44 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2008 Edition
Title 44 - PUBLIC PRINTING AND DOCUMENTS
CHAPTER 21 - NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 21—NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION

Sec.
2101.
Definitions.
2102.
Establishment.
2103.
Officers.
2104.
Administrative provisions.
2105.
Personnel and services.
2106.
Reports to Congress.
2107.
Acceptance of records for historical preservation.
2108.
Responsibility for custody, use, and withdrawal of records.
2109.
Preservation, arrangement, duplication, exhibition of records.
2110.
Servicing records.
2111.
Material accepted for deposit.
2112.
Presidential archival depository.
2113.
Depository for agreements between States.
2114.
Preservation of motion-picture films, still pictures, and sound recordings.
2115.
Reports; correction of violations.
2116.
Legal status of reproductions; official seal; fees for copies and reproductions.
2117.
Limitation on liability.
2118.
Records of Congress.
2119.
Cooperative agreements.
2120.
Online access of founding fathers documents.

        

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–404, §4(c), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4283, added item 2120.

2004—Pub. L. 108–383, §5(b), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2219, added item 2119.

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §102(c)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2282, amended analysis generally, substituting “National Archives and Records” in chapter heading, adding items 2102 to 2106 and redesignating former items 2103 to 2114 as 2107 to 2118, respectively.

§2101. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(1) “Presidential archival depository” means an institution operated by the United States to house and preserve the papers and books of a President or former President of the United States, together with other historical materials belonging to a President or former President of the United States, or related to his papers or to the events of his official or personal life, and may include research facilities and museum facilities in accordance with this chapter;

(2) “historical materials” including books, correspondence, documents, papers, pamphlets, works of art, models, pictures, photographs, plats, maps, films, motion pictures, sound recordings, and other objects or materials having historical or commemorative value;

(3) “Archivist” means the Archivist of the United States appointed under section 2103 of this title; and

(4) “Administration” means the National Archives and Records Administration established under section 2102 of this title.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1287; Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §102(b), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2282; Pub. L. 99–323, §2, May 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 495.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §397(j) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §507, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583, and amended July 12, 1962, ch. 703, §1(o), (p), 66 Stat. 594; July 12, 1955, ch. 329, 69 Stat. 297; Aug. 12, 1955, ch. 859, 69 Stat. 695; July 3, 1956, ch. 513, §4, 70 Stat. 494; June 13, 1957, Pub. L. 85–51, 71 Stat. 69; Mar. 15, 1958, Pub. L. 85–341, §1(1), 72 Stat. 34).

Amendments

1986—Par. (1). Pub. L. 99–323 inserted “, and may include research facilities and museum facilities in accordance with this chapter” after “or personal life”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–497 substituted “this chapter” for “sections 2103–2113 of this title”, designated two existing paragraphs as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, and added pars. (3) and (4).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

§2102. Establishment

There shall be an independent establishment in the executive branch of the Government to be known as the National Archives and Records Administration. The Administration shall be administered under the supervision and direction of the Archivist.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1287; Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §101, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §391(a) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §104, 63 Stat. 381).

This section incorporates only the last sentence of paragraph (a) of former section 391. The balance of that section will be found in sections 1506, 2301, 2501, and 2902 of the revision.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497 substituted provisions directing that there shall be an independent establishment in the executive branch of the Government to be known as the National Archives and Records Administration and that the Administration shall be administered under the supervision and direction of the Archivist for provisions which had formerly directed only that the Administrator of General Services appoint the Archivist of the United States.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497 provided that: “The provisions of this Act [enacting sections 2103 to 2106 of this title and provisions set out as notes under this section and section 101 of this title, redesignating existing sections 2103 to 2114 as sections 2107 to 2118 of this title, amending this section, sections 710, 711, 729, 1501 to 1503, 1506, 1714, 2101, 2107 to 2118, 2204, 2205, 2301 to 2305, 2307, 2501, 2504, 2506, 2901 to 2909, 3102 to 3106, 3302 to 3303a, 3308, 3310, 3311, 3504, and 3513 of this title, provisions set out as a note under section 2111 of this title, sections 106a, 106b, 112, 113, and 201 of Title 1, General Provisions, sections 6 and 11 to 13 of Title 3, The President, sections 141 to 145 of Title 4, Flag and Seal, Seat of Government, and the States, sections 552a and 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, section 199a of Title 25, Indians, and repealing section 2507 of this title] (including the amendments made by this Act) shall be effective on April 1, 1985.”

Savings Provision

Section 105 of Pub. L. 98–497 provided that:

“(a) All orders, determinations, rules, regulations, grants, contracts, agreements, permits, licenses, privileges, and other actions which have been issued, granted, made, undertaken, or entered into in the performance of any function transferred by this Act [Pub. L. 98–497] or the amendments made by this Act shall continue in effect according to their terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or revoked in accordance with law by any authorized official, a court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law.

“(b)(1) The transfer of functions by this Act [Pub. L. 98–497] and by the amendments made by this Act shall not affect any proceedings, including notices of proposed rulemaking, or any application for any license, permit, certificate, or financial assistance pending on the effective date of this Act [Apr. 1, 1985] before the General Services Administration; but such proceedings and applications, to the extent that they relate to the functions so transferred, shall be continued. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings, appeals shall be taken therefrom, and payments shall be made pursuant to such orders, as if this Act had not been enacted; and orders issued in any such proceedings shall continue in effect until modified, terminated, superseded, or revoked by the Archivist, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law. Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to prohibit the discontinuance or modification of any such proceeding under the same terms and conditions and to the same extent that such proceeding could have been discontinued or modified if this Act had not been enacted.

“(2) The Archivist is authorized to promulgate regulations providing for the orderly transfer of proceedings continued under paragraph (1) from the General Services Administration to the Administration.

“(c) Except as provided in subsection (e)—

“(1) the provisions of this Act [Pub. L. 98–497] and of the amendments made by this Act shall not affect actions commenced prior to the effective date of this Act [Apr. 1, 1985], and

“(2) in all such actions, proceedings shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and effect as if this Act had not been enacted.

“(d) No action or other proceeding lawfully commenced by or against any officer of the United States acting in the official capacity of such officer shall abate by reason of any transfer of functions by this Act [Pub. L. 98–497] or by an amendment made by this Act. No cause of action by or against the General Services Administration or by or against any officer thereof in the official capacity of such officer shall abate by reason of any such transfer of functions.

“(e) If, before the date on which this Act takes effect [Apr. 1, 1985], the General Services Administration or any officer thereof in the official capacity of such officer, is a party to an action, and under this Act [Pub. L. 98–497] or the amendments made by this Act any function in connection with such action is transferred to the Archivist or any other official of the Administration, then such action shall be continued with the Archivist or other appropriate official of the Administration substituted or added as a party.

“(f) Orders and actions of the Archivist in the exercise of functions transferred by this Act [Pub. L. 98–497] or by amendments made by this Act shall be subject to judicial review to the same extent and in the same manner as if such orders and actions had been by the individual holding the office of Archivist of the United States on the day before the effective date of this Act [Apr. 1, 1985] or the Administrator of General Services in the exercise of such functions immediately preceding their transfer. Any statutory requirements relating to notice, hearings, action upon the record, or administrative review that apply to any function transferred by this Act or by any amendment made by this Act shall apply to the exercise of such function by the Archivist.”

Transfer of Functions, Personnel, Assets, Liabilities, Contracts, Property, Records, and Unexpended Balances, Etc.

Sections 103, 104 of Pub. L. 98–497 provided that:

Sec. 103. (a) The National Archives and Records Service of the General Services Administration is transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration.

“(b)(1) All functions which were assigned to the Administrator of General Services by section 6 of Executive Order No. 10530 of May 11, 1954 (19 Fed. Reg. 2709 [set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President]; relating to documents and the Administrative Committee of the Federal Register), and by Executive Order Nunbered [sic] 11440 of December 11, 1968 (33 Fed. Reg. 18475 [set out as a note under section 2109 of this title]; relating to supplemental use of Federal exhibits and displays), shall be exercised by the Archivist of the United States.

“(2) All functions pertaining to the maintenance, operation, and protection of a Presidential archival depository which were assigned to the Administrator of General Services by the Act of September 6, 1965 (Public Law 89–169, 79 Stat. 648) [set out as a note under section 2112 of this title], relating to the Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Archival Depository, and by the Act of August 27, 1966 (Public Law 89–547, 80 Stat. 370) [set out as a note under section 2112 of this title] and the Act of May 26, 1977 (Public Law 95–34, 91 Stat. 174), relating to the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library, shall be exercised by the Archivist of the United States.

“(c) In the exercise of the functions transferred by this Act [Pub. L. 98–497] and the amendments made by this Act, the Archivist shall have the same authority as had the Administrator of General Services prior to the transfer of such functions, and the actions of the Archivist shall have the same force and effect as when exercised by such Administrator.

“(d) Prior to the appointment and confirmation of an individual to serve as Archivist of the United States under section 2103 of title 44, United States Code, the individual holding the office of Archivist of the United States on the day before the effective date of this Act [Apr. 1, 1985] may serve as Archivist under such section, and while so serving shall be compensated at the rate provided under subsection (b) of such section.

Sec. 104. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this Act [Pub. L. 98–497], the personnel employed in connection with, and the assets, liabilities, contracts, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, authorizations, allocations, and other funds employed, held, used, arising from, available to or to be made available in connection with the functions and agencies transferred by this Act and the amendments made by this Act, subject to section 1531 of title 31, United States Code, are transferred to the Archivist for appropriate allocation. Pursuant to the preceding sentence, there shall be transferred to the Archivist for appropriate allocation (1) for the remainder of fiscal year 1985, an amount equal to not less than $2,760,000 (adjusted to reflect actual salaries and benefits of transferred employees and other costs) from the unexpended balances of the fiscal year 1985 funds and appropriations available to the General Services Administration, and (2) 115.5 full-time equivalent employee positions, of which not less than 30 percent shall be vacant. Unexpended funds transferred pursuant to this subsection shall be used only for the purposes for which the funds were originally authorized and appropriated.

“(b) The transfer pursuant to this title [title I (§§101–108) of Pub. L. 98–497] of full-time personnel (except special Government employees) and part-time personnel holding permanent positions shall not cause any such employees to be separated or reduced in grade or compensation for one year after such transfer or after the effective date of this Act [Apr. 1, 1985], whichever is later.”

Establishment of Positions of Director of the Center for Legislative Archives and Specialist in Congressional History

Pub. L. 101–509, title IV, §1(a)–(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1416, 1417, as amended by Pub. L. 103–329, title V, §541, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2415, provided that:

“(a)(1) The Director of the Center for Legislative Archives within the National Archives and Records Administration shall be established without regard to chapter 51 of title 5 and shall be paid at a rate determined without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5 governing General Schedule classification and pay rates: Provided, That such pay shall be no less than 120 percent of the rate of pay for GS–15, step 1 of the General Schedule nor more than the rate of pay in effect for level one of the Senior Executive Schedule.

“(2) There is established within the Center for Legislative Archives within the National Archives and Records Administration the position of Specialist in Congressional History.

“(b) There shall be made available from funds appropriated in each fiscal year to the National Archives and Records Administration, $20,000 for the administrative expenses of the Advisory Committee on the Records of Congress established under section 2701 of title 44, United States Code.

“(c) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of this section.”

References in Other Laws

Section 106 of Pub. L. 98–497 provided that: “With respect to any functions transferred by this Act [Pub. L. 98–497] or by an amendment made by this Act and exercised after the effective date of this Act [Apr. 1, 1985], reference in any other Federal law to the office of the Archivist of the United States as in existence on the date before the effective date of this Act, or the National Archives and Records Service of the General Services Administration, or any office or officer thereof, shall be deemed to refer to the Archivist or the Administration.”

