; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §604, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2999.)

References in Text

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, as amended. Title II of the National Housing Act is classified principally to subchapter II (§1707 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of Title 12 and Tables.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–569, §604(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: “The Secretary, after consultation with the Consumer Product Safety Commission, shall establish by order appropriate Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards. Each such Federal manufactured home standard shall be reasonable and shall meet the highest standards of protection, taking into account existing State and local laws relating to manufactured home safety and construction.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–569, §604(1), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “All orders issued under this section shall be issued after notice and an opportunity for interested persons to participate are provided in accordance with the provisions of section 553 of title 5.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–569, §604(2), inserted at end “Federal preemption under this subsection shall be broadly and liberally construed to ensure that disparate State or local requirements or standards do not affect the uniformity and comprehensiveness of the standards promulgated under this section nor the Federal superintendence of the manufactured housing industry as established by this chapter. Subject to section 5404 of this title, there is reserved to each State the right to establish standards for the stabilizing and support systems of manufactured homes sited within that State, and for the foundations on which manufactured homes sited within that State are installed, and the right to enforce compliance with such standards, except that such standards shall be consistent with the purposes of this chapter and shall be consistent with the design of the manufacturer.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–569, §604(3), (4), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e), inserted heading, substituted “The consensus committee, in recommending standards, regulations, and interpretations, and the Secretary, in establishing standards or regulations or issuing interpretations under this section, shall—” for “In establishing standards under this section, the Secretary shall—” in introductory provisions, and struck out former subsec. (e) which read as follows: “The Secretary may by order amend or revoke any Federal manufactured home construction or safety standard established under this section. Such order shall specify the date on which such amendment or revocation is to take effect, which shall not be sooner than one hundred and eighty days or later than one year from the date the order is issued, unless the Secretary finds, for good cause shown, that an earlier or later date is in the public interest, and publishes his reasons for such finding.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–569, §604(7), redesignated subsec. (h) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–569, §604(5), (7), redesignated subsec. (i) as (g) and struck out former subsec. (g) which read as follows: “The Secretary shall issue an order establishing initial Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards not later than one year after August 22, 1974.”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–569, §604(7), redesignated subsec. (j) as (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 106–569, §604(7), redesignated subsec. (i) as (g).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 106–569, §604(6), (7), substituted “subsection (e) of this section” for “subsection (f) of this section” and redesignated subsec. (j) as (h).

1992—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 102–550 added subsec. (j).

1988—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–242 added subsec. (i).

1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–479 substituted “that” for “than” before “an earlier or later date”.

1980—Subsecs. (a), (c) to (g). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

1977—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–128 added subsec. (h).

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

Exception to Federal Preemption for Thermal Insulation and Energy Efficiency Standards

Pub. L. 102–486, title I, §104(c), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2792, provided that: “If the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development has not issued, within 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1992], final regulations pursuant to section 604 of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5403) that establish thermal insulation and energy efficiency standards for manufactured housing that take effect before January 1, 1995, then States may establish thermal insulation and energy efficiency standards for manufactured housing if such standards are at least as stringent as thermal performance standards for manufactured housing contained in the Second Public Review Draft of BSR/ASHRAE 90.2P entitled ‘Energy Efficient Design of Low-Rise Residential Buildings’ and all public reviews of Independent Substantive Changes to such document that have been approved on or before the date of the enactment of this Act.”

§5404. Manufactured home installation

(a) Provision of installation design and instructions

A manufacturer shall provide with each manufactured home, design and instructions for the installation of the manufactured home that have been approved by a design approval primary inspection agency. After establishment of model standards under subsection (b)(2) of this section, a design approval primary inspection agency may not give such approval unless a design and instruction provides equal or greater protection than the protection provided under such model standards.

(b) Model manufactured home installation standards

(1) Proposed model standards

Not later than 18 months after the date on which the initial appointments of all the members of the consensus committee are completed, the consensus committee shall develop and submit to the Secretary proposed model manufactured home installation standards, which shall, to the maximum extent practicable, taking into account the factors described in section 5403(e) of this title, be consistent with—

(A) the manufactured home designs that have been approved by a design approval primary inspection agency; and

(B) the designs and instructions for the installation of manufactured homes provided by manufacturers under subsection (a) of this section.

(2) Establishment of model standards

Not later than 12 months after receiving the proposed model standards submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall develop and establish model manufactured home installation standards, which shall, to the maximum extent practicable, taking into account the factors described in section 5403(e) of this title, be consistent with—

(A) the manufactured home designs that have been approved by a design approval primary inspection agency; and

(B) the designs and instructions for the installation of manufactured homes provided by manufacturers under subsection (a) of this section.

(3) Factors for consideration

(A) Consensus committee

In developing the proposed model standards under paragraph (1), the consensus committee shall consider the factors described in section 5403(e) of this title.

(B) Secretary

In developing and establishing the model standards under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall consider the factors described in section 5403(e) of this title.

(4) Issuance

The model manufactured home installation standards shall be issued after notice and an opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5.

(c) Manufactured home installation programs

(1) Protection of manufactured housing residents during initial period

During the 5-year period beginning on December 27, 2000, no State or manufacturer may establish or implement any installation standards that, in the determination of the Secretary, provide less protection to the residents of manufactured homes than the protection provided by the installation standards in effect with respect to the State or manufacturer, as applicable, on December 27, 2000.

(2) Installation standards

(A) Establishment of installation program

Not later than the expiration of the 5-year period described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall establish an installation program that meets the requirements of paragraph (3) for the enforcement of installation standards in each State described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.

(B) Implementation of installation program

Beginning on the expiration of the 5-year period described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall implement the installation program established under subparagraph (A) in each State that does not have an installation program established by State law that meets the requirements of paragraph (3).

(C) Contracting out of implementation

In carrying out subparagraph (B), the Secretary may contract with an appropriate agent to implement the installation program established under that subparagraph, except that such agent shall not be a person or entity other than a government, nor an affiliate or subsidiary of such a person or entity, that has entered into a contract with the Secretary to implement any other regulatory program under this chapter.

(3) Requirements

An installation program meets the requirements of this paragraph if it is a program regulating the installation of manufactured homes that includes—

(A) installation standards that, in the determination of the Secretary, provide protection to the residents of manufactured homes that equals or exceeds the protection provided to those residents by—

(i) the model manufactured home installation standards established by the Secretary under subsection (b)(2) of this section; or

(ii) the designs and instructions provided by manufacturers under subsection (a) of this section, if the Secretary determines that such designs and instructions provide protection to the residents of manufactured homes that equals or exceeds the protection provided by the model manufactured home installation standards established by the Secretary under subsection (b)(2) of this section;


(B) the training and licensing of manufactured home installers; and

(C) inspection of the installation of manufactured homes.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §605, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §605(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3006.)

