42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2008 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 92 - POWERPLANT AND INDUSTRIAL FUEL USE
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 92—POWERPLANT AND INDUSTRIAL FUEL USE

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
8301.
Findings; statement of purposes.
8302.
Definitions.
8303.
Territorial application.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—NEW FACILITIES

Part A—Prohibitions

8311.
Coal capability of new electric powerplants; certification of compliance.
8312.
Repealed.

        

Part B—Exemptions

8321.
Temporary exemptions.
8322.
Permanent exemptions.
8323.
General requirements for exemptions.
8324.
Terms and conditions; compliance plans.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—EXISTING FACILITIES

Part A—Prohibitions

8341.
Existing electric powerplants.
8342.
Repealed.
8343.
Rules relating to case-by-case and category prohibitions.

        

Part B—Exemptions

8351.
Temporary exemptions.
8352.
Permanent exemptions.
8353.
General requirements for exemptions.
8354.
Terms and conditions; compliance plans.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—ADDITIONAL PROHIBITIONS; EMERGENCY AUTHORITIES

8371, 8372. Repealed
8373.
Conservation in Federal facilities, contracts, and financial assistance programs.
8374.
Emergency authorities.
8375.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—SYSTEM COMPLIANCE OPTION

8391.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

8401.
Assistance to areas impacted by increased coal or uranium production.
8401a.
“Local government” defined.
8402.
Loans to assist powerplant acquisitions of air pollution control equipment.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

Part A—Procedures

8411.
Administrative procedures.
8412.
Judicial review.

        

Part B—Information and Reporting

8421.
Information.
8422.
Compliance report.

        

Part C—Enforcement

8431.
Notice of violation; other general provisions.
8432.
Criminal penalties.
8433.
Civil penalties.
8434.
Injunctions and other equitable relief.
8435.
Citizens suits.

        

Part D—Preservation of Contractual Rights

8441.
Preservation of contractual interest.

        

Part E—Studies

8451.
National coal policy study.
8452.
Repealed.
8453.
Impact on employees.
8454.
Study of compliance problem of small electric utility systems.
8455.
Repealed.
8456.
Socioeconomic impacts of increased coal production and other energy development.
8457.
Use of petroleum and natural gas in combustors.

        

Part F—Appropriations Authorization

8461.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Part G—Coordination With Other Provisions of Law

8471.
Effect on environmental requirements.
8472.
Effect of orders under section 792 of title 15.
8473.
Environmental impact statements under section 4332 of this title.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

8481, 8482. Repealed.
8483.
Submission of reports.
8484.
Electric utility conservation plan.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§8301. Findings; statement of purposes

(a) Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) the protection of public health and welfare, the preservation of national security, and the regulation of interstate commerce require the establishment of a program for the expended 1 use, consistent with applicable environmental requirements, of coal and other alternate fuels as primary energy sources for existing and new electric powerplants; and

(2) the purposes of this chapter are furthered in cases in which coal or other alternate fuels are used by electric powerplants, consistent with applicable environmental requirements, as primary energy sources in lieu of natural gas or petroleum.

(b) Statement of purposes

The purpose 2 of this chapter, which shall be carried out in a manner consistent with applicable environmental requirements, are—

(1) to reduce the importation of petroleum and increase the Nation's capability to use indigenous energy resources of the United States to the extent such reduction and use further the goal of national energy self-sufficiency and otherwise are in the best interests of the United States;

(2) to encourage and foster the greater use of coal and other alternate fuels, in lieu of natural gas and petroleum, as a primary energy source;

(3) to the extent permitted by this chapter, to encourage the use of synthetic gas derived from coal or other alternate fuels;

(4) to encourage the rehabilitation and upgrading of railroad service and equipment necessary to transport coal to regions or States which can use coal in greater quantities;

(5) to encourage the modernization or replacement of existing and new electric powerplants which utilize natural gas or petroleum as a primary energy source and which cannot utilize coal or other alternate fuels where to do so furthers the conservation of natural gas and petroleum;

(6) to require that existing and new electric powerplants which utilize natural gas, petroleum, or coal or other alternate fuels pursuant to this chapter comply with applicable environmental requirements;

(7) to insure that all Federal agencies utilize their authorities fully in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter by carrying out programs designed to prohibit or discourage the use of natural gas and petroleum as a primary energy source and by taking such actions as lie within their authorities to maximize the efficient use of energy and conserve natural gas and petroleum in programs funded or carried out by such agencies;

(8) to insure that adequate supplies of natural gas are available for essential agricultural uses (including crop drying, seed drying, irrigation, fertilizer production, and production of essential fertilizer ingredients for such uses);

(9) to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to energy supply interruptions; and

(10) to regulate interstate commerce.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title I, §102, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3291; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(1), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 310.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 95–620, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3289, as amended, known as the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978, which enacted this chapter, amended sections 6211 and 7193 of this title, section 796 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties, sections 821, 822, and 825 of Title 45, Railroads, and section 26b of former Title 49, Transportation, and enacted provisions set out as notes under this section and section 822 of Title 45. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(1)(A), struck out “and major fuel-burning installations” after “electric powerplants”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(1)(B), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) relating to conservation of natural gas and petroleum for uses for which there are no alternatives.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(1)(B), redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (3) and (4), respectively. Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(1), redesignated par. (7) as (5) and struck out “and major fuel-burning installations” after “electric powerplants”. Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(1), redesignated par. (8) as (6) and struck out “and major fuel-burning installations” after “electric powerplants”, and struck out former par. (6) which related to prohibition or minimization of use of natural gas and petroleum as a primary energy source.

Subsec. (b)(7) to (10). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(1)(B), redesignated former pars. (9) to (12) as (7) to (10), respectively. Former pars. (7) and (8) redesignated (5) and (6), respectively.

Effective Date

Section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620 provided that: “Unless otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title note set out below] the provisions of this Act shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 9, 1978], except that the Secretary may issue rules pursuant to such provisions at any time after such date of enactment, which rules may take effect no earlier than 180 days after such date of enactment.”

Short Title

Section 101(a) of Pub. L. 95–620 provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter, amending sections 6211 and 7193 of this title, section 796 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties, sections 821, 822 and 825 of Title 45, Railroads, and section 26b of former Title 49, Transportation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 822 of Title 45] may be cited as the ‘Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978’.”

Exemption for Certain Electric Powerplants and Temporary Exemption Issued Under Section 8321(d) as Effective Prior to 180 Days After November 9, 1978

Section 902 of Pub. L. 95–620 provided that:

“(a) Exemptions in the Case of Certain Powerplants.—In the case of—

“(1) any electric powerplant which, as of April 20, 1977, has received a final decision from the appropriate State agency authorizing the construction of such powerplant, and

“(2) any electric powerplant (A) consisting of one or more combined cycle units owned or operated by an electric utility which serves at least 2,000,000 customers and (B) for which an application has been filed for at least one year before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 9, 1978] with the appropriate State agency for authorization to construct such powerplant,

the Secretary may receive, consider, and grant (or deny) any petition for an exemption under title II or III [subchapters II and III of this chapter] notwithstanding section 901 [section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note above] or the fact that all rules related to such petition have not been prescribed at the time.

“(b) Exemptions Under Section 211(d).—The Secretary may receive, consider, and grant (or deny) any petition for any exemption under section 211(d) [section 8321(d) of this title] notwithstanding section 901 [section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note above], or the fact that all rules related to such petition have not been prescribed at the time.”

1 So in original. Probably should be “expanded”.

2 So in original. Probably should be “purposes”.

§8302. Definitions

(a) Generally

Unless otherwise expressly provided, for the purposes of this chapter—

(1) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Energy.

(2) The term “person” means any (A) individual, corporation, company, partnership, association, firm, institution, society, trust, joint venture, or joint stock company, (B) any State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States, or (C) any agency or instrumentality (including any municipality) thereof.

(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term “natural gas” means any fuel consisting in whole or in part of—

(i) natural gas;

(ii) liquid petroleum gas;

(iii) synthetic gas derived from petroleum or natural gas liquids; or

(iv) any mixture of natural gas and synthetic gas.


(B) The term “natural gas” does not include—

(i) natural gas which is commercially unmarketable (either by reason of quality or quantity), as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary;

(ii) natural gas produced by the user from a well the maximum efficient production rate of which is less than 250 million Btu's per day;

(iii) natural gas to the extent the exclusion of such gas is provided for in subsection (b) of this section; or

(iv) synthetic gas, derived from coal or other alternate fuel, the heat content of which is less than 600 Btu's per cubic foot at 14.73 pounds per square inch (absolute) and 60 degrees Fahrenheit.


(4) The term “petroleum” means crude oil and products derived from crude oil, other than—

(A) synthetic gas derived from crude oil;

(B) liquid petroleum gas;

(C) liquid, solid, or gaseous waste byproducts of refinery operations which are commercially unmarketable, either by reason of quality or quantity, as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary; or

(D) petroleum coke or waste gases from industrial operations.


(5) The term “coal” means anthracite and bituminous coal, lignite, and any fuel derivative thereof.

(6) The term “alternate fuel” means electricity or any fuel, other than natural gas or petroleum, and includes—

(A) petroleum coke, shale oil, uranium, biomass, and municipal, industrial, or agricultural wastes, wood, and renewable and geothermal energy sources;

(B) liquid, solid, or gaseous waste byproducts of refinery or industrial operations which are commercially unmarketable, either by reason of quality or quantity, as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary; and

(C) waste gases from industrial operations.


(7)(A) The terms “electric powerplant” and “powerplant” mean any stationary electric generating unit, consisting of a boiler, a gas turbine, or a combined cycle unit, which produces electric power for purposes of sale or exchange and—

(i) has the design capability of consuming any fuel (or mixture thereof) at a fuel heat input rate of 100 million Btu's per hour or greater; or

(ii) is in a combination of two or more electric generating units which are located at the same site and which in the aggregate have a design capability of consuming any fuel (or mixture thereof) at a fuel heat input rate of 250 million Btu's per hour or greater.


(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “electric generating unit” does not include—

(i) any electric generating unit subject to the licensing jurisdiction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and

(ii) any cogeneration facility, less than half of the annual electric power generation of which is sold or exchanged for resale, as determined by the Secretary.


(C) For purposes of clause (ii) of subparagraph (A), there shall be excluded any unit which has a design capability to consume any fuel (including any mixture thereof) that does not equal or exceed 100 million Btu's per hour and the exclusion of which for purposes of such clause is determined by the Secretary, by rule, to be appropriate.

(8) The term “new electric powerplant” means—

(A) any electric powerplant for which construction or acquisition began on a date on or after November 9, 1978; and

(B) any electric powerplant for which construction or acquisition began on a date after April 20, 1977, and before November 9, 1978, unless the Secretary finds the construction or acquisition of such powerplant could not be canceled, rescheduled, or modified to comply with the applicable requirements of this chapter without—

(i) adversely affecting electric system reliability (as determined by the Secretary after consultation with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the appropriate State authority), or

(ii) imposing substantial financial penalty (as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary).


(9)(A) The term “existing electric powerplant” means any electric powerplant other than a new electric powerplant.

(B) Any powerplant treated under this chapter as an existing electric powerplant shall not be treated thereafter as a new electric powerplant merely by reason of a transfer of ownership.

(10)(A) The terms “major fuel-burning installation” and “installation” means a stationary unit consisting of a boiler, gas turbine unit, combined cycle unit, or internal combustion engine which—

(i) has a design capability of consuming any fuel (or mixture thereof) at a fuel heat input rate of 100 million Btu's per hour or greater; or

(ii) is in a combination of two or more such units which are located at the same site and which in the aggregate have a design capability of consuming any fuel (or mixture thereof) at a fuel heat input rate of 250 million Btu's per hour or greater.


(B) The terms “major fuel-burning installation” and “installation” do not include—

(i) any electric powerplant; or

(ii) any pump or compressor used solely in connection with the production, gathering, transmission, storage, or distribution of gases or liquids, but only if there is certification to the Secretary of such use (in accordance with rules prescribed by the Secretary).


(C) For purposes of clause (ii) of subparagraph (A), there shall be excluded any unit which has a design capability to consume any fuel (including any mixture thereof) that does not equal or exceed 100 million Btu's per hour and the exclusion of which for purposes of such clause is determined by the Secretary, by rule to be appropriate.

(11) The term “new major fuel-burning installation” means—

(A) any major fuel-burning installation on which construction or acquisition began on a date on or after November 9, 1978; and

(B) any major fuel-burning installation on which construction or acquisition began on a date after April 20, 1977, and before November 9, 1978, unless the Secretary finds the construction or acquisition of such installation could not be canceled, rescheduled, or modified to comply with applicable requirements of this chapter without—

(i) incurring significant operational detriment of the unit (as determined by the Secretary); or

(ii) imposing substantial financial penalty (as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary).


(12)(A) The term “existing major fuel-burning installation” means any installation which is not a new major fuel-burning installation.

(B) Such term does not include a major fuel-burning installation for the extraction of mineral resources located—

(i) on or above the Continental Shelf of the United States, or

(ii) on wetlands areas adjacent to the Continental Shelf of the United States,


where coal storage is not practicable or would produce adverse effects on environmental quality.

(C) Any installation treated as an existing major fuel-burning installation shall not be treated thereafter as a new major fuel-burning installation merely by reason of a transfer of ownership.

(13) The term “construction or acquisition began” means, when used with reference to a certain date, that—

(A) construction in accordance with final drawings or equivalent design documents (as defined by the Secretary, by rule) began on or after that date; or

(B)(i) construction or acquisition had been contracted for on or after that date, or (ii) if the construction or acquisition had been contracted for before such date, such construction or acquisition could be canceled, rescheduled, or modified to comply with the applicable requirements of this chapter—

(I) without imposing substantial financial penalty, as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary; and

(II) in the case of a powerplant, without adversely affecting electric system reliability (as determined by the Secretary after consultation with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the appropriate State authority).


(14) The term “construction” means substantial onsite construction or reconstruction, as defined by rule by the Secretary.

(15) The term “primary energy source” means the fuel or fuels used by any existing or new electric powerplant, except it does not include, as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary—

(A) the minimum amounts of fuel required for unit ignition, startup, testing, flame stabilization, and control uses, and

(B) the minimum amounts of fuel required to alleviate or prevent (i) unanticipated equipment outages and (ii) emergencies directly affecting the public health, safety, or welfare which would result from electric power outages.


(16) The term “site limitation” means, when used with respect to any powerplant, any specific physical limitation associated with a particular site which relates to the use of coal or other alternate fuels as a primary energy source for such powerplant, such as—

(A) inaccessibility to coal or other alternate fuels;

(B) lack of transportation facilities for coal or other alternate fuels;

(C) lack of adequate land or facilities for the handling, use, and storage of coal or other alternate fuels;

(D) lack of adequate land or facilities for the control or disposal of wastes from such powerplant, including lack of pollution control equipment or devices necessary to assure compliance with applicable environmental requirements; and

(E) lack of an adequate and reliable supply of water, including water for use in compliance with applicable environmental requirements.


(17) The term “applicable environmental requirements” includes—

(A) any standard, limitation, or other requirement established by or pursuant to Federal or State law (including any final order of any Federal or State court) applicable to emissions of environmental pollutants (including air and water pollutants) or disposal of solid waste residues resulting from the use of coal or other alternate fuels or natural gas or petroleum as a primary energy source or from the operation of pollution control equipment in connection with such use, taking into account any variance of law granted or issued in accordance with Federal law or in accordance with State law to the extent consistent with Federal law; and

(B) any other standard, limitation, or other requirement established by, or pursuant to, the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], the Federal Water Pollution Control Act [33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.], the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.], or the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].