Spending Authority

Section 302 of Pub. L. 98–497 provided that: “Any new spending authority (within the meaning of section 401 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 [2 U.S.C. 651]) which is provided under this Act shall be effective for any fiscal year only to the extent or in such amounts as provided in appropriations Acts.”

Definitions

Section 108 of Pub. L. 98–497 provided that: “For purposes of sections 103 through 106 [set out as notes above]—

“(1) the term ‘Archivist’ means the Archivist of the United States appointed under section 2103 of title 44, United States Code, as added by section 102(a)(2) of this Act;

“(2) the term ‘Administration’ means the National Archives and Records Administration established under section 2102 of such title (as amended by section 101 of this Act); and

“(3) the term ‘function’ includes any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, activity, or program.”

§2103. Officers

(a) The Archivist of the United States shall be appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Archivist shall be appointed without regard to political affiliations and solely on the basis of the professional qualifications required to perform the duties and responsibilities of the office of Archivist. The Archivist may be removed from office by the President. The President shall communicate the reasons for any such removal to each House of the Congress.

(b) The Archivist shall be compensated at the rate provided for level III of the Executive Schedule under section 5314 of title 5.

(c) There shall be in the Administration a Deputy Archivist of the United States, who shall be appointed by and who shall serve at the pleasure of the Archivist. The Deputy Archivist shall be established as a career reserved position in the Senior Executive Service within the meaning of section 3132(a)(8) of title 5. The Deputy Archivist shall perform such functions as the Archivist shall designate. During any absence or disability of the Archivist, the Deputy Archivist shall act as Archivist. In the event of a vacancy in the office of the Archivist, the Deputy Archivist shall act as Archivist until an Archivist is appointed under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §102(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2103 was renumbered section 2107 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 2102 of this title.

§2104. Administrative provisions

(a) The Archivist shall prescribe such regulations as the Archivist deems necessary to effectuate the functions of the Archivist, and the head of each executive agency shall cause to be issued such orders and directives as such agency head deems necessary to carry out such regulations.

(b) Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the Archivist may delegate any of the functions of the Archivist to such officers and employees of the Administration as the Archivist may designate, and may authorize such successive redelegations of such functions as the Archivist may deem to be necessary or appropriate. A delegation of functions by the Archivist shall not relieve the Archivist of responsibility for the administration of such functions.

(c) The Archivist may organize the Administration as the Archivist finds necessary or appropriate.

(d) The Archivist is authorized to establish, maintain, alter, or discontinue such regional, local, or other field offices as the Archivist finds necessary or appropriate to perform the functions of the Archivist or the Administration.

(e) The Archivist shall cause a seal of office to be made for the Administration of such design as the Archivist shall approve. Judicial notice shall be taken of such seal.

(f) The Archivist may establish advisory committees to provide advice with respect to any function of the Archivist or the Administration. Members of any such committee shall serve without compensation but shall be entitled to transportation expenses and per diem in lieu of subsistence in accordance with section 5703 of title 5.

(g) The Archivist shall advise and consult with interested Federal agencies with a view to obtaining their advice and assistance in carrying out the purposes of this chapter.

(h) If authorized by the Archivist, officers and employees of the Administration having investigatory functions are empowered, while engaged in the performance of their duties in conducting investigations, to administer oaths.

(Added Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §102(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2281.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2104 was renumbered section 2108 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 2102 of this title.

Emergency Preparedness Functions

For assignment of certain emergency preparedness functions to Archivist of United States, see Parts 1, 2, and 20 of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

§2105. Personnel and services

(a)(1) The Archivist is authorized to select, appoint, employ, and fix the compensation of such officers and employees, pursuant to part III of title 5, as are necessary to perform the functions of the Archivist and the Administration.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the Archivist is authorized to appoint, subject to the consultation requirements set forth in paragraph (f)(2) of section 2203 of this title, a director at each Presidential archival depository established under section 2112 of this title. The Archivist may appoint a director without regard to subchapter I and subchapter VIII of chapter 33 of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service and the Senior Executive Service. A director so appointed shall be responsible for the care and preservation of the Presidential records and historical materials deposited in a Presidential archival depository, shall serve at the pleasure of the Archivist and shall perform such other functions as the Archivist may specify.

(b) The Archivist is authorized to obtain the services of experts and consultants under section 3109 of title 5.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 973 of title 10 or any other provision of law, the Archivist, in carrying out the functions of the Archivist or the Administration, is authorized to utilize in the Administration the services of officials, officers, and other personnel in other Federal agencies, including personnel of the armed services, with the consent of the head of the agency concerned.

(d) Notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31, United States Code, the Archivist is authorized to accept and utilize voluntary and uncompensated services.

(Added Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §102(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2281; amended Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, §649, Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 556.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2105 was renumbered section 2109 of this title.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–67 amended subsec. (a) generally, designating existing provisions as par. (1) and adding par. (2).

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 2102 of this title.

§2106. Reports to Congress

The Archivist shall submit to the Congress, in January of each year and at such other times as the Archivist finds appropriate, a report concerning the administration of functions of the Archivist, the Administration, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, and the National Archives Trust Fund. Such report shall describe—

(1) program administration and expenditures of funds, both appropriated and nonappropriated, by the Administration, the Commission, and the Trust Fund Board;

(2) research projects and publications undertaken by Commission grantees, and by Trust Fund grantees, including detailed information concerning the receipt and use of all appropriated and nonappropriated funds;

(3) by account, the moneys, securities, and other personal property received and held by the National Archives Trust Fund Board, and of its operations, including a listing of the purposes for which funds are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration for expenditure to other Federal agencies; and

(4) the matters specified in section 2904(c)(8) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §102(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2282.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2106 was renumbered section 2110 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 2102 of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in this section relating to the requirement that the Archivist submit a report to Congress in January of each year, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the last item on page 179 of House Document No. 103–7.

§2107. Acceptance of records for historical preservation

When it appears to the Archivist to be in the public interest, he may—

(1) accept for deposit with the National Archives of the United States the records of a Federal agency, the Congress, the Architect of the Capitol, or the Supreme Court determined by the Archivist of the United States to have sufficient historical or other value to warrant their continued preservation by the United States Government;

(2) direct and effect the transfer to the National Archives of the United States of records of a Federal agency that have been in existence for more than thirty years and determined by the Archivist of the United States to have sufficient historical or other value to warrant their continued preservation by the United States Government, unless the head of the agency which has custody of them certified in writing to the Archivist that they must be retained in his custody for use in the conduct of the regular current business of the agency;

(3) direct and effect, with the approval of the head of the originating agency, or if the existence of the agency has been terminated, then with the approval of his successor in function, if any, the transfer of records, deposited or approved for deposit with the National Archives of the United States to public or educational institutions or associations; title to the records to remain vested in the United States unless otherwise authorized by Congress; and

(4) transfer materials from private sources authorized to be received by the Archivist by section 2111 of this title.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1287, §2103; Pub. L. 94–575, §4(a), Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2727; Pub. L. 95–416, §1(a), Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 915; renumbered §2107 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2285.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §397(a) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §507, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583; and amended July 12, 1952, ch. 703, §1(o), (p), 66 Stat. 594; July 12, 1955, ch. 329, 69 Stat. 297; Aug. 12, 1955, ch. 859, 69 Stat. 695; July 3, 1956, ch. 513, §4, 70 Stat. 494; June 13, 1957, Pub. L. 85–51, 71 Stat. 69).

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2107 was renumbered section 2111 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(1), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services” in provisions preceding par. (1), substituted “, the Congress, the Architect of the Capitol, or the Supreme Court” for “or of the Congress” in par. (1), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator” in par. (2), and substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator” and “section 2111” for “section 2107” in par. (4).

1978—Par. (2). Pub. L. 95–416 substituted “thirty years” for “fifty years”.

1976—Par. (4). Pub. L. 94–575 substituted reference to section “2107” for “3106”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–345, §1, Oct. 6, 1994, 108 Stat. 3128, provided that: “This Act [amending provisions set out as a note below] may be cited as the ‘President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Extension Act of 1994’.”

National Database for Records of Servitude, Emancipation, and Post–Civil War Reconstruction

Pub. L. 110–404, §7, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4285, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Archivist of the United States may preserve relevant records and establish, as part of the National Archives and Records Administration, an electronically searchable national database consisting of historic records of servitude, emancipation, and post-Civil War reconstruction, including the Refugees, Freedman, and Abandoned Land Records, Southern Claims Commission Records, Records of the Freedmen's Bank, Slave Impressments Records, Slave Payroll Records, Slave Manifest, and others, contained within the agencies and departments of the Federal Government to assist African Americans and others in conducting genealogical and historical research.

“(b) Maintenance.—Any database established under this section shall be maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration or an entity within the National Archives and Records Administration designated by the Archivist of the United States.”

President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection

Pub. L. 102–526, Oct. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 3443, as amended by Pub. L. 103–345, §§2–5, Oct. 6, 1994, 108 Stat. 3128–3130; Pub. L. 105–25, §1, July 3, 1997, 111 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 109–313, §2(c)(1), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1735, provided that:

“SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992’.

“SEC. 2. FINDINGS, DECLARATIONS, AND PURPOSES.

“(a) Findings and Declarations.—The Congress finds and declares that—

“(1) all Government records related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy should be preserved for historical and governmental purposes;

“(2) all Government records concerning the assassination of President John F. Kennedy should carry a presumption of immediate disclosure, and all records should be eventually disclosed to enable the public to become fully informed about the history surrounding the assassination;

“(3) legislation is necessary to create an enforceable, independent, and accountable process for the public disclosure of such records;

“(4) legislation is necessary because congressional records related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy would not otherwise be subject to public disclosure until at least the year 2029;

“(5) legislation is necessary because the Freedom of Information Act [5 U.S.C. 552], as implemented by the executive branch, has prevented the timely public disclosure of records relating to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy;

“(6) legislation is necessary because Executive Order No. 12356 [50 U.S.C. 435 note], entitled ‘National Security Information’ has eliminated the declassification and downgrading schedules relating to classified information across government and has prevented the timely public disclosure of records relating to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; and

“(7) most of the records related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy are almost 30 years old, and only in the rarest cases is there any legitimate need for continued protection of such records.

“(b) Purposes.—The purposes of this Act are—

“(1) to provide for the creation of the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection at the National Archives and Records Administration; and

“(2) to require the expeditious public transmission to the Archivist and public disclosure of such records.

“SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

“In this Act:

“(1) ‘Archivist’ means the Archivist of the United States.

“(2) ‘Assassination record’ means a record that is related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, that was created or made available for use by, obtained by, or otherwise came into the possession of—

“(A) the Commission to Investigate the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy (the ‘Warren Commission’);

“(B) the Commission on Central Intelligence Agency Activities Within the United States (the ‘Rockefeller Commission’);

“(C) the Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (the ‘Church Committee’);

“(D) the Select Committee on Intelligence (the ‘Pike Committee’) of the House of Representatives;

“(E) the Select Committee on Assassinations (the ‘House Assassinations Committee’) of the House of Representatives;

“(F) the Library of Congress;

“(G) the National Archives and Records Administration;

“(H) any Presidential library;

“(I) any Executive agency;

“(J) any independent agency;

“(K) any other office of the Federal Government; and

“(L) any State or local law enforcement office that provided support or assistance or performed work in connection with a Federal inquiry into the assassination of President John F. Kennedy,

but does not include the autopsy records donated by the Kennedy family to the National Archives pursuant to a deed of gift regulating access to those records, or copies and reproductions made from such records.

