42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2008 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 79 - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY, ORGANIZATION AND PRIORITIES
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 79—SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY, ORGANIZATION AND PRIORITIES

SUBCHAPTER I—NATIONAL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND PRIORITIES

Sec.
6601.
Congressional findings; priority goals.
6602.
Congressional declaration of policy.
6603.
Sense of Congress on innovation acceleration research.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY

6611.
Establishment of Office.
6612.
Director; Associate Directors.
6613.
Functions of the Director.
6614.
Policy planning; analysis; advice; establishment of advisory panel.
6615.
Science and technology report and outlook.
6616.
Additional functions of Director.
6617.
Coordination with other organizations.
6618.
Major science and technology proposals.
6619.
National coordination of research infrastructure.
6620.
Release of scientific research results.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

6631.
Establishment of Committee.
6632.
Membership of Committee.
6633.
Federal science, engineering, and technology survey; reports.
6634.
Continuation of Committee.
6635.
Staff and consultant support.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—FEDERAL COORDINATING COUNCIL FOR SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND TECHNOLOGY

6651.
Establishment, membership, and functions of Council.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—GENERAL PROVISIONS

6671.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—NATIONAL CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES PANEL

6681 to 6685. Omitted.
6686.
Science and Technology Policy Institute.
6687.
Critical technology strategies.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—NATIONAL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND PRIORITIES

§6601. Congressional findings; priority goals

(a) The Congress, recognizing the profound impact of science and technology on society, and the interrelations of scientific, technological, economic, social, political, and institutional factors, hereby finds and declares that—

(1) the general welfare, the security, the economic health and stability of the Nation, the conservation and efficient utilization of its natural and human resources, and the effective functioning of government and society require vigorous, perceptive support and employment of science and technology in achieving national objectives;

(2) the many large and complex scientific and technological factors which increasingly influence the course of national and international events require appropriate provision, involving long-range, inclusive planning as well as more immediate program development, to incorporate scientific and technological knowledge in the national decisionmaking process;

(3) the scientific and technological capabilities of the United States, when properly fostered, applied, and directed, can effectively assist in improving the quality of life, in anticipating and resolving critical and emerging international, national, and local problems, in strengthening the Nation's international economic position, and in furthering its foreign policy objectives;

(4) Federal funding for science and technology represents an investment in the future which is indispensable to sustained national progress and human betterment, and there should be a continuing national investment in science, engineering, and technology which is commensurate with national needs and opportunities and the prevalent economic situation;

(5) the manpower pool of scientists, engineers, and technicians, constitutes an invaluable national resource which should be utilized to the fullest extent possible; and

(6) the Nation's capabilities for technology assessment and for technological planning and policy formulation must be strengthened at both Federal and State levels.


(b) As a consequence, the Congress finds and declares that science and technology should contribute to the following priority goals without being limited thereto:

(1) fostering leadership in the quest for international peace and progress toward human freedom, dignity, and well-being by enlarging the contributions of American scientists and engineers to the knowledge of man and his universe, by making discoveries of basic science widely available at home and abroad, and by utilizing technology in support of United States national and foreign policy goals;

(2) increasing the efficient use of essential materials and products, and generally contributing to economic opportunity, stability, and appropriate growth;

(3) assuring an adequate supply of food, materials, and energy for the Nation's needs;

(4) contributing to the national security;

(5) improving the quality of health care available to all residents of the United States;

(6) preserving, fostering, and restoring a healthful and esthetic natural environment;

(7) providing for the protection of the oceans and coastal zones, and the polar regions, and the efficient utilization of their resources;

(8) strengthening the economy and promoting full employment through useful scientific and technological innovations;

(9) increasing the quality of educational opportunities available to all residents of the United States;

(10) promoting the conservation and efficient utilization of the Nation's natural and human resources;

(11) improving the Nation's housing, transportation, and communication systems, and assuring the provision of effective public services throughout urban, suburban, and rural areas;

(12) eliminating air and water pollution, and unnecessary, unhealthful, or ineffective drugs and food additives; and

(13) advancing the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title I, §101, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 459.)

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 94–282 provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter, amending section 1863 of this title, repealing sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 of Reorganization Plan Numbered 2 of 1962 (76 Stat. 1253), set out as a note under section 1861 of this title, and section 2 of Reorganization Plan Numbered 1 of 1973 (87 Stat. 1089), set out as a note under section 5195 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1862 and 6611 of this title] may be cited as the ‘National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976’.”

Section 201 of title II of Pub. L. 94–282 provided that: “This title [enacting subchapter II of this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Presidential Science and Technology Advisory Organization Act of 1976’.”

Ex. Ord. No. 12039. Transfer of Certain Science and Technology Policy Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 12039, Feb. 24, 1978, 43 F.R. 8095, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12399, Dec. 31, 1982, 48 F.R. 379, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including Section 7 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1977 (42 FR 56101 (October 21, 1977)) [set out in Appendix of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees], Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and Section 202 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 581c) [31 U.S.C. 1531], and as President of the United States of America, in order to provide for the transfer of certain science and technology functions, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. (a) The transfer, provided by Section 5A of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1977 (42 FR 56101) [set out in Appendix of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees], of certain functions under the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976, hereinafter referred to as the Act (90 Stat. 459, 42 U.S.C. 6601 et seq.), from the Office of Science and Technology Policy and its Director to the Director of the National Science Foundation is hereby effective.

(b) The abolition of the Intergovernmental Science, Engineering, and Technology Advisory Panel, the President's Committee on Science and Technology, and the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (established in accordance with Titles II, III, and IV of the Act) [sections 6611 et seq., 6631 et seq., and 6651 of this title] and the transfer of their functions (Sections 205(b)(1), 303(a) and (b)(1), and 401 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 6614(b)(1), 6633 (a) and (b)(1), and 6651(e)) to the President of the United States of America, provided by Section 5A of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1977 [set out in Appendix of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees], are hereby effective.

Sec. 2. (a) The intergovernmental science, engineering, and technology functions under Section 205(b)(1) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 6614(b)(1)), which were transferred to the President (see Section 1(b) of this Order), are delegated to the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy; Except that, the responsibility for fostering any policies to facilitate the transfer and utilization of research and development results is delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(b) The functions vested by subsection (a) of this Section in the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall be performed in accord with the Director's responsibilities under the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 (82 Stat. 1098, 42 U.S.C. 4201 et seq.) [31 U.S.C. 6501 et seq.]. The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall advise the Director of the Office of Management and Budget with respect to the needs of State, regional, and local governments which may be assisted by the utilization of science, engineering, and technology research and development results.

(c) The functions vested by subsection (a) of this Section in the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall be performed in coordination with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and with others as designated by the President.

(d) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12399, Dec. 31, 1982, 48 F.R. 379.]

Sec. 3. The Federal science, engineering, and technology functions under Section 303 (a) and (b)(1) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 6633 (a) and (b)(1)), which were transferred to the President (see Section 1(b) of this Order), are delegated to the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy: Except that, those functions concerned with reorganization, including Federal–State liaison, are delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, who shall be provided advice and assistance thereon by the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Sec. 4. The science, engineering, and technology and related activities functions under Section 401(e) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 6651(e)), which were transferred to the President (see Section 1(b) of this Order), are delegated to the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Sec. 5. There is hereby established the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. The Council shall be composed of the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, who shall be Chairman, and representatives of such other Executive agencies designated by the Chairman. The head of an agency so designated shall designate an appropriate individual to serve on the Council. The Council shall advise and assist the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the performance of those functions delegated under Section 4 of this Order.

Sec. 6. The records, property, personnel, and unexpended balances of appropriations, available or to be made available, which relate to the functions transferred, reassigned, or redelegated by this Order are hereby transferred to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, or the Director of the National Science Foundation, as appropriate.

Sec. 7. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall make such determinations, issue such orders, and take all actions necessary or appropriate to effectuate the transfers or reassignments provided by this Order, including the transfer of funds, records, property, and personnel.

Sec. 8. This Order shall be effective on February 26, 1978.

Jimmy Carter.      

Executive Order No. 12700

Ex. Ord. No. 12700, Jan. 19, 1990, 55 F.R. 2219, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12768, June 28, 1991, 56 F.R. 30302, which established the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and provided for its functions, administration, and termination on June 30, 1993, was revoked by section 4(c) of Ex. Ord. No. 12882, §4(c), Nov. 23, 1993, 58 F.R. 62493. Ex. Ord. No. 12869, Sept. 30, 1993, §2, 58 F.R. 51751, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which reestablished the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology in accordance with the provisions of Ex. Ord. No. 12700 and extended its term until Sept. 30, 1995, was also revoked by Ex. Ord. 12882, §4(c).

Ex. Ord. No. 12881. Establishment of National Science and Technology Council

Ex. Ord. No. 12881, Nov. 23, 1993, 58 F.R. 62491; Ex. Ord. No. 13284, §9, Jan. 23, 2003, 68 F.R. 4076, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment. There is established the National Science and Technology Council (“the Council”).