(18)(A) The term “peakload powerplant” means a powerplant the electrical generation of which in kilowatt hours does not exceed, for any 12-calendar-month period, such powerplant's design capacity multiplied by 1,500 hours.

(B) The term “intermediate load powerplant” means a powerplant (other than a peakload powerplant), the electrical generation of which in kilowatt hours does not exceed, for any 12-calendar-month period, such powerplant's design capacity multiplied by 3,500 hours.

(C) The term “base load powerplant” means a powerplant the electrical generation of which in kilowatt hours exceeds, for any 12-calendar-month period, such powerplant's design capacity multiplied by 3,500 hours.

(D) Not later than 90 days after November 9, 1978, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission shall prescribe rules under which a powerplant's design capacity may be determined for purposes of this paragraph.

(19) the 1 term “cogeneration facility” means an electric powerplant which produces—

(A) electric power; and

(B) any other form of useful energy (such as steam, gas, or heat) which is, or will be, used for industrial, commercial, or space heating purposes.


(20) The term “cost”, unless the context indicates otherwise, means total costs (both operating and capital) incurred over the estimated remaining useful life of an electric powerplant, discounted to present value, as determined by the Secretary (in the case of powerplants, in consultation with the State regulatory authorities). In the case of an electric powerplant, such costs shall take into account any change required in the use of existing electric powerplants in the relevant dispatching system and other economic factors which are included in planning for the production, transmission, and distribution of electric power within such system.

(21) The term “State regulatory authority” means any State agency which has ratemaking authority with respect to the sale of electricity by any State regulated electric utility.

(22) The term “air pollution control agency” has the same meaning as given such term by section 302(b) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7602(b)].

(23) The term “electric utility” means any person, including any affiliate, or Federal agency which sells electric power.

(24) The term “affiliate”, when used in relation to a person, means another person which controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such person.

(25) The term “Federal agency” means each authority of the Government of the United States, whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency, but does not include—

(A) the Congress;

(B) the courts of the United States;

(C) the governments of the territories or possessions of the United States; and

(D) the government of the District of Columbia.


(26) The term “Btu” means British thermal unit.

(27) the term “Mcf” means, when used in relation to natural gas, 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas.

(28) The term “mixture”, when used in relation to fuels used in a unit, means a mixture of such fuels or a combination of such fuels used simultaneously or alternately in such unit.

(29) The term “fluidized bed combustion” means combustion of fuel in connection with a bed of inert material, such as limestone or dolomite, which is held in a fluid-like state by the means of air or other gases being passed through such materials.

(b) Special rules relating to definitions of natural gas and alternate fuel

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), natural gas which is to be used by a powerplant shall for purposes of this chapter (other than this subsection), be excluded from the definition of “natural gas” under subsection (a)(3)(B)(iii) of this section and shall be included within the definition of “alternate fuel” under subsection (a)(6) of this section if the person proposing to use such natural gas certifies to the Secretary (together with such supporting documents as the Secretary may require) that—

(A) such person owns, or is entitled to receive, at the point of manufacture, synthetic gas derived from coal or another alternate fuel;

(B) the Btu content of such synthetic gas is equal to, or greater than, the Btu content of the natural gas to be covered by this subsection by reason of such certification, plus the approximate Btu content of any natural gas consumed or lost in transportation;

(C) such person delivers, or arranges for the delivery of, such synthetic gas to a pipeline or pipelines which by transport or displacement are capable of delivering such synthetic gas, mixed with natural gas, to such person; and

(D) all necessary permits, licenses, or approvals from appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies (including Indian tribes) have been obtained for construction and operation of the facilities for the manufacture of the synthetic gas involved.


(2) The application of paragraph (1) with respect to the use of natural gas by any powerplant shall be conditioned on the person using such natural gas submitting to the Secretary a report not later than one year after certification is made under paragraph (1), and annually thereafter, containing the following information:

(A) the source, amount, quality, and point of delivery to the pipeline of the synthetic gas to which paragraph (1) applied during the annual period ending with the calendar month preceding the date of such report; and

(B) the amount, quality, and point of delivery by the pipeline to such person of the natural gas covered by paragraph (1) which is used by the person during such annual period.


(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(H), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 310.

(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term “pipeline” means any interstate or intrastate pipeline or local distribution company.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title I, §103, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3292; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 310.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(17)(B), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(17)(B), is act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–500, §2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816, which is classified generally to chapter 26 (§1251 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1251 of Title 33 and Tables.

The Solid Waste Disposal Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(17)(B), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 997, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795, which is classified generally to chapter 82 (§6901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of this title and Tables.

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (a)(17)(B), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a)(13)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(A), inserted “and” at end of subcl. (I), substituted period for “; or” at end of subcl. (II), and struck out subcl. (III) which read as follows: “in the case of a major fuel-burning installation, without incurring significant operational detriment of the unit (as determined by the Secretary).”

Subsec. (a)(15). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(B), struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “electric powerplant”.

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(C), struck out “or installation” after “any powerplant” in introductory provisions and after “such powerplant” in introductory provisions and subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(D), struck out “or a major fuel-burning installation” after “electric powerplant”.

Subsec. (a)(20). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(E), struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “life of an electric powerplant”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(F), struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “used by a powerplant” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(G), substituted a period for “, except that for purposes of the prohibition under section 8311(2) of this title against powerplants being constructed without the capability of using coal or another alternate fuel, only permits, licenses, and approvals for the construction of such synthetic gas facilities shall be required under this subparagraph to be certified and documented.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(F), struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “by any powerplant” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(2)(H), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “In the case of any boiler subject to a prohibition under section 8371 of this title, the preceding provisions of this subsection shall apply with respect to such boiler to the same extent and in the same manner as they apply in the case of major fuel-burning installations.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of certain functions from Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Chairman thereof, see Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1980, 45 F.R. 40561, 94 Stat. 3585, set out as a note under section 5841 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§8303. Territorial application

The provisions of this chapter shall only apply within the contiguous 48 States and the District of Columbia.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title I, §104, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3298; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(3), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 311.)

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–42 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “The provisions of this chapter shall apply in all the States, Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States, except that—

“(1) the provisions of subchapters II and III of this chapter (other than section 8341 of this title) shall only apply to powerplants and installations situated within the contiguous 48 States, Alaska, and the District of Columbia; and

“(2) the provisions of section 8341 of this title shall only apply to powerplants situated within the contiguous 48 States and the District of Columbia.”

SUBCHAPTER II—NEW FACILITIES

Part A—Prohibitions

§8311. Coal capability of new electric powerplants; certification of compliance

(a) General prohibition

Except to such extent as may be authorized under part B, no new electric powerplant may be constructed or operated as a base load powerplant without the capability to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source.

(b) Capability to use coal or alternate fuel

An electric powerplant has the capability to use coal or another alternate fuel for purposes of this section if such electric powerplant—

(1) has sufficient inherent design characteristics to permit the addition of equipment (including all necessary pollution devices) necessary to render such electric powerplant capable of using coal or another alternate fuel as its primary energy source; and

(2) is not physically, structurally, or technologically precluded from using coal or another alternate fuel as its primary energy source.


Capability to use coal or another alternate fuel shall not be interpreted to require any such powerplant to be immediately able to use coal or another alternate fuel as its primary energy source on its initial day of operation.

(c) Applicability to base load powerplants

(1) This section shall apply only to base load powerplants, and shall not apply to peakload powerplants or intermediate load powerplants.

(2) For the purposes of this section, hours of electrical generation pursuant to emergency situations, as defined by the Secretary and reported to the Secretary, shall not be included in a determination of whether a powerplant is being operated as a base load powerplant.

(d) Self-certification

(1) In order to meet the requirement of subsection (a) of this section, the owner or operator of any new electric powerplant to be operated as a base load powerplant proposing to use natural gas or petroleum as its primary energy source shall certify to the Secretary prior to construction, or prior to operation as a base load powerplant in the case of a new electric powerplant operated as a peakload powerplant or intermediate load powerplant, that such powerplant has capability to use coal or another alternate fuel, within the meaning of subsection (b) of this section. Such certification shall be effective to establish compliance with the requirement of subsection (a) of this section as of the date it is filed with the Secretary. Within 15 days after receipt of a certification submitted pursuant to this paragraph, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice reciting that the certification has been filed.

(2) The Secretary, within 60 days after the filing of a certification under paragraph (1), may require the owner or operator of such powerplant to provide such supporting documents as may be necessary to verify the certification.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3298; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(4)(A), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 311.)

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–42 substituted “Coal capability of new electric powerplants; certification of compliance” for “New electric powerplants” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Except to such extent as may be authorized under part B—

“(1) natural gas or petroleum shall not be used as a primary energy source in any new electric powerplant; and

“(2) no new electric powerplant may be constructed without the capability to use coal or any other alternate fuel as a primary energy source.”

§8312. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(a)(1), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 310

Section, Pub. L. 95–620, title II, §202, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3298, prohibited, except to extent authorized under part B, use of natural gas or petroleum as primary energy source in new major fuel-burning installation consisting of a boiler, and authorized Secretary to prohibit nonboilers from using natural gas or petroleum.

Part B—Exemptions

§8321. Temporary exemptions

(a) General exemption due to lack of alternate fuel supply, site limitations, or environmental requirements

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption for a powerplant from the prohibitions of part A, the Secretary shall, by order, grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that for the period of the proposed exemption, despite diligent good faith efforts—

(1) it is likely that an adequate and reliable supply of coal or other alternate fuel of the quality necessary to conform with design and operational requirements for use as a primary energy source will not be available to such powerplant at a cost (taking into account associated facilities for the transportation and use of such fuel) which, based upon the best practicable estimates, does not substantially exceed the cost, as determined by rule by the Secretary, of the fuel that would be used as a primary energy source;

(2) one or more site limitations exist which would ot 1 permit the location or operation of such a powerplant using coal or any other alternate fuel as a primary energy source; or

(3) the prohibitions of section 8311 of this title could not be satisfied without violating applicable environmental requirements.

(b) Temporary exemption based upon future use of synthetic fuels

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption for a powerplant from the prohibitions of part A, the Secretary shall, by order, grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that—

(1) the petitioner will comply with the prohibitions of part A by the end of the proposed exemption by the use of a synthetic fuel derived from coal or another alternate fuel; and

(2) the petitioner is not able to comply with such prohibitions by the use of such synthetic fuel until the end of the proposed exemption.


The effectiveness of an exemption under this subsection is conditioned on the petitioner filing and maintaining a compliance plan meeting the requirements of section 8324(b) of this title.

(c), (d) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(5)(E), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 312

(e) Duration of temporary exemptions

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), exemptions under this section for any powerplant may not exceed, taking into account any extension or renewal, 5 years.

(2)(A) An exemption under subsection (a)(1) of this section may be granted for a period of more than 5 years, but may not exceed, taking into account any extension or renewal, 10 years.

(B) An exemption under subsection (b) of this section may be extended beyond the 5-year limit under paragraph (1), but such exemption, so extended, may not exceed 10 years.

(3) If an exemption is granted for any powerplant before the powerplant is placed in service, the period before it is placed in service shall not be taken into account in computing the 5-year and the 10-year limitations of paragraphs (1) and (2).

(Pub. L. 95–620, title II, §211, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3299; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(5), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 312.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(5)(A)–(D), substituted “from” for “or installation from one or more of” in introductory provisions, substituted “the fuel that would be used” for “using imported petroleum” and struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” in par. (1), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” in par. (2), and struck out “or 8312” after “8311” in par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(5)(A), substituted “from” for “or installation from one or more of”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(5)(E), struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: “After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption for a powerplant or installation from one or more of the prohibitions of part A, the Secretary may, by order, grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that for the period of the proposed exemption the issuance of such exemption would be in the public interest and would be consistent with the purposes of this chapter.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(5)(E), struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: “After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from the prohibition of the use of petroleum under section 8312 of this title for an installation with a design capacity of consuming any fuel (or any mixture thereof) at a fuel heat input rate which does not exceed 300 million Btu's per hour, the Secretary may, by order, grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of petroleum if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated, by the existence of binding contracts or other evidence, including appropriate State construction permits, that he will use coal or another alternate fuel for at least 75 percent of the annual fuel heat input rate upon the expiration of such exemption. For provisions relating to authority to receive, consider and granting (or denying) certain petitons [sic] for an exemption under this subsection, see section 902(b).”

Subsec. (e)(1), (3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(5)(B), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” wherever appearing.

Exemption for Certain Electric Powerplants and Temporary Exemption Issued Under Subsection (d) as Effective Prior to 180 Days After November 9, 1978

For effectiveness of exemption for certain electric powerplants and the temporary exemption issued under subsec. (d) of this section as prior to 180 days after Nov. 9, 1978, see section 902 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note under section 8301 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “not”.

§8322. Permanent exemptions

(a) Permanent exemption due to lack of alternate fuel supply, site limitations, environmental requirements, or adequate capital

(1) After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption for a powerplant from the prohibitions of part A, the Secretary shall, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection with respect to natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that despite diligent good faith efforts—

(A) it is likely that an adequate and reliable supply of coal or other alternate fuel of the quality necessary to conform with design and operational requirements for use as a primary energy source (i) will not be available within the first 10 years of the useful life of the powerplant, or (ii) will not be available at a cost (taking into account associated facilities for the transportation and use of such fuel) which, based upon the best practicable estimates, does not substantially exceed the cost, as determined by rule by the Secretary, of the fuel that would be used as a primary energy source during the useful life of the powerplant involved;

(B) one or more site limitations exist which would not permit the location or operation of such powerplant using coal or any other alternate fuel as a primary energy source;

(C) the prohibitions of part A could not be satisfied without violating applicable environmental requirements; or

(D) the required use of coal or any other alternate fuel would not allow the petitioner to obtain adequate capital for the financing of such powerplant.


(2) The demonstration required to be made by a petitioner under paragraph (1) shall be made with respect to the site of such powerplant and reasonable alternative sites.

(b) Permanent exemption due to certain State or local requirements

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption for a powerplant from the prohibitions of part A, the Secretary may, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection with respect to natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that—

(1) with respect to the proposed site of the powerplant, the construction or operation of such a facility using coal or any other alternate fuel is infeasible because of a State or local requirement (other than a building code or a nuisance or zoning law);

(2) there is no reasonable alternative site for such powerplant which meets the criteria set forth in subsection (a)(1)(A) through (D) of this section; and

(3) the granting of the exemption would be in the public interest and would be consistent with the purposes of this chapter.

(c) Permanent exemption for cogeneration

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a cogeneration facility, the Secretary may, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection with respect to natural gas or petroleum, if he—

(1) finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that economic and other benefits of cogeneration are unobtainable unless petroleum or natural gas, or both, are used in such facility, and

(2) includes in the final order a statement of the basis for such finding.

(d) Permanent exemption for certain mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption for a powerplant from the prohibitions of part A, the Secretary shall, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection with respect to natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that—

(1) the powerplant uses, or proposes to use, a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source; and

(2) the amount of the petroleum or natural gas used in such mixture will not exceed the minimum percentage of the total Btu heat input of the primary energy sources of such powerplant needed to maintain reliability of operation of such powerplant consistent with maintaining a reasonable level of fuel efficiency, as determined in accordance with rules prescribed by the Secretary.