“(3) ‘Collection’ means the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection established under section 4.

“(4) ‘Executive agency’ means an Executive agency as defined in subsection 552(f) of title 5, United States Code, and includes any Executive department, military department, Government corporation, Government controlled corporation, or other establishment in the executive branch of the Government, including the Executive Office of the President, or any independent regulatory agency.

“(5) ‘Government office’ means any office of the Federal Government that has possession or control of assassination records, including—

“(A) the House Committee on Administration with regard to the Select Committee on Assassinations of the records of the House of Representatives;

“(B) the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate with regard to records of the Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities and other assassination records;

“(C) the Library of Congress;

“(D) the National Archives as custodian of assassination records that it has obtained or possesses, including the Commission to Investigate the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy and the Commission on Central Intelligence Agency Activities in the United States; and

“(E) any other executive branch office or agency, and any independent agency.

“(6) ‘Identification aid’ means the written description prepared for each record as required in section 4.

“(7) ‘National Archives’ means the National Archives and Records Administration and all components thereof, including Presidential archival depositories established under section 2112 of title 44, United States Code.

“(8) ‘Official investigation’ means the reviews of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy conducted by any Presidential commission, any authorized congressional committee, and any Government agency either independently, at the request of any Presidential commission or congressional committee, or at the request of any Government official.

“(9) ‘Originating body’ means the Executive agency, government commission, congressional committee, or other governmental entity that created a record or particular information within a record.

“(10) ‘Public interest’ means the compelling interest in the prompt public disclosure of assassination records for historical and governmental purposes and for the purpose of fully informing the American people about the history surrounding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

“(11) ‘Record’ includes a book, paper, map, photograph, sound or video recording, machine readable material, computerized, digitized, or electronic information, regardless of the medium on which it is stored, or other documentary material, regardless of its physical form or characteristics.

“(12) ‘Review Board’ means the Assassination Records Review Board established by section 7.

“(13) ‘Third agency’ means a Government agency that originated an assassination record that is in the possession of another agency.

“SEC. 4. PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION AT THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION.

“(a) In General.—(1) Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1992], the National Archives and Records Administration shall commence establishment of a collection of records to be known as the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection. In so doing, the Archivist shall ensure the physical integrity and original provenance of all records. The Collection shall consist of record copies of all Government records relating to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, which shall be transmitted to the National Archives in accordance with section 2107 of title 44, United States Code. The Archivist shall prepare and publish a subject guidebook and index to the collection.

“(2) The Collection shall include—

“(A) all assassination records—

“(i) that have been transmitted to the National Archives or disclosed to the public in an unredacted form prior to the date of enactment of this Act;

“(ii) that are required to be transmitted to the National Archives; or

“(iii) the disclosure of which is postponed under this Act;

“(B) a central directory comprised of identification aids created for each record transmitted to the Archivist under section 5; and

“(C) all Review Board records as required by this Act.

“(b) Disclosure of Records.—All assassination records transmitted to the National Archives for disclosure to the public shall be included in the Collection and shall be available to the public for inspection and copying at the National Archives within 30 days after their transmission to the National Archives.

“(c) Fees for Copying.—The Archivist shall—

“(1) charge fees for copying assassination records; and

“(2) grant waivers of such fees pursuant to the standards established by section 552(a)(4) of title 5, United States Code.

“(d) Additional Requirements.—(1) The Collection shall be preserved, protected, archived, and made available to the public at the National Archives using appropriations authorized, specified, and restricted for use under the terms of this Act.

“(2) The National Archives, in consultation with the Information Security Oversight Office, shall ensure the security of the postponed assassination records in the Collection.

“(e) Oversight.—The Committee on Government Operations [now Committee on Oversight and Government Reform] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Governmental Affairs [now Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs] of the Senate shall have continuing oversight jurisdiction with respect to the Collection.

“SEC. 5. REVIEW, IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION TO THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES, AND PUBLIC DISCLOSURE OF ASSASSINATION RECORDS BY GOVERNMENT OFFICES.

“(a) In General.—(1) As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1992], each Government office shall identify and organize its records relating to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and prepare them for transmission to the Archivist for inclusion in the Collection.

“(2) No assassination record shall be destroyed, altered, or mutilated in any way.

“(3) No assassination record made available or disclosed to the public prior to the date of enactment of this Act may be withheld, redacted, postponed for public disclosure, or reclassified.

“(4) No assassination record created by a person or entity outside government (excluding names or identities consistent with the requirements of section 6) shall be withheld, redacted, postponed for public disclosure, or reclassified.

“(b) Custody of Assassination Records Pending Review.—During the review by Government offices and pending review activity by the Review Board, each Government office shall retain custody of its assassination records for purposes of preservation, security, and efficiency, unless—

“(1) the Review Board requires the physical transfer of records for purposes of conducting an independent and impartial review;

“(2) transfer is necessary for an administrative hearing or other Review Board function; or

“(3) it is a third agency record described in subsection (c)(2)(C).

“(c) Review.—(1) Not later than 300 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1992], each Government office shall review, identify and organize each assassination record in its custody or possession for disclosure to the public, review by the Review Board, and transmission to the Archivist.

“(2) In carrying out paragraph (1), a Government office shall—

“(A) determine which of its records are assassination records;

“(B) determine which of its assassination records have been officially disclosed or publicly available in a complete and unredacted form;

“(C)(i) determine which of its assassination records, or particular information contained in such a record, was created by a third agency or by another Government office; and

“(ii) transmit to a third agency or other Government office those records, or particular information contained in those records, or complete and accurate copies thereof;

“(D)(i) determine whether its assassination records or particular information in assassination records are covered by the standards for postponement of public disclosure under this Act; and

“(ii) specify on the identification aid required by subsection (d) the applicable postponement provision contained in section 6;

“(E) organize and make available to the Review Board all assassination records identified under subparagraph (D) the public disclosure of which in whole or in part may be postponed under this Act;

“(F) organize and make available to the Review Board any record concerning which the office has any uncertainty as to whether the record is an assassination record governed by this Act;

“(G) give priority to—

“(i) the identification, review, and transmission of all assassination records publicly available or disclosed as of the date of enactment of this Act in a redacted or edited form; and

“(ii) the identification, review, and transmission, under the standards for postponement set forth in this Act, of assassination records that on the date of enactment of this Act are the subject of litigation under section 552 of title 5, United States Code; and

“(H) make available to the Review Board any additional information and records that the Review Board has reason to believe it requires for conducting a review under this Act.

“(3) The Director of each archival depository established under section 2112 of title 44, United States Code, shall have as a priority the expedited review for public disclosure of assassination records in the possession and custody of the depository, and shall make such records available to the Review Board as required by this Act.

“(d) Identification Aids.—(1)(A) Not later than 45 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1992], the Archivist, in consultation with the appropriate Government offices, shall prepare and make available to all Government offices a standard form of identification or finding aid for use with each assassination record subject to review under this Act.

“(B) The Archivist shall ensure that the identification aid program is established in such a manner as to result in the creation of a uniform system of electronic records by Government offices that are compatible with each other.

“(2) Upon completion of an identification aid, a Government office shall—

“(A) attach a printed copy to the record it describes;

“(B) transmit to the Review Board a printed copy; and

“(C) attach a printed copy to each assassination record it describes when it is transmitted to the Archivist.

“(3) Assassination records which are in the possession of the National Archives on the date of enactment of this Act, and which have been publicly available in their entirety without redaction, shall be made available in the Collection without any additional review by the Review Board or another authorized office under this Act, and shall not be required to have such an identification aid unless required by the Archivist.

“(e) Transmission to the National Archives.—Each Government office shall—

“(1) transmit to the Archivist, and make immediately available to the public, all assassination records that can be publicly disclosed, including those that are publicly available on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1992], without any redaction, adjustment, or withholding under the standards of this Act; and

“(2) transmit to the Archivist upon approval for postponement by the Review Board or upon completion of other action authorized by this Act, all assassination records the public disclosure of which has been postponed, in whole or in part, under the standards of this Act, to become part of the protected Collection.

“(f) Custody of Postponed Assassination Records.—An assassination record the public disclosure of which has been postponed shall, pending transmission to the Archivist, be held for reasons of security and preservation by the originating body until such time as the information security program has been established at the National Archives as required in section 4(e)(2).

“(g) Periodic Review of Postponed Assassination Records.—(1) All postponed or redacted records shall be reviewed periodically by the originating agency and the Archivist consistent with the recommendations of the Review Board under section 9(c)(3)(B).

“(2)(A) A periodic review shall address the public disclosure of additional assassination records in the Collection under the standards of this Act.

“(B) All postponed assassination records determined to require continued postponement shall require an unclassified written description of the reason for such continued postponement. Such description shall be provided to the Archivist and published in the Federal Register upon determination.

“(C) The periodic review of postponed assassination records shall serve to downgrade and declassify security classified information.

“(D) Each assassination record shall be publicly disclosed in full, and available in the Collection no later than the date that is 25 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1992], unless the President certifies, as required by this Act, that—

“(i) continued postponement is made necessary by an identifiable harm to the military defense, intelligence operations, law enforcement, or conduct of foreign relations; and

“(ii) the identifiable harm is of such gravity that it outweighs the public interest in disclosure.

“(h) Fees for Copying.—Executive branch agencies shall—

“(1) charge fees for copying assassination records; and

“(2) grant waivers of such fees pursuant to the standards established by section 552(a)(4) of title 5, United States Code.

“SEC. 6. GROUNDS FOR POSTPONEMENT OF PUBLIC DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS.

“Disclosure of assassination records or particular information in assassination records to the public may be postponed subject to the limitations of this Act if there is clear and convincing evidence that—

“(1) the threat to the military defense, intelligence operations, or conduct of foreign relations of the United States posed by the public disclosure of the assassination record is of such gravity that it outweighs the public interest, and such public disclosure would reveal—

“(A) an intelligence agent whose identity currently requires protection;

“(B) an intelligence source or method which is currently utilized, or reasonably expected to be utilized, by the United States Government and which has not been officially disclosed, the disclosure of which would interfere with the conduct of intelligence activities; or

“(C) any other matter currently relating to the military defense, intelligence operations or conduct of foreign relations of the United States, the disclosure of which would demonstrably impair the national security of the United States;

“(2) the public disclosure of the assassination record would reveal the name or identity of a living person who provided confidential information to the United States and would pose a substantial risk of harm to that person;

“(3) the public disclosure of the assassination record could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, and that invasion of privacy is so substantial that it outweighs the public interest;

“(4) the public disclosure of the assassination record would compromise the existence of an understanding of confidentiality currently requiring protection between a Government agent and a cooperating individual or a foreign government, and public disclosure would be so harmful that it outweighs the public interest; or

“(5) the public disclosure of the assassination record would reveal a security or protective procedure currently utilized, or reasonably expected to be utilized, by the Secret Service or another Government agency responsible for protecting Government officials, and public disclosure would be so harmful that it outweighs the public interest.

“SEC. 7. ESTABLISHMENT AND POWERS OF THE ASSASSINATION RECORDS REVIEW BOARD.

“(a) Establishment.—There is established as an independent agency a board to be known as the Assassinations Records Review Board.

“(b) Appointment.—(1) The President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint, without regard to political affiliation, 5 citizens to serve as members of the Review Board to ensure and facilitate the review, transmission to the Archivist, and public disclosure of Government records related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

“(2) The President shall make nominations to the Review Board not later than 90 calendar days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1992].

“(3) If the Senate votes not to confirm a nomination to the Review Board, the President shall make an additional nomination not later than 30 days thereafter.