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–569 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to manufactured home installation for provisions relating to National Manufactured Home Advisory Council.

1980—Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “Manufactured Home” for “Mobile Home” and “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

§5405. Judicial review of orders establishing standards; petition; additional evidence before Secretary; certified copy of transcript

(a)(1) In a case of actual controversy as to the validity of any order under section 5403 of this title, any person who may be adversely affected by such order when it is effective may at any time prior to the sixtieth day after such order is issued file a petition with the United States court of appeals for the circuit wherein such person resides or has his principal place of business, for judicial review of such order. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary or other officer designated by him for that purpose. The Secretary thereupon shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which the Secretary based his order, as provided in section 2112 of title 28.

(2) If the petitioner applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shows to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce such evidence in the proceeding before the Secretary, the court may order such additional evidence (and evidence in rebuttal thereof) to be taken before the Secretary, and to be adduced upon the hearing, in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper. The Secretary may modify his findings as to the facts, or make new findings, by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and he shall file such modified or new findings, and his recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of his original order, with the return of such additional evidence.

(3) Upon the filing of the petition referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, the court shall have jurisdiction to review the order in accordance with the provisions of sections 701 through 706 of title 5, and to grant appropriate relief.

(4) The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any such order of the Secretary shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28.

(5) Any action instituted under this subsection shall survive, notwithstanding any change in the person occupying the office of Secretary or any vacancy in such office.

(6) The remedies provided for in this subsection shall be in addition to and not in substitution for any other remedies provided by law.

(b) A certified copy of the transcript of the record and proceedings under this section shall be furnished by the Secretary to any interested party at his request and payment of the costs thereof, and shall be admissible in any criminal, exclusion of imports, or other proceeding arising under or in respect of this chapter, irrespective of whether proceedings with respect to the order have previously been initiated or become final under subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §606, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 702.)

§5406. Submission of cost or other information by manufacturer

(a) Purpose of submission; detail of information

Whenever any manufacturer is opposed to any action of the Secretary under section 5403 of this title or under any other provision of this chapter on the grounds of increased cost or for other reasons, the manufacturer shall submit to the Secretary such cost and other information (in such detail as the Secretary may by rule or order prescribe) as may be necessary in order to properly evaluate the manufacturer's statement. The Secretary shall submit such cost and other information to the consensus committee for evaluation.

(b) Conditions upon availability to public of submitted information

Such information shall be available to the public unless the manufacturer establishes that it contains a trade secret or that disclosure of any portion of such information would put the manufacturer at a substantial competitive disadvantage. Notice of the availability of such information shall be published promptly in the Federal Register. If the Secretary determines that any portion of such information contains a trade secret or that the disclosure of any portion of such information would put the manufacturer at a substantial competitive disadvantage, such portion may be disclosed to the public only in such manner as to preserve the confidentiality of such trade secret or in such combined or summary form so as not to disclose the identity of any individual manufacturer, except that any such information may be disclosed to other officers or employees concerned with carrying out this chapter or when relevant in any proceeding under this chapter. Nothing in this subsection shall authorize the withholding of information by the Secretary or any officer or employee under his control from the duly authorized committees of the Congress.

(c) “Cost information” defined

For purposes of this section, “cost information” means information with respect to alleged cost increases resulting from action by the Secretary, in such a form as to permit the public, the consensus committee, and the Secretary to make an informed judgment on the validity of the manufacturer's statements. Such term includes both the manufacturer's cost and the cost to retail purchasers.

(d) Power of Secretary to obtain or require submission of information under other provisions unaffected

Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict the authority of the Secretary to obtain or require submission of information under any other provision of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §607, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §606, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3009.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–569, §606(1), inserted “to the Secretary” after “manufacturer shall submit” and inserted at end “The Secretary shall submit such cost and other information to the consensus committee for evaluation.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–569, §606(3), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: “If the Secretary proposes to establish, amend, or revoke a Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard under section 5403 of this title on the basis of information submitted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, he shall publish a notice of such proposed action, together with the reasons therefor, in the Federal Register at least thirty days in advance of making a final determination, in order to allow interested parties an opportunity to comment.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–569, §606(3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Pub. L. 106–569, §606(2), inserted “, the consensus committee,” after “permit the public”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–569, §606(3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d).

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home”.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

§5407. Research, testing, development, and training by Secretary

(a) Scope

The Secretary shall conduct research, testing, development, and training necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter, including, but not limited to—

(1) collecting data from any source for the purpose of determining the relationship between manufactured home performance characteristics and (A) accidents involving manufactured homes, and (B) the occurrence of death, personal injury, or damage resulting from such accidents;

(2) procuring (by negotiation or otherwise) experimental and other manufactured homes for research and testing purposes;

(3) selling or otherwise disposing of test manufactured homes and reimbursing the proceeds of such sale or disposal into the current appropriation available for the purpose of carrying out this chapter;

(4) encouraging the government-sponsored housing entities to actively develop and implement secondary market securitization programs for the FHA manufactured home loans and those of other loan programs, as appropriate, thereby promoting the availability of affordable manufactured homes to increase homeownership for all people in the United States; and

(5) reviewing the programs for FHA manufactured home loans and developing any changes to such programs to promote the affordability of manufactured homes, including changes in loan terms, amortization periods, regulations, and procedures.

(b) Contracts and grants with States, interstate agencies, and independent institutions

The Secretary is authorized to conduct research, testing, development, and training as authorized to be carried out by subsection (a) of this section by contracting for or making grants for the conduct of such research, testing, development, and training to States, interstate agencies, and independent institutions.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Government-sponsored housing entities

The term “government-sponsored housing entities” means the Government National Mortgage Association of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Federal National Mortgage Association, and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation.

(2) FHA manufactured home loan

The term “FHA manufactured home loan” means a loan that—

(A) is insured under title I of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1702 et seq.] and is made for the purpose of financing alterations, repairs, or improvements on or in connection with an existing manufactured home, the purchase of a manufactured home, the purchase of a manufactured home and a lot on which to place the home, or the purchase only of a lot on which to place a manufactured home; or

(B) is otherwise insured under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.] and made for or in connection with a manufactured home.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §608, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 704; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339B(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §607, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3009.)

References in Text

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 13 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§1702 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 12. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of Title 12 and Tables.