Sec. 2. Membership. The Council shall comprise the:

(a) President, who shall serve as Chairman of the Council;

(b) Vice President;

(c) Secretary of Commerce;

(d) Secretary of Defense;

(e) Secretary of Energy;

(f) Secretary of Health and Human Services;

(g) Secretary of State;

(h) Secretary of the Interior;

(i) Secretary of Homeland Security;

(j) Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration;

(k) Director, National Science Foundation;

(l) Director of the Office of Management and Budget;

(m) Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency;

(n) Assistant to the President for Science and Technology;

(o) National Security Adviser;

(p) Assistant to the President for Economic Policy;

(q) Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy; and

(r) Such other officials of executive departments and agencies as the President may, from time to time, designate.

Sec. 3. Meetings of the Council. The President or, upon his direction, the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology (“the Assistant”), may convene meetings of the Council. The President shall preside over the meetings of the Council, provided that in his absence the Vice President, and in his absence the Assistant, will preside.

Sec. 4. Functions. (a) The principal functions of the Council are, to the extent permitted by law: (1) to coordinate the science and technology policy-making process; (2) to ensure science and technology policy decisions and programs are consistent with the President's stated goals; (3) to help integrate the President's science and technology policy agenda across the Federal Government; (4) to ensure science and technology are considered in development and implementation of Federal policies and programs; and (5) to further international cooperation in science and technology. The Assistant may take such actions, including drafting a Charter, as may be necessary or appropriate to implement such functions.

(b) All executive departments and agencies, whether or not represented on the Council, shall coordinate science and technology policy through the Council and shall share information on research and development budget requests with the Council.

(c) The Council shall develop for submission to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget recommendations on research and development budgets that reflect national goals. In addition, the Council shall provide advice to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget concerning the agencies’ research and development budget submissions.

(d) The Assistant will, when appropriate, work in conjunction with the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the National Security Adviser.

Sec. 5. Administration. (a) The Council will oversee the duties of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, the National Space Council, and the National Critical Materials Council.

(b) The Council may function through established or ad hoc committees, task forces, or interagency groups.

(c) To the extent practicable and permitted by law, executive departments and agencies shall make resources, including, but not limited to, personnel, office support, and printing, available to the Council as requested by the Assistant.

(d) All executive departments and agencies shall cooperate with the Council and provide such assistance, information, and advice to the Council as the Council may request, to the extent permitted by law.

Executive Order No. 12882

Ex. Ord. No. 12882, Nov. 23, 1993, 58 F.R. 62493, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12907, Apr. 14, 1994, 59 F.R. 18291, which established the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13226, §4(c), Sept. 30, 2001, 66 F.R. 50524, set out below.

Executive Order No. 12975

Ex. Ord. No. 12975, Oct. 3, 1995, 60 F.R. 52063, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13018, Sept. 16, 1996, 61 F.R. 49045; Ex. Ord. No. 13046, May 16, 1997, 62 F.R. 27685; Ex. Ord. No. 13137, Sept. 15, 1999, 64 F.R. 50733, which provided for the protection of human research subjects and created the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13316, §3(b), Sept. 17, 2003, 68 F.R. 55256, eff. Sept. 30, 2003.

Ex. Ord. No. 13226. President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

Ex. Ord. No. 13226, Sept. 30, 2001, 66 F.R. 50523, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13305, May 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 32323; Ex. Ord. No. 13349, July 23, 2004, 69 F.R. 44891; Ex. Ord. No. 13385, §8, Sept. 29, 2005, 70 F.R. 57991, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), and in order to establish an advisory committee on science and technology, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment. There is established the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). The PCAST shall be composed of not more than 45 members, one of whom shall be a Federal Government official designated by the President (the “Official”), and 44 of whom shall be nonfederal members appointed by the President and have diverse perspectives and expertise in science, technology, and the impact of science and technology on the Nation. The Official shall co-chair PCAST with a nonfederal member designated by the President.

Sec. 2. Functions. (a) The PCAST shall advise the President, through the Official, on matters involving science and technology policy.

(b) In performance of its advisory duties, the PCAST shall assist the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) in securing private sector involvement in its activities.

(c) PCAST shall serve as the National Nanotechnology Advisory Panel under section 4 of the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act (Public Law 108–153) [15 U.S.C. 7503] (Act). Nothing in this Order shall be construed to require the National Nanotechnology Advisory Panel to comply with any requirement from which it is exempted by section 4(f) of the Act.

(d) PCAST shall serve as the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee under subsections 101(b) and 103(b) of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (Public Law 102–194), as amended (15 U.S.C. 5511(b) and 5513(b)).

Sec. 3. Administration. (a) The heads of the executive departments and agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide the PCAST with information concerning scientific and technological matters when requested by the PCAST co-chairs.

(b) In consultation with the Official, the PCAST is authorized to convene ad hoc working groups to provide preliminary nonbinding information and advice directly to the PCAST.

(c) Members shall serve without compensation for their work on the PCAST. However, members may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law for persons serving intermittently in the government service (5 U.S.C. 5701–5707).

(d) Any expenses of the PCAST shall be paid from the funds available for the expenses of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

(e) The Office of Science and Technology Policy shall provide such administrative services as the PCAST may require, with the approval of the Official.

Sec. 4. General. (a) Notwithstanding any other Executive Order, the functions of the President with respect to the PCAST under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended, except that of reporting to the Congress, shall be performed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy in accordance with the guidelines and procedures established by the Administrator of General Services.

(b) The PCAST shall terminate September 30, 2005, unless extended by the President prior to that date.

(c) Executive Order 12882 of November 23, 1993; Executive Order 12907 of April 14, 1994; and section 1(h) of Executive Order 13138 of September 30, 1999 [formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees], are hereby revoked.

George W. Bush.      

Extension of Term of President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

Term of President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology extended until Sept. 30, 2007, by Ex. Ord. No. 13385, Sept. 29, 2005, 70 F.R. 57989, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Term of President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology extended until Sept. 30, 2009, by Ex. Ord. No. 13446, Sept. 28, 2007, 72 F.R. 56175, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5.

Ex. Ord. No. 13237. Creation of the President's Council on Bioethics

Ex. Ord. No. 13237, Nov. 28, 2001, 66 F.R. 59851, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment. There is established the President's Council on Bioethics (the “Council”).

Sec. 2. Mission.

(a) The Council shall advise the President on bioethical issues that may emerge as a consequence of advances in biomedical science and technology. In connection with its advisory role, the mission of the Council includes the following functions:

(1) to undertake fundamental inquiry into the human and moral significance of developments in biomedical and behavioral science and technology;

(2) to explore specific ethical and policy questions related to these developments;

(3) to provide a forum for a national discussion of bioethical issues;

(4) to facilitate a greater understanding of bioethical issues; and

(5) to explore possibilities for useful international collaboration on bioethical issues.

(b) In support of its mission, the Council may study ethical issues connected with specific technological activities, such as embryo and stem cell research, assisted reproduction, cloning, uses of knowledge and techniques derived from human genetics or the neurosciences, and end of life issues. The Council may also study broader ethical and social issues not tied to a specific technology, such as questions regarding the protection of human subjects in research, the appropriate uses of biomedical technologies, the moral implications of biomedical technologies, and the consequences of limiting scientific research.

(c) The Council shall strive to develop a deep and comprehensive understanding of the issues that it considers. In pursuit of this goal, the Council shall be guided by the need to articulate fully the complex and often competing moral positions on any given issue, rather than by an overriding concern to find consensus. The Council may therefore choose to proceed by offering a variety of views on a particular issue, rather than attempt to reach a single consensus position.

(d) The Council shall not be responsible for the review and approval of specific projects or for devising and overseeing regulations for specific government agencies.

(e) In support of its mission, the Council may accept suggestions of issues for consideration from the heads of other Government agencies and other sources, as it deems appropriate.

(f) In establishing priorities for its activities, the Council shall consider the urgency and gravity of the particular issue; the need for policy guidance and public education on the particular issue; the connection of the bioethical issue to the goal of Federal advancement of science and technology; and the existence of another entity available to deliberate appropriately on the bioethical issue.

Sec. 3. Membership.

(a) The Council shall be composed of not more than 18 members appointed by the President from among individuals who are not officers or employees of the Federal Government. The Council shall include members drawn from the fields of science and medicine, law and government, philosophy and theology, and other areas of the humanities and social sciences.

(b) The President shall designate a member of the Council to serve as Chairperson.

(c) The term of office of a member shall be 2 years, and members shall be eligible for reappointment. Members may continue to serve after the expiration of their terms until the President appoints a successor. A member appointed to fill a vacancy shall serve only for the unexpired term of such vacancy.

Sec. 4. Administration.

(a) Upon the request of the Chairperson, the heads of executive departments and agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide the Council with information it needs for purposes of carrying out its functions.

(b) The Council may conduct inquiries, hold hearings, and establish subcommittees, as necessary.

(c) The Council is authorized to conduct analyses and develop reports or other materials.

(d) Members of the Council may be compensated to the extent permitted by Federal law for their work on the Council. Members may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law for persons serving intermittently in Government service (5 U.S.C. 5701–5707), to the extent funds are available.

(e) To the extent permitted by law, and subject to the availability of appropriations, the Department of Health and Human Services shall provide the Council with administrative support and with such funds as may be necessary for the performance of the Council's functions.