(e) Permanent exemption for emergency purposes

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection with respect to natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that such powerplant will be maintained and operated only for emergency purposes (as defined by rule by the Secretary).

(f) Permanent exemption for powerplants necessary to maintain reliability of service

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption for a powerplant from one or more of the prohibitions of part A, the Secretary may, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection with respect to natural gas or petroleum if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that—

(1) such exemption is necessary to prevent impairment of reliability of service, and

(2) the petitioner, despite diligent good faith efforts, is not able to make the demonstration necessary to obtain an exemption under subsection (a) or (b) of this section in the time required to prevent such impairment of service.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title II, §212, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3300; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 312.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6)(A)–(C), substituted “from” for “or installation from one or more of” in introductory provisions, substituted “the fuel that would be used” for “using imported petroleum” and struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” wherever appearing in subpar. (A), and struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” in subpars. (B) and (D).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(1)(D), struck out “—

“(A) in the case of a new major fuel-burning installation, be made with respect to the site of such installation proposed by the petitioner; and

“(B) in the case of a new electric powerplant,”

after “paragraph (1) shall”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6)(E), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, a powerplant which has been granted an exemption under subsection (h) of this section may not be granted an exemption under this subsection.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6)(A), (B), (F), in introductory provisions substituted “from” for “or installation from one or more of”, in par. (1) struck out “or installation” after “powerplant”, and in par. (2) struck out “in the case of a powerplant,” after “(2)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6)(A), (B), (G), struck out “(1)” before “After consideration of”, substituted “from” for “installation from one or more of” in introductory provisions, redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) of former par. (1) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” wherever appearing in such pars., and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “In the case of a new major fuel-burning installation, the percentage determined by the Secretary under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall not be less than 25 percent.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6)(B), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6)(H), struck out subsec. (g) which related to issuance, by order of Secretary of Energy, of permanent exemptions for use of natural gas or petroleum for peakload powerplants.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6)(H), struck out subsec. (h) which related to issuance, by order of Secretary of Energy, of permanent exemptions for use of petroleum for intermediate load powerplants.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6)(H), struck out subsec. (i) which related to issuance, by order of Secretary of Energy, of permanent exemptions for use of natural gas or petroleum for installations based upon product or process requirements.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(6)(H), struck out subsec. (j) which related to issuance, by order of Secretary of Energy, of permanent exemptions for use of natural gas or petroleum for installations necessary to meet scheduled equipment outages.

Exemption for Certain Electric Powerplants as Effective Prior to 180 Days After November 9, 1978

For effectiveness of exemption for certain electric powerplants as prior to 180 days after Nov. 9, 1978, see section 902(a) of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note under section 8301 of this title.

§8323. General requirements for exemptions

(a) Use of mixtures or fluidized bed combustion not feasible

Except in the case of an exemption under section 8322(d) of this title, the Secretary may grant a permanent exemption for a powerplant under this part only—

(1) if the applicant has demonstrated that the use of a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and coal or another alternate fuel, for which an exemption under section 8322(d) of this title would be available, is not economically or technically feasible; and

(2) if the Secretary has not made a finding that the use of a method of fluidized bed combustion of coal or another alternate fuel is economically and technically feasible.

(b) State approval required for powerplant

If the appropriate State regulatory authority has not approved a powerplant for which a petition has been filed, such exemption, to the extent it applies to the prohibition under section 8311 of this title against construction without the capability of using coal or another alternate fuel, shall not take effect until all approvals required by such State regulatory authority which relate to construction have been obtained.

(c) No alternative power supply in the case of a powerplant

(1) Except in the case of an exemption under section 8322(c) of this title, the Secretary may not grant an exemption for a new powerplant unless he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that there is no alternative supply of electric power which is available within a reasonable distance at a reasonable cost without impairing short-run or long-run reliability of service and which can be obtained by the petitioner, despite reasonable good faith efforts.

(2) The Secretary shall forward a copy of any such petition to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission promptly after it is filed with the Secretary and shall consult with such Commission before making any finding on such petition under paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 95–620, title II, §213, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3304; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(7), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 312.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(7)(A), (B), in introductory provisions struck out “or (g)” after “8322(d)” and “or installation” after “powerplant”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(7)(C), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “If the appropriate State regulatory authority has not approved a powerplant for which a petition has been filed, such exemption—

“(1) to the extent it applies to the prohibition under section 8311(2) of this title against construction without the capability of using coal or another alternate fuel, shall not take effect until all approvals required by such State regulatory authority which relate to construction have been obtained; and

“(2) to the extent it applies to the prohibition under section 8311(1) of this title against the use of natural gas or petroleum as a primary energy source, shall not take effect until all approvals required by such State regulatory authority which relate to construction or operation have been obtained.”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(7)(A), in introductory provisions struck out “or (g)” after “section 8322(c)”.

Exemption for Certain Electric Powerplants as Effective Prior to 180 Days After November 9, 1978

For effectiveness of exemption for certain electric powerplants as prior to 180 days after Nov. 9, 1978, see section 902(a) of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note under section 8301 of this title.

§8324. Terms and conditions; compliance plans

(a) Terms and conditions generally

Any exemption from any prohibition under this part shall be on such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines appropriate, including terms and conditions requiring the use of effective fuel conservation measures which are practicable and consistent with the purposes of this chapter. In the case of any temporary exemption, the terms and conditions (which may include a compliance plan meeting the requirements of subsection (b) of this section) shall be designed to insure that upon the expiration of such exemption, the persons and powerplant covered by such exemption will comply with the applicable prohibitions.

(b) Compliance plans

A compliance plan meets the requirements of this subsection if it is approved by the Secretary and—

(1) contains (A) a schedule indicating how compliance with applicable prohibitions of this chapter will occur and (B) evidence of binding contracts for fuel, or facilities for the production of fuel, which would allow or 1 such compliance; and

(2) is revised at such times and to such extent as the Secretary may require to reflect changes in circumstances.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title II, §214, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3304; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(8), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 312.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–42 struck out “or installation” after “powerplant”.

Exemption for Certain Electric Powerplants as Effective Prior to 180 Days After November 9, 1978

For effectiveness of exemption for certain electric powerplants as prior to 180 days after Nov. 9, 1978, see section 902(a) of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note under section 8301 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—EXISTING FACILITIES

Part A—Prohibitions

1 So in original. Probably should be “for”.

§8341. Existing electric powerplants

(a) Certification by powerplants of coal capability

At any time, the owner or operator of an existing electric powerplant may certify to the Secretary, for purposes of subsection (b) of this section—

(1) whether or not such powerplant has or previously had the technical capability to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source;

(2) whether or not such powerplant could have the technical capability to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source without having—

(A) substantial physical modification of the powerplant, or

(B) substantial reduction in the rated capacity of the powerplant; and


(3) whether or not it is financially feasible to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source in such a powerplant.

(b) Authority of Secretary to prohibit where coal or alternate fuel capability exists

The Secretary may prohibit, in accordance with section 8343(a) or (b) of this title, the use of petroleum or natural gas, or both, as a primary energy source in any existing electric powerplant, if an affirmative certification under subsection (a)(1), (2), and (3) of this section is in effect with respect to such powerplant and if, after examining the basis for the certification, the Secretary concurs with the certification.

(c) Authority of Secretary to prohibit excessive use in mixtures

At any time, the owner or operator of an existing electric powerplant may certify to the Secretary for purposes of this subsection whether or not it is technically and financially feasible to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source in that powerplant. If an affirmative certification under this subsection is in effect with respect to such powerplant and if, after examining the basis for the certification, the Secretary concurs with the certification, the Secretary may prohibit, in accordance with section 8343(a) of this title, the use of petroleum or natural gas, or both, in such powerplant in amounts in excess of the minimum amount necessary to maintain reliability of operation of the unit consistent with maintaining reasonable fuel efficiency of such mixture.

(d) Amendment of subsection (a) and (c) certifications

The owner or operator of any such powerplant may at any time amend any certification under subsection (a) or (c) of this section in order to take into account changes in relevant facts and circumstances; except that no such amendment to such a certification may be made after the date of any final prohibition under subsection (b) or (c) of this section based on that certification.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title III, §301, as added Pub. L. 97–35, title X, §1021(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 614.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 8341, Pub. L. 95–620, title III, §301, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3305, related to existing electric powerplants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–35, title X, §1021(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 614.

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 13, 1981, see section 1038 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date of 1981 Amendment note under section 6240 of this title.

Validity of Orders Under Former Provisions of This Section

Section 1022 of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that:

“(a) The amendments made by section 1021 to section 301(b) and (c) of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 [subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section] shall not apply to any electric powerplant for which a final order was issued pursuant to section 301(b) or (c) of such Act before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981].

“(b) Any electric powerplant issued a proposed order under section 301(b) or (c) of such Act which is pending on the date of the enactment of this Act may elect not to have the amendments made by section 1021 to such section 301(b) or (c) apply with respect to that powerplant. Such an election shall be irrevocable and shall be made in such form and manner as the Secretary of Energy shall, within 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, prescribe. Such an election shall be made not later than 60 days after the date on which the Secretary of Energy prescribes the form and manner of making such election.

“(c)(1) The amendments made by section 1021 shall not affect the validity of any final order issued under section 301(b) or (c) of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 before the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(2) The validity of any proposed order issued under such section 301(b) or (c) shall not be affected in the case of powerplants covered by elections made under subsection (b).

“(3) The authority of the Secretary of Energy to amend, repeal, rescind, modify, or enforce any order referred to in paragraph (1) or (2), or rules applicable thereto, shall remain in effect notwithstanding any such amendments.”

§8342. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(a)(2), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 310

Section, Pub. L. 95–620, title III, §302, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3306, authorized Secretary to prohibit use of petroleum or natural gas as primary energy source in existing major fuel-burning installations having coal or alternate fuel capability and, in installations in which mixtures of petroleum or natural gas and coal or other alternate fuels are found feasible, to prohibit excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in such mixtures.

§8343. Rules relating to case-by-case and category prohibitions

(a) Case-by-case prohibitions

(1) Except to the extent authorized by subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary shall prohibit any powerplant from using natural gas or petroleum under the authority granted him under section 8341(b) or (c) of this title only by means of a final order issued by him which shall be limited to the particular powerplant involved.

(2) The Secretary may issue such a final order only with respect to a powerplant which is not, at the time the proposed order is issued, covered by a final rule issued under subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Prohibitions applicable to categories of facilities

(1) The Secretary may prohibit, by rule, the use of natural gas or petroleum under section 8341(b) of this title in existing electric powerplants.

(2) Each powerplant to be covered by any final rule issued under this subsection shall be specifically identified in the proposed rule published under section 8411(b) of this title.

(3) In prescribing any final rule under this subsection, the Secretary shall take into account any special circumstances or characteristics of each category of powerplants (such as the intermittent use, size, age, or geographic location of such powerplants). Any such rules shall not apply in the case of any existing electric powerplant with respect to which a comparable prohibition was issued by order.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title III, §303, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3306; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(9), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 312.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(9)(A), (B), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” in two places and “or 8342” after “section 8341(b) or (c)”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(9)(A), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(9)(C), struck out par. (3) which read as follows:

“(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall not issue a final order under this subsection to any powerplant if it is demonstrated that such powerplant would have been granted an exemption if such prohibition had been established by a final rule pursuant to subsection (b) of this section rather than by order pursuant to this subsection, except that if a temporary exemption would have been granted, such a final order may be issued but may not take effect until such time as the temporary exemption would have terminated.

“(B) In any case in which an order is not issued by reason of subparagraph (A) or in which the effective date of such order is delayed under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall take such steps as may be necessary to assure the installation involved complies with the same requirements (including provisions of section 8354(a) of this title) as would have been applicable if an exemption had been granted based upon the grounds for which the order is not issued or the effective date of which is delayed.”

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(9)(D), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “The Secretary may, by rule, prohibit the use of natural gas or petroleum pursuant to section 8341(b) or 8342(a) of this title—

“(A) in the case of any category of existing electric powerplants identified in such rule; and

“(B) in the case of any category of existing major fuel-burning installations which have design capabilities of consuming fuel (or any mixture thereof) at a fuel heat input rate of 300 million Btu's per hour or greater which are identified in such rule.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(9)(A), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(9)(A), (E), struck out “or installations” after “powerplants” in two places in introductory provisions, and amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: “Any such rules shall not apply in the case of any existing electric powerplant with respect to which a comparable prohibition was issued by order.”

Part B—Exemptions

§8351. Temporary exemptions

(a) Temporary exemption due to lack of alternate fuel supply, site limitations, or environmental requirements

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant such an exemption for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that for the period of the proposed exemption, despite diligent good faith efforts—

(1) it is likely that an adequate and reliable supply of coal or other alternate fuel of the quality necessary to conform with design and operational requirements for use as a primary energy source, will not be available to such powerplant at a cost (taking into account associated facilities for the transportation and use of such fuel) which, based upon the best practicable estimates, does not substantially exceed the costs, as determined by rule by the Secretary, of using imported petroleum as a primary energy source;

(2) one or more site limitations exist which would not permit the operation of such a powerplant using coal or any other alternate fuel as a primary energy source; or

(3) the prohibitions of section 8341 of this title could not be satisfied without violating applicable environmental requirements.

(b) Temporary exemption based upon future use of synthetic fuels

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary, by order, shall grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that—

(1) the petitioner will comply with the prohibitions of part A by the end of the proposed exemption by the use of a synthetic fuel derived from coal or another alternate fuel; and

(2) the petitioner is not able to comply with such prohibitions by the use of such synthetic fuel until the end of the proposed exemption.


The effectiveness of an exemption under this subsection is conditioned on the petitioner filing and maintaining a compliance plan meeting the requirements of section 8354(b) of this title.

(c) Temporary exemption based upon use of innovative technologies

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary, by order, shall grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that such powerplant will comply with such prohibitions at the expiration of such exemption by the adoption of a technology for the use of coal or another alternate fuel which at the time of the granting of the exemption is determined by the Secretary to be an innovative technology. The effectiveness of an exemption under this subsection is conditioned on the petitioner filing and maintaining a compliance plan meeting the requirements of section 8354(b) of this title.

(d) Temporary exemption for units to be retired

(1) After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that such powerplant is to permanently cease operation at or before the expiration of the exemption period. An exemption under this subsection is conditioned on the petitioner filing and maintaining a compliance plan meeting the requirements of section 8354(b) (other than paragraph (1)(B)) of this title.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, an exemption under this part may not be granted for any powerplant once an exemption under this subsection has been granted for such powerplant.

(e) Temporary public interest exemption

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption for a powerplant from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary may, by order, grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that for the period of the proposed exemption the issuance of such exemption is in the public interest and is consistent with the purposes of this chapter.

(f) Temporary exemption for peakload powerplants

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if the petitioner certifies that such powerplant is to be operated solely as a peakload powerplant.

(g) Temporary exemption for powerplants where necessary to maintain reliability of service

(1) After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant an exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that such exemption is necessary to prevent impairment of reliability of service.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, an exemption under this part (other than a permanent exemption under section 8352(f) of this title for the use of petroleum) may not be granted for any powerplant for which an exemption under this subsection has been granted.

(h) Duration of temporary exemptions

(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), exemptions under this section for any powerplant may not exceed, taking into account any extension or renewal, 5 years.

