28 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2009 Edition
Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE
PART VI - PARTICULAR PROCEEDINGS
CHAPTER 165 - UNITED STATES COURT OF FEDERAL CLAIMS PROCEDURE
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 165—UNITED STATES COURT OF FEDERAL CLAIMS PROCEDURE

Sec.
2501.
Time for filing suit.
2502.
Aliens’ privilege to sue.
2503.
Proceedings generally.
2504.
Plaintiff's testimony.
2505.
Trial before judges.
2506.
Interest of witness.
2507.
Calls and discovery.
2508.
Counterclaim or set-off.1

        

2509.
Congressional reference cases.
2510.
Referral of cases by Comptroller General.
2511.
Accounts of officers, agents or contractors.
2512.
Disbursing officers; relief.
2513.
Unjust conviction and imprisonment.
2514.
Forfeiture of fraudulent claims.
2515.
New trial, stay of judgment.1
2516.
Interest on claims and judgments.
2517.
Payment of judgments.
[2518.
Repealed.]
2519.
Conclusiveness of judgment.
[2520.
Repealed.]
2521.
Subpoenas and incidental powers.
2522.
Notice of appeal.

        

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–518, title II, §207, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2414, struck out item 2520 “Fees”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §§902(a)(1), 910(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516, 4520, substituted “UNITED STATES COURT OF FEDERAL CLAIMS” for “UNITED STATES CLAIMS COURT” in chapter heading and inserted “and incidental powers” in item 2521.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(b)(2), (i)(2), (l), (n)(4), (o)(2), (q)(2), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42–44, substituted “UNITED STATES CLAIMS COURT” for “COURT OF CLAIMS” in chapter heading, substituted “Proceedings generally” for “Proceedings before commissioners generally” in item 2503, substituted “Referral of cases by Comptroller General” for “Referral of cases by the Comptroller General or the head of an executive department or agency” in item 2510, struck out item 2518 “Certification of judgments for appropriation”, substituted “Fees” for “Fees; cost of printing record” in item 2520, and added item 2522.

1978—Pub. L. 95–563, §14(h)(2)(B), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2390, inserted “or the head of an executive department or agency” after “Comptroller General” in item 2510.

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §§46, 54(c), 55(d), 59(b), 68 Stat. 1243, 1247, 1248, substituted “Trial before judges” for “Place of taking evidence” in item 2505, and “Calls and discovery,” for “Calls on departments for information” in item 2507, rephrased item 2510, and added item 2521.

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “a”.

2 So in original. The words “of the proceedings” probably should not appear.

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

§2501. Time for filing suit

Every claim of which the United States Court of Federal Claims has jurisdiction shall be barred unless the petition thereon is filed within six years after such claim first accrues.

Every claim under section 1497 of this title shall be barred unless the petition thereon is filed within two years after the termination of the river and harbor improvements operations on which the claim is based.

A petition on the claim of a person under legal disability or beyond the seas at the time the claim accrues may be filed within three years after the disability ceases.

A suit for the fees of an officer of the United States shall not be filed until his account for such fees has been finally acted upon, unless the Government Accountability Office fails to act within six months after receiving the account.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 976; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §52, 68 Stat. 1246; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(a), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§250(2), 250a, and 262 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§145, 156, 36 Stat. 1136, 1139; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §304, 42 Stat. 24; Aug. 30, 1935, ch. 831, §13, 49 Stat. 1049; July 13, 1943, ch. 231, 57 Stat. 553).

Section consolidates limitation provisions of sections 250(2), 250a, and 262 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Words “a person under legal disability or beyond the seas at the time the claim accrues” were substituted for “married women first accrued during marriage, of persons under the age of twenty-one years first accrued during minority, and of idiots, lunatics, insane persons, and persons beyond the seas at the time the claim accrued; entitled to the claim,”. The revised language will cover all legal disabilities actually barring suit. For example, the particular reference to married women is archaic, and is eliminated by use of the general language substituted.

Words “nor shall any of the said disabilities operate cumulatively” were omitted, in view of the elimination of the reference to specific disabilities. Also, persons under legal disability could not sue, and their suits should not be barred until they become able to sue. Similar sections of the U.S. Code do not contain any such provision. (For example, see section 502 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., incorporated in section 544 of this title.)