“(4)(A) The President shall make nominations to the Review Board after considering persons recommended by the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, the Society of American Archivists, and the American Bar Association.

“(B) If an organization described in subparagraph (A) does not recommend at least 2 nominees meeting the qualifications stated in paragraph (5) by the date that is 45 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the President shall consider for nomination the persons recommended by the other organizations described in subparagraph (A).

“(C) The President may request an organization described in subparagraph (A) to submit additional nominations.

“(5) Persons nominated to the Review Board—

“(A) shall be impartial private citizens, none of whom is presently employed by any branch of the Government, and none of whom shall have had any previous involvement with any official investigation or inquiry conducted by a Federal, State, or local government, relating to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy;

“(B) shall be distinguished persons of high national professional reputation in their respective fields who are capable of exercising the independent and objective judgment necessary to the fulfillment of their role in ensuring and facilitating the review, transmission to the public, and public disclosure of records related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and who possess an appreciation of the value of such material to the public, scholars, and government; and

“(C) shall include at least 1 professional historian and 1 attorney.

“(c) Security Clearances.—(1) All Review Board nominees shall be granted the necessary security clearances in an accelerated manner subject to the standard procedures for granting such clearances.

“(2) All nominees shall qualify for the necessary security clearance prior to being considered for confirmation by the Committee on Governmental Affairs [now Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs] of the Senate.

“(d) Confirmation Hearings.—(1) The Committee on Governmental Affairs [now Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs] of the Senate shall hold confirmation hearings within 30 days in which the Senate is in session after the nomination of 3 Review Board members.

“(2) The Committee on Governmental Affairs shall vote on the nominations within 14 days in which the Senate is in session after the confirmation hearings, and shall report its results to the full Senate immediately.

“(3) The Senate shall vote on each nominee to confirm or reject within 14 days in which the Senate is in session after reported by the Committee on Governmental Affairs.

“(e) Vacancy.—A vacancy on the Review Board shall be filled in the same manner as specified for original appointment within 30 days of the occurrence of the vacancy.

“(f) Chairperson.—The Members of the Review Board shall elect one of its members as chairperson at its initial meeting.

“(g) Removal of Review Board Member.—(1) No member of the Review Board shall be removed from office, other than—

“(A) by impeachment and conviction; or

“(B) by the action of the President for inefficiency, neglect of duty, malfeasance in office, physical disability, mental incapacity, or any other condition that substantially impairs the performance of the member's duties.

“(2)(A) If a member of the Review Board is removed from office, and that removal is by the President, not later than 10 days after the removal the President shall submit to the Committee on Government Operations [now Committee on Oversight and Government Reform] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Governmental Affairs [now Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs] of the Senate a report specifying the facts found and the grounds for the removal.

“(B) The President shall publish in the Federal Register a report submitted under paragraph (2)(A), except that the President may, if necessary to protect the rights of a person named in the report or to prevent undue interference with any pending prosecution, postpone or refrain from publishing any or all of the report until the completion of such pending cases or pursuant to privacy protection requirements in law.

“(3)(A) A member of the Review Board removed from office may obtain judicial review of the removal in a civil action commenced in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.

“(B) The member may be reinstated or granted other appropriate relief by order of the court.

“(h) Compensation of Members.—(1) A member of the Review Board shall be compensated at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code, for each day (including travel time) during which the member is engaged in the performance of the duties of the Review Board.

“(2) A member of the Review Board shall be allowed reasonable travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from the member's home or regular place of business in the performance of services for the Review Board.

“(i) Duties of the Review Board.—(1) The Review Board shall consider and render decisions on a determination by a Government office to seek to postpone the disclosure of assassination records.

“(2) In carrying out paragraph (1), the Review Board shall consider and render decisions—

“(A) whether a record constitutes an assassination record; and

“(B) whether an assassination record or particular information in a record qualifies for postponement of disclosure under this Act.

“(j) Powers.—(1) The Review Board shall have the authority to act in a manner prescribed under this Act including authority to—

“(A) direct Government offices to complete identification aids and organize assassination records;

“(B) direct Government offices to transmit to the Archivist assassination records as required under this Act, including segregable portions of assassination records, and substitutes and summaries of assassination records that can be publicly disclosed to the fullest extent;

“(C)(i) obtain access to assassination records that have been identified and organized by a Government office;

“(ii) direct a Government office to make available to the Review Board, and if necessary investigate the facts surrounding, additional information, records, or testimony from individuals, which the Review Board has reason to believe is required to fulfill its functions and responsibilities under this Act; and

“(iii) request the Attorney General to subpoena private persons to compel testimony, records, and other information relevant to its responsibilities under this Act;

“(D) require any Government office to account in writing for the destruction of any records relating to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy;

“(E) receive information from the public regarding the identification and public disclosure of assassination records;

“(F) hold hearings, administer oaths, and subpoena witnesses and documents; and

“(G) use the Federal Acquisition Service in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the United States; and

“(H) use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the United States.

“(2) A subpoena issued under paragraph (1)(C)(iii) may be enforced by any appropriate Federal court acting pursuant to a lawful request of the Review Board.

“(k) Witness Immunity.—The Review Board shall be considered to be an agency of the United States for purposes of section 6001 of title 18, United States Code.

“(l) Oversight.—(1) The Committee on Government Operations [now Committee on Oversight and Government Reform] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Governmental Affairs [now Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs] of the Senate shall have continuing oversight jurisdiction with respect to the official conduct of the Review Board and the disposition of postponed records after termination of the Review Board, and shall have access to any records held or created by the Review Board.

“(2) The Review Board shall have the duty to cooperate with the exercise of such oversight jurisdiction.

“(m) Support Services.—The Administrator of the General Services Administration shall provide administrative services for the Review Board on a reimbursable basis.

“(n) Interpretive Regulations.—The Review Board may issue interpretive regulations.

“(o) Termination and Winding Up.—(1) The Review Board and the terms of its members shall terminate not later than September 30, 1998.

“(2) Upon its termination, the Review Board shall submit reports to the President and the Congress including a complete and accurate accounting of expenditures during its existence, and shall complete all other reporting requirements under this Act.

“(3) Upon termination and winding up, the Review Board shall transfer all of its records to the Archivist for inclusion in the Collection, and no record of the Review Board shall be destroyed.

“SEC. 8. ASSASSINATION RECORDS REVIEW BOARD PERSONNEL.

“(a) Executive Director.—(1) Not later than 45 days after the initial meeting of the Review Board, the Review Board shall appoint one citizen, without regard to political affiliation, to the position of Executive Director.

“(2) The person appointed as Executive Director shall be a private citizen of integrity and impartiality who is a distinguished professional and who is not a present employee of any branch of the Government and has had no previous involvement with any official investigation or inquiry relating to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

“(3)(A) A candidate for Executive Director shall be granted the necessary security clearances in an accelerated manner subject to the standard procedures for granting such clearances.

“(B) A candidate shall qualify for the necessary security clearance prior to being approved by the Review Board.

“(4) The Executive Director shall—

“(A) serve as principal liaison to Government offices;

“(B) be responsible for the administration and coordination of the Review Board's review of records;

“(C) be responsible for the administration of all official activities conducted by the Review Board; and

“(D) have no authority to decide or determine whether any record should be disclosed to the public or postponed for disclosure.

“(5) The Executive Director shall not be removed for reasons other than by a majority vote of the Review Board for cause on the grounds of inefficiency, neglect of duty, malfeasance in office, physical disability, mental incapacity, or any other condition that substantially impairs the performance of the responsibilities of the Executive Director or the staff of the Review Board.

“(b) Staff.—(1) The Review Board, without regard to the civil service laws, may appoint and terminate additional personnel as are necessary to enable the Review Board and its Executive Director to perform the duties of the Review Board.

“(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a person appointed to the staff of the Review Board shall be a private citizen of integrity and impartiality who is not a present employee of any branch of the Government and who has had no previous involvement with any official investigation or inquiry relating to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

“(B) An individual who is an employee of the Government may be appointed to the staff of the Review Board if in that position the individual will perform only administrative functions.

“(3)(A) A candidate for staff shall be granted the necessary security clearances in an accelerated manner subject to the standard procedures for granting such clearances.

“(B)(i) The Review Board may offer conditional employment to a candidate for a staff position pending the completion of security clearance background investigations. During the pendency of such investigations, the Review Board shall ensure that any such employee does not have access to, or responsibility involving, classified or otherwise restricted assassination record materials.

“(ii) If a person hired on a conditional basis under clause (i) is denied or otherwise does not qualify for all security clearances necessary to carry out the responsibilities of the position for which conditional employment has been offered, the Review Board shall immediately terminate the person's employment.

“(c) Compensation.—Subject to such rules as may be adopted by the Review Board, the chairperson, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of that title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, may—

“(1) appoint an Executive Director, who shall be paid at a rate not to exceed the rate of basic pay for level V of the Executive Schedule; and

“(2) appoint and fix compensation of such other personnel as may be necessary to carry out this Act.

“(d) Advisory Committees.—(1) The Review Board shall have the authority to create advisory committees to assist in fulfilling the responsibilities of the Review Board under this Act.

“(2) Any advisory committee created by the Review Board shall be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.).

“(e) Security Clearance Required.—An individual employed in any position by the Review Board (including an individual appointed as Executive Director) shall be required to qualify for any necessary security clearance prior to taking office in that position, but may be employed conditionally in accordance with subsection (b)(3)(B) before qualifying for that clearance.

“SEC. 9. REVIEW OF RECORDS BY THE ASSASSINATION RECORDS REVIEW BOARD.

“(a) Custody of Records Reviewed by Board.—Pending the outcome of the Review Board's review activity, a Government office shall retain custody of its assassination records for purposes of preservation, security, and efficiency, unless—

“(1) the Review Board requires the physical transfer of records for reasons of conducting an independent and impartial review; or

“(2) such transfer is necessary for an administrative hearing or other official Review Board function.

“(b) Startup Requirements.—The Review Board shall—

“(1) not later than 90 days after the date of its appointment, publish a schedule for review of all assassination records in the Federal Register; and

“(2) not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1992], begin its review of assassination records under this Act.

“(c) Determinations of the Review Board.—(1) The Review Board shall direct that all assassination records be transmitted to the Archivist and disclosed to the public in the Collection in the absence of clear and convincing evidence that—

“(A) a Government record is not an assassination record; or

“(B) a Government record or particular information within an assassination record qualifies for postponement of public disclosure under this Act.

“(2) In approving postponement of public disclosure of an assassination record, the Review Board shall seek to—

“(A) provide for the disclosure of segregable parts, substitutes, or summaries of such a record; and

“(B) determine, in consultation with the originating body and consistent with the standards for postponement under this Act, which of the following alternative forms of disclosure shall be made by the originating body:

“(i) Any reasonably segregable particular information in an assassination record.

“(ii) A substitute record for that information which is postponed.

“(iii) A summary of an assassination record.

“(3) With respect to each assassination record or particular information in assassination records the public disclosure of which is postponed pursuant to section 6, or for which only substitutions or summaries have been disclosed to the public, the Review Board shall create and transmit to the Archivist a report containing—

“(A) a description of actions by the Review Board, the originating body, the President, or any Government office (including a justification of any such action to postpone disclosure of any record or part of any record) and of any official proceedings conducted by the Review Board with regard to specific assassination records; and

“(B) a statement, based on a review of the proceedings and in conformity with the decisions reflected therein, designating a recommended specified time at which or a specified occurrence following which the material may be appropriately disclosed to the public under this Act.

“(4)(A) Following its review and a determination that an assassination record shall be publicly disclosed in the Collection or postponed for disclosure and held in the protected Collection, the Review Board shall notify the head of the originating body of its determination and publish a copy of the determination in the Federal Register within 14 days after the determination is made.