(2)(A) An exemption under subsection (a)(1) of this section may be granted for a period of more than 5 years, but may not exceed, taking into account any extension or renewal, 10 years.

(B) Subject to paragraph (3), an exemption under subsections (b), (c), and (g) of this section may be extended beyond the 5-year limit under paragraph (1), but such exemption, so extended, may not exceed 10 years.

(3) An exemption under subsections (d), (f), and (g) of this section for the use of natural gas by a powerplant may not extend beyond December 31, 1994.

(4) In computing the 5-year and 10-year limitations of paragraphs (1) and (2) in the case of any exemption under this section, the period before the prohibition on the use of natural gas and petroleum would first apply (if the exemption had not been granted) shall be disregarded.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title III, §311, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3307; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(10), (11), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(10), (11), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” in introductory provisions and in pars. (1) and (2) and struck out “or 8342” after “section 8341” in par. (3).

Subsecs. (b) to (e), (h)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(10), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” wherever appearing.

Exemption for Certain Electric Powerplants as Effective Prior to 180 Days After November 9, 1978

For effectiveness of exemption for certain electric powerplants as prior to 180 days after Nov. 9, 1978, see section 902(a) of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note under section 8301 of this title.

§8352. Permanent exemptions

(a) Permanent exemption due to lack of alternate fuel supply, site limitations, or environmental requirements

(1) After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection for the use of natural gas or petroleum, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that despite diligent good faith efforts—

(A) it is likely that an adequate and reliable supply of coal or other alternate fuels of the quality necessary to conform with design and operational requirements for use as a primary energy source will not be available to such powerplant at a cost (taking into account associated facilities for the transportation and use of such fuel) which, based upon the best practicable estimates, does not substantially exceed the cost, as determined by rule by the Secretary, of using imported petroleum as a primary energy source during the remaining useful life of the powerplant;

(B) one or more site limitations exist which would not permit the operation of such a powerplant using coal or any other alternate fuel as a primary energy source; or

(C) the prohibitions of part A could not be satisfied without violating applicable environmental requirements.


(2) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, a powerplant which has been granted an exemption under subsection (g) of this section may not be granted an exemption under this subsection.

(b) Permanent exemption due to certain State or local requirements

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary may, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that—

(1) with respect to the site of the powerplant, the operation of such a facility using coal or any other alternate fuel is infeasible because of a State or local requirement;

(2) if such State or local requirement is under a building code or nuisance or zoning law, no other exemption under this part could be granted for such facility; and

(3) the granting of the exemption would be in the public interest and would be consistent with the purposes of this chapter.

(c) Permanent exemption for cogeneration

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a cogeneration facility, the Secretary may, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection, if he—

(1) finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that economic and other benefits of cogeneration are unobtainable unless petroleum or natural gas, or both, are used in such facility, and

(2) includes in the final order a statement of the basis for such finding.

(d) Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum

(1) After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that—

(A) the powerplant uses, or proposes to use, a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source; and

(B) the amount of the petroleum or natural gas used in such mixture will not exceed the minimum percentage of the total Btu heat input of the primary energy sources of such powerplant needed to maintain reliability of operation of the unit consistent with maintaining a reasonable level of fuel efficiency, as determined in accordance with rules prescribed by the Secretary.


(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(12)(A), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.

(3) The Secretary may authorize a higher percentage than that referred to in paragraph (1)(B) if he finds that the higher percentage of natural gas allowed would be mixed with synthetic fuels derived from municipal wastes or agricultural wastes and would encourage the use of alternate or new technologies which use renewable sources of energy.

(e) Permanent exemption for emergency purposes

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that such powerplant will be maintained and operated only for emergency purposes (as defined by rule by the Secretary).

(f) Permanent exemption for peakload powerplants

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection, if he finds that—

(1) the powerplant is operated solely as a peakload powerplant;

(2) a denial of such petition is likely to result in an impairment of reliability of service; and

(3)(A) modification of the powerplant to permit compliance with such prohibitions is technically infeasible; or

(B) such modification would result in an unreasonable expense.

(g) Permanent exemption for intermediate load powerplants

(1) After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A on the use of petroleum by a powerplant, the Secretary may, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that—

(A) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (or the appropriate State air pollution control agency) certifies to the Secretary that the use by such powerplant of coal or any available alternate fuel as a primary energy source will cause or contribute to a concentration, in an air quality control region or any area within such region, of a pollutant for which any national ambient air quality standard is or would be exceeded for such area;

(B) such powerplant is to be operated only to replace no more than the equivalent capacity of existing electric powerplants—

(i) which use natural gas or petroleum as a primary energy source,

(ii) which are owned by the same person who is to operate such powerplant, and

(iii) which, if they used coal as a primary energy source, would cause or contribute to such a concentration in such region;


(C) such powerplant is and shall continue to be operated solely as an intermediate load powerplant;

(D) the net fuel heat input rate for such powerplant will be maintained at or less than 9,500 Btu's per kilowatt hour throughout the remaining useful life of the powerplant; and

(E) the powerplant has the capability to use synthetic fuels derived from coal or other alternate fuel.


(2) The Secretary shall, from time to time, review each exemption granted to a powerplant under this subsection, and shall terminate such exemption if he finds that there is available a supply of synthetic fuel derived from coal or other alternate fuel suitable for use as a primary energy source by such powerplant.

(h) Permanent exemption for use of natural gas by certain powerplants with capacities of less than 250 million Btu's per hour

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), after consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from any prohibition of part A for the use of natural gas by a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection for such use, if he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that—

(A) such powerplant has a design capability of consuming fuel (or any mixture thereof) at a fuel heat input rate of less than 250 million Btu's per hour;

(B) such powerplant was a baseload powerplant on April 20, 1977; and

(C) such powerplant is not capable of consuming coal without—

(i) substantial physical modification of the unit; or

(ii) substantial reduction in the rated capacity of the unit (as determined by the Secretary).


(2) An exemption under this subsection may only apply to the prohibitions under section 8341 of this title and prohibitions established by final rules or orders issued before January 1, 1990.

(i) Permanent exemption for use of LNG by certain powerplants

After consideration of a petition (and comments thereon) for an exemption from one or more of the prohibitions of part A for a powerplant, the Secretary shall, by order, grant a permanent exemption under this subsection for the use of liquefied natural gas if the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (or the appropriate State air pollution control agency) has certified to the Secretary that the use of coal by such powerplant as a primary energy source will cause or contribute to a concentration, in an air quality control region or any area within such region, of a pollutant for which any national ambient air quality standard is or would be exceeded for such region or area and the use of coal would not comply with applicable environmental requirements.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title III, §312, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3309; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(10), (12), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.)

Amendments

1987—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b), (d)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(10), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(12)(A), struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “In the case of an existing major fuel-burning installation, the percentage determined by the Secretary under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall not be less than 25 percent.”

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(12)(B), substituted “The” for “In the case of an existing electric powerplant, the”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(10), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(12)(C), struck out subsec. (j) which related to granting, by Secretary of Energy, of permanent exemptions for use of natural gas for installations served by international pipelines.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(12)(C), struck out subsec. (k) which related to granting, by Secretary of Energy, of permanent exemptions for use of natural gas or petroleum for installations based upon product or process requirements.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(12)(C), struck out subsec. (l) which related to granting, by Secretary of Energy, of permanent exemptions for use of natural gas or petroleum for installations necessary to meet scheduled equipment outages.

Exemption for Certain Electric Powerplants as Effective Prior to 180 Days After November 9, 1978

For effectiveness of exemption for certain electric powerplants as prior to 180 days after Nov. 9, 1978, see section 902(a) of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note under section 8301 of this title.

§8353. General requirements for exemptions

(a) Use of mixtures or fluidized bed combustion not feasible

Except in the case of an exemption under section 8352(b), (f), or (i) of this title, the Secretary may grant a permanent exemption for a powerplant under this part only—

(1) if the applicant has demonstrated that the use of a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and coal (or other alternate fuels), for which an exemption under section 8352(b) of this title would be available, is not economically or technically feasible; and

(2) if the Secretary has not made a finding that the use of a method of fluidized bed combustion of coal or an alternate fuel is economically and technically feasible.

(b) No alternative power supply in case of a powerplant

(1) In the case of an exemption under section 8352(b) or (g) of this title, the Secretary may not grant an exemption for an existing powerplant unless he finds that the petitioner has demonstrated that there is no alternative supply of electric power which is available within a reasonable distance at a reasonable cost without impairing short-run or long-run reliability of service and which can be obtained by the petitioner, despite reasonable good faith efforts.

(2) The Secretary shall forward a copy of any such petition to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission promptly after it is filed with the Secretary and shall consult with the Commission before making any finding on such petition under paragraph (l).

(Pub. L. 95–620, title III, §313, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3313; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(10), (13), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(13), struck out “or installation” after “powerplant” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(10), which directed the substitution of “or (i)” for “(i), or (j)” was executed by making the substitution for “(i) or (j)” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Exemption for Certain Electric Powerplants as Effective Prior to 180 Days After November 9, 1978

For effectiveness of exemption for certain electric powerplants as prior to 180 days after Nov. 9, 1978, see section 902(a) of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note under section 8301 of this title.

§8354. Terms and conditions; compliance plans

(a) Terms and conditions generally

Any exemption from any prohibition under this part shall be on such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines appropriate, including terms and conditions requiring the use of effective fuel conservation measures which are practicable and consistent with the purposes of this chapter. In the case of any temporary exemption, the terms and conditions (which may include a compliance plan meeting the requirements of subsection (b) of this section) shall be designed to insure that upon the expiration of such exemption, the persons and powerplant covered by such exemption will comply with the applicable prohibitions.

(b) Compliance plans

A compliance plan meets the requirements of this subsection if it is approved by the Secretary and—

(1) contains (A) a schedule indicating how compliance with applicable prohibition of this chapter will occur and (B) evidence of binding contracts for fuel, or facilities for the production of fuel, which would allow for such compliance; and

(2) is revised at such times and to such extent as the Secretary may require to reflect changes in circumstances.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title III, §314, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3314; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(10), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–42 struck out “or installation” after “powerplant”.

Exemption for Certain Electric Powerplants as Effective Prior to 180 Days After November 9, 1978

For effectiveness of exemption for certain electric powerplants as prior to 180 days after Nov. 9, 1978, see section 902(a) of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as a note under section 8301 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—ADDITIONAL PROHIBITIONS; EMERGENCY AUTHORITIES

§§8371, 8372. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(a)(3), (4), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 310

Section 8371, Pub. L. 95–620, title IV, §401, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3314, authorized Secretary to prohibit by order the use of natural gas as primary energy source in existing boilers used for space heating purposes which consume 300 Mcf or more natural gas per day and have capability to use petroleum as primary energy source, and in new boilers to be used for space heating purposes which would be capable of consuming 300 Mcf or more of natural gas per day.

Section 8372, Pub. L. 95–620, title IV, §402, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3315; Pub. L. 97–35, title X, §1024, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 617, prohibited installation of outdoor lighting fixtures using natural gas before Nov. 9, 1978, phased out distribution of natural gas to be used in outdoor lighting other than that installed for residential use before Nov. 9, 1978, and required distributors of natural gas to disseminate information to customers to discourage use of natural gas for outdoor lighting.

§8373. Conservation in Federal facilities, contracts, and financial assistance programs

(a) Federal facilities

(1) Each Federal agency owning or operating any electric powerplant shall comply with any prohibition, term, condition, or other substantial or procedural requirement under this chapter, to the same extent as would be the case if such powerplant were owned or operated by a nongovernmental person.

(2) The President may, by order, exempt from the application of paragraph (1) any powerplant owned or operated by any Federal agency, if the President determines that—

(A) such use is in the paramount interest of the United States and that the powerplant involved is a component of or is used solely in connection with any weaponry, equipment, aircraft, vessels, vehicles or other classes or categories of property which—

(i) are owned or operated by the Armed Forces of the United States (including the Coast Guard) or by the National Guard of any State; and

(ii) are uniquely military in nature; or


(B) there is a lack of appropriation for such use but only if the President specifically requested such appropriations as a part of the budgetary process and the Congress failed to make available such requested appropriation.


Such order shall not take effect until 60 days after a copy of such order has been transmitted to each House of the Congress. The President shall review each such determination every 2 years and submit a report to the Congress on the results of such review.

(b) Federal contracts and financial assistance

(1) In order to implement the purposes of this chapter, the President shall, not later than 30 days after the effective date of this chapter, issue an order—

(A) requiring each Federal agency which is authorized to extend Federal assistance by way of grant, loan, contract, or other form of financial assistance, to promptly effectuate the purposes of this chapter relating to the conservation of petroleum and natural gas, by rule, in such contracting or assistance activities within 180 days after issuance of such order, and

(B) setting forth procedures, sanctions, penalties, and such other provisions as the President determines necessary to carry out such requirement effectively, including a requirement that each agency annually transmit to the President, and make available to the public, a report on the actions taken and to be taken to implement such order.


(2) The President may exempt by order any specific grant, loan, contract, or other form of financial assistance from all or part of the provisions of this subsection if he determines such exemption is in the national interest. The President shall notify the Congress in writing of such exemption at least 60 days before it is effective.

(3) The President or any Federal agency may not use the authority granted under paragraph (1) to require compliance, including the use of coal, by any person or facility with any prohibition under other sections of this chapter if such person or facility has been specifically determined by the Secretary as subject to such prohibition or has been exempted from the application of such prohibition.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title IV, §403, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3317; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(14), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313; Pub. L. 102–486, title XXX, §3011, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3128.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is the effective date of Pub. L. 95–620. See section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8301 of this title.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–486 struck out subsec. (c), which read as follows: “The President shall annually submit a detailed report to each House of the Congress on the actions taken by the President and each Federal agency to implement this section, including the progress and problems associated with implementation of this section.”

1987—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(14)(A), struck out “, major fuel-burning installation, or other unit” after “electric powerplant” and “, installation, or unit” after “such powerplant”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(14)(B), (C), struck out “, installation, or other unit” after “powerplant” in introductory provisions, “, installation, or unit” after “powerplant” in subpar. (A), and last sentence which read as follows: “Any powerplant, installation, or other unit permitted to use natural gas or petroleum under an exemption under this paragraph shall establish and carry out effective fuel conservation measures, as determined by the Secretary.”

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(14)(D), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “Any powerplant, installation, or unit owned or operated by any such Federal agency shall be entitled to any exemption by the Secretary to the same extent, in the same manner, and under the same terms and conditions as would apply if it were owned or operated by a nongovernmental person.”

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which the report under the last sentence of subsec. (a)(2) of this section is listed as the 16th item on page 19), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Ex. Ord. No. 12185. Effectuation of Conservation of Petroleum and Natural Gas by Recipients of Federal Financial Assistance

Ex. Ord. No. 12185, Dec. 17, 1979, 44 F.R. 75093, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by Section 403(b) of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 3318; Public Law 95–620) [42 U.S.C. 8373(b)] and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, in order to encourage additional conservation of petroleum and natural gas by recipients of Federal financial assistance, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–101. Each Federal agency, as that term is defined in Section 103(a)(25) of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 3297) [42 U.S.C. 8302(a)(25)], shall effectuate through its financial assistance programs the purposes of that Act relating to the conservation of petroleum and natural gas.

1–102. Each Federal agency which extends financial assistance shall review those programs of financial assistance and identify those which are most likely to offer opportunities for significant conservation of petroleum and natural gas.