(f) The Council shall have a staff headed by an Executive Director, who shall be appointed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in consultation with the Chairperson. To the extent permitted by law, office space, analytical support, and additional staff support for the Council shall be provided by the Department of Health and Human Services or other executive branch departments and agencies as directed by the President.

Sec. 5. General Provisions.

(a) Insofar as the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), may apply to the Council, any functions of the President under that Act, except that of reporting to the Congress, shall be performed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in accordance with the guidelines that have been issued by the Administrator of General Services.

(b) The Council shall terminate 2 years from the date of this order unless extended by the President prior to that date.

(c) This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and it is not intended to create any right, benefit, trust, or responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

George W. Bush.      

Extension of Term of President's Council on Bioethics

Term of President's Council on Bioethics extended until Sept. 30, 2005, by Ex. Ord. No. 13316, Sept. 17, 2003, 68 F.R. 55255, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Term of President's Council on Bioethics extended until Sept. 30, 2007, by Ex. Ord. No. 13385, Sept. 29, 2005, 70 F.R. 57989, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5.

Term of President's Council on Bioethics extended until Sept. 30, 2009, by Ex. Ord. No. 13446, Sept. 28, 2007, 72 F.R. 56175, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5.

Strengthened Protections for Human Subjects of Classified Research

Memorandum of President of the United States, Mar. 27, 1997, 62 F.R. 26369, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Education, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Chair of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, [and] the Chair of the Consumer Product Safety Commission

I have worked hard to restore trust and ensure openness in government. This memorandum will further our progress toward these goals by strengthening the Federal Government's protections for human subjects of classified research.

In January 1994, I established the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (the “Advisory Committee”) to examine reports that the government had funded and conducted unethical human radiation experiments during the Cold War [see Ex. Ord. No. 12891, set out as a note under section 2210 of this title]. I directed the Advisory Committee to uncover the truth, recommend steps to right past wrongs, and propose ways to prevent unethical human subjects research from occurring in the future. In its October 1995 final report, the Advisory Committee recommended, among other things, that the government modify its policy governing classified research on human subjects (“Recommendations for Balancing National Security Interests and the Rights of the Public,” Recommendation 15, Final Report, Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments). This memorandum sets forth policy changes in response to those recommendations.

The Advisory Committee acknowledged that it is in the Nation's interest to continue to allow the government to conduct classified research involving human subjects where such research serves important national security interests. The Advisory Committee found, however, that classified human subjects research should be a “rare event” and that the “subjects of such research, as well as the interests of the public in openness in science and in government, deserve special protections.” The Advisory Committee was concerned about “exceptions to informed consent requirements and the absence of any special review and approval process for human research that is to be classified.” The Advisory Committee recommended that in all classified research projects the agency conducting or sponsoring the research meet the following requirements:

—obtain informed consent from all human subjects;

—inform subjects of the identity of the sponsoring agency;

—inform subjects that the project involves classified research;

—obtain approval by an “independent panel of nongovernmental experts and citizen representatives, all with the necessary security clearances” that reviews scientific merit, risk-benefit tradeoffs, and ensures subjects have enough information to make informed decisions to give valid consent; and

—maintain permanent records of the panel's deliberations and consent procedures.

This memorandum implements these recommendations with some modifications. For classified research, it prohibits waiver of informed consent and requires researchers to disclose that the project is classified. For all but minimal risk studies, it requires researchers to inform subjects of the sponsoring agency. It also requires permanent recordkeeping.

The memorandum also responds to the Advisory Committee's call for a special review process for classified human subjects research. It requires that institutional review boards for secret projects include a nongovernmental member, and establishes an appeals process so that any member of a review board who believes a project should not go forward can appeal the boards’ decision to approve it.

Finally, this memorandum sets forth additional steps to ensure that classified human research is rare. It requires the heads of Federal agencies to disclose annually the number of secret human research projects undertaken by their agency. It also prohibits any agency from conducting secret human research without first promulgating a final rule applying the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, as modified in this memorandum, to the agency.

These steps, set forth in detail below, will preserve the government's ability to conduct any necessary classified research involving human subjects while ensuring adequate protection of research participants.

1. Modifications to the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects as it Affects Classified Research. All agencies that may conduct or support classified research that is subject to the 1991 Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (“Common Rule”) (56 Fed. Reg. 28010–28018) shall promptly jointly publish in the Federal Register the following proposed revisions to the Common Rule as it affects classified research. The Office for Protection from Research Risks in the Department of Health and Human Services shall be the lead agency and, in consultation with the Office of Management and Budget, shall coordinate the joint rulemaking.

(a) The agencies shall jointly propose to prohibit waiver of informed consent for classified research.

(b) The agencies shall jointly propose to prohibit the use of expedited review procedures under the Common Rule for classified research.

(c) The joint proposal should request comment on whether all research exemptions under the Common Rule should be maintained for classified research.

(d) The agencies shall jointly propose to require that in classified research involving human subjects, two additional elements of information be provided to potential subjects when consent is sought from subjects:

(i) the identity of the sponsoring Federal agency. Exceptions are allowed if the head of the sponsoring agency determines that providing this information could compromise intelligence sources or methods and that the research involves no more than minimal risk to subjects. The determination about sources and methods is to be made in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. The determination about risk is to be made in consultation with the Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

(ii) a statement that the project is “classified” and an explanation of what classified means.

(e) The agencies shall jointly propose to modify the institutional review board (“IRB”) approval process for classified human subjects research as follows:

(i) The Common Rule currently requires that each IRB “include at least one member who is not otherwise affiliated with the institution and who is not part of the immediate family of a person who is affiliated with the institution.” For classified research, the agencies shall define “not otherwise affiliated with the institution,” as a nongovernmental member with the appropriate security clearance.

(ii) Under the Common Rule, research projects are approved by the IRB if a “majority of those (IRB) members present at a meeting” approved the project. For classified research, the agencies shall propose to permit any member of the IRB who does not believe a specific project should be approved by the IRB to appeal a majority decision to approve the project to the head of the sponsoring agency. If the agency head affirms the IRB's decision to approve the project, the dissenting IRB member may appeal the IRB's decisions to the Director of OSTP. The Director of OSTP shall review the IRB's decision and approve or disapprove the project, or, at the Director's discretion, convene an IRB made up of nongovernmental officials, each with the appropriate security clearances, to approve or disapprove the project.

(iii) IRBs for classified research shall determine whether potential subjects need access to classified information to make a valid informed consent decision.

2. Final Rules. Agencies shall, within 1 year, after considering any comments, promulgate final rules on the protection of human subjects of classified research.

3. Agency Head Approval of Classified Research Projects. Agencies may not conduct any classified human research project subject to the Common Rule unless the agency head has personally approved the specific project.

4. Annual Public Disclosure of the Number of Classified Research Projects. Each agency head shall inform the Director of OSTP by September 30 of each year of the number of classified research projects involving human subjects underway on that date, the number completed in the previous 12-month period, and the number of human subjects in each project. The Director of OSTP shall report the total number of classified research projects and participating subjects to the President and shall then report to the congressional armed services and intelligence committees and further shall publish the numbers in the Federal Register.

5. Definitions. For purposes of this memorandum, the terms “research” and “human subject” shall have the meaning set forth in the Common Rule. “Classified human research” means research involving “classified information” as defined in Executive Order 12958 [50 U.S.C. 435 note].

6. No Classified Human Research Without Common Rule. Beginning one year after the date of this memorandum, no agency shall conduct or support classified human research without having proposed and promulgated the Common Rule, including the changes set forth in this memorandum and any subsequent amendments.

7. Judicial Review. This memorandum is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any other persons.

8. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

§6602. Congressional declaration of policy

(a) Principles

In view of the foregoing, the Congress declares that the United States shall adhere to a national policy for science and technology which includes the following principles:

(1) The continuing development and implementation of strategies for determining and achieving the appropriate scope, level, direction, and extent of scientific and technological efforts based upon a continuous appraisal of the role of science and technology in achieving goals and formulating policies of the United States, and reflecting the views of State and local governments and representative public groups.

(2) The enlistment of science and technology to foster a healthy economy in which the directions of growth and innovation are compatible with the prudent and frugal use of resources and with the preservation of a benign environment.

(3) The conduct of science and technology operations so as to serve domestic needs while promoting foreign policy objectives.

(4) The recruitment, education, training, retraining, and beneficial use of adequate numbers of scientists, engineers, and technologists, and the promotion by the Federal Government of the effective and efficient utilization in the national interest of the Nation's human resources in science, engineering, and technology.

(5) The development and maintenance of a solid base for science and technology in the United States, including: (A) strong participation of and cooperative relationships with State and local governments and the private sector; (B) the maintenance and strengthening of diversified scientific and technological capabilities in government, industry, and the universities, and the encouragement of independent initiatives based on such capabilities, together with elimination of needless barriers to scientific and technological innovation; (C) effective management and dissemination of scientific and technological information; (D) establishment of essential scientific, technical and industrial standards and measurement and test methods; and (E) promotion of increased public understanding of science and technology.

(6) The recognition that, as changing circumstances require periodic revision and adaptation of this subchapter, the Federal Government is responsible for identifying and interpreting the changes in those circumstances as they occur, and for effecting subsequent changes in this subchapter as appropriate.