The section was extended to include claims referred by the head of an executive department in conformity with section 2510 of this title.

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office” in last par.

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, struck out “, or the claim is referred by the Senate or House of Representatives, or by the head of an executive department” in first par.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2502. Aliens’ privilege to sue

(a) Citizens or subjects of any foreign government which accords to citizens of the United States the right to prosecute claims against their government in its courts may sue the United States in the United States Court of Federal Claims if the subject matter of the suit is otherwise within such court's jurisdiction.

(b) See section 7422(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for exception with respect to suits involving internal revenue taxes.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 976; Pub. L. 89–713, §3(b), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1108; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(a), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §261 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §155, 36 Stat. 1139).

Changes were made in phraseology.

References in Text

Section 7422(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (b), is classified to section 7422(f) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

1966—Pub. L. 89–713 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–713 applicable to suits brought against officers, employees, or personal representatives instituted 90 days or more after Nov. 2, 1966, see section 3(d) of Pub. L. 89–713, set out as a note under section 7422 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§2503. Proceedings generally

(a) Parties to any suit in the United States Court of Federal Claims may appear before a judge of that court in person or by attorney, produce evidence, and examine witnesses.

(b) The proceedings of the Court of Federal Claims shall be in accordance with such rules of practice and procedure (other than the rules of evidence) as the Court of Federal Claims may prescribe and in accordance with the Federal Rules of Evidence.

(c) The judges of the Court of Federal Claims shall fix times for trials, administer oaths or affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and enter dispositive judgments. Hearings shall, if convenient, be held in the counties where the witnesses reside.

(d) For the purpose of construing sections 1821, 1915, 1920, and 1927 of this title, the United States Court of Federal Claims shall be deemed to be a court of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 976; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §53, 68 Stat. 1246; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(b)(1), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §§902(a), 909, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516, 4519.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§269, 276, and 278 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§168, 170, 36 Stat. 1140; Feb. 24, 1925, ch. 301, §1, 43 Stat. 964; June 23, 1930, ch. 573, §2, 46 Stat. 799).

Section consolidates provisions relating to proceedings before commissioners and reporter-commissioners contained in sections 269, 276, and 278 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Provisions of section 269 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to appointment and compensation of commissioners are incorporated in section 792 of this title.

Words “including reporter-commissioners” after “commissioners” were inserted to clarify meaning and conform to Rule 54(a) of the Court of Claims authorizing oaths before reporter-commissioners.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Senate Revision Amendment

The Senate amended this section by inserting “and when directed by the court his recommendations for conclusions of law” following “commissioner” in the second paragraph. This amendment authorizes the Court to direct its commissioners to report recommendations for conclusions of law as well as findings of fact in cases assigned to them. 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559, Amendment No. 50.

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (b), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572, §902(a)(1), substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 102–572, §902(a)(2), substituted “Court of Federal Claims” for “Claims Court” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–572, §909, added subsec. (d).

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “Proceedings generally” for “Proceedings before commissioners generally” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “Parties to any suit in the United States Claims Court may appear before a judge of that court in person or by attorney, produce evidence, and examine witnesses” for “Parties to any suit in the Court of Claims may appear before a commissioner in person or by attorney, produce evidence and examine witnesses” and redesignated as subsec. (c) provisions that, in accordance with rules and orders of the court, commissioners would fix times for trials, administer oaths or affirmations to and examine witnesses, receive evidence and report findings of fact, that when directed by the court, commissioners would report their recommendations for conclusions of law in cases assigned to them, and that hearings would, if convenient, be held in the counties where the witnesses resided.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “The proceedings of the Claims Court shall be in accordance with such rules of practice and procedure (other than the rules of evidence) as the Claims Court may prescribe and in accordance with the Federal Rules of Evidence” for “The rules of the court shall provide for the filing in court of the commissioner's report of facts and recommendations for conclusions of law, and for opportunity for the parties to file exceptions thereto, and a hearing thereon before the court within a reasonable time” and struck out provision that this section did not prevent the court from passing upon all questions and findings regardless of whether exceptions were taken before a commissioner.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–164 redesignated provisions in second and third sentences of former subsec. (a) as (c) and substituted “The judges of the Claims Court” for “In accordance with rules and orders of the court, commissioners” and “enter dispositive judgments” for “report findings of fact and, when directed by the court, their recommendations for conclusions of law in cases assigned to them”.