1–103. Within two months, and annually thereafter, each agency shall publish for comment a list of those programs which it has identified as likely to offer significant opportunity for conservation. The public shall be given 60 days to submit comments, including suggestions for rules which would effectuate the conservation purposes of the Act [see Short Title note set out under 42 U.S.C. 8301].

1–104. After receiving public comment and suggestions, and after consulting with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, each agency shall publish proposed rules designed to achieve conservation of petroleum and natural gas in connection with the receipt of financial assistance.

Proposed rules should be published within 30 days of the close of the comment period under Section 1–103.

1–105. Final rules shall be adopted by each agency in accordance with the provisions of Sections 102(b) [42 U.S.C. 8301(b)], 403(b) [42 U.S.C. 8373(b)] and 701(a) [42 U.S.C. 8411(a)] of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978, and the provisions of this Order, not later than 180 days from the date of this Order.

1–106. No one shall be awarded any financial assistance unless that award complies with the provisions of the conservation rules adopted by the agency pursuant to this Order.

1–107. To the extent permitted by law and where not inconsistent with the financial assistance program, final rules may provide for the reduction or suspension of financial assistance under any award. Such reduction or suspension shall not be ordered until there has been an opportunity for a hearing on the record, and shall last for such time as the recipient fails to comply with the terms of the conservation rule.

1–108. No conservation rule shall be adopted which is inconsistent with the statutory provisions establishing the financial assistance program.

1–109. No conservation rule shall be used to enforce compliance with any prohibition under the Act [see Short Title note set out under 42 U.S.C. 8301] against any person or facility which has been specifically determined by the Secretary of Energy as subject to or exempt from a prohibition under the Act. The conservation rules shall be used to enforce other new ways of achieving the purposes of the Act related to the conservation of petroleum and natural gas.

1–110. In order to assess the effectiveness of this program, each agency shall annually prepare a report on its activities in accord with Section 403(b)(1)(B) of the Act [42 U.S.C. 8373(b)]. These reports shall be submitted to the President through the Secretary of Energy.

1–111. The Secretary of Energy shall prepare for the President's consideration and transmittal to the Congress the report required by Section 403(c) of the Act [42 U.S.C. 8373(c)].

1–112. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget may issue any rules, regulations, or orders he deems necessary to ensure the implementation of this Order. The Director may exercise any of the authority vested in the President by Section 403(b) of the Act [42 U.S.C. 8373(b)], and may redelegate such of that authority as he deems appropriate to the head of any other agency.

Jimmy Carter.      

Executive Order No. 12217

Ex. Ord. No. 12217, June 18, 1980, 45 F.R. 41623, which established the responsibilities and duties of Executive agencies for compliance with this chapter, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12437, Aug. 11, 1983, 48 F.R. 36801.

§8374. Emergency authorities

(a) Coal allocation authority

(1) If the President—

(A) declares a severe energy supply interruption, as defined in section 6202(8) of this title, or

(B) finds, and publishes such finding, that a national or regional fuel supply shortage exists or may exist which the President determines—

(i) is, or is likely to be, of significant scope and duration, and of an emergency nature;

(ii) causes, or may cause, major adverse impact on public health, safety, or welfare or on the economy; and

(iii) results, or is likely to result, from an interruption in the supply of coal or from sabotage, or an act of God;


the President may, by order, allocate coal (and require the transportation thereof) for the use of any electric powerplant or major fuel-burning installation, in accordance with such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, to insure reliability of electric service or prevent unemployment, or protect public health, safety, or welfare.

(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term “coal” means anthracite and bituminous coal and lignite (but does not mean any fuel derivative thereof).

(b) Emergency prohibition on use of natural gas or petroleum

If the President declares a severe energy supply interruption, as defined in section 6202(8) of this title, the President may, by order, prohibit any electric powerplant or major fuel-burning installation from using natural gas or petroleum, or both, as a primary energy source for the duration of such interruption. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, any suspension of emission limitations or other requirements of applicable implementation plans, as defined in section 7410(d) 1 of this title, required by such prohibition shall be issued only in accordance with section 7410(f) of this title.

(c) Emergency stays

The President may, by order, stay the application of any provision of this chapter, or any rule or order thereunder, applicable to any new or existing electric powerplant, if the President finds, and publishes such finding, that an emergency exists, due to national, regional, or systemwide shortages of coal or other alternate fuels, or disruption of transportation facilities, which emergency is likely to affect reliability of service of any such electric powerplant.

(d) Duration of emergency orders

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), any order issued by the President under this section shall not be effective for longer than the duration of the interruption or emergency, or 90 days, whichever is less.

(2) Any such order may be extended by a subsequent order which the President shall transmit to the Congress in accordance with section 6421 of this title. Such order shall be subject to congressional review pursuant to such section.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the effectiveness of any order issued under this section shall not terminate under this subsection during the 15-calendar-day period during which any such subsequent order described in paragraph (2) is subject to congressional review under section 6421 of this title.

(4) For purposes of this subsection, the provisions of this subsection supersede the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 34 of title 50.

(e) Delegation of authority prohibited

The authority of the President to issue any order under this section may not be delegated. This subsection shall not be construed to prevent the President from directing any Federal agency to issue rules or regulations or take such other action, consistent with this section, in the implementation of such order.

(f) Publication and reports to Congress of orders

Any order issued under this section shall be published in the Federal Register. To the greatest extent practicable, the President shall, before issuing any order under this section, but in no event later than 5 days after issuing such order, report to the Congress of his intention to issue such order and state his reasons therefor.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title IV, §404, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3319; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(15), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.)

References in Text

Section 7410(d) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §101(d)(4), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.

Subchapter II (§1621 et seq.) of chapter 34 of title 50, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), was in the original “title II of the Act of September 14, 1976 (Public Law 94–412)”, which is known as the National Emergencies Act.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–42 struck out subsec. (g) which permitted use of natural gas or petroleum as primary energy source in peakload powerplant or major fuel-burning installation during temporary emergency condition (other than emergency conditions provided for under section 8302(a)(15) of this title).

1 See References in Text note below.

§8375. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(a)(5), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 310

Section, Pub. L. 95–620, title IV, §405, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3320, prohibited increased use of petroleum as primary energy source in existing electric powerplants which, during calendar year 1977, used coal or another alternate fuel as primary energy source, unless permit authorizing such increased use had been issued by Secretary.

SUBCHAPTER V—SYSTEM COMPLIANCE OPTION

§8391. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(a)(6), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 310

Section, Pub. L. 95–620, title V, §501, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3321, mandated that existing electric powerplants owned or operated by an electric utility be considered in compliance with prohibitions under subchapter III of this chapter relating to use of natural gas if there is in effect an approved plan of system compliance for such utility, and set forth requirements for approval of such plan.

SUBCHAPTER VI—FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

§8401. Assistance to areas impacted by increased coal or uranium production

(a) Designation of impacted areas

(1) In accordance with such criteria and guidelines as the Secretary of Agriculture shall, by rule, prescribe, the Governor of any State may designate any area within such State for the purposes of this section, if he finds that—

(A) either (i) employment in coal or uranium production development activities in such area has increased for the most recent calendar year by 8 percent or more from the immediately preceding year or (ii) employment in such activities will increase 8 percent or more per year during each of the 3 calendar years beginning after the date of such finding;

(B) such employment increase has required or will require substantial increases in housing or public facilities and services or a combination of both in such area; and

(C) the State and the local government or governments serving such area lack the financial and other resources to meet any such increases in public facilities and services within a reasonable time.


The Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe a rule containing criteria and guidelines for making a designation under this subsection, after consultation with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Energy, not later than 180 days after the effective date of this chapter.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1)(C), increased revenues, including severance tax revenues, royalties, and similar fees to the State and local governments which are associated with the increase in coal or uranium development activities and which are not prohibited from being used under provisions of law in effect on November 9, 1978, shall be taken into account in determining if a State or local government lacks financial resources.

(3) The Secretary shall, after consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, approve any designation of an area under paragraph (1) only if—

(A) the Governor of the State making the designation provides the Secretary in writing with the data and information on which such designation was made, together with such additional information as the Secretary may require to carry out the purposes of this section; and

(B) the Secretary determines that the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) have been met.

(b) Planning grants

(1) The Secretary of Agriculture may make a grant to any State in which there is an area designated and approved under subsection (a) of this section for the purposes of developing a plan for such area which shall include determinations of—

(A) the anticipated level of coal or uranium production activities in such area;

(B) the socio-economic impacts which have occurred or which are reasonably projected to occur as a result of the increase in coal or uranium production activities;

(C) the availability and location of resources within such area to meet the increased needs resulting from socio-economic impacts determined under subparagraph (B) (such as any increased need for housing, or public facilities and services); and

(D) the nature and expense of measures necessary to meet within a reasonable time the increased needs resulting from such impact for which there are no resources reasonably available other than under this section.


(2)(A) Any grant for developing a plan under this subsection shall be for an amount equal to 100 percent of the costs of such plan, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture.

(B) The aggregate amount granted under this subsection in any fiscal year may not exceed 10 percent of the total amount appropriated for purposes of this section for such year.

(3) The Governor of a State receiving a grant under this subsection for developing a plan shall submit a copy of such plan to the Secretary of Agriculture as soon as practicable after it has been prepared.

(c) Land acquisition and development grants

(1) In the case of any real property—

(A) within an area for which a plan meeting the requirements of subsection (b)(1) of this section has been approved;

(B) which is for housing or public facilities determined in such plan as necessary due to an increase in employment due to coal or uranium development activities;

(C) with respect to which the Secretary of Agriculture has determined that the State and the local governments serving such area do not have the financial resources to acquire or the legal authority to acquire by condemnation; and

(D) with respect to which there has been an approval in writing by the Governor of such State that the Secretary of Agriculture exercise his authority under this paragraph;


the Secretary of Agriculture may acquire such real property or interest therein, by purchase, donation, lease, or exchange. Property so acquired shall be transferred to the State under such terms and conditions as the Secretary of Agriculture deems appropriate. Such terms and conditions shall provide for the reimbursement to the Secretary of Agriculture for the fair market value of the property, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture. The value of any improvement of such property made after such acquisition shall not be taken into account in determining the fair market value of such property under this subsection. Amounts so received by the Secretary of Agriculture shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

(2) Any approval by a Governor of a State under paragraph (1)(D) shall constitute a binding commitment of such State to accept the property to be acquired and to provide reimbursement for the amount of the fair market value of such property, as determined under paragraph (1).

(3) The Secretary of Agriculture may acquire property under paragraph (1) by condemnation only if he finds that—

(A) such property is not available by means other than condemnation at a price which does not substantially exceed the fair market value of such property;

(B) other real property is not similarly available which is within the same designated area and which is suitable for the purposes to which the property involved is to be applied; and

(C) the State and the local governments serving such area lack the legal authority to acquire such property by condemnation.


(4)(A) In the case of any real property which meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1), the Secretary of Agriculture may make a grant to the State in which such property is located for the purposes of acquiring such property, and for any site development which is consistent with the plan developed under subsection (b) of this section.

(B) In the case of property acquired by the Secretary of Agriculture under paragraph (1) and transferred to the State, the Secretary of Agriculture may make a grant to such unit of government for the purposes of site development which is consistent with such plan.

(C) Grants for real property acquisition or site development or both under this paragraph may not exceed 75 percent of the costs thereof, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture.

(5) In the selection of real property for acquisition and in such acquisition under this subsection, preference shall be given to real property which the Secretary of Agriculture determines at such time to be unoccupied or previously mined and abandoned.

(6)(A) Property held by the United States in trust for Indians or any Indian tribe may not be acquired by condemnation under this section.

(B) No property within the National Forest System (as defined in section 1609 1 of title 16) may be exchanged by the Secretary in any acquisition under paragraph (1).

(d) General requirements regarding assistance

(1) Assistance under this section shall be provided only upon application, which application shall contain such information as the Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe.

(2) The Secretary of Agriculture may make any grant under this section in whole or in part to the local government or governments serving an area designated and approved under subsection (a) of this section, or to a council of local governments which includes one or more local governments serving such area (in lieu of making such grant solely to the State), if he has determined, after consultation with the Governor of the State, that to do so would be appropriate.

(3) The Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe, by rule, criteria for the allocation of assistance under this section. Such criteria shall give due weight to the magnitude of the employment increase involved, the financial resources of the designated area, and the ratio of the financial burden on the area to the resources available to such area.

(4) Assistance under this section shall be provide only if the Secretary of Agriculture is satisfied that—

(A) the amounts expended by the State and the local governments involved for the same purposes for which such assistance is provided will not be reduced; and

(B) the amount of such assistance does not reflect any amount for which other Federal financial assistance is provided or on proper application would be provided.

(e) “Coal or uranium development activities” and “site development” defined

For the purposes of this section—

(1) The term “coal or uranium development activities” means the production, processing, or transportation of coal or uranium.

(2) The term “site development” means necessary off-site improvements, such as the construction of sewer and water connections, construction of access roads, and appropriate site restoration, but does not include any portion of the construction of housing or public facilities.

(f) Reports

Any person regularly engaged in any coal or uranium development activity within an area designated and approved under subsection (a) of this section shall prepare and transmit a report to the Secretary of Energy within 90 days after a written request to such person by the Governor of the State in which such area is located. Such report shall include—

(1) projected employment levels for such activity by such person within such area during each of the following 3 calendar years;

(2) the projected increase in employees in such area to engage in such activity during each of such calendar years;

(3) the projected quantity of coal (or uranium) to be produced, processed, or transported by such person during each of such calendar years; and

(4) actions such companies plan to take or are taking to provide needed housing and other facilities for their employees directly or by providing funds to the States or local communities for this purpose.


Copies of the report shall be provided to the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary shall, subject to the provisions of section 796(d) of title 15, provide the report to the Secretary of Agriculture, the Governor, and the appropriate county or local officials and make it available for public review.

(g) Administration

The Secretary of Agriculture shall carry out his responsibilities under this section through the Farmers Home Administration and such other agencies within the Department of Agriculture as he may determine appropriate.

(h) Appropriations authorization

(1) 2 There is hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Energy for purposes of this section, $60,000,000 for fiscal year 1979 and $120,000,000 for fiscal year 1980. The Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Agriculture shall enter into an agreement for the allocation of funds appropriated pursuant to this section for carrying out their respective responsibilities under this section, including the amounts for personnel and administrative costs, and upon such agreement, the Secretary of Energy shall transfer to the Secretary of Agriculture amounts determined under that agreement.

(i) Protection from certain hazardous actions

Federal agencies having responsibilities concerning the health and safety of any person working in any coal, uranium, metal, or nonmetallic mine regulated by any Federal agency shall interpret and utilize their authorities fully and promptly, including the promulgation of standards and regulations, to protect existing and future housing, property, persons, and public facilities located adjacent to or near active and abandoned coal, uranium, metal, and nonmetallic mines from actions occurring at such activities that pose a hazard to such property or persons.

(j) Reorganization

The authority of the Secretary of Agriculture and the authority of the Secretary of Energy under this section may not be transferred to any other Secretary or to any other Federal agency under chapter 9 of title 5 or under any other provision of law, other than under specific provisions of a law enacted after November 9, 1978. The preceding provisions of this subsection shall not preclude either Secretary from delegating any such authority to any officer, employee, or entity within such Secretary's department.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VI, §601, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3323.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is the effective date of Pub. L. 95–620. See section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8301 of this title.