(b) Implementation

To implement the policy enunciated in subsection (a) of this section, the Congress declares that:

(1) The Federal Government should maintain central policy planning elements in the executive branch which assist Federal agencies in (A) identifying public problems and objectives, (B) mobilizing scientific and technological resources for essential national programs, (C) securing appropriate funding for programs so identified, (D) anticipating future concerns to which science and technology can contribute and devising strategies for the conduct of science and technology for such purposes, (E) reviewing systematically Federal science policy and programs and recommending legislative amendment thereof when needed. Such elements should include an advisory mechanism within the Executive Office of the President so that the Chief Executive may have available independent, expert judgment and assistance on policy matters which require accurate assessments of the complex scientific and technological features involved.

(2) It is a responsibility of the Federal Government to promote prompt, effective, reliable, and systematic transfer of scientific and technological information by such appropriate methods as programs conducted by nongovernmental organizations, including industrial groups and technical societies. In particular, it is recognized as a responsibility of the Federal Government not only to coordinate and unify its own science and technology information systems, but to facilitate the close coupling of institutional scientific research with commercial application of the useful findings of science.

(3) It is further an appropriate Federal function to support scientific and technological efforts which are expected to provide results beneficial to the public but which the private sector may be unwilling or unable to support.

(4) Scientific and technological activities which may be properly supported exclusively by the Federal Government should be distinguished from those in which interests are shared with State and local governments and the private sector. Among these entities, cooperative relationships should be established which encourage the appropriate sharing of science and technology decisionmaking, funding support, and program planning and execution.

(5) The Federal Government should support and utilize engineering and its various disciplines and make maximum use of the engineering community, whenever appropriate, as an essential element in the Federal policymaking process.

(6) Comprehensive legislative support for the national science and technology effort requires that the Congress be regularly informed of the condition, health and vitality, and funding requirements of science and technology, the relation of science and technology to changing national goals, and the need for legislative modification of the Federal endeavor and structure at all levels as it relates to science and technology.

(c) Procedures

The Congress declares that, in order to expedite and facilitate the implementation of the policy enunciated in subsection (a) of this section, the following coordinate procedures are of paramount importance:

(1) Federal procurement policy should encourage the use of science and technology to foster frugal use of materials, energy, and appropriated funds; to assure quality environment; and to enhance product performance.

(2) Explicit criteria, including cost-benefit principles where practicable, should be developed to identify the kinds of applied research and technology programs that are appropriate for Federal funding support and to determine the extent of such support. Particular attention should be given to scientific and technological problems and opportunities offering promise of social advantage that are so long range, geographically widespread, or economically diffused that the Federal Government constitutes the appropriate source for undertaking their support.

(3) Federal promotion of science and technology should emphasize quality of research, recognize the singular importance of stability in scientific and technological institutions, and for urgent tasks, seek to assure timeliness of results. With particular reference to Federal support for basic research, funds should be allocated to encourage education in needed disciplines, to provide a base of scientific knowledge from which future essential technological development can be launched, and to add to the cultural heritage of the Nation.

(4) Federal patent policies should be developed, based on uniform principles, which have as their objective the preservation of incentives for technological innovation and the application of procedures which will continue to assure the full use of beneficial technology to serve the public.

(5) Closer relationships should be encouraged among practitioners of different scientific and technological disciplines, including the physical, social, and biomedical fields.

(6) Federal departments, agencies, and instrumentalities should assure efficient management of laboratory facilities and equipment in their custody, including acquisition of effective equipment, disposal of inferior and obsolete properties, and cross-servicing to maximize the productivity of costly property of all kinds. Disposal policies should include attention to possibilities for further productive use.

(7) The full use of the contributions of science and technology to support State and local government goals should be encouraged.

(8) Formal recognition should be accorded those persons whose scientific and technological achievements have contributed significantly to the national welfare.

(9) The Federal Government should support applied scientific research, when appropriate, in proportion to the probability of its usefulness, insofar as this probability can be determined; but while maximizing the beneficial consequences of technology, the Government should act to minimize foreseeable injurious consequences.

(10) Federal departments, agencies, and instrumentalities should establish procedures to insure among them the systematic interchange of scientific data and technological findings developed under their programs.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title I, §102, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 460.)

§6603. Sense of Congress on innovation acceleration research

(a) Sense of Congress on support and promotion of innovation in the United States

It is the sense of Congress that each Federal research agency should strive to support and promote innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward basic research projects that—

(1) meet fundamental technological or scientific challenges;

(2) involve multidisciplinary work; and

(3) involve a high degree of novelty.

(b) Sense of Congress on setting annual funding goals for basic research

It is the sense of Congress that each Executive agency that funds research in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics should set a goal of allocating an appropriate percentage of the annual basic research budget of such agency to funding high-risk, high-reward basic research projects described in subsection (a).

(c) Report

Each Executive agency described in subsection (b) shall submit to Congress each year, together with documents submitted to Congress in support of the budget of the President for the fiscal year beginning in such year (as submitted pursuant to section 1105 of title 31), a report describing whether a funding goal as described in subsection (b) has been established, and if such a goal has been established, the following:

(1) A description of such funding goal.

(2) Whether such funding goal is being met by the agency.

(3) A description of activities supported by amounts allocated in accordance with such funding goal.

(d) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Basic research

The term “basic research” has the meaning given such term in the Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A–11.

(2) Executive agency

The term “Executive agency” has the meaning given such term in section 105 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 110–69, title I, §1008, Aug. 9, 2007, 121 Stat. 581.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the America COMPETES Act, also known as the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science Act, and not as part of the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 which comprises this chapter.

SUBCHAPTER II—OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY

§6611. Establishment of Office

There is established in the Executive Office of the President an Office of Science and Technology Policy (hereinafter referred to in this subchapter as the “Office”).

(Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §202, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 463.)

Short Title

For short title of this subchapter as the “Presidential Science and Technology Advisory Organization Act of 1976”, see section 201 of Pub. L. 94–282, set out as a Short Title note under section 6601 of this title.

High-Resolution Information System Advisory Board

Pub. L. 102–245, title V, §501, Feb. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 22, authorized the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy to establish within that office a High-Resolution Information Systems Advisory Board to monitor and, as appropriate, foster the development and competitiveness of United States-based high-resolution information systems industries, further provided that “high-resolution information systems” means equipment and techniques required to create, store, recover, and play back high-resolution images and accompanying sound, further provided for functions of the Board, including provision of guidance and advice relating to establishment of such industries as well as transfer of Federal technologies to the private sector, further provided for membership and procedures of the Board, including submission of annual report of its activities to the President and Congress, and further provided for limitation on functions of Board and appropriations through fiscal year 1993.

§6612. Director; Associate Directors

There shall be at the head of the Office a Director who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who shall be compensated at the rate provided for level II of the Executive Schedule in section 5313 of title 5. The President is authorized to appoint not more than four Associate Directors, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, who shall be compensated at a rate not to exceed that provided for level III of the Executive Schedule in section 5314 of such title. Associate Directors shall perform such functions as the Director may prescribe.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §203, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 463.)

§6613. Functions of the Director

(a) The primary function of the Director is to provide, within the Executive Office of the President, advice on the scientific, engineering, and technological aspects of issues that require attention at the highest levels of Government.

(b) In addition to such other functions and activities as the President may assign, the Director shall—

(1) advise the President of scientific and technological considerations involved in areas of national concern including, but not limited to, the economy, national security, homeland security, health, foreign relations, the environment, and the technological recovery and use of resources;

(2) evaluate the scale, quality, and effectiveness of the Federal effort in science and technology and advise on appropriate actions;

(3) advise the President on scientific and technological considerations with regard to Federal budgets, assist the Office of Management and Budget with an annual review and analysis of funding proposed for research and development in budgets of all Federal agencies, and aid the Office of Management and Budget and the agencies throughout the budget development process; and

(4) assist the President in providing general leadership and coordination of the research and development programs of the Federal Government.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §204, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 463; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1712(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2320.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–296 inserted “homeland security,” after “national security,”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

§6614. Policy planning; analysis; advice; establishment of advisory panel

(a) The Office shall serve as a source of scientific and technological analysis and judgment for the President with respect to major policies, plans, and programs of the Federal Government. In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Director shall—

(1) seek to define coherent approaches for applying science and technology to critical and emerging national and international problems and for promoting coordination of the scientific and technological responsibilities and programs of the Federal departments and agencies in the resolution of such problems;

(2) assist and advise the President in the preparation of the Science and Technology Report, in accordance with section 6618 1 of this title;

(3) gather timely and authoritative information concerning significant developments and trends in science, technology, and in national priorities, both current and prospective, to analyze and interpret such information for the purpose of determining whether such developments and trends are likely to affect achievement of the priority goals of the Nation as set forth in section 6601(b) of this title;

(4) encourage the development and maintenance of an adequate data base for human resources in science, engineering, and technology, including the development of appropriate models to forecast future manpower requirements, and assess the impact of major governmental and public programs on human resources and their utilization;

(5) initiate studies and analyses, including systems analyses and technology assessments, of alternatives available for the resolution of critical and emerging national and international problems amendable to the contributions of science and technology and, insofar as possible, determine and compare probable costs, benefits, and impacts of such alternatives;