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, designated former first par. subsec. (a), and former second par. subsec. (b), and incorporated in one place provisions relating to function of Commissioners.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2504. Plaintiff's testimony

The United States Court of Federal Claims may, at the instance of the Attorney General, order any plaintiff to appear, upon reasonable notice, before any judge of the court and be examined on oath as to all matters pertaining to his claim. Such examination shall be reduced to writing by the judge, and shall be returned to and filed in the court, and may, at the discretion of the attorneys for the United States, be read and used as evidence on the trial. If any plaintiff, after such order is made and due and reasonable notice thereof is given to him, fails to appear, or refuses to testify or answer fully as to all material matters within his knowledge, the court may order that the case shall not be tried until he fully complies with such order.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 976; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(c), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §274 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §166, 36 Stat. 1140).

Words “Attorney General” were substituted for “attorney or solicitor appearing in behalf of the United States,” in view of section 309 of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”, and “judge” for “commissioner” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2505. Trial before judges

Any judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims may sit at any place within the United States to take evidence and enter judgment.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 976; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §54(a), (b), 68 Stat. 1246; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(d), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§275 and 275a (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §167, 36 Stat. 1140; Feb. 24, 1925, ch. 301, §2, 43 Stat. 965; June 23, 1930, ch. 573, §1, 46 Stat. 799; Oct. 16, 1941, ch. 443, 55 Stat. 741).

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims” and “enter judgment” for “report findings”.

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted “Trial before judges” for “Place of taking evidence” in section catchline and repealed second par. relating to taking of testimony.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2506. Interest of witness

A witness in a suit in the United States Court of Federal Claims shall not be exempt or disqualified because he is a party to or interested in such suit.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 977; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(e), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §274 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §186, 36 Stat. 1143; Feb. 5, 1912, ch. 28, 37 Stat. 61).

A provision that a witness should not be disqualified by color was omitted as obsolete and unnecessary, since no such disqualification could be invoked in absence of statutory authority.

A provision that the United States could examine any plaintiff or party interested is covered by the word “exempt” in the revised section, and by section 2504 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2507. Calls and discovery

(a) The United States Court of Federal Claims may call upon any department or agency of the United States or upon any party for any information or papers, not privileged, for purposes of discovery or for use as evidence. The head of any department or agency may refuse to comply with a call issued pursuant to this subsection when, in his opinion, compliance will be injurious to the public interest.

(b) Without limitation on account of anything contained in subsection (a) of this section, the court may, in accordance with its rules, provide additional means for the discovery of any relevant facts, books, papers, documents or tangible things, not privileged.

(c) The Court of Federal Claims may use all recorded and printed reports made by the committees of the Senate or House of Representatives.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 977; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §55(a)–(c), 68 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(f), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §272 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §164, 36 Stat. 1140).

Words “or agency” were added. (See reviser's note under section 1345 of this title.)

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572, §902(a)(1), substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–572, §902(a)(2), substituted “Court of Federal Claims” for “Claims Court”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(f)(1), substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(f)(2), substituted “Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted “Calls and discovery” for “Calls on departments for information” in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2508. Counterclaim or set-off; registration of judgment

Upon the trial of any suit in the United States Court of Federal Claims in which any setoff, counterclaim, claim for damages, or other demand is set up on the part of the United States against any plaintiff making claim against the United States in said court, the court shall hear and determine such claim or demand both for and against the United States and plaintiff.

If upon the whole case it finds that the plaintiff is indebted to the United States it shall render judgment to that effect, and such judgment shall be final and reviewable.

The transcript of such judgment, filed in the clerk's office of any district court, shall be entered upon the records and shall be enforceable as other judgments.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 977; July 28, 1953, ch. 253, §10, 67 Stat. 227; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §47(a), 68 Stat. 1243; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(g), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §252 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §146, 36 Stat. 1137).

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, struck out “United States” from name of Court of Claims in first par.

1953—Act July 28, 1953, substituted “United States Court of Claims” for “Court of Claims” in first par., and substituted “shall be enforceable as other judgments” for “be a judgment of such district court and enforceable as such” in third par.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2509. Congressional reference cases

(a) Whenever a bill, except a bill for a pension, is referred by either House of Congress to the chief judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims pursuant to section 1492 of this title, the chief judge shall designate a judge as hearing officer for the case and a panel of three judges of the court to serve as a reviewing body. One member of the review panel shall be designated as presiding officer of the panel.