Codification

References to “mobile homes”, wherever appearing in subsec. (a)(1) to (3), changed to “manufactured homes” in view of the amendment of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (this chapter) by section 308(c)(4) of Pub. L. 96–399 requiring the substitution of “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing in title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, and section 339B(c) of Pub. L. 97–35 (set out as a note under section 1703 of Title 12, Banks and Banking) providing that the terms “mobile home” and “manufactured home” shall be deemed to include the terms “mobile homes” and “manufactured homes”, respectively.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a)(4), (5). Pub. L. 106–569, §607(a), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–569, §607(b), added subsec. (c).

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home”.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

§5408. Cooperation by Secretary with public and private agencies

The Secretary is authorized to advise, assist, and cooperate with other Federal agencies and with State and other interested public and private agencies, in the planning and development of—

(1) manufactured home construction and safety standards; and

(2) methods for inspecting and testing to determine compliance with manufactured home standards.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §609, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 704; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641.)

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” in two places.

§5409. Prohibited acts; exemptions

(a) No person shall—

(1) make use of any means of transportation or communication affecting interstate or foreign commerce or the mails to manufacture for sale, lease, sell, offer for sale or lease, or introduce or deliver, or import into the United States, any manufactured home which is manufactured on or after the effective date of any applicable Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard under this chapter and which does not comply with such standard, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, where such manufacture, lease, sale, offer for sale or lease, introduction, delivery, or importation affects commerce;

(2) fail or refuse to permit access to or copying of records, or fail to make reports or provide information, or fail or refuse to permit entry or inspection, as required under section 5413 of this title;

(3) fail to furnish notification of any defect as required by section 5414 of this title;

(4) fail to issue a certification required by section 5415 of this title, or issue a certification to the effect that a manufactured home conforms to all applicable Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards, if such person in the exercise of due care has reason to know that such certification is false or misleading in a material respect;

(5) fail to comply with a final order issued by the Secretary under this chapter;

(6) issue a certification pursuant to subsection (h) of section 5403 of this title, if such person in the exercise of due care has reason to know that such certification is false or misleading in a material respect; or

(7) after the expiration of the period specified in section 5404(c)(2)(B) of this title, fail to comply with the requirements for the installation program required by section 5404 of this title in any State that has not adopted and implemented a State installation program.


(b)(1) Paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to the sale, the offer for sale, or the introduction or delivery for introduction in interstate commerce of any manufactured home after the first purchase of it in good faith for purposes other than resale.

(2) For purposes of section 5410 of this title, paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to any person who establishes that he did not have reason to know in the exercise of due care that such manufactured home is not in conformity with applicable Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards, or to any person who, prior to such first purchase, holds a certificate issued by the manufacturer or importer of such manufactured home to the effect that such manufactured home conforms to all applicable Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards, unless such person knows that such manufactured home does not so conform.

(3) A manufactured home offered for importation in violation of paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall be refused admission into the United States under joint regulations issued by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary, except that the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary may, by such regulations, provide for authorizing the importation of such manufactured home into the United States upon such terms and conditions (including the furnishing of a bond) as may appear to them appropriate to insure that any such manufactured home will be brought into conformity with any applicable Federal manufactured home construction or safety standard prescribed under this chapter, or will be exported from, or forfeited to, the United States.

(4) The Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary may, by joint regulations, permit the importation of any manufactured home after the first purchase of it in good faith for purposes other than resale.

(5) Paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply in the case of a manufactured home intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the manufactured home itself and on the outside of the container, if any, in which it is to be exported.

(c) Compliance with any Federal manufactured home construction or safety standard issued under this chapter does not exempt any person from any liability under common law.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §610, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 704; Pub. L. 95–128, title IX, §902(b), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1149; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §608, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3009.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 106–569 added par. (7).

1980—Subsecs. (a)(1), (4), (b)(1) to (5), (c). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

1977—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 95–128 added par. (6).

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

§5410. Civil and criminal penalties

(a) Whoever violates any provision of section 5409 of this title, or any regulation or final order issued thereunder, shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty of not to exceed $1,000 for each such violation. Each violation of a provision of section 5409 of this title, or any regulation or order issued thereunder shall constitute, a separate violation with respect to each manufactured home or with respect to each failure or refusal to allow or perform an act required thereby, except that the maximum civil penalty may not exceed $1,000,000 for any related series of violations occurring within one year from the date of the first violation.

(b) An individual or a director, officer, or agent of a corporation who knowingly and willfully violates section 5409 of this title in a manner which threatens the health or safety of any purchaser shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §611, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641.)

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home”.

§5411. Injunctive relief

(a) Jurisdiction; petition of United States attorney or Attorney General; notice by Secretary to affected persons to present views

The United States district courts shall have jurisdiction, for cause shown and subject to the provisions of rule 65(a) and (b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, to restrain violations of this chapter, or to restrain the sale, offer for sale, or the importation into the United States, of any manufactured home which is determined, prior to the first purchase of such manufactured home in good faith for purposes other than resale, not to conform to applicable Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards prescribed pursuant to this chapter or to contain a defect which constitutes an imminent safety hazard, upon petition by the appropriate United States attorney or the Attorney General on behalf of the United States. Whenever practicable, the Secretary shall give notice to any person against whom an action for injunctive relief is contemplated and afford him an opportunity to present his views and the failure to give such notice and afford such opportunity shall not preclude the granting of appropriate relief.

(b) Criminal contempt proceedings; conduct of trial

In any proceeding for criminal contempt for violation of an injunction or restraining order issued under this section, which violation also constitutes a violation of this chapter, trial shall be by the court or, upon demand of the accused, by a jury. Such trial shall be conducted in accordance with the practice and procedure applicable in the case of proceedings subject to the provisions of rule 42(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(c) Venue

Actions under subsection (a) of this section and section 5410 of this title may be brought in the district wherein any act or transaction constituting the violation occurred, or in the district wherein the defendant is found or is an inhabitant or transacts business, and process in such cases may be served in any other district of which the defendant is an inhabitant or wherever the defendant may be found.

(d) Subpenas

In any action brought by the United States under subsection (a) of this section or section 5410 of this title, subpenas by the United States for witnesses who are required to attend at United States district court may run into any other district.