(6) advise the President on the extent to which the various scientific and technological programs, policies, and activities of the Federal Government are likely to affect the achievement of the priority goals of the Nation as set forth in section 6601(b) of this title;

(7) provide the President with periodic reviews of Federal statutes and administrative regulations of the various departments and agencies which affect research and development activities, both internally and in relation to the private sector, or which may interfere with desirable technological innovation, together with recommendations for their elimination, reform, or updating as appropriate;

(8) develop, review, revise, and recommend criteria for determining scientific and technological activities warranting Federal support, and recommend Federal policies designed to advance (A) the development and maintenance of broadly based scientific and technological capabilities, including human resources, at all levels of government, academia, and industry, and (B) the effective application of such capabilities to national needs;

(9) assess and advise on policies for international cooperation in science and technology which will advance the national and international objectives of the United States;

(10) identify and assess emerging and future areas in which science and technology can be used effectively in addressing national and international problems;

(11) report at least once each year to the President and the Congress on the overall activities and accomplishments of the Office, pursuant to section 6615 of this title;

(12) periodically survey the nature and needs of national science and technology policy and make recommendations to the President, for review and transmission to the Congress, for the timely and appropriate revision of such policy in accordance with section 6602(a)(6) of this title; and

(13) perform such other duties and functions and make and furnish such studies and reports thereon, and recommendations with respect to matters of policy and legislation as the President may request.


(b)(1) The Director shall establish an Intergovernmental Science, Engineering, and Technology Advisory Panel (hereinafter referred to as the “Panel”), whose purpose shall be to (A) identify and define civilian problems at State, regional, and local levels which science, engineering, and technology may assist in resolving or ameliorating; (B) recommend priorities for addressing such problems; and (C) advise and assist the Director in identifying and fostering policies to facilitate the transfer and utilization of research and development results so as to maximize their application to civilian needs.

(2) The Panel shall be composed of (A) the Director of the Office, or his representative; (B) at least ten members representing the interests of the States, appointed by the Director of the Office after consultation with State officials; and (C) the Director of the National Science Foundation, or his representative.

(3)(A) The Director of the Office, or his representative, shall serve as Chairman of the Panel.

(B) The Panel shall perform such functions as the Chairman may prescribe, and shall meet at the call of the Chairman.

(4) Each member of the Panel shall, while serving on business of the Panel, be entitled to receive compensation at a rate not to exceed the daily rate prescribed for GS–18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, including traveltime, and, while so serving away from his home or regular place of business, he may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence in the same manner as the expenses authorized by section 5703(b) 2 of title 5 for persons in government service employed intermittently.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §205, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 97–375, title II, §215(2), (4), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1826, 1827.)

References in Text

Section 6618 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), was repealed by Pub. L. 97–375, title II, §215(1), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1826. See section 6615 of this title.

Section 5703 of title 5, referred to in subsec. (b)(4), was amended generally by Pub. L. 94–22, §4, May 19, 1975, 89 Stat. 85, and, as so amended, does not contain a subsec. (b).

Amendments

1982—Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 97–375, §215(2), (4), inserted “and the Congress” after “President”, and substituted “section 6615” for “section 6618”.

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested in Office of Science and Technology Policy and Director thereof pursuant to subsec. (a)(2) of this section and sections 6615 and 6618 of this title transferred to Director of National Science Foundation by section 5A of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1977, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, effective Feb. 26, 1978, as provided by section 1(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12039, Feb. 24, 1978, 43 F.R. 8095, set out under section 6601 of this title.

Abolition of Intergovernmental Science, Engineering, and Technology Advisory Panel; Transfer of Functions

The Intergovernmental Science, Engineering, and Technology Advisory Panel, established pursuant to this section, was abolished and its functions transferred to the President by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1977, §5A, 42 F.R. 56101, 91 Stat. 1634, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, effective Feb. 26, 1978, as provided by section 1(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12039, Feb. 24, 1978, 43 F.R. 8095, set out under section 6601 of this title.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

Comprehensive Accountability Study for Federally-Funded Research

Pub. L. 105–276, title IV, §430, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2512, provided that:

“(a) Study.—The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, may enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Sciences for the Academy to conduct a comprehensive study to develop methods for evaluating federally-funded research and development programs. This study shall—

“(1) recommend processes to determine an acceptable level of success for federally-funded research and development programs by—

“(A) describing the research process in the various scientific and engineering disciplines;

“(B) describing in the different sciences what measures and what criteria each community uses to evaluate the success or failure of a program, and on what time scales these measures are considered reliable—both for exploratory long-range work and for short-range goals; and

“(C) recommending how these measures may be adapted for use by the Federal Government to evaluate federally-funded research and development programs;

“(2) assess the extent to which agencies incorporate independent merit-based evaluation into the formulation of the strategic plans of funding agencies and if the quantity or quality of this type of input is unsatisfactory;

“(3) recommend mechanisms for identifying federally-funded research and development programs which are unsuccessful or unproductive;

“(4) evaluate the extent to which independent, merit-based evaluation of federally-funded research and development programs and projects achieves the goal of eliminating unsuccessful or unproductive programs and projects; and

“(5) investigate and report on the validity of using quantitative performance goals for aspects of programs which relate to administrative management of the program and for which such goals would be appropriate, including aspects related to—

“(A) administrative burden on contractors and recipients of financial assistance awards;

“(B) administrative burdens on external participants in independent, merit-based evaluations;

“(C) cost and schedule control for construction projects funded by the program;

“(D) the ratio of overhead costs of the program relative to the amounts expended through the program for equipment and direct funding of research; and

“(E) the timeliness of program responses to requests for funding, participation, or equipment use.

“(b) Independent Merit-Based Evaluation Defined.—The term ‘independent merit-based evaluation’ means review of the scientific or technical quality of research or development, conducted by experts who are chosen for their knowledge of scientific and technical fields relevant to the evaluation and who—

“(1) in the case of the review of a program activity, do not derive long-term support from the program activity; or

“(2) in the case of the review of a project proposal, are not seeking funds in competition with the proposal.”

Computer Network Study

Pub. L. 99–383, §10, Aug. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 816, provided that:

“(a) The Office of Science and Technology Policy (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Office’) shall undertake a study of critical problems and current and future options regarding communications networks for research computers, including supercomputers, at universities and Federal research facilities in the United States. The study shall include an analysis of—

“(1) the networking needs of the Nation's academic and Federal research computer programs, including supercomputer programs, over the period which is fifteen years after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 21, 1986], including requirements in terms of volume of data, reliability of transmission, software compatibility, graphics capability, and transmission security;

“(2) the benefits and opportunities that an improved computer network would offer for electronic mail, file transfer, and remote access and communications for universities and Federal research facilities in the United States; and

“(3) the networking options available for linking academic and other federally supported research computers, including supercomputers, with a particular emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages, if any, of fiber optic systems.

“(b) The Office shall submit to the Congress—

“(1) within one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 21, 1986], a report on findings from the study undertaken pursuant to subsection (a) with respect to needs and options regarding communications networks for university and Federal research supercomputers within the United States; and

“(2) within two years after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 21, 1986], a report on findings from the study undertaken pursuant to subsection (a) with respect to needs and options regarding communications networks for all research computers at universities and Federal research facilities in the United States.”

1 See References in Text note below.

2 See References in Text note below.

§6615. Science and technology report and outlook

(a) Contents of report

Notwithstanding the provisions of Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1977, the Director shall render to the President for submission to the Congress no later than January 15 of each odd numbered year, a science and technology report and outlook (hereinafter referred to as the “report”) which shall be prepared under the guidance of the Office and with the cooperation of the Director of the National Science Foundation, with appropriate assistance from other Federal departments and agencies as the Office or the Director of the National Science Foundation deems necessary. The report shall include—

(1) a statement of the President's current policy for the maintenance of the Nation's leadership in science and technology;

(2) a review of developments of national significance in science and technology;

(3) a description of major Federal decisions and actions related to science and technology that have occurred since the previous such report;

(4) a discussion of currently important national issues in which scientific or technical considerations are of major significance;

(5) a forecast of emerging issues of national significance resulting from, or identified through, scientific research or in which scientific or technical considerations are of major importance; and

(6) a discussion of opportunities for, and constraints on, the use of new and existing scientific and technological information, capabilities, and resources, including manpower resources, to make significant contributions to the achievement of Federal program objectives and national goals.

(b) Printing; availability to public

The Office shall insure that the report, in the form approved by the President, is printed and made available as a public document.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §206, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 466; Pub. L. 97–375, title II, §215(3), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1826.)

References in Text

Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1977, referred to in subsec. (a), is Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1977, 42 F.R. 56101, 91 Stat. 1633, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 6618 of this title, Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §209, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 468, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–375, title II, §215(1), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1826.

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–375 substituted provisions requiring the President to submit to Congress in odd numbered years a science and technology report and outlook for provisions which required the Office of Science and Technology Policy to create a five-year science and technology outlook, dealing with current and emerging problems and with opportunities for and constraints on new and existing capabilities, to be revised annually, composed with the consultation of officials of departments and agencies having related programs and responsibilities, and with officials of the Office of Management and Budget and other appropriate elements of the Executive Office of the President.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (a) of this section relating to submission of biennial report to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 16th item on page 42 of House Document No. 103–7.