(b) Proceedings in a congressional reference case shall be under rules and regulations prescribed for the purpose by the chief judge who is hereby authorized and directed to require the application of the pertinent rules of practice of the Court of Federal Claims insofar as feasible. Each hearing officer and each review panel shall have authority to do and perform any acts which may be necessary or proper for the efficient performance of their duties, including the power of subpena and the power to administer oaths and affirmations. None of the rules, rulings, findings, or conclusions authorized by this section shall be subject to judicial review.

(c) The hearing officer to whom a congressional reference case is assigned by the chief judge shall proceed in accordance with the applicable rules to determine the facts, including facts relating to delay or laches, facts bearing upon the question whether the bar of any statute of limitation should be removed, or facts claimed to excuse the claimant for not having resorted to any established legal remedy. He shall append to his findings of fact conclusions sufficient to inform Congress whether the demand is a legal or equitable claim or a gratuity, and the amount, if any, legally or equitably due from the United States to the claimant.

(d) The findings and conclusions of the hearing officer shall be submitted by him, together with the record in the case, to the review panel for review by it pursuant to such rules as may be provided for the purpose, which shall include provision for submitting the report of the hearing officer to the parties for consideration, exception, and argument before the panel. The panel, by majority vote, shall adopt or modify the findings or the conclusions of the hearing officer.

(e) The panel shall submit its report to the chief judge for transmission to the appropriate House of Congress.

(f) Any act or failure to act or other conduct by a party, a witness, or an attorney which would call for the imposition of sanctions under the rules of practice of the Court of Federal Claims shall be noted by the panel or the hearing officer at the time of occurrence thereof and upon failure of the delinquent or offending party, witness, or attorney to make prompt compliance with the order of the panel or the hearing officer a full statement of the circumstances shall be incorporated in the report of the panel.

(g) The Court of Federal Claims is hereby authorized and directed, under such regulations as it may prescribe, to provide the facilities and services of the office of the clerk of the court for the filing, processing, hearing, and dispatch of congressional reference cases and to include within its annual appropriations the costs thereof and other costs of administration, including (but without limitation to the items herein listed) the salaries and traveling expenses of the judges serving as hearing officers and panel members, mailing and service of process, necessary physical facilities, equipment, and supplies, and personnel (including secretaries and law clerks).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 977; Pub. L. 89–681, §2, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 958; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(h), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §257 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §151, 36 Stat. 1138).

Jurisdiction provisions of section 257 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., appear in section 1492 of this title.

A provision as to the court's power to render judgment on a referred claim and its duty to report thereon to Congress, was omitted from this section as covered by sections 791(c) and 1492 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572, §902(a)(1), substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

Subsecs. (b), (f), (g). Pub. L. 102–572, §902(a)(2), substituted “Court of Federal Claims” for “Claims Court”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(h)(1), substituted “chief judge” for “chief commissioner” wherever appearing, “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”, “judge as hearing officer” for “trial commissioner”, “judges” for “commissioners”, and “presiding officer” for “presiding commissioner”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(h)(2)(A)–(C), substituted “chief judge” for “chief commissioner”, “Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”, and “hearing officer” for “trial commissioner”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(h)(2)(A), (B), substituted “hearing officer” for “trial commissioner” and “chief judge” for “chief commissioner”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(h)(2)(A), (D), substituted “hearing officer” for “trial commissioner” wherever appearing and struck out “of commissioners” after “review panel”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(h)(2)(B), substituted “chief judge” for “chief commissioner”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(h)(2)(A), (C), substituted “Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”, and “hearing officer” for “trial commissioner” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(h)(2)(C), (E), substituted “Claims Court” for “Court of Claims” and “judges serving as hearing officers” for “commissioners serving as trial commissioners”.