Section 1609 of title 16, referred to in subsec. (c)(6)(B), was in the original “section 10 of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974”. Such section 10 is classified to section 1608 of title 16 but has been editorially translated as section 1609 of title 16 as the probable intent of Congress in that the properties defined as being in the National Forest System appear in section 1609.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. No par. (2) has been enacted.

§8401a. “Local government” defined

For the purposes of section 8401 of this title, the term “local government” shall include—

(1) any county, parish, city, town, township, village or other general purpose political subdivision of a State with the power to levy taxes and expend Federal, State, and local funds and exercise governmental powers; and

(2) which (in whole or in part) is located in, or has authority over the energy impacted area: Provided further, That such term shall include a public or private nonprofit corporation, or a school, water, sewer, highway, or other public special purpose district, authority, or body, with the concurrence of the Governor: Provided further, That such term shall be applicable to all applications for assistance received since the effective date of section 8401 of this title.

(Pub. L. 96–514, title II, §201, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2975.)

References in Text

For effective date of section 8401 of this title, referred to in par. (2), see section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8301 of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1981, and not as part of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 which comprises this chapter.

§8402. Loans to assist powerplant acquisitions of air pollution control equipment

(a) Authority to make loans

The Secretary may, in accordance with the provisions of this section and such rules and regulations as he shall prescribe, make a loan (and may make a commitment to loan) to any person who owns or operates any existing electric powerplant converting to coal or other alternate fuel as its primary energy source after the effective date of this chapter for the purpose of financing the purchase and installation of one or more certified air pollution control devices for such electric powerplant.

(b) Limitations and conditions

A loan made under this section shall—

(1) not exceed two-thirds of the cost of purchasing and installing the certified air pollution control devices;

(2) have a maturity date not extending beyond 10 years after the date such loan is made;

(3) bear interest at a rate not less than (A) a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the average market yield of outstanding Treasury obligations of comparable maturity, plus (B) 1 percent;

(4) be made on the condition of payment to the Secretary of a loan fee in an amount equal to (A) such insurance fee as the Secretary determines is necessary to avoid a Federal revenue loss under this section, plus (B) 1 percent of the loan amount; and

(5) be made only if the Secretary finds that—

(A) the financial assistance applied for is not otherwise available from other Federal agencies;

(B) the applicant is unable to obtain sufficient funds on reasonable terms and conditions from any other source;

(C) there is continued reasonable assurance of full repayment of the principal, interest, and fees; and

(D) competition among private entities for the provision of air pollution control devices for electric powerplants using coal as their primary energy source to be assisted under this section will be in no way limited or precluded.

(c) Allocation and priorities

In making loans or commitments to loan pursuant to this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) allocate a minimum of 25 percent of available financial assistance to existing small municipal and rural powerplants; and

(2) give priority consideration to requests for financial assistance by existing electric powerplants subject to any prohibition under subchapter III of this chapter (or under section 792 of title 15).

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term “certified pollution control device” means a new identifiable device which—

(A) is used, in connection with a powerplant, to abate or control atmospheric pollution by removing, altering, disposing, storing, or preventing the emission of pollutants;

(B) the appropriate State air pollution control agency has certified to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency that such device is needed to meet, and is in conformity with, State requirements for abatement or control of atmospheric pollution or contamination;

(C) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency has certified to the Secretary as not duplicating or displacing existing air pollution control devices with a remaining useful economic life in excess of 2 years and as otherwise being in furtherance of the requirements and purposes of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.];

(D) does not constitute or include a building, or a structural component of a building, other than a building used exclusively for the purposes set forth in subparagraph (A); and

(E) the construction of which began after the effective date of this chapter.


(2) The term “small municipal or rural cooperative electric powerplant” means an electric generating unit, which—

(A) by design is not capable of consuming fuel at a fuel heat input rate in excess of a rate determined appropriate by the Secretary by rule; and

(B) is owned or operated by a municipality or a rural electric cooperative.

(e) Records

(1) The Secretary shall require all persons receiving financial assistance under this section to keep such records as the Secretary shall prescribe, including records which fully disclose the amount and disposition by such recipient of the proceeds of such assistance, the total cost of the project or undertaking in connection with which such assistance was given or used, the amount of that portion of the cost of the project or undertaking supplied by other sources, and such other records as will facilitate an effective audit.

(2) The Secretary and the Comptroller General of the United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, shall, until the later of—

(A) the expiration of 3 years after completion of the project or undertaking referred to in subsection (a) of this section, or

(B) full repayment of interest and principal on a loan made under this section, occurs,


have access for the purposes of audit, evaluation, examination to any books, documents, papers, and records of such receipts which in the opinion of the Secretary or the Comptroller General may be related or pertinent to such loan.

(f) Default

(1) If there is a default in any payment by the obligor of interest or principal due under a loan entered into by the Secretary under this section and such default has continued for 90 days, the Secretary has the right to demand payment of such unpaid amount, unless the Secretary finds that such default has been remedied, or a satisfactory plan to remedy such default by the obligor has been accepted by the Secretary.

(2) In demanding payment of unpaid interest or principal by the obligor, the Secretary has all rights specified in the loan-related agreements with respect to any security which he held with respect to the loan, including the authority to complete, maintain, operate, lease, sell, or otherwise dispose of any property acquired pursuant to such loan or related agreements.

(3) If there is a default under any loan, the Secretary shall notify the Attorney General who shall take such action against the obligator or other parties liable thereunder as is, in his discretion, necessary to protect the interests of the United States. The holder of such loan shall make available to the United States all records and evidence necessary to prosecute any such suit.

(g) Deposit of receipts

Amounts received by the Secretary as principal, interest, fees, proceeds from security acquired following default, or other amounts received by the Secretary in connection with loans made under this section shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

(h) Authorization of appropriation

There are hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section, but not to exceed $400,000,000 for fiscal year 1979 and $400,000,000 for fiscal year 1980. Authority granted to the Secretary under subsection (a) of this section may be exercised only to the extent as may be provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VI, §602, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3327.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d)(1)(E), is the effective date of Pub. L. 95–620. See section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8301 of this title.

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(C), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

SUBCHAPTER VII—ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

Part A—Procedures

§8411. Administrative procedures

(a) General rulemaking

Except to the extent otherwise provided in this section or other provisions of this chapter, rules prescribed under this chapter shall be made in accordance with the procedures set forth in section 553 of title 5.

(b) Notices of rules and orders imposing prohibitions

Before the Secretary prescribes any rule or issues any order imposing a prohibition under this chapter, he shall publish such proposed rule or order in the Federal Register, together with a statement of the reasons for such rule or order and, in the case of a rule, a detailed statement of any special circumstances or characteristics required to be taken into account in prescribing such rule. A copy shall be transmitted to the person who operates any such powerplant required to be specifically identified in such rule or order.

(c) Petitions for exemptions

(1) Any petition for an exemption from any prohibition under this chapter shall be filed at such time and shall be in such form as the Secretary shall by rule prescribe. The Secretary, upon receipt of such petition, shall publish a notice thereof in the Federal Register together with a statement of the reasons set forth in such a petition for requesting such exemption, and provide a period of public comment of at least 45 days for written comments thereon. Rules required under this paragraph shall be prescribed not later than 120 days after November 9, 1978.

(2) The Secretary, upon receipt of such petition, shall notify the appropriate State agencies having primary authority to permit or regulate the construction or operation of the electric powerplant which is the subject of such petition, and, to the maximum extent practicable, consult with such agencies.

(3) The Secretary, within 6 months after the period for public comment and hearing applicable to any petition for an exemption, shall issue a final order granting or denying the petition for such exemption, except that the Secretary may extend such period to a specified date if he publishes notice thereof in the Federal Register and includes with such notice a statement of the reasons for such extension.

(d) Public comment on prohibitions and exemptions

(1) In the case of any proposed rule or order by the Secretary imposing a prohibition or any petition for any order granting an exemption under this chapter, any interested person shall be afforded an opportunity to present oral data, views, and arguments at a public hearing. At such hearing any interested person shall have an opportunity to question—

(A) other interested persons who make oral presentations,

(B) employees and contractors of the United States who have made written or oral presentations or who have participated in the development of the proposed rule or order or in the consideration of such petition, and

(C) experts and consultants who have provided information to any person who makes an oral presentation and which is contained in or referred to in such presentation,


with respect to disputed issues of material fact, except that the Secretary may restrict questioning if he determines that such questioning is duplicative or is not likely to result in a timely and effective resolution of such issues. Any oral or documentary evidence may be received, but the Secretary as a matter of policy shall provide for the exclusion of irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious evidence.

(2) A rule or order subject to this section may not be issued except on consideration of the whole record or those parts thereof cited by a party and supported by and in accordance with the reliable, probative, and substantial evidence.

(e) Transcript

A transcript shall be kept of any public hearing made in accordance with this section.

(f) Environmental Protection Agency comment

A copy of any proposed rule or order to be prescribed or issued by the Secretary which imposes a prohibition under this chapter (other than under section 8374 of this title), or a petition for an exemption (or permit) under this chapter (other than under section 8374 of this title), shall be transmitted by the Secretary to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary shall request such agency to comment thereon within the period provided to the public unless a longer period is provided under the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.]. In any such case, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall be afforded the same opportunity to comment and question as is provided other interested persons under subsection (d) of this section.

(g) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16)(E), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313

(h) Coordination with other provisions of law

(1) Except as provided in sections 8412(c)(4), 8433(d)(5), and 8434 of this title, title V of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7191, et seq.) shall not apply with respect to this chapter.

(2) The preceding provisions of this section shall not apply with respect to any exercise of authority under section 8374 of this title.

(3) The procedures applicable under this chapter shall not—

(A) be considered to be modified or affected by any other provision of law unless such other provision specifically amends this chapter (or provisions of law cited herein), or

(B) be considered to be superseded by any other provision of law unless such other provision does so in specific terms, referring to this chapter, and declaring that such provision supersedes, in whole or in part, the procedures of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §701, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3329; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

The Department of Energy Organization Act, referred to in subsec. (h)(1), is Pub. L. 95–91, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 567, as amended. Title V of the Department of Energy Organization Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§7191 et seq.) of chapter 84 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16)(A), struck out “(other than under section 8372 of this title)” after “this chapter” and “or installation” after “powerplant”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16)(B)(i), (ii), struck out “or for any permit under section 8375 of this title” after “this chapter” and “or permit” after “such exemption”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16)(B)(iii), struck out “or, where appropriate, major fuel-burning installation” after “powerplant”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16)(B)(i), struck out “or permit” after “exemption” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16)(B)(iv), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “Any order for the approval of a system compliance plan under section 8391 of this title, and any petition for such an order, shall be treated for purposes of this subchapter the same as an order (or petition) for an exemption.”

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16)(C), struck out “(or permit)” after “an exemption” and “(other than under section 8372 of this title)” after “under this chapter”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16)(D), struck out “8372 or” after “(other than under section” in two places.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(16)(E), struck out subsec. (g) which read as follows: “A copy of any proposed rule or order to be prescribed or issued by the Secretary which imposes a prohibition under this chapter (other than under section 8372 or 8374 of this title) with respect to a major fuel-burning installation or a boiler subject to section 8371 of this title or a petition by such installation or boiler for an exemption (or permit) under this chapter (other than under section 8372 or 8374 of this title), shall be transmitted by the Secretary to the Federal Trade Commission and the Secretary shall request such Commission to comment thereon within the period provided to the public. In any such case, the Federal Trade Commission shall be afforded the same opportunity to comment and question as is provided other interested persons under subsection (d) of this section.”

§8412. Judicial review

(a) Publication and delay of prohibition or exemption to allow for review

Any final rule or order prescribed by the Secretary imposing a prohibition or granting an exemption (or permit) under this chapter shall be published in the Federal Register, and shall not take effect earlier than the 60th calendar day after such rule or order is published.

(b) Publication of denial of exemption or permit

Any final order issued by the Secretary denying any petition for an exemption or a permit under this chapter shall be published in the Federal Register, together with the reasons for such action.

(c) Judicial review

(1) Any person aggrieved by any final rule or order referred to in subsection (a) of this section or in section 8374 of this title, or by the denial of a petition for an order granting an exemption (or permit) referred to in subsection (b) of this section, may at any time before the 60th day after the date such rule, order, or denial is published under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, file a petition with the United States court of appeals for the circuit wherein such person resides, or has his principal place of business, for judicial review thereof. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary. The Secretary thereupon shall file in the court the written submissions to, and transcript of, the written or oral proceedings on which the rule or order was based as provided in section 2112 of title 28.

(2) Upon the filing of the petition referred to in paragraph (1), the court shall have jurisdiction to review the rule, order, or denial in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5, and to grant appropriate relief as provided in such chapter. No rule or order (or denial thereof) may be affirmed unless supported by substantial evidence.

(3) The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any such rule, order, or denial shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28.

(4) Subject to the direction and control of the Attorney General, as provided in section 519 of title 28, attorneys appointed by the Secretary may appear for and represent the Secretary in any proceeding instituted under this section in accordance with section 7192(c) of this title.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §702, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3331.)

Part B—Information and Reporting

§8421. Information

(a) Authority of Secretary

For purposes of carrying out his responsibilities under this chapter, the Secretary may require, under the authority of this chapter or any other authority administered by him, any person owning, operating or controlling any electric powerplant, or any other person otherwise subject to this chapter to submit such information and reports of any kind or nature directly to the Secretary necessary to implement the provisions of this chapter, and insure compliance with the provisions of this chapter, and any rule or order thereunder. The provisions of section 796(d) of title 15 shall apply with respect to information obtained under this section to the same extent and in the same manner as it applies with respect to energy information obtained under section 796 of title 15.

(b) Authority of President and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

In the case of responsibilities expressly given by this chapter to the President or the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, subsection (a) of this section shall be applied as if the references to the Secretary were references to the President or the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, as the case may be.

(c) Natural gas usage by electric utilities

(1) For purposes of section 8374(b) of this title and other emergency authorities, the Secretary shall obtain data necessary to determine—

(A) within 6 months after August 13, 1981, the total quantities of natural gas used as a primary energy source by each electric utility during calendar year 1977, and

(B) on a semiannual basis, the total quantities of natural gas used as a primary energy source during the previous 6-month period by each electric utility.


(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1051(e), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 716.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §711, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3332; Pub. L. 97–35, title X, §1021(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 615; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(17), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1051(e), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 716.)

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “The Secretary shall include in each annual report to the Congress under section 8482 of this title a summary of information received by the Secretary under this subsection.”

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–42 struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “powerplant”.

1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–35 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Aug. 13, 1981, see section 1038 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 6240 of this title.

§8422. Compliance report

(a) Generally

Any person owning, operating, or proposing to operate one or more existing electric powerplants required to come into compliance with the prohibitions of this chapter shall on or before January 1, 1980, and annually thereafter, submit to the Secretary a report identifying all such existing electric powerplants owned or operated by such person. Such report shall—

(1) set forth the anticipated schedule for compliance with the applicable requirements and prohibitions by each such electric powerplant;

(2) indicate proposed or existing contracts or other commitments or good faith negotiations for such contracts or commitments for coal or another alternate fuel, equipment, or combinations thereof, which would enable such powerplant to comply with such prohibitions; and

(3) identify those electric powerplants, if any, for which application for temporary or permanent exemption from the prohibitions of this chapter may be filed.

(b) Report on implementation of section 8484 plan

Any electric utility required to submit a conservation plan under section 8484 of this title shall annually submit to the Secretary a report identifying the steps taken during the preceding year to implement such plan.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §712, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3332; Pub. L. 97–35, title X, §1023(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 617.)