“(B) Contemporaneous notice shall be made to the President for Review Board determinations regarding executive branch assassination records, and to the oversight committees designated in this Act in the case of legislative branch records. Such notice shall contain a written unclassified justification for public disclosure or postponement of disclosure, including an explanation of the application of any standards contained in section 6.

“(d) Presidential Authority Over Review Board Determination.—

“(1) Public disclosure or postponement of disclosure.—After the Review Board has made a formal determination concerning the public disclosure or postponement of disclosure of an executive branch assassination record or information within such a record, or of any information contained in an assassination record, obtained or developed solely within the executive branch, the President shall have the sole and nondelegable authority to require the disclosure or postponement of such record or information under the standards set forth in section 6, and the President shall provide the Review Board with an unclassified written certification specifying the President's decision within 30 days after the Review Board's determination and notice to the executive branch agency as required under this Act, stating the justification for the President's decision, including the applicable grounds for postponement under section 6, accompanied by a copy of the identification aid required under section 4.

“(2) Periodic review.—Any executive branch assassination record postponed by the President shall be subject to the requirements of periodic review, downgrading and declassification of classified information, and public disclosure in the collection set forth in section 4.

“(3) Record of presidential postponement.—The Review Board shall, upon its receipt, publish in the Federal Register a copy of any unclassified written certification, statement, and other materials transmitted by or on behalf of the President with regard to postponement of assassination records.

“(e) Notice to Public.—Every 30 calendar days, beginning on the date that is 60 calendar days after the date on which the Review Board first approves the postponement of disclosure of an assassination record, the Review Board shall publish in the Federal Register a notice that summarizes the postponements approved by the Review Board or initiated by the President, the House of Representatives, or the Senate, including a description of the subject, originating agency, length or other physical description, and each ground for postponement that is relied upon.

“(f) Reports by the Review Board.—(1) The Review Board shall report its activities to the leadership of the Congress, the Committee on Government Operations [now Committee on Oversight and Government Reform] of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Governmental Affairs [now Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs] of the Senate, the President, the Archivist, and the head of any Government office whose records have been the subject of Review Board activity.

“(2) The first report shall be issued on the date that is 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1992], and subsequent reports every 12 months thereafter until termination of the Review Board.

“(3) A report under paragraph (1) shall include the following information:

“(A) A financial report of the expenses for all official activities and requirements of the Review Board and its personnel.

“(B) The progress made on review, transmission to the Archivist, and public disclosure of assassination records.

“(C) The estimated time and volume of assassination records involved in the completion of the Review Board's performance under this Act.

“(D) Any special problems, including requests and the level of cooperation of Government offices, with regard to the ability of the Review Board to operate as required by this Act.

“(E) A record of review activities, including a record of postponement decisions by the Review Board or other related actions authorized by this Act, and a record of the volume of records reviewed and postponed.

“(F) Suggestions and requests to Congress for additional legislative authority needs.

“(G) An appendix containing copies of reports of postponed records to the Archivist required under section 9(c)(3) made since the date of the preceding report under this subsection.

“(4) At least 90 calendar days before completing its work, the Review Board shall provide written notice to the President and Congress of its intention to terminate its operations at a specified date.

“SEC. 10. DISCLOSURE OF OTHER MATERIALS AND ADDITIONAL STUDY.

“(a) Materials Under Seal of Court.—

“(1) The Review Board may request the Attorney General to petition any court in the United States or abroad to release any information relevant to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy that is held under seal of the court.

“(2)(A) The Review Board may request the Attorney General to petition any court in the United States to release any information relevant to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy that is held under the injunction of secrecy of a grand jury.

“(B) A request for disclosure of assassination materials under this Act shall be deemed to constitute a showing of particularized need under Rule 6 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure [18 U.S.C. App.].

“(b) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of the Congress that—

“(1) the Attorney General should assist the Review Board in good faith to unseal any records that the Review Board determines to be relevant and held under seal by a court or under the injunction of secrecy of a grand jury;

“(2) the Secretary of State should contact the Government of the Republic of Russia and seek the disclosure of all records of the government of the former Soviet Union, including the records of the Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (KGB) and the Glaynoye Razvedyvatelnoye Upravleniye (GRU), relevant to the assassination of President Kennedy, and contact any other foreign government that may hold information relevant to the assassination of President Kennedy and seek disclosure of such information; and

“(3) all Executive agencies should cooperate in full with the Review Board to seek the disclosure of all information relevant to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy consistent with the public interest.

“SEC. 11. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.

“(a) Precedence Over Other Law.—When this Act requires transmission of a record to the Archivist or public disclosure, it shall take precedence over any other law (except section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code [26 U.S.C. 6103]), judicial decision construing such law, or common law doctrine that would otherwise prohibit such transmission or disclosure, with the exception of deeds governing access to or transfer or release of gifts and donations of records to the United States Government.

“(b) Freedom of Information Act.—Nothing in this Act shall be construed to eliminate or limit any right to file requests with any executive agency or seek judicial review of the decisions pursuant to section 552 of title 5, United States Code.

“(c) Judicial Review.—Nothing in this Act shall be construed to preclude judicial review, under chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code, of final actions taken or required to be taken under this Act.

“(d) Existing Authority.—Nothing in this Act revokes or limits the existing authority of the President, any executive agency, the Senate, or the House of Representatives, or any other entity of the Government to publicly disclose records in its possession.

“(e) Rules of the Senate and House of Representatives.—To the extent that any provision of this Act establishes a procedure to be followed in the Senate or the House of Representatives, such provision is adopted—

“(1) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate and House of Representatives, respectively, and is deemed to be part of the rules of each House, respectively, but applicable only with respect to the procedure to be followed in that House, and it supersedes other rules only to the extent that it is inconsistent with such rules; and

“(2) with full recognition of the constitutional right of either House to change the rules (so far as they relate to the procedure of that House) at any time, in the same manner, and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of that House.

“SEC. 12. TERMINATION OF EFFECT OF ACT.

“(a) Provisions Pertaining to the Review Board.—The provisions of this Act that pertain to the appointment and operation of the Review Board shall cease to be effective when the Review Board and the terms of its members have terminated pursuant to section 7(o).

“(b) Other Provisions.—The remaining provisions of this Act shall continue in effect until such time as the Archivist certifies to the President and the Congress that all assassination records have been made available to the public in accordance with this Act.

“SEC. 13. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

“(a) In General.—There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the provisions of this Act $1,600,000 for fiscal year 1998.

“(b) Interim Funding.—Until such time as funds are appropriated pursuant to subsection (a), the President may use such sums as are available for discretionary use to carry out this Act.

“SEC. 14. SEVERABILITY.

“If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of this Act and the application of that provision to other persons not similarly situated or to other circumstances shall not be affected by the invalidation.”

[For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

Classified National Security Information

For provisions authorizing Archivist to review, downgrade, and declassify information of former Presidents under control of Archivist pursuant to this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12958, §3.6(b)(4), Apr. 17, 1995, 60 F.R. 19835, set out as a note under section 435 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

§2108. Responsibility for custody, use, and withdrawal of records

(a) The Archivist shall be responsible for the custody, use, and withdrawal of records transferred to him. When records, the use of which is subject to statutory limitations and restrictions, are so transferred, permissive and restrictive statutory provisions with respect to the examination and use of records applicable to the head of the agency from which the records were transferred or to employees of that agency are applicable to the Archivist and to the employees of the National Archives and Records Administration, respectively. Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, when the head of a Federal agency states, in writing, restrictions that appear to him to be necessary or desirable in the public interest with respect to the use or examination of records being considered for transfer from his custody to the Archivist, the Archivist shall, if he concurs,,1 impose such restrictions on the records so transferred, and may not relax or remove such restrictions without the written concurrence of the head of the agency from which the material was transferred, or of his successor in function, if any. In the event that a Federal agency is terminated and there is no successor in function, the Archivist is authorized to relax, remove, or impose restrictions on such agency's records when he determines that such action is in the public interest. Statutory and other restrictions referred to in this subsection shall remain in force until the records have been in existence for thirty years unless the Archivist by order, having consulted with the head of the transferring Federal agency or his successor in function, determines, with respect to specific bodies of records, that for reasons consistent with standards established in relevant statutory law, such restrictions shall remain in force for a longer period. Restriction on the use or examination of records deposited with the National Archives of the United States imposed by section 3 of the National Archives Act, approved June 19, 1934, shall continue in force regardless of the expiration of the tenure of office of the official who imposed them but may be removed or relaxed by the Archivist with the concurrence in writing of the head of the agency from which material was transferred or of his successor in function, if any.

(b) With regard to the census and survey records of the Bureau of the Census containing data identifying individuals enumerated in population censuses, any release pursuant to this section of such identifying information contained in such records shall be made by the Archivist pursuant to the specifications and agreements set forth in the exchange of correspondence on or about the date of October 10, 1952, between the Director of the Bureau of the Census and the Archivist of the United States, together with all amendments thereto, now or hereafter entered into between the Director of the Bureau of the Census and the Archivist of the United States. Such amendments, if any, shall be published in the Register.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1288, §2104; Pub. L. 95–416, §1(b), Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 915; renumbered §2108 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2285.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §397(b) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §507, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583).

References in Text

Section 3 of the National Archives Act, approved June 19, 1934, referred to in subsec. (a), was classified to section 300c of former Title 44, Public Printing and Documents, and was repealed by act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title VI, §602(a)(32), renumbered and added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §7(d), 64 Stat. 590.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2108 was renumbered section 2112 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(2), substituted “the Archivist and to the employees of the National Archives and Records Administration” for “the Administrator, the Archivist of the United States, and to the employees of the General Services Administration”, struck out “and in consultation with the Archivist of the United States” before “impose such restrictions” in third sentence, struck out “the Archivist and” after “having consulted with” in fifth sentence, substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services” wherever appearing, and substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(2)(D), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services”.

1978—Pub. L. 95–416 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted provisions permitting the Administrator to relax, remove, or impose restrictions in the public interest of records of agencies which have been terminated and requiring the Administrator with regard to duration of restrictions to consult with the Archivist and the head of the transferring Federal agency or his successor in function, and substituted “thirty years” for “fifty years”, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

1 So in original.

§2109. Preservation, arrangement, duplication, exhibition of records

The Archivist shall provide for the preservation, arrangement, repair and rehabilitation, duplication and reproduction (including microcopy publications), description, and exhibition of records or other documentary material transferred to him as may be needful or appropriate, including the preparation and publication of inventories, indexes, catalogs, and other finding aids or guides to facilitate their use. He may also prepare guides and other finding aids to Federal records and, when approved by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, publish such historical works and collections of sources as seem appropriate for printing or otherwise recording at the public expense.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1288, §2105; renumbered §2109 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(3), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2285.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §397(c) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §507, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583; July 12, 1952, ch. 703, §1(o), 66 Stat. 594).

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2109 was renumbered section 2113 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(3), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services” and inserted “and Records” after “National Historical Publications”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 11440. Supplemental Use of Exhibits and Displays Created in Furtherance of Authorized Programs of Executive Departments and Agencies

Ex. Ord. No. 11440, Dec. 11, 1968, 33 F.R. 18475, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617, provided:

WHEREAS the executive departments and agencies of the Government, in discharging their various responsibilities, create a large volume of materials (including books, correspondence, documents, papers, pamphlets, works of art, models, pictures, photographs, plats, maps, films, motion pictures, sound recordings, and other objects of historical or commemorative value) which from time to time are incorporated into or reproduced for use in exhibits or other types of visual displays needed for use in carrying out their programs; and

WHEREAS under Chapter 21 of Title 44, United States Code, the Archivist of the United States is authorized to accept for deposit in the National Archives of the United States the records of any Federal agency or of the Congress of the United States that are determined by the Archivist to have sufficient historical or other value to warrant their continued preservation by the United States Government, as well as the papers and other historical materials of any official or former official of the Government, and to make provisions for the exhibition of materials transferred to him; and.