(e) Designation by manufacturer of agent for service of administrative and judicial processes, etc.; filing and amendment of designation; failure to make designation

It shall be the duty of every manufacturer offering a manufactured home for importation into the United States to designate in writing an agent upon whom service of all administrative and judicial processes, notices, orders, decisions, and requirements may be made for and on behalf of such manufacturer, and to file such designation with the Secretary, which designation may from time to time be changed by like writing, similarly filed. Service of all administrative and judicial processes, notices, orders, decisions, and requirements may be made upon such manufacturer by service upon such designated agent at his office or usual place of residence with like effect as if made personally upon such manufacturer, and in default of such designation of such agent, service of process or any notice, order, requirement, or decision in any proceeding before the Secretary or in any judicial proceeding pursuant to this chapter may be made by mailing such process, notice, order, requirement, or decision to the Secretary by registered or certified mail.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §612, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641.)

References in Text

Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (a), is set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Rule 42 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b), is set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Amendments

1980—Subsecs. (a), (e). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

§5412. Noncompliance with standards or defective nature of manufactured home; administrative or judicial determination; repurchase by manufacturer or repair by distributor or retailer; reimbursement of expenses, etc., by manufacturer; injunctive relief against manufacturer for failure to comply; jurisdiction and venue; damages; period of limitation

(a) If the Secretary or a court of appropriate jurisdiction determines that any manufactured home does not conform to applicable Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards, or that it contains a defect which constitutes an imminent safety hazard, after the sale of such manufactured home by a manufacturer to a distributor or a retailer and prior to the sale of such manufactured home by such distributor or retailer to a purchaser—

(1) the manufacturer shall immediately repurchase such manufactured home from such distributor or retailer at the price paid by such distributor or retailer, plus all transportation charges involved and a reasonable reimbursement of not less than 1 per centum per month of such price paid prorated from the date of receipt by certified mail of notice of such nonconformance to the date of repurchase by the manufacturer; or

(2) the manufacturer, at his own expense, shall immediately furnish the purchasing distributor or retailer the required conforming part or parts or equipment for installation by the distributor or retailer on or in such manufactured home, and for the installation involved the manufacturer shall reimburse such distributor or retailer for the reasonable value of such installation plus a reasonable reimbursement of not less than 1 per centum per month of the manufacturer's or distributor's selling price prorated from the date of receipt by certified mail of notice of such nonconformance to the date such vehicle is brought into conformance with applicable Federal standards, so long as the distributor or retailer proceeds with reasonable diligence with the installation after the required part or equipment is received.


The value of such reasonable reimbursements as specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall be fixed by mutual agreement of the parties, or, failing such agreement, by the court pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section.

(b) If any manufacturer fails to comply with the requirements of subsection (a) of this section, then the distributor or retailer, as the case may be, to whom such manufactured home has been sold may bring an action seeking a court injunction compelling compliance with such requirements on the part of such manufacturer. Such action may be brought in any district court in the United States in the district in which such manufacturer resides, or is found, or has an agent, without regard to the amount in controversy, and the person bringing the action shall also be entitled to recover any damage sustained by him, as well as all court costs plus reasonable attorneys’ fees. Any action brought pursuant to this section shall be forever barred unless commenced within three years after the cause of action shall have accrued.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §613, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 706; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §603(b)(1), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2999.)

Amendments

2000—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 106–569 substituted “retailer” for “dealer” wherever appearing.

1980—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

§5413. Inspections and investigations for promulgation or enforcement of standards or execution of other duties

(a) Authority of Secretary; results furnished to Attorney General and Secretary of the Treasury for appropriate action

The Secretary is authorized to conduct such inspections and investigations as may be necessary to promulgate or enforce Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards established under this chapter or otherwise to carry out his duties under this chapter. He shall furnish the Attorney General and, when appropriate, the Secretary of the Treasury any information obtained indicating noncompliance with such standards for appropriate action.

(b) Designation by Secretary of persons to enter and inspect factories, etc.; presentation of credentials; reasonableness and scope of inspection

(1) For purposes of enforcement of this chapter, persons duly designated by the Secretary, upon presenting appropriate credentials to the owner, operator, or agent in charge, are authorized—

(A) to enter, at reasonable times and without advance notice, any factory, warehouse, or establishment in which manufactured homes are manufactured, stored, or held, for sale; and

(B) to inspect, at reasonable times and within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner, any such factory, warehouse, or establishment, and to inspect such books, papers, records, and documents as are set forth in subsection (c) of this section. Each such inspection shall be commenced and completed with reasonable promptness.


(2) The Secretary is authorized to contract with State and local governments and private inspection organizations to carry out his functions under this subsection.

(c) Powers of Secretary

For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this chapter, the Secretary is authorized—

(1) to hold such hearings, take such testimony, sit and act at such times and places, administer such oaths, and require, by subpena or otherwise, the attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, correspondence, memorandums, contracts, agreements, or other records, as the Secretary or such officer or employee deems advisable. Witnesses summoned pursuant to this subsection shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States;

(2) to examine and copy any documentary evidence of any person having materials or information relevant to any function of the Secretary under this chapter;

(3) to require, by general or special orders, any person to file, in such form as the Secretary may prescribe, reports or answers in writing to specific questions relating to any function of the Secretary under this chapter. Such reports and answers shall be made under oath or otherwise, and shall be filed with the Secretary within such reasonable period as the Secretary may prescribe;

(4) to request from any Federal agency any information he deems necessary to carry out his functions under this chapter, and each such agency is authorized and directed to cooperate with the Secretary and to furnish such information upon request made by the Secretary, and the head of any Federal agency is authorized to detail, on a reimbursable basis, any personnel of such agency to assist in carrying out the duties of the Secretary under this chapter; and

(5) to make available to the public any information which may indicate the existence of a defect which relates to manufactured home construction or safety or of the failure of a manufactured home to comply with applicable manufactured home construction and safety standards. The Secretary shall disclose so much of other information obtained under this subsection to the public as he determines will assist in carrying out this chapter; but he shall not (under the authority of this sentence) make available or disclosure to the public any information which contains or relates to a trade secret or any information the disclosure of which would put the person furnishing such information at a substantial competitive disadvantage, unless he determines that it is necessary to carry out the purpose of this chapter.

(d) Refusal to obey subpena or order of Secretary; order of compliance by district court; failure to obey order of compliance punishable as contempt

Any of the district courts of the United States within the jurisdiction of which an inquiry is carried on may, in the case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena or order of the Secretary issued under paragraph (1) or paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of this section, issue an order requiring compliance therewith; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

(e) Submission by manufacturer of building plans for manufactured homes; certification by manufacturer of conformity of building plans to standards

Each manufacturer of manufactured homes shall submit the building plans for every model of such manufactured homes to the Secretary or his designee for the purpose of inspection under this section. The manufacturer must certify that each such building plan meets the Federal construction and safety standards in force at that time before the model involved is produced.