1966—Pub. L. 89–681 substituted provisions for reference of bills to the chief commissioner of the Court of Claims pursuant to section 1492 of this title for provisions calling simply for reference to the Court of Claims, substituted provisions naming the trial commissioner to whom a reference case is assigned by the chief commissioner for provisions simply naming the Court of Claims as the agency by which findings and conclusions are made, and inserted provisions for the designation of a trial commissioner and reviewing body consisting of three other commissioners, the promulgation of rules and regulations for Congressional reference cases by the chief commissioner, the procedure to be followed, and the supplying of facilities and personnel for the dispatch of Congressional reference cases.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2510. Referral of cases by Comptroller General

(a) The Comptroller General may transmit to the United States Court of Federal Claims for trial and adjudication any claim or matter of which the Court of Federal Claims might take jurisdiction on the voluntary action of the claimant, together with all vouchers, papers, documents, and proofs pertaining thereto.

(b) The Court of Federal Claims shall proceed with the claims or matters so referred as in other cases pending in such Court and shall render judgment thereon.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 977; July 28, 1953, ch. 253, §11, 67 Stat. 227; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §47(b), 68 Stat. 1243; Pub. L. 95–563, §14(h)(1), (2)(A), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2390; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(i)(1), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§254 and 255 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§148, 149, 36 Stat. 1137, 1138; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §304, 42 Stat. 24).

Section consolidates procedural provisions of sections 254 and 255 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to departmental reference cases.

Jurisdiction provisions of such section 254 appear in section 1493 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court” and “Court of Federal Claims” for “Claims Court” wherever appearing.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “Referral of cases by Comptroller General” for “Referral of cases by the Comptroller General or the head of an executive department or agency” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “transmit to the United States Claims Court for trial and adjudication any claim or matter of which the Claims Court might take jurisdiction” for “transmit to the Court of Claims for trial and adjudication any claim or matter of which the Court of Claims might take jurisdiction” in first sentence of subsec. (a). The second sentence of subsec. (a) was redesignated (b).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–164 designated as subsec. (b) the former second sentence of subsec. (a) and substituted “The Claims Court” for “The Court of Claims” and “Court” for “court”. Former subsec. (b), which provided that the head of any executive department or agency could, with the prior approval of the Attorney General, refer to the Court of Claims for judicial review any final decision rendered by a board of contract appeals pursuant to the terms of any contract with the United States awarded by that department or agency which such head of such department or agency had concluded was not entitled to finality pursuant to the review standards specified in section 10(b) of the Contracts Disputes Act of 1978, with the head of each executive department or agency to make any referral under this section within 120 days of the receipt of a copy of the final appeal decision, that the Court of Claims was to review the matter referred in accordance with the standards specified in section 10(b) of the Contracts Disputes Act of 1978, and that the court was to proceed with judicial review on the administrative record made before the board of contract appeals on matters so referred as in other cases pending in such court, determine the issue of finality of the appeal decision, and render judgment thereon, take additional evidence, or remand the matter pursuant to the authority specified in section 1491 of this title was struck out.

1978—Pub. L. 95–563, inserted “or the head of an executive department or agency” in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and added subsec. (b).

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted “Referral of cases by Comptroller General” for “Departmental reference cases” in section catchline.

1953—Act July 28, 1953, struck out provisions relating to procedure in connection with departmental reference cases provided for by former section 1493 of this title; and, in connection with trial and adjudication of cases referred by the Comptroller General, inserted provision for rendering judgment, and struck out requirement that such cases be transmitted through the Secretary of the Treasury.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–563 effective with respect to contracts entered into 120 days after Nov. 1, 1978, and, at the election of the contractor, with respect to any claim pending at such time before the contracting officer or initiated thereafter, see section 16 of Pub. L. 95–563, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of Title 41, Public Contracts.

§2511. Accounts of officers, agents or contractors

Notice of suit under section 1494 of this title shall be given to the Attorney General, to the Comptroller General, and to the head of the department requested to settle the account in question.

The judgment of the United States Court of Federal Claims in such suit shall be conclusive upon the parties, and payment of the amount found due shall discharge the obligation.

The transcript of such judgment, filed in the clerk's office of any district court, shall be entered upon the records, and shall be enforceable as other judgments.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 977; July 28, 1953, ch. 253, §12, 67 Stat. 227; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(j), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §287 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §180, 36 Stat. 1141; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §3, 43 Stat. 939).

Words “The Attorney General shall represent the United States at the hearing of said cause” were omitted as covered by sections 309 and 310 of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees.

Jurisdiction provisions of section 287 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., appear in section 1494 of this title.

A provision for continuances was omitted as unnecessary, in view of the inherent power of the court to grant continuances in any suit.