Amendments

1981—Pub. L. 97–35 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Aug. 13, 1981, see section 1038 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 6240 of this title.

Part C—Enforcement

§8431. Notice of violation; other general provisions

(a) Notice of violation

(1) Whenever, on the basis of any information available, the Secretary finds that any person is in violation of any provision of this chapter, or any rule or order thereunder, the Secretary shall issue notice of such violation. Any notice issued under this subsection shall be in writing and shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the violation.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall not be construed to relieve any person of liability under the other provisions of this chapter for any act or omission occurring before the issuance of notice.

(b) Individual liability of corporate personnel

Any individual director, officer, or agent of a corporation who willfully authorizes, orders, or performs any of the acts or practices constituting in whole or in part a violation of this chapter, or any rule or order thereunder, shall be subject to penalties under this section without regard to any penalties to which the corporation may be subject, except that no such individual director, officer, or agent shall be subject to imprisonment under section 8432 of this title, unless he also knew of noncompliance by the corporation or had received from the Secretary notice of noncompliance by the corporation.

(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(18), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313

(d) Federal agencies

The provisions of sections 8432 and 8433 of this title shall not be construed to apply to any Federal agency or officer or employee thereof acting in his official capacity.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §721, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3333; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(18), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–42 struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: “No person shall be subject to any penalty under this part with respect to the operation of any powerplant in excess of that allowed by an exemption granted on the basis of the operation of such powerplant as a peakload powerplant if it is demonstrated to the Secretary that such operation was necessary to meet peakload demand and that other peakload powerplants within the same system as such powerplant—

“(1) were unavailable for service—

“(A) due to unit or system outages; or

“(B) because operation of such other powerplants would result in their exceeding the hours of operation allowed under an exemption; and

“(2) have not been operated other than to meet peakload demand.”

§8432. Criminal penalties

Any person who willfully violates any provision of this chapter, or any rule or order thereunder, shall be subject to a fine of not more than $50,000, or to imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, for each violation.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §722, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3333; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(19), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.)

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–42 struck out “(other than section 8372 of this title)” after “this chapter”.

§8433. Civil penalties

(a) General civil penalty

Any person who violates any provision of this chapter, or rule or order thereunder, shall be subject to a civil penalty, which shall be assessed by the Secretary, of not more than $25,000 for each violation. Each day of violation shall constitute a separate violation.

(b) Civil penalty for operation in excess of exemption

In the case of any electric powerplant granted an exemption, any person who operates such powerplant during any 12-calendar-month period in excess of that authorized in such exemption, shall be liable for a civil penalty, which shall be assessed by the Secretary. The amount of such civil penalty may not exceed $10 per barrel of petroleum or $3 per Mcf of natural gas used in operation of such powerplant in excess of that authorized in such exemption.

(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(20)(C), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 314

(d) Assessment

(1) Before issuing an order assessing a civil penalty against any person under this chapter, the Secretary shall provide to such person notice of the proposed penalty. Such notice shall inform such person of his opportunity to elect in writing within 30 days after the date of receipt of such notice to have the procedures of paragraph (3) (in lieu of those of paragraph (2)) apply with respect to such assessment.

(2)(A) Unless an election is made within 30 calendar days after receipt of notice under paragraph (1) to have paragraph (3) apply with respect to such penalty, the Secretary shall assess the penalty, by order, after a determination of violation has been made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing pursuant to section 554 of title 5 before an administrative law judge appointed under section 3105 of such title 5. Such assessment order shall include the administrative law judge's findings and the basis for such assessment.

(B) Any person against whom a penalty is assessed under this paragraph may, within 60 calendar days after the date of the order of the Secretary assessing such penalty, institute an action in the United States court of appeals for the appropriate judicial circuit for judicial review of such order in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5. The court shall have jurisdiction to enter a judgment affirming, modifying, or setting aside in whole or in part, the order of the Secretary, or the court may remand the proceeding to the Secretary for such further action as the court may direct.

(3)(A) In the case of any civil penalty with respect to which the procedures of this paragraph have been elected, the Secretary shall promptly assess such penalty, by order, after the date of the receipt of the notice under paragraph (1) of the proposed penalty.

(B) If the civil penalty has not been paid within 60 calendar days after the assessment order has been made under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall institute an action in the appropriate district court of the United States for an order affirming the assessment of the civil penalty. The court shall have authority to review de novo the law and the facts involved, and shall have jurisdiction to enter a judgment enforcing, modifying, and enforcing as so modified, or setting aside in whole or in part, such assessment.

(C) Any election to have this paragraph apply may not be revoked except with the consent of the Secretary.

(4) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become a final and unappealable order under paragraph (2), or after the appropriate district court has entered final judgment in favor of the Secretary under paragraph (3), the Secretary shall institute an action to recover the amount of such penalty in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of such final assessment order or judgment shall not be subject to review.

(5)(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of title 28, or of section 7192(c) of this title, the Secretary shall be represented by the general counsel of the Department of Energy (or any attorney or attorneys within the Department of Energy designated by the Secretary) who shall supervise, conduct, and argue any civil litigation to which paragraph (3) of this subsection applies (including any related collection action under paragraph (4)) in a court of the United States or in any other court, except the Supreme Court. However, the Secretary or the general counsel shall consult with the Attorney General concerning such litigation, and the Attorney General shall provide, on request, such assistance in the conduct of such litigation as may be appropriate.

(B) Subject to the provisions of section 7192(c) of this title, the Secretary shall be represented by the Attorney General, or the Solicitor General, as appropriate, in actions under this subsection, except to the extent provided in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.

(C) Section 7172(d) of this title shall not apply with respect to the functions of the Secretary under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §723, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3333; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(20), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 313.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(20)(A), struck out “(other than section 8372 of this title)” after “this chapter”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(20)(B), (C), struck out “(1)” before “In the case of” and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “Any person operating a major fuel-burning installation granted an exemption which, for any 12-calendar-month period, uses petroleum or natural gas, or both, in excess of that use allowed by such exemption shall be liable for a civil penalty, which shall be assessed by the Secretary. The amount of such civil penalty may not exceed $10 per barrel of petroleum or $3 per Mcf of natural gas which was used in excess of that use allowed by such exemption.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(20)(C), struck out subsec. (c) which set forth civil penalties for violation of section 8372 of this title.

§8434. Injunctions and other equitable relief

Whenever it appears to the Secretary that any person has engaged, is engaged, or is about to engage in acts or practices constituting a violation of this chapter, or any rule or order thereunder, a civil action,1 may be brought, in accordance with section 7192(c) of this title, in the appropriate district court of the United States to enjoin such acts or practices, and, upon a proper showing, the court shall grant, without bond, mandatory or prohibitive injunctive relief, including interim equitable relief.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §724, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3335.)

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§8435. Citizens suits

(a) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, any aggrieved person may commence a civil action for mandatory or prohibitive injunctive relief, including interim equitable relief, against the Secretary or the head of any Federal agency which has a responsibility under this chapter if there is an alleged failure of the Secretary or such agency head to perform any act or duty under this chapter which is not discretionary. The United States district courts shall have jurisdiction over actions brought under this section, without regard to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties.

(b) Notice to Secretary or agency head

No action may be commenced under subsection (a) of this section before the 60th calendar day after the date on which the plaintiff has given notice of such action to the Secretary or the agency head involved. Notice under this subsection shall be given in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by rule.

(c) Authority of Secretary to intervene

In any action brought under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary, if not a party, may intervene as a matter of right.

(d) Costs of litigation

The court, in issuing any final order in any action brought under subsection (a) of this section, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party, whenever the court determines such award is appropriate.

(e) Other remedies to remain available

Nothing in this section shall restrict any right which any aggrieved person (or class of aggrieved persons) may have under any statute or common law to seek enforcement of this chapter or any rule thereunder, or to seek any other relief (including relief against the Secretary or the agency head involved).

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §725, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3335.)

Part D—Preservation of Contractual Rights

§8441. Preservation of contractual interest

(a) Right to transfer contractual interests

(1) If any person receives natural gas, the use of which is prohibited by the provisions of subchapter III of this chapter or any rule or order thereunder, and if such natural gas is received pursuant to a contract in effect on April 20, 1977, between such person and any other person, such person receiving such natural gas may transfer all or any portion of such person's contractual interests under such contract and receive consideration from the person to whom such contractual interests are transferred. The consideration authorized by this subsection shall not exceed the maximum consideration established as just compensation under this section.

(2) Any person who would have transported or distributed the natural gas subject to a contract with respect to which contractual interests are transferred pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be entitled to receive just compensation (as determined by the Commission) from the person to whom such contractual interests are transferred.

(b) Determination of consideration

(1) The Commission shall, by rule, establish guidelines for the application on a regional or national basis (as may be appropriate) of the criteria specified in subsection (e)(1) of this section to determine the maximum consideration permitted as just compensation under this section.

(2) The person transferring contractual interests pursuant to subsection (a)(1) of this section and the person to whom such interests are transferred may agree on the amount of, or method of determining, the consideration to be paid for such transfer and certify such consideration to the Commission. Except as provided in paragraph (4), such agreed-upon consideration shall not exceed the consideration determined by application of the guidelines prescribed by the Commission under paragraph (1).

(3) In the event the person transferring contractual interests pursuant to subsection (a)(1) of this section and the person to whom such interests are to be transferred fail to agree, under paragraph (2), on the amount of, or method of determining, the consideration to be paid for such transfer, the Commission may, at the request of both such persons, prescribe the amount of, or method of determining, such consideration. Upon the request of either such person, the Commission shall make such determination on the record, after an opportunity for agency hearing. In any such latter case, the determination of the Commission shall be binding upon the party requesting that such determination be made on the record of the agency hearing. The consideration prescribed by the Commission shall not exceed the maximum consideration permitted as just compensation under this section. In prescribing the amount of, or method of determining, consideration under this paragraph, to the maximum extent practicable, the Commission shall utilize any liquidated damages provision set forth in the applicable contract, but in no event may the Commission prescribe consideration in excess of the maximum consideration permitted as just compensation under this section.

(4) In the event that the consideration agreed upon under paragraph (2) exceeds the consideration determined by application of the guidelines prescribed by the Commission under paragraph (1), the Commission may approve such agreed-upon consideration if the Commission determines such agreed-upon consideration does not exceed the maximum consideration permitted as just compensation under this section.

(5) If consideration is agreed upon under paragraph (2) and such consideration exceeds the consideration determined by application of the guidelines prescribed under paragraph (1), but does not exceed the maximum consideration permitted as just compensation under this section, the Commission may not require a refund of any portion of the agreed-upon consideration paid with respect to deliveries of natural gas occurring prior to the Commission's action under paragraph (4) approving or disapproving such consideration unless the Commission determines—

(A) such agreed-upon consideration was fraudulently established;

(B) the processing of the request for approval of such agreed-upon consideration under paragraph (4) was willfully delayed by a party to the transfer; or

(C) such agreed-upon consideration exceeds the maximum consideration permitted as just compensation under this section.

(c) Restrictions on transfers unenforceable

(1) Any provision of any contract, which prohibits any transfer authorized by subsection (a)(1) of this section or terminates such contract on the basis of such transfer, shall be unenforceable in any court of the United States and in any court of any State.

(2) No State may enforce any prohibition on any transfer authorized by subsection (a)(1) of this section.

(d) Contractual obligations unaffected

The person acquiring contractual interests transferred pursuant to subsection (a)(1) of this section shall assume the contractual obligations which the person transferring such contractual interests has under such contract. This subsection shall not relieve the person transferring such contractual interests from any contractual obligation of such person under such contract if such obligation is not performed by the person acquiring such contractual interests.

(e) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term “just compensation”, when used with respect to any transfer of contractual interests authorized by subsection (a)(1) of this section, means the maximum amount of, or method of determining, consideration which does not exceed the amount by which—

(A) the reasonable costs (excluding capital costs) incurred, during the remainder of the period of the contract with respect to which contractual interests are transferred under subsection (a)(1) of this section, in direct association with the use of a fuel, other than natural gas, as a primary energy source by the applicable existing electric powerplant, exceed

(B) the price of natural gas under such contract during such period.


For purposes of subparagraph (A), the reasonable costs associated with the use of a fuel, other than natural gas, as a primary energy source shall include an allowance for the amortization, over the remaining useful life, of the undepreciated value of depreciable assets located on the premises containing such electric powerplant, which assets were directly associated with the use of natural gas and are not usable in connection with the use of such other fuel.

(2) The term “just compensation”, when used with respect to subsection (a)(2) of this section, means an amount equal to any loss of revenue, during the remaining period of the contract with respect to which contractual interests are transferred pursuant to subsection (a)(1) of this section, to the extent such loss (A) is directly incurred by reason of the discontinuation of the transportation or distribution of natural gas resulting from the transfer of contractual interests pursuant to subsection (a)(1) of this section, and (B) is not offset by revenues derived from other transportation or distribution which would not have occurred if such contractual interests had not been transferred.

(3) The term “contractual interests”, with respect to a contract described in subsection (a)(1) of this section, includes the right to receive natural gas as affected by any applicable curtailment plan filed with the Commission or the appropriate State regulatory authority.

(4) The term “State” means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, and any political subdivision of any of the foregoing.

(5) The term “interstate pipeline” means any person engaged in the transportation of natural gas in interstate commerce subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Natural Gas Act [15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.].

(6) The term “Commission” means the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

(7) The term “contract”, when used with respect to a contract for receipt of natural gas, which contract was in existence on April 20, 1977, does not include any renewal or extension occurring after such date unless such renewal or extension occurs pursuant to the exercise of an option by the person receiving natural gas under such contract.

(f) Coordination with Natural Gas Act

(1) Consideration paid by any interstate pipeline pursuant to this section shall be deemed just and reasonable for purposes of sections 4, 5, and 7 of the Natural Gas Act [15 U.S.C. 717c, 717d, 717f]. The Commission shall not deny a passthrough by such interstate pipeline of such consideration based upon the amount of such consideration paid pursuant to this section.

(2) No person shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Natural Gas Act [15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.] or to regulation as a common carrier under any provision of Federal or State law solely by reason of making any sale, or engaging in any transportation, of natural gas with respect to which the transfer of contractual interests is authorized under subsection (a)(1) of this section.

(3) Nothing in this section shall exempt from the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Natural Gas Act [15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.] any transportation in interstate commerce of natural gas, any sale in interstate commerce for resale of natural gas, or any person engaged in such transportation or such sale to the extent such transportation, sale or person is subject to the juridiction 1 of the Commission under such Act without regard to the transfer of contractual interests under subsection (a)(1) of this section.

(4) Nothing in this section shall exempt any person from any obligation to obtain a certificate of public convenience and necessity for the transportation by an interstate pipeline of natural gas with respect to which the transfer of contractual interests is authorized under subsection (a)(1) of this section. The Commission shall not deny such a certificate for the transportation in interstate commerce of natural gas based upon the amount of consideration paid pursuant to this section.

(g) Volume limitation

No supplier of natural gas under any contract, with respect to which contractual interests have been transferred under subsection (a)(1) of this section, shall be required to supply natural gas during any relevant period in volume amounts which exceed the lesser of—

(1) the volume determined by reference to the maximum delivery obligations specified in such contract;

(2) the volume which such supplier would have been required to supply, under the curtailment plan in effect for such supplier, to the person, who transferred contractual interests under subsection (a)(1) of this section, if no such transfer had occurred;

(3) the volume which would have been delivered, or for which payment would have been made, pursuant to such contract but for the prohibition on the use of such natural gas under subchapter III of this chapter or any rule or order thereunder; and

(4) the volume actually delivered or for which payment would have been made pursuant to such contract during the 12-calendar-month period ending immediately before such transfer of contractual interests pursuant to this section.