(f) Records, reports and information from manufacturers, distributors and retailers of manufactured homes; inspection and examination of relevant books, papers, records and documents by designated person

Each manufacturer, distributor, and retailer of manufactured homes shall establish and maintain such records, make such reports, and provide such information as the Secretary may reasonably require to enable him to determine whether such manufacturer, distributor, or retailer has acted or is acting in compliance with this chapter and Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards prescribed pursuant to this chapter and shall, upon request of a person duly designated by the Secretary, permit such person to inspect appropriate books, papers, records, and documents relevant to determining whether such manufacturer, distributor, or retailer has acted or is acting in compliance with this chapter and manufactured home construction and safety standards prescribed pursuant to this chapter.

(g) Performance and technical data from manufacturer; persons required to receive notification of data

Each manufacturer of manufactured homes shall provide to the Secretary such performance data and other technical data related to performance and safety as may be required to carry out the purposes of this chapter. These shall include records of tests and test results which the Secretary may require to be performed. The Secretary is authorized to require the manufacturer to give notification of such performance and technical data to—

(1) each prospective purchaser of a manufactured home before its first sale for purposes other than resale, at each location where any such manufacturer's manufactured homes are offered for sale by a person with whom such manufacturer has a contractual, proprietary, or other legal relationship and in a manner determined by the Secretary to be appropriate, which may include, but is not limited to, printed matter (A) available for retention by such prospective purchaser, and (B) sent by mail to such prospective purchaser upon his request; and

(2) the first person who purchases a manufactured home for purposes other than resale, at the time of such purchase or in printed matter placed in the manufactured home.

(h) Disclosure of confidential information and trade secrets

All information reported to or otherwise obtained by the Secretary or his representative pursuant to subsection (b), (c), (f), or (g) of this section which contains or relates to a trade secret, or which, if disclosed, would put the person furnishing such information at a substantial competitive disadvantage, shall be considered confidential, except that such information may be disclosed to other officers or employees concerned with carrying out this chapter or when relevant in any proceeding under this chapter. Nothing in this section shall authorize the withholding of information by the Secretary or any officer or employee under his control from the duly authorized committees of the Congress.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §614, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339B(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §603(b)(2), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2999.)

Codification

References to “mobile homes”, wherever appearing in text, changed to “manufactured homes” in view of the amendment of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (this chapter) by section 308(c)(4) of Pub. L. 96–399 requiring the substitution of “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing in title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, and section 339B(c) of Pub. L. 97–35 (set out as a note under section 1703 of Title 12, Banks and Banking) providing that the terms “mobile home” and “manufactured home” shall be deemed to include the terms “mobile homes” and “manufactured homes”, respectively.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–569 substituted “retailer” for “dealer” wherever appearing.

1980—Subsecs. (a), (c)(5), (f), (g). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

§5414. Notification and correction of defects by manufacturer

(a) Notice to purchaser within reasonable time after discovery of defect

Every manufacturer of manufactured homes shall furnish notification of any defect in any manufactured home produced by such manufacturer which he determines, in good faith, relates to a Federal manufactured home construction or safety standard or contains a defect which constitutes an imminent safety hazard to the purchaser of such manufactured home, within a reasonable time after such manufacturer has discovered such defect.

(b) Notification by mail

The notification required by subsection (a) of this section shall be accomplished—

(1) by mail to the first purchaser (not including any retailer or distributor of such manufacturer) of the manufactured home containing the defect, and to any subsequent purchaser to whom any warranty on such manufactured home has been transferred;

(2) by mail to any other person who is a registered owner of such manufactured home and whose name and address has been ascertained pursuant to procedures established under subsection (f) of this section; and

(3) by mail or other more expeditious means to the retailer or retailers of such manufacturer to whom such manufactured home was delivered.

(c) Form and requisites of notification

The notification required by subsection (a) of this section shall contain a clear description of such defect or failure to comply, an evaluation of the risk to manufactured home occupants’ safety reasonably related to such defect, and a statement of the measures needed to repair the defect. The notification shall also inform the owner whether the defect is a construction or safety defect which the manufacturer will have corrected at no cost to the owner of the manufactured home under subsection (g) of this section or otherwise, or is a defect which must be corrected at the expense of the owner.

(d) Copy to Secretary of all notices, bulletins, and communications sent by manufacturer to retailers and purchasers concerning defects; disclosure to public by Secretary

Every manufacturer of manufactured homes shall furnish to the Secretary a true or representative copy of all notices, bulletins, and other communications to the retailers of such manufacturer or purchasers of manufactured homes of such manufacturer regarding any defect in any such manufactured home produced by such manufacturer. The Secretary shall disclose to the public so much of the information contained in such notices or other information obtained under section 5413 of this title as he deems will assist in carrying out the purposes of this chapter, but he shall not disclose any information which contains or relates to a trade secret, or which, if disclosed, would put such manufacturer at a substantial competitive disadvantage, unless he determines that it is necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(e) Notice by Secretary to manufacturers of noncompliance with standards or defective nature of manufactured home; contents of notice; presentation by manufacturer of views; notice to purchasers of defects

If the Secretary determines that any manufactured home—

(1) does not comply with an applicable Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard prescribed pursuant to section 5403 of this title; or

(2) contains a defect which constitutes an imminent safety hazard,


then he shall immediately notify the manufacturer of such manufactured home of such defect or failure to comply. The notice shall contain the findings of the Secretary and shall include all information upon which the findings are based. The Secretary shall afford such manufacturer an opportunity to present his views and evidence in support thereof, to establish that there is no failure of compliance. If after such presentation by the manufacturer the Secretary determines that such manufactured home does not comply with applicable Federal manufactured home construction or safety standards, or contains a defect which constitutes an imminent safety hazard, the Secretary shall direct the manufacturer to furnish the notification specified in subsections (a) and (b) of this section.

(f) Maintenance by manufacturers of record of names and addresses of first purchasers of manufactured homes; procedures for ascertaining names and addresses of subsequent purchasers; establishment and reasonableness of procedures for maintaining records

Every manufacturer of manufactured homes shall maintain a record of the name and address of the first purchaser of each manufactured home (for purposes other than resale), and, to the maximum extent feasible, shall maintain procedures for ascertaining the name and address of any subsequent purchaser thereof and shall maintain a record of names and addresses so ascertained. Such records shall be kept for each home produced by a manufacturer. The Secretary may establish by order procedures to be followed by manufacturers in establishing and maintaining such records, including procedures to be followed by distributors and retailers to assist manufacturers to secure the information required by this subsection. Such procedures shall be reasonable for the particular type of manufactured home for which they are prescribed.