WHEREAS many of the exhibits and displays so prepared, produced, or otherwise created by the executive departments and agencies possess historical significance which warrants their preservation and exhibition as part of the archival and cultural heritage of the United States:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me, as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The heads of all executive departments and agencies are directed—

(a) when initiating plans for the preparation, production, or other creation of exhibits and displays in furtherance of their program missions, to confer with the Archivist of the United States, or his designee, for the purpose of assuring that any such exhibits or displays which the Archivist finds appropriate for supplemental exhibition as part of the archival and cultural heritage of the United States are prepared, produced, or otherwise created in a manner which assures, to the maximum possible extent, their appropriateness, after they have served their primary program purpose, for such supplemental exhibition, and

(b) to transfer to the Archivist, without reimbursement, such exhibits or displays as he determines are appropriate for such supplemental exhibition after they have served their primary program purpose, subject to such conditions requiring return to the department or agency of all or any of the materials incorporated in the exhibits or displays as may be mutually agreeable.

Sec. 2. The Archivist of the United States is directed to—

(a) provide advice, counsel, and assistance to the heads of executive departments and agencies in the preparation, production, or other creation of exhibits and displays which he finds will have future value for exhibition as part of the archival and cultural heritage of the United States; and

(b) accept any such exhibit or display when it has served its primary program purpose and (1) arrange for its supplemental exhibition as appropriate, (2) preserve any such exhibit or display which possesses sufficient historical or other value to warrant continued preservation, or (3) dispose of any such exhibit or display when, in his judgment, the reasons for its continued preservation or exhibition cease to exist, all subject to the conditions agreed upon incident to transfer to the Archivist of the United States of the exhibit or display.

§2110. Servicing records

The Archivist shall provide and maintain facilities he considers necessary or desirable for servicing records in his custody that are not exempt from examination by statutory or other restrictions.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1288, §2106; renumbered §2110 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(4), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2286.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §397(d) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §507, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583).

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2110 was renumbered section 2114 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(4), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

§2111. Material accepted for deposit

When the Archivist considers it to be in the public interest he may accept for deposit—

(1) the papers and other historical materials of a President or former President of the United States, or other official or former official of the Government, and other papers relating to and contemporary with a President or former President of the United States, subject to restrictions agreeable to the Archivist as to their use; and

(2) documents, including motion-picture films, still pictures, and sound recordings, from private sources that are appropriate for preservation by the Government as evidence of its organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, and transactions.


This section shall not apply in the case of any Presidential records which are subject to the provisions of chapter 22 of this title.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1288, §2107; Pub. L. 95–591, §2(b)(2), Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2528; renumbered §2111 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(5), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2286.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code 1964 ed., §397(e) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §507, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583; July 12, 1952, ch. 703, §1(p), 66 Stat. 594; July 12, 1955, ch. 329, 69 Stat. 297; Aug. 12, 1955, ch. 859, 69 Stat. 695).

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2111 was renumbered section 2115 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(5), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services” in provisions preceding par. (1), and substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator” in par. (1).

1978—Pub. L. 95–591 inserted provision excluding Presidential records which are subject to provisions of chapter 22 of this title from application of this section.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–591 effective with respect to Presidential records created during a term of office of President beginning on or after Jan. 20, 1981, see section 3 of Pub. L. 95–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2201 of this title.

Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act

Pub. L. 93–526, title I, §§101–106, Dec. 19, 1974, 88 Stat. 1695–1698, as amended by Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §107(c), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2291; Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title V, §543(a), Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 346, provided: “That this Act [enacting this note, sections 3315 to 3324 of this title, and provisions set out as a note under section 3315 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act’.

“Title I—Preservation of Presidential Recordings and Materials

I74“delivery and retention of certain presidential materials

Sec. 101. (a) Notwithstanding any other law or any agreement or understanding made pursuant to section 2111 of title 44, United States Code any Federal employee in possession shall deliver, and the Archivist of the United States (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Archivist’) shall receive, obtain, or retain, complete possession and control of all original tape recordings of conversations which were recorded or caused to be recorded by any officer or employee of the Federal Government and which—

“(1) involve former President Richard M. Nixon or other individuals who, at the time of the conversation, were employed by the Federal Government;

“(2) were recorded in the White House or in the office of the President in the Executive Office Buildings located in Washington, District of Columbia; Camp David, Maryland; Key Biscayne, Florida; or San Clemente, California; and

“(3) were recorded during the period beginning January 20, 1969, and ending August 9, 1974.

“(b)(1) Notwithstanding any other law or any agreement or understanding made pursuant to section 2111 of title 44, United States Code, the Archivist shall receive, retain, or make reasonable efforts to obtain, complete possession and control of all papers, documents, memorandums, transcripts, and other objects and materials which constitute the Presidential historical materials of Richard M. Nixon, covering the period beginning January 20, 1969, and ending August 9, 1974.

“(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘historical materials’ has the meaning given it by section 2101 of title 44, United States Code.

“availability of certain presidential materials

Sec. 102. (a) None of the tape recordings or other materials referred to in section 101 shall be destroyed, except as hereafter may be provided by law.

“(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, any other law, or any agreement or understanding made pursuant to section 2111 of title 44, United States Code, the tape recordings and other materials referred to in section 101 shall, immediately upon the date of enactment of this title, be made available, subject to any rights, defenses, or privileges which the Federal Government or any person may invoke, for use in any judicial proceeding or otherwise subject to court subpena or other legal process. Any request by the Office of Watergate Special Prosecution Force, whether by court subpena or other lawful process, for access to such recordings or materials shall at all times have priority over any other request for such recordings or materials.

“(c) Richard M. Nixon, or any person whom he may designate in writing, shall at all times have access to the tape recordings and other materials referred to in section 101 for any purpose which is consistent with the provisions of this title, subsequent and subject to the regulations which the Archivist shall issue pursuant to section 103.

“(d) Any agency or department in the executive branch of the Federal Government shall at all times have access to the tape recordings and other materials referred to in section 101 for lawful Government use, subject to the regulations which the Archivist shall issue pursuant to section 103.

“regulations to protect certain tape recordings and other materials

Sec. 103. The Archivist shall issue at the earliest possible date such regulations as may be necessary to assure the protection of the tape recordings and other materials referred to in section 101 from loss or destruction, and to prevent access to such recordings and materials by unauthorized persons. The Archivist may transfer such recordings and materials to a Presidential archival depository in accordance with section 2112 of title 44, United States Code.

“regulations relating to public access

Sec. 104. (a) The Archivist shall, within ninety days after the date of enactment of this title [Dec. 19, 1974], submit to each House of the Congress a report proposing and explaining regulations that would provide public access to the tape recordings and other materials referred to in section 101. Such regulations shall take into account the following factors:

“(1) the need to provide the public with the full truth, at the earliest reasonable date, of the abuses of governmental power popularly identified under the generic term ‘Watergate’;

“(2) the need to make such recordings and materials available for use in judicial proceedings;

“(3) the need to prevent general access, except in accordance with appropriate procedures established for use in judicial proceedings to information relating to the Nation's security;

“(4) the need to protect every individual's right to a fair and impartial trial;

“(5) the need to protect any party's opportunity to assert any legally or constitutionally based right or privilege which would prevent or otherwise limit access to such recordings and materials;

“(6) the need to provide public access to those materials which have general historical significance, and which are not likely to be related to the need described in paragraph (1); and

“(7) the need to give to Richard M. Nixon, or his heirs, for his sole custody and use, tape recordings and other materials which are not likely to be related to the need described in paragraph (1) and are not otherwise of general historical significance.

“(b) The regulations proposed by the Archivist in the report required by subsection (a) shall not take effect until the expiration of the first period of 60 calendar days of continuous session of the Congress after the date of the submission of such regulations to each House of the Congress. For the purposes of this subsection, continuity of session is broken only by an adjournment of Congress sine die, but the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days to a day certain are excluded.

“(c) The provisions of this title shall not apply, on and after the date upon which regulations proposed by the Administrator take effect under subsection (b), to any tape recordings or other materials given to Richard M. Nixon, or his heirs, pursuant to subsection (a)(7).

“(d) The provisions of this title shall not in any way affect the rights, limitations or exemptions applicable under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. §552 et seq.

“judicial review

Sec. 105. (a) The United States District Court for the District of Columbia shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear challenges to the legal or constitutional validity of this title or of any regulation issued under the authority granted by this title, and any action or proceeding involving the question of title, ownership, custody, possession, or control of any tape recording or material referred to in section 101 or involving payment of any just compensation which may be due in connection therewith. Any such challenge shall be treated by the court as a matter requiring immediate consideration and resolution, and such challenge shall have priority on the docket of such court over other cases.

“(b) If, under the procedures established by subsection (a), a judicial decision is rendered that a particular provision of this title, or a particular regulation issued under the authority granted by this title, is unconstitutional or otherwise invalid, such decision shall not affect in any way the validity or enforcement of any other provision of this title or any regulation issued under the authority granted by this title.

“(c) If a final decision of such court holds that any provision of this title has deprived an individual of private property without just compensation, then there shall be paid out of the general fund of the Treasury of the United States such amount or amounts as may be adjudged just by that Court.

“authorization of appropriations

Sec. 106. There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this title.”

[Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title V, §543(b), Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 346, provided that: “Nothing in section 103 of the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act (Public Law 93–526; 44 U.S.C. 2111 note), as amended by subsection (a), may be construed as affecting public access to the recordings and materials referred to in that section as provided in regulations promulgated pursuant to section 104 of such Act.]”

Classified National Security Information

For provisions authorizing Archivist to review, downgrade, and declassify information of former Presidents under control of Archivist pursuant to this section or provisions set out as a note under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12958, §3.6(b)(4), Apr. 17, 1995, 60 F.R. 19835, set out as a note under section 435 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

§2112. Presidential archival depository

(a)(1) When the Archivist considers it to be in the public interest, the Archivist may—

(A)(i) accept, for and in the name of the United States, land, a facility, and equipment offered as a gift to the United States for the purpose of creating a Presidential archival depository;

(ii) take title to the land, facility, and equipment on behalf of the United States; and

(iii) maintain, operate, and protect the land, facility, and equipment as a Presidential archival depository and as part of the national archives system;

(B)(i) make agreements, upon terms and conditions the Archivist considers proper, with a State, political subdivision, university, institution of higher learning, institute, or foundation to use as a Presidential archival depository land, a facility, and equipment of the State, subdivision, university, or other organization, to be made available by it without transfer of title to the United States; and

(ii) maintain, operate, and protect the depository as a part of the national archives system; and

(C) accept, for and in the name of the United States, gifts offered for the purpose of making any physical or material change or addition to a Presidential archival depository.


(2) The Archivist shall promulgate architectural and design standards applicable to Presidential archival depositories in order to ensure that such depositories (A) preserve Presidential records subject to chapter 22 of this title and papers and other historical materials accepted for deposit under section 2111 of this title and (B) contain adequate research facilities.