A provision in section 287 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that section 274 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., should apply to cases under such section 287 was omitted as covered by section 2504 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “The judgment of the United States Claims Court in such suit shall be conclusive” for “The judgment of the Court of Claims in such suit, or of the Supreme Court upon review, shall be conclusive”.

1953—Act July 28, 1953, inserted “to the Comptroller General,” in first par., struck out third par. which provided for accrual to the United States of a right of action upon the judgment, with a limitation period extending to three years after judgment, and inserted provisions for filing and recording the transcript of such judgment in the clerk's office of any district court and for enforcement thereof.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2512. Disbursing officers; relief

Whenever the United States Court of Federal Claims finds that any loss by a disbursing officer of the United States was without his fault or negligence, it shall render a judgment setting forth the amount thereof, and the Government Accountability Office shall allow the officer such amount as a credit in the settlement of his accounts.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 978; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(j)(2), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §253 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §147, 36 Stat. 1137; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §304, 42 Stat. 24).

Words “paymaster, quartermaster, commissary of subsistence, or other” were omitted as covered by words “disbursing officer of the United States”. (See reviser's note under section 1496 of this title.)

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2513. Unjust conviction and imprisonment

(a) Any person suing under section 1495 of this title must allege and prove that:

(1) His conviction has been reversed or set aside on the ground that he is not guilty of the offense of which he was convicted, or on new trial or rehearing he was found not guilty of such offense, as appears from the record or certificate of the court setting aside or reversing such conviction, or that he has been pardoned upon the stated ground of innocence and unjust conviction and

(2) He did not commit any of the acts charged or his acts, deeds, or omissions in connection with such charge constituted no offense against the United States, or any State, Territory or the District of Columbia, and he did not by misconduct or neglect cause or bring about his own prosecution.


(b) Proof of the requisite facts shall be by a certificate of the court or pardon wherein such facts are alleged to appear, and other evidence thereof shall not be received.

(c) No pardon or certified copy of a pardon shall be considered by the United States Court of Federal Claims unless it contains recitals that the pardon was granted after applicant had exhausted all recourse to the courts and that the time for any court to exercise its jurisdiction had expired.

(d) The Court may permit the plaintiff to prosecute such action in forma pauperis.

(e) The amount of damages awarded shall not exceed $100,000 for each 12-month period of incarceration for any plaintiff who was unjustly sentenced to death and $50,000 for each 12-month period of incarceration for any other plaintiff.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 978; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §56, 68 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(j)(2), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516; Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §431, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2293.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on sections 729–732 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Crimes and Criminal Procedure (May 24, 1938, ch. 266, §§1–4, 52 Stat. 438.)

Sections 729–732 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were consolidated and completely rewritten in order to clarify ambiguities which made the statute unworkable as enacted originally. Jurisdictional provisions of section 729 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in section 1495 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–405 substituted “exceed $100,000 for each 12-month period of incarceration for any plaintiff who was unjustly sentenced to death and $50,000 for each 12-month period of incarceration for any other plaintiff” for “exceed the sum of $5,000”.

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

1954—Subsec. (c). Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted “considered by” for “filed with”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2514. Forfeiture of fraudulent claims

A claim against the United States shall be forfeited to the United States by any person who corruptly practices or attempts to practice any fraud against the United States in the proof, statement, establishment, or allowance thereof.

In such cases the United States Court of Federal Claims shall specifically find such fraud or attempt and render judgment of forfeiture.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 978; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(j)(2), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§279 and 280 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§172, 173, 36 Stat. 1141).

A provision of section 279 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that a judgment of forfeiture shall forever bar the prosecution of the claim was omitted as covered by section 2518 of this title.

A provision of section 280 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., barring allowance by accounting officers of fraudulent claims under Act June 16, 1874, 18 Stat. 75, was omitted as obsolete.

A provision of section 280 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., barring allowance of fraudulent claims by Congress was omitted as unnecessary and superfluous.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2515. New trial; stay of judgment

(a) The United States Court of Federal Claims may grant a plaintiff a new trial on any ground established by rules of common law or equity applicable as between private parties.