§6616. Additional functions of Director

(a) Service as Chairman of Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology and as member of Domestic Council

The Director shall, in addition to the other duties and functions set forth in this subchapter—

(1) serve as Chairman of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology established under subchapter IV of this chapter; and

(2) serve as a member of the Domestic Council.

(b) Advice to National Security Council

For the purpose of assuring the optimum contribution of science and technology to the national security, the Director, at the request of the National Security Council, shall advise the National Security Council in such matters concerning science and technology as relate to national security.

(c) Officers and employees; services; contracts; payments

In carrying out his functions under this chapter, the Director is authorized to—

(1) appoint such officers and employees as he may deem necessary to perform the functions now or hereafter vested in him and to prescribe their duties;

(2) obtain services as authorized by section 3109 of title 5 at rates not to exceed the rate prescribed for grade GS–18 of the General Schedule by section 5332 of title 5; and

(3) enter into contracts and other arrangements for studies, analyses, and other services with public agencies and with private persons, organizations, or institutions, and make such payments as he deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter without legal consideration, without performance bonds, and without regard to section 5 of title 41.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §207, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 466.)

Abolition of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology; Transfer of Functions

See note set out under section 6651 of this title.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§6617. Coordination with other organizations

(a) Consultation and cooperation with Federal departments and agencies; utilization of consultants; establishment of advisory panels; consultation with State and local agencies, professional groups, and representatives of industry, etc.; hearings; utilization of services, personnel, equipment, etc., of public and private agencies and organizations, and individuals

In exercising his functions under this chapter, the Director shall—

(1) work in close consultation and cooperation with the Domestic Council, the National Security Council, the Office of Homeland Security, the Council on Environmental Quality, the Council of Economic Advisers, the Office of Management and Budget, the National Science Board, and the Federal departments and agencies;

(2) utilize the services of consultants, establish such advisory panels, and, to the extent practicable, consult with State and local governmental agencies, with appropriate professional groups, and with such representatives of industry, the universities, agriculture, labor, consumers, conservation organizations, and such other public interest groups, organizations, and individuals as he deems advisable;

(3) hold such hearings in various parts of the Nation as he deems necessary, to determine the views of the agencies, groups, and organizations referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection and of the general public, concerning national needs and trends in science and technology; and

(4) utilize with their consent to the fullest extent possible the services, personnel, equipment, facilities, and information (including statistical information) of public and private agencies and organizations, and individuals, in order to avoid duplication of effort and expense, and may transfer funds made available pursuant to this chapter to other Federal agencies as reimbursement for the utilization of such personnel, services, facilities, equipment, and information.

(b) Information from Executive departments, agencies, and instrumentalities

Each department, agency, and instrumentality of the Executive Branch of the Government, including any independent agency, is authorized to furnish the Director such information as the Director deems necessary to carry out his functions under this chapter.

(c) Assistance from Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Upon request, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is authorized to assist the Director with respect to carrying out his activities conducted under paragraph (5) of section 6614(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §208, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 467; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1712(2), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2320.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–296 inserted “the Office of Homeland Security,” after “the National Security Council,”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

§6618. Major science and technology proposals

The Director shall identify and provide an annual report to Congress on each major multinational science and technology project, in which the United States is not a participant, which has a total estimated cost greater than $1,000,000,000.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §209, as added Pub. L. 102–245, title V, §502, Feb. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 24.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6618, Pub. L. 94–282, title II, §209, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 468, directed President to transmit annually to Congress a report on science and technology to be prepared by Office of Science and Technology Policy, and directed Director of Office to make the report available as a public document, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–375, title II, §215(1), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1826. See section 6615 of this title.

§6619. National coordination of research infrastructure

(a) Identification and prioritization of deficiencies in Federal research facilities

Each year the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall, through the National Science and Technology Council, identify and prioritize the deficiencies in research facilities and major instrumentation located at Federal laboratories and national user facilities at academic institutions that are widely accessible for use by researchers in the United States. In prioritizing such deficiencies, the Director shall consider research needs in areas relevant to the specific mission requirements of Federal agencies.

(b) Planning for acquisition, refurbishment, and maintenance of research facilities and major instrumentation

The Director shall, through the National Science and Technology Council, coordinate the planning by Federal agencies for the acquisition, refurbishment, and maintenance of research facilities and major instrumentation to address the deficiencies identified under subsection (a).

(c) Report

The Director shall submit to Congress each year, together with documents submitted to Congress in support of the budget of the President for the fiscal year beginning in such year (as submitted pursuant to section 1105 of title 31), a report, current as of the fiscal year ending in the year before such report is submitted, setting forth the following:

(1) A description of the deficiencies in research infrastructure identified in accordance with subsection (a).

(2) A list of projects and budget proposals of Federal research facilities, set forth by agency, for major instrumentation acquisitions that are included in the budget proposal of the President.

(3) An explanation of how the projects and instrumentation acquisitions described in paragraph (2) relate to the deficiencies and priorities identified pursuant to subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 110–69, title I, §1007, Aug. 9, 2007, 121 Stat. 580.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the America COMPETES Act, also known as the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science Act, and not as part of the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 which comprises this chapter.

§6620. Release of scientific research results

(a) Principles

Not later than 90 days after August 9, 2007, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the heads of all Federal civilian agencies that conduct scientific research, shall develop and issue an overarching set of principles to ensure the communication and open exchange of data and results to other agencies, policymakers, and the public of research conducted by a scientist employed by a Federal civilian agency and to prevent the intentional or unintentional suppression or distortion of such research findings. The principles shall encourage the open exchange of data and results of research undertaken by a scientist employed by such an agency and shall be consistent with existing Federal laws, including chapter 18 of title 35 (commonly known as the “Bayh-Dole Act”). The principles shall also take into consideration the policies of peer-reviewed scientific journals in which Federal scientists may currently publish results.

(b) Implementation

Not later than 180 days after August 9, 2007, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall ensure that all civilian Federal agencies that conduct scientific research develop specific policies and procedures regarding the public release of data and results of research conducted by a scientist employed by such an agency consistent with the principles established under subsection (a). Such polices 1 and procedures shall—

(1) specifically address what is and what is not permitted or recommended under such policies and procedures;

(2) be specifically designed for each such agency;

(3) be applied uniformly throughout each such agency; and

(4) be widely communicated and readily accessible to all employees of each such agency and the public.

(Pub. L. 110–69, title I, §1009, Aug. 9, 2007, 121 Stat. 581.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the America COMPETES Act, also known as the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science Act, and not as part of the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 which comprises this chapter.

SUBCHAPTER III—PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1 So in original. Probably should be “policies”.

§6631. Establishment of Committee

The President shall establish within the Executive Office of the President a President's Committee on Science and Technology (hereinafter referred to as the “Committee”).

(Pub. L. 94–282, title III, §301, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 468.)

Abolition of President's Committee on Science and Technology; Transfer of Functions

The President's Committee on Science and Technology, established pursuant to this subchapter, was abolished and its functions transferred to the President, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1977, §5A, 42 F.R. 56101, 91 Stat. 1634, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, effective Feb. 26, 1978, as provided by section 1(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12039, Feb. 24, 1978, 43 F.R. 8095, set out under section 6601 of this title.

§6632. Membership of Committee

(a) Composition; appointment

The Committee shall consist of—

(1) the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy established under subchapter II of this chapter; and

(2) not less than eight nor more than fourteen other members appointed by the President not more than sixty days after the Director has assumed office (as provided in section 6612 of this title).

(b) Qualifications

Members of the Committee appointed by the President pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section shall—

(1) be qualified and distinguished in one or more of the following areas: science, engineering, technology, information dissemination, education, management, labor, or public affairs;

(2) be capable of critically assessing the policies, priorities, programs, and activities of the Nation, with respect to the findings, policies, and purposes set forth in subchapter I of this chapter; and

(3) shall collectively constitute a balanced composition with respect to (A) fields of science and engineering, (B) academic, industrial, and government experience, and (C) business, labor, consumer, and public interest points of view.

(c) Chairman; Vice Chairman

The President shall appoint one member of the Committee to serve as Chairman and another member to serve as Vice Chairman for such periods as the President may determine.

(d) Compensation

Each member of the Committee who is not an officer of the Federal Government shall, while serving on business of the Committee, be entitled to receive compensation at a rate not to exceed the daily rate prescribed for GS–18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, including traveltime, and while so serving away from his home or regular place of business he may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as the expenses authorized by section 5703(b) 1 of title 5 for persons in Government service employed intermittently.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title III, §302, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 468.)

References in Text

Section 5703 of title 5, referred to in subsec. (d), was amended generally by Pub. L. 94–22, §4, May 19, 1975, 89 Stat. 95, and, as so amended, does not contain a subsec. (b).