(3) Prior to accepting and taking title to any land, facility, or equipment under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1), or prior to entering into any agreement under subparagraph (B) of such paragraph or any other agreement to accept or establish a Presidential archival depository, the Archivist shall submit a written report on the proposed Presidential archival depository to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. The report shall include—

(A) a description of the land, facility, and equipment offered as a gift or to be made available without transfer of title;

(B) a statement specifying the estimated total cost of the proposed depository and the amount of the endowment for the depository required pursuant to subsection (g) of this section;

(C) a statement of the terms of the proposed agreement, if any;

(D) a general description of the types of papers, documents, or other historical materials proposed to be deposited in the depository to be created, and of the terms of the proposed deposit;

(E) a statement of any additional improvements and equipment associated with the development and operation of the depository, an estimate of the costs of such improvements and equipment, and a statement as to the extent to which such costs will be incurred by any Federal or State government agency;

(F) an estimate of the total annual cost to the United States of maintaining, operating, and protecting the depository; and

(G) a certification that such facility and equipment (whether offered as a gift or made available without transfer of title) comply with standards promulgated by the Archivist pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection.


(4) Prior to accepting any gift under subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) for the purpose of making any physical or material change or addition to a Presidential archival depository, or prior to implementing any provision of law requiring the making of such a change or addition, the Archivist shall submit a report in writing on the proposed change or addition to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. The report shall include—

(A) a description of such gift;

(B) a statement specifying the estimated total cost of the proposed physical or material change or addition and the amount of the deposit in an endowment for the depository required pursuant to subsection (g) of this section in order to meet the cost of such change or addition;

(C) a statement of the purpose of the proposed change or addition and a general description of any papers, documents, or historical materials proposed to be deposited in the depository as a result of such change or addition;

(D) a statement of any additional improvements or equipment for the depository associated with such change or addition;

(E) an estimate of the increase in the total annual cost to the United States of maintaining, operating, and protecting the depository that will result from such change or addition; and

(F) a certification that the depository, and the equipment therein will, after such change or addition, comply with the standards promulgated by the Archivist pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection.


(5) The Archivist may not—

(A) accept or take title to land, a facility, or equipment under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) for the purpose of creating a Presidential archival depository;

(B) enter into any agreement under subparagraph (B) of such paragraph or any other agreement to accept or establish a Presidential archival depository; or

(C) accept any gift under subparagraph (C) of such paragraph for the purpose of making any physical or material change to a Presidential archival depository,


until the expiration of a period of 60 days of continuous session of Congress beginning on the date on which the Archivist transmits the report required under paragraph (3) of this subsection with respect to such Presidential archival depository or the report required under paragraph (4) of this subsection with respect to such change or addition, as the case may be.

(b) When the Archivist considers it to be in the public interest, he may deposit in a Presidential archival depository papers, documents, or other historical materials accepted under section 2111 of this title, or Federal records appropriate for preservation.

(c) When the Archivist considers it to be in the public interest, he may exercise, with respect to papers, documents, or other historical materials deposited under this section, or otherwise, in a Presidential archival depository, all the functions and responsibilities otherwise vested in him pertaining to Federal records or other documentary materials in his custody or under his control. The Archivist, in negotiating for the deposit of Presidential historical materials, shall take steps to secure to the Government, as far as possible, the right to have continuous and permanent possession of the materials. Papers, documents, or other historical materials accepted and deposited under section 2111 of this title and this section are subject to restrictions as to their availability and use stated in writing by the donors or depositors, including the restriction that they shall be kept in a Presidential archival depository. The restrictions shall be respected for the period stated, or until revoked or terminated by the donors or depositors or by persons legally qualified to act on their behalf. Subject to the restrictions, the Archivist may dispose by sale, exchange, or otherwise, of papers, documents, or other materials which the Archivist determines to have no permanent value or historical interest or to be surplus to the needs of a Presidential archival depository. Only the first two sentences of this subsection shall apply to Presidential records as defined in section 2201(2) of this title.

(d) When the Archivist considers it to be in the public interest, he may cooperate with and assist a university, institution of higher learning, institute, foundation, or other organization or qualified individual to further or to conduct study or research in historical materials deposited in a Presidential archival depository.

(e) When the Archivist considers it to be in the public interest, he may charge and collect reasonable fees for the privilege of visiting and viewing exhibit rooms or museum space, or for the occasional, non-official use of rooms and spaces (and services related to such use), in a Presidential archival depository.

(f) When the Archivist considers it to be in the public interest, he may provide reasonable office space in a Presidential archival depository for the personal use of a former President of the United States.

(g)(1) When the Archivist considers it to be in the public interest, the Archivist may solicit and accept gifts or bequests of money or other property for the purpose of maintaining, operating, protecting, or improving a Presidential archival depository. The proceeds of gifts or bequests, together with the proceeds from fees or from sales of historical materials, copies or reproductions, catalogs, or other items, having to do with a Presidential archival depository, shall be paid into an account in the National Archives Trust Fund and shall be held, administered, and expended for the benefit and in the interest of the Presidential archival depository in connection with which they were received, and for the same purposes and objects, including custodial and administrative services for which appropriations for the maintenance, operation, protection, or improvement of Presidential archival depositories might be expended.

(2) The Archivist shall provide for the establishment in such Trust Fund of separate endowments for the maintenance of the land, facility, and equipment of each Presidential archival depository, to which shall be credited any gifts or bequests received under paragraph (1) that are offered for that purpose. Income to each such endowment shall be available to cover the cost of facility operations, but shall not be available for the performance of archival functions under this title.

(3) The Archivist shall not accept or take title to any land, facility, or equipment under subparagraph (A) of subsection (a)(1), or enter into any agreement to use any land, facility, or equipment under subparagraph (B) of such subsection for the purpose of creating a Presidential archival depository, unless the Archivist determines that there is available, by gift or bequest for deposit under paragraph (2) of this subsection in an endowment with respect to such depository, an amount for the purpose of maintaining such land, facility, and equipment equal to—

(A) the product of—

(i) the total cost of acquiring or constructing such facility and of acquiring and installing such equipment, multiplied by

(ii) 20 percent; plus


(B)(i) if title to the land is to be vested in the United States, the product of—

(I) the total cost of acquiring the land upon which such facility is located, or such other measure of the value of such land as is mutually agreed upon by the Archivist and the donor, multiplied by

(II) 20 percent; or


(ii) if title to the land is not to be vested in the United States, the product of—

(I) the total cost to the donor of any improvements to the land upon which such facility is located (other than such facility and equipment), multiplied by

(II) 20 percent; plus


(C) if the Presidential archival depository will exceed 70,000 square feet in area, an amount equal to the product of—

(i) the sum of—

(I) the total cost described in clause (i) of subparagraph (A); plus

(II) the total cost described in subclause (I) or (II) of subparagraph (B)(i), as the case may be, multiplied by


(ii) the percentage obtained by dividing the number of square feet by which such depository will exceed 70,000 square feet by 70,000.


(4) If a proposed physical or material change or addition to a Presidential archival depository would result in an increase in the costs of facility operations, the Archivist may not accept any gift under subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) for the purpose of making such a change or addition, or may not implement any provision of law requiring the making of such a change or addition, unless the Archivist determines that there is available, by gift or bequest for deposit under paragraph (2) of this subsection in an endowment with respect to such depository, an amount for the purpose of maintaining the land, facility, and equipment of such depository equal to the difference between—

(A) the amount which, pursuant to paragraph (3) of this subsection, would have been required to have been available for deposit in such endowment with respect to such depository if such change or addition had been included in such depository on—

(i) the date on which the Archivist took title to the land, facility, and equipment for such depository under subparagraph (A) of subsection (a)(1); or

(ii) the date on which the Archivist entered into an agreement for the creation of such depository under subparagraph (B) of such paragraph,


as the case may be; minus

(B) the amount which, pursuant to paragraph (3) of this subsection, was required to be available for deposit in such endowment with respect to such depository on the date the Archivist took such title or entered into such agreement, as the case may be.


(5)(A) Notwithstanding paragraphs (3) and (4) (to the extent that such paragraphs are inconsistent with this paragraph), this subsection shall be administered in accordance with this paragraph with respect to any Presidential archival depository created as a depository for the papers, documents, and other historical materials and Presidential records pertaining to any President who takes the oath of office as President for the first time on or after July 1, 2002.

(B) For purposes of subparagraphs (A)(ii), (B)(i)(II), and (B)(ii)(II) of paragraph (3) the percentage of 60 percent shall apply instead of 20 percent.

(C)(i) In this subparagraph, the term “base endowment amount” means the amount of the endowment required under paragraph (3).

(ii)(I) The Archivist may give credits against the base endowment amount if the Archivist determines that the proposed Presidential archival depository will have construction features or equipment that are expected to result in quantifiable long-term savings to the Government with respect to the cost of facility operations.

(II) The features and equipment described under subclause (I) shall comply with the standards promulgated by the Archivist under subsection (a)(2).

(III) The Archivist shall promulgate standards to be used in calculating the dollar amount of any credit to be given, and shall consult with all donors of the endowment before giving any credits. The total dollar amount of credits given under this paragraph may not exceed 20 percent of the base endowment amount.

(D)(i) In calculating the additional endowment amount required under paragraph (4), the Archivist shall take into account credits given under subparagraph (C), and may also give credits against the additional endowment amount required under paragraph (4), if the Archivist determines that construction features or equipment used in making or equipping the physical or material change or addition are expected to result in quantifiable long-term savings to the Government with respect to the cost of facility operations.

(ii) The features and equipment described under clause (i) shall comply with the standards promulgated by the Archivist under subsection (a)(2).

(iii) The Archivist shall promulgate standards to be used in calculating the dollar amount of any credit to be given, and shall consult with all donors of the endowment before giving any credits. The total dollar amount of credits given under this paragraph may not exceed 20 percent of the additional endowment amount required under paragraph (4).

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1289, §2108; Pub. L. 94–575, §4(a), Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2727; Pub. L. 95–591, §2(b)(3), Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2528; renumbered §2112 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(6), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2286; Pub. L. 99–323, §3, May 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 495; Pub. L. 108–7, div. J, title V, §513, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 462; Pub. L. 108–383, §4(a), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2218; Pub. L. 110–404, §6(b), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4285.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §397(f) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §507, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583; and amended July 12, 1952, ch. 703, §1(o), (p), 66 Stat. 594; July 12, 1955, ch. 329, 69 Stat. 297; Aug. 12, 1955, ch. 859, 69 Stat. 695).

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2112 was renumbered section 2116 of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (g)(5)(B). Pub. L. 110–404 substituted “60” for “40”.

2004—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–383 substituted “space, or for the occasional, non-official use of rooms and spaces (and services related to such use),” for “space”.

2003—Subsec. (g)(5). Pub. L. 108–7 added par. (5).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–323, §3(a), amended subsec. (a) generally, revising and restating as pars. (1) to (5) provisions of former undesignated pars. containing similar subject matter.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–323, §3(b), amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) read as follows: “When the Archivist considers it be in the public interest, he may accept gifts or bequests of money or other property for the purpose of maintaining, operating, protecting, or improving a Presidential archival depository. The proceeds of gifts or bequests, together with the proceeds from fees or from sales of historical materials, copies or reproductions, catalogs, or other items, having to do with a Presidential archival depository, shall be paid into the National Archives Trust Fund to be held, administered, and expended for the benefit and in the interest of the Presidential archival depository in connection with which they were received, including administrative and custodial expenses as the Archivist determines.”

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(6), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services” and “Archivist” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(6), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator” and “section 2111” for “section 2107” wherever appearing.

Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(6), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–591 limited application of subsec. (c) when dealing with Presidential records.