(b) Such court, at any time while any suit is pending before it, or after proceedings for review have been instituted, or within two years after the final disposition of the suit, may grant the United States a new trial and stay the payment of any judgment upon satisfactory evidence, cumulative or otherwise, that any fraud, wrong, or injustice has been done the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 978; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(j)(2), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§281 and 282 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§174, 175, 36 Stat. 1141).

Words “but until an order is made staying the payment of a judgment, the same shall be payable and paid as on March 3, 1911, was provided by law,” in section 282 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted as surplusage.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2516. Interest on claims and judgments

(a) Interest on a claim against the United States shall be allowed in a judgment of the United States Court of Federal Claims only under a contract or Act of Congress expressly providing for payment thereof.

(b) Interest on a judgment against the United States affirmed by the Supreme Court after review on petition of the United States is paid at a rate equal to the weekly average 1-year constant maturity Treasury yield, as published by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, for the calendar week preceding the date of the judgment.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 978; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §57, 68 Stat. 1248; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(j)(2), title III, §302(d), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43, 56; Pub. L. 97–258, §2(g)(5), (m)(3), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1061, 1062; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §307(d)(2)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–636.)

Historical and Revision Notes

I741948 Act

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §284 and section 226 of title 31, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Money and Finance (Sept. 30, 1890, ch. 1126, §1, 26 Stat. 537; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §177, 36 Stat. 1141; Nov. 23, 1921, ch. 136, §1324(b), 42 Stat. 316; June 2, 1924, ch. 234, §1020, 43 Stat. 346; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §3(c), 43 Stat. 939; Feb. 26, 1926, ch. 27, §§1117, 1200, 44 Stat. 119, 125; May 29, 1928, ch. 852, §615(a), 45 Stat. 877; June 22, 1936, ch. 690, §808, 49 Stat. 1746).

Subdivision (b) of section 284 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was omitted as covered by section 3771 of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue Code. Such omission required the exception in subdivision (a) of such section 284, reading: “except as provided in subdivision (b)”, to be changed to read: “or Act of Congress expressly providing for payment thereof.”

Subsection (b) of this section is based on the last sentence of section 226 of title 31, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Money and Finance.

Changes were made in phraseology.

1982 Act
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
28:2516(b) 28:2516(b)(1st sentence words before “from the date”).

Section 2(g)(5) of the bill restates 28:2516(b) because the provisions in 28:2516(b) on the periods for computing interest were superseded by the source provisions restated in section 1304 of the revised title 31.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted “the weekly average 1-year constant maturity Treasury yield, as published by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, for the calendar week preceding” for “the coupon issue yield equivalent (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) of the average accepted auction price for the last auction of fifty-two week United States Treasury bills settled immediately before”.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(j)(2), substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–258 substituted provisions that interest on a judgment against the United States is paid at a rate equal to the coupon issue yield equivalent of the average accepted auction price for the last auction of fifty-two week United States Treasury bills settled immediately before the date of judgment for provisions that such interest would be paid at the rate of four percent per annum from the date of the filing of the transcript of the judgment in the Treasury Department to the date of mandate of affirmance by the Supreme Court and that the interest would not be allowed for any period after the term of the Supreme Court at which the judgment was affirmed, and repealed the amendment made by Pub. L. 97–164, §302(d), eff. Oct. 1, 1982. See, also, section 1304(b) of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Pub. L. 97–164, §§302(d), 402, eff. Oct. 1, 1982, struck out “at the rate of four percent per annum” and all that follows through “affirmance” and inserted in lieu thereof “, from the date of the filing of the transcript of the judgment in the General Accounting Office to the date of the mandate of the affirmance, at a rate of interest equal to the coupon issue yield equivalent (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) of the average accepted auction price for the last auction of fifty-two week United States Treasury bills settled immediately prior to the date of the judgment”.

1954—Subsec. (b). Act Sept. 3, 1954, inserted “for any period” after “allowed” in last sentence.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 2(g)(5) of Pub. L. 97–258 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Oct. 1, 1982.

Repeal

Section 302(d) of Pub. L. 97–164, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §2(m)(3), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1062, eff. Oct. 1, 1982.

§2517. Payment of judgments

(a) Except as provided by the Contract Disputes Act of 1978, every final judgment rendered by the United States Court of Federal Claims against the United States shall be paid out of any general appropriation therefor, on presentation to the Secretary of the Treasury of a certification of the judgment by the clerk and chief judge of the court.