Abolition of President's Committee on Science and Technology; Transfer of Functions

See note set out under section 6631 of this title.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

1 See References in Text note below.

§6633. Federal science, engineering, and technology survey; reports

(a) The Committee shall survey, examine, and analyze the overall context of the Federal science, engineering, and technology effort including missions, goals, personnel, funding, organization, facilities, and activities in general, taking adequate account of the interests of individuals and groups that may be affected by Federal scientific, engineering, and technical programs, including, as appropriate, consultation with such individuals and groups. In carrying out its functions under this section, the Committee shall, among other things, consider needs for—

(1) organizational reform, including institutional realinement designed to place Federal agencies whose missions are primarily or solely devoted to scientific and technological research and development, and those agencies primarily or solely concerned with fuels, energy, and materials, within a single cabinet-level department;

(2) improvements in existing systems for handling scientific and technical information on a Government-wide basis, including consideration of the appropriate role to be played by the private sector in the dissemination of such information;

(3) improved technology assessment in the executive branch of the Federal Government;

(4) improved methods for effecting technology innovation, transfer, and use;

(5) stimulating more effective Federal-State and Federal-industry liaison and cooperation in science and technology, including the formation of Federal-State mechanisms for the mutual pursuit of this goal;

(6) reduction and simplification of Federal regulations and administrative practices and procedures which may have the effect of retarding technological innovation or opportunities for its utilization;

(7) a broader base for support of basic research;

(8) ways of strengthening the Nation's academic institutions’ capabilities for research and education in science and technology;

(9) ways and means of effectively integrating scientific and technological factors into our national and international policies;

(10) technology designed to meet community and individual needs;

(11) maintenance of adequate scientific and technological manpower with regard to both quality and quantity;

(12) improved systems for planning and analysis of the Federal science and technology programs; and

(13) long-range study, analysis, and planning in regard to the application of science and technology to major national problems or concerns.


(b)(1) Within twelve months from the time the Committee is activated in accordance with section 6632(a) of this title, the Committee shall issue an interim report of its activities and operations to date. Not more than twenty-four months from the time the Committee is activated, the Committee shall submit a final report of its activities, findings, conclusions, and recommendations, including such supporting data and material as may be necessary, to the President.

(2) The President, within sixty days of receipt thereof, shall transmit each such report to each House of Congress together with such comments, observations, and recommendations thereon as he deems appropriate.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title III, §303, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 469.)

Abolition of President's Committee on Science and Technology; Transfer of Functions

See note set out under section 6631 of this title.

§6634. Continuation of Committee

(a) Ninety days after submission of the final report prepared under section 6633 of this title, the Committee shall cease to exist, unless the President, before the expiration of the ninety-day period, makes a determination that it is advantageous for the Committee to continue in being.

(b) If the President determines that it is advantageous for the Committee to continue in being, (1) the Committee shall exercise such functions as are prescribed by the President; and (2) the members of the Committee shall serve at the pleasure of the President.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title III, §304, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 470.)

Abolition of President's Committee on Science and Technology; Transfer of Functions

See note set out under section 6631 of this title.

§6635. Staff and consultant support

(a) In the performance of its functions under sections 6633 and 6634 of this title, the Committee is authorized—

(1) to select, appoint, employ, and fix the compensation of such specialists and other experts as may be necessary for the carrying out of its duties and functions, and to select, appoint, and employ, subject to the civil service laws, such other officers and employees as may be necessary for carrying out its duties and functions; and

(2) to provide for participation of such civilian and military personnel as may be detailed to the Committee pursuant to subsection (b) of this section for carrying out the functions of the Committee.


(b) Upon request of the Committee, the head of any Federal department, agency, or instrumentality is authorized (1) to furnish to the Committee such information as may be necessary for carrying out its functions and as may be available to or procurable by such department, agency, or instrumentality, and (2) to detail to temporary duty with the Committee on a reimbursable basis such personnel within his administrative jurisdiction as it may need or believe to be useful for carrying out its functions. Each such detail shall be without loss of seniority, pay, or other employee status, to civilian employees so detailed, and without loss of status, rank, office, or grade, or of any emolument, perquisite, right, privilege, or benefit incident thereto to military personnel so detailed. Each such detail shall be made pursuant to an agreement between the Chairman and the head of the relevant department, agency, or instrumentality, and shall be in accordance with the provisions of subchapter III of chapter 33, title 5.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title III, §305, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 470.)

References in Text

The civil service laws, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), are set out in Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. See, particularly, section 3301 et seq. of Title 5.

Abolition of President's Committee on Science and Technology; Transfer of Functions

See note set out under section 6631 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—FEDERAL COORDINATING COUNCIL FOR SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND TECHNOLOGY

§6651. Establishment, membership, and functions of Council

(a) Designation

There is established the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (hereinafter referred to as the “Council”).

(b) Composition

The Council shall be composed of the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy and one representative of each of the following Federal agencies: Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Department of the Interior, Department of State, Department of Transportation, Department of Veterans Affairs, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, Environmental Protection Agency, and Department of Energy. Each such representative shall be an official of policy rank designated by the head of the Federal agency concerned.

(c) Chairman

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall serve as Chairman of the Council. The Chairman may designate another member of the Council to act temporarily in the Chairman's absence as Chairman.

(d) Participation of unnamed Federal agencies in meetings; invitations to attend meetings

The Chairman may (1) request the head of any Federal agency not named in subsection (b) of this section to designate a representative to participate in meetings or parts of meetings of the Council concerned with matters of substantial interest to such agency, and (2) invite other persons to attend meetings of the Council.

(e) Consideration of problems and developments affecting more than one Federal agency; recommendations

The Council shall consider problems and developments in the fields of science, engineering, and technology and related activities affecting more than one Federal agency, and shall recommend policies and other measures designed to—

(1) provide more effective planning and administration of Federal scientific, engineering, and technological programs,

(2) identify research needs including areas requiring additional emphasis,

(3) achieve more effective utilization of the scientific, engineering, and technological resources and facilities of Federal agencies, including the elimination of unwarranted duplication, and

(4) further international cooperation in science, engineering, and technology.

(f) Other advisory duties

The Council shall perform such other related advisory duties as shall be assigned by the President or by the Chairman.

(g) Assistance to Council by agency represented thereon

For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section, each Federal agency represented on the Council shall furnish necessary assistance to the Council. Such assistance may include—

(1) detailing employees to the Council to perform such functions, consistent with the purposes of this section, as the Chairman may assign to them, and

(2) undertaking, upon request of the Chairman, such special studies for the Council as come within the functions herein assigned.

(h) Establishment of subcommittees and panels

For the purpose of conducting studies and making reports as directed by the Chairman, standing subcommittees and panels of the Council may be established.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title IV, §401, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 471; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), title VII, §§703, 707, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577, 606, 607; Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1406, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 986; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1406(a), (b), Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1298; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(q)(11), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 281; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §851, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1171.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–127 struck out after first sentence “Among such standing subcommittees and panels of the Council shall be the Subcommittee on Food, Agricultural, and Forestry Research. This subcommittee shall review Federal research and development programs relevant to domestic and world food and fiber production and distribution, promote planning and coordination of this research in the Federal Government, and recommend policies and other measures concerning the food and agricultural sciences for the consideration of the Council. The subcommittee shall include, but not be limited to, representatives of each of the following departments or agencies; the Department of Agriculture, the Department of State, the Department of Defense, the Department of the Interior, the Department of Health and Human Services, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The principal representatives of the Department of Agriculture shall serve as the chairman of the subcommittee.”

1991—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–54 substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

1981—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–98 substituted “Subcommittee on Food, Agricultural, and Forestry Research” for “Subcommittee on Food and Renewable Resources”, “Department of Health and Human Services” for “Department of Health, Education, and Welfare”, and “Department of Energy” for “Energy Research and Development Administration”.

1977—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–113 inserted provisions relating to Subcommittee on Food and Renewable Resources.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Transfer of Functions

“Department of Energy” substituted for “Energy Research and Development Administration” in subsec. (b) pursuant to sections 301(a), 703, and 707 of Pub. L. 95–91, which are classified to sections 7151(a), 7293, and 7297 of this title and which terminated Energy Research and Development Administration and transferred its functions (with certain exceptions) to Secretary of Energy.

Abolition of Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology; Transfer of Functions

The Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, established pursuant to this section, was abolished and its functions transferred to the President by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1977, §5A, 42 F.R. 56101, 91 Stat. 1634, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, effective Feb. 26, 1978, as provided by section 1(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12039, Feb. 24, 1978, 43 F.R. 8095, set out under section 6601 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER V—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§6671. Authorization of appropriations

(a) For the purpose of carrying out subchapter II of this chapter, there are authorized to be appropriated—

(1) $750,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976;

(2) $500,000 for the period beginning July 1, 1976, and ending September 30, 1976;

(3) $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1977; and

(4) such sums as may be necessary for each of the succeeding fiscal years.


(b) For the purpose of carrying out subchapter III of this chapter, there are authorized to be appropriated—

(1) $750,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976;

(2) $500,000 for the period beginning July 1, 1976, and ending September 30, 1976;

(3) $1,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1977; and

(4) such sums as may be necessary for each of the succeeding fiscal years.

(Pub. L. 94–282, title V, §501, May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 472.)

SUBCHAPTER VI—NATIONAL CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES PANEL

§§6681 to 6685. Omitted

Codification

Sections 6681 to 6685 were omitted pursuant to section 6685 which provided that sections 6681 to 6685 ceased to be effective Dec. 31, 2000, and that the National Critical Technologies Panel established by this subchapter terminated on that date.