(g) Correction of defects by manufacturer; conditions; procedures; contract or legal rights of purchasers or other persons unaffected

A manufacturer required to furnish notification of a defect under subsection (a) or (e) of this section shall also bring the manufactured home into compliance with applicable standards and correct the defect or have the defect corrected within a reasonable period of time at no expense to the owner, but only if—

(1) the defect presents an unreasonable risk of injury or death to occupants of the affected manufactured home or homes;

(2) the defect can be related to an error in design or assembly of the manufactured home by the manufacturer.


The Secretary may direct the manufacturer to make such corrections after providing an opportunity for oral and written presentation of views by interested persons. Nothing in this section shall limit the rights of the purchaser or any other person under any contract or applicable law.

(h) Submission to Secretary by manufacturer of plan for notifying owners of defects and repair of defects; approval of manufacturer's remedy plan; effectuation and implementation of remedy plan

The manufacturer shall submit his plan for notifying owners of the defect and for repairing such defect (if required under subsection (g) of this section) to the Secretary for his approval before implementing such plan. Whenever a manufacturer is required under subsection (g) of this section to correct a defect, the Secretary shall approve with or without modification, after consultation with the manufacturer of the manufactured home involved, such manufacturer's remedy plan including the date when, and the method by which, the notification and remedy required pursuant to this section shall be effectuated. Such date shall be the earliest practicable one but shall not be more than sixty days after the date of discovery or determination of the defect or failure to comply, unless the Secretary grants an extension of such period for good cause shown and publishes a notice of such extension in the Federal Register. Such manufacturer is bound to implement such remedy plan as approved by the Secretary.

(i) Defective or inadequately repaired manufactured homes; replacement with new or equivalent home or refund of purchase price

Where a defect or failure to comply in a manufactured home cannot be adequately repaired within sixty days from the date of discovery or determination of the defect, the Secretary may require that the manufactured home be replaced with a new or equivalent home without charge, or that the purchase price be refunded in full, less a reasonable allowance for depreciation based on actual use if the home has been in the possession of the owner for more than one year.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §615, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339B(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §603(b)(3), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2999.)

Codification

References to “mobile homes”, wherever appearing in text, changed to “manufactured homes” in view of the amendment of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (this chapter) by section 308(c)(4) of Pub. L. 96–399 requiring the substitution of “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing in title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, and section 339B(c) of Pub. L. 97–35 (set out as a note under section 1703 of Title 12, Banks and Banking) providing that the terms “mobile home” and “manufactured home” shall be deemed to include the terms “mobile homes” and “manufactured homes”, respectively.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–569, §603(b)(3)(A), substituted “retailer” for “dealer”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–569, §603(b)(3)(B), substituted “retailer or retailers” for “dealer or dealers”.

Subsecs. (d), (f). Pub. L. 106–569, §603(b)(3)(C), substituted “retailers” for “dealers ”.

1980—Subsecs. (a) to (i). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

§5415. Certification by manufacturer of conformity of manufactured home with standards; form and placement of certification

Every manufacturer of manufactured homes shall furnish to the distributor or retailer at the time of delivery of each such manufactured home produced by such manufacturer certification that such manufactured home conforms to all applicable Federal construction and safety standards. Such certification shall be in the form of a label or tag permanently affixed to each such manufactured home.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §616, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339B(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §603(b)(4), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2999.)

Codification

References to “mobile homes”, wherever appearing in text, changed to “manufactured homes” in view of the amendment of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (this chapter) by section 308(c)(4) of Pub. L. 96–399 requiring the substitution of “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing in title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, and section 339B(c) of Pub. L. 97–35 (set out as a note under section 1703 of Title 12, Banks and Banking) providing that the terms “mobile home” and “manufactured home” shall be deemed to include the terms “mobile homes” and “manufactured homes”, respectively.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–569 substituted “retailer” for “dealer”.

1980—Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

§5416. Consumer's manual; contents

The Secretary shall develop guidelines for a consumer's manual to be provided to manufactured home purchasers by the manufacturer. These manuals should identify and explain the purchasers’ responsibilities for operation, maintenance, and repair of their manufactured homes.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §617, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339B(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 417.)

Codification

References to “mobile homes”, wherever appearing in text, changed to “manufactured homes” in view of the amendment of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (this chapter) by section 308(c)(4) of Pub. L. 96–399 requiring the substitution of “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing in title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, and section 339B(c) of Pub. L. 97–35 (set out as a note under section 1703 of Title 12, Banks and Banking) providing that the terms “mobile home” and “manufactured home” shall be deemed to include the terms “mobile homes” and “manufactured homes”, respectively.

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home”.

§5417. Effect upon antitrust laws

Nothing contained in this chapter shall be deemed to exempt from the antitrust laws of the United States any conduct that would otherwise be unlawful under such laws, or to prohibit under the antitrust laws of the United States any conduct that would be lawful under such laws. As used in this section, the term “antitrust laws” includes, but is not limited to, the Act of July 2, 1890, as amended; the Act of October 14, 1914, as amended; the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.); and sections 73 and 74 of the Act of August 27, 1894, as amended.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §618, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 711.)

References in Text

Act of July 2, 1890, as amended, referred to in text, is act July 2, 1890, ch. 647, 26 Stat. 209, as amended, known as the Sherman Act, which is classified to sections 1 to 7 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1 of Title 15 and Tables.

Act of October 14, 1914, as amended, referred to in text, is act Oct. 15, 1914, ch. 323, 38 Stat. 730, as amended, known as the Clayton Act which is classified generally to sections 12, 13, 14 to 19, 21, and 22 to 27 of Title 15, and sections 52 and 53 of Title 29, Labor. For further details and complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 12 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Federal Trade Commission Act, referred to in text, is act Sept. 26, 1914, ch. 311, 38 Stat. 717, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§41 et seq.) of chapter 2 of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 58 of Title 15 and Tables.

Sections 73 and 74 of the Act of August 27, 1894, referred to in text, are classified to sections 8 and 9 of Title 15.

§5418. Use of services, research and testing facilities of public agencies and independent laboratories

The Secretary, in exercising the authority under this chapter, shall utilize the services, research and testing facilities of public agencies and independent testing laboratories to the maximum extent practicable in order to avoid duplication.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §619, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 711.)