1976—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 94–575 substituted reference to section “2107” for “3106”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 4 of Pub. L. 99–323 provided that: “Paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 2112(g) of title 44, United States Code (as added by the amendment made by section 3(b) of this Act) shall apply with respect to any Presidential archival depository created as a depository for the papers, documents, and other historical materials and Federal records pertaining to any President who takes the oath of office as President for the first time on or after January 20, 1985.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–591 effective with respect to Presidential records created during a term of office of President beginning on or after Jan. 20, 1981, see section 3 of Pub. L. 95–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2201 of this title.

Capital Improvement Plan for Presidential Archival Depositories

Pub. L. 110–404, §6(a), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4284, provided that:

“(1) Provision of plan.—The Archivist of the United States shall provide to the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives a 10-year capital improvement plan, in accordance with paragraph (2), for all Presidential archival depositories (as defined in section 2101 of title 44, United States Code), which shall include—

“(A) a prioritization of all capital projects at Presidential archival depositories that cost more than $1,000,000;

“(B) the current estimate of the cost of each capital project; and

“(C) the basis upon which each cost estimate was developed.

“(2) Provided to congress.—The capital improvement plan shall be provided to the committees, as described in paragraph (1), at the same time as the first Budget of the United States Government after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 2008] is submitted to Congress.

“(3) Annual updates and explanation of changes in cost estimates.—The Archivist of the United States shall provide to the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives—

“(A) annual updates to the capital improvement plan described in paragraph (1) at the same time as each subsequent Budget of the United States Government is submitted to Congress; and

“(B) an explanation for any changes in cost estimates.”

John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library

Pub. L. 89–547, Aug. 27, 1966, 80 Stat. 370, provided: “That the Administrator of General Services is hereby authorized to accept title to the structure or structures to be erected and equipped at Cambridge, Massachusetts, by the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library, Incorporated, to be transferred to the United States Government, without reimbursement, for use as a Presidential archival depository to be known as the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library, and to maintain, operate, and protect such depository as a part of the National Archives system. The Administrator may enter into such agreements with the officers of the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library, Incorporated, as are necessary to complete the transfer of title to the United States and may do so without regard to the provision of section 507(f)(1) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (44 U.S.C. [former] 397(f)(1) [now subsec. (a) of this section], that the Administrator shall not enter into any such agreement until the expiration of the first period of sixty calendar days of continuous session of the Congress following the date on which a report in writing of any such proposed Presidential archival depository is transmitted by the Administrator to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.”

[For transfer of certain functions of the Administrator of General Services under Pub. L. 89–547 to the Archivist of the United States, see section 103(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a Transfer of Functions note under section 2102 of this title.]

Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Archival Depository

Pub. L. 89–169, Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 648, provided: “That the Administrator of General Services is hereby authorized to enter into an agreement upon such terms and conditions as he determines proper with the University of Texas to utilize as the Lyndon Baines Johnson Archival Depository, land, buildings, and equipment of such university to be made available by it without transfer of title to the United States, and to maintain, operate and protect such depository as a part of the National Archives system. Such agreement may be entered into without regard to the provisions of section 507(f)(1) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (44 U.S.C. [former] 397(f)(1)) [now subsec. (a) of this section], that the Administrator shall not enter into any such agreement until the expiration of the first period of sixty calendar days of continuous session of the Congress following the date on which a report in writing of any such proposed Presidential archival depository is transmitted by the Administrator to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.”

[For transfer of certain functions of the Administrator of General Services under Pub. L. 89–169 to the Archivist of the United States, see section 103(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a Transfer of Functions note under section 2102 of this title.]

§2113. Depository for agreements between States

The Archivist may receive duplicate originals or authenticated copies of agreements or compacts entered into under the Constitution and laws of the United States, between States of the Union, and take necessary actions for their preservation and servicing.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1290, §2109; renumbered §2113 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(7), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2286.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §397(h) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §507, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583, and amended July 12, 1952, ch. 703, §1(o), (p), 66 Stat. 594; July 12, 1955, ch. 329, 69 Stat. 297; Aug. 12, 1955, ch. 859, 69 Stat. 695; July 3, 1956, ch. 513, §4, 70 Stat. 494; June 13, 1957, Pub. L. 85–51, 71 Stat. 69; Mar. 15, 1958, Pub. L. 85–341, §1(1), 72 Stat. 34).

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2113 was renumbered section 2117 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(7), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

§2114. Preservation of motion-picture films, still pictures, and sound recordings

The Archivist may make and preserve motion-picture films, still pictures, and sound recordings pertaining to and illustrative of the historical development of the United States Government and its activities, and provide for preparing, editing, titling, scoring, processing, duplicating, reproducing, exhibiting, and releasing for non-profit educational purposes, motion-picture films, still pictures, and sound recordings in his custody.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1290, §2110; renumbered §2114 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(7), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2286.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §397(i) (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §507, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583; and amended July 12, 1952, ch. 703, §1(o), (p), 66 Stat. 594; July 12, 1955, ch. 329, 69 Stat. 297; Aug. 12, 1955, ch. 859, 69 Stat. 695; July 3, 1956, ch. 513, §4, 70 Stat. 494; June 13, 1957, Pub. L. 85–51, 71 Stat. 69; Mar. 15, 1958, Pub. L. 85–341, §1(1), 72 Stat. 34).

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2114 was renumbered section 2118 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(7), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

§2115. Reports; correction of violations

(a) In carrying out their respective duties and responsibilities under chapters 21, 25, 29, 31, and 33 of this title, the Archivist and the Administrator may each obtain reports from any Federal agency on such agency's activities under such chapters.

(b) When either the Archivist or the Administrator finds that a provision of any such chapter has been or is being violated, the Archivist or the Administrator shall (1) inform in writing the head of the agency concerned of the violation and make recommendations for its correction; and (2) unless satisfactory corrective measures are inaugurated within a reasonable time, submit a written report of the matter to the President and the Congress.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1290, §2111; Pub. L. 94–575, §4(b), Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2727; renumbered §2115 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(8), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2286.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §398 (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §508, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583).

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(8), amended section generally, inserting reference to Archivist and striking out reference to chapter 27 of this title.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–575 inserted reference to chapter 33 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

§2116. Legal status of reproductions; official seal; fees for copies and reproductions

(a) When records that are required by statute to be retained indefinitely have been reproduced by photographic, microphotographic, or other processes, in accordance with standards established by the Archivist the indefinite retention by the photographic, microphotographic, or other reproductions constitutes compliance with the statutory requirement for the indefinite retention of the original records. The reproductions, as well as reproductions made under regulations to carry out chapter 21, 29, 31, and 33 of this title, shall have the same legal status as the originals.

(b) There shall be an official seal for the National Archives of the United States which shall be judicially noticed. When a copy or reproduction, furnished under this section, is authenticated by the official seal and certified by the Archivist, the copy or reproduction shall be admitted in evidence equally with the original from which it was made.

(c) The Archivist may charge a fee set to recover the costs for making or authenticating copies or reproductions of materials transferred to his custody. Such fee shall be fixed by the Archivist at a level which will recover, so far as practicable, all elements of such costs, and may, in the Archivist's discretion, include increments for the estimated replacement cost of equipment. Such fees shall be paid into, administered, and expended as a part of the National Archives Trust Fund. The Archivist may not charge for making or authenticating copies or reproductions of materials for official use by the United States Government unless appropriations available to the Archivist for this purpose are insufficient to cover the cost of performing the work.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1291, §2112; Pub. L. 94–575, §4(b), Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2727; renumbered §2116 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(9), title II, §201, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2286, 2292.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §399 (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §509, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583).

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(9)(A), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(9)(B), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–497, §201, substituted provisions transferring functions from Administrator of General Services to Archivist of the United States, further substituted provisions relating to permissible fee charges for former provisions which set a fee not in excess of 10 percent above costs and expenses for making copies, inserted “unless appropriations available to the Archivist for this purpose are insufficient to cover the cost of performing the work”, and struck out provision that reimbursement may be accepted to cover cost of furnishing copies or reproductions that could not otherwise be furnished.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–575 inserted reference to chapter 33 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

§2117. Limitation on liability

When letters and other intellectual productions (exclusive of patented material, published works under copyright protection, and unpublished works for which copyright registration has been made) come into the custody or possession of the Archivist, the United States or its agents are not liable for infringement of copyright or analogous rights arising out of use of the materials for display, inspection, research, reproduction, or other purposes.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1291, §2113; Pub. L. 94–553, §105(b), Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2599; renumbered §2117 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(7), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2286.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §400 (June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title V, §510, as added Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(d), 64 Stat. 583).

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(7), substituted “Archivist” for “Administrator of General Services”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–553 substituted “productions (exclusive of patented material, published works under copyright protection, and unpublished works for which copyright registration has been made) come into the custody or possession of the Administrator of General Services, the United States or its agents are not liable for infringement of copyright or analogous rights” for “productions, exclusive of material copyrighted or patented, come into the custody or possession of the Administrator of General Services, the United States or its agents are not liable for infringement of literary property rights or analogous rights”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–553 effective Jan. 1, 1978, see section 102 of Pub. L. 94–553, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 17, Copyrights.

§2118. Records of Congress

The Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives, acting jointly, shall obtain at the close of each Congress all the noncurrent records of the Congress and of each congressional committee and transfer them to the National Archives and Records Administration for preservation, subject to the orders of the Senate or the House of Representatives, respectively.

(Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1291, §2114; renumbered §2118 and amended Pub. L. 98–497, title I, §§102(a)(1), 107(a)(10), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2280, 2286.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., §402 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title I, §140, 60 Stat. 833).

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–497, §107(a)(10)), substituted “National Archives and Records Administration” for “General Services Administration”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–497 effective Apr. 1, 1985, see section 301 of Pub. L. 98–497, set out as a note under section 2102 of this title.

§2119. Cooperative agreements

(a) Authority.—The Archivist may enter into cooperative agreements pursuant to section 6305 of title 31 that involve the transfer of funds from the National Archives and Records Administration to State and local governments, other public entities, educational institutions, or private nonprofit organizations (including foundations or institutes organized to support the National Archives and Records Administration or the Presidential archival depositories operated by it) for the public purpose of carrying out programs of the National Archives and Records Administration.

(b) Limitations.—Not more than $25,000 may be transferred under a cooperative agreement entered into as authorized by subsection (a). Not more than a total of $75,000 may be transferred under such agreements in any fiscal year.

(c) Report.—Not later than December 31st of each year, the Archivist shall submit to the Committee on Government Reform of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate a report on the provisions, amount, and duration of each cooperative agreement entered into as authorized by subsection (a) during the preceding fiscal year.

(Added Pub. L. 108–383, §5(a), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2219.)

Change of Name

Committee on Government Reform of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Committee on Governmental Affairs of Senate changed to Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of Senate, effective Jan. 4, 2005, by Senate Resolution No. 445, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Oct. 9, 2004.

§2120. Online access of founding fathers documents

The Archivist may enter into a cooperative agreement to provide online access to the published volumes of the papers of—

(1) George Washington;

(2) Alexander Hamilton;

(3) Thomas Jefferson;

(4) Benjamin Franklin;

(5) John Adams;

(6) James Madison; and

(7) other prominent historical figures, as determined appropriate by the Archivist of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 110–404, §4(a), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4283.)

Transfer of Funds

Pub. L. 110–404, §4(b), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4283, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The Archivist of the United States, in the role as chairman of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission may enter into cooperative agreements pursuant to section 6305 of title 31, United States Code, that involve the transfer of funds from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission to State and local governments, tribal governments, other public entities, educational institutions, or private nonprofit organizations for the public purpose of carrying out section 2120 of title 44, United States Codes [sic].

“(2) Report.—Not later than December 31st of each year, the Archivist of the United States shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives a report on the provisions, amount, and duration of each cooperative agreement entered into as authorized by paragraph (1) during the preceding fiscal year.”