(h) Judicial review

Any action by the Commission under this section is subject to judicial review in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §731, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3336; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(21), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 314.)

References in Text

The Natural Gas Act, referred to in subsecs. (e)(5) and (f)(2), (3), is act June 21, 1938, ch. 556, 52 Stat. 821, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 15B (§717 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 717w of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(21)(A), struck out reference to subchapter II of this chapter.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(21)(B), struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “powerplant” in subpar. (A) and “or major fuel-burning installation” after “powerplant” in last sentence.

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(21)(A), struck out reference to subchapter II of this chapter.

Part E—Studies

1 So in original. Probably should be “jurisdiction”.

§8451. National coal policy study

(a) Study

The President, acting through the Secretary and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall make a full and complete investigation and study of the alternative national uses of coal available in the United States to meet the Nation's energy requirements consistent with national policies for the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment and for economic recovery and full employment. In particular the study should identify and evaluate—

(1) current and prospective coal requirements of the United States;

(2) current and prospective voluntary and mandatory energy conservation measures and their potential for reduction of the United States coal requirements;

(3) current and prospective coal resource production, transportation, conversion, and utilization requirements;

(4) the extent and adequacy of coal research, development, and demonstration programs being carried out by Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental entities (including financial resources, manpower, and statutory authority);

(5) programs for the development of coal mining technologies which increase coal production and utilization while protecting the health and safety of coal miners;

(6) alternative strategies for meeting anticipated United States coal requirements, consistent with achieving other national goals, including national security and environmental protection;

(7) existing and prospective governmental policies and laws affecting the coal industry with the view of determining what, if any, changes in and implementation of such policies and laws may be advisable in order to consolidate, coordinate, and provide an effective and equitable national energy policy consistent with other national policies; and

(8) the most efficient use of the Nation's coal resources considering economic (including capital and consumer costs, and balance of payments), social (including employment), environmental, technological, national defense, and other aspects.

(b) Report

Within 18 months after the effective date of this chapter, the President shall submit to the Congress a report with respect to the studies and investigations, together with findings and recommendations in order that the Congress may have such information in a timely fashion. Such report shall include the President's determinations and recommendations with respect to—

(1) the Nation's projected coal needs nationally and regionally, for the next 2 decades with particular reference to electric power;

(2) the coal resources available or which must be developed to meet those needs, including, as applicable, the programs for research, development, and demonstration necessary to provide technological advances which may greatly enhance the Nation's ability to efficiently and economically utilize its fuel resources, consistent with applicable environmental requirements;

(3) the air, water, and other pollution created by coal requirements, including any programs to overcome promptly and efficiently any technological or economic barriers to the elimination of such pollution;

(4) the existing policies and programs of the Federal Government and of State and local governments, which have any significant impact on the availability, production or efficient and economic utilization of coal resources and on the ability to meet the Nation's energy needs and environmental requirements; and

(5) the adequacy of various transportation systems, including roads, railroads, and waterways to meet projected increases in coal production and utilization.


Before submitting a report to the Congress under subsection (b) of this section, the President shall publish in the Federal Register a notice and summary of the proposed report, make copies of such report available, and accord interested persons an opportunity (of not less than 90 days’ duration) to present written comments; and shall make such modifications of such report as he may consider appropriate on the basis of such comments.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for allocation between the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency for fiscal years 1979 and 1980, not to exceed $18,000,000, for use in carrying out the purposes of this section.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §741, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3339.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), is the effective date of Pub. L. 95–620. See section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8301 of this title.

§8452. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–375, title I, §106(d), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1820

Section, Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §742, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3341, related to an investigation by the Secretary of the performance and competition of the coal industry, to be reported to Congress in interim reports with a final report to be submitted not later than eighteen months after Nov. 9, 1978.

§8453. Impact on employees

(a) Evaluation

The Secretary shall conduct continuing evaluations of potential loss or shifts of employment which may result from any prohibition under this chapter, including, if appropriate, investigating threatened plant closures or reductions in employment allegedly resulting from such prohibition. The results of such evaluations and each investigation shall promptly be made available to the public.

(b) Investigation and hearings

On a written request filed with the Secretary by or on behalf of any employee who is discharged or laid off, threatened with discharge or layoff, or otherwise discriminated against, by any person because of the alleged effects of any such prohibition, the Secretary shall investigate the matter and, at the request of any party, shall hold public hearings, after not less than 30 days notice, at which the Secretary shall require the parties, including any employer involved, to present information on the actual or potential effect of such prohibition on employment and on any alleged employee discharge, layoff, or other discrimination relating to prohibitions and the detailed reasons or justification therefor. At the completion of such investigation, the Secretary shall make findings of fact as to the effect of such prohibition on employment and on the alleged employee discharge, layoff, or discrimination and shall make such recommendations as he deems appropriate. Such report, findings, and recommendations shall be available to the public. The Secretary of Labor shall participate in each such investigation.

(c) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to require or authorize the Secretary to modify or withdraw any prohibition under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §743, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3342.)

§8454. Study of compliance problem of small electric utility systems

(a) Study

The Secretary shall conduct a study of the problems of compliance with this chapter experienced by those electric utility systems which have a total system generating capacity of less than 2,000 megawatts. The Secretary shall report his findings and his recommendations to the Congress not later than 2 years after the effective date of this chapter.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for the fiscal year 1979 not to exceed $500,000 to carry out the provisions of this section.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §744, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3343.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), is the effective date of Pub. L. 95–620. See section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8301 of this title.

§8455. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title II, §2021(j)(1), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 727

Section, Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §745, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3343; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(22), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 314, related to emissions monitoring.

§8456. Socioeconomic impacts of increased coal production and other energy development

(a) Committee

There is hereby established an interagency committee composed of the heads of the Departments of Energy, Commerce, Interior, Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Health and Human Services, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Appalachian Regional Commission, the Farmers’ Home Administration, the Office of Management and Budget, and such other Federal agencies as the Secretary shall designate. In carrying out its functions the committee shall consult with the National Governors’ Conference and interested persons, organizations, and entities. The chairman of the committee shall be designated by the President. The committee shall terminate 90 days after the submission of its report under subsection (c) of this section.

(b) Functions of committee

It is the function of the committee to conduct a study of the socioeconomic impacts of expanded coal production and rapid energy development in general, on States, including local communities, and on the public, including the adequacy of housing and public, recreational, and cultural facilities for coal miners and their families and the effect of any Federal or State laws or regulations on providing such housing and facilities. The committee shall gather data and information on—

(1) the level of assistance provided under this chapter and any other programs related to impact assistance,

(2) the timeliness of assistance in meeting impacts caused by Federal decisions on energy policy as well as private sector decisions, and

(3) the obstacles to effective assistance contained in regulations of existing programs related to impact assistance.

(c) Report

Within 1 year after the effective date of this chapter, the committee shall submit a detailed report on the results of such study to the Congress, together with any recommendations for additional legislation it may consider appropriate.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §746, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3344; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), is the effective date of Pub. L. 95–620. See section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8301 of this title.

Change of Name

“Department of Health and Human Services” substituted for “Department of Health, Education, and Welfare” in subsec. (a), pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

§8457. Use of petroleum and natural gas in combustors

The Secretary shall conduct a detailed study of the uses of petroleum and natural gas as a primary energy source for combustors and installations not subject to the prohibitions of this chapter. In conducting such study, the Secretary shall—

(1) identify those categories of major fuel-burning installations in which the substitution of coal or other alternate fuels for petroleum and natural gas is economically and technically feasible, and

(2) determine the estimated savings of natural gas and petroleum expected from such substitution.


Within 1 year after the effective date of this chapter, the Secretary shall submit a detailed report on the results of such study to the Congress, together with any recommendations for legislation he may consider appropriate.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §747, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3344.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in text, is the effective date of Pub. L. 95–620. See section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8301 of this title.

Part F—Appropriations Authorization

§8461. Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for fiscal year 1979 $11,900,000, to carry out the provisions of this chapter (other than provisions for which an appropriations authorization is otherwise expressly provided in this chapter) and section 792 of title 15.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §751, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3344.)

Part G—Coordination With Other Provisions of Law

§8471. Effect on environmental requirements

(a) Compliance with applicable environmental requirements

Except as provided in section 8374 of this title, nothing in this chapter shall be construed as permitting any existing or new electric powerplant to delay or avoid compliance with applicable environmental requirements.

(b) Local environmental requirements

In the case of any new or existing facility—

(1) which is subject to any prohibition under this chapter, and

(2) which is also subject to any requirement of any local environmental requirement which may be stricter than any Federal or State environmental requirement,


the existence of such local requirement shall not be construed to affect the validity or applicability of such prohibition to such facility, except to the extent provided under section 8322(b) or section 8352(b) of this title; and the existence of such prohibition shall not be construed to preempt such local requirement with respect to that facility.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §761, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3345; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(23), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 314.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–42 struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “powerplant”.

§8472. Effect of orders under section 792 of title 15

(a) Effect of construction orders

Any electric powerplant or major fuel-burning installation issued an order pursuant to section 792(c) of title 15 that is pending on the effective date of this chapter shall, notwithstanding the provisions of such section 792(c) or any other provision of this chapter, be subject to the provisions of this chapter as if it were a new electric powerplant or new major fuel-burning installation, as the case may be, except that if such order became final before such date, the provisions of subchapter II of this chapter shall not apply to such powerplant or installation.

(b) Effect of prohibition orders

The provisions of subchapters II and III of this chapter shall not apply to any powerplant or installation for which an order issued pursuant to section 792(a) of title 15 before the effective date of this chapter is pending or final or which, on review, was held unlawful and set aside on the merits; except that any installation issued such an order under such section 792(a) which is pending on the effective date of this chapter may elect to be covered by subchapter II or III of this chapter (as the case may be) rather than such section 792. Such an election shall be irrevocable and shall be made in such form and manner as the Secretary shall, within 90 days after November 9, 1978, prescribe. Such an election shall be made not later than 60 days after the date on which the Secretary prescribes the form and manner of making such election.

(c) Validity of orders

The preceding provisions of this chapter shall not affect the validity of any order issued under subsection (a), or any final order under subsection (c), of section 792 of title 15, and the authority of the Secretary to amend, repeal, rescind, modify, or enforce any such order, or rules applicable thereto, shall remain in effect notwithstanding any limitation of time otherwise applicable to such authority. Except as provided in this section, the authority of the Secretary under section 792 of title 15 shall terminate on the effective date of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §762(a)–(c), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3345.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in text, is the effective date of Pub. L. 95–620. See section 901 of Pub. L. 95–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8301 of this title.

§8473. Environmental impact statements under section 4332 of this title

The following actions are not deemed to be major Federal actions for purposes of section 4332(2)(C) of this title:

(1) the grant or denial of any temporary exemption under this chapter for any electric powerplant;

(2) the grant or denial of any permanent exemption under this chapter for any existing electric powerplant, other than an exemption—

(A) under section 8352(c) of this title, relating to cogeneration;

(B) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(24)(B), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 314;

(C) under section 8352(b) of this title, relating to certain State or local requirements;

(D) under section 8352(g) of this title, relating to certain intermediate load powerplants; and


(3) the grant or denial of any exemption under this chapter for any powerplant for which the Secretary finds, in consultation with the appropriate Federal agency, and publishes such finding that an environmental impact statement is required in connection with another Federal action and such statement will be prepared by such agency and will reflect the exemption adequately.


Except as provided in the preceding provisions of this section, any determination of what constitutes or does not constitute a major Federal action shall be made under section 4332 of this title.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VII, §763, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3346; Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(24), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 314.)

Amendments

1987—Par. (1). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(24)(A), struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “powerplant”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(24), struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “powerplant” and struck out subpar. (B) which read as follows: “under section 8352(l) of this title, relating to scheduled equipment outages;”.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 100–42, §1(c)(24)(A), struck out “or major fuel-burning installation” after “powerplant”.

SUBCHAPTER VIII—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

§8481. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–42, §1(a)(7), May 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 310

Section, Pub. L. 95–620, title VIII, §801, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3346, required annual disclosure of extent, characteristics, and productive capacity of coal reserves, and of interests held therein, with discretionary exception for small reserves, and publication of such information by Secretary.

§8482. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1051(e), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 716

Section, Pub. L. 95–620, title VIII, §806, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3348, directed Secretary of Energy to submit annual report to Congress on actions already taken and actions to be taken under this chapter and under section 792 of title 15.

§8483. Submission of reports

Copies of any report required by this chapter to be submitted to the Congress shall be separately submitted to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate.

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VIII, §807, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3348.)

Change of Name

Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives immediately prior to noon on Jan. 3, 1981, by House Resolution No. 549, Ninety-sixth Congress, Mar. 25, 1980. Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

§8484. Electric utility conservation plan

(a) Applicability

An electric utility is subject to this subsection 1 if—

(1) the utility owns or operates any existing electric powerplant in which natural gas was used as a primary energy source at any time during the 1-year period ending on August 13, 1981, and

(2) the utility plans to use natural gas as a primary energy source in any electric powerplant.

(b) Submission and approval of plan

The Secretary shall require each electric utility subject to this section to—

(1) submit, within 1 year after August 13, 1981, and have approved by the Secretary, a conservation plan which meets the requirements of subsection (c) of this section; and

(2) implement such plan during the 5-year period beginning on the date of the initial approval of such plan.

(c) Contents of plan

(1) Any conservation plan under this section shall set forth means determined by the utility to achieve conservation of electric energy not later than the 5th year after its initial approval at a level, measured on an annual basis, at least equal to 10 percent of the electric energy output of that utility during the most recent 4 calendar quarters ending prior to August 13, 1981, which is attributable to natural gas.

(2) The conservation plan shall include—

(A) all activities required for such utility by part 1 of title II of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 8211 et seq.];

(B) an effective public information program for conservation; and

(C) such other measures as the utility may consider appropriate.


(3) Any such plan may set forth a program for the use of renewable energy sources (other than hydroelectric power).

(4) Any such plan shall contain procedures to permit the amounts expended by such utility in developing and implementing the plan to be recovered in a manner specified by the appropriate State regulatory authority (or by the utility in the case of a nonregulated utility).

(d) Plan approval

(1) The Secretary shall, by order, approve or disapprove any conservation plan proposed under this subsection 1 by an electric utility within 120 days after its submission. The Secretary shall approve any such proposed plan unless the Secretary finds that such plan does not meet the requirements of subsection (c) of this section and states in writing the reasons therefor.

(2) In the event the Secretary disapproves under paragraph (1) the plan originally submitted, the Secretary shall provide a reasonable period of time for resubmission.

(3) An electric utility may amend any approved plan, except that the plan as amended shall be subject to approval in accordance with paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 95–620, title VIII, §808, as added Pub. L. 97–35, title X, §1023(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 616.)

References in Text

The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), is Pub. L. 95–619, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3208, as amended. Part 1 of title II of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act was classified generally to part A (§8211 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 91 of this title, and was omitted from the Code pursuant to section 8229 of this title which terminated authority under that part June 30, 1989. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8201 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 13, 1981, see section 1038 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date of 1981 Amendment note under section 6240 of this title.