§5419. Authority to collect fee

(a) In general

In carrying out inspections under this chapter, in developing standards and regulations pursuant to section 5403 of this title, and in facilitating the acceptance of the affordability and availability of manufactured housing within the Department, the Secretary may—

(1) establish and collect from manufactured home manufacturers a reasonable fee, as may be necessary to offset the expenses incurred by the Secretary in connection with carrying out the responsibilities of the Secretary under this chapter, including—

(A) conducting inspections and monitoring;

(B) providing funding to States for the administration and implementation of approved State plans under section 5422 of this title, including reasonable funding for cooperative educational and training programs designed to facilitate uniform enforcement under this chapter, which funds may be paid directly to the States or may be paid or provided to any person or entity designated to receive and disburse such funds by cooperative agreements among participating States, provided that such person or entity is not otherwise an agent of the Secretary under this chapter;

(C) providing the funding for a noncareer administrator within the Department to administer the manufactured housing program;

(D) providing the funding for salaries and expenses of employees of the Department to carry out the manufactured housing program;

(E) administering the consensus committee as set forth in section 5403 of this title;

(F) facilitating the acceptance of the quality, durability, safety, and affordability of manufactured housing within the Department; and

(G) the administration and enforcement of the installation standards authorized by section 5404 of this title in States in which the Secretary is required to implement an installation program after the expiration of the 5-year period set forth in section 5404(c)(2)(B) of this title, and the administration and enforcement of a dispute resolution program described in section 5422(c)(12) of this title in States in which the Secretary is required to implement such a program after the expiration of the 5-year period set forth in section 5422(g)(2) of this title; and


(2) subject to subsection (e) of this section, use amounts from any fee collected under paragraph (1) of this subsection to pay expenses referred to in that paragraph, which shall be exempt and separate from any limitations on the Department regarding full-time equivalent positions and travel.

(b) Contractors

In using amounts from any fee collected under this section, the Secretary shall ensure that separate and independent contractors are retained to carry out monitoring and inspection work and any other work that may be delegated to a contractor under this chapter.

(c) Prohibited use

No amount from any fee collected under this section may be used for any purpose or activity not specifically authorized by this chapter, unless such activity was already engaged in by the Secretary prior to December 27, 2000.

(d) Modification

Beginning on December 27, 2000, the amount of any fee collected under this section may only be modified—

(1) as specifically authorized in advance in an annual appropriations Act; and

(2) pursuant to rulemaking in accordance with section 553 of title 5.

(e) Appropriation and deposit of fees

(1) In general

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a fund to be known as the “Manufactured Housing Fees Trust Fund” for deposit of amounts from any fee collected under this section. Such amounts shall be held in trust for use only as provided in this chapter.

(2) Appropriation

Amounts from any fee collected under this section shall be available for expenditure only to the extent approved in advance in an annual appropriations Act. Any change in the expenditure of such amounts shall be specifically authorized in advance in an annual appropriations Act.

(3) Payments to States

On and after the effective date of the Manufactured Housing Improvement Act of 2000, the Secretary shall continue to fund the States having approved State plans in the amounts which are not less than the allocated amounts, based on the fee distribution system in effect on the day before such effective date.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §620, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 96–153, title III, §320, Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1119; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §609, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3010.)

References in Text

For the effective date of the Manufactured Housing Improvement Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendment note under section 5401 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–569 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “In carrying out the inspections required under this chapter, the Secretary may establish and impose on manufactured home manufacturers, distributors, and dealers such reasonable fees as may be necessary to offset the expenses incurred by him in conducting such inspections, and the Secretary may use any fees so collected to pay expenses incurred in connection with such inspections, except that this section shall not apply in any State which has in effect a State plan under section 5422 of this title.”

1980—Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home”.

1979—Pub. L. 96–153 substituted “conducting such inspections, and the Secretary may use any fees so collected to pay expenses incurred in connection with such inspections, except” for “conducting such inspections, except”.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

Manufactured Housing

Pub. L. 107–18, §1, July 5, 2001, 115 Stat. 152, provided that:

“(a) Availability of Fees.—Notwithstanding section 620(e)(2) of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5419(e)(2)), any fees collected under that Act, including any fees collected before the date of enactment of the American Homeownership and Economic Opportunity Act of 2000 (12 U.S.C. 1701 note) [Dec. 27, 2000] and remaining unobligated on the date of enactment of this Act [July 5, 2001], shall be available for expenditure to offset the expenses incurred by the Secretary under the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5401 et seq.), otherwise in accordance with section 620 of that Act.

“(b) Duration.—The authority for the use of fees provided for in subsection (a) shall remain in effect during the period beginning in fiscal year 2001 and ending on the effective date of the first appropriations Act referred to in section 620(e)(2) of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5419(e)(2)) that is enacted with respect to a fiscal year after fiscal year 2001.”

§5420. Failure to report violations; penalties

Any person, other than an officer or employee of the United States, or a person exercising inspection functions under a State plan pursuant to section 5422 of this title, who knowingly and willfully fails to report a violation of any construction or safety standard established under section 5403 of this title may be fined up to $1,000 or imprisoned for up to one year, or both.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §621, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 712.)

§5421. Prohibition on waiver of rights

The rights afforded manufactured home purchasers under this chapter may not be waived, and any provision of a contract or agreement entered into after August 22, 1974, to the contrary shall be void.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §622, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641.)

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home”.

§5422. State enforcement

(a) Jurisdiction of State agency or court under State law

Nothing in this chapter shall prevent any State agency or court from asserting jurisdiction under State law over any manufactured home construction or safety issue with respect to which no Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard has been established pursuant to the provisions of section 5403 of this title.

(b) Assumption of responsibility for enforcement of Federal standards; submission of enforcement plan to Secretary

Any State which, at any time, desires to assume responsibility for enforcement of manufactured home safety and construction standards relating to any issue with respect to which a Federal standard has been established under section 5403 of this title, shall submit to the Secretary a State plan for enforcement of such standards.