Section 6681, Pub. L. 94–282, title VI, §601, as added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §841(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1511, established a National Critical Technologies Panel.

Section 6682, Pub. L. 94–282, title VI, §602, as added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §841(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1511, related to membership of the Panel.

Section 6683, Pub. L. 94–282, title VI, §603, as added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §841(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1511; amended Pub. L. 102–245, title V, §503, Feb. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 24, required the Panel to submit to the President a biennial report on national critical technologies.

Section 6684, Pub. L. 94–282, title VI, §604, as added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §841(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1512, related to administration and funding of Panel.

Section 6685, Pub. L. 94–282, title VI, §605, as added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §841(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1512, provided that sections 6681 to 6685 ceased to be effective Dec. 31, 2000, and that the Panel terminated on that date.

§6686. Science and Technology Policy Institute

(a) Establishment

There shall be established a federally funded research and development center to be known as the “Science and Technology Policy Institute” (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Institute”).

(b) Incorporation

The Institute shall be—

(1) administered as a separate entity by an organization currently managing another federally funded research and development center; or

(2) incorporated as a nonprofit membership corporation.

(c) Duties

The duties of the Institute shall include the following:

(1) The assembly of timely and authoritative information regarding significant developments and trends in science and technology research and development in the United States and abroad, including information relating to the technologies identified in the most recent biennial report submitted to Congress by the President pursuant to section 6683(d) 1 of this title and developing and maintaining relevant informational and analytical tools.

(2) Analysis and interpretation of the information referred to in paragraph (1) with particular attention to the scope and content of the Federal science and technology research and development portfolio as it affects interagency and national issues.

(3) Initiation of studies and analysis of alternatives available for ensuring the long-term strength of the United States in the development and application of science and technology, including appropriate roles for the Federal Government, State governments, private industry, and institutions of higher education in the development and application of science and technology.

(4) Provision, upon the request of the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, of technical support and assistance—

(A) to the committees and panels of the President's Council of Advisers on Science and Technology that provide advice to the Executive branch on science and technology policy; and

(B) to the interagency committees and panels of the Federal Government concerned with science and technology.

(d) Consultation on Institute activities

In carrying out the duties referred to in subsection (c) of this section, personnel of the Institute shall—

(1) consult widely with representatives from private industry, institutions of higher education, and nonprofit institutions; and

(2) to the maximum extent practicable, incorporate information and perspectives derived from such consultations in carrying out such duties.

(e) Annual reports

The Institute shall submit to the President an annual report on the activities of the Institute under this section. Each report shall be in accordance with requirements prescribed by the President.

(f) Sponsorship

(1) The Director of the National Science Foundation shall be the sponsor of the Institute.

(2) The Director of the National Science Foundation, in consultation with the Director of Office of Science and Technology Policy, shall enter into a sponsoring agreement with respect to the Institute. The sponsoring agreement shall require that the Institute carry out such functions as the Director of Office of Science and Technology Policy may specify consistent with the duties referred to in subsection (c) of this section. The sponsoring agreement shall be consistent with the general requirements prescribed for such a sponsoring agreement by the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy.

(Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §822, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1598; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §704(a)(5), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 118; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §822(c)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §803, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1701; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1073(e)(1)(C), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2658; Pub. L. 105–207, title II, §208(a), July 29, 1998, 112 Stat. 877.)

References in Text

Section 6683 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was omitted from the Code.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, and not as part of the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(1), substituted “Science and Technology Policy Institute” for “Critical Technologies Institute” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(1), substituted “Science and Technology Policy Institute” for “Critical Technologies Institute”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(2), substituted “The” for “As determined by the chairman of the committee referred to in subsection (c) of this section, the”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c). Text read as follows:

“(1) The Institute shall have an Operating Committee composed of six members as follows:

“(A) The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, who shall chair the committee.

“(B) The Director of the National Institutes of Health.

“(C) The Under Secretary of Commerce for Technology.

“(D) The Director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

“(E) The Director of the National Science Foundation.

“(F) The Under Secretary of Energy having responsibility for science and technology matters.

“(2) The Operating Committee shall meet not less than four times each year.”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(4)(A)–(C), inserted “science and” after “developments and trends in”, substituted “including” for “with particular emphasis on”, and inserted before period at end “and developing and maintaining relevant informational and analytical tools”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(4)(D), substituted “with particular attention to the scope and content of the Federal science and technology research and development portfolio as it affects interagency and national issues” for “to determine whether such developments and trends are likely to affect United States technology policies”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(4)(E), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “Initiation of studies and analyses (including systems analyses and technology assessments) of alternatives available for ensuring long-term leadership by the United States in the development and application of the technologies referred to in paragraph (1), including appropriate roles for the Federal Government, State governments, private industry, and institutions of higher education in the development and application of such technologies.”

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(4)(F), (G), inserted “science and” after “Executive branch on” in subpar. (A) and amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “to the committees and panels of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology that are responsible for planning and coordinating activities of the Federal Government to advance the development of critical technologies and sustain and strengthen the technology base of the United States.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(3), (5), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and substituted “subsection (c)” for “subsection (d)” in introductory provisions. Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(6), which directed the substitution of “Institute” for “Committee” each place appearing, was executed by making the substitution for “committee” in two places to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(8), which directed the substitution of “Director of Office of Science and Technology Policy” for “Chairman of Committee” each place appearing, was executed by making the substitution for “chairman of the committee” in two places to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(7), substituted “subsection (c)” for “subsection (d)”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–207, §208(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f).

1996—Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted “Defense” before “Advanced Research Projects Agency”.

1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–160 amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of pars. (1) to (4) relating to the composition, designation of chairman, terms of service, and meetings of the Operating Committee.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions establishing “Critical Technologies Institute” and providing for incorporation, Board of Trustees, duties of Institute, sponsorship of Institute, deadline for certain actions, and funding.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 102–25, §704(a)(5)(A), substituted “appropriated pursuant to this Act” for “available for the Department of Defense” and struck out “in the first fiscal year in which the Institute begins operations” after “activities of the Institute”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 102–25, §704(a)(5)(B), struck out “for each fiscal year after the fiscal year referred to in paragraph (1)” after “for the Institute”.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendments

Section 822(c)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that:

“(2) The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect as of November 5, 1990.

“(3) The sponsoring agreement required by subsection (g) of section 822 of Public Law 101–510 [subsec. (g) of this section], as amended by paragraph (1), shall be entered into not later than February 15, 1992.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–25 applicable as if included in enactment of Pub. L. 101–510, see section 704(e) of Pub. L. 102–25, set out as a note under section 12321 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Authorization of Appropriations

Section 822(d)(2) of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that: “There is authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year after fiscal year 1991 for the Institute such sums as may be necessary for the operation of the Institute.”

References to Critical Technologies Institute

Pub. L. 105–207, title II, §208(b), July 29, 1998, 112 Stat. 878, provided that: “All references in Federal law or regulations to the Critical Technologies Institute shall be considered to be references to the Science and Technology Policy Institute.”

1 See References in Text note below.

§6687. Critical technology strategies

(a) Requirement for critical technology strategies

(1) The President shall develop and revise as needed a multiyear strategy for federally supported research and development for each critical technology designated by the President. In designating critical technologies for the purpose of this section, the President shall begin with the national critical technologies listed in a biennial report on national critical technologies submitted to Congress by the President pursuant to section 6683(d) 1 of this title. A critical technology strategy may cover more than one critical technology.

(2) The President shall assign responsibilities and develop procedures for conducting executive branch activities to carry out this section.

(3) During the development of a critical technology strategy, the President shall provide for the following:

(A) The development of goals and objectives for the appropriate Federal role in the development of the critical technology or technologies that the President expects to be covered by the strategy.

(B) Close consultation with appropriate representatives of United States industries, members of industry associations, representatives of labor organizations in the United States, members of professional and technical societies in the United States and other persons who are qualified to provide advice and assistance in the development of such critical technology or technologies.

(C) The development of an organizational structure within the Federal Government that is appropriate for coordinating, managing, and reviewing the Federal Government's role in the implementation of the strategy, including allocating roles among Federal departments and agencies.

(D) The development of policies and procedures for synergistic government, industrial, and university participation in the implementation of the strategy.

(E) The development of Federal budget estimates for research and development regarding the critical technology or technologies covered by the strategy for the first five fiscal years covered by that strategy.

(b) Report

Not later than February 15 of each year, beginning in 1993, the President shall submit to Congress an annual report describing the implementation of subsection (a) of this section. The annual report shall include the following:

(1) For each critical technology designated by the President for the purpose of subsection (a) of this section, a description of the progress made in implementing subsection (a) of this section during the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year in which the report is submitted.

(2) A description of each proposed program, if any, for further implementing subsection (a) of this section with respect to a critical technology through the date for the submission of the next annual report.

(3) A copy of each strategy, if any, completed or revised pursuant to subsection (a) of this section during the fiscal year covered by the report.

(Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §822(a), (b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1432, 1433.)

References in Text

Section 6683 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was omitted from the Code.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993, and not as part of the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 which comprises this chapter.