(b) Payment of any such judgment and of interest thereon shall be a full discharge to the United States of all claims and demands arising out of the matters involved in the case or controversy, unless the judgment is designated a partial judgment, in which event only the matters described therein shall be discharged.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 979; Pub. L. 95–563, §14(e), (f), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2390; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(k), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516; Pub. L. 104–316, title II, §202(l), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3843.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §285, and sections 225, 228, of title 31, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Money and Finance, (R.S. §§236, 1089; Feb. 18, 1904, ch. 160, §1, 33 Stat. 41; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §178, 36 Stat. 1141; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §§304, 305, 42 Stat. 24; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §3(c), 43 Stat. 939).

Section consolidates section 285 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and sections 225 and 228 of title 31, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Money and Finance.

Words “chief judge” were substituted for “the chief justice, or, in his absence, by the presiding judge of said court” in section 225 of title 31, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Money and Finance, in conformity with chapter 7 of this title.

Words “or, on review, by the Supreme Court, where the same are affirmed in favor of the claimant” in section 225 of title 31, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted as unnecessary.

Provisions of section 228 of title 31, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for payment of district court judgments are incorporated in section 2414 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

References in Text

The Contract Disputes Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 95–563, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2383, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 9 (§601 et seq.) of Title 41, Public Contracts. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 601 of Title 41 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–316 substituted “Secretary of the Treasury” for “General Accounting Office”.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(k)(1), substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–164, §139(k)(2), struck out the comma after “shall be discharged” thereby correcting a technical error in the directory language in Pub. L. 95–563 which placed both a comma and a period after “shall be discharged”.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–563, §14(e), inserted Contract Disputes Act of 1978 exception.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–563, §14(f), inserted provision relating to discharge of partial judgments.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–563 effective with respect to contracts entered into 120 days after Nov. 1, 1978, and, at the election of the contractor, with respect to any claim pending at such time before the contracting officer or initiated thereafter, see section 16 of Pub. L. 95–563, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of Title 41, Public Contracts.

[§2518. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(l), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43]

Section, act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 979, related to certification of Court of Claims judgments for appropriation.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1982 Amendment note under section 171 of this title.

§2519. Conclusiveness of judgment

A final judgment of the United States Court of Federal Claims against any plaintiff shall forever bar any further claim, suit, or demand against the United States arising out of the matters involved in the case or controversy.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 979; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(m), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §286 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §179, 36 Stat. 1141).

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

[§2520. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–518, title II, §207, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2414]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 979; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §58, 68 Stat. 1248; Pub. L. 89–507, §2, July 18, 1966, 80 Stat. 308; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(n)(1)–(3), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43, 44; Pub. L. 100–702, title X, §1012(a)(1), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4668; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516, required the Court of Federal Claims to impose a fee not exceeding $120 for petition filings.

§2521. Subpoenas and incidental powers

(a) Subpoenas requiring the attendance of parties or witnesses and subpoenas requiring the production of books, papers, documents or tangible things by any party or witness having custody or control thereof, may be issued for purposes of discovery or for use of the things produced as evidence in accordance with the rules and orders of the court. Such subpoenas shall be issued and served and compliance therewith shall be compelled as provided in the rules and orders of the court.

(b) The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have power to punish by fine or imprisonment, at its discretion, such contempt of its authority as—

(1) misbehavior of any person in its presence or so near thereto as to obstruct the administration of justice;

(2) misbehavior of any of its officers in their official transactions; or

(3) disobedience or resistance to its lawful writ, process, order, rule, decree, or command.


(c) The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have such assistance in the carrying out of its lawful writ, process, order, rule, decree, or command as is available to a court of the United States. The United States marshal for any district in which the Court of Federal Claims is sitting shall, when requested by the chief judge of the Court of Federal Claims, attend any session of the Court of Federal Claims in such district.

(Added Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §59(a), 68 Stat. 1248; amended Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §910(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4519.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 inserted “and incidental powers” in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§2522. Notice of appeal

Review of a decision of the United States Court of Federal Claims shall be obtained by filing a notice of appeal with the clerk of the Court of Federal Claims within the time and in the manner prescribed for appeals to United States courts of appeals from the United States district courts.

(Added Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(q)(1), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 44; amended Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court” and “Court of Federal Claims” for “Claims Court”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1982 Amendment note under section 171 of this title.