(c) Criteria for approval of State plan by Secretary

The Secretary shall approve the plan submitted by a State under subsection (b) of this section, or any modification thereof, if such plan in his judgment—

(1) designates a State agency or agencies as the agency or agencies responsible for administering the plan throughout the State;

(2) provides for the enforcement of manufactured home safety and construction standards promulgated under section 5403 of this title;

(3) provides for a right of entry and inspection of all factories, warehouses, or establishments in such State in which manufactured homes are manufactured and for the review of plans, in a manner which is identical to that provided in section 5413 of this title;

(4) provides for the imposition of the civil and criminal penalties under section 5410 of this title;

(5) provides for the notification and correction procedures under section 5414 of this title;

(6) provides for the payment of inspection fees by manufacturers in amounts adequate to cover the costs of inspections;

(7) contains satisfactory assurances that the State agency or agencies have or will have the legal authority and qualified personnel necessary for the enforcement of such standards;

(8) give satisfactory assurances that such State will devote adequate funds to the administration and enforcement of such standards;

(9) requires manufacturers, distributors, and retailers in such State to make reports to the Secretary in the same manner and to the same extent as if the State plan were not in effect;

(10) provides that the State agency or agencies will make such reports to the Secretary in such form and containing such information as the Secretary shall from time to time require;

(11) with respect to any State plan submitted on or after the expiration of the 5-year period beginning on December 27, 2000, provides for an installation program established by State law that meets the requirements of section 5404(c)(3) of this title;

(12) with respect to any State plan submitted on or after the expiration of the 5-year period beginning on December 27, 2000, provides for a dispute resolution program for the timely resolution of disputes between manufacturers, retailers, and installers of manufactured homes regarding responsibility, and for the issuance of appropriate orders, for the correction or repair of defects in manufactured homes that are reported during the 1-year period beginning on the date of installation; and

(13) complies with such other requirements as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe for the enforcement of this chapter.

(d) Notice and hearing prior to rejection by Secretary of State plan

If the Secretary rejects a plan submitted under subsection (b) of this section, he shall afford the State submitting the plan due notice and opportunity for a hearing before so doing.

(e) Discretionary enforcement by Secretary of standards in State having approved plan

After the Secretary approves a State plan submitted under subsection (b) of this section, he may, but shall not be required to, exercise his authority under this chapter with respect to enforcement of manufactured home construction and safety standards in the State involved.

(f) Annual evaluation by Secretary of execution of State plan; basis of evaluation; submission of evaluation and data to Congress; determination by Secretary of improper administration, etc., of State plan; procedure; effect of determination

The Secretary shall, on the basis of reports submitted by the designated State agency and his own inspections, make a continuing evaluation of the manner in which each State having a plan approved under this section is carrying out such plan. Such evaluation shall be made by the Secretary at least annually for each State, and the results of such evaluation and the inspection reports on which it is based shall be promptly submitted to the appropriate committees of the Congress. Whenever the Secretary finds, after affording due notice and opportunity for a hearing, that in the administration of the State plan there is a failure to comply substantially with any provision of the State plan or that the State plan has become inadequate, he shall notify the State agency or agencies of his withdrawal of approval of such plan. Upon receipt of such notice by such State agency or agencies such plan shall cease to be in effect, but the State may retain jurisdiction in any case commenced before the withdrawal of the plan in order to enforce manufactured home standards under the plan whenever the issues involved do not relate to the reasons for the withdrawal of the plan.

(g) Enforcement of dispute resolution standards

(1) Establishment of dispute resolution program

Not later than the expiration of the 5-year period beginning on December 27, 2000, the Secretary shall establish a dispute resolution program that meets the requirements of subsection (c)(12) of this section for dispute resolution in each State described in paragraph (2) of this subsection. The order establishing the dispute resolution program shall be issued after notice and opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5.

(2) Implementation of dispute resolution program

Beginning on the expiration of the 5-year period described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall implement the dispute resolution program established under paragraph (1) in each State that has not established a dispute resolution program that meets the requirements of subsection (c)(12) of this section.

(3) Contracting out of implementation

In carrying out paragraph (2), the Secretary may contract with an appropriate agent to implement the dispute resolution program established under paragraph (2), except that such agent shall not be a person or entity other than a government, nor an affiliate or subsidiary of such a person or entity, that has entered into a contract with the Secretary to implement any other regulatory program under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §623, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339B(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §§603(b)(5), 605(b), 610, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2999, 3008, 3011.)

Codification

Reference to “mobile homes”, appearing in subsec. (c)(3), changed to “manufactured homes” in view of the amendment of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (this chapter) by section 308(c)(4) of Pub. L. 96–399 requiring the substitution of “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing in title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, and section 339B(c) of Pub. L. 97–35 (set out as a note under section 1703 of Title 12, Banks and Banking) providing that the terms “mobile home” and “manufactured home” shall be deemed to include the terms “mobile homes” and “manufactured homes”, respectively.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 106–569, §603(b)(5), substituted “retailers” for “dealers”.

Subsec. (c)(11). Pub. L. 106–569, §605(b)(1), (3), added par. (11). Former par. (11) redesignated (13).

Subsec. (c)(12). Pub. L. 106–569, §610(1), added par. (12).

Subsec. (c)(13). Pub. L. 106–569, §605(b)(2), redesignated par. (11) as (13).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–569, §610(2), added subsec. (g).

1980—Subsecs. (a), (b), (c)(2), (e), (f). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569 effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.

§5423. Grants to States

(a) Purposes

The Secretary is authorized to make grants to the States which have designated a State agency under section 5422 of this title to assist them—

(1) in identifying their needs and responsibilities in the area of manufactured home construction and safety standards; or

(2) in developing State plans under section 5422 of this title.

(b) Designation by Governor of State agency for receipt of grant

The Governor of each State shall designate the appropriate State agency for receipt of any grant made by the Secretary under this section.

(c) Submission of application by State agency to Secretary; review by Secretary

Any State agency designated by the Governor of a State desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application therefor to the Secretary. The Secretary shall review and either accept or reject such application.

(d) Amount of Federal share; equality of distribution of funds

The Federal share for each State grant under subsection (a) of this section may not exceed 90 per centum of the total cost to the State in identifying its needs and developing its plan. In the event the Federal share for all States under such subsection is not the same, the differences among the States shall be established on the basis of objective criteria.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §624, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641.)

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home”.

§5424. Rules and regulations

The Secretary is authorized to issue, amend, and revoke such rules and regulations as he deems necessary to carry out this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §625, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 713.)

Regulations and Procedures With Regard to Manufactured Homes

Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(7), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641, provided that: “In adopting regulations and procedures in accordance with this subsection [see Tables for classification] the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall have discretion to take actions in a manner which he deems necessary to insure that the public is fully aware of the distinctions between the various types of factory-built housing.”

§5425. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §611(1), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3012

Section, Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §626, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 714; Pub. L. 95–557, title IX, §901, Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2124; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §308(c)(4), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339B(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 417, related to reports to Congress.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that repeal has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 of Pub. L. 106–569, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendment note under section 5401 of this title.

§5426. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, §626, formerly §627, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 714; renumbered §626, Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, §611(2), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3012.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 626 of Pub. L. 93–383 was classified to section 5425 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 106–569.